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2001 Alford Park Drive Kenosha, Wisconsin 53140 www.carthage.edu

N. E. Tarble Athletic and Recreation Center April 20, 2012


I am pleased to welcome you to Carthage’s Celebration of Scholars. The projects on display represent some of the best work of our students and faculty in the arts, education, humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences. This event brings us together in a single place to recognize and share the work of the College community. It also allows us the opportunity to talk about the work we do here at the College. These displays of student research, scholarship, and creativity represent thousands of hours spent in research, studio work, practice, and lab work. In each case this labor led students to a deeper understanding of their subject because they were engaged in the messy process of research and creativity. They struggled to find solutions to problems that were not apparent and could not be found by looking in the back of the book. Because of their perseverance and attention to their problems, we can learn from them today. I encourage you to ask them about the product of their work but especially about the process they used to accomplish it. The Carthage Faculty is an outstanding group of teacher-scholars who present their work in scholarly journals, at conferences, and exhibitions. The academic communities in their disciplines know them well; however, we stop and pause at their work too seldom. As Provost, I have the advantage of visiting numerous senior thesis and other student presentations. I also have the opportunity to learn firsthand of the many accomplishments of the faculty. Unless we put them out for others to see, they languish quietly in the background, often unnoticed. Today is the day we put them on display for us all to engage with and enjoy. I hope you take as much pleasure in learning about the work going on at the College as I do. An event like this happens because we have talented students and faculty who are willing to share their work, and I thank and congratulate them for their participation today. We also owe deep thanks to the people who have worked very hard to make this event happen from behind the scenes. My deepest thanks go to the Undergraduate Research, Scholarship and Creativity Committee (Dennis Munk, Laura Huaracha, Deborah Tobiason, Rom Maczka, Joe Wall, and Brian Schwartz), the Carthage communications staff, and the operations staff. Once again, I welcome you to the Celebration of Scholars.

Julio C. Rivera, Jr. Provost


April 20, 2012

3:30 - 6 p.m.

Open House

4 - 4:15 p.m.

Opening Remarks

Faculty Work Group Laura Huaracha Rom Maczka Dennis Munk Brian Schwartz Deb Tobiason Joe Wall

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Celebration of Scholars

Foreign Language Proficiency Level and Humor Competence: Perception and Production of Humor in Cartoons by Learners of Spanish Marta Aguero Guerra

Major: Master of Education Hometown: Toledo, Spain Faculty Sponsor: Dennis Munk

Humor has always been an object of interest and curiosity in different fields due to its interdisciplinary character. In foreign language teaching, humorous materials can be used both as strategic tools for classroom management and as pedagogical tools to introduce or reinforce linguistic and cultural contents. Cartoons, for instance, as multimodal forms that combine visual and verbal elements, are successful resources to improve students’ creative language. However, not all the types of humor are equally efficient with students of different levels of proficiency in the foreign language. Schmitz (2002) divides humor into three categories in order of difficulty: (1) universal humor, (2) culture-based humor, and (3) linguistic humor, and states that the higher the competence of the students, the more probable they can perceive and produce linguistic humor. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between Carthage College students’ proficiency in Spanish and their perception and production of Schmitz’s categories of humor. To this end, two types of qualitative data collection methods were used: surveys, and documents and artifacts, in which students interpreted and created the humor of several cartoons in Spanish. Findings revealed partial support of Schmitz’s theory, confirmed in the level of perception, and the recurrence of common topics in the analysis and creations undertaken by participants in the same courses.

Spreading Silence through SID Protein: A Method of Systemic Gene Suppression in the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Nidal Alkafarna, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: Gaza, Palestine Faculty Sponsor: Temple Burling

The process of RNA interference is a method of post-transcriptional gene silencing using doublestranded RNA signals that can be imported from the environment or injected into an organism. Upon processing the dsRNA signal intracellularly, a transporter protein known as SID1, systemic RNAi-Deficient, plays a role in the transport of the dsRNA signal from one cell to another in a systemic fashion around the body of an organism. The dsRNA signal transport is not selective to any cell type, and functions as long as the SID1 transporter is expressed in the membrane of the cell. While many invertebrates and all vertebrates express native SID1 in their genomes, there are many organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae that do not express SID1 natively. For preliminary studies, a research project at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science was conducted during the summer of 2011. The goal of the project was to overexpress SID1 in Xenopus laevis stage IV oocytes in order to test for its dsRNA transport characteristic. Successful 6

SID1 expression was confirmed by applying dsRNA onto the oocytes and testing for a membranous voltage change as a result of charges passing across the cell membrane. In addition, SID1 successfully localized in the cellular transmembrane region of the oocytes; the localization was confirmed by the fluorescence of an EGFP label that was expressed in the oocytes with SID1. In this proposal, testing for dsRNA internalization using SID1 and SID2 expressed in embryos of A. gambiae is one of the main goals. The malaria vector, A. gambiae, does not natively express SID1 or SID2, indicating that enabling the insect to do so allows for systemic gene silencing around its body as well as environmental dsRNA uptake. Once A. gambiae has the ability to carry out RNAi, genes such as those encoding for malaria parasite receptors could be used as targets for silencing. Another goal of the project is testing larval soaking as an alternative method of dsRNA import into the A. gambiae larvae; the soaking method requires the expression of SID2 along with SID1 because SID2 plays a vital role in environmental RNAi. Funding Source:Rosalind Franklin University—Department of Physiology and Biophysics

2011 Annual AICPA Competition Catherine Anderson, 2012 Major: Marketing, Accounting Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Julie Dawson

Samantha Chavez, 2013 Major: Accounting, IPE Hometown: Rhinelander, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Julie Dawson

Peter Leaman, 2012

Major: Accounting Hometown: Ypsilanti, Mich. Faculty Sponsor: Julie Dawson

In August 2011 we learned about an annual AICPA competition open to college students. The 2011 AICPA competition revolved around forensic accounting. We were given the opportunity to review a hypothetical case and compete against teams from colleges across the country. We took on the role of a consulting company and gave a formal recommendation as to whether or not an international division would be in the best interest of the company. We examined such issues as corporate tone, international fraud and bribery laws, and the business risks of operating in different parts of the world. We met with our team advisor multiple times as well as other professors throughout the duration of the competition. Meetings were held up to three times a week during which time we analyzed ratios, reviewed individual research, and ultimately formed our letter and answer to the competition. This was Carthage’s first year involved with the competition and while we did not make the top ten teams this year, we are looking forward to the 2012 competition.


The Red Mill Promotional Plan and Financial Analysis Catherine Anderson, 2012 Major: Marketing, Accounting Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

The Red Mill is a small business that includes a gift shop/museum and an area to host small outdoors events. Its backyard is filled with beautiful landscaping including a wooden covered bridge (one of only a few in the state of Wisconsin) and the Chapel-in-the-Woods, where people have the opportunity to rent out the space for wedding ceremonies, baptisms, and funerals. Unfortunately, it is near the point of shutdown due to unsustainable finances. This study performs a marketing and financial analysis of the business. Primary and secondary research was conducted using current data sources and interviews to determine how other small businesses were successful and what practices. Based on the results, operational recommendations will also be given to improve efficiency and operations.

Schizophrenia: Psychological Understandings, Medical Insights and Societal Perceptions Matthew Anderson, 2014

Major: Psychology/ Criminal Justice Hometown: Appleton, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines sociological, medical and psychological perspectives, this literature review addresses gaps in research on schizophrenia. Those with schizophrenia struggle daily with several obstacles, both on personal and social levels. This review not only highlights general diagnosis and the psychological underpinnings associated with schizophrenia but also possible ambiguities and poorly understood aspects of the disorder. Also clarified in this review is a gap in views between medical professionals and the broader society in understanding this surprisingly common mental disorder. Labels, both formal and informal, negative sanctions, proscribed roles as well as stigmatized identities confront schizophrenia patients. Many schizophrenic patients adopt selfconcepts and social roles associated with psychotic mental disorder. A bridge becomes possible between psychological understandings and analysis of societal perceptions through integrative analysis combining multiple perspectives on schizophrenia. Using insights from multiple perspectives leads to a view of schizophrenia not only as a medical and psychological condition but also in terms of management of stigma and self-identity for patients receiving this diagnosis. Research on schizophrenia is highly specialized within disciplines. Thus, this research reframes treatment and public policy options through an interdisciplinary lens that combines medical, psychological and sociological insights and research.

Looting after Disaster: Sendai, Japan vs New Orleans, United States Julie Antony, 2012

Major: Sociology Hometown: Glendale Heights, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

The purpose of this research is to identify the cultural and social factors that explain variations in antisocial behavior following natural disasters. Different components are considered including culture, social structure, social disorganization, poverty and crime. This research will be focusing on the differences in the aftermath of the 2011 earthquake/ tsunami in Japan and Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. The first step to identifying the differences in anti-social behaviors is to analyze the backgrounds of the two cultures. This research will focus on these two particular disasters because both are major industrial countries that went through similar catastrophes. The theoretical framework for explaining differences between Japanese and United States’ reactions to natural disaster comes from Emile Durkheim. Durkheim emphasized that when consensus is replaced by individualism as motives for behavior as is the case in the United States, anti-social behavior is less likely to receive sanction and more likely to be rationalized as acceptable. Anomie is Durkheim’s concept expressing a lack of social constraint that accompanies industrialization and urbanization in modernizing societies. By contrast, Japan has strong consensus and informal social controls and has modernized but retained a more communal culture and social institutions. This analysis will allow for more understanding on the topic of disaster and anti-social behaviors such as looting. Implications of this study for prevention of anti-social behavior following natural disasters and directions for future research are offered and include nurturing more communal organizations and helping behaviors and in disaster response planning.

Differentiated Instruction Workshop Jill Arneberg, 2011

Major: Master of Education Hometown: Burlington,Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Patricia L. Rieman

Differentiated instruction and strategy implementation is a powerful way to engage and meet diverse learning needs. This workshop was designed with the intent to assist educators with the implementation of a differentiated curriculum to meet the vast learning needs of all students. The goal of the two-hour workshop was to deliver a brief yet detailed overview of effective differentiated instructional strategies and address their practicality. Attendees were introduced to a variety of differentiation strategies appropriate for any content area and grade level. Discussion focused on differentiation by modifying the content students will learn, the process or activities used to guide students through the learning process, and the importance of student choice in determining the final product to demonstrate student learning. Using assessment to drive instruction, flexible grouping, and personalized learning experiences were addressed. Participants left with a variety of professional resources, templates, book titles, and sample units to utilize in their specific content area. 7


Celebration of Scholars

The Power of Educating Women in Developing Countries Alexia Bacon, 2012

Major: Sociology Hometown: Winter, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

Poverty and inequality are ongoing global issues. In low-technology societies, more than in the developed countries, poverty is critical because the basic conditions needed for sustaining life are often scarce or inaccessible for many persons. Despite great technological advancement and innovation globally in the past few decades, strides taken towards the reduction of poverty have had minimal impact in the developing nations of the world. One often overlooked answer to of poverty in low-technology societies is increasing the educational level of women. This research uses cross-national comparisons to examine the relationship between women’s education and poverty. Reduction in poverty levels within communities is linked to female educational attainment. The benefits of educating women will be measured through use of secondary archival data and review of key quantitative published studies. Notable benefits of increasing women’s access to educational attainment includes lower fertility rates, longer life expectancy, better nutrition and enhanced health outcomes. Raising levels of educational attainment for women improves human capital and develops needed talent in developing societies. Another benefit is increasing family income levels and subsequent improvements in nutrition and health care and screening, lowering rates of diseases associated with poverty and infant mortality. Increasing educational attainment for women also improves the status of women and increases the potential for building more democratic institutions in developing societies.

Quantitative Analysis of Chloride Concentrations in the Pike River in Southeastern Wisconsin Nick Bartholomew, 2013 Major: Chemistry Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Christine Blaine

Thomas Baran, 2012

Major: Chemistry Hometown: Chicago Faculty Sponsor: Christine Blaine

Jordan Burkholder, 2012 Major: Chemistry Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Christine Blaine

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Rachel Martin, 2013

Major: Chemistry Hometown: Salem, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Christine Blaine

Research has shown that high levels of chloride in rivers can have adverse effects on the ecosystem and aquatic life. Since Fall 2007, water samples have been collected from the Pike River, in southeastern Wisconsin, to monitor the effect of road salt on the concentration of chloride levels in the river. The data has shown an increase of over 50% in October concentrations during the last four years. During spring 2011, the mean concentration of chloride spiked. The chloride concentration spiked to over 700 ppm. At two sites, G and K, the chloride concentration was greater than 1000 ppm. For the upper part of the river, it was calculated to be 361.4 ppm and for the lower part of the river, it was calculated to be 252.3 ppm. In fall 2011, the mean chloride value for the upper section of the river was found to be 160.0 + 2.2 ppm, while the lower section of the river had a mean of 94.2 + 4.2 ppm. The mean values for Lake Michigan samples were found to be 26.2 +1.8 ppm.

Graphical and Statistical Analysis of Langton’s Ant Nicole Barrington, 2012

Major: Mathematics and Computer Science Hometown: Janesville, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Erlan Wheeler

Consider an ant on a grid of cells that are either white or black. Following a simple set of rules, the ant moves around the grid in any of the four cardinal directions. This cellular automaton is known as Langton’s Ant. In the simplest case of Langton’s Ant, the ant’s path appears chaotic for the first 10,004 steps before it settles into an indefinitely repeating “highway” pattern of 104 steps. In Phase One, we begin with an exploration of the original Langton’s Ant, where all cells are initially colored white. We examine the order in which cells are visited and the frequency of cell visits. Phase Two tests the robustness of Langton’s Ant. That is, will the ant always create a “highway”? To answer this question, we color a small portion of the grid around the ant’s starting place black. We find that the ant will always move into a “highway” pattern. In fact, the “highway” starting point is often less than 5,000 steps. Phase Three runs Langton’s Ant with multiple ants. Our work shows the existence of new “highway” patterns. This project is ongoing. Further research aims to define recently discovered “highway” patterns.


Religious and Ethnic Xenophobia: Case Studies of Nazi Germany and Post 9/11 America Stephanie Basford, 2012 Major: Psychology-Religion Hometown: Antioch, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jim Lochtefeld

In-groups and out-groups have played a major role in human history. The ways that people have learned to socialize and orientate them has become pivotal in our world. While group identity is most often times seen as a positive that gives people a sense of belonging, the opposite from this is a phenomenon known as social identity theory. Social Identity Theory says that we view our own groups more positively than other groups that are outside our worldview. A result from this can be ethnocentrism and xenophobia. Both ethnocentrism and xenophobia can develop from either real or imaginary threat. The recent research has focused on a comparison between 1930s Nazi Germany and Anti-Semitism, and Post-9/11 America and Islamophobia. Utilizing the media rhetoric and political policy of both time periods, an analysis of both of these instances of xenophobia and ethnocentrism shows the similarities of the human response to perceived threat regarding cultural worldview. The research was done with literature review on both time periods and the sociology of social identity theory and also with a study of the relationship between death priming and Terror Management Theory. This research was intended to give insight into the world of cultural fear and difference and suggesting a broader look at the world we live in. The results of the research study were that an individual when primed with death anxiety tended to have stronger negative feelings towards out-groups.

Functional Fitness Testing in Older Adults Amanda Bizub, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: Hartland, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Cynthia Allen

Background: As people age they become more dependent because their muscle strength, endurance and flexibility decreases making it difficult for them to get in and out of cars or walk for an extended period of time. Yoga has been shown to increase lower leg strength and improve balance, both of which allow older adults to remain independent. Subjects: Twenty-three older adults were used for this study, all of which were enrolled in a yoga, water aerobics, or muscle strengthening class. Of this group, 83% were female with ages ranging from 60 to 85 (mean 70.5). Tests: Three tests were used to determine the subject’s fitness level. The first test was the 30 second chair stand. This tested the lower leg strength of the subjects. The second test was the chairsit-and-reach test. This test was performed bilaterally and assessed the subject’s flexibility. The final test determined how quickly the subjects could walk 0.3 miles. This test assessed the subjects’ aerobic endurance. Results: No significant difference was found between the type of class and performance on the three tests. There was also no significant difference between the number of hours exercised per

week and the performance on the three tests. Age in years was the only factor that accounted for different outcomes on the three fitness tests. The correlation between age and chair stands was negative (r=-.41). The older the subject was, the fewer chair stands they could perform in 30 seconds. The correlation between age and the time it took to walk 0.3 miles was r = .494. The older the subject, the longer it took them to complete the walk. The only mediating factor found in this experiment was yoga. There were 12 subjects enrolled in a yoga class and 11 that were not. The yoga group had an average 0.3 mile walk time of 5.04 minutes (SD=.34) and the non-yoga group took an average of 5.58 minutes (SD=.76) to complete 0.3 miles. This result was significant on the 0.10 level (p=.054). There was a significant difference in the number of chair stands completed in yoga (M=13, SD=2.37) and non-yoga groups (M=14.18, SD=5.31, p=.045). These results show that yoga may be able to prevent some of the age related decline of endurance, however not in lower body strength. People who performed yoga exercises regularly had less lower body strength than people enrolled in other classes. Funding source: none

Global GDP Makeup Comparison James Blakeway, 2013

Major: Finance and Economis Hometown: Oxford, England Faculty Sponsor: JosephWall, Mimi Yang

This study investigates the makeup of the economic equation Y = C + S + G + NX. This is the equation for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), where a nation’s GDP is the sum of its consumption, savings (also capital investment), Government expenditure, and Net exports (exports – imports). GDP of a variety of countries is broken down to determine how much each variable contributes into the overall GDP. A few countries are selected that have the highest proportion allocated to each variable. Next, an investigation into cultural, social, and political implications of those nations is performed to determine if there is an explanation of their GDP composition. If any particular cultural or socio-political aspects show up that could impact a certain portion of GDP the study will then seek out an index that quantifies them and perform a regression analysis to see if there is any (quantifiable) link.

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Celebration of Scholars

Filming “Don Quixote’ Matt Borden

Department: MLA

Is It Worth It? Assessing the Net Present Value of Bachelor’s Degrees Christopher Brucher, 2012 Major: Marketing and Economics Hometown: Saint Charles, Ill. Faculty Sponsor:

Paul Chilsen

Department: CDM

“Filming Don Quixote” is a new CSym course created for J-Term 2012. Students read Cervantes’ masterpiece “Don Quixote” while learning about the author’s views on the literature of his country and time period (16th- and 17th-century Spain), and his ideas about the nature and function of literature itself. Simultaneously, students viewed cinematic creations based on “Don Quixote” while learning about techniques and strategies for filming adaptations of novels. By the end of the course students selected, created, and finally filmed adaptations of specific scenes from the text. This enterprise resulted in two unique creations: 1-a new CSym course involving Modern Languages, which traditionally has been a difficult match for pairing with other subjects for interdisciplinary and team-teaching; 2-six new film adaptations based on “Don Quixote,” but wholly written, filmed, and edited by Carthage students. As a CSym course, class time was equally divided between the study of the novel, led by Professor Matt Borden (MLA), and learning how to write, shoot, and edit a digital film, led by Professor Paul Chilsen (CDM). The experiment was a success in that students were equally engaged by both the text and the creative process of making film adaptations. This course opens the door to using the process of creating a film to enhance deeper explorations across potentially any number of disciplines. Another positive result was showing how Modern Language studies (and professors) may take part in future CSym courses by relying on literary and cultural knowledge rather than focusing on purely linguistic instruction.

Not What I Intended Kim Brady, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Cary, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Rick Meier

My contribution to the Celebration of Scholars is my creative writing thesis. It is a chapbook entitled Not What I Intended. It may be evident from this title that I did not accomplish the goal I had originally projected for myself. What started as a science fiction piece quickly turned into a collection of fictional nonfiction. I studied my memories, recorded my dreams, and allowed the “writing trance” to bring forth what it wished. As may be expected, these processes did not produce the linear, plot directed story that I anticipated. However, it did produce a collection of what I have come to call “poestry”. Writing my chapbook has allowed me to observe the strangeness of human beings; the odd gaps we have in our days, our relationships, our memories. I hope that my chapbook accurately illustrates this strangeness in a way that others find just as meaningful as I do. 10

For much of the last century, college provided American citizens with a surefire route to a better life. Following the mass movement of students into college following World War II on the back of government financed loans and the GI Bill, the American mind was set on producing more college graduates than ever before. For much of this time, the value of a college degree was indisputable, but recently that idea has changed. The question raised now asks just how certain gains in lifetime earnings from a college education really are. Recent studies in the field typically examine how aggregated college graduates fare against high school degree recipients, and the first major study to look at the values of individual degrees by field neglected to compare those earnings to the earnings of the average high school graduate. By creating a new study that synthesizes the strengths and techniques of both, it can be shown that the net present value of studying in college can be shown to be negative in regards to certain major groups. The data, taken from the Community Population Survey published by the US Census Bureau, provides evidence that more general degrees often fall short of the earning numbers set by their more specific counterparts. An examination of these specific instances allows schools to assess the values of certain departments, while economists can now look for less tangible values that might push students to pursue a degree in a field that might not result in a positive monetary gain.

