Mining Life & Exploration News Winter 2021-2022

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THE TIMMINS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION IS HERE TO HELP Almost half of all Ontario’s metal mining operations are located within a 300 km radius of the City of Timmins. Mineral wealth, mining-friendly policies, a highly skilled labour force, and low corporate tax rates make Timmins one of the best locations for mineral exploration, mining investment and supply on the planet. Consult with our business development specialists to learn the Timmins advantage. Ask us how we can help make it happen.


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Publisher, Glenn Dredhart As a publisher of mining news from Northern Ontario there is never a dull moment. The industry is changing at a pace I have never seen before. The introduction of technology, lack of a skilled workforce, the Covid pandemic and the world’s commitment to reduce CO2 emissions creates the Perfect Storm. The pressure is on to become the drivers of change. This issue features the mines and junior mines that make up the landscape of Northern Ontario. This is our Northern Mining Report Issue. Being active in the publishing of mining news has given me a unique overview of the market. Mining is changing. The adoption of automated technologies is accelerating, and digitalization is on the rise. Meanwhile, demand for minerals and metals such as copper, lithium, cobalt, graphite, and nickel, all of

Contracting Inc.

which are used in used in low-carbon technologies will gather pace in the future and sustainable and reliable extraction and production will need to keep up with the demand. According to the World Bank’s analysis, global production of critical minerals used in low-carbon technologies is projected to rise by 965% for lithium, 585% for cobalt, 383% for graphite, 241% for indium, 173% for vanadium by 2050. With new technology entering the market, mining is getting more automated. It is all about improving efficiency and safety within the mining industry. Development of autonomous solutions help with the challenges of COVID-19, it also helps to lower costs and create safer and cleaner mines, so more can be done with fewer people. The impact automation and digitali“Knowledge, Experience, Resources, Energy & Innovation. Serving Timmins and North-Eastern Ontario’s Industries with Pride.”

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zation have on a mine site is endless from automated surface and underground equipment to artificial intelligence (AI). To attract people with these skillsets, companies will have to adapt their recruitment strategies. That could mean hiring data engineers from outside the industry to train in mining. The world wouldn’t be the same without mining. So, the challenge is not to replace mining but make it more eco-friendly. There’s great work being done throughout mining. For example throughout this issue you will notice many operations are looking to achieve climate change targets. This is on the back of committing to large reduction in carbon emissions and having net zero emissions targets. One can’t help but notice the positive trend and notice the favourable metals and minerals pricing environment. The commodity price for gold is strong and seems to be working as a catalyst for smaller financings and property transactions. I am excited to see what 2022 will bring when it comes to innovation, technologies and digitalization. Although many have questions over supply chain and the on-site efficiency, as companies try to continue their operations safely in a global pandemic, I’m excited. Mining is to me the most resilient Industry in the world. I can’t help but think that mining will continue to overcome its adversities and build a brighter future for everyone.


1390 Government Road West Box 517 Kirkland Lake, ON P2N 3J5 | Telephone: 705.567.6663 | Fax: 705.567.4925

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2 02 2 Canadian Events Go Hybrid in 2022

As an organization producing in person events in Canada, Canadian Trade-Ex knows first-hand that everyone is looking forward to getting back to normal as much and as soon as possible. The company has had to postpone two consecutive large events for two years but plans are already underway to re-establish the in-person version for the 2022 events in Timmins and in Thunder Bay. A decision has been made to host the Canadian Mining Expo known as the BIG Event in Timmins on June 8-9 and the Central Canada Resource Expo known as CEN CAN Expo in Thunder Bay September 14-15 as hybrid events for 2022. This means while they plan to host the in-person events they are also hosting key components live virtually. “There are several reasons why we have chosen to host a hybrid event,” stated company President, Glenn Dredhart. He goes on to mention the main purpose for hosting a hybrid event is to expand on attendance. By adding a virtual component to a physical event, it allows you to reach and engage a much larger audience for your brand, while maintaining the engagement power and human connection of an inperson event.

The Virtual components of the event allow the organizers and attendees the opportunity of inviting a global audience that may not be able to travel due to restrictions. The Timmins event saw over 13 countries represented in 2019 for the event and organizers know that 2022 may look a little different. Dredhart says “the last Timmins event was held in 2019 and after working hard on preparing for the 2020 event the rug was pulled from underneath us by the Covid pandemic and unfortunately it happened just 45 days prior to having the event. This was a huge hit for our company as it takes one year and many full time staff members to prepare for and market the event that couldn’t take place. In 2020, Canadian Trade-Ex had to pivot quickly and successfully produced two virtual conference events to help keep their clients connected to the mining operations in which they cater to. Canadian Trade Ex has a long history of connecting the right people with the right partners. It’s what they do. They’re proud of their three-decade track record of trade shows that connect buyers with sellers, job seekers with job-providers, and indigenous stake-

