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2001 Alford Park Drive Kenosha, Wisconsin 53140

Tarble Arena • April 29, 2011

I am pleased to welcome you to our first Celebration of Scholars at Carthage. The projects on display represent some of the best work of our students and faculty in the arts, humanities, education, natural sciences and the social sciences. This event brings us together, giving us the opportunity to recognize and share the work of the College community. These displays of student research, scholarship, and creativity represent thousands of hours spent in the lab, studio and practice hall. By engaging them in the “messy process� of research and creativity, this labor led each student to a deeper understanding of his or her subject matter. Each student struggled to find solutions to problems; solutions that were not apparent and could not be found by looking in the back of a book. Thanks to their perseverance and attention to solving these problems, we can learn from each of these students today. The Carthage Faculty is an outstanding group of teacher-scholars who present their work in scholarly journals, at conferences, and exhibitions. The academic communities within each of their disciplines know them well; however, those of us in the larger College community have fewer opportunities to take a moment to stop and pause at their work. One of my greatest joys in my first year as provost has been to learn about what the faculty has accomplished. I am certain you will enjoy learning about their work as much as I have. An event like this happens because we have talented students and faculty who are willing to share their work and I thank and congratulate them for their participation today. We also owe deep thanks to the people who have worked dilligently behind the scenes for the past months to make this event come together. My deepest thanks goes to the event working group (Dennis Munk, Laura Huaracha, Deborah Tobiason, Rom Maczka, Joe Wall, and Brian Schwartz), the Carthage communications staff, and the operations staff. Once again I welcome you to the Carthage College Celebration of Scholars.

Julio C. Rivera, Jr. Provost

April 29, 2011

3:30 - 6 p.m.

Open House

4 - 4:15 p.m.

Opening Remarks

Faculty Work Group

 aura Huaracha L Rom Maczka Dennis Munk Brian Schwartz Deb Tobiason Joe Wall


Celebration of Scholars

Wallace Stevens’ Scrawny Cry Seemee Ali, Assistant Professor of Great Ideas and English The twentieth-century American poet, Wallace Stevens, makes a number of striking claims in his poetry: “A man and a woman and a blackbird / are one” (“Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird”); “the blue guitar / and I are one” (“The Man With the Blue Guitar”) “the pretty contrast of life and death / Proves that these opposite things partake of one” (“Connoisseur of Chaos”) “The false and true are one” (“Extracts from Addresses to the Academy of Fine Ideas”) “God and the imagination are one” (“Final Soliloquy of the Interior Paramour”) “His self and the sun were one” (“The Planet on the Table”). My forthcoming article shows, perhaps for the first time, that Stevens’ great poetic preoccupation is with the riddle of the unity of being. Stevens insists that only the imagination is capable of intuiting this fundamental unity in a world of seemingly disparate phenomena. Further: to demonstrate this most fundamental “fact” about reality – namely, that all things, all beings are one – poems cannot employ mundane, everyday language. Rather, what Stevens calls a “visionary language” is necessary. Using the methodology of close reading, I argue that the creation of “visionary language” is Stevens’ lifelong work. Some part of this language is ancient – involving symbols (birds, for example) that one finds in poems and myths from antiquity to the present. Some part of this language must be newly invented. My work explores the ways in which Stevens both adopts the ancient, visionary language, and adds to its vocabulary and syntax some “skreaks and skritters” of his own.

H1N1 Pandemic Preparedness Postcards Carli Allen, 2011 

Major: Cross Categorical Special Education and Elementary Education 
 Hometown: Oconomowoc, Wis.

Miranda Szcepanski, 2011 
 Major: Elementary Education 
 Hometown: Suamico, Wis.

Faculty Sponsor: Dennis Munk and Prisca Moore

Children are more likely to learn new information if they perceive it to be relevant to the “real world.” The purpose of this project was to enhance high school students’ understanding of viruses through the study of pandemics. Our unit plan prepared students to design public service announcement postcards that discussed how to be prepared if a pandemic were to strike. The relevance of the project was greatly enhanced when an epidemic of Swine Flu, or H1N1, was predicted. The project involved the following activities: (a) Researching how individuals, schools, and the government need to prepare for pandemics; (b) Designing an appealing postcard that addressed one of the focus groups (individuals, schools, or government), and (c) Creating a postcard using the computer. 6

To expand the learning opportunities for students we pursued and received a grant from of $500. This grant allowed us to work with the Kenosha County Health Department to reproduce the postcards the students had created. The grant money provided students with an opportunity to share their knowledge with the community and take pride in their work. The results of this project included posters that were hung throughout the Kenosha community, a public service announcement which played at Tinseltown Cinema, and an opportunity for students to become more active citizens in the Kenosha community. Funding source:

A Health Risk Appraisal of Undergraduate Students at Carthage College Cynthia Allen, Director of Physical Education/Health Program I sought to identify the health risks most prevalent among undergraduate students at Carthage College. This cross-sectional study utilized data collected in 2010 from seniors enrolled in a required physical education class (n=369). The survey instrument was the Health Power Profile which assesses health related behaviors and attitudes in 9 domains. The health risk behaviors that most students reported engaging in were insufficient daily intake of fiber-rich foods (86.7%), infrequent flu vaccination (78.9%), inadequate vegetable consumption (78.6%), and failure to perform recommended self-exams (68.6%). Around half of the participants reported the following: failure to consume a healthy breakfast each day (51.2%), not making time for daily prayer, meditation or relaxation (48.5%), exceeding the posted speed limit (46.6%), not belonging to a faith community (45.0%), and feeling depressed, down, tense or anxious (44.4%). A majority of students (79.7%) reported that they do drink alcoholic beverages which is similar to results from a national survey of college-age students (79.1%). Most students (60.5%) reported drinking less than two servings per day when they do drink whereas 16.3% fell into the category of binge drinkers, which is lower than the national average (24.4%). This survey establishes a baseline from which to examine trends in health-related behaviors among students at Carthage College. It also identifies areas of need for future health promotion efforts. Funding source: Loren and Vickie Semler

Biographies: What Makes a Winner? Carman Anderson, 2012 
 Major: Classics, Great Ideas 
 Hometown: Sturgeon Bay, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: John Isham

There is an entirely separate category in the Pulitzer Prize running for biographies. Why do certain biographies win this prize? Why do some not win? The art of writing and reading a biography is something that cannot be pinned down. In my research I began looking at the first pages of biographies, approximately 65 of them, and categorizing the ways in which those pages can be described. Looking at these, we look at whether or not these can be thought of as “interesting” and whether or not these went on to win the Pulitzer Prize for Biographies. In looking at these first pages of the biographies, it seems that there is some correlation between the first page alone and what kind of notoriety the biography later drew. I feel that through my research I can show that there is some reasoning behind what is a prize-winning biography and what exactly that is. Is that done through a story of the beginning of the life or through the story of the death?

Sonata for Trumpet and Piano Thomas Battersby, 2013 

Major: Music Education, Music Composition 
 Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Mark Petering

This sonata is being composed under the guidance of Dr. Mark Petering with the intention of being premiered at my senior recital. The goal of this work is to develop multiple themes through the use of varying textures and formal procedures common to neo-tonal music of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In addition, the compositional ideas presented ally me with the harmonic concepts of Frank Ticheli and the rhythmic versatility of Bela Bartok and Igor Stravinsky. More specifically, the musical scales within the work are developed through the chordal material, which are mostly comprised of extended tertian harmonies. This may include, for example, a C E Gb B chord, or the use of 11ths within more traditional vertical structures. The meter is in constant flux, including overlapping duplet and triplet ideas, creating duplets within triple meters, and, alternately, triplets within duple meters. This work is a significant step in the development of a personal compositional voice. Other works that I have recently completed that have led me to this important juncture are my Images for French horn and Vexation for concert band. This sonata will be entered into upcoming competitions and/or submitted to professional trumpet players for peer review.

Monitoring Bat Activity in Relation to Building Development Bri Birsa, 2011 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Joliet, Ill.

Alex Matzinger, 2011 
 Major: Geography 
 Hometown: Lake Zurich, Ill.

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Deanna Byrnes

Although there have been recent advances in our knowledge regarding bats’ habitat associations, there is still little known about bats’ summer distributions and their habitat preferences. To gain a deeper understanding of bats’ interaction with their surrounding landscape and the influence of urbanization on bat activity, a habitat study was conducted to monitor bat activity in areas of various levels of building development. The relative activity of several bat species was acoustically monitored during the summer months throughout Wisconsin, with a concentration on the southeastern corner of the state. The monitoring was done using an Anabat SD1 CF bat detector and the field data was then analyzed using Analook W software. Mean occurrence was calculated per monitoring site and from this no difference was found in the amount of relative bat activity in highly urbanized areas versus areas containing small amounts of building development. This research is imperative to establishing guidelines for bats’ habitat associations and gathering data to form a census of the bats within Wisconsin. From this, more effective management and conservation efforts can be devised. Funding source: Carthage S.U.R.E. Program


Celebration of Scholars

Identification of Bacteria in Lake Michigan Bri Birsa, 2011 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Joliet, Ill.

Kayla Meyer, 2011 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Muskego, Wis.

Shannon McBride, 2011 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Kenosha, Wis.

Josh Das, 2011 

Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason

A major portion of the microbology laboratory course at Carthage involves isolation and identification of unknown bacteria from Lake Michigan. In order to isolate and identify microorganisms present within the lake, water samples were removed by the Kenosha Pier Head Lighthouse. Two types of bacteria, with distinctly different colony morphology, were isolated into pure culture and defined as LH1 and LH2. A series of tests were performed and the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology was used as a reference to determine the species of the unknown samples. Conserved DNA segments (16S rRNA) from each bacterium were sequenced and compared to the GenBank database through BLAST analysis in order to verify the species identification. The identity of LH 1, as Pantoea agglomerans was confirmed, while the LH2 initial identification as Bacteriodes sp. was incorrect. The majority of BLAST matches for LH2 indicated that the bacterium was Vogesella indigofera. The isolation and identification was not only valuable for practice of relevant techniques in microbiology, but also in contributing to the growing catalog of bacteria being identified each year in Lake Michigan.


Fluid Properties Influence Chaos Emergence in a Dripping Faucet System Ian R. Brodie, 2011 

Major: Physics 
 Hometown: Greendale, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Kevin Crosby

Dripping water can exhibit chaotic behavior, but this property has not been examined for fluids with other properties. Both a physical experiment and an equivalent computer model were constructed to test which properties affected the emergence of chaotic behavior in a dripping system and in what magnitude. It was found that other fluids can exhibit chaotic behavior much like water, and the appearance of chaos was affected most by surface tension and viscosity.

Technologically Lost—Can We Find Reenchantment Jean Louise Brody, 2011 
 Major: German and English 
 Hometown: Pewaukee, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Pamela Smiley

The basic human need for “little e” enchantment, the stimulation of child-like awe and wonder, draws the individual to the understanding of some greater divine existence. This leads to the desire for “big E” Enchantment, a divine enlightenment. In Walden, Henry David Thoreau found “little e” enchantment through his observations of nature. His contemplation of these observations led him to the transcendentalist moment of “big E” Enchantment. Thoreau implied that technology, his example of the train, hinders the individual “big E” Enchantment, in that it distances the individual from nature. Since Thoreau’s time, technology has progressed rapidly in virtually every aspect of life. Marxist critics Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, see technology as empty as Thoreau did. The epic film, “Avatar,” directed by James Cameron, is an example of a technological simulacra that has given modern society “little e” enchantment through its incredible depictions of fantastical life-forms far more alluring to audiences than the subtle beauty of Earth’s nature. “Avatar” has been more enthusiastically received for its offering of “little e” enchantment than Walden with its proposal for “big E” Enchantment. Thoreau’s Walden offers clear direction and analysis of individual development and enlightenment through simple living in nature; whereas, Avatar stimulates audiences with empty promises of enchantment as a simulacra.

Attracting Recent College Graduates to Charleston, S.C. as a Vacation Destination Christopher Brucher, 2011 
 Major: Marketing, Economics 
 Hometown: Saint Charles, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

The purpose of the research is to provide insight into how Charleston, S.C. and the surrounding communities can attract recent college graduates and become a competitive tourist destination. The research will collect demographic, economic, and psychographic information regarding what a younger market is attracted to. The research will address the following major questions: What does the target market look for in a vacation destination? What sort of services does Charleston offer that could be targeted at this younger group? How does the target market compare to a typical Charleston, S.C. current tourist? Are there any untapped sectors that could be developed to increase tourism with the target market? Among the main goals of the research are: uncover the main considerations of the target market in choosing a vacation destination; realize what priorities drive the consumers’ decisions; uncover what key words and buzz phrases are significant to the target market; compare and contrast popular vacation destinations with Charleston. Ultimately, the research will hopefully provide benefit to the city in giving guidance to move forward. The goal is to provide answers and a hard set of data from which the tourist industry can help to develop a new customer that brings with it high long-term revenue.

Uncovering Autism Through Art: Andy Warhol Jessica Collins, 2011 

Major: Art History 
 Hometown: Park Ridge, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Anne Cassidy

The late artist Andy Warhol is well known as a leading contender for the Pop Art scene of the 60s and 70s. His vast body of work included brightly colored screenprinted images range from subjects like normal everyday cans of soup to the top celebrities of the time. While observing Warhol’s body of work I noted that there was constant repetition of images, an obsession with pop culture subject matter, and a machine like way of assembling images. These observations lead me to my thesis that Andy Warhol’s work reflects an autistic personality. Some scholars have already concluded that Andy Warhol was autistic based on his behavior and autistic tendencies alone; my perspective comes from only looking at his art to show his autistic characteristics. Using psychoanalytic theory, I immersed myself in the images, diaries, scholarly writings, and the statements of contemporaries of Andy Warhol to prove autistic tendencies are shown in Warhol’s body of work. I also looked at the culture that surrounded Warhol and highlighted autistic traits within it as a way of explaining why Warhol’s works were so appealing. Warhol’s images show a lack of depth and the subject matter is hardly able to entice a deeper emotional connection. I argue further that the fact that this type of imagery was extremely popular shows that elite urban culture of the 1970s had many characteristics of a disassociated autistic society.

The Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on Olfactory and Visual Stimulus Pleasantness Jessica S. Conderman, 2011 
 Major: Neuroscience and Psychology 
 Hometown: Monroe Center, Ill.

Lea A. Hedman, 2011 
 Major: Psychology 
 Hometown: Roscoe, Ill.

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Leslie Cameron

Recent studies have shown that perception and preference for certain social stimuli changes with the phase of the menstrual cycle or fertility state. The current study was designed to determine if changes in perceptual processing are confined to stimuli that are related to reproduction (i.e., social stimuli) and if changes occur across the menstrual cycle. A secondary goal was to determine if there are changes in hedonic valence of visual and olfactory stimuli across the menstrual cycle. Thirty-three participants (18-25 years old) were tested, each at one phase of the menstrual cycle. Each participant was presented with three different types of stimuli, including social, food, and environmental odors and pictures. The participants rated the hedonic valence of each odor and photograph, as well as intensity and identification for each odor. Hedonic valence, intensity and odor identification of each of the three stimulus categories were compared across phase of the menstrual cycle. Results indicated that while the menstrual cycle did not influence the hedonic valence ratings for the visual or olfactory stimuli, the stimulus category and the two sensory systems demonstrated differences. Investigating sensitivity of social stimulus versus food and environmental stimulus along with hedonic valence across the menstrual cycle could better indicate the influences on olfactory and visual stimulus preferences. Funding source: Quality of Life Grant and Psychology Department


Celebration of Scholars

Probing Intermolecular Interactions in Chiral Chromatography with NMR Spectroscopy Susan Craig, 2011 

Major: Chemistry 
Hometown: Johnsburg, Ill.

the high areas of concern among college students and promoting behavior change. The videos will portray actual Carthage students (with consent), in a documentary styled theme.