The Hunt for Phage Amy Bruckbauer, 2015

Major: Biology and Neuroscience Hometown: Wauwatosa, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason and Patrick Pfaffle

Bacteriophage are viruses that use bacteria to reproduce and then lyse the bacterial host. This research uses Mycobacterium smegmatis to grow the phage. The purpose of this research is to isolate a unique mycobacteriophage and sequence its genome so it can be compared to other phage and possibly used in medical research. Study of mycobacteriophage could lead to treatments for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which infects a third of the human population. A phage, MsFluffums, was found in soil from the flower bed outside of the Straz building. MsFluffums was isolated using techniques such as enrichment, spot testing, streaking, and titering. The phage is temperate with mixed plaque morphologies. The restriction digest seems to show that MsFluffums fits into Cluster B of mycobacteriophage. Electron microscopy shows that MsFluffums is a member of the siphoviridae family of phage, and it has a tail length of 297 nm, which is the longest tail found in the class. Research on MsFluffums could potentially lead to new discoveries regarding bacteriophage, and the phage could possibly be used in the medical field as a diagnostic tool or antibiotic alternative. Currently, the burst size of MsFluffums is being researched. In addition, one of


the phages isolated, PattyP, has had its genome sequenced, and it is currently being annotated. The burst size of PattyP will also be researched and compared to MsFluffums. Funding source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Alliance

Live and Let’s Dye: A J-Term Course of Science and Creativity Deanna Byrnes Department: Biology

The goals of this J-term course are to engage students in science through crafting with fibers and dyes obtained from nature (e.g. various wools, silk, cotton, fruits, flowers, insects). Throughout the course, we examine different fiber types to understand their biological diversity and origins, and the physical characteristics that make them particularly useful for certain types of yarns and fabrics. We study the science of color - how we see it, where it comes from, and how we turn naturally occurring pigments into fiber dyes. Students learn and practice the scientific method by carrying out experiments that investigate the effects of pH, mordant, temperature, time, and fiber type on the resulting colors obtained. The students’ portfolios are both lab notebooks and collections of their experimental products. Their final projects, some of which are presented here, are a crafted item that uses the results from their own independent dyeing experiments.

Benford Melodies Nathaniel Card, 2012

Major: Mathematics & Music Hometown: Appleton, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mark Snavely

As a double major in mathematics and music, I have always been interested in the many ways in which my two main areas of study interact. I therefore pursued to combine these interests in my senior thesis by researching stochastic composition (the method of creating music from laws of probability). Stochastic composition is by no means a new method of composing, having been pioneered in the post World War II era, but the output of this method has normally produced “unpleasant” sounding music to the average listener. My goal was to develop a method of stochastic composition that resulted in “normal” or “pleasant” sounding melodies. The central concept I utilized for my method was Benford’s Law (otherwise known as the “firstdigit-law”). After applying the distribution of Benford’s Law to the intervals and rhythms of my melodies, the results yielded pleasant, if original, sounding music. The final product of my research is a computer program capable of generating Benford melodies and converting them into sound files which can then be converted into sheet music.

Celebration of Scholars Identity Creation Kevin Cargo, 2013

Major: Graphic Design / Communication Hometown: Oswego, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Laura Huaracha

The Celebration of Scholars working group approached the campus community to develop an identity for the event with the goal of visually conveying the message of the Celebration: to show the exposition of student and faculty research, scholarship and creativity. An event like this is unique, leaving much to the designer to imitate its meaning yet maintaining a visually appealing mark. I spent a great deal of time researching the meaning of the event and considering how to represent this in the icon. After my research, I arrived on the icon of the interlocked rings. A ring signifies completeness, planning, research and development of the participants coming together into a finished product. Lastly, they signify the joint collaboration of faculty and student research in one project. There is also great symbolism in the color selection and gradients, as each represents a specific Academic Division at Carthage. The deep reds signify the divisions of Interdisciplinary Studies & Education, as well as Carthage’s relationship with the Lutheran church. The yellows represent the departments of the Natural and Social Sciences. Lastly, the bold blue gradient stands for the Humanities and Fine Arts Divisions. The colors together represent the balanced, liberal arts education that Carthage offers to its students.The final result represents creativity, emulated through the mark itself as being visually interesting and appealing as well as recognizable and visible on campus.

How Not to Create a Nation: The Example of the Dutch Republic during the Formation of the American Constitution. Annamarie Carlson, 2012 Major: History Hometown: Hales Corners, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Eric Pullin

This work focuses on the influence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, commonly referred to as the Dutch Republic, during the creation of the Articles of Confederation and the American Constitution. The Dutch Republic was a stronger influence than many realize on the creation of both systems of government used by the United States. Parallels can be found in the Union of Utrecht, which established the Dutch Republic, and the Articles of Confederation and many of the same flaws can be found in both governments. Research for this project focused heavily on primary sources from the period. The Dutch Republic was praised in highly influential works read in the American colonies. Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense”, Montesquieu’s “Spirit of the Laws”, and Adam Smith’s “Wealth of Nations” all praise the Dutch Republic. Other important sources included James Madison’s notes from the Constitutional Convention and the Federalist Papers with special emphasis on Federalist Paper #20. After basing the Articles of Confederation closely on the Union of Utrecht, the framers of the U.S. Constitution used the United Provinces of the Netherlands as a counter-example when forming the new Federal government. In other words, they consciously tried to make sure that they would not create the American Republic in the image of the Dutch Republic. 11


Celebration of Scholars

von Zehn C. David Carlson, 2012 Major: History Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Eric Pullin

I am submitting a few short comic book adventures from a series upon which I’ve been working for many years. The story’s premise is that World War II ended in a stalemate, and the subsequent Cold War is not fought between the United States and Soviet Union, but between the British Empire and Nazi Germany. The comic follows the adventures of Jack “X” Hunter, a British Special Operations Executive agent and former soldier many years after the end of WWII. My scheme for the comic actually draws quite a lot of inspiration from my time at Carthage, as my study of history and political science, the Western Heritage program, and the Hannibal lectures have all provided a philosophical framework for the story’s development, and while the adventures presented are a bit tongue-in-cheek in tone, as I continue to write and develop the comic I hope to bring in some more serious themes. As far as the artistic side is concerned, I’ve always loved drawing and comic books. My inspiration comes from artists like Jack Kirby, Steve Ditko, Bruce Timm, and Mike Mignola, and there’s some Japanese animation influence as well. Overall, “von Zehn” is my attempt to merge the intellectual with the artistic in my own little way, and I’m planning for scenes of characters discussing Locke juxtaposed with explosions and fights with Nazi robots.

A Machiavellian Peace Vincenzo Chimera, 2012

Major: Political Science Hometown: Oak Lawn, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Christopher Lynch

Niccolo Machiavelli builds his political philosophy on war as he praises its orders and disciplines. By stating a prince should take no art besides war he seems to suggest that there is no place for peace in politics. However, Machiavelli also preaches the need for a prince to exercise prudence and he shows how the Roman Empire fell when it engaged in too many extended military campaigns. Where does this leave peace in Machiavelli’s political philosophy? If peace does indeed have an important place for Machiavelli, then readers may need reconsider his entire political philosophy. This paper offers a close examination of Machiavelli’s Prince and Discourses on Livy along with key secondary literature as a means to understand Machiavelli’s view of peace. It ultimately concludes that peace holds a vital place in his political philosophy because it allows a prince to exercise prudence in choosing to engage states militarily while also strengthening military virtue.

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Out-of-Area Operations and the North Atlantic Society of States: The Quest to Define Security and the Inescapable Demise of Broad-Alliance Operations Benjamin Coder, 2012

Major: Political Science Hometown: Coon Rapids, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Jeffrey Roberg

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established during the Cold War, but has continued to exist despite the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Through recent events such as intervention in Bosnia and Kosovo during the Wars of Yugoslav Secession, the mission in Afghanistan (ISAF), and the Libyan air campaign (Operation Unified Protector) it would seem that NATO has substituted its Cold War doctrine of deterrence and defense for a broader concept of out-of-area operations. The emphasis of this thesis is how the shift in policy from deterrence and defense to out of area operations severely impedes the inter-state relationship of NATO in the post-Cold War era. The first purpose of this thesis will be to provide a background in institutional theory. In order to better understand the alliance this thesis will then examine the successive treaties that led to the creation of NATO and defined its initial role. The next focus will be to characterize the disparities between Cold War defense and the new model of out-of-area operations. Once the shift in NATO policy has been framed, this thesis will examine recent NATO out-of-area operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Libya. Next, this thesis will analyze the role of self-interest and its effect on burden-sharing, utilizing the common pool resource model to test the integrity of the NATO inter-state relationship. To conclude, this thesis will address whether recent operations have demonstrated NATO’s continuing utility in terms of out of area operations, or signaled its ultimate demise.

The Correspondence of Lorenzo Valla Brendan Cook

Department: Western Heritage

My project is a translation of the correspondence of the fifteenth-century author Lorenzo Valla. It includes every letter Valla wrote and every letter he received, not only translated but also gathered into a single edition for the first time. Like many writers of the Italian Renaissance, Valla wrote entirely in Latin rather than Italian; he was admired by his contemporaries for recapturing the elegant and dynamic style of the ancient masters. As a thinker, Valla deliberately courted controversy, arguing that pleasure, rather than virtue, was the goal of Christian life and faith. He criticized the standard translation of the New Testament – an achievement that later provided inspiration and encouragement to Martin Luther – and he exposed as a forgery the document which had been used for centuries to claim political authority for the Roman Catholic Church. My translation will help bring the life and thought of this remarkable writer to a much wider audience, allowing those without any knowledge of Latin to appreciate Valla’s insights on religion,


ethics, history, and language. Once my editor has completed his revision, the edition will be published in spring 2013 by Harvard University Press.

Reason and the Rhetoric of Legal Obligation in Plato’s Crito Paul Diduch

Department: Great Ideas

The standard approach to Plato’s Crito is to treat Socrates’ case for legal obligation as if it is meant by Socrates to reveal his own reasons for obeying the law. Although this view is not unreasonable, the problematic nature of Socrates’ defense suggests that it is rhetorical and that it should not be taken to reflect Socrates’ own views. My research on the Crito presents strong evidence that Socrates is in fact using the semblance of philosophic reasoning to have a calculated effect on Crito, and that Socrates’ “official” defense of the law cannot possibly explain his motives for obeying it. My approach entails three principal steps. First, I present Crito’s motives for wanting to help Socrates escape; I argue that Crito is moved primarily by his fear of the many, and that this fear is the chief obstacle that Socrates must address if he is to reconcile Crito to himself and to the law. Second, I present Socrates’ strategy for handling Crito’s fear. In particular, I examine the arguments that Socrates uses to underpin his defense of obligation and I show that they are tailored to address Crito’s emotional concerns. Third, after identifying the main difficulties with Socrates’ defense, I then show how these same problematic arguments – namely, Socrates’ identification of the just and the good and his prohibition against harm – point to a serious critique of the law. I conclude by explaining why Socrates, even despite his understanding of the problems with law, is nonetheless willing to come to its defense and even make it seem like it is worth dying for.

Physical Activities and Attributes as they Apply to Grip Strength Gretchen Heidorn, 2013 Major: Hometown: Rochester, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Martino

Aaron Dirck, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: East Moline, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Martino

Grip strength is arguably the most important strength to possess for all individuals in any society because the hands are the link to the remaining musculature. The strength or lack of hand strength has been shown to have a direct correlation to neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular disorders (Chandrasekaran et al., 2010). The purpose of this study is to test for covariates between hand size,

gender, physical activity, and height and weight of sports teams at Carthage College. Hand size will be measured because as grip spans were widened the grip strengths decreased (Lee et al., 2009). Thus one could hypothesize that as hand musculature increases and grip span stays the same, those individuals would have a stronger grip. The subjects will be screened for past injuries or any functionality concerns via a medical history form, and then they will be measured for their height and weight. The grip strength will be measured by using a grip dynamometer calibrated for pounds of force for each hand. The data will then be analyzed for covariance. This study will begin to address the dirth of information regarding what anatomical characteristics are correlated with great hand strength. The relevance of these findings may give insight into the characteristics of people with both strong and weak grips, and help health care practitioners better treat and prevent hand injuries.

An Independent Shift through Time: The Hughes Court’s Evolution in Jurisprudence and its Impact Upon History Colin Drayton, 2012

Major: History Hometown: Lake Villa, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Stephen Udry, Eric Pullin, Thomas Noer

During the 1930s a shift in constitutional thought occurred which resulted in the Supreme Court’s accommodation of New Deal legislation. This shift has conventionally been understood to have taken place in 1937, “the switch in time that saved nine” as it was popularly called, which spared the Court of being “packed” by Franklin Delano Roosevelt with sympathetic justices. Despite the compelling narrative, the conventional theory frames events too narrowly by relying heavily upon events in the 1935-1937 period alone. Instead this paper proposes that the Supreme Court’s evolution started in 1934 and culminated in its 1937 decisions and that its evolution occurred independent of the political pressure by President Roosevelt. This project is unique in that it challenges the dominant historical narrative of the Supreme Court’s behavior by chronologically examining the Court’s cases while simultaneously analyzing the causal factors which led to them. In this way the Court’s alleged reversals can be understood to have been caused not by political pressure but by the Court’s evolving jurisprudential outlook on the various New Deal policies which it faced.

The Creative Process and Realization of the “Ghost Bike” Ferrywoman Boat Lauren Eastman, 2014

Major: Scenic Design and English Hometown: Lincoln, Neb. Faculty Sponsor: Martin McClendon

The 2012 spring semester marked the premier of Chicago playwright Laura Jacqmin’s “Ghost Bike” on the Wartburg stage. Commissioned by the Carthage Theatre Department, Ghost Bike is a contemporary

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Celebration of Scholars

take on the Greek Orpheus myth. Incorporating influences from Norse and Japanese mythologies, the play follows Ora’s journey through the underworld. Determined to unite with a close friend, the recently deceased Eddie, Ora perseveres through her grief and the strange upside-down reality of the underworld. Encountering a variety of obstacles, each more daunting than the previous, Ora remains determined to return Eddie to the earth’s surface. Amidst these various obstacles, Ora must cross the River of Lost Souls with the Ferrywoman. My task for “Ghost Bike” was to create the Ferrywoman’s boat, life size, and with stage functionality. This was my first time as properties master, and it was a challenge I was eager to embark upon. Working with the scenic designer, I wanted to create a Viking-inspired boat that was also reminiscent of a rotting corpse. After much preliminary research, design work, and much trial and error throughout the construction process, the boat was successfully built and showcased on stage. My display will exhibit the creative process, from initial research and inspirations to the design and construction, through original sketches, notes, and photography. Funding source: Carthage College Theatre Department

Evaluating the Effect of CarbohydrateElectrolyte, Whey Protein, and Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation with Resistance Training John Egner, 2013

Major: Biology/Neuroscience Hometown: Joliet, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Martino and Kris Koudelka

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte, whey protein, and creatine monohydrate supplementation during a three week strength resistance training program. The use of supplements to be healthy and fit is becoming widespread by people ranging from the teens to the elderly. It is important to understand how these supplements are working in the body to determine if they have any additional effect. Twenty-two college students (8 females and 14 males) participated in a specifically designed training program exercising three times a week for three weeks. The participants were tested a priori and a posteriori to training. The tests consisted of height, weight, resting heart rate, blood pressure, Functional Movement Screen scores, body fat caliper measurements and body fat percentage, crushing and pinch grip dynamometer, and maximum number of chin-ups and pushups. Based on preliminary tests, the subjects were sorted into one of the four treatment groups: controltraining with no supplementation; experimental- training with 42grams carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) supplement post-exercise, training with whey protein (WP) supplement post-exercise, or training with a creatine monohydrate (CM). The data suggest that there were no differences in between the experimental and control groups. All the data sets show the same type of pattern, large standard deviations with little variation amongst the between groups. This pattern seems to indicate more of an individualistic difference than a supplemental effect. This may be due to a low sample size hiding any potential differences or that the uses of supplements do provide no appreciable additional benefit while active in resistance training within our population and study parameters. 14

Food For Learning Project Kelly Emanuelson, 2012

Major: Elementary and Special Education Hometown: Antioch, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Prisca Moore

How do schools help educate and encourage students to consume fresh fruit and vegetables? Nutrition is often overlooked in the classroom curriculum. The Food for Learning Project engaged students in growing, harvesting, and consuming their own fresh fruits and vegetables at their school. Food for Learning incorporates a strong education component utilizing materials from the National Gardening Association, the Wisconsin Got Dirt? Curriculum and teaching materials from the Center for Ecoliteracy, the Farm to School Program, and the Food Project. Our project with second graders and fifth graders consisted of a science unit incorporating botany and nutrition concepts. The students learned the names and functions of plant parts while using fruit and vegetables to make nutritious snacks (i.e. fruit salad, salsa). The fifth grade students also had the opportunity to maintain a classroom hydroponic garden, where they grew sunflower sprouts over the course of ten weeks. The sixth graders grew, watered, harvested and consumed vegetables from the school garden. The harvested vegetables were donated to the community food pantry. The students researched recipes and plant information, which they attached to their donated vegetables. This project encouraged students to grow their own fruits and vegetables, taught science concepts while providing the students an opportunity to make snacks, and inspired them to educate the community about the importance of consuming locally grown fresh fruits and vegetables.

“Tis An Unweeded Garden” Hamlet and Fluidity Melissa Engelking, 2012

Major: 1) Philosophy 2) Great Ideas Hometown: Deerfield, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Seemee Ali

My thesis analyzes water imagery to show its relevance to the structure of the play. Water becomes associated with the characters Hamlet, and Ophelia, and the state of Denmark. Ultimately, water imagery calls attention to one of the most profound themes of the play—how form derives from formlessness. I show how the Book of Genesis, the writings of pre-Socratic philosophers Thales and Heraclitus, and Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy can further highlight these fluid themes in Hamlet.


Complex Arrangements: The Re-emergence of a Celebrated Artist Michelle Fehr, 2012

Major: Art History Hometown: Fort Dodge, Iowa Faculty Sponsor: Anne Cassidy

Susan Watkins was an American painter working in Paris from the late 1890s until 1910. Her work was exhibited and praised in prominent institutions both in France and America. Watkins’ vibrant style and astute portrait composition won her many awards but not the recognition it deserves in art historical scholarship. Her untimely death and her husband’s insistence on controlling the dispersal of her works have prevented her from achieving recognition as a major American Impressionist. Watkins’ work exemplifies the changing attitudes of the turn of the century, and her portrayal of women and children as ambivalent subjects anticipates later developments in portrait painting. Since Watkins’ death in 1913, only short articles and exhibition essays have appeared regarding the life of this talented artist. This critical analysis is the first attempt to restore Susan Watkins’ rightful place in the history of art. Research has been conducted by collecting records from the artist’s life as well as information about the works location. After firmly establishing an understanding of the artist and her oeuvre, she is placed within an artistic movement and in relation to her peers. My goal is to publish a catalogue raisonné of Watkins’ work and to ignite scholarly interest in a painter who broke new ground in portraiture.

Out On the Open SEA Hunting for Phage Feld1 Zachery Feldker, 2015

Major: Biology Hometown: Bloomington, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason and Patrick Pfaffle

As part of the Science Education Alliance Phage Hunters Program, soil samples were collected from rocky soil near Lake Michigan on the campus of Carthage to isolating a novel bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria, from the environment. The specific type of bacteriophage searched for were mycobacteriophages which infect Mycobacterium smegmatis, a relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis responsible for the disease tuberculosis. The mycobacteriophage Feld1 was isolated, purified, and its genetic content isolated for analysis. Observations of plaque morphology repeatedly revealed turbid plaques that looked like cloudy circles on a lawn of M. smegmatis. Plaque morphology indicated lysogenic growth of bacteria occurred as not all bacteria infected by Feld1 were lysed or killed. The cloudy morphology continuously appeared throughout the isolation of Feld1, a unique feature compared to the other 11 phages isolated. Further analysis using electron microscopy revealed phage Feld1 to be a siphoviridae phage. Initial cluster information was difficult to determine from restriction digests. Further studies based on morphology observations include attempting to determine factors promoting varying degrees of lysogenic growth observed by testing temperature, infection time, and phage titer/concentration.

Ultimately, the isolation and testing of phage Feld1 will hopefully lead to genomic sequencing of phage Feld1 in the future. Funding source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Alliance

The Analysis of 12th/13th Century Graves from the Excavations at Omrit, Israel Edward Fernandez, 2013

Major: Classical Archaeology Hometown: Cicero, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Daniel Schowalter

The goal of this research project is to compare four 12th/13th century graves, discovered at Horvat Omrit, Israel, with other sites in this region, especially in regards to the orientation of the graves, the location of the graves, and the specific structure of the graves. These graves allow us to gain a further understanding of how people from the 12th/13th century used the site at Omrit, after its main usage, for social, religious, and economic aspects. My perspective is informed by the research that I have done on these graves and the hands on research that I have done at Omrit with the guidance of Dr. Daniel Schowalter. In particular, these four graves are all oriented east-west. Using this characteristic feature we can compare it to other sites. I have concluded that they are Islamic graves because of their east-west orientation, which leads us to believe they are facing towards Mecca, and the fact that this region was largely inhabited by Muslims. This reasoning is still open to other hypotheses. I do not expect to have the correct answer, just a better understanding of the graves I am researching.

The Effects of Two Types of Tasks on the Oral Fluency of Beginning Spanish Learners Maria del Pilar Fernandez Pedraza, Major: Master of Education Hometown: Bogotá, Colombia Faculty Sponsor: Lynn Loewen

The goal of this study is to compare the effects of spontaneous tasks and prescriptive tasks on the oral fluency of beginning Spanish learners. It investigates how students’ fluency changed from the setting of the baseline, followed by a series of prescriptive tasks for one group and spontaneous tasks for the other group, to the post-test evaluation of the learners’ oral fluency in an activity that combined both types of tasks. Speech samples were collected from 30 beginner learners of Spanish. Data was also gathered about students’ background and perceptions of the tasks in order to determine the similarities or differences of the groups, and identify possible influences on fluency changes. Three raters assessed performances on scales for pause fluency (pauses and hesitation), self-repair fluency (repetition of words and reformulations), and speed fluency (speech rate). Results will be discussed in the light of previous research regarding the influence of task structure and planning time on speakers’ oral fluency.