Photo taken from Mining the Northwest Virtual Expo

In Person photo taken from Canadian Mining Expo

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Cont`d on Pg. 8

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Northern Ontario Showcases to global audience Cont`d from Pg. 6

holders with resource developers. They are proud of their achievements over the years by raising over $150,000.00 in charity through the event in Timmins alone. The company has promoted the mining industry in Northern Ontario for the past 30 plus years. Recently Canadian Trade-Ex invested heavily in developing their own virtual platform called Virtex – the web-based virtual trade show system was developed and used for the Mining the Abitibi Virtual Conference & Expo (Timmins) in June 2021 and the Mining the Northwest Virtual Expo (Thunder Bay) in November/ December 2021. “Timmins, a city in the heart of all the mining and exploration excitement was host to Mining the Abitibi, a Northeastern Ontario and Northwestern Quebec virtual event. Timmins is seeing the biggest economic boom in more than half a century and Canadian Trade-Ex is glad to be a part of it.” “We think it’s just the beginning. After the successful virtual event in June we were asked to duplicate what was produced in the Northeast of Ontario for the Northwest and we were obliged to do so,” said Glenn Dredhart. Most people in the Mining Industry know It’s an exciting time in northwestern Ontario. Multiple new mines are expected to open in the next few years and that means a major boost to that region’s economy. The event hosted stakeholders from a broad crosssection of the economy. “We had an incredible three days of events stated John Mason”, Project Manager-Mining Services P.Geo., D.Sc. for the Thunder Bay Community Economic Development Commission (CEDC) which were co-hosts of the virtual event. With the introduction of a cutting-edge virtual exhibit platform that revolutionizes the way traditional trade show exhibitors and manufacturers, can showcase their equipment comes a learning curve or an adopPage 8


tion to new technology. Mining The Abitibi and Mining the Northwest virtual events were milestone events that showcased what northern Ontario’s mining industry has to offer. After a year of remote everything, event managers and marketers have become familiar with virtual events (also known as online events) and their unique advantages. For all the benefits of virtual events, there is still greater value to hosting in-person events—including connections through person-to-person contact and driving deeper engagement. By establishing and creating a virtual platform it has allowed us and our clients the ability to learn and navigate the online capabilities. A hybrid event combines in-person and virtual elements in a way that unlocks a live dialogue between and among presenters and attendees—whether they join in person or online. Both Northern Ontario events will take place online and in person. The Virtex platform will bridge the online and in-person experiences thus allowing attendees to communicate with each other and the exhibitors. This will offer the exhibitor the best of two worlds. As we plan with optimism for a post-pandemic future it would be crazy to give up the tangible benefits of online events and not add them to the mix of in person events. Hybrid offers a new status quo, one that applies the lessons we’ve learned combining the best of in-person and virtual to create connected events. These are events that deliver greater value to all who are involved. For more information you can contact: Toll Free in Canada at 1-866-754-9334 or email

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Community and Technology Driven The Porcupine Mining Division of Newmont reports that the division’s Pamour project is adding handsomely to the company’s operational future in the Timmins camp and Newmont is budgeting $400 million to advance the project. The company says profitable production at the former producer Pamour is adding 1.6 million oz of gold production to Porcupine, extending mine life through 2035. Pamour optimizes mill capacity, adding volume and supporting high-grade ore from Borden and Hoyle Pond. Dewatering of Pamour will commence later this year to advance the project According to public statements by the company, a $400 million development capital allocation, with a full-funds decision, is expected in the second half of 2022. Pamour is 100% Newmont owned, leverages existing processing facilities, and further supports exploration in a highly prospective and proven mining district. In keeping with Newmont’s purpose to create value through sustainable and responsible mining, the company partners on a number of loPage 10


cal educational initiatives – totaling more than $2.5 million last year – to support scholarship opportunities and empower people to pursue further education. These scholarships helped Newmont employees, their families, and local communities in 2021. Newmont’s Porcupine mine, awarded a total of $81,000 during 2021, including scholarships to employees’ dependents as well as elementary and secondary school graduates who demonstrated leadership qualities. The mine also supported the area’s Science Olympics: the STEAM Expo and Robotics Competitions hosted by Science Timmins to promote science literacy programs. Porcupine Mine Uses Technology to Support Conservation and Social Performance The use of technology throughout mining operations is a key part of Newmont’s success. From enhancing data collection to better understanding mine operations, new and inventive ways to implement technology is leading to improvements

throughout the company. At Newmont’s Porcupine mine, the use of drones has been a critical technology platform, providing visibility and insights to improve safety, efficiency and productivity. In recent years, drones at Porcupine have done monitoring and collected data crucial to the site’s environmental performance. Drones have also enabled better access to isolated areas of the mine, reducing the risks of working in difficult terrains or harsh weather. The photos and videos they make assist with: • 3D modeling to better visualize future landscapes and sites • Inspecting tailings dams, fencing and pipelines • Monitoring wildlife at a distance • Planning and taking measurements without the need to physically access remote areas • Identifying mine hazards • Exploring during winter months and harsh weather • Survey tool for volume estimates, Cont`d on Pg. 12