The German Revolution of 1848: A Struggle in Attempting to Reach Unification Erica Dahl, 2011 

Kevin Morris, Klingenmeyer Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Faculty Sponsor: Kevin Morris

NMR spectroscopy was used to probe the intermolecular interactions in chiral chromatography. Three chiral sympathomimetic analytes were studied; ephedrine, norephedrine, and pseudoephedrine along with a chiral surfactant; N-dodecocycarbonylvaline (DDCV). Diffusion experiments were performed to measure binding constants. These experiments showed that ephedrine exhibited stronger binding to the micelles than the pseudoephedrine. The norephedrine:DDCV association constants spanned a wider range than ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Twodimensional ROESY data suggested that one strong H-bond between the analyte and the micelle produced a lower energy complex than two weak H-bond and/or two competing H-bonds. ROESY data also suggested that once the analyte is H-bonded to the micelle, the analyte remained near the micelle surface within the chiral pocket, with the aromatic ring pointing towards the hydrocarbon chain, rather than interacting with the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Funding source: American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund

Targeted Health Promotion for College Students Using Digital Productions Amanda Croix, 2011 

Major: Exercise and Sport Science 
 Hometown: Bradley, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Cynthia Allen, Leonard Schulze

We used a cross sectional study of seniors enrolled in a required physical education class to identify the physical health risks most prevalent among students at Carthage College (n=228, 62.28% female, average age 21.3 years). Seven measures of biometrics were assessed including blood pressure, body fat percentage, total cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, body mass index and total/ HDL cholesterol ratio. Analyzed data showed the following areas of concern. Eight percent of the subjects had high blood pressure, while 38.8% were pre-hypertensive, 1.4% had high cholesterol, and 15.7% were borderline for high cholesterol. Six percent were undiagnosed diabetics, 35.8% were pre-diabetic. Six percent were extremely obese, 5.7% were obese, 9.8% were overweight, and overall 21.5% were out of the healthy-weight range. Using this data, we will produce two educational videos highlighting 10

Major: History 
 Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Stephen Udry

Identifying why the German Revolution of 1848 failed has proven to be difficult for many historians. Part of the reason is because of the fundamental differences between the revolutionary groups involved. On the one hand, they were united in their desire to create a unified Germany. On the other hand, the bourgeoisie wanted to advance their capitalistic rights; the artisans wanted to maintain their traditional privileges; and the wage workers just wanted better wages and working conditions. Out of time-period newspapers and secondary research of various other historians, the picture of the failure came together. Thus, class conflict had won over achieving the goal. After two years of gaining and losing ground, the revolutionaries lost their will to fight. But even though the revolutionaries did not succeed in the sense of gaining a physical unification, this study will show that they did bring about an ideological unification to Germany that lasted throughout the generations.

Admirals Attendance Samantha DiCostanzo, 2011 

Major: Business Management and Marketing 
 Hometown: Carol Stream, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

This research project focuses on how to increase attendance at Milwaukee Admirals’ home games. Ideally, the Admirals would like to sell out their arena. This study proposes to identify the positive and negative perceptions of attending Admirals games and other key factors in selling sports tickets. Admirals fans and general Milwaukee-area residents will be interviewed through one-on-one interviews and administered a descriptive, online survey. In addition, census data will show the demographics of people in and around the city, helping us better sell to the market in the Milwaukee area. This project hopes to identify the key factors in selling sports tickets in this metropolitan area. The results of this study will suggest how to increase ticket sales for the Milwaukee Admirals.

Authoring a Life: Rousseau as God in The Reveries of the Solitary Walker Caroline Dolan, 2011 
 Major: Great Ideas, French 
 Hometown: Fort Collins, Colo. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Kirkland

Close reading of the original French text and an English translation of “The Reveries of the Solitary Walker,” Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s final published writing, was followed by further penetration into the work its author calls a “barometer to his soul”. In exile, Rousseau authors a divided consciousness, one as the active writer and the other as his human consciousness reading his writing. It is my interpretation that the text can be heard through these dual voices—speaking at once as God and as Rousseau. Yielded by Rousseau’s methodical exploration through thought experiments on autonomy, justice and temporality, his text asserts that moral existence is preferable to divine existence. The divine could not fully appreciate the wholeness and perfection of divinity because eternity imposes permanent monotony. The consequences of Rousseau’s written study become secondary to the act itself of writing personal reflections. By recording his experiences he brings into existence a concrete memoir of the interaction of a dual life between Rousseau as author and reader and elucidates the virtuous limitation of temporality. This work was devoted to Great Ideas and French senior theses and has inspired waves of further development, particularly in terms of comparisons between Montaigne’s Essais and Descartes’ Discourse on Method that will be pursued in the future. This composition also contributed to future aspirations to address the phenomenon of philosophical autobiography in postgraduate pursuits.

The Evolutionary Relationship of Dobsonia using the HV1 Gene as a Molecular Marker John Egner, 2013 

Major: Biology and Neuroscience 
 Hometown: Joliet, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Deanna Byrnes

Using molecular systematic and molecular ecology techniques, the evolutionary relationships among Dobsonia species, as told by the HV1 gene region of mtDNA, will be revealed. The bats belonging to Dobsonia inhabit the islands ranging from Papua New Guinea, and the central Philippines through Indonesia, and the Solomon Islands. However, their relationships amongst each other remain unclear. To clarify this relationship, the HV1 region of 20 DNA samples extracted from several Dobsonia species will be amplified by PCR, sequenced, and analyzed to develop the relationship between the species, in the form of a phylogenetic tree. The HV1 gene region, about 540 bp in length, was successfully amplified and sequenced, but the analysis of possible relationships between the species has yet to be determined. Thus, I am currently continuing my research by analyzing the DNA sequences with the aids of computer sequencing programs to build the relationships and construct the final evolutionary tree.

Algae as a Potential Bioremediation Tool Against Atrazine Contamination Kyle A. Enot, 2011 

Major: Environmental Science 
 Hometown: Algonquin, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Tracy Gartner

Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide declared an endocrine disruptor by the E.P.A. In order to reduce the chemical’s presence in the environment three algae species, Chlorella vulgaris (green algae), Cylindrospermum raciborskii (cyanobacteria), and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacteria), common to Wisconsin, were exposed to 200ppb concentration of atrazine. It was hypothesized that the photosynthetic inhibitory effects of atrazine would influence the growth rates differently for the three species but less so for the green algae species C. vulgaris and therefore make it a viable bioremediator. C. vulgaris would be the least affected by atrazine due to the high concentration of chlorophyll a pigmentation and biovolume requiring larger concentrations of atrazine to inhibit growth. If these species are capable for growing in atrazine conditions and standard lab conditions (1atm, 25ºC, and constant lighting) then they could potentially be viable bioremediators for this pollutant. A standard 96 hour static toxicity test was conducted under constant lighting conditions of 65mM/m2/s and 35mM/m2/s. The growth rate was determined through cell counts that were conducted for each of the three algal species. It was determined using repeated measure ANOVA that time was found to be statistically significant, by inhibiting growth rate for the species C. vulgaris exposed to atrazine with p-values < 0.05. Further research should examine ecological concentrations of atrazine and other algal species reactions to atrazine as potential bioremediators. Funding source: Environmental Science Department and SURE

Analysis of the Chloride Concentration of the Pike River in Southeastern Wisconsin Tess Fiedler, 2012 

Major: Chemistry 
 Hometown: Janesville, Wis.

Kyle Boron, 2011 

Major: Chemistry 
 Hometown: Wonder Lake, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Christine Blaine

Research shows that high levels of chloride in surface waters can be detrimental to the surrounding ecosystem and its inhabitants. Water samples from the Pike River, which flows through southeastern Wisconsin and empties into Lake Michigan, were obtained in order to determine the effect of road salt on the chloride concentration of the river. During early spring 2011, through the examination of two data sets, the chloride concentration of the river spiked to 630.0 + 44.4 ppm in the upper Pike River and 527.5 + 109.5 ppm in the lower part of the river that runs through campus. 11

Celebration of Scholars

Fall 2010 river data yielded a mean chloride concentration of 87.0 ± 1.4 ppm for the lower half of the Pike River. In addition, two sites on Lake Michigan were also added and baseline chloride data for the lakeshore in fall 2010 was 19.4 + 0.7 ppm. Initially, this longitudinal study began in Fall 2007 and focused upon the lower part of the Pike River. However, in order to obtain a more representative sample of the river, five new sites were added along the entire Pike River, including the headwaters of the river where it is narrow and shallow.

Financial Information Project Eric Figura, 2011 

Major: Computer Science 
 Hometown: Gurnee, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall

For my senior thesis I’m working on creating a program in Java that can easily manage and distribute financial information. The program has a server that is linked to multiple databases. The databases are populated and controlled by smaller programs which scrape the internet for financial information. The information gathered includes a live stock feed, company historical prices, and company’s 10-K reports. Once the information is gathered, programmers will create their own programs to retrieve the information from the server. An example of a program might be to retrieve all of a Fortune 500 company’s net incomes. The server would send back that information and the program could then use the information to do comparisons. The development of my thesis is teaching me a lot about how to mine data quickly and store mass amounts of data efficiently. More importantly, it is teaching me what I’ll need to know when I enter the financial workforce.

Elijah Balloon Payload: Atmospheric Mercury Concentration Stephanie Finnvik, 2012 

Major: Physics/Pre-Aerospace Engineering and Spanish 
 Hometown: Brooklyn Park, Minn.

Kevin M. Crosby, Chair, Division of the Natural Sciences; Associate Professor of Physics, Astronomy and Computer Science Faculty Sponsor: Kevin M. Crosby

To investigate the phenomena of “near space”, or altitudes near 100,000 feet, my research focused on developing, designing and fabricating a high-altitude balloon payload experiment to measure atmospheric mercury levels. To measure the mercury, gold traps were used and a housing unit was developed to hold and test them. The gold trap is essentially a tube that contains gold-coated glass beads. As the air sample passes through the trap, the mercury amalgamates to the gold and can then be analyzed to determine mercury content. The topic was chosen with the knowledge that 100


percent of Wisconsin waterways are contaminated with mercury. The research done was unique in that the highest measurement of mercury concentration in literature is approximately 12,000 feet. The transport mechanism for mercury in the environment is poorly understood, and the role of the atmosphere in mercury storage transport remains unclear. Our goal was to develop a method to investigate correlations between surface and atmospheric mercury concentrations. The experiment was launched over a 40mile trajectory and reached a peak altitude of 90,912 feet. Three sampling periods centered near 31,824, 47,925 and 82,250 feet and an additional ground sample were taken and analyzed. The launch succeeded in identifying mercury at measurable concentrations at all accessible altitudes, and the concentration data allowed us to develop guidelines and experimental protocols for future research. Funding source: Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium

Marketing Tourism to Mackinac Island Kristen Flickinger, 2012 

Major: Marketing and Management 
 Hometown: Pewaukee, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

The focus of this research project is marketing tourism to Mackinac Island, Mich. The island is known for its summer homes, carriage rides, souvenir shops, and fudge shops. Mackinac Island’s economy relies heavily upon summer tourism, as there are only about 500 year-round residents, but thousands more seasonal workers and tourists each year. With the weakened economy, the island could very much use an increase in tourism, and the purpose of this project is to determine how best to market the island to new tourists, past vacationers, and to extend the length of stay of visitors to the island. The research will be conducted using exploratory and descriptive research methods relying on both primary and secondary data through journals, interviews, online surveys, and other sources. This project seeks to identify the key considerations of tourists in determining where to plan a vacation as well as determine the key marketing techniques for summer vacations to Mackinac Island.

Effects of Mentoring Relationships between Senior Adults and At-Risk Adolescents Gina Ford, 2011 

Major: M.S. Education 
 Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Dennis Munk

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of mentoring relationships on academic grades, school attendance, and student self-esteem. Background information showed the current graduation rate of American high school students to be 75%. Researchers began investigating why some students fail as far back as the 1960’s and 1970’s hoping to identify individuals who may be at-risk for future dropout. Three indicators of future dropouts that were the focus of this study included poor grades, poor school attendance, and low student selfesteem. Mentoring relationships between middle school students

and elder mentors was tested as an intervention. A mixed model design was used which included both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative instruments included student journals and mentor surveys. Quantitative instruments included academic grades, attendance records, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Five sixth-grade students were asked to participate in the study. The results showed increases in grade point averages in four out of the five participants. Attendance rates improved for three of the students, and self-esteem scores improved for all but one of the participants. Qualitative data showed that all of the participants became more open and responsive following the mentoring experience. Themes from the student journals revealed the participants enjoyed having someone to talk to, enjoyed being part of a special group, and developed admiration for the mentor. To date this project continues and has grown from the original five participants to 13. Students will be tracked through their high school years to fully understand the effects of mentoring relationships at the middle school level.

will enable integration of data across temporal, spatial, and biological scales. Specifically, the goals of EREN include: (1) developing collaborative research projects that fit within the constraints of scientists with significant teaching responsibilities, (2) enhancing the roles of scientists and their students in existing and emerging ecological research networks, (3) maximizing student engagement in authentic science while generating publication quality data, and (4) creating an online database of data collected by the PUI network. To date, the founder group of scientists has met regularly to develop pilot projects and has held workshops at national meetings to promote their group and recuit new participants. To further these efforts, we have also launched our website (, and have been working with database managers to develop interactive programs for uploading and sharing of data. We expect that this network will enhance the quality of education and research at PUIs while meaningfully contributing to the larger scientific community. Funding source: National Science Foundation Research Coordination Network Grant

Restorative Justice: Restoring the Community, Lowering Recidivism

Quantifying Urbanization and Fragmentation of Agricultural and Forested Lands in Kenosha County 1988-2008

Brad Fortney, 2011 

Major: Criminal Justice, Sociology 
 Hometown: Antioch, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Luther Thompson

This research examines the current incarceration rate of adults in the United States and how restorative justice can decrease recidivism. There are four issues for the study: The first issue is about restorative justice, explaining the definition and process of restorative justice. The second issue is recidivism rates in the United States. The third issue is the impact of restorative justice on decreasing recidivism. The final issue concerns next steps for making restorative justice more accessible in the criminal justice system. Prospects for and obstacles to implementation of restorative justice in the United States is also a topic for this research.

The Ecological Research as Education Network Tracy Blickhan Gartner, Director, Environmental Science Program; Assistant Professor of Environmental Science; Biology, Geography and Earth Science Carthage is one of the founder colleges for an Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN) that links primarily undergraduate institutions throughout the country. The mission of EREN is to create a model for collaborative ecological research that generates high-quality, publishable data involving undergraduate students and faculty at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs). Through the coordination of innovative research projects between different institutions across a wide range of ecological gradients, the network

Sarah Geise, 2011 

Major: Geography and Earth Science 
 Hometown: Waukesha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Wenjie Sun

Kenosha County’s proximity to Milwaukee and Chicago limited industry to manufacturing in the 20th century. In the past two decades Kenosha has increased its role in commercial economy. This resulted in changes in land use which impact agricultural and forested lands. This study seeks to quantify that there has been a higher percent of agricultural and forested land converted to residential and commercial uses in Kenosha County between 1988 and 2008 within two miles of Interstate 94 compared to Kenosha County as a whole and in townships which share a boundary with Illinois compared to Kenosha County as a whole. Another hypothesis is that county subdivisions (towns, villages, or cities) with greater population growth exhibited higher levels of fragmentation of agricultural and forested land. Two classified land cover/use maps were derived from satellite images of 1988 and 2008 respectively using image processing software called Idrisi. Idrisi’s Land Change Modeler will be used to quantify the change in area from one land use/cover to another. Fragmentation of agricultural and forested lands will be calculated using spatial metrics from the Fragstats program. Expected results include acceptance of the aforementioned hypotheses and may result in increased conservation of important forested and agricultural lands. This study will serve as an evaluation of the changing landscape of Kenosha since the County’s 1991 Corridor Plan and hopefully provide useful insights for the 2035 Zoning Plan.


Celebration of Scholars

The Bound: Journey to Overworld Matthew Gehrz, 2012 

Major: Graphic Design and Theater 
 Hometown: Racine, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Laura Huaracha

“The Bound: Journey to Overworld” is the beginning stage of what I hope to expand into my senior show for my Graphic Design degree next year. The ultimate goal is to have a gallery worth of concept art all centered on the fictional story I am writing entitled The Bound. This project includes a chapter from a graphic novel, a movie poster, and concept art for a video game. The combined samples piece together a synopsis for the story, introducing the main characters, their world, and the driving conflict of understanding the existence of a whole new world and its sudden appearance to life on Earth. I hope here to provide a subtle look at the fundamental truths and beliefs of my life such as the importance of staying true to one’s identity, no matter what; seeking a balance of strength from within and from without; and choosing to rise against any odds if your goal is worth fighting for. My work is centered on the creation of conceptual images by hand and by computer. At the end of the project I will present characters, locations, conflicts and other imaginative nuances that inhabit the world which I have envisioned. I plan to see this project through to its completion, and use it as portfolio work after I graduate from Carthage.