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Celebration of Scholars

Las Mujeres del Norte y del Sur— The Women of the North and South Catherine Figura, 2015 Major: Undecided Hometown: Chicago Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

There is little denying the fact that investing in human capital is one of the most effective means of reducing poverty and encouraging sustainable economic development. Yet, women in developing countries usually receive less education than men. More so, women in general enjoy far less employment opportunities than all over the world. A comparison between the rights of women in North and South America will be analyzed. More specifically, the influences of Hillary Clinton from the United States and Eva Peron from Argentina and their works for the improvement of the quality of women’s lives will show their power as woman leaders. Concrete statistics of education, literacy, and voting from the past and present will show the growth of authority that women have gained over time due to the works of influential leaders. The poster will be bilingual, connecting the languages of these regions. The end result of this project is to strive for more united women between the north and south. Funding source: N/a

Managing Grassland Biofuel Cropping Systems for Plant Diversity and Productivity Sara Fouts, 2012

Major: Environmental Science Hometown: West Chicago, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Tracy Gartner

With the rapid depletion of fossil fuels such as oil and coal, the future of the US fuel supply may depend on alternative energies such as biofuels. However the most commonly implemented biofuel today, corn ethanol, is taking away from the current food supply. An alternative to grain based biofuel are cellulosic biofuels. Cellulosic biofuels are derived from cellulose in plants, and many grassland plant species are currently being studied as a viable fuel source. In this experiment three variables were tested relating to biofuel productivity: the level of species diversity, fertilization, and multiple harvests. Plot harvests were performed at two test fields: the Long Term Ecological Research Center, and the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center at the Kellogg Biological Station. Samples were harvested and dry weighed in order to determine productivity. The goal of the experiment is to determine what management strategies will provide the most productivity for fuel while still maintaining sustainability. While all three variables may not have had significant results in this experiment, important trends about cellulosic biofuel plant species and how to manage them were seen. This study also suggests what to focus on in the future when determining how to best manage cellulosic biofuel cropping systems. Funding source: The Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

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Focusing on Nature: Educating about Biodiversity, Ecology, and Conservation Using Digital Dhotography Laura Rodman Huaracha

Department: Communication and Digital Media

Dana Garrigan

Department: Associate Professor of Biology

Carthage College’s Focusing on Nature course was designed to engage undergraduates in the process of scientific discovery, to increase appreciation for biodiversity, to promote understanding of ecological concepts, and to raise awareness and understanding of conservation issues through the use of digital photography. During this interdisciplinary course, students were taught digital photographic technique while focusing their cameras on the natural world. We predicted that through photography, students would become engaged naturally in the early stages of scientific inquiry – making observations, posing questions about the subjects of their photographs, and constructing hypotheses. While identifying the organisms in their photographs, students were expected to gain a greater appreciation for the rich diversity of life. Students were challenged to capture organisms interacting with their environment, both physical and biological, and were awarded prizes for the best photographs depicting adaptations to the physical environment and interactions between species (mutualism, exploitation, competition, etc.). A final assignment required students to produce a photographic essay on an individually selected theme related to biodiversity, adaptation, ecological interactions, or local conservation issues. The course has been offered five times, both in southeastern Wisconsin and in the Arizona Sonoran Desert, with traditional aged students (18-22) and adult learners (ages ranging from early 20s to mid 50s).


“Interpreting Nature” — Blending Environmental Science and Graphic Design in a Community-based Learning Experience Dana Garrigan

Department: Department of Biology

Laura Rodman Huaracha

Department: Department of Communication and Digital Media

Carthage College’s Interpreting Nature: Effective Visual Communication About the Environment course was designed to bring interdisciplinary teams together to complete community-based service projects to facilitate learning about ecological concepts and conservation issues. During the course, Graphic Design and Communication majors partnered with students from Biology and Environmental Science to produce environmental education materials for a local state park. Projects ranged from newly designed exhibits for an indoor nature center to large interpretive signs to be placed at visitor overlooks. Throughout the course, students worked collaboratively with the community partner to learn about relevant ecological concepts in order to effectively communicate the desired messaging to the public. For example, students developing a brochure about the “Burn an Acre” program learned how fire is used to control invasive species in a prairie community, thus learning about prairie communities, adaptations of native and exotic species, conservation issues related to small population size in remnant prairies, etc. The course successfully engaged non-science students in the process of learning science in a non-threatening, team-based environment.

Using Multi-campus Research Collaborations to Teach Natural Tesources: The EREN Model Tracy Gartner

Department: Environmental Science; Biology

EREN (Ecological Research as Education Network) is a project funded by the NSF Research Coordination Network-Undergraduate Biology Education Program. One of EREN’s goals is to facilitate collaborative research projects in which undergraduate students address regional or continental scale ecological questions. While the key focus of the network is to provide opportunities for faculty and students at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs), faculty at any institution with an interest in improving undergraduate education are invited to participate in the network’s multi-campus projects. Started in May 2010 with 18 faculty representing 14 PUIs, the network has now grown to over 100 members representing 78 institutions. Multi-campus collaborations are projects that are conducted simultaneously by students at different campuses. The

same protocols are used at each site, the data is shared among institutions, and students compare the results they obtain on their home campus to results obtained by students in different environments. Projects can range from monitoring fairly simple, single events, to more complex long-term endeavors. Each project has one or more PIs who develop project protocols, and coordinate data collection and analysis. Projects focus on testable hypotheses and are designed with the goal of producing publication quality data. All projects are designed for undergraduates, and can be carried out as small group or independent student research, or as part of traditional laboratory sessions in courses such as Forest Ecology, Wildlife Management, or General Biology. Project protocols, datasheets and teaching tips are available on the EREN website (www.erenweb.org). EREN currently has four multi-campus projects underway: (1) monitoring the impact of riparian vegetation on stream temperatures, (2) establishing permanent forest plots to study the impacts of factors such as invasive species, proximity to edge, and urbanization on woody species composition and carbon / biomass accumulation, (3) measuring the impact of invasive species on aquatic and terrestrial litter decomposition rates, and (4) evaluating the impact of urbanization on turtle sex-ratios and age distribution. The permanent forest plot project is a long term project - participants will collect repeat vegetation measurements from tagged plots and upload their data to an online, searchable database, and registered EREN members will be able to download and compare tree and plot data over multiple years and across multiple sites. Further information about joining EREN, participating in one of the multi-campus projects, and/or proposing a project for which you are seeking collaborators, is available on the EREN website. Funding source: National Science Foundation Research Coordination Network (NSF-RCN)

The Bound: Venture to Overworld Matthew Gehrz, 2012

Major: Graphic Design/Theater Hometown: Racine, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Laura Huaracha

“The Bound: Venture to Overworld” is a graphic novel short story. My project is devoted to the creation of a tale set in the larger fictional story I am writing entitled The Bound. Although I have conceived of a number of manifestations for this project, I have chosen to focus on creating a short story as well as promotional “splash” pages that capture characters in various, out-of-context scenarios. The combined elements would serve to introduce the readers to this new world in which the main character finds himself. While not part of the main plot, “Venture to Overworld” will be a teaser for more of the larger story. I also seek to provide a subtle look at the fundamental truths and beliefs of my life.  This is one of the key elements to the art of storytelling in any “manga” or “Japanese graphic novel,” which I hope to highlight. My work would be centered on conceptual images created by a combination of my own 2D art style and digital rendering.  At the end of the project, I would present characters, locations, conflict, and other imaginative nuances that inhabit the world which I have envisioned.  My wish is that I can demonstrate my passion for this style art and storytelling by completing the project with a finalized, polished short story. 17


Celebration of Scholars

The History and Rise of Popularity of Auctions Scott D. Geiger Jr., 2013

Major: Business Management Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall and Mimi Yang

This paper tracks the history and development of auctions and the auction process through the lens of societal popularity and usage. How has their development impacted society and how has society impacted their development on both a local (United States) and worldwide level? By establishing types while tracking locations and time, cultural traditions may be tracked to the modern day. In the modern day, an analysis of how auctions are used, the different types represented, and the pros and cons of the process will be examined. Mechanical process studies will also be performed on the process of becoming a certified auctioneer locally, the buying and selling process, and the increasing popularity of the medium as a mechanism for transactions. I run auctions as a part of my own family business. As a part of this process, I intend to share anecdotes that are backed up by the research. I expect to discover a tie between the history of their development and what the future of the medium might bring, as well as to reach a deeper understanding of their impact globally as a result.

2012: Mythologies and Prophecy Morgan Gianola, 2014 Major: Neuroscience Hometown: Broomfield, Colo. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

The purpose of this projection is to present analyses of the creation stories of the Mayan people as they appear in the Popol Vuh and the Chalam Balam. They will be compared to the western creation story which comes from the Bible. It will discuss how these stories affect (and have affected) the lifestyle and point of view of the Mayan people, historically and currently. My presentation will focus especially on the difference between the western view of a linear world and history with the cyclical view, and concept of continual creation and destruction, in which the Mayan people believe. The poster will also include images that represent specific parts of the stories of each book and their place in the cultural framework. Some time will also be spent to address the existent prophecies about what is to happen in December of 2012, and explain how they relate/ are different from the end time stories from the bible (Book of Revelation).

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Economic Rationality or Irrationality: the Case of the National Football League Nathan Giebel, 2012

Major: Economics, Finance Hometown: New Lisbon, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Robert Schlack

Over the past two decades, the cost of attending National Football League (NFL) games has continued to rise, while ticket demand has remained unchanged. In this study, the goal was to determine whether consumer demand for NFL game tickets is price inelastic, or insensitive to increases or decreases in price levels. While the demand curve in economics is usually thought to be inversely related to price, studies in both sociology and economics suggest that the demand curve may be positively sloped for professional sports events and other events of the sort. Using cross-sectional data on attendance, stadium capacities, NFL ticket and merchandise prices, regional income data, and the prices of substitute goods, this study used ordinary and two-stage least-squares regression techniques to explore the phenomenon. While our results were not definitive, they strongly suggest that the price elasticity of demand for tickets for successful NFL teams may be close to zero, i.e., the demand for such tickets may not be dependent upon ticket price. In fact, the only significant determinant of consumer demand for NFL game tickets was found to be team success. Our results suggest the possibility of an interesting and perhaps highly relevant exception to what is commonly called in economics the “law of demand.�

A Possible Mechanism Of Invasion Resistance: Comparative Analysis of Behavior between a Native and Introduced Crayfish Species In Response to Experimental Variations in Dissolved Oxygen Christopher J. Goldsmith, 2012 Major: Biology Hometown: Plainfield, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Dan Choffnes

Individuals of a native (Procambarus gracilis) and an invasive (Orconectes rusticus) crayfish species were subjected to behavioral assays in response to experimental manipulations in dissolved oxygen content. The large diversity of crayfish in North America (about 350 species) and their translocation to foreign habitats by humans has led to many studies using these organisms as models of invasion. In particular, O. rusticus has expanded its range from the Ohio River Basin into Wisconsin, using the region’s ornate system of lakes and rivers to establish and outcompete native crayfish species. In southeastern Wisconsin (Kenosha County), a rather isolated population of endangered P. gracilis is at risk of being invaded by O. rusticus. Whether O. rusticus expands its range through connecting streams, overland in a flood, or is simply introduced by humans, it is important to assess whether this population of P. gracilis can withstand an invasion from O. rusticus. The Des Plaines River marsh habitat of this population of P. gracilis is of


relatively low oxygen content. Therefore, if this variable would have an influence on whether or not invasion is possible, a measurable response would likely be reflected in the behaviors of the crayfish. Crayfish of both species will be subjected to behavioral assays (foraging, agonistic, and learning capabilities) under normal and hypoxic conditions. Using the data, groups will be compared to assess the potential for either species to outcompete the other. This potential will suggest a mechanism for either invasion or invasion resistance. Based on the fact that P. gracilis individuals naturally reside in less oxygenated habitats, it is expected that they will be more resistant to the hypoxic experimental conditions than will members of the O. rusticus groups. *Experimentation is currently being carried out, so results are pending.

The “Civilized” Conquest

Tracking Vocal Resonance Progress Using VoceVista: An Undergraduate Research Project Molly Mason, 2014

Major: Music Hometown: Downers Grove, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Kathryn Hansen, 2014 Major: Music Hometown: Leavenworth, Kan. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Carolyn Griffith, 2014

Major: Studio Art, Spanish, Secondary Education Hometown: Naperville, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

It is the goal of my project to analyze the psychology behind the manipulation of people for one’s own gain through the life of António Vieira, a Jesuit priest in Brazil during the era of the conquistadors, and the world that George Orwell, a twentieth century British author, created in his novel “1984.” This topic is timeless and therefore significant because psychological manipulation is prevalent yet less obvious to notice, making it more difficult to confront and overcome than open combat. It is also more dangerous because, unlike control of the body, control of how people think is an absolute control. In order to achieve my goal, I have studied analytic articles about “1984” as well as articles about Vieira’s life and work and then compared and compiled the evidence. This research is still in progress, but I plan to present a compilation of my current evidence and my theories about the power and brutality of psychological manipulation.

Deep-Running Waters: Rivers and the Bounds of Mortal Action in the Iliad Joshua Grimm, 2013

Major: Classics, Great Ideas Hometown: Okauchee, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Chris Renaud

Rivers as boundaries, their symbolic importance, and the influence that these boundaries have on the narrative are important considerations when considering the geography of the Iliad. A critical reading of the Iliad, linguistic analysis, and examination of scholarship on this element of the epic might expose the role of rivers in the Iliad as boundaries delimiting mortal action and providing retribution for hubris. Specific places in the epic where analysis might be most fruitful in this context include Achilles’ battle with Scamander/Xanthus, Diomedes’ confrontation with Apollo in Book 5, the Shield of Achilles, and Priam’s journey to the Greek encampment in Book 24. The goal of this analysis is to come to a better understanding of what sort of boundary is being crossed by the heroes and where this boundary lies. As well, an analysis of the spatial relationships within the narrative itself may further examine rivers as boundaries between immortal story space and mortal story space.

Amy Haines

Department: Music

This is an ongoing research project that utilizes the computer vocal visualization program, VoceVista. The goal of this research is to track progress made in vocal resonance strategies by Carthage voice students. Process: Video, audio and spectral samples of resonance strategies employed by Voice student are recorded in the Voice Pedagogy Lab. Students sing vocalises (scales, intervals, vocal exercise patterns) and songs which are recorded using a digital movie camera in conjunction with the computer software VoceVista on a picture in picture device (SonoVu). We chart this data on a resonance chart, compare spectra print-outs, and compare clips from the video/audio/spectral master recordings. After subsequent Voice Lab sessions, we assist Voice students to understand the information available from their recordings. This information is significant in helping students to not only hear, but see progress made toward more effective vocal resonance strategies, In addition, Voice students have another process to identify and work on changing less effective vocal strategies. This research is significant for it affords singers another tool to track their work, and the Voice area another measurable way to track student outcomes. This research is unique, for while Voce Vista has been available for over 10 years, we know of no other institution that is tracking growth in singers in this visually measurable way.

“Cry for me, Argentina” Peronism and the Human Ego John Gutt-Jankowski, 2014 Major: Chinese/ Spanish Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

During the centuries, there have been many cases of manipulation by leaders. In Argentina, the best known was that of Juan Perón who used the cry of the poor and the “descalzos” to achieve the Argentine presidency with the promise to improve the position of those at the bottom of the social pyramid. The question for this proposal is Was Peronism self-serving or did the political position of the “descalzos” in the 19


Celebration of Scholars

government improve? Was the only thing that improved the Perón ego by means of his manipulation? Perhaps the only interest of Perón was his ego. Have the political situations of the “descalzos” and the other poor truly gotten better or did they continue to have less power than the citizens of the big cities? By examining the history of “Caudillismo” and Perón in a cross cultural context during the twentieth century, with examples such as Maoism in China and capitalism in the United States, we can discover that the idea of the Ego is shared everywhere in the world. Although there are different names, the events and effects are the same: the promotion of the Ego.

Aelbert Cuyp: Humanity in the Landscape Kayleen Hannigan, 2012

Major: German, Art History, Studio Art Hometown: Oregon Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Anne Cassidy

During the 17th century, Dutch landscape painting depicted man as a detached from the natural landscape. Aelbert Cuyp’s works are different. Filled with an extreme naturalism and realistic light, they show man as a natural aspect of the environment, just as the hills are. This stance is in contrast to other landscape artists of the time, such as Jan van Brueghel the Elder, who physically separates man and nature in his works. Little research currently exists regarding Cuyp, and there is a particular lack of in-depth examination and interpretation of his works. By examining a major and noticeable different between his works and those of other leading landscape artists of the time, we can add greatly to our current scholarship. My research includes work both with scholarly sources regarding Dutch history and Dutch landscape painting and with primary sources: landscape paintings of the 17th century. My main sources will be Cuyp’s The Small Dort, (about 1650-52) from the National Gallery of London as well as Brueghel’s The Village Festival, (1600) from the Royal Collection. The reality of Cuyp’s meaning would have been apparent to the society in which he was working, but became muddled over the long years. However, the difference in his stance brings the deeper implications of his work to light, including the idea of art as a perfected reality.

Tracking Effective Vocal Resonance Strategies Kathryn Hansen, 2014 Major: Music Hometown: Leavenworth, Kan. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

I am tracking the vocal resonance strategies of professional singers by collecting visual, scientific data of recorded performances on VoceVista, a visualization software program. My questions: 1. What are the features of the sounds these revered, professional vocalists are producing? 2. Can understanding these resonance strategies help me make more effective vocal choices? I take samples of the same pieces recorded by multiple great singers, than compare and contrast the visual results of their resonance strategies. I record this data by mapping it on a resonance chart, keeping video and audio logs, tracking variations, and printing out spectra pictures of significant details. VoceVista signal observation is not only increasing my auditory analytical skills, but is helping me 20

realize I can make a larger number of resonance choices in my own singing. This research is unique since few other students at Carthage are using a scientific visual aid to improve healthy vocal sounds. It is significant because it is helping me to sing more effectively now, and may someday help me help my own voice students see and understand the vocal sounds they make.

Female Human Trafficking: Origins and Implications for Identity Rachel Harrison, 2012

Major: Criminal Justice and Sociology Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

Abstract Why are women vulnerable to forced human trafficking in the United States? The twin goals of this study is to identify (a) factors that contribute to female vulnerability to sexual and other forms of trafficking, and (b) develop a labeling model of identity formation and maintenance for persons who are trafficked . More generally, the concept of trafficking is explored to develop a typology of types of trafficking. This study also compares sex with other forms of trafficking, such as bonded labor and domestic servitude. Feminist theory will be used to explain the origins and gendered politics and economics of trafficking. Labeling theory provides a model of the social psychological dynamics and personal reactions to involvement in sexual and other kinds of trafficking. Together, these theoretical perspectives provide a fuller view of the phenomenon of human trafficking. Sex and other forms of trafficking may also be compared with slavery. Different types of trafficking are forms of human slavery and scholarship on this topic should conceptualize it as such for a broader understanding that links across various types of human trafficking. Quantitative data will be used to detail the prevalence of and locations for some types of human trafficking. Qualitative data is used in this study to explore the rationalizations, interpersonal networks and development of self-identity and role commitment among persons who are trafficked sexually and in other ways.

How Income Inequality Affects Economic Growth Rates TJ Hedin, 2013

Major: Economics Hometown: Andover, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall

Ryan Shaw, 2013

Major: Finance/Business Hometown: Elkhorn, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall, Mimi Yang

The goal of the research is to determine how inequality in the distribution of income of a country will affect that country’s economic growth, measured in GDP per capita. As with most work in the social sciences, this question has been studied before, but we aim to build on previous work. This question is significant because if higher income inequalities are seen


to be correlated with lower economic growth rates, governments will have an incentive to promote income equality. If larger income inequalities are seen to have no effect on growth rates, then governments have fewer economic reasons to promote income equality. To determine the relationship of the two variables, the project will be utilizing indicators of growth rates, mainly the change in GDP per Capita per year, and comparing that with the country’s income inequality, which can be measured using Gini Coefficients. Taking these variables, along with other factors that have an affect on growth rates, and running a regression on them will demonstrate an estimate of the relationship of the two. We expect to report the estimated coefficients of the population regression line, showing to what degree income inequality affects growth rates. We will state its confidence interval and what percent of the variability in growth rates is explained by income inequality.

The Reichenau-St. Gall Virtual Library Julian Hendrix

Department: Classics & History

Located on the modern border of Switzerland and Germany, the neighboring monasteries of Reichenau and St. Gall were among the most important libraries of the ninth century. Yet now the hundreds of books created by the two monasteries are scattered across the world. The Reichenau-St. Gall virtual library (http://stgallplan.org/ en/index_library.html) presents a digital reconstruction of their collections, based on high-resolution photographs of each page of 170 manuscripts created at or owned by Reichenau or St. Gall. In these two collections we can survey the great range and depth of ninth-century intellectual life, from the comfort of our desk. On the one hand, this collection presents an opportunity for research at its most traditional: making critical editions, or identifying new, unstudied texts from the Carolingian period. On the other hand, the virtual library invites innovative research and new methods of approaching the material. The script in a manuscript now in Cambridge can be compared directly against that of a manuscript now in Naples; content traditionally omitted from critical editions, such as marginalia, can be studied in detail. A final benefit to the virtual library is it permits unparalleled access to these fragile documents for the general public, enabling anyone to explore these ancient books however they please.

