COMPLIANCE AND RISK CONTROL
COMPLIANCE AND RISK CONTROL OVERVIEW In recent decades, financial institutions have greatly expanded the scope and complexity of their activities. They face an ever-changing and increasingly complex regulatory environment, made even more so by today’s global marketplace. Due to the 2008 financial crisis, several high-profile compliance breakdowns, and an increased emphasis on consumer protection, the federal and state regulatory agencies, investors, legislators, and the general public are more focused on institutions’ customer practices and regulatory compliance than ever before. “Compliance risk” is defined as the risk of legal or regulatory sanctions, material financial loss, or loss to reputation a financial institution may suffer as a result of violating laws, regulations, rules, internal organization standards, and codes of conduct. Managing compliance risk, or “the compliance function,” is central to financial institutions’ daily activities. In addition, these institutions should hold themselves to the highest standards when conducting business, and at all times strive to observe the spirit as well as the letter of the law. Failure to consider the impact of its actions on its shareholders, employees, customers, and the markets could result in significant reputational damage, even if no law has been broken. Financial institutions must therefore follow effective compliance policies and procedures and management must take appropriate corrective action when compliance failures are identified. As a result, the compliance and risk management field is booming. Not all compliance professionals are lawyers, but lawyers are at the heart of setting up, overseeing, and ensuring the effectiveness of inhouse compliance programs. Cardozo’s concentration in compliance and risk management aims to teach students how to effectively ensure that financial institutions develop and implement appropriate compliance regimes. In part, it covers the substantive laws, rules, and standards of proper market conduct by large financial institutions, as well as the internal structures, programs, and product development necessary to effectively control risk. Furthermore, this concentration provides in-depth learning in specific areas such as the managing of conflicts of interest, interaction and coordination with regulators, and prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing. While the focus is on banks and providers of financial services, many of the general principles extend to other types of highly regulated entities such as health care providers.
CAREER PATHWAYS Many lawyers specializing in compliance work in-house. Compliance concerns everyone within the company, starting at the top, with the board of directors and senior management leading by example. Daily management of compliance risk, however, is performed by sophisticated staff, many of them lawyers who possess a high level of comfort navigating the complex regulatory changes and implementing integrated approaches to internal controls within banking organizations. There are significant differences between financial institutions regarding the organization of the compliance functions. In large banks, compliance staff may be located within operating business lines, and internationally active banks may also have group and local compliance officers. In smaller financial institutions, hedge funds, and private equity firms, compliance staff may be located in one unit. Some firms have established separate units for specialist areas such as data protection and the prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing. No matter the size or scope, however, lawyers are in high demand to help implement integrated approaches focusing on compliance with internal controls and mitigating risks of fraud in order to reach strategic, operational and financial objectives. Lawyers are required to provide a roadmap to action, helping the financial institution position itself to anticipate and prevent significant regulatory problems as well as grow shareholder value. As the foregoing suggests, compliance is a field that should be especially attractive to students interested in financial services or business generally. It is not unusual for attorneys to begin working in a General Counselâ€™s office, focused on legal and compliance issues, and over time taking on increasing non-legal responsibilities. An alternative career pathway is to work not for a regulated entity but for a regulator. The relevant agencies â€“ for example, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the Commodities Futures Trading Commission, and the Federal Reserve Board, as well as various state regulators â€“ employ large number of lawyers who are engaged in (a) helping draft, and ensuring the legal soundness of, regulations, and (b) enforcing those regulations against individual firms through administrative and state and federal court proceedings. Finally, some law-firm lawyers provide advice regarding compliance programs, or are hired to do internal investigations when something has gone wrong, or represent companies or individuals in white-collar prosecutions when things have gone really wrong. A background in compliance and risk management is highly valuable to those attorneys representing financial institutions and their employees.
COURSES AND SKILLS Cardozo’s curriculum allows students to study this area of law with academic rigor while giving them an opportunity to explore the ways rules and regulations are implemented in real-life situations. The curriculum is also a moving target; it continues to grow and develop. The faculty’s objective is to develop courses that balance theoretical foundations with practical applications of the laws, policies, and procedures. The concentration includes three required undertakings. Two of these are the core courses that cover the essential substantive law: Global Corporate Compliance and Securities Regulation. (Note that Corporations is a pre-requisite for Securities Regulation. This means that concentrators should take it during their 2L year, preferably in the fall semester.) In addition, concentrators are required to attend the Compliance Speakers Series hosted by the Heyman Center on Corporate Governance. The Speakers Series brings in distinguished professionals to share their insights and experiences, usually about three or four times a semester. Absent a compelling reason, concentrators must attend at least six of these events – in other words, someone who chooses this concentration at the beginning of the 2L year will have to attend half the talks that occur before graduation; someone who chooses this concentration at the beginning of the 3L year (and did not attend any as a 2L) will be expected to attend all the talks that year. Needless to say, concentrators are encouraged to attend more than six. Students must then take at least 9 credits of other relevant courses. Note that the electives include Ethics for the Business Attorney. Ethical considerations are highly intertwined with compliance issues (that is why, for example, a leading organization for compliance professionals is called “The Society for Corporate Compliance and Ethics”). Accordingly, compliance concentrators are strongly urged to take this course, which satisfies Cardozo’s professional responsibility requirement. Also listed below are “related” courses. These do not count toward the concentration, but each is valuable to someone doing compliance work. Finally, to ensure a blend of classroom study and real-world exposure, concentrators are encouraged but not required to pursue a relevant internship or externship. Cardozo has partnered with major financial institutions and regulatory agencies in a variety of programs to help students gain additional practical training in compliance. Our partners include JP Morgan Chase, The Securities and Exchange Commission, The Commodities Futures Trading Commission, the Financial Industry Regulatory Agency, the New York Department of Financial Services, the New York Office of Attorney General, and others. The goal is to ensure that graduates enter the corporate environment equipped not only with a sophisticated substantive knowledge of compliance principles, but also with a set of meaningful connections, relationships, and mentorships with alumni and others who are eager to support their professional growth and success.