What Influences Underage Alcohol Use? Kristin Gierke, 2012 

Major: Sociology 
 Hometown: Mount Prospect, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

This research examines underage drinking as an ongoing occurrence that has a selection of facilitative factors. What causes youth to drink alcohol prior to being of legal age? There are predictive factors that will be reviewed within this study. The first predictor reviewed is one’s involvement in athletics, which has negative effects on alcohol use for adolescents. Another factor will be gender, as past researchindicates that males drink alcohol more frequently. Peer influences may increase exposure to positive evaluations that encourage drinking alcohol. Bonds with parents, schools and religion have a restraining influence, discouraging drinking. Differential association theory suggests that drinking alcohol is learned behavior, highlighting the importance of peers. Social control theory suggests that social bonds to conventional others, especially parents, provide a buffer against using alcohol since it might harm or compromise those relationships. Data come from the representative samples of adolescents who completed self-report questionnaires. Implications for social policy are suggested along with suggestions for basing policy on empirical findings.


Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements of Ground Basalt Compared to Soil Particle Size Erin Gross, 2013 

Major: Physics/Pre-Engineering 
 Hometown: Madison, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Kevin Crosby

Two laboratory experiments were conducted at the University of Arizona with Dr. Marcel Schaap in order to observe the saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks), the ease with which water can flow through a saturated column of soil, of various particle sized basalt soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivities were determined for basalt, ground for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes, in small columns that simulate surface soil. The rate of water flow, pressure head, cross-sectional area, and length of the column were recorded and used to get Ks values for each grind of basalt in the smaller columns. In order to witness how a soil profile would act however, Ks values were calculated in a larger column with 20 minute ground basalt. Tensiometers were placed equally among the column to measure the pressure head in 6 different sections in order to observe how Ks varies in longer soil dimensions. Statistical analysis was done on the soil particle size data and the average value will be compared to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of each basalt type. As the average value of soil particle size increases, the Ks value will decrease. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is a unique and important value that will be calculated on a small and large scale and compared to particle size in order to study how these values can affect soil water flow rates.

Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Max Grothman, 2013 
 Major: Accounting 
 Hometown: Green Bay, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Julie Dawson

Volunteer Income Tax Assistance is an IRS-sponsored program designed to offer free tax preparation services to low-to-moderate income families who otherwise could not afford these services. Over 30 Carthage students volunteered this tax season with members of the United Way at the Kenosha Job Center. This volunteer program ensures that each client has an accurate tax return and receives every deserving tax credit. The service provided is crucial to the Kenosha community. Sessions run biweekly from February 1 through April 15; however, there is consistently more demand for tax preparation than can be fulfilled by preparers each Tuesday and Saturday. Carthage accounting professors instruct participants on how to complete the tax returns. Each student must complete IRS certification before volunteering at VITA. First year VITA volunteers often are certified at a basic level while returning volunteers are encouraged to become tax certified at higher levels to be able to complete more technical returns.VITA volunteers prepared 691 federal income tax returns in 2010, an increase of 27% compared to 2009. The refunds totaled $689,620 and saved clients $130,000 in tax preparation fees. Carthage students logged 800 volunteer hours in the 2009 tax season. These students gained the ability to ask technical questions, learned how to explain tax implications to clients, and were able see the tax code applied in a real world situation.

A Tale of Two Languages John Gutt-Jankowski, 2014 
 Major: Chinese 
 Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

The development of the Chinese language and that of the Romance languages share more in common than at first glance: both were spread through the Han dynasty and the Roman Empire, respectively. These two political bodies were motivated to enforce their own languages by their ethnocentric worldviews. This self-centered attitude connects two seemingly distant languages. The Han emperor and Roman army marched through the land only speaking and writing their own language, refusing to learn the language of the natives. People follow these same patterns of imperialism and conquest, whether from China or from Rome. The notion of a single-tracked mind sweeping its language across a continent appears throughout the years. By examining the past of each empire’s implementation of their own language and their writing systems, an understanding will be created between these two cultures. Both cultures were concerned with their own speech, not those of the natives. The hope of this piece is to help people see that despite their differences in speech and writing systems, everyone has the same emotional and human history as to why they speak their language.

Overcoming Negative Publicity and Promoting Vacations to Mexico Jessica Hams, 2011 

Major: Business Administration &Marketing 
 Hometown: Woodstock, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

This research project focuses on the recent difficulties Mexican tourism has experienced due to reported danger within that country. This negative publicity and reputation has a significant effect of decreasing tourism to Mexico, which according to the U.S. Department of State accounts for 64% of Mexico’s gross domestic product. With such a large portion of the country’s economy dependent upon tourism, it has become essential to restore its reputation. Therefore, this project aims to discover the factors that will best promote Mexican tourism. Recommendations for strategic marketing will be suggested in order to increase vacations by American tourists to Mexican destinations. This topic will be investigated using exploratory research in the form of personal interviews, focus groups, and literature reviews. Descriptive research will determine customer preferences, intentions, attitudes, and travel behaviors affecting tourism decision making. We will rely upon secondary data previously conducted and published, and primary data collected personally to support the research topic. This project seeks to identify the key priorities and factors that are used by American tourists when deciding upon vacation locations. Once those priorities are identified, they will be used in designing promotions and other marketing tactics to increase travel to Mexico.

Student Research Projects J-term 2011 Costa Rica—Biodiversity, Brains and Behavior Scott Hegrenes, Director, Discovery Program; Associate Director of the Environmental Science Program, Associate Professor of Biology Biodiversity, Brains, and Behavior is a J-term course taught by Scott Hegrenes (Biology) and Dan Miller (Neuroscience/ Psychology). In January 2011 the class explored the lowland tropical rainforest of Costa Rica. After completing coursework on biology, evolution, and neuroscience, students were asked to propose and pursue research questions about some aspect of rainforest biodiversity, brains, or behavior. These individual miniposters celebrate the work done (alone or with a partner) by both science and non-science majors. Topics ranged from ethnobotany and spider web location to tree frog habitat and howler monkey communication. These posters—which were not part of the assessment for the class—were prepared by the students and edited by Professor Hegrenes, or were prepared by Professor Hegrenes and edited by the students—as noted. For compliance, students’ photos appear on each mini-poster.

Costume Design for “One Day in the Season of Rain” Kim Instenes, Assistant Professor of Theatre/Costume Designer Our theatre program commissioned a new English translation of Mohan Rakesh’s 1958 play “One Day in the Season of Rain” for its Spring 2010 season. Neil Scharnick directed the production, I did the costume design and Martin McClendon (who is also presenting) did the scene design. The play is a fictionalized account of the life of the actual Indian poet Kalidas. Set in 300 AD, the play tells the story of Mallika, a woman of his village whom he leaves behind to accept the post of court poet to the Emperor of Ujjayini. My submission will include historical research of the costume of the period, as well as costume renderings for the production. The research includes some statuary and cave paintings from the period but since that is really all that survives to today I had to also include some more modern artists who interpret what the clothing looked like from the period. The costume design for the show, in conjunction with the set design, depicted a representation of what the clothing may have looked like, putting emphasis on making sure the audience could decipher what class each character was from and what personality traits each character possessed, as well as, how each character progressed through the play. The result was a “story book” presentation of ancient India, which I feel served the play well.


Celebration of Scholars

American Cross: Fragmentation and Adaption of the Christian Right in “Twentieth Century America” Mitchell Jackson, 2011 
 Major: History 
 Hometown: St. Louis Faculty Sponsor: Stephen Udry

The Christian Right has been a relentless and defining characteristic of the American identity. From its origins and decline in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century and its eventual resurrection in the years following, the once isolated grassroots movement has endured, becoming one of the most transformational forces in religious politics today. Yet in order to reach the point that it did, the Religious Right has had to weather a tumultuous history. The image, values and methodology of the New Right today is vastly different than its failed predecessor decades before it. It is ironic in a sense that such a disorganized and divided force would not only survive but end up dominating the domestic and political arenas of the United States for a time. This study will examine two distinct periods of the Christian Right’s history and identify the movement as an anomaly of the American culture, managing to overcome a long history of fragmentation and flourish due to changing social, political and religious trends.

Celebration of Scholars Logo Tyler Jump, 2011 

Major: Communication, Graphic Design, Public Relations 
 Hometown: Necedah, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Laura Huaracha

The Celebration of Scholars logo was designed in response to a prompt that requested the creation of a logo that emphasized “the true meaning behind the sharing of research, scholarship and creativity.” The resulting logo represents each of these three terms in a single mark. Throughout the design process a number of themes were explored from the physics of friction to the history and heritage of research, scholarship and creativity. Ultimately, however, inspiration for the chosen mark came from the work of James Turrell, an American artist known for his work concerned with light and space. One piece in particular, “Wedgework III”, an installation using fluorescent light for The De Pont Museum in 1969, served as the primary inspiration. The concept of the artist’s work was to lead the viewer from darkness at the opening of the installation into a brilliant display of color and light. This concept of leading the viewer from darkness into light seemed a fitting analogy for what the Celebration of Scholars event intends to promote. The forms created by the concealed lamps in Turrell’s installation then also served to inform the shapes used to create the radiating “beams” of light in the mark. The resulting logo from this exploration of themes and ultimately from the inspiration of Mr. Turrell’s work now represents the Celebration of Scholars event.


Software Evolution and the Moving Picture Metaphor Cassandra Kawell, 2011 
 Major: Computer Science 
 Hometown: Wonder Lake, Ill.

Isaac Rothenbaum, 2011 

Major: Computer Science, Graphic Design 
 Hometown: Oak Park, Ill.

Mark Mahoney, Chair, Computer Science Department; Associate Professor of Computer Science Faculty Sponsor: Mark Mahoney

Software is something that has greatly impacted every resident of the western world since its inception in the early 1960 ‘s. Software is what makes computers useful devices – giving them purpose and character. Every program that runs on a computer is software written in a programming language by a person and was not created easily nor by accident. The process of creating quality software is one of the most complicated and logic intensive exercises in engineering. Throughout development a piece of software changes drastically. Features can be added or removed, algorithms redefined, or new technologies assimilated that were not available at the start of development. Even after a piece of software is released to the public it is constantly updated and changed to fit an ever evolving market. The problem with software today is that its evolution is never recorded—a problem that is compounded as modern programs become larger and more intricate. The only thing developers ever really interact with are static states of the software; all the knowledge gained in getting to the state is lost to the wind. This research project sought to capture all the information related to the production of the software, database it, and manipulate it to create meaningful stories about how that software was written. Funding Source: Carthage College, NASA

Japanese Value of Harmony through Modern Japanese Children’s Literature Kirsten Keto, 2011 

Major: Japanese 
 Hometown: New Berlin, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Yan Wang

Between many westerners and the people of Japan, communication has been a formidable task because of subtle cultural distinctions, and often these differences place a barrier of misunderstanding during expression. This is mainly because the Japanese view relationships in a different manner, and their values are quite opposite from Americans in many aspects. For a long time, westerners have been trying to understand and comprehend these differences, and one form of this is through teaching young children about specific cultures. Usually, a common method for teaching is through literature. However, occasionally literature may not be an adequate representation of true culture. Frequently, these books used to teach American children are written from an American perspective and reveal more westernized values than Japanese culture. When analyzed closely, the western values are quite clear. My studies aimed to help westerners recognize children books that truly show Japanese values, ranging from harmony, loyalty, patience, empathy, and group conformity. I worked to understand how and why these books showed Japanese values correctly. I will discuss a few books that attempt to show Japanese culture, but in the end are very westernized. These books were very thoroughly explored, and through research and personal experiences, these studies helped me find which books are true representations of Japanese culture. This helped in understanding Japanese values and in teaching children these difficult concepts that many westerners are still trying to grasp.

Do Social Choice Funds Sacrifice Rate of Return? Tim Keyes, 2011 

Major: Accounting &Finance 
 Hometown: Arlington Heights, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Joe Wall

The work I have chosen to submit is my senior thesis paper, which analyzed the effectiveness of Social Responsibility Investing (SRI). SRI is defined in its simplest form as the process of integrating personal values and societal concerns into investment decision-making. The most common way investors incorporate SRI into their portfolio is through mutual funds, known as social choice funds. The objective of my thesis was to find if social choice funds sacrifice rate of return compared to mutual funds whose only objective is generating the most profit for their investor. To answer this question, a study was conducted involving data analysis of 14 social choice funds and 14 non-social choice funds. These funds were carefully selected to have similar characteristics for the most accurate results. Once selected, historical data on closing prices of these funds were obtained. To compare the social choice funds to the mutual funds, a price-weighted index was constructed of each for an effective and efficient comparison of their rate of return. The results and analysis of the study shows that social choice funds do sacrifice rate of return when compared to non-social choice funds. This type of senior thesis was unique, due to the fact that I

generated my own statistical analysis and conclusions on a topic that in which I have a personal interest and passion.

The Art of Chinese Marketing Justin Kirkpatrick, 2013 
 Major: IPE and Chinese 
 Hometown: Elkhorn, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

This presentation takes an in-depth look at how American businesses market themselves in China. To do this, I am looking at how American companies have taken the Chinese language or Chinese Hanzi (汉字)and used translation to make their company more marketable to the Chinese people. In order to do that, I have undergone researching and understanding Chinese cultural and social norms as well as the Chinese language. Furthermore, I have researched the relationship between American language and Chinese language. For example, in America, we are unable to visual what a word means just by looking at it with no previous knowledge of that word. In Chinese the characters for tomorrow is 明天. A Chinese person looking at this word would understand that there are three characters represented here, one is sun 日, another is moon 月, and the last is day 天 . Thus, a person looking at this 明天 could discern that this character means tomorrow because the characters tell you one lunar cycle and day. Some American Business that I will examine include McDonald’s (买等老), Starbucks (星巴克) and Pizza Hut (必胜客).

Insect Pest Communities in Potential Biofuel Grasses of Upper Midwest, U.S.A. Vanessa C. Klimowicz, 2011 

Major: Environmental Science 
Hometown: Racine, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Tracy Gartner

As the concern about the use of fossil fuels increases, cellulosic biofuel crops are gaining additional attention. Two of these potential bioenergy crops are switchgrass and miscanthus with the majority of research concentrating on expected yields, physiology, and cultivation practices. Little attention has been given to the insect pests that may develop on these fast growing crops. To address this issue, a series of experiments were designed to test the host preference of major insect pests, the impact of elevated carbon dioxide on pest behavior, and the feasibility of current management strategies in biofuel agriculture. Based on observations in other agricultural cropping systems, it was hypothesized that aphid and thrips communities have the capacity to infest miscanthus and switchgrass crops. Specifically, the highest populations of thrips were found during peaks of the growing season. Aphids and thrips were observed to demonstrate a host preference when offered different biofuel grasses and higher levels of CO2 decreased the amount of offspring able to be produced on the host plant. In addition, higher levels of nitrogen fertilization have the capacity to increase the level of insect damage. This information can provide further insight into the ways in which insect pest communities impact biofuel cropping systems. Research on the pests of potential biofuel crops can then aid in the development of sufficient management strategies and practices for bioenergy agriculture. Funding source: U.S. Dept. of Energy 17

Celebration of Scholars

Determining the Concentration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Pike River, Kenosha, Wis. Stacy Kosinski, 2012 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Muskego, Wis.

Katie Gast, 2011 

Major: Biology and Neuroscience 
 Hometown: Muskego, Wis.