Funding source: Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

The Cloning and Expression of C. thermocellum cellulases in E. coli Audrey Henning, 2012 Major: Biology, Neuroscience Hometown: Johnston, Iowa Faculty Sponsor: Patrick Pfaffle

The ability to harness cellulolytic enzymes, such as those found naturally in Clostridium thermocellum, under optimal conditions is extremely promising in producing ethanol as an affordable renewable energy source. In order to do this, cellulase genes may be cloned into the easy-togrow bacteria, Escherichia coli. Previously, cellulase genes celA and celB were cloned, and CelA showed some enzymatic activity. In this project, celC was successfully cloned. Also, it was found that by altering the method of extracting the cellulases from E. coli, the activity of the cellulases (especially CelA) greatly increased. CelA also seemed to be expressed more in the E. coli, as shown by SDS-PAGE. Therefore, CelA is currently the ideal candidate for an endoglucanase to be used on a larger scale. Future research should focus on cloning genes such as celS, which encodes an exoglucanase, and extending the enzymatic assay to include the breakdown of more crude forms of cellulose, such as filter paper. Funding source: Carthage College SURE program

Quest for Phage: the Madhatter Katie Hotze, 2015

Major: Biology and Neuroscience Hometown: Stockton, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason and Patrick Pfaffle

Bacteriophages are the most abundant life forms on Earth. They are viruses and are considered to be nonliving organisms. A recently named bacteriophage known as Madhatter has been isolated and purified. The soil sample containing Madhatter was taken from a flower bed outside of the Straz building at Carthage College. It is a temperate phage known to infect Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is a relative of M. tuberculosis. Madhatter could potentially infect M. tuberculosis and therefore be used in phage therapy. The methods used in the laboratory include enrichment, spot testing, streaking, titering, empirical testing, infection and harvest, isolating and purifying phage genomic DNA, restricting and analyzing phage genomic DNA, evaluating genomic DNA quality, and analyzing phage using electron microscopy. Madhatter produces large, turbid plaques with a halo appearance on the outermost portion of the plaque. Madhatter was found to have a low titer compared to other phage isolated in the class. After performing the restriction analysis of phage genomic DNA and evaluating genomic DNA quality, Madhatter was found to possibly belong to Cluster F. Using the transmission electron microscope, it was determined that Madhatter is a siphoviridae phage with the shortest tail of the 11 phage isolated by the class. Currently, burst size and growth rate are being determined for Madhatter.

Funding source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Alliance

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Celebration of Scholars

On the Establishment of PRI Sebastian Jacinto, 2015 Major: Economics Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

The project aim of this undergraduate study is on the creation of the political party ‘Partido Revolucionario institucinal’ (PRI) in Mexico. The goal for the project is to not only discuss on the aspect of creation but also the political foundations of the party. The project would also involve statistical data in regards to the power of the party (number of supporters, influence). With this data and knowledge the project will seek to understand and explain the power and influence of PRI, and their political structure within the party. For example the project aims to understand and answer who held the power within the party, and to what level was this new party Democratic in nature. The goal of the project is to concentrate in the ‘why’ and the ‘how’ of the creation of PRI, as opposed to just the history behind it. As such it will endeavor to comprehend the social force behind the movement, as well as the end result it produced. Furthermore the project would give comparisons to U.S. politics to facilitate understanding.

Phage the Phinal Phrontier: Isolation of Novel Phage Narwhal Elaina Jandourek, 2015

Major: Biology and Spanish Hometown: Shiocton, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason and Patrick Pfaffle

Mycobacteriophage are of great interest in recent research. Phage are not only the largest biomass on Earth, performing a major role in the carbon cycle, they are also key in the study of genetics and also in medical research. This research focuses on mycobacteriophage, which infect mycobacteria, which include species such as Mycobacteria leprae, Mycobacteria smegmattis, and Mycobacteria tuberculosis, which infects a third of the world’s population. The goal of the research was to isolate a novel mycobacteriophage from an environmental sample. A soil sample, collected at +42°37’27.10”, -87°49’23.30”, the bank of the pike river, yielded multiple phage. Through various purification techniques, a novel phage, Narwhal was isolated. From electron microscopy, the size of a single Narwhal phage was found to consist of a 131 nm tail and a capsid with a width of 50.0 nm, indicating it was a siphovirdae phage. The next stage of research consisted of annotating the genome of another novel mycobacteriophage, PattyP, which is classified as an A1 mycobacteriophage, which are known to infect Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By annotating the genome, open reading frames were declared, and if possible, assigned putative functions. Future research will focus on phage storage buffer, and the effects of divalent metal cations used in the phage buffer to create optimum phage replication. This research will use different divalent metal cations in phage buffer, with Narwhal and PattyP to determine optimum phage storage buffer for each phage.

Funding source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Alliance

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The Tragedy of Roland: A Poet’s Prize Rachel Jason, 2013

Major: English, Great Ideas Hometown: Deerfield, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph McAlhany

Roland, the eponymous protagonist of the medieval epic Chanson de Roland, offers a solution to the problem of self-efficacy in fashioning a literary legacy. Roland’s orchestration not only of his own fate, but of the reception of his final battle and death exhibit the need for this form of control. I examine how Roland first predetermines his heroic death at a festival at Aix, and then consciously follows through on his plan at the Battle of Ronceveaux. In his final prayer at his death, Oliver projects a care for others drastically different from Roland’s final thoughts and prayers, which center on his own legacy. Integral to the manner in which Roland attempts to control his legacy is his psychology, and elements of it emerge in Roland’s understanding of the role of vassalage. The poet offers up distinct alternatives to Roland’s view in the characters of Oliver, Ganelon and Naimon. Throughout the epic, several different characters make appeals to Roland in an attempt to persuade him in accordance with their perception of his psychology. The failure of these attempts puts Roland’s psychology on full display as he oscillates between the poles of his legacy, which find expression in two material forms: his sword and his songs. In the end, the poet reveals Roland’s ultimate fate is contingent upon the fate of his enemy Ganelon, and provides his final commentary in a closing image of absurdity: a battle between Tierri and Pinabel. Despite all of his efforts, all Roland’s endeavors to fashion his own legacy prove vain, and the poet asserts his ultimate control in his lasting portrayal of Roland.

Antonio Vieira: The Double-Edged Sword Darien Jefferson, 2015 Major: Neuroscience Hometown: Wauwatosa, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

Antonio Vieira, a Portuguese figure of the 17th century, is often portrayed as a heroic and honorable man who fought against slavery and protected the indigenous people from the Spaniards. With written and spoken word as his weapons, he advocated for natives’ rights, for a defensive war against Spain and worked to abolish slavery. Many of his ideals were based on democratic views of equality and ranged from equal taxation to better treatment of all human beings. Though his work appeared to have the purest of intentions, it is imperative to recognize one of his primary beliefs: the prophecies of Bandarra. These prophecies expressed that Portugal and the Church would be the foundation of the “Fifth Empire.” The expectation that the Portuguese Empire would unify the world both spiritually and culturally was the driving force behind Antonio Vieira’s actions. While it is true that his life’s work protected Mayan, Aztec, Incan, and Toltecan lives in a physical and basic sense, it severely damaged their cultural lives and eventually led to the eradication of native customs, spirituality, language, and overall mentality. Through an examination of Antonio Vieira’s actions, both the positive and negative impacts on native life will be presented.


Assessing the Effect Brownfield Redevelopment Projects on Surrounding Residential Property Values in Milwaukee using GIS and Spatial Analysis Brendon Jones, 2012

Major: Environmental Science Hometown: Saint Charles, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Wenjie Sun

Wenjie Sun

Department: Geography and Earth Science

This study assesses the effect brownfield redevelopment projects have on surrounding residential property values in Milwaukee County. Through multi-spatial and statistical analysis, this study attempts to show the spatial patterns of residential property values and their changes, and investigate to what extent this can be explained by the presence of nearby brownfield redevelopment projects together with other neighborhood demographics and property characteristics. The results of this study suggest brownfield redevelopment projects do play a positive role on surrounding property values, which adds to the existing knowledge and toolset in the literature and could potentially help local governments to attract more funding for brownfield redevelopment.

Funding source: SURE 2011

What is Most Interesting about Organizational Life? Todd Kelley

Department: Library and Information Services (LIS)

A preferences survey has been used over many years to gauge the most interesting aspect of workplace life. Participants were adult students who were employed and who were returning to academe for coursework towards master’s degrees in management. Respondents represented various fields of employment and came from work backgrounds in business, healthcare, education, and government (including military). The primary purpose of the survey was to help the new students adjust to their academic work by establishing a foundation of concepts that they would be working with during their studies as nascent management theorists. The selection of an area of interest would also allow them to consider their selected area as their specialty. Participants had eight areas of interest and concern to select from. In every cohort of students, the concept of organizational culture was selected more than any other. The runner-up category has varied somewhat. Participants were asked to write explanations explaining and justifying their choices. While the survey was not designed for research purposes, the aggregate data is intriguing and could lead to purposeful research. The function of this poster session is to consider 1) the most important questions that may be addressed by the existing data and 2) what additional data might be necessary if the questions were to be successfully addressed.

The Interaction between the Small, Noncoding RNA C.0293 and Two Proteins – Hfq and HU Elizabeth Kendl, 2013 Major: Biology Hometown: Racine, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Janice Pellino

Small, noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are found in bacteria and have similar analogues in eukaryotic cells. These specific RNAs are generally involved in gene regulation during cellular stress, such as acidic environments and cell starvation. Many small, noncoding RNAs interact with proteins. It is through interactions with proteins and other RNAs that these sRNAs are able to allow the cell to deal with stress. To examine the interaction between the sRNA C.0293 and the two proteins Hfq and HU, we attempted to purify these molecules in vitro and perform gel mobility shift assays to test their binding. The two HU subunits, HUa and HUb, were successfully purified, and the protein Hfq is on its way towards being purified. We were unable to detect binding between C.0293 and HU through the gel shift assay. Because of the lack of conclusive results, further work and different approaches could be used on this project to obtain a conclusion.

Funding source: Carthage SURE Program

Characterization and Chemical Modification of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) Rebecca Kent, 2013

Major: Biology Hometown: Crystal Lake, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Kristopher Koudelka

Chemically modified viral nanoparticles (VNPs) have the potential to be used for targeted drug delivery. For example, it is possible that VNPs could be used in the treatment of cancer to target specific proteins that are unique to tumor cells while avoiding healthy cells. This is unlike chemotherapy treatments, which target all cells that divide rapidly, thus destroying non-cancerous cells in bone marrow, hair follicles, and the digestive tract. Here, the goal was to characterize Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). Thus far, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) has been used to standardize the FPLC and UV- visible spectrophotometer. Fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) is used to separate and purify proteins, and was used here to determine whether the CPMV virus was intact. A UV-visible spectrophotometer measures the amount of light that is absorbed by a sample at a specific wavelength, and was used to determine the concentration of the CPMV virus sample. Next, the CPMV was labeled with dye and quantified using the UV- visible spectrophotometer. Labeled and unlabeled CPMV will also be analyzed using the FPLC to prove that the labels have been successfully attached to the virus. Finally, the virus was visualized using an electron microscope. Quantifying and labeling the CPMV were the first steps in characterizing the virus and its ability to be chemically modified.

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Celebration of Scholars

Isolation and Future Development of Lytic Mycobacteriophage Johnny Kirk, 2015

Major: Biology Hometown: Schaumburg Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason and Patrick Pfaffle

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacteria, and phages that were able to infect Mycobacterium smegmatis were isolated and analyzed through out this study. A lytic phage, CptKIRK able to infect M. smegmatis, was isolated from soil samples near the pike river trail on the Carthage campus, with a clear plaque morphology of a mix between pin-prick plaques and medium size plaques (about 1 cm in diameter). CptKIRK is a siphoviridae phage based upon electron microscopy, and restriction digest of CptKIRK DNA showed similar characteristics to cluster B and sub cluster B1 mycobacteriophages. CptKIRK, a lytic phage having the ability to infect M. smegmatis, may have the ability of infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and aid in developing therapeutic phage treatment against the disease tuberculosis. Further research will be performed on CptKIRK analyzing determinates of the mix plaque morphology. Length of incubation and temperature will be varied during the infection/ replication phases for CptKIRK with M. smegmatis. Burst size will also be determined to verify variables affecting plaque size and ratios of big to small plaques. Different mycobacteria will be used to test the phage’s host range such as Mycobacterium phlei to determine if different mycobacteria hosts have an effect on the plaque morphology, or possibly change the characterization of lytic phage CptKIRK.

Funding source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Alliance

The Battle of Lake Trasimene: A Comparison of History in Livy and Polybius Tim Knoepke, 2014

Major: Classical Archaeology Hometown: Jim Falls, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: D. Ben DeSmidt

The historians Livy and Polybius each had specific purposes and goals when they wrote their histories of the 2nd Punic War, fought between Rome and Carthage at the end of the third century BCE. Polybius, a Greek living in Rome during the 2nd century BCE, focused on historical accuracy; he researched his topic extensively: reading original letters, interviewing eyewitnesses of the events, and personally traveling the route the Carthaginian army took through the Alps. Livy was a Roman living at the end of the 1st century BCE. His history describes events with strong emotion and focuses on character and plot, rather than accuracy. This, then, is the basis for my research. The questions I seek to answer are why these historians wrote as they did and what are they trying to teach their readers. My poster will contrast the accounts of Livy and Polybius on the Battle of Lake Trasimene against the basic facts of the battle. As the project is still in progress, my expected results are to find the bias each had, as well 24

as to understand the historiography of their writings through an indepth study of word choice and context in the histories. My project is significant in the fact that rarely are these two historians compared side by side and, yet, this allows for their historiographical styles to stand out.

Wall Painting of the Early Shrine at Horvat Omrit Margaret Knowles, 2013

Major: Classical Archaeology Hometown: Lockport, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Daniel N. Schowalter

The focus of this research project is the second phase of the Early Shrine at Horvat Omrit. This phase in the Shrine’s construction includes a raised platform, steps, two faux marble pedestals, and the temenos wall. This corpus represents some of the best preserved examples of Roman painting in the Eastern Provinces. After careful consideration of the architectural styles and particular focus on the frescoed surfaces, the goal is to identify comparandua from the Hellenistic through Herodian periods in Israel and determine its artistic and historical context. This paper synthesizes previous scholarly research with particular consideration being given to the works of Silvia Rozenberg, Roger Ling, and Anne Laidlaw and the recent Interim Report on the Horvat Omrit Temple Complex. Unpublished findings from the 2010 and 2011 seasons will also be carefully examined. Guidance for this project is provided by Dr. Daniel N. Schowalter of Carthage College and Dr. Michael C. Nelson of Queens College. My research and the quality of painting have identified comparandua at Masada, Jericho, and Herodium and concluded that the second phase of the Early Shrine was built in the Herodian period following the popular styles, but created by a less skilled local workshop. Funding source: Omrit Excavation

Neural developmental differences in the Chick After Exposure to Monosodium Glutamate Benjamin J.H. Kober, 2013 Major: Biology Hometown: West Olive, Mich. Faculty Sponsor: Daniel Choffnes

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), as glutamate, is a neurotransmitter commonly studied in mammals. Previous experiments have demonstrated that exposure to 10mMol of MSG is lethal to nerve cells, while concentrations around 10microMol is considered the physiological level in the brain. I speculated that MSG above the mammalian physiological level might interfere with normal brain development, and to test this idea, I conducted an experiment in the model vertebrate chick. The effects of MSG on neural development in chick embryos were monitored after an injection of a dose of MSG above physiological levels on day 7 of embryonic development. The initial effects of the neurotransmitter were seen upon histological examination at day 12. The yolk, embryo and chorion all showed


significant changes when administered the MSG solution. This study demonstrates that the role of MSG extends beyond the nervous system during early vertebrate development, and that histology can be used to examine the cell structures implicated in induced MSG toxicity.

The Use of Witchcraft in Shakespeare’s Macbeth: Women, Power, and Mysogyny Anne Koenings, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Lindenhurst, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Maria Carrig

Shakespeare’s use of witchcraft within Macbeth is more than an element of entertainment in the play; witchcraft is used as a tool of misogyny against the main female characters. These women embody the stereotypical characteristics of the Jacobean era witch. Jacobean ideas about witches came from several sources: the reality of the actual witch trials and the printed tales about the prosecuted witches; popular traditions of magic, spells and the powers of individuals to summon demons; and a long history of patriarchal sexist views of women. By contextualizing Macbeth in terms the history of the witches during the Jacobean era, I argue that Macbeth dramatizes stereotypical attitudes the witch, male-lack of understanding of women, and serves as an instrument of misogyny. The use of a feminist framework aids in the understanding of misconceptions about women, as detailed in Macbeth. In The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir explains that men see themselves as the subject, and women are seen as the object or Other, expressed as the Virgin or Witch. Diane Purkiss, in her historical and feminist approach to Jacobean witches, shows the links between the persecutions of witches, popular literature, and male perception that witchcraft could grant women dangerous powers. Through a textual analysis of the play, incorporating historical and feminist theories, this essay reveals how the play demonizes women who posses power over men.

Baudelaire’s Flâneur: The Idler as a Product of and Protest against Modern Society Emily Kolesar, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Arlington Heights, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Maria Carrig

Charles Baudelaire’s poetry describes life in urban Paris in the 1820s to 1860s, depicting a bustling capitalist city. Individual identity and a single, cohesive system of meaning became fragmented as Modernity rendered these former systems ineffective. According to Baudelaire, the task of creating meaning is the noble burden of the artist, the one who extracts beauty from history and distils “the eternal from the transitory”. Several of Baudelaire’s poems describe the flâneur, or the “passionate spectator” who crowd-watches. The flâneur stands on the cusp between the temporary and the eternal, a prime position for discovering the beauty of the age. The artist-flâneur combines the

artist’s sensibility with the flâneur’s attentive eye to detail, recording his observations which may later be translated into poems. As a passionate spectator who takes time to observe the crowds, the flâneur stands contrary to the capitalist society in which he lives. However, the capitalist nature of his society influences him: it provides the backdrop in which he exists, as well as occasionally spurring him to turn his observations into commodities. Thus, the flâneur is simultaneously a product of and protest against modern society. A Marxist reading will help illuminate the nature and extent of the flâneur’s duality. This thesis examines three of Baudelaire’s poems, “The Albatross,” “In Passing,” and “Crowds,” in order to delineate the flâneur’s role, as well as the nature of the poet thrust into modern society.

The Effect of Population on River Discharge: Assessing the Use of Population Density as a Technique for Estimating Percent Impervious Cover, A Case Study of the Des Plaines River Watershed 1940-2010 Kristopher Kordek, 2012

Major: Environmental Science, Geography Hometown: Chicago Faculty Sponsor: Tracy Gartner

The population distribution in the United States follows a pattern of development known as urban sprawl. Urban sprawl and its associated development of impervious land cover types such as natural and agricultural land to impervious land cover types such as roads, parking lots, and structures has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and river ecosystems. As a watershed becomes increasingly developed, the discharge of the watershed increases and in effect the frequency and intensity of flood events increases. Using the Des Plaines River watershed as a case study, a model was made to demonstrate that the use of population density as a measure of percent impervious cover is a viable proxy to show its correlation with river discharge. Population densities of the watershed were correlated against the watershed’s discharge for the decades between 1940 and 2010. The model indicated with a significance value of < 0.001 and an R squared value of 0.92 that population density within the Des Plaines River watershed was positively correlated with the discharge of the Des Plaines River. The use of population density in this model as a proxy for percent impervious cover when land cover data is unavailable provides a robust approach for revealing how variations in level of development impacts watershed hydrology.

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Celebration of Scholars

Simplicated Aristotle Patrick Lambdin, 2013

Major: GIFW/Classics Hometown: Edwardsville, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Brian Schwartz

Galileo’s “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems” is a text often admired for its brilliance pertaining to the fields of astronomy and mathematics. In his book Galileo challenges the model of the universe proposed by Aristotle 1,900 years before, by claiming that the sun rests at the center of the universe, not the Earth. Despite the common praise for Dialogue’s bold revelations concerning the fields of science, rhetoric within the text remains largely unappreciated. In my research I discuss in detail a variety of techniques Galileo uses to persuade his readers. The paper takes a close look at several passages within the original text and discusses the effectiveness of Galileo’s techniques at persuasion. The paper also elucidates how Galileo employs methods such as deliberate misquotation, careful word choice, character development, and organization of arguments in order to persuade the reader before any of his scientific data is presented. Through close reading, Galileo’s genius in rhetoric is illuminated, and the paper concludes with the postulation that perhaps the rhetoric in the Dialogue is just as important as the science when it comes to persuading the audience that the earth does indeed revolve around the sun.

Make Cortez Famous Colby Lehew, 2012

Major: Biology/Spanish Hometown: Hinckley Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

Montezuma II or Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin is a contradiction of history. He has been portrayed as a religious fool, indecisive and weak-willed, and yet, during his reign as first speaker he spread the Aztec domination further than any other Aztec leader. As a warrior he courageously led his troops in war, moving down the Gulf, and conquering territory in both directions. As a ruler he extended his realm with tribute collected from 371 towns. It was not until the invasion of the Americas by Hernan Cortez did the fall of the Aztec nation occur, as well as the perception that Montezuma was indeed weak-willed. Looking deeper into the history of the Aztec empire the brutality of Spain becomes more evident, as well as the attempt to cover up these inhumane actions. My research will pertain to the criminal actions of the Spaniards on Montezuma as well as illustrate evidence that supports the idea Montezuma’s fall was not a lack in character but orchestrated by the Spaniards years before.