THE CONCENTRATION Required Courses (6 credits) Global Corporate Compliance (3) Securities Regulation (3) Heyman Center Compliance Speakers Series Elective Courses (at least 6 credits drawn from the following) Corporate Finance (3) Corporate Internal Investigations (2) Department of Financial Services Field Clinic (3) E-Discovery, Digital Evidence and Computer Forensics (2) Ethics for the Business Attorney (2) Privacy Law (3) Securities Litigation and Enforcement (2) White Collar Crime (3)
Related/Suggested Courses Administrative Law (3) Bankruptcy Law: Debtors’ and Creditors’ Rights (3) Electronic Commerce (2) Privacy Law Seminar (2) Securities Arbitration Clinic (8)
CARDOZO FACULTY The Compliance Concentration Faculty Advisory Group consists of: Jeffrey Reitman. Adjunct Professor Jeffrey Reitman has spent more than four decades doing legal compliance work in the in-house counsel’s office of J.P. Morgan Chase and other banks. He is the former Senior Vice President, Associate General Counsel, and Head of Global Compliance at J.P. Morgan Chase. Mike Stone. Professor Stone is a member of the adjunct faculty and is Director of Compliance at the Heyman Center. He formerly was a Managing Director and General Counsel of Morgan Stanley Individual Investment Group, Interim Chief Legal Officer of Morgan Stanley & Co. and Chief Attorney, Branch of Enforcement at the US Securities and Exchange Commission. Charles Yablon. Professor Yablon, who is Faculty Co-Director of the Cardozo Data Law Initiative, teaches Corporations, Mergers and Acquisitions, and other business courses. Before joining the Cardozo faculty he was an associate at Cravath, Swaine & Moore and then at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom. Students interested in the concentration or with questions about careers in this area should start with one of the above.
In addition, the following Cardozo professors have expertise in relevant fields: Richard Bierschbach (Administrative Law, Corporations) David Carlson (Bankruptcy) Brett Frischmann (Cybersecurity) Elizabeth Goldman (Securities Regulation) Jeanne Schroeder (Corporations, Securities Regulation) Aaron Wright (Start-Up Companies)
COMPLIANCE ADVISORY COMMITTEE R. Gerald Baker, Compliance Consultant Tal Ganani, Vice President and Assistant General Council, Goldman Sachs & Co. Jacqueline O. Licalzi, Managing Director and Director of Company Compliance, Morgan Stanley Christopher J. Mahon, Senior Vice President and Head of Broker-Dealer Legal and Regulatory, AllianceBernstein Jill W. Ostergaard, Managing Director and Americas Head of Barclays Corporate and Investment Banking Compliance and Wealth Investment Management, Barclays Beate Parra '03, Senior Director, Head of Regulatory Compliance for the Americas, Fitch Ratings Howard R. Plotkin, Managing Director and Director of Compliance, RBC Capital Markets and Wealth Management; Global Co-Head of Capital Markets and Investor and Treasury Services Compliance; Vice President of the Royal Bank of Canada Kathryn S. Reimann, Chief Compliance Office and Managing Director for Global Consumer Businesses, Citigroup Adyo W. Sampson '09, Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co
RELEVANT STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS Business Law Society: CardozoBusinessLS@gmail.com Cardozo Startup Society: CardozoStartupSociety@gmail.com Cyberlaw Society: CardozoCyberlaw@gmail.com
CAREER RESOURCES The Career Services Office and the Compliance Concentration Faculty Advisory Group are the places to start for information and advice. In addition, the following resources may be helpful. The Society of Corporate Compliance and Ethics provides a great deal of relevant information, including various publications and a jobs board. AML Source describes itself as “A Career Hub for Anti-Money Laundering & Financial Crime Professionals.” It hosts an annual job fair in New York City, generally in November. SIFMA Compliance and Legal Society – one of the premier industry organizations which focuses on education, communications and advocacy, while facilitating dialogue with industry members and the regulatory community.
GENERAL RESOURCES The Heyman Center on Corporate Governance houses Cardozo’s corporate law programs, hosting speakers, arranging externships, organizing study abroad, and supporting academic research. More information is available at HeymanCenter@yu.edu or found in Room 541. The Wall Street Journal publishes an on-line Risk and Compliance Journal, which is an excellent source of information on recent developments in the field. Subscription required. Significant discounts available through law school professors. The New York Bankers Association holds an annual, multi-day Technology, Compliance & Risk Management Forum, generally in May. SIFMA Compliance and Legal Society sponsors numerous events and panel discussions regarding legal, compliance and regulatory issues important to its membership.
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