Anne Pioppo, 2012 

Major: Biology and Psychology 
 Hometown: Wheaton, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Dan Choffnes

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic or natural chemicals that when absorbed by an animal, interfere with normal endocrine homeostasis. Since disruption of the endocrine system is thought to cause reproductive dysfunction in wildlife, the presence of EDCs in watersheds is of concern. For example, a 2002 World Health Organization report linked EDCs to cases of sex reversal and infertility in fish and amphibians. It is therefore important to determine the ecological concentrations of EDCs in the habitats of vulnerable aquatic species. Among the EDCs commonly found in surface waters, atrazine, 17 α-ethynylestradiol, and 17β-estradiol are relatively well-studied, having demonstrated reproductive anomalies in laboratory studies on fish and amphibians. The concentrations of these EDCs have not yet been determined in the Pike River at Kenosha, Wis. By developing a reliable and reproducible protocol, the concentrations of EDCs in the Pike River and near its mouth at Lake Michigan can be ascertained. To determine the concentrations of these three EDCs, this study proposes to develop a protocol that will utilize sample collection, filtration, solid phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy. If one or more EDCs are detectable, it will ultimately be interesting to determine whether their concentrations exhibit regional variation and seasonal fluctuations. Funding source: Carthage S.U.R.E. Program


Lifetime Prediction of Mg-Rich Polymeric Coatings Using a Fluoro-Magnesium Probe Christina Konecki, 2011 
 Major: Chemistry 
 Hometown: Barrington, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: C.J. Stephenson

Coatings containing hexavalent chromium are widely known for their outstanding anticorrosive performance. Unfortunately, toxicity concerns have imposed restrictions on their use in commercial coatings, and prompted the search for a replacement that is environmentally responsible and just as effective in affording corrosion protection. Mg-rich primers obviate the need for employing chromium and provide excellent corrosion resistance by anodically protecting the substrate. However, they are known to fail rapidly in accelerated testing while exhibiting long service lives in service conditions. To develop correlations between various weathering protocols and the lifetime of Mg-rich coatings, the use of a fluoro-magnesium probe is proposed to track magnesium through its various stages of anodic protection. KMG-20-AM, a Coumarin 343 derivative, is a synthetic fluoro-magnesium probe that has been wellstudied in biological applications for its ability to bind with magnesium. KMG-20-AM chelates with Mg and Mg moieties, and results in enhanced fluorescence intensities and a shift in the lambda max. Consequently, KMG-20-AM is expected to complex with Mg moieties in Mg-rich coatings and produce a distinct increase in fluorescence intensity with a lambda max shift relative to a Mg-free coating. National Science Foundation Award #DMR-1005127 , REU Site for Sustainable Aerospace and Marine Polymer Composites

Directing and Staging the Musical Cabaret Herschel Kruger, Chair, Theatre Department, Associate Professor of Theatre

Maureen Chavez-Kruger The musical “Cabaret” has a long and celebrated history. After its 1966 Broadway opening which ran for 1,166 performances it was made into a feature film featuring Liza Minnelli, and since then has had two very successful Broadway revivals. The challenge with any well-known play or musical is to “make it your own” while still keeping intact the original intent of the playwright. What will make this production unique is the style in which we will approach the piece. We are designing and staging the production after the motif used by German playwright Bertolt Brecht. Brecht believed in verfremdungseffekt or the alienation effect. The alienation effect

would destroy theatrical illusions and conventions and ask the spectator to think rather than to respond emotionally. This form of theatrical stylization became known as Epic Theatre. In January of 2010 we traveled to Berlin on a J-term trip where we spent eighteen days studying theatre. We saw several productions including two plays by Brecht where we witnessed the use of this “Epic” style first-hand in a contemporary context. We also traveled through Berlin and northeastern Germany and were influenced by many factors. Most notably were the train stations and platforms that have become the central scenic design element of the stage. The other very important element of this production was to understand the use of cabaret in Germany during the period (1929-1930) In the book “The Cabaret” by Lisa Appignanesi, she states “Brecht’s Theory of Verfremdungseffekt or the alienation effect, grows as much out of the cabaret stage and setting as it does out of the boxing ring and the popular music-hall. All these forms break down the fictional distance between the player and the spectator ...the cabaret was alive: creators were physically present as performers, close to spectators who could be provoked into becoming part of the spectacle at any moment.” For our presentation we plan to share significant research quotes and bullet points that will be paired with pictures of our research, technical drawings, renderings, rehearsal photos and a scale model of the set. Together theses items will support our staging and directorial choices The production of “Cabaret” opens April 29, 2011 and runs through May 7, 2011. As much as we want to entertain audiences with this production, we hope to provoke critical analysis and dialogue.

Bicycle Tourism in Polk County, Wisconsin Paul Krupa, 2011 

Major: Marketing 
 Hometown: Amery, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Jan Owens

This research project will explore tourist desire to visit Polk County, Wisconsin, and ride the county’s two state bicycle trails: Gandy Dancer State Bicycle Trail and Stower Seven Lakes State Trail. The target market is adult bicyclists from the Midwest that enjoy traveling. This exploratory and descriptive study will investigate which factors influence the target market to enjoy bicycling and traveling. This research will also categorize what the target market seeks in potential travel destinations and bicycle trails. Finally, it will investigate what information is used by the target market to make travel decisions, and if the target market has any other tourism interests that could be met by Polk County. The research will include data and literature from government, tourism, and bicyclist organizations, and interviews and online surveys with the target market. The goals of this research are to provide information about what the target market desires in travel destinations, determine what information the target market uses when making decisions, and make recommendations for Polk County’s marketing communications. This research will be significant, because it will provide information that could help increase bicycle tourism in Polk County.

Describing the Acoustical Properties of the Modern Saxophone using a 3-Stage Acoustic Model Melissa La Chance, 2011 
 Major: Physics and Music 
 Hometown: Lake Geneva, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: James Ripley

I propose to describe how the modern saxophone operates as a physical instrument and calculate its most significant musical features by analyzing the harmonic series, power spectrum, and resonance signature. To do this, I have developed a three-stage acoustical mode composed of a generator, resonator, and radiator. Within this model, several aspects of the saxophone’s unique characteristics will be described: acoustic impedance, Fourier analysis of the harmonic spectrum, pressure deviations, and overall sound and air output (or power spectrum). I will have calibrated this model against a control saxophone (Yamaha Custom Z Series alto saxophone, Selmer C* mouthpiece, and Vandoren strength 3 reed). Various components that are said to alter the overall sound produced by the instrument will then be tested against the predictions given by the model. The main components are broken into three main groups defined as changes in the three stages of the model. I will use the model to similarly acoustically describe the clarinet and French horn. By comparing the different parameters of each of these instruments, I hope to gain understanding of the physical characteristics of the most significant musical differences. With this knowledge, I would like to acurately describe acoustically the saxophone’s aptitude to blend well in a musical ensemble.

Statistical Analysis of Planetary Nebulae in M33 Melissa La Chance, 2011 
 Major: Physics and Music 
 Hometown: Lake Geneva, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Douglas Arion

I propose to search for and discover possible planetary nebulae within planetary nebula M33. In October, 2011, a handful of Carthage students traveled to Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. to use the WIYN 0.9 meter telescope. There, several images were taken and compiled with OIII and V filters. Planetary nebulae emit 80% of their light in the OIII wavelength (about 507 nm). Because stellar energy also emits light within this wavelength, they should be differentiated from the nebula and subtracted from the OIII image to reveal only possible planetary nebulae. To achieve this, 80% of the V-filtered image was subtracted from the OIII-filtered image yielding roughly only stellar emission. This image was then subtracted from the OIII-filtered image, causing only planetary nebulae to be visible. By using intensity counts of recognizable objects in the final image and comparing them to the original images’ intensities, a statistical percentage of how well the cancellation of the stars will be calculated and used to differentiate planetary nebulae (objects) from broken pixels. From there, broken pixels can be fixed leaving only plausible objects which can be imaged more closely in the future. 19

Celebration of Scholars

Who is in Control? : A Look into Confucian Cosmic Order Via Calligraphy Kathleen Lawler, 2013 

Major: Japanese and Communications 
 Hometown: Winnebago, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

How are hanzi/kanji used to signify things outside of human control affected by the Confucian ideas of cosmic order? This presentation will be unique in that it will largely be presented through Chinese simplified hanzi and/or traditional hanzi also known as Japanese kanji. The idea is to uncover the ideas implied in the strokes of certain radicals within characters and reveal their meaning in context to the greater cosmic order as described in the teachings of Confucianism. I will define first the teachings of the cosmic order, and then hunt down specific characters, as well as poetry, that will display those teachings in a clear and concise manner. I intend most of this to be done through researching calligraphy books and various Confucian texts, along with websites suggested through my sponsor. The final presentation should have character description broken down as it relates to cosmic order and the complementary world view of East Asian cultures.

Estimating the Demand Function for Fast Food: An Investigation Employing Two-Stage Least-Squares Regression Techniques Andrea Leschewski, 2011 
 Major: Economics and Math 
 Hometown: Crest Hill, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Robert Schlack

In recent years, fast food consumption has been labeled a significant cause of the growing obesity epidemic in the United States. Many so-called “fat-tax policies” have been proposed to decrease the obesity rate by targeting fast food consumption. In order to help evaluate such proposed policies, it is essential to first understand the factors that might explain the demand for fast food. This study uses ordinary and two-stage least squares methods of regression to estimate a reduced form demand equation for fast food in terms of the basic economic choice variables of consumer preferences, income, and expectations as well as selected geographic and demographic variables. The analysis combined U.S. census data for 2010 on population and household characteristics aggregated at the county level, and information on over 100,000 fast food restaurants collected and aggregated using ArcGIS. Results affirm the significance of household income, age, geographic location, education, and marital status. Additionally, we find that a household’s preferences for a “healthy lifestyle,” as measured by several proxy variables, are important determinants of the demand for fast food. Finally, as might be expected a priori, we find evidence that fast food is a “normal good” at low levels of income, but becomes an “inferior good” as household income rises.


Cafe con Leche: Cooperatives as a Community-Sustainable Economic Alternative in Costa Rica Deanna Love, 2011 

Major: English, Spanish, Accounting 
 Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Matt Borden

One of the most striking aspects of the Costa Rican dairy and coffee industries is the significant economic and cultural role fulfilled by cooperatives. Almost half of the Costa Rican coffee production is cultivated by cooperatives consisting of small coffee farmers, and the dairy industry is dominated by the Dos Pinos cooperative. The historical development of these industries and the respective establishment therein of cooperatives and transnational corporations are examined in order to determine whether cooperatives pose a communally-sustainable economic alternative. Café Britt, Dos Pinos, Coopro Naranjo, and Coocafe serve as economic, cultural, and social case studies. The impact of the increasing globalization of commodities markets as well as the growing influence of free trade and organic initiatives are also considered. These case studies demonstrate that although transnational corporations offer economic development incentives, they do not provide the same level of cultural and communal care afforded by cooperatives. The analysis reveals that cooperatives, though facing challenges in a world of changing markets, do still offer a viable economic alternative. This conclusion is applicable not only to Costa Rica, but to a variety of developing economies operating in an increasingly globalized market structure.

Cross Cultural Writing: The Harmony of Phoentics and Symbolism Caitlin Marotte, 2013 
 Major: Japanese 
 Hometown: Ramsey, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

As a Japanese major, I am not only concerned with learning the language, but also in understanding it. Japanese uses three different alphabets: Hiragana (ひらがな), Katakana (カタカナ), and Kanji (漢字). Kanji were originally based upon the Chinese writing system, and each character has a specific meaning beyond simply acting as a phonetic device. Kanji, or Hanzi as it is called in China, sets out a very strict and structured social hierarchy. This includes relationships between men and women, as well as different social classes. Both ancient China and ancient Japan were very focused on one’s place in the world, one’s place in society, and one’s place in the family. This is largely due to the morals of Confucianism, which set out the five relationships: ruler to ruled; father to son; husband to wife; elder brother to younger brother; and friend to friend. The duties and hierarchies of these relationships can be found through the Chinese characters depicting these connections. I have examined these and have drawn conclusions about the social hierarchy of ancient China and Japan. This project includes both my findings as well as my own conclusions.

Monitoring Bat Activity In Relation Water Sources Amy Macemon, 2012 

Major: Environmental Science 
 Hometown: Racine, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Deanna Byrnes

Despite recent progress in the science community’s knowledge regarding bats’ habitat associations, there is still little known about bats’ summer distributions and their habitat preferences. To develop a deeper understanding of bats’ interaction with their surrounding landscape and the influence of differing water sources on bat activity, a study was conducted to monitor bat activity along the shorelines of moving and standing water sources. The relative activity of several bat species was acoustically monitored during the summer months throughout Southeastern Wisconsin. The monitoring was done using an Anabat SD1 CF bat detector and the field data was analyzed using Analook W software. Mean occurrence was calculated per monitoring site and from this no significant difference was found in the amount of relative bat activity in the areas surrounding the moving water sites in relation to standing water sites. The continuation of this research is an essential tool to establishing guidelines for bats’ habitat associations and pooling data to form a census of the bat species and prevalence within Wisconsin. Using bat activity data, more effective management and conservation efforts can be devised. Funding source: Carthage S.U.R.E. Program

The Relationship between House Structure and Malaria Transmission in Rural Villages of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania Zawadi Mageni, 2011 

Major: Geography and Earth Science, and Environmental Science 
 Hometown: Moshi, Tanzania Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Tracy Gartner, Dr. Wenjie Sun

Malaria is the leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where children under the age of five and pregnant women are the groups most at risk. In Africa, it is the second leading infectious disease killer after HIV/AIDS, accounting for approximately 1 million deaths annually. Malaria is often understood to be a disease of poverty given its concentration in the world’s poorest nations, and a causal factor of poverty as it presents major obstacles to social and economic development with its direct impact on human resources in illness. A better understanding of the relationship between malaria and poverty is needed in order to help guide the implementation of effective policies. Recognizing that house structure often correlates with poverty level, and that many house risk factors influence malaria transmission, the key focus of this research was to examine the relationship between the physical house structure and malaria transmission in rural villages in Tanzania. Since the majority of malaria transmissions occur in the house, I hypothesized there would be a significant correlation between the house structure and malaria transmission. However, the data from the Ifakara Health Institute did not support this hypothesis when analyzed using traditional statistical tools. This observation highlighted issues of data quality but may also be attributed to progress in the control of malaria in the area. More conclusive results are expected upon completion of spatial analysis using GIS. This research is important as it identifies factors that influence both vulnerability to malaria and poverty.

Systematic Control of the Lactam/Amide Rate in Rhodamine Amide Derivatives Michael Maher, 2011 

Major: Chemistry 
 Hometown: Plainfield, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: C.J. Stephenson

Molecular probes based on fluorescence have shown utility with a wide range of analytes in a variety of applications. In many cases, the exact method of change in fluorescent output is not fully understood. By understanding the mechanism of fluorescent output, probes can be more precisely tailored to specific analytes and applications. One recent application with rhodamine B lactams has been heavy metal sensing. Up to this point, the sensing potential has been explored whereas the mechanism of the ring opening that results in the formation of the fluorogenic/chromogenic species has not been extensively studied. Little attention has been appropriated to the factors that govern the rate of the sensing mechanism, which can greatly alter how the molecular probe is used. There has not been has a systematic study on the effect of structural modification on the mechanism. An 21

Celebration of Scholars

extensive understanding of the opening mechanism would enhance the ability to control the opening mechanism. Control of the sensor’s selectivity and sensitivity is consequential in further development of more efficient rhodamine B lactam based sensors. Herein, we demonstrate that the small changes in structure impact 1) the rate of the sensing mechanism and 2) the sensitivity of the molecular probe.

The Barmen Declaration: the Document that Prompted Discussion amid the German Church Struggle Allison Marshall, 2011 

Major: Religion, Communications 
 Hometown: Waunakee, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Romwald Maczka

Due to the obvious dramatic significance of the Holocaust, scholars and theologians, even today, have dedicated a great deal of their time and research to Nazi Germany. However, the religious struggle that was taking place behind the scenes often remains unmentioned. Throughout this paper, The Barmen Declaration: the Document that Prompted Discussion amid the German Church Struggle, the church struggle comes to the forefront, revealing the religious implications of church officials’ public statements, such as the Barmen Declaration, and the political decisions and actions of Hitler’s Third Reich. Following a thorough examination of the culture and church status in Nazi Germany at the time of Hitler’s rise to power and throughout World War II, the reader delves into an exploration of the written and oral media put forth by the prominent church leaders, such as Bonhoeffer and Niemoller. Upon being exposed to the dialogue, discussion, and debate between German Christian and Confessing Church leaders following the publication of the Barmen Declaration, the conclusion can be made that it was this document that functioned as the one clear reference point for the Protestant groups involved in the church struggle. This paper ties together crucial aspects of communication with religious themes and cultural tensions to shed new light on a subject which is often overshadowed by the tragedy of the Holocaust.