Dressing New York: A Look at the Effects of Eastern European and Russian Jewish Immigration on the New York City Garment Industry from 1890-1910 Kaitlin Lowry, 2012

Major: History and International Political Economy Hometown: O’Fallon, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Eric Pullin

This is a detailed look at the effect that one immigrant group had on the garment industry during the industrial revolution in New York City. How did Jewish immigrants effect the progression of the garment industry, and why were they so important to the evolution of the industry? Jewish immigration at the turn of the 20th century was unique as the immigrants were considered “new” immigrants and they came to America with different cultural values and norms that, along with old world connections, would help them influence the industry they became most associated with. Jewish immigration during the second industrial revolution changed the New York City garment industry because of the transferable skills of the immigrant, the ethnic enclave formed around the garment industry, and the social connections within the immigrant group.

An Investigation into Paradise Lost, Simile, and Epistemology Jason Lund, 2013

Major: Great Ideas and English Hometown: Broomfield, Colo. Faculty Sponsor: Seemee Ali

John Milton’s Paradise Lost considers the meaning of human fallibility. My research focused on Milton’s use of simile and his understanding of the fall. In Paradise Lost, Milton offers his own account of epistemology, or the study of the origins of knowledge. I found that Milton uses the simile as his primary tool to explore the origins of human knowledge. A thing cannot be understood in terms of itself, and can only be understood via its relationship to something other. Similes compare the likeness of two unlike objects, essentially highlighting a shaded gradation in between—the comparison deepens our understanding of both objects. Thus, my work focused on Milton’s selective use and omission of the word shade throughout Paradise Lost. I demonstrate that the word shade performs a dual purpose: it accentuates the gradation between apparently unlike objects and also stresses the impossibility of their unity. Shade consistently appears in each book of the poem except the last, because only by then have Adam and Eve gained enough experience to begin making comparisons. Milton frames the problem of human judgment in the poem’s final image, “They hand in hand, with wand’ring steps and slow/Through Eden took their solitary way” (XII.647-649). Adam and Eve are together and yet solitary. Although they have experienced the same events, they possess disparate perceptions leading to extreme differences in their judgments. This is what the ‘fall’ means: that our fallible judgment emerges from our comparison of shaded gray area. Funding source: SURE

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The Dō of Japanese Identity Michael Anthony Lynch, 2012 Major: Japanese, Asian Studies Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Yan Wang

The Japanese concept of dō (道), often translated as “way” or “path,” can most commonly be understood as a spiritual or philosophical principle. This principle implies a deeper body of knowledge and tradition with an ethical and aesthetic system connected to Japanese identity. While not originating in Japan, dō has been adapted into a distinctly Japanese principle, one that is inherently connected to the crafting of a modern Japanese identity. By exploring the martial arts, such as judō and aikidō, aesthetic traditions, including sadō (tea ceremony) and shodō (calligraphy),and religious ideologies in Shintō, a more complete image can be made clear in understanding the impact of dō on the Japanese identity. Traditional scholarly research, examination of personal experiences, and a cultural sensitivity is the path towards a better understanding a modern, contemporary Japanese individual. This thesis demonstrates that the philosophical principles of dō, through its various forms and applications, have had an impact on Japanese society, both historically and in contemporary terms. Further demonstrated is that traditional Japanese culture, through its relationship with a historical and modern identity of the Japanese people, allows access to understanding dō as a means to investigate the social and philosophical concepts that have contributed to a complex western understanding of Japanese identity in the 21st century.

The Characterization of Pacos19, a Mycobacteriophage From Lake Michigan Maxwell Machurick, 2015

Major: Biology Hometown: Kaukauna, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Patrick Pfaffle and Deborah Tobiason

Tuberculosis is an emerging problem around the world, due to continual development of mutated, antibiotic resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to counter the mounting problem, mycobacteriophage are being researched to further understand their bacterial lysing abilities. Pacos19 was the first mycobacteriophage isolated from Lake Michigan and was found to have the ability to lyse M. smegmatis. Upon experimentation, Pacos19 portrayed a mostly lytic and mixed plaque morphology when infecting M. smegmatis. After analyzing DNA fragments, Pacos19 was putatively characterized as a Cluster B1 phage, and electron microscopic imaging portrayed a siphoviridae phage morphology. The unique plaque morphology and cluster characterization gives Pacos19 potential in being a useful phage through diagnostic and treatment therapies of mycobacterial infections. Currently, mycobacteriophage PattyP’s genome, another class phage, is being annotated and functions analyzed to better understand its capabilities. Further research will be done to discover the various types of bacterial strains that Pacos19 has the ability to infect by inoculating these strains with Pacos19 and observing the production of plaques. If plaques are formed their morphology will be analyzed, as well as the absorption efficiency of phage to the mycobacterium.

Also, Pacos19’s stability versus PattyP’s stability will be tested by storing the phages in a fresh water samples from Lake Michigan and phage buffer samples to analyze phage infectivity with M. smegmatis over time. The tests will be unique because both Pacos19 and PattyP are the only phage isolated from a water sample. Analyzing the results and observations will develop a greater understanding of Pacos19’s as well as PattyP’s unique freshwater location isolation. Funding source: The Science Education Alliance of Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Social Media and Constructivism: Technology’s Impact on Assignment Design Marta L. Magnuson

Department: Library and Information Services

Social media has great potential to foster aspects of the constructivist theory of learning including reflection, social interaction, and active learning. However, there are unique considerations that must be made when using social media as a tool in constructivist teaching methods. Course content and objectives, learner selfefficacy, instructor experience with the technology, as well as the help features and stability of the technology must all be taken into account when creating effective assignments. This is an instrumental case study on the use of social media in an online graduate course about information literacy instruction. Glogster, PBWorks, Diigo, and Prezi were used to help students understand core information literacy concepts and reflect upon technology’s role in education. After completing each social media activity, students wrote technology assessment papers in which they described their reaction to the technology, the learning they believe they gained by doing the activity, and the technology’s potential use in information literacy instruction. Analysis of these social media activities and assessment papers was done though a constructivist lens and activity theory was used to help understand and contextualize each social media assignment’s activity system. In many studies on technology, emphasis is put on whether students are learning, but when using these technologies to teach future educators it is equally important to look at how they are used and if the students found them useful. Only then will they use these technologies in their own teaching and be open to new technologies as they progress in their careers.

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Celebration of Scholars

Western Civilization at the Jumping-off Point: Cormac McCarthy’s “The Sunset Limited” Dan Magurshak

Department: Philosophy Dept. and Great Ideas Program

Study on the Effects of Sled Pushing, Sled Pulling, and Tire Flipping on the Physical Strength of College-Aged Men Alwin Matthew, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: Park Ridge, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Martino

Colby Lehew, 2012 Tom Powers

Department: Political Science Dept. and Great Ideas Program

In “The Sunset Limited,” Cormac McCarthy offers a contemporary parable of the decline of the West. “White,” a modern intellectual—a man of science— has tried to commit suicide but is saved by “Black,” a Christian excon who has turned his life around. In the passionate debate between the two men that takes place in the ex-con’s apartment later (the work is a two-man play), McCarthy explores the question of whether the cultural resources of the West have finally been exhausted. Can the ex-con’s very modern version of Christianity save the intellectual—or even the ex-con himself—from the grave doubts and pessimism of the intellectual?

Nuclear-Spin Isotope Effects in Organo-Tin Compounds Steven A. Mathe, 2013

Major: Chemistry Hometown: Wauconda, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Walter J. Smith

Walter J. Smith

Department: Chemistry

The observation of inverted peaks in classic NMR spectra was attributed eventually to the radical-pair mechanism, and non-equilibrium distributions of spin states during reaction. The effect came to be known as Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP). While kinetic isotope effects are normally explained in terms of nuclear mass differences, one prediction of the theory of CIDNP theory is isotope effects driven instead by nuclear-spin differences. The process offers the opportunity to selectively enrich a sample in an isotope other than the least- or most- massive. This study selected the tin atom as the target element on which to study nuclear-spin isotope effects. We report here the successful synthesis of a target organo-tin compound which will be used subsequently to study isotope effects. Funding source: 2011 Summer SURE Program 2009 Faculty StartUP Grant

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Major: Biology Hometown: Hinckley, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Martino

Brady O’Shaughnessy, 2013 Major: Biology Hometown: Pekin, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Martino

Various studies have illustrated the usefulness of Strongman Training on physical fitness. Strongman Training is a physical fitness regiment focused around overall strength and natural movement patterns. Strongman Training includes activities such as: tire flipping, sled pulling, and sled pushing. A study done by the United States military illustrated the efficiency of Strongman Training by using these methods to rehabilitate soldiers and improve their overall fitness. Their data supported the hypothesis that this type of regimen is beneficial and is a practical way to improve the health of individuals recovering from physical injuries. The proposed study was to determine if fitness of healthy individuals could be improved through Strongman Training. Fitness gains were measured through performance on various strength-based exercises. In the experimental design of this study, the exercises utilized were tire-flipping, sled pushing, and sled pulling. The data showed there was an overall increase in pushups (+5.3), broad jump (+3.8”) and pullups (+1.5). The values obtained indicate a possible trend for the increase in strength of the participants. Our hope is to obtain additional data in order to increase the sample size and form statistically significant conclusions. Contributing Researchers: Brady O’Shaughnessy, Colby Lehew, Alwin Matthew, Eric Niwinski, Anne Boyler, Dan Ruffner, Paul F. Martino

Funding source: Carthage Faculty Research and Development Grant 2011-2012

A Low Cost Solution for Creating A Magic Moment in “Almost, Maine” Martin McClendon Department: Theatre

Producing the play “Almost, Maine” offers a technical director many challenges, including recreating the Aurora Borealis and making it snow onstage. But the challenge that kept me up nights was the Shoe Drop. The scene entitled “Where it Went” deals with a married couple coming to the realization that their marriage is over. At a key


point in the scene, a shoe drops into their midst, seemingly out of nowhere. It is the proverbial “other shoe” that drops, signaling the end of their relationship. So how to make a shoe drop on cue, on a limited budget? I decided for reasons of economy and expediency to try and develop a shopmade solution. Using only materials I had on hand, with the help of student Simon Skluzacek, we were able to create a device that dropped the shoe by remote electrical trigger. My presentation will feature the device (dubbed the X-27), rigged up so people can try it themselves. In order to solve the problem of the shoe-drop, I needed to determine exactly what kind of automated movement would lead to a shoe falling. First I thought about some kind of latch that could be tripped to release the shoe by its tied lace. But how to make it trip electrically? My first ideas involved using a car starter solenoid, but this would require 12-volt power, and trips to junkyards or auto parts stores. I didn’t have a solenoid, true, but I did have a bunch of old corded drills sitting around. I began to think about a way to translate their rotational movement into a side-to-side (lateral) movement that could be used to pull a pin. I hit upon using a large shopmade wood pulley to convert the spinning of the drill into a pulling motion. With the help of student Simon Skluzacek, we fashioned our apparatus. Once we hung the X-27 in place, I plugged it into one of the circuits of our lighting system. This allowed me to control it with the light board. Several experimental shoe drops allowed us to fine-tune the timing of the cue. We found that using 20% intensity for half a second was enough force to pull the pin, but minimized the motor noise. Furthermore, we wrapped the X-27 in scrap muslin to muffle the motor sound even more. The X-27 performed flawlessly every time. It is an extremely costeffective solution to the problem of using automation. However, there are some drawbacks, the primary one being the audible noise that the unit makes when it is on. And once the unit is circuited, one must remember not to turn on that circuit during channel check or the shoe will drop at an inopportune moment! I hope that my experience with the X-27 will inspire you to come up with unique solutions for your technical problems by using the materials to hand!

Language and Narration in Cervantes’ “Don Quijote” Hunter McKenzie, 2013

Major: Great Ideas Hometown: Lindenhurst, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Matthew Borden

Matthew Borden Department: Spanish

This is a continuing investigation into the linguistic complexity and narrative structure of Cervantes’ novel “Don Quijote.” The twofold aim of the research was to answer these questions: What is the significance of language in “Don Quijote,” and how does the experience of reading this text in its original form differ from reading a translated or modernized Spanish version? And, what is the purpose and significance of the innovative multi-narrator and meta-literary style of storytelling which Cervantes utilizes? The research was conducted through an independent study, with regular meetings for reading and discussion of the text in its original Renaissance Spanish form. The student traveled to present his

findings at the annual conference for Alpha Mu Gamma National Language Honor in Los Angeles, for an audience that included professors, language experts, and graduate students. The result has been unique insight into Cervantes’ perspective on idealism in literature, in which Don Quijote is revealed to be not a foolish lunatic, but a prudent, melancholic hero, and Cervantes emerges as an advocate of a compassionate, pluralistic humanism.

Forever Wisconsin—A Visual Homage to the Dairy State Bree McMahon, 2012

Major: Graphic Design and Art History Hometown: Appleton, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Laura Huaracha

When you think of Wisconsin what do you think of? Maybe it’s the Green Bay Packers? Or perhaps cheese, cows, and beer? Whatever comes to mind, its clear that the great state of Wisconsin has a certain “feel” to it. Growing up in Wisconsin instilled in me a love for the state and all it has to offer. I adore the bigger cities like Milwaukee and feel at home in the tiny towns like Little Chute. Going to Carthage and living on the shore of Lake Michigan in Kenosha made that love grow even stronger. As I began to finish my degree, with the prospect of graduate school on the horizon, I saw my time in the midwest coming to an end. I found myself with a collection of photographs from the past five years. They contained images of my hometown, the places I visited, and memories to last a lifetime. I decided to use my skills learned at Carthage as a graphic design student to put these photos to use. I dreamed up a project called “Forever Wisconsin”. With my collection of photos, and the use of typography and graphic design, I decided to put together a homage to the beautiful state I grew up in. This project would be in the form of a postcard series dedicated to different places in Wisconsin that hold meaning to me. I began by taking candid photos of every place in Wisconsin I went, and then cataloging those photos on my computer. I came across and collected interesting textured images that exuded the same “Wisconsin feel” my photographs had. With the magic of Adobe Photoshop and InDesign I began experimenting and created different compositions, trying to achieve the desired look of the project. The goal of “Forever Wisconsin” is to make everyone remember the little joys and quirks of growing up or living in the state. I often find its “hometown” and “laid back” vibe giving way to waves of nostalgia. The roots anyone grows here will stay with them forever. Wisconsin is in my blood, and I wanted to seize that. “Forever Wisconsin” will capture all aspects of the Wisconsin lifestyle. This series is an ongoing process, and with time, will trigger memories for anyone who has spent time in this neck of the woods.

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Celebration of Scholars

The Secret “Lives of Others” Michael McShane Department: Great Ideas

Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck’s 2007 Academy Award winning film, “The Lives of Others,” posits that the attainment of humanity represents a rare and wonderful accomplishment. In the movie, two or three characters manage to penetrate the lies of ideology, see the world as it really is and then to act in accordance with their newfound insight. My paper engages a comparison to Plato’s dialogue, “Meno,” as a way of gaining insight into the dynamics of psychic selftranscendence as depicted by Donnersmarck in his lovely film. The paper traces Donnersmarck’s use of certain symbolic patterns and his consideration of art as a catalyst for freedom. It also discusses Donnersmarck’s apparent view of the high price of human liberty, a price to be paid in terms of the sacrifice of private ties.

The Art of Collaboration Staging, Costuming, and Directing GHOST BIKE Shannon Meyer, 2012

Major: Theatre-Technical Production and Design Hometown: Niles, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Herschel Kruger

Kim Instenes

Department: Theatre

Herschel Kruger Department: Theatre

Five years ago the theatre department faculty envisioned an initiative that would become a cornerstone of the department and create an identity that makes Carthage College Theatre unique. The idea was to commission a new play each year and premiere the productions at Carthage during the spring semester. GHOST BIKE is the fourth original work we have commissioned and each project has brought its share of challenges and learning experiences. Each production has also explored very different themes and ideas and given us an array of stories and styles of performance. In GHOST BIKE it was easy to be drawn in conceptually by a retelling of the Orpheus and Eurydice myth while chasing around the streets of Chicago and the Underworld on fixies, BMX’s, and other types of velocipedes. The task then was to bring it all to life with 18 different locations and a dozen different time periods and styles of dress. Student scenic designer Shannon Meyer, Kim Instenes faculty costume designer and I had several concept/design meetings trying to work through the puzzle of places and people and how we could align our choices, and create a multifaceted and timeless

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world. Playwright Laura Jacqmin attended rehearsals, answered questions, and gave us rewrites even as we approached opening night. This part of the process reflects the nature of working with a playwright on original work and the importance of creative problem solving and collaborative interaction. From workshops, to design meetings, to auditions, to opening night the value of this experience is immeasurable. The process has so many challenges, but it is the truest test of our work as theatre artists, and our goals as theatre educators.

Life becomes Art becomes Life Shannon Meyer, 2012

Major: Theatre Hometown: Niles, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Ryan Peter Miller

Ryan Peter Miller Department: Fine Arts

As part of a comprehensive liberal arts education, the Visual Arts furthers students’ ability for critical thinking, creative problem solving, and the realization of mental projections into the tangible. Essential in the refinement and expression of concepts, abstract reasoning is also fundamental in the development of symbols and language. Through the Visual Arts students distill our perceptible experience into the primary building blocks of communication, synthesizing these symbols into a new perceivable reality. As windows into alternate existences, these manifestations illuminate aspects of our lives that otherwise unperceivable. Visual Arts education trains students to visualize strategies across disciplines, seeing unique projections through their mind’s eye, and providing the dexterity and fortitude to fabricate tangible solutions. “Life becomes Art becomes Life,” seeks to understand how artists, historical and contemporary, have bridged the rift from the insular and often impenetrable territory of gallery/museum exhibition into broader, democratic venues of stage and film. This serves a foundation to understanding one of many ways the Visual Arts extend to our lives. As a case study, student Shannon Meyer will provide a narrative explicating how the Visual Arts have informed her practice of Scenic Design as a Theatre major. Her presentation of Ghost Bike: Scenic Design has also been proposed as part of the Celebration of Scholars. Meyer’s experience will be supplemented examples of her 2D and 3D studio work, along with research of other artists who have made this transition, including but not limited to Jim Henson, Tim Burton, and Ron Mueck. A video presentation of artists’ gallery and screen work will present a way for those trained in the visual arts to move beyond the “White Box” of the gallery into the stage, screen, and living room of our world audience.


Scenic Design: “Ghost Bike” Shannon Meyer, 2012

Major: Technical Theatre Production and Design Hometown: Niles, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Martin McClendon

Our theater program commissioned a new play by Laura Jacqmin, “Ghost Bike,” for the spring 2012 season. Herschel Kruger was the director and I did the scenic design. The play is a retelling of the Orpheus and Eurydice myth. When Eddie is killed in a biking accident, Ora travels to the underworld to have one last conversation with her best friend. Set in modern day Chicago and the Underworld, the play incorporates aspects of Greek, African and Chinese mythology. My display will demonstrate the research and creative challenges involved in creating a world references many different cultures and locations. Emphasis will be given to the evolution of the set design through draftings, drawings and models. The challenge was to construct 18 different locations onstage while creating a way to fluidly travel between them and allow space for bicycles to be used onstage.

The Food for Learning Project Prisca Moore

Department: Education

Mary Bohning

Department: Division of Natural Sciences

The Food for Learning Project is a collaborative project where students from the teacher education program at Carthage work collaboratively with 11th grade students at Harborside Academy, public charter high school in Kenosha Unified School District (KUSD) and students in the horticultural program at Gateway Technical College (GTC). Carthage students work weekly throughout the school year with students at the Kenosha School of Technology-Enhanced Curriculum (KTEC) to sustain their school gardening program to grow fresh produce to donate to local food banks. Carthage students collaborate with the KTEC students in providing service to their community by supplying the Shalom Food Pantry with over 44 pounds of fresh produce! This presentation will celebrate the work of the Carthage students who authored these grant proposals as well as the students from the teacher education program who have worked to implement these projects! Carthage students collaborated with Prisca Moore and Mary Bohning to design and submit the grant proposals to the Healthy Classroom Foundation. A total of 48 Carthage students have worked with KTEC students developing the classroom hydroponic and aquaponic systems and their worm composting systems. In this presentation we will share photos of our work as well as lesson plans and teaching materials utilized in our work with the elementary and middle school students.

Funding source: 2010-2012 Grant from the Wisconsin Nutrition and Physical Activity to Gombat Obesity Initiative, a 2011-2012 State Farm Youth Advisory Board Grant, and two grants from the Healthy Classroom Foundation for 2011-2012

“For the rain it raineth every day” The Complex Sexuality in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night Nicole Motta, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Chicago Faculty Sponsor: Maria Carrig

Where does desire originate? Sexual desire and the subsequent orientations that derive from said desire have eluded both scientists and authors for all of recorded time. Civilizations have persecuted and promoted specific sexual orientations throughout history, yet bisexuality has been neglected in the Western literary tradition. Bisexuality is particularly noticeable in the study of Shakespeare’s plays, especially Twelfth Night. In looking at the text with a bisexual lens, it can be seen that several of the characters in William Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night are used to show a range of sexualities and the play can be seen to suggest the idea that society as a whole is bisexual. The characters that I examined in this thesis are Viola, Sebastian, Olivia, Orsino, and Antonio. Viola’s sexuality is that of a static, heterosexual character, and the fluidity of her character are analyzed. Sebastian’s sexuality is that of as a static, heterosexual character, which is explored as well as his character’s fluidity. Antonio is a static, homosexual character in Twelfth Night. Olivia and Orsino are examined because of their connection to the romantic connections throughout the play and the resulting revelation, or epiphany, which is their bisexuality. Using these ideas and analyzing the characters’ dialogue and choices, I have explored the bi-normativity of the society within the text as well as the reflection of that without.