Dead Trees Falling: Snag Dynamics and Impacts on Cavity-nesting Birds in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests Joy Nystrom Mast, Professor of Geography and Earth Science Biogeographers investigate relationships between ecological patterns and processes such as disturbances and species distributions. This research explores the effects of bark beetle outbreaks compared to stand-replacing fires in southwestern forests. The objectives are to: (1) describe spatial patterns, density, decay rates, and dynamics of snags in beetle-killed versus fire-killed trees; (2) predict the probability of snag use by cavity nesters based on these snag characteristics comparing snags killed in bark beetle outbreaks vs. fire vs. individual mortality; and (3) develop a database for our snag dynamics model in order to test ecological hypotheses and


provide guidelines for forest managers. Results help us predict the probability of snag use by cavity nesters based on these snag characteristics comparing snags killed by different causes of mortality. This research works to advance theories through modeling bird spatial patterns across a range of disturbance scales. Direct applications of this research include management decisions such as the number of snags and spatial pattern of the snags to retain in salvage logging and restoration efforts in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Determining the transition rate from snag to fallen log is important for predicting availability of wildlife habitat. Knowing which trees or snags will remain standing longest and are most used by cavity nesters provides guidance in determining how many live tree replacements are needed and in developing future snag management plans. Funding source: National Science Foundation, US Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management

Scenic Design: One Day in the Season of Rain Martin McClendon, Assistant Professor of Theatre Our theatre program commissioned a new English translation of Mohan Rakesh’s 1958 play One Day in the Season of Rain for its Spring 2010 season. Neil Scharnick directed the production and I did the scenic design. The play is a fictionalized account of the life of the actual Indian poet Kalidas. Set in 300 AD, the play tells the story of Mallika, a woman of his village whom he leaves behind to accept the post of court poet to the Emperor of Ujjayini. My display will delve into both the creative and research sides of bringing the world of the play to life. Emphasis will be on the evolution of the design through sketches and work with Google Sketchup 3D drawing program. As there are no surviving domestic structures from this period in Indian history, the challenge was to evoke early India in a recognizable way, yet do so without any obvious use of modern materials or props.

India in a Broken Mirror: The Shattering of the Idea of India in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children Isaac McQuistion, 2011 
 Major: English, History 
 Hometown: Appleton, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Eric Pullin

Why is India able to function as a nation when it is home to the most diverse collection of people on the planet? What is the idea holding India together? Has this “idea of India” changed over the years? Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister, put forth the idea that Indians were united in their diversity. The history of India, Nehru asserted, has always been one of synthesis, of mixing disparate cultures until one cannot be separated from another, and that this amalgamation of cultures and identities has created the Indian identity. With his 1981 novel, Midnight’s Children, Salman Rushdie stretched the Nehruvian idea of India that the country was founded on to its breaking point. This essay will argue that Rushdie exposed the fault lines in Nehru’s argument and showed how the Nehruvian ideal eventually dissolves into dust, giving us almost a parody of Nehru’s work. This essay examines the idea of India as proposed by Nehru in his The Discovery of India and how it collapses in Midnight’s Children. It then seeks to place Midnight’s Children within a larger discussion on the idea of India that scholars and theoreticians are still holding today. An understanding of the Indian character and how it has developed is crucial today, now that India is poised to become one of the most powerful countries in the world.

Who is King Lear’s Kent?

Graphene, a New Super Material Robert Menarik, 2012 

Major: Graphic Design and Communications 
 Hometown: Park Ridge, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Laura Huaracha

My topic is on the new nanotechnology material called graphene - a sheet of carbon just one single molecule thick and shaped like a honeycomb. This new form of carbon was discovered in 2004. In October of 2010, the scientists who discovered it won the Nobel Prize in physics. Graphene promises significantly advanced properties in strength, heat transfer, conductivity, and qualities that other matter does not have. Graphene is ten times stronger than steel and more conductive than copper or silver. Scientists all over the globe are discovering new uses for this super material in many fields including energy storage, superfast electronics, super strong adhesives, medicine and transportation. My father is starting a business to develop nanotech applications based on selling this product on the market. He already has a website published,, where customers can purchase this material and services. My goal is to help him out by creating additional logos, icons and designs for the website and for business use. Also I want to help expose people who are unfamiliar with this concept by expressing to them the potential of what nanotechnology and graphene hold for us now and in the future.

The Implicit Curriculum of the Carthage College Social Work Department Desirae Murphy, 2013 
 Major: Social Work 
 Hometown: Savage, Minn.

Michael McShane, Associate Professor of Great Ideas and Philosophy In Shakespeare’s King Lear, one puzzling character is Kent. The paper notes that Kent seems simultaneously to be imprudent, on the one hand, yet very politically astute, on the other hand. His words make him seem imprudent; his deeds prudent. In my paper I show through a literature survey that virtually all critics have accepted the former interpretation—they seek Kent as out of control and foolish. Then, however, the paper goes on to show by means of close reading that in fact Kent only seems to be imprudent and that in fact he deliberately chooses to seem to be less than he actually is. The paper is significant primarily because it corrects a widely-held, radical misapprehension about one of Shakespeare’s best loved characters. Moreover, the paper opens up the possibility (to be explored in a book I am writing) that just as the character Kent contains hidden depths, so do other characters in King Lear.

Rebecca Prankus, 2012 
 Major: Social Work 
 Hometown: Chicago, Ill.

Faculty Sponsor: Danielle Geary and Ruth Fangmeier

The Council on Social Work Education requires a study of implicit curriculum in its re-accreditation standards. The goal of this research project is to characterize the implicit curriculum of the Carthage Social Work Department. Seniors within the department will voluntarily participate in focus groups to define the goals and attributes of the implicit curriculum. The project will also include social work faculty interviews. It is the intention that the information gathered from this study will result in the development of an alumni survey. This survey will incorporate the characteristics specific to the Social Work Department’s implicit curriculum. The anticipated outcome of this project will create an evaluation tool for measuring implicit curriculum. This tool will then be used on an ongoing basis for reporting to the Council on Social Work Education as part of reaccreditation efforts.


Celebration of Scholars

Webcam Imaging of Saturn Jennifer Nicklaus, 2011 

Major: Physics and Geography/Earth Science 
 Hometown: Coralville, Iowa Faculty Sponsor: Doug Arion

Planetary imaging from Earth-bound telescopes has many inherent problems, chief among them the poor seeing caused by Earth’s atmosphere and the planets’ rapid rotation. Even the best telescopes are severely limited by the speed of their shutters and the effects of the changing atmosphere, so to counter these problems observers have begun using webcams to record continuous streams of video through the powerful telescope optics. Several freeware programs can then be used to align and stack individual video frames, producing a better image than possible with any single frame. To investigate the effectiveness of this technique the observational astrophysics class spent three nights at the University of Arizona’s Mt. Bigelow observatory in Arizona using a Flea3 camera mounted on the Kuiper 61-inch telescope. The goals of the Saturn group were to learn how to stack the webcam videos and see what, if any, science could be done with the images produced. The students were able to produce several images of Saturn and gained invaluable experience operating the telescope and webcam setup.

Preliminary Studies to Assess Potential Combinatory Impacts of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds on Developing Xenopus laevis Scolastica Njoroge, 2012 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Nairobi, Kenya Faculty Sponsor: Dan Choffnes

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are known to disrupt or mimic the actions of naturally occurring steroid hormones. Research has been done, using South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) as a model organism, to investigate the effects of various EDCs independently. However, no research has been published to show the effects of these two compounds in combination. The goal of this study was to examine the combinatory effects of two EDCs, 17-estradiol and atrazine on X. laevis development. We hypothesized that the chemicals, when present in combination, will have an additive effect on endocrine disruption and subsequently more severe gonad malformations compared to the chemicals in isolation. Tadpoles were exposed to one of four water treatments: FETAX (control), 1 ppb atrazine, 10 ppb estradiol, and a combination of 1 ppb atrazine and 10 ppb estradiol from fertilization to NF stage 66 which took approximately 3 months. Post-metamorphosis, gross morphology and histology of the gonads were examined as endpoints in this study. There were no gonad malformations observed in the control frogs but various forms of gonad malformations were observed in the frogs treated with EDCs, for example discontinuous and gonads of mixed characteristics. The malformations were not specific to one treatment and there were no significant differences observed between frogs exposed to the chemicals in isolation or combination. However, these data are preliminary and this study needs to be repeated to obtain conclusive results. 24

Americans’ View on Interracial Marriage James Oren, 2012 

Major: Psychology, Sociology 
 Hometown: Algonquin, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

Interracial marriage and other forms of close, personal relationships across racial boundaries have become more frequent and accepted as cultural, structural and legal barriers to interracial intimacy have diminished since the 1960s. What are the attitudes of adults in the United States on interracial relationships? Are Americans “color blind” regarding primary relationships, as many whites believe? The research used the General Social Survey (GSS) to measure views on interracial marriage and close personal relationships. Statistical analysis was done based on responses to this national survey given from 1972 and 2004. The findings support the existence of a cultural ideal for minorities. United States adults are more accepting of Asians than Blacks. Higher levels of educational attainment are associated with less opposition to laws against interracial marriage. Intimacy across racial boundaries differs by region but depends also upon race of respondent. Respondents who felt close to Asians were not accepting of a close relative marrying someone who was black and this discomfort, while variable, is found for other racial pairings. This discomfort persists despite more than half of respondents answering that they felt “warm” or “very warm” towards minorities in general. These findings support the social distance literature that suggests general support for interracial relationships fades when respondents are asked to consider relations in more specific contexts. In efforts to achieve equality this research helps specify obstacles to interracial primary assimilation.

Concerto for Tuba and Orchestra Dr. Mark Petering, Assistant Professor of Music Commissioned by the Foard family and the Underwood Foundation for tubist Aubrey Foard, Concerto for Tuba and Orchestra by Mark Petering reflects the composer’s interest in the intersection of eastern and western cultures as evident in the emphasis on pitched percussion and various contrapuntal techniques, particularly in the outer movements. Baroque performance practices (strong beat, terraced dynamics) are to be observed. More specifically, the concerto utilizes a cinematic perspective, beckoning the listener to reflect on tragedy and then revealing two past moments that led to the first movement entitled Lament. In addition, the tuba can be considered to play the role of sage. This work is a significant step in solidification of the composer’s original voice using contrapuntal textures, creating deep musical strata of multiple melodic lines executed simultaneously. These ideas align me with the music of Igor Stravinsky, Colin McPhee, and Jay-Z. The work has been peer-reviewed by founding IMG Artists Director Edna Landau, who managed some of the world’s foremost soloists including Itzhak Perlman and Hilary Hahn. In a letter dated November 11, 2010, she wrote 18 top conductors in United States and Canada the following:

...New tuba concertos do not surface all that often. If [tubist] Aubrey [Foard] realizes his dream, this one will achieve popularity in the orchestra world. Enclosed is a CD of the concerto which I find to be very accessible and enjoyable...[Your audience] could take pride in the joy of discovering these two fine American artists whose stars are rising. Funding source: Foard family and the Underwood Foundation of southeastern Wisconsin.

Soccer and Media: American Fans and the Global Game Jen Petrosky, 2011 

Major: Communication 
 Hometown: Hanover Park, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jon Bruning

This study is an investigation into the media use of American soccer fans. Soccer has become increasingly significant in American sports culture, as is evident in the rapid growth of youth soccer, as well as viewership statistics for major soccer events. The mainstream sporting press, however, has not reflected this trend. Soccer, both foreign and domestic, receives little coverage in American newspapers, magazines, and televised sports news. Our theory is that the dearth of pertinent news in traditional sources can be explained by several factors: the growth of technology-based resources for sports journalism and information, the technological savvy of young sports consumers, and the development and normalization of global media. In short, technology has globalized sports, and soccer is a case proof of de-localized sports fandom, a likely trend in the digital age. To investigate this issue, we have developed and administered a survey of soccer players at Carthage, and several other colleges, in an attempt to understand how American soccer fans are utilizing technology as a resource in their sports media consumption. We believe that the results of the survey will illustrate technology’s significant role in globalizing sports fandom, and provide a window into the media consumption habits of American fans of the global game.

Anthropogenic Effects on Invasive Species in Six Lakes in Kenosha County Marie Pichler, 2011 

Major: Environmental Science, Geography and Earth Science 
 Hometown: Dousman, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Tracy Gartner

The U.S. Office of Technology reported that between 1906 and 1991 over $97 billion was spent in damages caused by invasive species and since then millions more have been spent. Also, invasives can have negative impacts on the environment by reducing biodiversity. Humans have been known transporters of invasive species, and in the case of aquatic species the movement of boats between waterways has been identified as a major distributor. Runoff from development around lakes is also thought to allow invasives to thrive further. In this study, submerged aquatic vegetation was sampled in six lakes of differing boat traffic and sizes. Plants were sorted, identified, and recorded by percent of sample. In addition to

field sampling, land cover/use analysis was conducted for the sites using GIS to determine if there were correlations between land use types and percent of invasives in the lakes. One non-native species was found in lakes with little or no boat traffic. However, invasive species were most dense at lakes with more boat traffic. The presence of invasives at lakes with less anthropogenic disturbance suggests that species may be spreading “naturally”, but increased densities at lakes with higher boat traffic suggest that humans may be playing a significant role in the dispersal of these plants. In the land use analysis, a strong positive correlation was found between the percent of developed land and the percent of invasive species in the lake. These results are important to help determine how invasive species are being spread and what factors are favoring their growth. Funding source: John J. and Ruth F. Kloss Charitable Trust

Comparison of the Pediment Sculptures of the Olympia Temple of Zeus and the Parthenon With Regards to Context, Style and Mythology Emily Prosch, 2013 

Major: Classics with Emphasis on Classical Archaeology 
 Hometown: Boulder, Colo. Faculty Sponsor: Dan Schowalter

The goal of this project is to compare the pediment sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia with the sculptures of the Parthenon in Athens, especially with regard to their historical context, mythological and stylistic similarities and differences, and their modern display context. This paper brings together previous scholarly information on these installations, along with my own consideration of them. My perspective is informed by class research on these sculpture groups and observation of the remains of both temples and also the sculptures in their respective museums in Greece. After researching and viewing these assemblages, I conclude that although both sets of sculptures were created within a few years of each other, there are significant differences in their style and the mythology they portray. The Parthenon sculptures portray a local and a national myth, while the Olympia sculptures portray mainly local myths. The Parthenon sculptures display more emotion in the figures’ facial expressions, and the more detailed drapery defines their movements; the Olympia sculptures portray emotion only through body language. Finally, the museum displays are important for helping modern viewers imagine how the pediments were originally seen and experienced. Although the Olympia Museum has an impressive display, the new Acropolis Museum has the superior display that takes into account the original context of the sculptures on the Acropolis.


Celebration of Scholars

Noise and Flutter: India and Global Ideological Conflict, 1942-1968 Eric D. Pullin, Assistant Professor of History During the Cold War, India served as an ideological battlefield. The United States and the Soviet Union waged an international propaganda war aimed at winning the “hearts and minds” of non-aligned India to their sides. Meanwhile, India’s propaganda promoted a policy of independence in the Cold War, neither East nor West. Precisely because nonalignment contested the ideological division of the world, the United States spent more money on propaganda in India than any other country during the Cold War. The book I am writing, titled “Noise and Flutter: India and Global Ideological Conflict,” 1942-1968, examines not only the very different ideological global visions propounded by these three nations, but also the intersection of the Cold War and decolonization. The book, based on archival research and oral interviews of historical participants, draws the conclusion that both Indian and superpower propaganda was largely ineffective. However, the book complicates conventional conceptions of “cultural imperialism.” India, though unsuccessful in remaining aloof from the Cold War, nevertheless acted with autonomy. In addition to discussing the book’s main arguments, I also propose to sketch biographical portraits of key historical actors such as Dwight D. Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev, and Jawaharlal Nehru. Furthermore, lesser known figures, the subjects of my oral interviews, also played a significant role in to the global ideological contest. Funding source: This project has received support from the Institute for Humane Studies, the Intercollegiate Studies Institute, the American Institute of Indian Studies, the Harry S Truman Library, the John F. Kennedy Library, and the Lyndon B. Johnson Library.

Ecophysiological Response of Invasive and Native Grasses with Warming Bill Quade, 2011 

Major: Environmental Science, Geography and Earth Science 
 Hometown: Lindenhurst, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Tracy Gartner

Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that buffelgrass can 26

assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes buffelgrass performed better than tanglehead in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decreased stomatal conductance with warmer conditions when they were grown singly; however, the buffelgrass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Funding source: NSF

Themes of the Tao Te Ching Leann Quertinmont, 2012 
 Major: Chemistry 
 Hometown: Carmel, Ind. Faculty Sponsor: James Lochtefeld

As an honors project for East Asian Religion, I analyzed the Tao Te Ching, one of Taoism’s primary religious texts. It consists of a series of short chapters or passages centered on the Tao, and pushing the reader toward understanding it. After reading and analyzing the Tao Te Ching, I determined that six main themes run through the entire text: flexibility, action through inaction, names, interdependence, simplicity, and balance or polarity. Each of these themes applies to the different ways that one is instructed to follow the Tao, and many of the individual passages contain multiple themes. Each of these themes is an important element in the Tao Te Ching’s overall message to its readers; the text’s density means that any passage cited here was selected from many possible examples.