Better Software Documentation with Storyteller Russ Mull, 2012

Major: Computer Science Hometown: Lake Forest, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Mark Mahoney

Nathan Fulton, 2013

Major: Computer Science; Mathematics Hometown: St. Louis Faculty Sponsor: Mark Mahoney

Operation-based version control systems fail to document both the origin and context of fine-grained operations. The failure to document these properties leads to a loss of valuable information about how systems change. Event-based version control overcomes this shortfall by defining each change as a transformation of a previous event. This approach preserves more information about the merge process, simplifies the definition of transformation types, permits efficient conflict detection and improves conflict resolution. This presentation will illustrate these advantages by describing the branching and merging algorithms for an event-based version control system. Funding source: SURE Grant

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Celebration of Scholars

Political Engagement Among College Students Desirae Murphy, 2013

Major: Social Work Hometown: Savage, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Danielle Geary

Often, college students are labeled as unmotivated and disinterested in American politics. However, the record voter turnout among young voters in the 2008 Presidential election questioned the political engagement of college students. The voter turnout of 2008 showed that younger generations are more involved in political activity than initially believed. As the 2012 presidential election is approaching, the intention of this study is to better understand college students’ political engagement. Examining the role of technology, popular media and social media outlets, the anticipated outcome is a deeper understanding of how students receive information regarding politics. Ultimately, this understanding will enable methods of how best to engage students in the political conversation.

Sexual Risk Taking and Emotional Well-Being in Adolescents Natalie Murray, 2013

Major: Criminal Justice/Sociology Hometown: Aurora, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Wayne Thompson

What factors determine levels of risk for sexual behavior in adolescents? This study uses Wisconsin At-Risk Youth Survey data to examine this question. Youth who have feelings of sadness and thoughts of suicide and depression are more likely to participate in sexual risk-taking behavior. Substance and alcohol usage contribute to risky sexual behavior. Additionally, those youth who feel negative about their future and do not have an encouraging support system are also more likely to participate in risky sexual behavior. Indicators of risky sex for this study include not using contraceptives when sexually active, earlier onset of sexual activity, using drugs or alcohol before sex, and having a high number of sexual partners. The association between risky sexual behavior and the diminished emotional well-being by youth is established and discussed in this analysis. Depressive symptoms and low selfesteem are associated with sexual risk taking. Socialization theory can be used to demonstrate the importance of values and standards placed upon adolescents in their family and peer contexts. By having expectations for their futures, youth are more likely to make safer choices and decisions. Adolescents who assign high priority to school, family, and peers may lower their levels of risk for sexual behaviors.

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A Helping Hand or Sympathetic Exploitation: An Analysis of CauseRelated Marketing Megan Neacy, 2013

Major: International Political Economy, Pre-law Hometown: Batavia, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall and Mimi Yang

Natalie Tosti, 2013

Major: Business Management & Finance Hometown: Chicago, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall and Mimi Yang

Katie Niemeyer, 2013

Major: International Political Economy / Economics Hometown: Chatfield, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Joseph Wall and Mimi Yang

Cause-related marketing (CRM) campaigns have emerged as popular marketing strategies among companies who are vested in the classical economic belief in “doing well by doing good.” Between 2005 and 2006, CRM grew to be a $1.4 billion industry and is still gaining ground with popular campaigns such as TOMS shoes and Product RED. This development in the social responsibilities of corporations is believed to be partially attributed to the general public’s growing concern for global welfare. Companies such as TOMS shoes and Product RED create a mutually beneficial relationship between for-profit businesses and charitable organizations by creating “one-for-one” programs or donating proceeds to a specific cause. However, recent discussions suggest that CRM in developed countries exploits the causes it claims to help by utilizing commodity racism and creating another outlet for neocolonial practices within developing nations. Additionally, academic discourse evaluates the true ethics and morality behind CRM. Through research and bottom-up analysis, we expect to find reasons for the rise of trans-global cause-related campaigns as an emerging niche market. Additionally, we expect to explore the costs and benefits of these campaigns for all parties directly and indirectly involved in the market transaction.


Yangsheng: Nurturing Life in Contemporary Beijing Scolastica Njoroge, 2012 Major: Biology Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Dan Choffnes

Kala Istvanek, 2013

Major: Asian Studies and English Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Dan Choffnes

Chinese medicine is an ancient practice that views the human body as an integrated whole. This concept of integrity is the product of a system of several theories, such as Yin-Yang and the Five-Phases, whose main purpose is to maintain balance between the body and the environment. These theories are also an important element of yangsheng? (health preservation), which is the foundation of life nurturing arts. The goal of this study was to characterize the use of life nurturing activities and determine whether peoples’ practices match the expectations of formal and classical traditional Chinese medical doctrine. We interviewed elderly yangsheng practitioners on why they pursue their activities and how those activities benefit their health. We then analyzed their responses in order to determine whether the folk medicine of daily living is consistent with the ideas highlighted in the formal and classical texts. Our interviewees relayed ideas about nutrition, exercise, and emotional balance that were consistent with those of the Chinese medical texts. However, beyond the superficial layer of homogeneity, there was substantial diversity about fundamental ideas like Yin-Yang and the Five-Phases theory. The diversity in their responses can be attributed to their varied sources of information. Funding source: Freeman—ASIANetwork Student-Faculty Fellows Program

Report from the 2012 Clinton Global Initiative University Meeting Vivian Adhiambo Onano, 2014 Major: Biology Hometown: Kisumu, Kenya Faculty Sponsor: Cynthia Allen

Despite the increase in the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), HIV/AIDS still remain a major challenge to the health and development in many African countries. The impact of HIV/AIDS varies considerably in the countries of the region, depending on the size and duration of the outbreak. In 2010 an estimated 34 million people in the world were living with HIV and 23 million were from Sub-Saharan Africa. In Sub-Saharan Africa more women than men are living with the virus. Young women between the ages of 15-24 years are as much as eight times more likely than men to be HIV positive, a finding is attributed to gender based violence. Sub-Saharan Africa is also facing orphan crisis as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and it is home to 90% of children orphaned by AIDS globally. These children are at an increased risk of poverty, homelessness, school dropout

and discrimination. The work is still in progress and I am planning to collect more information and network with experts when I attend the Clinton Global Initiative University meeting in Washington D.C from March 30 - April 1. This is a conference meeting that was started by former President Clinton to engage the next generation of leaders on college campuses around the world.

Individualistic Versus Collaborative learning James Oren, 2012

Major: Psychology Hometown: Algonquin, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Ingrid Tiegel

Given the increase in competition due to the globalization of markets, it is now more important than ever to effectively and efficiently teach our youth the lessons they will need in later life. As a result of the lack of research and innovation in the classroom, slowly but surely American youth has been slipping in educational rankings in both primary and secondary schools. This study focused primarily on the controversy between individualistic vs. collaborative learning and which method facilitates learning more effectively. Many studies suggest collaborative learning yields better test results and fosters creativity in a business setting. Therefore, this study goes farther into this idea, aside from seeing if this is also the case in the classroom and tests, sees if there is retention of knowledge gained in this scenario so those who participated in the group may carry this knowledge into other groups. This study examines information from previous studies on the topic plus, an experiment created and run for this project. This experiment took place in a classroom to show how the collaborative method can be utilized in schools and later in life in the business setting. Already many businesses are adopting the collaborative model and mixing departments to form interdisciplinary groups to tackle company functions and objectives, for example many product teams are set up in this manner.

Satanic Spectacle: Milton’s Commentary on Restoration Politics in “Paradise Lost.” Shannon O’Shea, 2012 Major: English Hometown: Aurora,Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Maria Carrig

In my thesis, I further the argument made by critic Laura Lunger Knoppers that Milton’s use of the spectacle and joy in Paradise Lost is a critique on the politics of joy that characterized Restoration politics, and the court of King Charles II. I use deconstructionist theory to explore how Milton contrasts the worldly, excessive false joy of Satan and Hell, with the humble, natural joy of God, and Adam and Eve before the Fall. In exploring the oppositions and the dichotomies inherent in the Biblical Fall myth, I not only find further support within the language itself for Knopper’s assertion, but propose that Milton chose this specific story precisely because its oppositions lend themselves to his critique of Charles II and Restoration politics, and also because the Biblical setting provides a screen behind which to safely make these criticisms in an unsafe time for Milton and other royal critics. In outlining some of 33


Celebration of Scholars

the important historical aspects of the revolt against King Charles I, the Interregnum, and the Restoration, I can connect what is reflected in the poem more firmly with the facts. “Satanic Spectacle” widens the discussion of political commentary in Paradise Lost. In delving into the polarized language and setting, it illustrates reasons behind Milton’s choice of epic, and proves how Restoration politics are being linked with godlessness and evil through close reading.

How to Empower African Women to Succeed In Business Maureen A. Osogo, 2012

Major: Business Management and Marketing Hometown: Nairobi, Kenya Faculty Sponsor: Mark Miller

If Africa is to have any hopes of improved and enhanced development, it must invest in the women. Empowering women will not only help them to be successful in business, but will also unlock the full economic potential of African nations. Women are very talented, hardworking, and entrepreneurial and studies show that they work harder than men. African women have not only been agricultural workers. Their skills spread across fields such as business, medicine, information technology, marketing, law, economics and design among many other skills, yet very meager resources are allocated to them. Many African women have ventured into business, and have the potential for succeeding and becoming entrepreneurs and contributing to the development of Africa. Although most women in Africa engage in micro-level business, only a small percentage finally moves into being entrepreneurs. My research explores various credible sources and seeks to find ways to help African women to grow their business from micro-level to bigger business ventures. The alternatives proposed are educating these women, providing them with land ownership rights, introducing them to technology, according them access to credit, and allowing more political involvement and decision making process opportunities. I concluded my research by proposing that all these alternatives are critical to African women’s success in business and highlighted the benefits and challenges of each of these alternatives.

Assessing ancestor-descendant relationships with a focus on nervous systems Dan Parks, 2012

Major: Marketing Hometown: Mt. Prospect, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Scott Hegrenes & Dan Miller

Rachel Hammer, 2013

Major: Neuroscience Hometown: Schaumburg, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Scott Hegrenes & Dan Miller

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Donald Greathead, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: Hawthorn Woods, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Scott Hegrenes and Dan Miller

Megan Charette, 2012

Major: Neuroscience Hometown: The Woodlands, Texas Faculty Sponsor: Scott Hegrenes & Dan Miller

Kenny Rudy, 2012

Major: Exercise and Sport Science Hometown: Rockton, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Scott Hegrenes & Dan Miller

Sasha Elan Turk, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: Highland Park, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Scott Hegrenes & Dan Miller

Scott Hegrenes Department: Biology

Dan Miller

Department: Neuroscience and Psychology

A biologist and a neuroscientist brought 21 students to a tropical coral reef in the Caribbean to examine the diversity of life as part of a collaborative teaching and learning endeavor. After becoming certified scuba divers we explored the reef and photographed organisms. We used the morphological characters that define the various life forms to reconstruct a cladogram showing evolutionary relatedness. One of the characters used in the construction of the phylogenetic tree is nervous system complexity. This poster arranges photos of marine life taken on this J-term trip to show the evolutionary relationships among various life forms with special emphasis on nervous system variation.


Key Factors That Influence How a Cosmetic Company Should Develop Different Brands. Janki Patel, 2012

Major: Marketing and Psychology Hometown: La Salle, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Jan Owens

Often, when companies acquire new brands or develop new brands, either the current brands drops in sales and/or the new brand does not meet sales expectations. Consumers end up switching to brands that better meet their needs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the many factors that influence how different brands should be developed within a cosmetic company with a multi-brand strategy. This research paper explores the competition between brands, brand positioning, types of brands, and merchandise mix to analyze how companies can learn from previous mistakes and have better brand development and support. In essence, how companies can help their brands coexist will be discussed in depth. The paper will use current secondary resources including books and articles about branding to develop an understanding the best practices of brand development and support. It is expected that cosmetic companies will have to pay attention to the following factors: which customers the new brand will attract, what resources are being allocated to each brand, where the new brand fits into their current marketing mix, what company brands the new brand will compete with, and how the brand will work into the consumer decision making process at the retail level.

Finding Muphaffle: A Look into the World of Phage Jacelyn Peabody, 2015

Major: Biology and Neuroscience Hometown: Colorado Springs, Colo. Faculty Sponsor: Patrick Pfaffle and Deborah Tobiason

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect and kill mycobacteria. Some even are able to infect Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium leprae, the leprosy causing bacteria. Such phages may be used in aiding in the development of tools for mycobacterial genetics and medicinal purposes such as phage therapy in the future. A lytic phage, Muphaffle, able to infect Mycobacterium smegmatis, was isolated from soil samples taken from a moist, forested area alongside the Pike River at Carthage. Studying phages that infect M. smegmatis, a harmless, non-pathogenic mycobacteria, holds noteworthy potential for gaining insights into phage biology and mycobacteriaphage interactions. Muphaffle was isolated from an environmental sample, and the phage population was purified through streak testing and multiple titer assays. Muphaffle exhibited two distinct plaque morphologies, 15% being pinprick sized and the rest being slightly larger. The morphology of the phage particles was observed by electron microscopy revealing that Muphaffle is a siphoviridae phage with similarities to phages in the B1 sub-cluster. DNA was purified, digested with endonucleases and then electrophoresed with size standards in order to compare restriction map with those of other known mycobacteriophages. Based on these analyses, Muphaffle

appears to be in the B cluster. Further research is being conducted investigating the relationship between discrepancies in Muphaffleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plaque morphology and growth time in Mycobacterium smegmatis and in an additional host, Mycobacterium phlei. Funding source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Alliance

The Impact of Feminism on Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Role in Society: Comparing Hillary Clinton and Argentinean President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner Charity Perez, 2013

Major: Spanish and Elementary Education Hometown: Racine, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

This research inquires into the impact of the feminist movement on women in American society. Following the feminist movement in the United States, several aspects of womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives changed, impacting their role in society. Today, because of the feminist movement which occurred several decades earlier, women in the United States hold many rights equal to men. The movement however was only partially successful in dismantling the belief that women are inferior to men. In comparison of two prominent political figures, Hillary Clinton and Argentinean president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, it is noted that there are significant differences in gender roles between both in their respective societies. Both of these women aspired to be the president, however only Cristina Kirchner was successful in her endeavor. In addition to other Latin American countries, Argentina does not share the same views as those of the United States concerning gender roles within society. In light of an event such as this, one can ask whether the effects of the American Feminist movement resulted in all that was hoped. The lives of both women will be studied and compared.

19th Century Irish and German Immigration: Formation of a Stereotype Melissa Polasik, 2012

Major: History & Social Sciences Hometown: Hoffman Estates, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Stephanie Mitchell

Using immigrant diaries, interviews, census data, statistics, and secondary sources, I assessed the factors of gender and economic status based on resources and skills to determine why the Irish immigrants fared worse than the Germans. During the research process I discovered that stereotyping inhibited Irish success. Using the above factors, I determined that the stereotyping influenced the degree of success that an ethnic group experienced, and was based on cycles of successive, mutually reinforcing characteristics. To illustrate, I designed diagrams depicting the German and Irish stereotype cycles, diagrams assessing gender, and a pay scale chart comparing the wages of both immigrant ethnicities. I discovered that the German immigrants experienced a cycle of positive reinforcement because they had skills

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Celebration of Scholars

and resources allowing for better physical and social mobility to be financially successful. However, the Irish experienced a cycle of negative reinforcement because they were poor and unskilled, lived in dirty slums with low mobility, leading to high unemployment and low wages. These results allowed me to assess stereotype formation, understand that stereotypes can be positive or negative, and that they can be applied to successive immigrant groups in a similar manner.

Hikikomori, a Burden on Japan.

Sandra Bisciglia Department: Religion

Cathy Duffy

Department: Business

Ashley Pourier, 2013

Major: Japanese, Asian Studies Hometown: Porcupine, S.D. Faculty Sponsor: Yan Wang

Hikikomori is a Japanese term that translates to “shut-in,” “recluse,” or more commonly known as “social withdrawal;” a term coined in 1990 that has recently been added to the Oxford Dictionary. The term dealt with extensive psychological and sociological research on the people known as hikikomori, people who withdraw themselves from society to the safety of their room for a minimum of six months and the Hikikomori Syndrome, not agoraphobic but not quite depression. My intentions are to write from the cultural perspective on the subject arguing that hikikomori is a burden on the Japanese society as a whole. What research I’ve read is evident to the fact that hikikomori syndrome is damaging to the individual person and close family, but Japan works as a self-sustaining country with little outside support. From a cultural perceptive I used Japanese concept terms, such as Amae (dependency), Tokokyohi (school refusal), Tatemae to honne (private and social) and Uchi soto (inside outside) to analyze the cultural aspects that may have caused the birth of the hikikomori. As well as analyzing the demographic of hikikomori such as age, gender, length of time as hikikomori, family income, place of living. I briefly touch on a nonprofit organization called New Start who rehabilitates hikikomori to rejoin society.

The Scholarship of Women Working Together Penny Seymoure

Department: Psychology and Neuroscience

Chris Renaud

Department: Classics and Women’s and Gender Studies

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Pamela Smiley

Department: English

Carolyn Hudson Department: Art

Ellen Hauser

Department: Sociology and Political Science

Jean Preston

Department: Writing Center and English

Ruth Fangmeier

Department: Social Work

Diane Levesque Department: Art

For the last two years the Women’s and Gender Studies Program (WGS) and the Women’s Faculty Learning Community (WFLC) have worked together to enhance opportunities and visibility for the scholarship of women at Carthage. Together, these faculty role models have provided leadership, mentorship and inspiration for students to take their skills and insights beyond the college.


Accomplishments: • Creating in the Wild Zone, a collaborative art show featuring the talents of faculty and staff women. • Savannah Sawle represented Carthage College at the Practicum in Advocacy at the United Nations in New York City. She was one of twenty students chosen by the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom to attend the Committee on the Status of Women. • WFLC leadership speaker series featuring Carthage alumna, faculty, and students, including Ms. Sawle. • WGS sponsorship of a student attending the summer Mount Mary College Leadership Institute. • WFLC partners with a student book club at Reuther High School in Kenosha to develop female leaders and hosted author Danielle Evans for a public book reading and discussion at Carthage College. Goals: • The WFLC is introducing a Carthage Symposium Leadership class with a new model for all Carthage symposia. • The WGS will hold a leadership conference in 2013 to accompany the new Carthage Symposium.

Language: A Double Edged Sword Madeline Price, 2014 Major: Music Education Hometown: Novi, Mich. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

My research aims to show an understanding of Spanish culture and language through a historical fiction story. This story weaves together historical information about the cause and effects of globalization and conquest on a society into a fictional narrative. It will explain motives for immigration to different countries as well as historical social standings. This work will also show the power of language in terms of an individual’s societal status and the impact language can have on a person’s life. By writing a narrative, I hope to help the reader connect at a personal level to some of the trials and obstacles one would encounter in certain social contexts. Shortly after Spain conquered Latin America, Spanish was revered as a powerful language and all were required to learn it. This caused a division among the social classes, but at the same time brought about a unity among the people with a common tongue. Though this narrative I will bring light to some of the reasons why language is so important to a society, and how not knowing how to speak the dominant language of a country can have implications on one’s social status.

A Votive Altar from Omrit Emily Prosch, 2013

Major: Classical Archaeology Hometown: Boulder, Colo. Faculty Sponsor: Chris Renaud, Dan Schowalter

The goal of this project is to study the historical and epigraphical context of a small inscribed basalt altar from Horvat Omrit in northern Israel. This research is unique because the altar is an unpublished find from the site. The methods I am using to achieve this research include working closely with Professors Schowalter, DeSmidt and Renaud on the style, context and inscription, and comparing the altar to similar altars found in the region from the same time period as Omrit’s temple complex. Since my research is still in progress, I will also develop a list of questions to explore further when I return to Omrit at the end of May and can study the altar in person. Based on my research so far, I expect to report that the altar is a small votive altar from the first century CE. It is made of basalt, with a round depression and lip on top to receive non-animal sacrifices such as libations or grain offerings. The altar has an inscription on it which I am also studying, and I expect it will explain to whom the altar is dedicated and for what purpose. By the time of the event I will have a working translation that will help date the altar and reveal the religious context in which it was used.

The Freedom Paradox in Waiting for Godot Rachelle Ramos, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Franklin Square, N.Y. Faculty Sponsor: Maria Carrig

“The Freedom Paradox in Waiting for Godot” explores Beckett’s dramatization of the problems surrounding human freedom from the perspective of cognitive science. The brain is what both enables and restricts freedom. Because this organ is the medium through which infinite choices may be made and also the prison in which consciousness resides, the brain lies at the heart of the freedom paradox. The main characters, Vladimir and Estragon, represent the two extremes of this paradox. Vladimir inextricably shackles himself by one choice that has become habit. Estragon, as the other extreme, is eternally free in his forgetfulness and constant need to choose. The freedom paradox of the main characters, Vladimir and Estragon, is the focus of the paper. Vladimir and Estragon not only dramatize the paradoxes of the brain’s decision-making processes, they also raise the question of whether or not our need to choose, despite the mind’s systematic limitations, constitutes an affirmation or a condemnation of the value of human life. This thesis uses cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience to analyze the human paradox Beckett dramatizes. Cognitive psychology explores the brain’s internal processes. Cognitive neuroscience is concerned with the physiology of the brain and how it pertains to internal processes. The work of Ruby Cohn, Jon Rockelein, and Beckett’s own cognitive theories outlined in his Proust will ground the discussion. Considering that cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience are being widely discussed across a number of contemporary disciplines, this paper joins in that conversation as a bridge between the humanities and sciences. 37


Celebration of Scholars

A Statement of Industry: How the Increase in the Spanish-Speaking Population affects the Public Relations Industry Elizabeth Reinhardt, 2012 Major: Public Relations and Spanish Hometown: Appleton, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Matthew Borden

For my Spanish senior thesis, I am in the process of exploring how the increase in the Spanish-speaking population in the United States is affecting the public relations industry. As a double major in Spanish and public relations, after graduation I am hoping to specialize in Spanish-language clientele for a public relations agency. This thesis is meant to explore how public relations professionals can better connect and communicate with their Spanish-language clientele base as well as their Hispanic American audiences thoughout the United States. Methods include academic research as well as personal experience in working with a Spanish language client during my public relations senior thesis. My personal experiences, interviews with public relations professionals working towards better understanding of their Hispanic American clients, as well as research about the topic will help me to prove the importance of understanding Spanish cultures in the U.S.

Differentiation of Assignments in Higher Education: A SoTL Project Patricia Rieman

Department: Education

Due to the unusual blend of undergraduates, adult education students, and graduate students, the children’s literature course offered by the education department at Carthage can be problematic to teach. In particular, the assignments have been challenging because students bring such a broad range of background knowledge and experiences. I had the opportunity to implement differentiated assignments to the summer 2011 course and compare the student course evaluations to the spring 2011 course that I taught before creating the differentiated assignments. I will share the results of the qualitative analysis of the comments in both semesters. I will also share the ways assignments were differentiated and resources and research on differentiation in higher education.

Intercultural Representations through Francophone Cinema Isabel Rivero-Vilá

Department: Modern Languages

The purpose of this study is to introduce Francophone cinema to students in French and to foster intercultural, linguistic, and communicative competences. Francophone cinema is often unknown by our students, in spite of its quality and cultural representations. Living in a global world makes it necessary to focus on these

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representations. Our goal will be to select movie sequences that are representative of the culture and prepare activities that focus on intercultural dialogue as well as promoting language acquisition in a communicative way. The uniqueness of Professor RiveroVilá’s approach is the exploration of selected movie sequences that represent everyday culture and the creation of vocabulary and grammar activities using the “Structured Input” approach. These activities are based on authentic cultural contexts provided by these movies, instead of personal experiences or familiar contexts for the students, as normally happens in the majority of these kind of activities. In the process of publishing this method Professor RiveroVilá is successfully using these kind of activities in her classes and noticing how necessary this kind of work is and how it helps the students to experience and learn about important cultural aspects of the target language.

How to use Music to Teach Grammar in the Language Class Pascal Rollet

Department: Modern Languages

How do you teach grammar in Modern Language classes ? Given today’s focus on communication, grammar is often left for the students to explore on their own reading a textbook at home. Input activities are used in class to make student realize what they need to study. This researcher has composed his own songs in Spanish and French to teach students the grammar rules. These compositions are used in and out of class. Such work has been done before, but mostly at the elementary level, with a style of music and words which are found quite childish and simple by college learners. The uniqueness of Professor Rollet’s compositions lie in their originality and sophistication. They have been quite well received by students at Carthage and the University of Pennsylvania as well as by other teachers at the language conferences where they have been presented. At this event, the researcher will show and tell how grammar rules are presented in his music.

Economic Feasibility and Market Analysis of the Kenosha Public Works Golf Courses Aleks Romanovic, 2013

Major: Economics and finance Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Joe Wall and JJ Shields

Catherine Rogers, 2012

Major: Art history and marketing Hometown: Fridley, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Joe Wall and JJ Shields


Max Grothman, 2013

Major: Accounting Hometown: Green Bay, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Joe Wall and JJ Shields

Velocity Consulting presented the feasibility and market analysis to the Kenosha County Executive Board. The study analyzed the two golf courses owned by Kenosha County: Petrifying Springs and Brighton Dale. A group of 11 students compiled the report presented by three of the senior members to the Kenosha County Executive Board. The financial aspect of the project delved into the industry-wide data as comparison point for the financial statements provided by the Public Works Department. After analyzing the data, the financial team made recommendations for the courses based on hard financial data. The marketing team recorded over 400 surveys as a part of market research at the golf courses. From this data, the marketing team made qualitative recommendations to improve the marketability of each golf course. Many of the recommendations from the study are now being implemented.

Funding source: SURE summer research.

What Difference does Language Make? A Comparison of Google Searches in Various Languages Carol Sabbar

Department: Library and Information Services

In today’s world, the majority of internet users are no longer English-speaking. What does the internet experience hold for speakers of other languages? Can they search for and find resources as easily as their English-speaking counterparts in the U.S.? This study provides a comparison of 186 standardized searches conducted by 18 subjects in 14 different languages. Search tasks were selected based on different models of information need, including known fact, known item, and subject searches. Quantitative data was collected and tabulated in the form of precision and mean average precision by language and by search. Qualitative comments were also collected from the participants and used to analyze and understand the quality of the search results returned as well as how relevant results differed in content. The overall search experience was also analyzed. Browser language and the language of the Google search site were also taken into consideration as factors that can affect the quality of the search results and decrease interference from wrong-language results.

Bartolomé de Las Casas: Grand Protector of Human Rights Hunter Sandidge, 2015

Major: Marketing, Graphic Design Hometown: Plymouth, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

The project aims to reconstruct a brief interpretative biography of Bartolomé de las Casas, a Spanish friar who opposed the conquest system and treatment of the natives of Central America during the discovery of the new world, and then discuss his actions towards and involving the indigenous population. More importantly, it will discuss his role in regards to the native’s culture. The project will also discuss the two common views of Bartolomé: the first being that of the hero who brought Christianity to the indigenous population and protected their literature and recorded their original ways, and the second being the man who completely destroyed a culture by forcing the people to choose between a different religious doctrine or death. After the project has shown the two most widely spread views, it will make a testimony to one of the sides. The position is that Bartolomé de las Casas was an adamant advocate for human rights, as he spent years fighting against the majority of the Spanish population on behalf of the rights of the natives, and had no negative effect on the culture.

“Almost, Maine”: A Study in Collaboration and the Dramatic Imagination Neil Kristian Scharnick Department: Theatre

Maureen Chavez-Kruger Department: Art

The play “Almost, Maine” presents an array of uncommon production challenges for its director and designers. Each scene occurs at the same time in the world of the play, ending with the sudden and spectacular emergence of the northern lights. Each scene has its own distinct location and characters, while still amounting to a unified whole. The dialogue and characterization are realistic, yet each scene is punctuated by the supernatural or miraculous--each miracle presenting a challenge of its own. Solutions arose not from a single imagination but through the collective dramatic imagination of the director and designers, supported by the work of cast and crew. The documentation and materials included in this presentation serve to chart the birth and development of a unified production concept for Carthage Theatre’s production of “Almost, Maine” from preproduction and casting through design and blocking, highlighting the uncompromisingly collaborative nature of creation for the stage.

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Celebration of Scholars

Investigation of the Conquest of the Americas Cory Schrandt, 2015 Major: Physics Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

I have studied the opinions and psychology of the Europeans in search of a hidden agenda that explains how they were able to conquer the New World. Studying this subject has allowed me to come to a new understanding about how a people can be conquered. This project is designed to gain understanding about the reasons why some men wanted to exploit the New World when others desired to preserve the natives and the resources of this strange land. The research has shown me that the motives of each person were different, but somehow connected. They all shared the goal of controlling the New World, but they tried to reach the goal through different means. For example, the conquistadors of Spain tried to take the Americas for themselves by killing anything in their paths. This is juxtaposed by the Spanish missionaries that gained their control over the natives by conquering their minds and spiritual lives. The variations of approach on the conquering of mind and body have allowed me to gain insights into how they were able to impose such a large-scale takeover against the natives with such a small force.

The Intrinsic Coupling of Polarization with Simulated Terahertz Pulses in a Ferroelectric Nanowire Kimberly Schultz, 2012 Major: Physics Hometown: Genoa City, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Brian Schwartz

Brian Schwartz Department: Physics

We use first-principles-based molecular dynamics simulations to study the interaction of a terahertz (THz) radiation with polarization in a ferroelectric ultrathin nanowire made of a lead zirconate titanate alloy. Ferroelectric materials display a spontaneous polarization in the absence of an external electric field; further, this polarization can be reversed with the application of THz radiation in the form of pulses. If the polarization flips in a ferroelectric nanowire can be controlled, we will be able to develop smaller and more efficient electrical devices which take advantage of the presence of polarization at the nanoscale. The goal of our experiment is to determine and characterize the pulses that cause a polarization flip in a ferroelectric nanowire and is carried out using molecular dynamics simulations. In our experiment, nanowires are first annealed to a temperature of 300K and then subjected to a wide variety of THz pulses which differ in width, strength and frequency. Such nanowires develop an electrical polarization along the

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nanowire axial direction which couples strongly with incoming THz radiation. The atomistic resolution of our computational experiments allows us to trace the intrinsic polarization response and energy propagation/dissipation mechanisms that occur at the scale of femtoseconds. Our results indicate that no relationship between the presence of a polarization switch and pulse shape can be easily determined. Funding source: NSF Grant # DMR-0755256

Teaching Evolution: Science, Society, and the Schools Karin Sconzert

Department: Education

Deborah Tobiason Department: Biology

The Theory of Evolution has been a source of conflict in U.S. schools over the past century. In our Carthage Symposium course, “Teaching Evolution,” we explore the theory and the evidence to support it, the nature of the controversy and how it is unique to the United States, and give students an opportunity to plan and teach lessons for K-12 schools incorporating the Theory of Evolution. Students also studied the positions of various religious groups on the question of evolution. In 2010, students fanned out to local high schools--public, private, and religious--and interviewed biology teachers about their experiences with and preparation for teaching evolution. In 2012, students created a survey for their classmates about their experiences with learning about evolution in their high school years. We have now taught our Teaching Evolution course twice, so we have experiences to share about student reactions to the course, our findings from student interviews of local high school biology teachers, and surveys of Carthage students on their experiences of learning about evolution.

Mambo: Uniting Cubans and Cultures Chelsea Shields, 2014 Major: Political Science Hometown: Janesville, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Mimi Yang

Mambo’s rich influences, ranging from European country dances to fast-paced African rhythms, reflect the diverse heritage of the Cuban people. First made popular in the 1930’s, Mambo has been bringing together Cubans of all backgrounds, whether or not they are descended from African slaves, European conquerors, or any other of the various groups that make up their heritage. Additionally, Mambo has spread not only throughout Latin America, but also throughout the United States and the rest of the world. The project aims to investigate how the spread of Mambo is affecting the world at large. In other words, how is Mambo uniting cultures of entirely different backgrounds and histories? Also, how is Mambo uniting Cubans and


Cuban-Americans, who have grown up in different countries and experienced entirely different lifestyles? Does Mambo encourage a greater understanding not only of Cuban culture, but also of the global heritage that we all share?

Creations in Time: New Songs

Nicholas Ciaccio,

Major: Theatre Hometown: Wonder Lake, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Simon Skluzacek, 2012

Nicole Knieps, 2012

Diane Hahn, 2014

Jesse Daniel, 2012

Ashley Plinska, 2013

Jennifer Favaro, 2014

Kimberly Schultz, 2012

Pascal Rollet

Major: Physics, Theatre Hometown: Lakeville, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Major: Political Science, French Hometown: West Fargo, N.D. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Major: Music Hometown: Waukesha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Major: Physics Hometown: Genoa City, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Tyler Eickmeyer, 2012 Major: Exercise Sports Science Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Montserrate Martinez, 2012

Major: Mathematics/Secondary Education Hometown: Waukegan, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Joelle Dahl, 2012

Major: French Hometown: Ramsey, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Brady Paschke, 2015

Major: Accounting Hometown: Green Bay, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Major: Social Work Hometown: Tinley Park, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Major: French Hometown: Madison, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Major: Chemistry Hometown: Morton Grove, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Amy Haines

Department: Modern Language

Amy Haines

Department: Music, Voice

While Pascal Rollet and I expected to fulfill course goals of the new Carthage Symposium MUSI/MLA 200T: Exploring Poetry and Song: Creations in Time â&#x20AC;&#x201C; French and Spanish: to increase language skills, increase music literacy, acquire basic performance skills in voice, piano and/or guitar, as well as competency in the use of the software program Garage Band, this little band of fledgling composers has already surpassed expectations. These new recordings demand a larger audience. Process: Each student completes at least four recording projects of increasing complexity and originality. 1. Found poem with found music. 2. New poem with found music 3. Found poem with new music. 4. New poem with new music. This experience immerses students in a creative world beyond comfort in multiple media: creative writing in foreign languages, music performance, audio engineering, and weighing aesthetic value. Composed by students with majors from Chemistry, Physics, Political Science, Accounting, and Sport and Fitness to Social Work, Theatre, French and Accounting, the creativity and aesthetic nuance is affecting. Sensitive use of language, flexible vocalization, and fresh musical creativity of inspired synchronicity and artistic accomplishment cause spontaneous celebration in class. We request to share these compositions with others, as well as inspire the creator in every adventurer. 41


Celebration of Scholars

“Ghost Bike” Sound Design Simon Skluzacek, 2012

Major: Theatre, Physics Hometown: Lakeville, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Martin McClendon

“Ghost Bike”, written by Laura Jacqmin, presented a challenge for not only myself as the sound designer, but to the entire design team. The original work was made to transport the audience from the real world, to the underworld, and back, all within 2 hours. Another added challenge of the show was that the underworld had multiple different and unique locations, one including four viewing screens. To approach this challenge, I had to develop different ideas and moods for each scene that would help either establish the location of the scene or reinforce the mood developed by the actors in the scene. One of the most difficult and challenging aspects of the show was the viewing screens. After establishing a network with 4 different Macbook Pro’, I used the MIDI Show-Control feature of QLab to run 3 slave computers backstage with one master computer in the booth. Utilizing a variety of sound effects, as well as original music composed in Garageband, I pieced together the sounds of Ora’s journey through the play that ultimately lead to the acceptance of her friend’s death.

Attitudes and Behavioral Correlates of Successful Aging: A Case Study Kevin Smith, 2012

Major: Accounting Hometown: Chicago Faculty Sponsor: Kari Duffy

The Development of Mathematics in Islam’s Golden Age Emma Sorrell, 2013

Major: Mathematics Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: James Lochtefeld

Many credit the Greeks with creating the foundations of mathematics, largely overlooking the Islamic mathematicians who followed them. However, without these mathematicians, modern mathematics as we know it would not exist. While Europeans largely lost their knowledge of Greek classics, many of these were translated into Arabic during the Abbasid dynasty, which sought to preserve the classical legacy based on the importance that Islam has always placed on acquiring knowledge. These translations and the improvements that Islamic mathematicians made to them, eventually enlightened a Europe caught in the Dark Ages and contributed to the beginnings of the Renaissance. In fact, much of what these Islamic mathematicians devised is still in widespread use. From basic ideas, like expressing a fraction in the form a/b, to more complicated concepts such as algebra - the word for which comes from the Arabic al-jabr - and trigonometry, the mathematical world owes much to the Islamic empire and its mathematicians. Through historical research, this presentation highlights the fundamental contributions Islamic mathematicians made to the mathematical world during Islam’s golden age.

Spider Family Diversity as a Bioindicator of Terrestrial Habitat Quality Mia Spaid, 2012

Ally Schwartzhoff, 2012 Major: Communication Hometown: Southlake, Texas Faculty Sponsor: Cynthia Allen

The average life expectancy in the United States is greater now than at any other time in recorded history. People that reach age 65 can expect to live 18.5 years longer. Our research examined the factors associated with successful aging through the use of a case study. A snowballing technique was used to recruit adults over the age of 65 for two one hour interviews. Sessions with our 69-year-old female subject were recorded and transcribed to identify themes around “Gordon’s 11 Functional Health Patterns.” These themes included health perception and management, nutrition, sleep/rest, self perception, role relationship, leadership and coping/ stress tolerance. We concluded that the following attributes led to our subject’s successful navigation through life: devotion to and daily religious practices, family connectedness, strong social network and commitment to physical fitness. We have discovered that there is no template on how to age successfully but rather common themes unique to every individual.

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Major: Biology Hometown: Wildwood, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Scott Hegrenes

Ecological indicators, or bioindicators, are living organisms used to assess aspects of the environment that are difficult to measure directly. While aquatic indication systems have been successfully developed, terrestrial indication systems are still under study. One group of organisms being explored as terrestrial bioindicators are spiders (Araneae), as they are easily captured, are sensitive to a range of changes in their environment, and are recognizable to non-arachnologists. Spiders can be identified to the family level through their morphology, and diversity at the family level has been useful for other ecological studies. It is hypothesized that spider family diversity can be informative for bioindicator studies and spider family diversity is expected to increase as habitat quality increases. Spiders were collected and macroflora recorded in four grassland locations in Kenosha County, Wis. and Lake County, Ill. These sites had two sample sites within them, making a total of eight test sites for the study. Twelve families and 291 spiders were captured. The correlation between spider family diversity and habitat quality was not significant according to Spearman’s rho. However, the correlation was close enough to be considered a positive trend. An expanded study in the future could better confirm the nature of the relationship between spiders and habitat in order to use spiders effectively as indicators.


Variations in Wing Function Among Bat Species as Risk Factors for White Nose Syndrome Mortality Megan Sprovach, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: Wadsworth, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Deanna Byrnes

The fungal disease white nose syndrome is rapidly killing cave-hibernating bats in North America by depleting them of their fat reserves. Damage to the wing membranes may cause exhaustion of fat reserves through disruption of cutaneous gas exchange and water retention. Some species of bats have higher mortality rates to white nose syndrome than others. Variations in cutaneous gas exchange and evaporative water loss might be dependent on a bat species’ wing structure. If so, could they be to blame for the unequal mortality rates? We propose to compare the wing loading values, stratum corneum thickness, and blood vessel depth of the wings in three species of North American bats and two species of European bats using histology and current literature. We also propose to measure the evaporative water loss and cutaneous gas exchange of the bats using flow-through respirometry and to compare these measurements to white nose syndrome mortality. We predict that bats with higher mortality rates to white nose syndrome will have larger wing loading values, deeper vasculature, thinner strata cornea, lower cutaneous gas exchange, and higher evaporative water loss than species with lower mortality rates. Results from this study could be used to predict the spread and mortality of white nose syndrome in the future or to identify alternative hypotheses for differences in white nose syndrome mortality rates.

A Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Stem Cell Regulatory Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana Andrew J. Straszewski, 2014 Major: Biology Hometown: Mukwonago, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Daniel Choffnes

The regulation of proper shoot and floral meristem size during plant development is mediated by a complex interaction of stem cell promoting and restricting factors. The meristems of higher plants are centers of proliferation and organ initiation. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) produces organs on its flanks while preserving a pool of pluripotent cells at its apex. Thus, a balance between stem cell accumulation and organ formation is needed for efficient organogenesis. Several genes in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified that function in controlling this balance. One such gene, ULTRAPETALA (ULT1), and an unrelated control gene, ELONGATION FACTOR 1 ALPHA (EF1-alpha), were subjected to analysis in several Arabidopsis ecotypes. The isolation of these gene sequences was crucial in developing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for genetic studies of stem cell regulation in A. thaliana. Restriction enzyme digestion was then performed on the PCR amplicons for the ULT1 and EF1-alpha sequences as a tool for genotyping Arabidopsis ecotypes. One specific ecotype contains

mutations in the ULT1 and ENU genes. The phenotype of enu has not yet been characterized, and the goal of this project is to segregate the two mutations. Upon segregation, the enu phenotype can be characterized by itself for the first time.

Martin Luther and the Holocaust Casey Sugden, 2012

Major: Religion Hometown: Mukwonago Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Rom Maczka

Martin Luther is in large part responsible for the church as we know it today. His career is marked with the greatest of achievements. From the 95 Theses or grievances against the Church, his refusal to recant at Worms, his speaking out in favor of the clergy entering into marriage, his relationship with Katie, who would later become his wife, and his translation of the New Testament into German, he was a hotbed of controversy in the Church and a beacon of hope to the laity of the Holy Roman Empire. With a career marked with so many triumphs due to the Reformer’s unwillingness to back down on his beliefs also came a set of writings, particularly on the Jewish people, that would later be used to unite the German people under the Nazi party and ultimately justify a genocide. Through a study of primary and secondary sources I’ve investigated the claims made both by the Nazis themselves and by postWorld War II theologians. I have come to the conclusion that though Martin Luther’s writings on the Jewish people were at best hurtful, that he never condoned a genocide and that there were a host of postrenaissance ideas that worked together to form Nazi philosophy.