It Takes Two to Tango Gowtami Rajendran , 2014 
 Major: Biology, Spanish 
 Hometown: Normal, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

The purpose of the proposed research is to investigate the Argentine Tango from a cultural platform as opposed to a touristic overview. The Tango is currently the national dance for the country of Argentina, yet it originates from the oppressed lower class. The dance originated in the 1800’s and was heavily influenced by African culture due to the slaves that were brought from African to Argentina during this time. These people created the Tango as an outlet for their wounded spirits similar to the origin of the Flamenco in Spain. The dance further evolved because of an influx of immigration in the 18th and 19th century and the poverty and separation from loved ones experienced by these people. In addition the expression “It takes two to Tango” will be examined from a cultural and historical perspective rather than a technical aspect. The Argentine Tango requires a fusion of the two people dancing to form entity, which represents the fusion of the emotional outlet of the high-class people with that of the low class. This research is significant because it is important to have a cultural understanding of the world rather than a superficial touristic mentality. Overall, this research will show how the Tango rose in society from low class to become a national symbol for Argentina.

Selective Amygdala Lesions Facilitate Acquisition of Signaled Lever-press Avoidance in Wistar Kyoto and Sprague Dawley Rats. David Reis, 2011 

Major: Neuroscience 
 Hometown: Kaukauna, Wis.

Amy Blair, 2011 

Major: Neuroscience and Psychology 
 Hometown: Waukesha, Wis.

Dr. Daniel Miller, Chair, Psychology Department; Director, Neuroscience Program; Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Daniel Miller

Servatius et al. (Behav. Brain Res., 2008) demonstrated that inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats acquired signaled avoidance responding more rapidly and were resistant to extinction compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. To test the role of the amygdala in acquisition of avoidance, we administered 0.2 µl of ibotenic acid (10 µg/µl dose) in the central amygdala and 0.2 µl of NMDA (20 µg/µl dose) in two sites in the basolateral amygdala. Rats received avoidance training as described in Servatius et al., (Behav.Brain Res., 2008). Lesions of the central and basolateral amygdala improved avoidance acquisition in both groups. Specifically, amygdala lesioned WKY rats showed the most rapid acquisition and shortest latency of lever-press avoidance responding across sessions. Sham lesioned SD rats showed the slowest acquisition and longest latency of leverpress avoidance responding across sessions. Amygdala lesioned SD rats and sham lesioned WKY rats showed intermediate levels of acquisition of lever-press avoidance responding across sessions. Balleine and Killcross (TRENDS in Neurosci, 2006) suggested that the basolateral amygdala encodes sensory specific emotional events while the central amygdala encodes general affective significance in parallel with each other. Our findings suggest that disrupting both of these systems allows other brain areas to more quickly establish associations critical for active avoidance responding. Perhaps one of the basic differences that allows WKY rats to acquire avoidance responding more quickly than outbred strains is an inherent decrease in the functioning of both of these amygdalar systems. Funding source: Neuroscience, Carthage College, Kenosha, Wis; Stress &Motivated Behavior Institute(SMBI), Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, UMDNJ, East Orange, NJ; Neurobehavioral Research Lab, VA New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, NJ

Art Deco: Influences in History and Today Collette Reynolds, 2011 
 Major: Graphic Design 
 Hometown: Brookfield, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Laura Huaracha

Art deco is an art movement that came about in the 1920s and 1930s. This movement was influenced by art nouveau, cubism, and Egyptian and Aztec motifs. You can recognize art deco work by its geometric patterning, bold colors, vertical emphasis, and simple, clean, streamlined look. The art deco artists still had a passion for decoration but they wanted to be different from past designers while also showing off the modern machines of that era. Art deco shifted the creation of designs from purely utility and function to be increasingly more focused on the beauty and decorative aesthetic as well. This shift gave prominence to the graphic artist and ultimately my field of study. Between WWI and WWII the graphic artists were responding to the communication needs of the time; popularizing commercial products by producing images to reach as a wide an audience as possible. Today that goal is still the same. Our creations of logos, advertisements, web pages, etc, communicate to a broad audience using the power of visual graphics combined with the power of words to sell the product. From researching this art movement, I have created an original art deco poster that exemplifies this style, having elegance, glamour, functionality, and modernity.

The Redevelopment and Marketing Proposal for Marianna, Arkansas Aquelah Robinson, 2011 
 Major: Marketing 
 Hometown: North Chicago, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

This research project focuses on the redevelopment of Marianna, Arkansas, a small southern town, 50 miles west of Memphis, Tennessee. Marianna, Arkansas is a small city, rich with history and economic potential. However, its current economy is very poor, with the result that young Marianna natives often move away. However, they frequently return to visit their elder family members. Unfortunately, visitors have little to do when visiting Marianna and residents in general have little to do in terms of recreation, dining, shopping, etc. These individuals also know little about Marianna’s history. To encourage greater interest in Marianna other than visiting one’s grandparents, exploratory and descriptive research methods will be used to gather information regarding Marianna’s history and any recreational opportunities it may have. Secondary research will provide statistical information regarding Marianna’s current population, economy, etc. This project hopes to inform a redevelopment plan that could be implemented that provides families with roots in Marianna (residents and nonresidents alike), with more reasons to visit the city.


Celebration of Scholars

Velocity Consulting: What is Involved in Creating a Start-up Company Catherine Rogers, 2012 
 Major: art history and marketing 
 Hometown: Fridley, Minn.

Lauren Baker, 2011 

Major: business management and marketing 
 Hometown: Naperville, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: J.J. Shields and Joe Wall

At Velocity Consulting our mission is for students to gain real life business experience and build an incredible portfolio, by working and running a full service marketing and consulting agency for businesses and non-profits. Velocity’s vision is to become the go-to resource for Kenosha/Racine area businesses and non-profits while becoming THE organization that Carthage will want to boast about. Similar to agencies created at other, larger business schools, Velocity has built a group that can be an asset to the school and community. Unlike other school agencies, Velocity is totally operated by students; all decisions and plans are made and carried out by the students involved. Since September a team of students has been meeting to create a mission, vision, positioning, and personality statement in a professional workshop setting set by Professor Shields. The students created a name and logo, ignoring personal preferences and basing decisions off the personality statement. Velocity offers services in marketing, web and graphic design finance, and accounting. The first client is Professor Joe Wall of the Business Department. Velocity has been hired to market the Clausen Center business school by implementing a student-created marketing plan. Recently the domain name of was purchased and a web site will follow. Currently the talent pool is growing with interested students and account executives being chosen to handle new clients.

Risk Arbitrage Trading? Closed-End Funds Austin Rombalski, 2011 
 Major: Finance, Mathematics 
 Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall

There are many participants in the global capital markets. One of these key participants is trading firms where their business profits are solely earned from buying and selling securities. Arbitrage is one type of trading strategy these firms might execute. I chose to look at a specific type of arbitrage trade, consisting of buying or selling closed end funds and hedging them with their underlying holdings. The selection, the Gabelli Equity Trust [Ticker: GAB], was selected due to the amount of volatility the fund possessed. It is typical for closed end funds to trade at either a discount or a premium to their net asset value (NAV). The NAV is the total value of the underlying securities in the closed-end fund. 28

These funds tend to trade at an average discount or premium over many years. In the case of the Gabelli Equity Trust, the average trend over the last 5 years was a 2.625% premium above the NAV. On September 30, 2005 I noticed that the fund began trading at a discount and this provided an unusual window of opportunity to invest in a fund that provided frequent opportunities for profit. Using a hypothetical $150,000 account utilizing portfolio margin, the period between September 30, 2005 and December 18, 2007 provided a total return on investment of 85.63%.

Rwandan Ruins Bring Women’s Rebirth Savannah Sawle, 2011 

Major: Sociology 
 Hometown: Rushford, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

Many nations have endured civil wars before, but few compare to the tremendous and rapid loss of the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. A majority of the genocide survivors were women and of the few male survivors many were soon after imprisoned, leaving women—many of whom were victims of rape and murdered family—left to clean up the bloodshed in Rwanda. Today women make up over half the parliamentary seats in Rwanda—a gender inequality we still struggle with today in the states. This case study of women in Rwanda provides insight into how gender is negotiated as a social resource in a lower technology society with a history of marginalization of the contributions of women to leadership. By examining the progress and recovery of women in Rwanda through a sociological lens, using qualitative research we are able to better understand the importance and strength of women in so called “developing” countries.

Should Carthage Develop Spanish Language Classes for Heritage Speakers of Spanish? Miguel Santos, 2011 

Major: Education, M.Ed. 
 Hometown: Valdeobispo, Spain Faculty Sponsor: Edward Montanaro

Heritage speakers learn Spanish during childhood by communicating with immediate family members. They continue to use Spanish in adulthood as the primary language of communication with one or more family members. They are able to communicate effortlessly in Spanish and their syntax is authentically Spanish. However, many Heritage speakers possess only limited literacy skills in Spanish. For this reason they are routinely misidentified as beginning Spanish learners by the literacybased foreign language placement test given upon enrollment and are placed in classes well below the level of their spoken proficiency. Underestimation of their level of Spanish competence and consequent inappropriate placement in unchallenging classes, often discourages Heritage speakers from continuing beyond the minimal requirements for graduation into classes where they might development of full literacy. Under placement of Heritage speakers complicates instruction in beginning classes, intimidates true beginning language learners in those classes and usually does not

lead to the development of literacy skills. Consequently, Heritage speakers are underrepresented advanced Spanish classes where their superior language proficiency would elevate the level of discourse and help non-Heritage speakers improve their proficiency. This is a nearly universal problem at colleges and universities in the United States and for that reason an extensive research literature exists on this issue. A critical review of this literature and individual interviews with Heritage speakers at Carthage are used to explore the need for a Heritage speaker class. This research concludes that Carthage should implement a Heritage Spanish class and discusses development of appropriate curricular content.

Financial Analysis and Valuation of Wal-Mart Doug Schranck, 2012 

Major: Finance and Management 
 Hometown: Alton, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: David Brunn

Financial Statements can tell you a lot about a company. I was part of a team that analyzed the financial statements presented by Wal-Mart with a focus on the years of 2006 through 2010. We examined Wal-Mart’s three different segments: Wal-Mart U.S., Wal-Mart International, and Sam’s Club. With the use of the statements, we not only gathered data to judge the performance of these segments over the recent past, but also made projections about where each of the segments is headed in the future. Wal-Mart as a company has seen great success and established itself very well in the United States. It will likely continue to grow domestically, but where a great deal of expansion will be seen is in the international sector. Wal-Mart predicts that it is capable of being just as big and successful in foreign nations as it has come to be in the United States. The segment that is not expected to experience a great deal of further growth and success is Sam’s Club. It has not seen a lot of success in the most recent years, and it is predicted that it may eventually be phased out. Using one of the valuation methods we learned, we came to believe the intrinsic value of a share of Wal-Mart stock to be at about $70; at the time of our report, Wal-Mart’s stock was trading at about $55 per share. Therefore, we considered it to be a stock worth buying.

Safety First. Which Way to Go?: Effectiveness of Abstinence—Only Education Compared to Multiple Options Including Contraception Use for Reducing Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Jessa Schroeder, 2011 

Major: Sociology 
 Hometown: Mundelein, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

Sex education in public schools has been a controversial topic for many years. Each generation has a slightly different take on the subject. In contemporary society, abstinence programs and education are more prevalent. Most schools in the U.S. teach some sort of sex education program, but what is actually being taught in those programs varies. Some advocates and scholars indicate the problem is not whether youth are being taught about abstinence, but rather opportunity costs from not being taught about other birth control options and issues such as contraception, birth control and sexual orientation. Teachers also have agency in whether they want their students to be taught about abstinence or contraception use. Through an overview of past studies, this research investigates whether the teaching of multiple options, including contraception use, is more effective than teaching abstinence only in reducing pregnancy rates and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Research is mixed in conclusions about effects on pregnancy and the spread of STDs.

Marketing an Eight-Day Tour of China to American Tourists Jessica Schultz, 2011 

Major: Marketing and Asian Studies 
 Hometown: Franklin, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Professor Jan Owens

This project focuses on marketing a trip to the Harbin Ice and Snow Festival in Harbin, China to American tourists, to determine the best way to increase tourism to this area of China during the month of January. The target market will consist of American tourists who enjoy international travel, have a substantial amount of disposable income, and enjoy traveling to areas with cold climate. The research done for this project will be both exploratory and descriptive in nature. The exploratory studies will focus on understanding consumer attitudes and behaviors towards travel to China. Descriptive research will take place through analysis of quantitative survey data to better understand the preferences and purchase behavior of the target group. To accomplish this, both primary and secondary data will be used. Primary data will come from surveys being sent out to potential consumers and secondary data will be found online and in various academic journals and publications. Overall, this project aims to identify the key considerations of American tourists when planning their vacation destination and the key priorities which help them make a decision. Using the results of this study, managerial recommendations will be suggested for an effective marketing strategy to promote the Harbin Ice and Snow Festival to American tourists. 29

Celebration of Scholars

Fluid Dynamics of the Orion Service Module Downstream Propellant Tanks Kimberly Schultz, 2012 
 Major: Physics 
 Hometown: Genoa City, Ill.

Kevin Crosby, Chair, Division of the Natural Sciences; Associate Professor of Physics, Astronomy and Computer Science Faculty Sponsor: Kevin Crosby

Fluid slosh is the periodic motion of a fluid inside a container due to external forces such as vehicle acceleration. This motion is potentially dangerous on space missions because the fluid’s momentum can destabilize the spacecraft. Therefore, an understanding of how fluid in the fuel tanks reacts to different gravity environments is critical. The Orion Service Module (SM), designed to store propellants and life support fluids for the Orion spacecraft, is a component of NASA’s Constellation Program. Through the NASA Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program, we designed, built, and conducted an experiment on fluid slosh in a scale model of an SM propellant tank aboard a microgravity aircraft. Resonant slosh frequencies were measured as a function of tank fill-fraction at several values of simulated gravity including zero-g. Our computational and theoretical calculations of resonant slosh frequencies were in reasonable agreement with experimental results. Further, we established free-surface configurations (FSC) in zero gravity of both the model and full scale Orion SM tanks using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Finally, we measured formation times of the zero-g FSC. The FSC is the shape that the fluid takes in the absence of gravity. We demonstrated a novel FSC for the Orion SM. Our results have prompted consideration of how propellant mass gauging is accomplished in the tank. Funding source: Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium

Celestial Alignment of Kemper Center Telescope Justin Sebens, 2011 

Major: Physics 
 Hometown: Seymour, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Temple Burling, Douglas Arion

The observatory dome at the Kemper Center has recently been refurbished and Carthage College is mounting an 11-inch Schmidt Cassegrain telescope. This thesis will describe the work and process involved in polar aligning the mount in the new facility. The precision and accuracy of the telescopes mount plays a very important role in the accuracy of the telescope. It also plays an important role in the ability to make accurate astronomical measurements. The mount will be aligned using a process called 30

telescope drift alignment. This involves both the geometry and the optics of the telescope to determine the minimum distance an object can move in the sky for us as for the observer to not notice a change over a ten minute exposure. The mount will then be moved using both a computer and hand controller to track an object in space.

Meeting the Other: The Mbya Guaraní and Their Fight for Survival Penny Seymoure, Associate Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience My first encounter with the indigenous Mbya people was in the Argentine rainforest in 2003. What struck me immediately was the overwhelming abject poverty surrounding their lives, along with the immediate questions of who they were, why they were in this condition, and what possible outcomes there were to rectifying the situation. My research focuses on four fundamental issues that are at the heart of survival for the Mbya. (1) Land shortages, land rights, and land conflicts with an emphasis on the Yaboti Biosphere, the Valley of the Cuña Pirú, and Yryapú, along with international and national documents that support indigenous rights. (2) Tourism development in Fortin Mbororé, Yryapú, Kaagui Porá, and the Iguazú National Park. (3) Bilingual education in Mbya communities and the Proyecto MATE indigenous training school. (4) Health, malnutrition and undernutrition, and herbal medicines and treatments. Over seven trips to Argentina, including a semester sabbatical, I have conducted multiple field interviews in Spanish with Mbya peoples from three communities, provincial and federal government officials, tourism agencies and other individuals who interact with the Mbya. The ongoing loss of Mbya land has led to internal displacement for some Mbya communities with resulting loss of cultural traditions, changes in dietary sources, physical and psychological disorders, and an increased dependence on tourism dollars. Funding source: Bradley Foundation Travel Grants in 2007 and 2008

Collaboration: The Poetic Dialogue Project Beth Shadur, Adjunct Faculty, Art The Poetic Dialogue Project is an ongoing project which creates a collaboration between renowned visual artists and poets from across the United States to dialogue and create new works of art for exhibition. The Poetic Dialogue Project was inspired by the collaborative work that I have undertaken for six years with poet Lois Roma-Deeley, after we met at the Ragdale Foundation. It is intended to create new parameters and further the creative process, allowing artists and poets to find new forms and inspirations for their work. I paired visual artists with poets based on the resonance of their work; each pair was asked to collaborate on the creation of a new work integrating text and visual images. In the end, it has successfully encouraged cross-disciplinary investigation of the creative process in many forms, and has been featured in three national exhibitions. The most recent exhibition premiered at the Chicago Cultural Center and traveled nationally for a year.

Re-creating the Past: Using Crime Scene Investigation in the Modern Language Classroom Leslie Sink, 2011 

Major: Modern Languages 
 Hometown: Burnsville, Minn.

Audrey Dehdouh, 2011 
 Major: Education, M.Ed. 
 Hometown: Orléans, France

Faculty Sponsor: Edward Montanaro

Crime scene investigation provides an engaging communicative context for teaching foreign language by capitalizing on the popularity of criminal investigation television programming. Evaluation of a crime scene and reconstruction of the events leading up to the crime oblige student investigators to use the target language to process information and communicate hypotheses and conclusions while attending to form—in this case forms of the past tense—as well as content. Recorded interrogations, video communications, text messages received in real time and information retrieved from Facebook appeal to student communication preferences while requiring them to process information and extract meaning in the target language. Evidentiary materials provide linguistically correct models of grammatical structures and authentic syntax. In addition to providing an engaging approach to language instruction, this project explores the use of wireless devices that are commonly, though ineffectively, banned from the classroom as an integral part of classroom activity. The purpose of this aspect of the research was to test the feasibility of placing wireless technology normally viewed as a competitor for student attention at the center of a task-based activity in order to co-opt, and thereby neutralize, the disruptive aspect of this ubiquitous technology.

Taxidermy Fawn Project—“Ouchy” Jessica Smith, 2011 

Major: Theatre, English with a Creative Writing Emphasis
 Hometown: Marengo, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Martin McClendon

In the summer of 2009, Carthage commissioned a translation of the Hindi play, “One Day in the Season of Rain” by Mohan Rakesh. This technically demanding show had an entire scene dedicated to nursing a dying fawn back to health. The believability of the deer was incredibly important. Not only are the characters meant to care about its well-being, but its presence is analogous to the main character and foreshadows her demise. In order to create a realistic deer, I first decided to build an Axis fawn. Axis deer are native to India and look very similar to whitetail deer. This was ideal because it was the perfect marriage of accuracy and familiarity. The audience would recognize the animal onstage as a deer and it would be geographically correct. The fawn was

constructed with a chicken wire frame, PVC pipe bones, vinyl tubing joints, thermoplastic hooves, taxidermy pieces for the head, eyes, and ears. Its exterior was sprayed-painted felt and rabbit pelt. The deer was ultimately successful in its realism. When the actors moved it subtly the deer seemed to take on life. The fawn was a crucial area of design in maintaining the integrity of the script. I wanted to support his poetic realism through the construction of an accurate property that enhanced the scene and the show as a whole. Funding source: Carthage Theatre Department

Effectiveness of Teaching Listening Strategies in the Development of Listening Skill in a Foreign Language Ruth Solarte, 2011 

Major: Education, M.Ed. 
 Hometown: Bogotá, Colombia Faculty Sponsor: Edward Montanaro

The purpose of this study was to test whether explicit instruction in listening strategies contributes to the development of Spanish language listening comprehension in native speakers of English. A control group experimental design was used in which one class of first year college students in an elementary Spanish class received instruction in six listening strategies and another class taught by the same professor did not. The six strategies included listening for the main idea, listening for specific details pertinent to the main idea, listening to predict, key word detection, distinguishing homonyms from content, and listening to make inferences. Pre and post treatment tests were given to both groups. Both treatment and non-treatment groups showed improved listening comprehension, however, the average improvement in test score was substantially higher in the treatment group (13.5% for the treatment group versus 4.5% for the non-treatment group). This study is consistent with findings of earlier researchers in other languages and, therefore, points toward the possibility that explicit instruction in listening strategies may be generally beneficial in second language acquisition.

Evolutionary Relationships Among a Sample of Nyctimene Fruit Bats from Papua New Guinea Megan Sprovach, 2012 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Wadsworth, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Deanna Byrnes

The evolutionary relationships among populations and species in the Nyctimene genus of fruit bats in Papua New Guinea is not well understood. Mitochondrial DNA samples of Nyctimene fruit bats were obtained from the Nakanai Mountains of Papua New Guinea. While the majority of these samples were obtained from bats identified as N. vizcaccia, the appearances of a number of these bats calls their true identity into question. The purpose of this study is to use DNA sequencing techniques to examine the genetic diversity of this sample of fruit bats to help us understand the evolution and diversification of the genus. We used polymerase chain reaction 31

Celebration of Scholars

(PCR), agarose gel electrophoresis, and automated sequencing to compare the cytochrome b region of the mtDNA in each sample. This study is still in progress, and additional samples have yet to be amplified and sequenced. Our current success has been with primers designed for use with Dobsonia fruit bats, however, some sequencing reactions were of poor quality. Our next step is to design a new set of primers specifically for use with Nyctimene fruit bats that might allow us to obtain stronger sequence reads from some of the more difficult samples.

Figurative and Abstract Art: Honoring the Difference in Acrylic Painting Sarah Starling, 2011 

The Moving Image: How Technology is Changing Screen-Based Media Raymond Sturges, 2012 
 Major: CDM 
 Hometown: Algonquin, Ill.

Paul Chilsen, Chair, Communication and Digital Media; Associate Professor of Communication and Digital Media 

Major: Studio Art 
 Hometown: Lake in the Hills, Ill.

Diane Levesque, Director, H. F. Johnson Art Gallery; Assistant Professor of Art Faculty Sponsor: Diane Levesque

Abstract art and figurative or narrative art stand at opposite ends of the spectrum of artistic creativity and experience. With advances in acrylic painting techniques, the boundary between these two forms of imagery is easily blurred, which reinforces the common misperception of the differences between them. Techniques that replicate the appearance of oil paint and watercolor can be incorporated with mixed media, increasing the range of visual language in acrylic painting. While many artists are able to incorporate a range of stylistic approaches that can function within various modes of expression, the general viewer continues to experience an inability to distinguish a figurative painting from an abstract painting. Demonstrating the figurative and the abstract approaches side by side can provide a tangible means of understanding these different artistic modes. Through the display of finished works of figurative and abstract paintings, we will have the opportunity to distinguish the unique stylistic qualities that make them separate in content, yet similar in form. This display will be supplemented by a live demonstration of figurative painting techniques and abstract painting techniques. By observing both the artistic processes and finished works, viewers will gain an immediate and visceral understanding of these two approaches to creating imagery in art. The ability to ask questions as two artists work side by side will solidify this event as a valuable learning experience in both the practice of contemporary art and the specificity of two significant genres in the acrylic paint medium.

Motion media is forever expanding into something we have never imagined was possible. I have observed throughout my entire life the early years of motion media evolving from one medium to another, and adapted to the growing changes all around us. With these changes in mind I have developed a new take on the current state, as well as innovation towards the next step of motion media. I was introduced to the idea of motion media, and quickly caught on. I was able to use my creative mind to create what I imagined from a dream, and even simple conversations with my fellow peers, and blow it up on the big screen to be viewed by an audience of students and professors as well as general audiences who were generally curious. With working on many short films in the past my feedback from the audience noted my ability to communicate a message that everyone could understand. My work consists of my senior thesis film “Wake up, Gordon!” a short film that my partner Andrew Bass and I created from scratch and followed through to the end. I would like to showcase the experience of creating such a film from the beginning to the very end with a visual guided tour and the steps to create such a project and to finish it.

Gender Difference in Body Image Among Students at Carthage College Kathryn Szczesniak, 2012 
 Major: Exercise Sports Science 
 Hometown: Lindenhurst, Ill.

Katie Nessling, 2011 

Major: Exercise Sports Science 
 Hometown: Rosemont, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Cynthia Allen

We surveyed 122 students (48.3% female) enrolled general requirement classes. There was no gender difference on satisfaction with current body shape (scale 1-5, 5=extremely dissatisfied, males M= 2.43 and females M= 2.75). When reviewing the data for perceived attractiveness to others (scale 1- 10, 10=most attractive), we found that there was a significant difference between males and females. Males rated themselves higher (M=7.4, SD=1.54) than 32

females (M=6.5, SD=1.4; t(112) =-3.3, p=.001). For females, there was a significant correlation between BMI and insecurity about body shape (r = .290, p = .027). The higher the BMI, the more frequently they felt insecure about their body. That was not a significant correlation for men (r = .200, p = .140). There was a moderate inverse correlation between BMI and perceived attractiveness to others for both males (r = -.459, p = .000) and females (r = -.302, p = .021). This indicates that as their BMI increases, their perceived attractiveness to others decreases. Overall, the higher the subjects’ BMI, the more body image issues they seem to have. Our preliminary analysis leads us to believe that there are gender differences in respect to body image. We will continue to analyze our data with respect to pressure to look a certain way; body shape being a disadvantage socially, athletically, and sexually.

Substances that Calm the Spirit Nick Tackes, 2013

Major: Great Ideas, Religious Studies
 Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jim Lochtefeld

This presentation is a brief overview of how traditional Chinese medicine works. I will outline the aspects of Qi, organs, meridians, and an example set of herbs used for particular diagnoses within traditional Chinese medicine. My presentation offers a unique insight into how traditional Chinese medicine stacks up to Western medicine. By explaining the medical benefits of a select group of herbs in Western terms I offer a means by which even an untrained eye can see the practical and real benefits of traditional Chinese herbal therapy. My primary method of research was looking through the Materia Medica of Chinese medicine in order to extract the information of the various herbs used in my presentation. I used a second online source for confirmation of the accuracy of this information. Outside of the herbs, my research was done at an acupuncture clinic at which I intern (Roots and Legends in Racine, Wis.). I found that the information I have gathered reveals a very practical use for Chinese herbs, and that when the information is prepared and displayed in a clear manner, it does not take an expert to see traditional Chinese medicine as a legitimate healing practice.

Theatrical Makeup Design Kristyn Taggart, 2011 

Major: Musical Theater Performace 
 Hometown: La Crosse, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Kim Instenes

Richard Brinsely Sheridan wrote the School For Scandal in 1777. Surpassing its time the play still remains a highly studied pre-modern work. Being set in the 18th century research on the period was a priority, especially understanding the “painted face” concept, which defined the period. With research its reasoning’s became more clear. The white face was a base of talcum power that women would apply to look more angelic and also to cover their scars from smallpox that had broken out in the century and the one before. They then began to focus on the rest of their features, rolling a ball of wax and placing it in the cavity of there cheek to make it look like they had teeth (without proper dental hygiene most people in this century no longer had teeth) which they would then trace in rouge

to give there cheeks a more lively color. As time went by women had started to elaborate on these ideas of the perfectly “painted” face. One very odd trend was to remove the eyebrows and in there place use grey rats hair, because hair pigment in this period was very dull and grey was a symbol of wisdom and age, women desired the “grayed” look. Soon men of higher classes picked up this trend and the “painted face” became a separation of class.

Non-Alignment: The Third Front in the Cold War Dylan Tate, 2011 

Major: History and Classics 
 Hometown: Carbondale, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Eric Pullin

The Cold War was often fought through proxies representing the respective ideologies of the United States and the Soviet Union. However, several non-aligned nations attempted to reject Cold War division of the world into West and East. The United States and the Soviet Union often mistrusted these nations, because non-aligned nations rejected the stark choice between West and East. It was only through a policy of non-alignment, however, that many countries not affiliated with the East or West were able to sustain international political relevance and avoid being used as pawns by the superpowers. This project investigates one of the three principle figures in the non-alignment movement, Egypt’s Gamel Abdel Nasser. Nasser used non-alignment as a means of balance the United States and the Soviet Union, and also as a device for rallying Pan-Arab nationalism. Using Foreign Relations of the United States documents and actual speeches, this study will show that Nasser offers an excellent case study of not only the workings and goals of non-alignment as an international movement in the Cold War, but also how non-alignment could serve more immediate national goals.

The Social Ecology of Congregations Project Wayne L. Thompson, Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice The Social Ecology of Congregations Project collects questionnaire, interview and participant observation data from religious congregations. The focus is on lay and professional leadership in a broad array of congregations, mostly from Southeast Wisconsin and Northern Illinois. The project provides planning reports for congregations upon request. Some specialty studies have been conducted for congregations and groups of congregations, including a survey of Catholic parishes and schools in two communities that collected nearly 6,000 questionnaires. Since 2006 the Social Ecology of Congregations Project has collected data from about 120 congregations that is useful both for practical planning reports and scholarly research. The central scholarly issues addressed by this study include what congregations do and with which partners. Virtually every aspect of this research has been completed with student-faculty collaboration. How do laity and professional staff build identity and a sense of mission in congregations? Religion is rooted in the search for transcendence. Building faith communities means reconstructing identities around 33

Celebration of Scholars

shared self-concepts and a common mission or core vision. Are congregations more like arts organizations with weekly worship as the main performance or more like social service organizations offering interpersonal support, life coaching, social networking and opportunities for civic engagement? These issues are addressed in the Social Ecology of Congregations Project. Visit www.carthage. edu/congregations

Power of Calligraphic Words Amanda Volkmann, 2011 
 Major: Graphic Design 
 Hometown: Des Plaines, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

The ancient art of Chinese calligraphy started as an expressive art, continued as the primary form of communication for China, and is used today as a trendy, symbolic art. In today’s modern art world, the art of Chinese calligraphy is used for its visual aesthetic more than its intended meanings. While many choose to use the calligraphic forms for their aesthetic and intended meaning, often it is not confirmed what is written. Due to the complexity and ability to still communicate the intended thought, westerners often ignore slight discrepancies in the written characters. My work is unique for combining the topic of Chinese writing with the topic of communication. In this research I analyze Chinese calligraphy communicatively and visually to see what is expressed and how. The research explains how Chinese calligraphy was used, artistically, until the early 1900s, versus how it is used today. It explores the signifier versus the signified and how space is used to express the written character.

Disney: The Adult Vacation Jamie Waelti, 2011 

Major: Marketing 
 Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

I have decided to focus my thesis on marketing to an older adult market, with no children, to the Disney World Resort, EPCOT. Since Disney is seen as a place for children, I want to bring back adults to their childhood. This is important because these adults have more vacation time, more money to spend, and should have just as much fun as a family with children. This project seeks to identify factors that would encourage older adults with no children to frequent Disney parks, especially EPCOT. This study will show where the adults typically vacation and how to attract this market to Disney. The study will rely on primary and secondary data. The one-on-one interviews and descriptive surveys will help identify the specific market that would be interested in this vacation, as well as what types of activities adults like. This will also be helpful in finding out if the customer even thinks about Disney since they have no children. The literary reviews will help specify background information, and information about Disney that wouldn’t be accessible otherwise. The results of these studies will provide insights to attract a new market, to a highly vacationed area. This market is one with money, time, and many other variables that would be a good investment to Disney and hopefully increase their business to create a successful new market to adults with no children. 34

Financial Analysis of Briggs and Stratton Tony Walek, 2012 

Major: Economics, Finance 
 Hometown: Woodbury, Minn.

Josh Khoshbin, 2011 

Major: Accounting, Finance 
 Hometown: Hawthorn Woods, Ill.

Zak Khoshbin, 2012 

Major: Accounting, Finance 
 Hometown: Hawthorn Woods, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Joe Wall

Based on guidelines provided by the Chartered Financial Analysts Society (CFA) we have formed an investment thesis on Briggs and Stratton Corporation (NYSE: BGG). Briggs and Stratton is an international company based out of Milwaukee, Wis. With approximately 80% market share, Briggs and Stratton is largest producer of small gas engines and power products in the world. We are issuing a BUY rating for Briggs and Stratton with a price target of $25. This price target is based on values derived from valuation models including discounted cash flow, price to next twelve months EPS, and enterprise value to EBITDA. In order to create these models several assumptions were formed about the future of the company. These assumptions include profit margins of 3-4%, sales growth of 4-5% year over year and stable pension costs. We performed a sensitivity analysis in order to determine the effect of these variables on our target price. To support our models we present a financial analysis of Briggs and Stratton, and discuss key investment drivers such as emerging market expansion, U.S. market recovery and higher margin business opportunities. In addition to these investment drivers, the lean company structure Briggs and Stratton has created as a result of the recent recession will allow them to capitalize on future opportunities with higher operating margins than in the past. As the global economies continue to recover, Briggs is in a prime position to generate quality earnings.