Beliefs, Actions, Outcomes: Healthcare Decision Making In Beijing, China Nick Tackes, 2012

Major: Religion/Great Ideas Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Dan Choffnes

The Chinese share a commonly held set of beliefs regarding medical efficacy - how does this belief set inform their healthcare decisions? How do the results of Chinese medical experiences affect their belief set? Our research project is unique in that we pursued a topic that has been a feature of much ethnographic scholarship (the dynamic of the commonly held belief set regarding medical efficacy) from an angle that had yet to have been adequately explored. We conducted around 75 interviews of Beijing locals. Our interviews were set up in a way that allowed interviewees to provide us with accounts of their previous illness experiences, from when they first felt ill to the time of recovery. This allowed us to compare the actual decisions and experiences of the Beijing locals with their professed beliefs. Our findings suggest that while there is a commonly-held belief set regarding medical efficacy among Beijing locals, their healthcare decisions are informed primarily by other factors. In addition, the outcomes of the Beijing locals’ medical experiences sometimes challenge the tenets of this belief system, but do not seem to affect or alter it. From these findings we proposed conjectures to be pursued through future research with the hope of deciphering what purposes this commonly-held belief set truly serves to the Chinese population.

Funding source: ASIANetwork - Freeman Grant

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Celebration of Scholars

Classification of Asteroid 9983 Rickfienberg using Spectral Photometry Coty Tatge, 2012

Major: Physics Hometown: Nerstrand, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Douglas Arion

Asteroid 9983 has not yet been previously classified. The asteroid was classified using spectral photometry. Images were obtained using the 0.9-meter Wis. YN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the S2KB camera, and B, V, and R Harris filters. Landolt reference stars were used to calibrate the imaging system. These observations were conducted in parallel with observations being made at Andover Academy to determine a rotational light curve. These observations were well timed to occur during the recent opposition of 9983 Rickfienberg.

The Over Expression of the RNA “Goldilocks” and its Effects on the Bacteria, Escherichia coli Laura Taylor, 2013

Major: Biology, Neuroscience Hometown: San Diego Faculty Sponsor: Janice Pellino

Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are important molecules for translation and gene regulation in bacteria, which make them key players in understanding their life cycles and pathogenesis. Furthermore they may lead to potential drug targets and therapeutics in the future. The sRNA Goldilocks, which is produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli) during periods of cell stress and starvation, is one such target. It is hypothesized that Goldilocks interacts with the protein Hu and is involved in the repression of the gal operon. To test this, Goldilocks will be cloned into E.coli, so that it is over expressed during normal conditions. A northern blot will be performed to test whether Goldilocks truly is produced. Experiments testing the robustness of the northern blot produced a weak signal. Once the sRNA Goldilocks is properly expressed in E.coli a screen for various phenotypes will be performed. We are particularly interested in the effects that over expressing Goldilocks has on galactose metabolism.

Funding source: Carthage SURE Program

Elemental Groupings of the Collective Brain Kirsten Thomas, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Geneva, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Richard Meier

Grant Gosizk, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Gurnee, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Richard Meier 44

Vincent Porretta, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Mount Prospect, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Richard Meier

Shannon O’Shea, 2012 Major: English Hometown: Aurora, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Richard Meier

Kim Brady, 2012

Major: English Hometown: Cary, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Richard Meier

Maeve McFadden, 2012 Major: English Hometown: Decatur, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Richard Meier

Richard Meier

Department: English

Nearly a century ago, writing on Blackhawk Island, Lorine Niedecker, supreme Wisconsin poet, said, “It takes so many stamps to post from here the most modern researches.” 6 students and I, now entirely stamp-free, have been conducting our own research this semester. Over a five-week period, of which we are currently at the half-way point, seven writers are generating a text based on seven elements. Each of the seven days of the week one of the seven writers writes and posts a text that includes from 2-5 of the elements. We have already discovered the ability of voice, style, vocabulary and thematic concerns to pass, by a kind of poetic osmosis, from one brain and hand and pen and keyboard to another. And we are attempting to understand how and why this osmosis occurs independent of whether or not the day’s writer has read and incorporated previous posts. What are the forces that generate new language and new forms? How does the writer access them? Does freedom from individual authorship aid this process? Does a set of restrictions grant a new freedom? And how might we apply what we have learned to our individual writing practices? Our work will attempt to answer some of these questions and, first and foremost, to generate writing that continues to keep the world new.


Leaving the Fold: Congregations Leaving the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Since 2009 Wayne Luther Thompson, Ph.D. Department: Sociology

Under what conditions do schisms occur in religious denominations? Religion in the United States is voluntary and religious organizations have a pan-local character. Under these conditions faith traditions are vulnerable to shifts in the religious marketplace. In the United States, characterized by cultural pluralism, cultural tensions imported from the broader society and within denominations threaten the connection of congregations to denominations. These tensions are particularly salient within mainline Protestant denominations which reflect their roots in European religious traditions where the church is “all things to all people.” Under conditions of cultural pluralism consensus becomes more difficult to maintain and schisms are the result. Since 2009 over 600 congregations have left the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. One factor is the denominational policy passed in that year that congregations may hire homosexual clergy and other church workers who are actively in loving, committed relationships. Sexuality issues are only one dimension reflecting cultural tensions between congregations that leave and those that remain in the denomination. Additional factors include traditional versus modernist interpretations of scripture and perceptions by conservative clergy and lay leaders of liberal social activism at the synodical (regional) and churchwide (denominational) levels. This research reflects contributions of Carthage faculty and student researchers at all phases: interviews with clergy, development of questionnaires for congregation leaders, use of United States census data and other information to triangulate findings.

Social Media: Bridging the Communication Gap Between Assisted Living Residents and Their Families Elena Tobolt, 2012

Major: Communication and Public Relations Hometown: Maple Grove, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: Jon Bruning

Senior citizens are a forgotten generation. Many people in today’s society are too busy to adequately care for, and communicate with, their parents and grandparents living in assisted living facilities. Social media may be the ideal solution. Since the use of social media is a relatively new phenomenon, no previous research has been conducted on the benefits of using social media such as Facebook and Twitter in assisted living communities. This study investigated three assisted living facilities in the Kenosha area, conducting in-depth interviews with the executive directors of each. In general, these professionals felt that their residents could benefit from technological training, and access to resources such as Facebook and Twitter; that these tools could help bridge the communication gap between the different generations. The results of the study indicated that seniors can benefit from using social media by communicating with their

families more easily and more often, and that families can be kept more effectively informed of their loved ones’ activities and accomplishments in their respective assisted living facilities.

Concentrations of Synthetic Fragrance Chemicals in Aquatic Systems Chelsea Burns, 2013 Major: Biology Hometown: Rockton Ill. Faculty Sponsor:

Kayla Tripp, 2013

Major: Biology Hometown: La Crescent Minn. Faculty Sponsor:

Sarah A. Rubinfeld

Department: Environmental Science

Synthetic fragrance chemicals are present in aquatic systems due to discharge from wastewater treatment plants. Four musk chemicals, musk ketone (MK), musk xylene (MX), galaxolide (HHCB), and tonalide (AHTN), have been found in water, sediment, and aquatic organisms in several studies worldwide. These chemicals have the potential to cause negative health effects, prompting further research into their presence in aquatic environments. A series of GC/MS calibration curves were generated for the musk chemicals and the r2 values for the MK, MX, HHCB, and AHTN trendlines were 0.972, 0.964, 0.918, and 0.930, respectively. Method detection limits (MDLs) were calculated for MK, HHCB, and AHTN and the lowest measureable concentrations were 0.106, 0.019, and 0.022 µg/L, respectively. The nitromusks were found to have percent recoveries below 100%, while the polycyclic musks had percent recoveries above 100%. A set of microcosms were created and spiked with musk chemicals to evaluate likely distribution patterns. Water and sediment samples from the Pike River and water samples from the Kenosha Wastewater Treatment Plant were analyzed for musk chemicals; no chemicals were found above the detection limits.

Funding source: Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SURE) at Carthage College

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Celebration of Scholars

Investigating l-C3H2 as a Carrier for Diffuse Interstellar Bands Zachary Troyer, 2014

Major: Physics, Mathematics Hometown: Joliet, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Julie Dahlstrom

Julie Dahlstrom

Department: Physics and Astronomy

Maier et al. have reported that the 4880Å and 5450Å diffuse interstellar band features may be associated with linear C3H2 (l-C3H2) and the phase transition B1B1 ? X1A1. Here, we present evidence that l-C3H2 is in fact not affiliated with the 4881 Å band or the 5450 Å band, as well as evidence that three phase transitions associated with l-C3H2 are also not present, or at least not observed, in a large sample of high resolution data. Maier et al. did not identify the third phase transition in the original report because of telluric distortion; we have confirmed that this feature is also not observed. The last claim by Maier et al. is that the molecule should cause a feature at 5170Å which should boast a massive 20Å Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) when traced as a Gaussian curve. This feature is complicated by other broad features, and so was not originally measured by Maier’s group. We attempted to observe this feature, and found nothing of significance.

Funding source: This work was funded by National Science Foundation Grant # AST-1008424

Oedipus Rex: The Tragedy of Perpetual Riddles and Infinite Ambition Elizabeth Wagner, 2012

Major: Great Ideas, Political Science Hometown: Villa Park, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Paul Kirkland

Over the recent years, a widely-embraced misunderstanding arose regarding one of the western canon’s most pivotal texts, Sophocles’ tragedy “Oedipus Rex.” The misunderstanding is that the play itself provides redemption for the audience, Oedipus’ act of scratching out his eyes redeems himself, and Oedipus’ banishment redeems the city from its current plague which is shown to be intrinsically linked to Oedipus. This thesis believes that the plague is rooted in Oedipus’ relentless riddling, and that no redemption from the riddles occurs for Oedipus, Thebes, or the audience. Furthermore, in light of Nietzsche’s Birth of Tragedy, an understanding of Oedipus as personifying man’s unyielding ambition for truth will be offered. Moreover, the thesis portrays redemption (an end to the riddling) only occurring in death (as exemplified in Jocasta’s suicide). These views on redemption respond to Aristotelian thought that the play supplies redemption through catharsis, as discussed in On Poetics. Within the thesis, a close reading of the play from start to finish takes place to demonstrate Oedipus’ constant ambition for truth occurring in every scene. The close reading will then be examined alongside the literature 46

surrounding “Oedipus Rex” such as Sigmund Freud, Rene Gerard, and Bernard Knox. Finally, the question of Oedipus’ relationship with aesthetics will be contemplated, with particularly close attention to the concepts of artists, artwork, and politics.

From Subjectivity to Intersubjectivity: A Functional Study of the Japanese Epistemic Marker—kamo(shirenai) Yan Wang

Department: Modern Languages

This study investigates the discourse-pragmatic functions of the Japanese sentence-final expression— kamo(shirenai) “probably” in natural conversational discourse. Kamo(shirenai) has been generally regarded as an epistemic marker that indicates the low degree of probability of the proposition’s occurrence (Nita 1981, 1989, Noda 1984) or the speaker’s low degree of certainty of the possibility of realization of the proposition (Teramura 1984, Masuoka 2002, Johnson 1999). A new study by Pizziconi (2009) examining kamo(shirenai) in conversational sequences argues that epistemic markers not only show the speaker’s epistemic attitude toward the factualness of the propositional information (subjectivity), but also show the speaker’s interactional attitude toward the situational and/ or social relationship with the addressee (intersubjectivity). Inspired by Pizziconi’s approach, my study argues that kamo(shirenai) has developed from a (non-) factual epistemic marker to a pragmatic mitigator, and is undergoing a change toward an interactional affective marker. This study claims that in Japanese conversations, kamo(shirenai) primarily serves as a mitigator displaying four major functions: a) to mitigate the certainty of information; b) to mitigate the assertiveness of utterances; c) to mitigate “dispreferred” speech acts (e.g., negative assessment, disagreement, and minimal agreement); and 4) to mitigate strong emotional tones, which tend to be critical, anxious or desperate. This study suggests that the grammticalization of the meanings and usages of kamoshirenai can be schematized as follows: Objective> Subjective > Intersubjective > Emotive.

The Effect Fire Frequency has on the Passive Carbon Pool Morgan Wiechmann, 2012

Major: Environmental Science, Geography and Earth Science Hometown: Sleepy Hollow, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Sarah Rubinfeld

Because of the impact increased amounts of carbon dioxide are having on the climate, studying the global carbon cycle has generated significant concern and interest. Being one of the largest pools of carbon on the planet, stable soil organic matter (the passive carbon pool) held underground is important to study because of the potential soil may have to serve as a carbon reservoir. Never before has the passive pool been studied along a fire gradient with a long prescribed burn history. Soil samples were collected from different annual prescribed burn plots part of an experiment that started in 1964. Samples were also collected


from a nitrogen enriched experiment applying different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer (NH4NO3). Different physical and chemical fractionation methods were used to separate the passive carbon and the effectiveness to accurately isolate the pool was also analyzed. Chemical fractionation with H2O2 oxidation was very effective in removing fast cycling carbon. The results from this study showed that increasing fire frequency increases the size of the passive carbon pool (p- value= 0.319) and additional nitrogen in the soil decreases the passive carbon pool size (p- value= 6.77E-20). These outcomes provide useful information to land managers, policy makers, and scientists who are now evaluating the potential for land management practices to alter ecosystem carbon storage and influence atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global climate.

For the Crown’s Glory: Anglo-Dutch Endeavors in the West Indies Thomas Williams, 2013 Major: History Hometown: Berwyn, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: John Leazer

When learning about the Atlantic world, research opportunities were given to critically examine events from the perception of the larger Atlantic world construct. The focus of my paper was to examine the rise of both the Dutch and English economic systems, and inevitably the Dutch economic collapse, through an Atlantic world perspective of West Indies trade practices. The Dutch commercial empire, in its day, was arguably the most successful and powerful, and in many aspects was the first modern economy of the world. However, England managed to topple the powerful Dutch economy and become masters of the world. My paper examines how England established their roots to becoming a global superpower. This paper critically examined Dutch and English interactions in Europe, the West Indies, and Africa, it did not begin with England already at its height, but instead looked at how England was allowed to reach its height. The research which went into this paper involved reading and critically examining several prominent secondary sources, such as Jonathan Israel’s The Dutch Republic, which contained primary documents examining both the Dutch and English side, and drawing conclusions from when their economies collided. The growing superiority of English West Indies economic dominance through trade dethroned the Dutch as a global power allowing, England to rise.

Red River Cafe Feasibility Study Agnes Wojtas, 2013

Major: Business Management/Marketing Hometown: Palatine, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Colleen O’Brien

This project is a feasibility study of a restaurant. It was conducted based on the idea of the “Red River Cafe” a small restaurant, cafe, serving Polish cuisine. A multifaceted approach including market analysis, industry analysis, and financial projections was used as methodology. Research was conducted using the internet and various statistics found. The entire study appears to demonstrate the idea is feasible.

In the Head of the Enemy Mimi Yang

Department: Modern Languages

Clémence Brion

Department: Modern Languages

My research aims to investigate Simón Bolívar, commonly known as “el Libertador” (“the Liberator”), who freed Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador from Spanish domination. I am particularly interested in analyzing the career of this man who was born in Venezuela but who received a European education. Although he was born in Venezuela (1793), Bolívar had Spanish ancestors. Because his family belonged to the upper class, he received an excellent education and read philosophers such as Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu. His tutor, Simon Rodríguez, also had a great influence on his thinking. When his parents died, his uncle sent him to Spain so that he would continue his studies. That is how he traveled all over Europe and became familiar with the political ideologies of that period. Particularly, he met Napoléon in Paris and became acquainted with the revolutionary ideologies. In 1805, he swore that he would not rest until he freed his country from Spanish domination. He came back to Venezuela and turned into the principal leader of the war of independence for Hispano-American colonies. Simon Bolívar’s career is thus very interesting because he used European (that is to say his enemies’) ideologies to fight for independence. The intent of my research is to examine to what extent exactly did those philosophical and political ideologies influence his struggle.

Gaelic in Eire: Mapping the Decline of Language in Ireland Caitlin Zant, 2012

Major: History and Geography & Earth Sciences Hometown: Peoria, Ill. Faculty Sponsor: Dr. John Leazer

Gaelic in Eire: Mapping the Decline of Language in Ireland Conventional historiography of the Gaelic language in Ireland cites the Irish Famine (1845-1852) as the primary factor which caused the decline of the language, but historical census records of Ireland tell a different story. Using spatial analysis and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a methodology, this paper examines language patterns in Ireland in order to trace the prominence of the Gaelic language in Ireland throughout the nineteenth century. The main conclusion of this paper is that the decline of the Gaelic language in Ireland during the nineteenth century was not caused by the massive population loss during the Irish Potato Famine, but that it was the influence of English social, political and cultural pressures in Ireland beginning in the early seventeenth century that affected the decline of the language. Although the Famine did have an effect on the sustainability of the Gaelic language, due to the steady nature of the decline, the Irish Famine cannot be cited as the cause of the near extinction of the Gaelic language by the beginning of the 20th century. The sources used for this paper included historical Irish census 47


Celebration of Scholars

records, dating from the 1831 Census up to the 1926 Census, political charters and decrees presented by the English parliament, news paper articles and reports dating from the 18th and 19th centuries. Secondary sources focusing on language decline, the Irish Famine, and GIS tools and methodologies were also used.

Muhammad al-Khwarizmi and his Compendious Book on Calculation by Restoration and Balancing Ann Zaske, 2014

Major: Mathematics Hometown: Rosemount, Minn. Faculty Sponsor: James Lochtefeld

Who was Abu-Abdullah Muhammad ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, and what were his contributions to the math world? Through my research, I will prove that this man helped to begin algebra as we know it. With his book, Al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-gabr wa’lmuqabala, mainly known as The Compendious Book on Calculation by Restoration and Balancing, he forever changed mathematics from the geometric mathematics of the Greeks to much broader, may ideas. Though his other mathematical contributions will be mentioned, my focus will mainly be on the contents of this book and how they have shaped algebra today.

Teacher Attrition: The Current State and Efforts to Improve Retention Paul Zavada

Department: Education

Problem: Helping new teachers assimilate into and stay in the teaching profession. Significance: Teaching is a high turnover profession. Turnover is costly and disruptive to school systems. Early studies were done to try to understand underlying issues. The studies pointed to the need for a better assimilation process. New teachers need to understand the systems and cultures. As a result of those studies, teacher mentoring systems were implemented by colleges, in districts and states. The initial results of the programs were positive. Recently, however, a large federal study questioned the value of mentoring programs and concluded that mentoring programs did not appear to be stemming the tide of turnover. Scholars, question this study, stating that it did not account for district imposed layoffs. Additional work is needed to determine conclusively if mentoring programs work or others solutions are needed to deal with assimilation and attrition. Methods used: The education division is doing initial qualitative work to ascertain our graduates’ strengths and initial assimilation into the field. We are devising a system to track our graduates over time. We will determine via interview and surveys: who stays, who leaves, and why. The results will aid us in determining our role in helping people assimilate and stay in the teaching field. A future correlation study is possible--correlating the perceived strengths of the graduates and their attrition. Results: This work is ongoing. We hope to better understand and find solutions.

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The Putative Role of luxS in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Quorum Sensing Joey Zilisch, 2012

Major: Biology Hometown: Kenosha, Wis. Faculty Sponsor: Deborah Tobiason

Bacterial pathogenicity has been linked to phenotypical traits such as capsule, biofilm, and pili formation, among others. Quorum sensing, or a bacterium’s ability to sense and interact with other bacteria, has also been implicated as means of controlling virulence factors via regulation of bacterial gene expression through autoinduction. Although many autoinducers have been categorized along with their specific biochemical pathways, AI-2 remains the most studied autoinducer since it is was first discovered during inter-species bioluminescence research with Vibrio harveyi. The sequence of the AI-2 synthase gene (luxS) has homology in over 50 bacterial species, and its role in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the causative agent of gonorrhea) has not been elucidated upon. To understand the role of luxS in N. gonorrhoeae’s phenotypic variability, a mutant with a luxS knock-out gene must be compared to a wild-type strain. The luxS gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been cloned into an Escherichia coli plasmid vector, which was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. Gonococcal luxS will be insertionally inactivated by inserting a chloramphenicol antibiotic-resistance sequence into the luxS gene to eliminate the functionality of the gene, which will allow screening for the mutant bacteria on chloramphenicol-inoculated media. Once the luxS gene is successfully inactivated, the luxS:chlor plasmid can be reintroduced into N. gonorrhoeae for phenotypic comparisons against the wild-type strain. LuxS may prove to be instrumental in virulent gene expression through quorum sensing pathways in N. gonorrhoeae and could potentially become an antibiotic target.

Face: an Eastern and Western Concept Mitchem Zimber, 2014

Major: Japanese and Political Science Hometown: Rockford, Ill. Faculty Sponsor:

A definition of the Chinese and Japanese concept of ‘Face’ is the human need to have a public self-image that is respected and accepted by others. Similar to the Western concept of honor, it is a positive social virtue that a person claims for himself or herself by virtue of the person’s relative position in their social network, performance in that and other roles, moral conduct, and other factors that gain the person approval from society. Face can be measured in the amount of respect and deference that an individual claims. Some say that the people of the West, namely Americans, do not have a concept of face. I disagree with this statement. Based on my studies and observations, as well as my own experience, I believe that the people of the West do have a concept of face. Moreover, I claim that the Western concept of face is very similar to the Eastern concept of face. There seems to be a misconception that the people of countries like America know nothing about manners or politeness, and prefer to be direct and to the point in their speech. Statements like these may be true on a relative nationwide vs. nationwide scale (e.g. Japan vs. America), but I believe that the people of almost every country appreciate very similar if not the same types of polite, humble, and face-saving behavior from others.


2001 Alford Park Drive Kenosha, Wisconsin 53140 www.carthage.edu

N. E. Tarble Athletic and Recreation Center April 20, 2012


Celebration of Scholars 2012