A Discourse-pragmatic Functional Study of the Discourse Markers Japanese ano and Chinese nage Yan Wang, Assistant Professor of Modern Languages An expanding body of research in linguistics deals with discourse markers (DMs), the expressions that have emotive rather than referential functions (Holker, 1991). Taking a discourse-pragmatic approach, this study examines the usages of the Japanese DM ano and the Mandarin Chinese DM nage in conversational discourse, both of which are derived from demonstrative adjectives, equivalent to “that” in English. Through investigating 302 cases of ano and 252 cases of nage in natural conversations, this study argues, neither ano nor nage merely serves as a verbal “filler” in utterances; rather, each carries similar multiple discourse-pragmatic functions in various social contexts, which include 1) to introduce a new referent/topic in a highlighted while less imposing way; 2) to mitigate various Face Threatening Acts; and, 3) to indicate the speaker’s hesitancy in sharing certain personal information. This study claims that the DMs ano and nage are politeness markers (Brown and Levinson, 1987) as well as modality markers (Maynard, 1992), and such usages are derived from their original forms as demonstrative adjectives, which reflect a close relationship between physical and psychological distance.

The Synthesis of a Rhodamine B Derivative to Determine Enantiomeric Composition Jeff Weihe, 2012 

Major: Chemistry 
Hometown: St. Charles, Ill.

Grant Seiler, 2013 

Major: Chemistry 
Hometown: Greenfield, Wis.

Faculty Sponsor: C.J. Stephenson

The development of a new fluorescent chiral molecule for potential enantiomeric sensing applications is described herein. The new molecule is based off a readily available xanthene dye, rhodamine. Rhodamine has the ability to form an open fluorescent species in acidic conditions and form a close/ nonfluorescent species in basic conditions. This ability to change states leads to the possibility of using rhodamine as a molecular probe for sensing of chiral molecules.

Madame X: New Woman or the Embodiment of Bourgeois Decadence? Ryann Ward, 2011 

Major: Art history 
 Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Anne Cassidy

Madame X, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is viewed by contemporary audiences as John Singer Sargent’s greatest work. However, it received exceedingly negative responses from audiences and critics alike when it debuted at the Paris salon in 1884. My thesis is that Madame X was the embodiment of Victorian society’s decadence; flaunting the selfindulgence of those giving the painting its negative criticism. This is an important distinction because Madame X has always been seen as symbolic of the woman who emerged at the turn of the century, which left this work isolated and far removed from Sargent’s other works, which seem to follow Victorian conventions more closely. My theory places Madame X directly in the heart of Victorian society, serving as a representation of the self-indulgent nature of bourgeois culture. I began my research by collecting biographical information on Sargent and learning about Victorian Paris. Also, texts such as Strapless: Madame X and the Fall of John Singer Sargent by Deborah Davis, Paris Babylon: Grandeur, Decadence, and Revolution by Rupert Christiansen, as well as newspapers, journals, and gossip columns of the time gave me valuable information and helped enrich my argument.


Celebration of Scholars

Investigation of Potential DNA Replication Regulators in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Ryan Haaksma, 2012 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Frankfort, Ill.

Michelle Pelka, 2011 

Major: Biology and Neuroscience 
 Hometown: Elgin, Ill.

Short Fiction “October Leaves” Dex Westrum, Adjunct Faculty, Heritage Program

“October Leaves” is a father-son story of frustrated dreams. The father dreamed of playing golf at the highest level and has had to settle for club pro jobs, the responsibilities of which he tries to avoid by playing in local tournaments and ultimately has disagreements with club members and moves on in search of the perfect situation. The son would like to be a club pro but knows that his golf game will never mature to the point of earning the respect of club members and securing a top level job. These frustrations follow the father into dementia and the son into adulthood.

Distribution and Dispersal of Invasive Terrestrial Plants in Kenosha County Adam Van Huis, 2012 
 Major: Biology 
Hometown: Winneconne, Wis.

Caley Weidacher, 2012 
 Major: Biology 
 Hometown: Lombard, Ill.

Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason

Neisseria gonorrhoeae(GC), the causative agent of gonorrhea, is a rapidly spreading bacteria that has resistance to many antibiotics. The purpose of our research is to examine gonococcal DNA replication and possibly determine a new target for inhibiting the growth of GC, by looking at the hda and 842 genes. There has been research done with Escherichia coli that shows that the hda protein regulates initiation of DNA replication. Due to the 842 gene being cotranscribed with hda, 842 may also have an effect on replication of GC. The 842 gene has no known homology to any other gene in the Genbank database. Both of these genes are being cloned into two separate plasmids to try to create a knockout of each. The 842 gene has been successfully cloned and the hda gene cloning is being verified. Once the genes are cloned and verified, an antibiotic resistant marker will be inserted into the middle of each gene. These plasmids with the mutated hda and 842 genes will then be transformed into a strain of GC. After transformation the mutated hda and 842 genes will be incorporated into the genomic DNA due to their beneficial antibacterial resistance markers. These will knockout the wild type copy of each gene. The effects of these mutations on growth rate and DNA replication in GC will then be examined.


Morgan Wiechmann, 2012 

Major: Environmental Science, Geography and Earth Science 
 Hometown: Sleepy Hollow, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Tracy Gartner, Scott Hegrenes

In Wisconsin the introduction of invasive plant species has generated large concern. The purpose of this study was to implement a long term monitoring program of invasive terrestrial plants in Kenosha County, Wisconsin. The primary goals of this study was to determine if invasive species reduce biodiversity, observe seed dispersal patterns in relation to where an abundance of invasive species are found, and determine if lake recreational activity decreases terrestrial plant diversity. Data for this project was collected along four different lake site river outlets. At each lake site twelve 1m² quadrats were sampled. In each quadrat a stem count and percent cover of terrestrial plants was recorded, as well as many abiotic factors. The base-line data collected, part of a long term monitoring program supported three out of four hypotheses. For instance, areas where exotic plant abundance is low, species richness and plant diversity was higher, exotic plants with small and many seeds were more abundant near the river banks and invasive species use the waterway as a method of transportation to disperse their seeds to new areas. Also, increasing lake recreational activity increased terrestrial plant diversity. The conclusions made in this study help predict where an abundance of invasive plant species may be found in Kenosha County, Wisconsin. Future goals of this project include applying the best management practices to these areas to eradicate the exotic species. Funding source: The John J. and Ruth F. Kloss Charitable Trust Fund

The Arch of Constantine: An Integrative Book Amelia Windt, 2012 

Major: Art History, Music History 
 Hometown: Calumet City, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Carolyn Hudson

In addition to the research this paper entailed, the requirements of this endeavor for Art Survey II went far beyond a twenty-five-page paper. The objective was twofold: first, to research a historically renowned artwork and employ the expertise of another academic field; second, to compile all findings into one cohesive and aesthetically pleasing book, complete with text and images. Initially consulting scholarly sources, I delved deeper upon learning the arch’s composition and enormous history. I thus concluded: “Through its conglomeration of victory, unification, and progress, Constantine’s Triumphal Arch serves a threefold purpose, both artistically and historically: reflection on the past, celebration of the present, and anticipation of the future.” The challenge was to create a “coffee table” book that informed, while logically following the rules of publication. This arch proved an ideal subject for a book with myriad detail images that flow well together, consequently uniting in a larger work. Once the initial research was complete with Professor Christine Renaud’s help, the task turned to the collation of the information into a paper, then finally, with Professor Carolyn Hudson’s assistance, the arrangement of everything into a book. The book went through two editions before it was finalized and printed. An integrative project involving two academic disciplines and a keen sense for publication make this project not only demanding but also essentially rewarding upon completion.

Teacher Resource Book: “Happy Birthday, Dear Author!” Jackie Witter-Easley, Chair, Education Department; Assistant Professor of Education This work of scholarship stems from my work as a classroom teacher and assistant children’s librarian. In each setting, I created author programs for beginning readers and witnessed the powerful connection they made to children literature. They developed their desire to read because they were immersed in creative literacy experiences through these author studies. Therefore, I have written a book about my author program. Its purpose is to provide teachers and school librarians with the tools necessary to create their own author studies. It describes the techniques for developing and implementing a monthly author program for children in first, second, and third grades by centering on each author’s birthday. A wide variety of games, activities, and literacy opportunities are described for each author. This book is a unique resource because it provides teachers and librarians with a comprehensive scope of author studies, including the details of designing the program and implementing the activities for celebrating their birthdays. Each author’s section contains: biographical information, book lists, and activities that can be

integrated throughout the month. I have conducted research regarding the selection of quality children’s picture book authors and their biographical information. I’ve scanned resources to create activities that reflect the author’s books. I have tapped into my own creativity to develop unique activities. Through writing this book, I have developed literacy activities that can be implemented into classrooms and libraries. I have channeled my creativity into an integrated author program that will empower children to become lifelong members of society’s literacy community.

Childhood Obesity in the Greater Chicagoland Area: A Geographical and Social Analysis Mei Yan Yuen, 2011 

Major: Geography and Sociology 
 Hometown: Racine, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

Obesity in young children is becoming a problem and growing rapidly. This research will examine childhood obesity in greater Chicagoland, which includes Cook and Lake County, Illinois, and Kenosha County, Wisconsin. There have been significant changes to the lifestyles and diets of all age groups, most importantly children. Childhood obesity is a factor that can be tied to many other diseases later in life such as diabetes, heart disease and others. This study will explore how childhood obesity rates have been increasing and how socioeconomic status has contributed to this growth. I will analyze data including demographics of the people within the Chicagoland study area and apply social theories to identify why a certain area may be more affected by unhealthy weight in their younger population. One or more theory(ies) will be suggested in why socioeconomic status is or isn’t a greater determining factor in children’s weight and body. Possible theories include, conflict theory, symbolic interaction, and functionalism. Data will be obtained from NHANES and US Census which are federally accepted and authorized databases for the study of many diseases including obesity and demographics. SPSS and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) will be utilized for data analysis. Hot spot analyses in GIS will be used to identify the most affected areas in southeastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois and how these may correlate to demographically at-risk populations.


Celebration of Scholars

The Return of Martín Fierro Mimi Yang, Professor of Modern Languages

This is a writing project that focuses on a binary thinking that both draws and dismantles physical and mental borders, both modernizes and brutalizes a society and its constituents. Such binary thinking has played a vital role in forging an Argentine identity. “Martín Fierro,” the Argentine epic, written by José Hernández (1834-1886), during the turbulent years 1872-1879, offers a window on how a complex national identity is mirrored in the twists and turns of gaucho Martín Fierro’s life, and how a collective meaning of being an Argentine is expressed through the nuanced individual loss and reintegration. The project aims to study the divide between the good and the evil, the civilized and the barbaric, the urban and the pampa, the Latin American and the European, which Hernández represents through the creation of his gaucho hero Martín Fierro—an Argentine national icon. Then the project transplants the sorrow and solitude of an alienated and lost soul in Fierro in the 17th century from a tiny district hidden away in South America to a 21st century global age or “borderland,” where intercultural and intergroup connections are much needed. The project concludes with the thesis: the story of Martín Fierro is the story of any displaced and marginalized individual, and his lot is that of all humans in a collective sense, always, everywhere

Gaelic in the Gaeltacht: The Politics of Language Caitlin Zant, 2012 

Major: History and Geography &Earth Sciences 
 Hometown: Peoria, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: John Leazer

This study examines the history of the Gaelic language in the cultural areas known as the Gaeltacht of Ireland. Despite its prominence throughout ancient Ireland, the Gaelic language almost completely disappeared by the late nineteenth century because of English political and social repression. The paper discusses the significant events from Protestant Reformation in England until the formation of the Irish Free State and the Gaelic language revival in the twentieth century. This study will show that the Irish struggled throughout this period to maintain the Gaelic language, and that it was not until after the War of Irish Independence, and the complete removal of English influence in Ireland, that the Gaelic language and Gaeltacht areas began to see growth. Above all, the paper argues that the prominence of the Gaelic language was directly related to the politics of England and the language policies they pursued in order to eradicate the Gaelic language. This paper relies on primary source documents prepared by the government of the Republic of Ireland that discuss the Gaelic revival policies of the government in the Gaeltacht areas. The paper also draws on geographic research relating the West of Ireland. Secondary sources that evaluate the death of a language also informed this study.


Explaining the Demand for Alternative Loans in Wisconsin—An Empirical Study Brian Zielinski, 2011 

Major: Economics and Marketing 
 Hometown: Lake Villa, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Edward Montarano

Alternative lending is broadly associated with a variety of negative economic and social consequences. As a response, legislators have adopted a wide range of policies in an attempt to abate these negative consequences. In order to effectively evaluate the policy measures that have been proposed and adopted, it is important to understand the demand for alternative credit products. This study differs from others in that it is quantitative in its approach to explaining the demand for alternative loans. Other studies have been journalistic in their approach— overwhelmingly qualitative. The demand for alternative credit products measured as the percent contribution of alternative lending to total economic activity in a census tract is the independent variable in this linear model. Per capita income, the proportion of renter-occupied housing units, and population density were found to be statistically significant in explaining the demand for alternative credit products. In addition to these base findings, several interesting findings including a negative relationship between the percentage of renter-occupied housing units and the demand for alternative loans are apparent in this research. Funding source: Carthage S.U.R.E. Program

How First-Year Undergraduates Navigate the Stacks: Implications for Improving Wayfinding Lizz Zitron, Outreach Services Librarian

First-year undergraduate students frequently encounter navigation problems in locating known items in the library. A review of wayfinding literature reveals an absence of information about how undergraduate students navigate stacks. This study follows students through the library collection after they have a call number in order to uncover attributes of building layout that aid navigation and identify fail points. Researchers used ethnographic methodologies of interviewing, observation, and a “think-aloud protocol” to understand the first-year student’s conceptual frame in navigating library collections. Suggestions for improving wayfinding are made based on data collected. Hahn, Jim and Lizz Zitron. “How First-Year Undergraduates Navigate the Stacks: Implications for Improving Wayfinding,” Reference and User Services Quarterly, Fall 2011, v. 51, no. 1.

Development of Buddhist Art in China Marissa Zuke, 2013 
 Major: Religion 
 Hometown: Brookfield, Ill.

James Lochtefeld, Director, Asian Studies Program; Director, Global Heritage Program; Professor of Religion Faculty Sponsor: James Lochtefeld

I studied the development of Buddhist art in China, from the 4th century to the 9th century, looking at the different trends and art styles across these centuries. Studying art is a unique way to examine China, as history is typically studied through people and events, not art. In my East Asian Religion class, I was interested in examining history, but from a different angle, so I looked at Chinese history and art separately, and saw how they corresponded with each other; by studying trends in both history and art, I was able to see how art styles reflected what was occurring in China at that particular time. Through my research, I was able to see the shift of art trends in China, from strong Indian influences in the 4th century, to increased realism in the 7th century, to finally the fall of Buddhism and subsequently, the fall of Buddhist art.

Internal Conflict Katie Zutter, 2013 

Major: Music Theater 
 Hometown: Hancock, Mich. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Mark Petering

This work is being composed with the intent of being performed in May at the chamber music recital at Carthage College. The goal of this work is to develop skills in orchestration for instruments other then piano. This is accomplished through the use of melodic and rhythmic structures that align with composers such as Bela Bartok and Jean Tower. More specifically, this music is derived from scales found in 20th century art music. These consist of the whole tone scale, and octatonic scale starting on C. There are also different techniques used to develop the piece, including dynamic rhythm, retrograde, and a changing meter. The form of the composition is an arch form: A B C B A. The piece also plays with moments of melodic, and discordant phrases. This composition is a noteworthy step in the development of a unique and personal compositional voice. A previous work that set me on the path for this development was the four movements of a duet between flute and bassoon entitled “Movement”. This original work will be submitted into upcoming competitions and events, and will be subject to peer review by professional musicians.


Celebration of Scholars


2001 Alford Park Drive Kenosha, Wisconsin 53140

Tarble Arena â&#x20AC;˘ April 29, 2011

Celebration of Scholars  
Celebration of Scholars  

Carthage's 2011 Celebration of Scholars program