Newmont Porcupine is committed to supporting the reconciliation process. We all have a role to play and we must increase our awareness of Indigenous history. Come join our team as we move forward. JOBS.NEWMONT.COM

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Operations at Porcupine

cover 100 km2 Cont`d from Pg. 10

mine planning and design Porcupine’s Health, Safety and Security teams also used drones to support the community, particularly for search-and-rescue activities. In 2021, Patrick Dzijacky, a member of the Porcupine S&ER team and volunteer firefighter responded to a call (while he was on shift at the local fire department) for help in locating a group of stranded kayakers. Using the drone, Patrick successfully located the kayakers, resulting in a safe rescue. Following that rescue, the Timmins Fire Department has begun a drone program of its own, which Newmont has been proud to support. “Seeing things from the air provides us with a new perspective on the area. We are able to cover large areas of ground, quickly and efficiently enhancing our monitoring abilities of our land holdings. We continue to explore new opportunities to utilize drones to further support our operations,” Patrick Dzijacky, Environmental Specialist at

Porcupine. (Source, company blog) In a Newmont October 2021 blog, the company announced the winners of their CEO Safety Awards given to individuals and teams that demonstrate exceptional commitment to improving safety at Newmont. As part of their respective prizes, winners earned $15,000 and finalists were awarded $5,000 to donate to a charity of their choice. Mario Lachance, Superintendent of Mine Maintenance at Porcupine and a Newmont CEO Safety Awards finalist, donated his $5,000 winnings to the Sports for Kids charity in Timmins. Sports for Kids’ mission is to help children and youth ages 4–18 overcome social and economic barriers to participate in sports. The Porcupine mine started production in 1910 and over its 112-year mine life has produced more than 68 million ounces of gold. Operations at Porcupine cover 100 km2 and include the Hoyle Pond underground mine, the Hollinger open pit mine, the Dome processing facility

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(located in Timmins) and the Borden underground mine (located in Chapleau). Meanwhile, Production and operations at Newmont’s two northern Ontario sites continue to add to the company’s bottom line as the price of gold and the global pandemic continue to mess with logistics. The teams at Musselwhite, and Porcupine continue to implement innovative mining methods that further illustrate why Newmont is one of the world’s premiere gold miners. For example, Newmont is utilizing a wireless blasting method pioneered by Orica called WebGen. The method involves pre-charging a blast with “no strings attached.” The system has been implemented at three of Newmont’s sites and the impact is two-fold, improved safety and incrementally higher recovery rates. The Newmont Porcupine division continues to be the company’s #2 producing division, behind Penasquito in Mexico.

• 1,225 employees and contractors • 300,000 oz of gold production (approximately) • $550,000 CAD invested in the local community • $142.2 million spent with local suppliers • Three agreements with First Nations, which include eight Signatory First Nation Communities



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Ontario moves to increase REEs output By: Michael Schwartz

Reviewing the province’s ambition to produce REES - and help redress the balance with China. Key to any study of rare earths in Northern Ontario is the Report of Activities 2020 from the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS). This report is broken down into six components by location within Ontario. More specifically, the report for the Thunder Bay South District reviews Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in considerable detail, reflecting their presence in that area. In more general terms, there is the division between Light and Heavy REEs (LREEs and HREEs), the latter being in shorter supply. On occasion, certain elements, notably lithium and tantalum, are included in the list of REEs. This classification is incorrect; this article discusses genuine REEs only. Another exploration factor is the GSC’s Geo-Mapping for Energy and Minerals (GEM) program, which is committed to exploring Canada’s North, a land mass roughly equivalent to the combined areas of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. GSC has described the areas hosting resource potential as “haystacks” with the minerals being the “needles.” Ensuing data is being shared at provincial/territorial and private sector level. One aspect discussed later in this article is the Chinese factor. Production statistics have proven China’s rise to become the world’s dominant REE producer, absorbing REE output as a crucial component of its rise to global industrial dominance. The rest of the world, including Ontario, has woken up to this situation and is now attempting to redress the balance. Indeed, as this article is being written, two US Senators, one Republican, one Page 14


Democrat, are proposing a law designed to halt China’s “choke-hold” on the supply of REEs into the USA.

And Ontario?

Canada offers some of the largest REE reserves anywhere, the total for REE oxides being estimated at 15 Mt. One consequence of the increasing demand for REEs is that highly promising exploration targets are emerging. One important advantage is that the various REEs tend to occur together; as supplies of some original REEs are declining, others are in place - whether in abundance and/or at lower cost. As an example, one situation relates to the production of permanent magnets; here two REEs are Dysprosium and Terbium, which increase heat tolerance. The high price of these two REEs has resulted in industrial companies seeking replacement elements. The author contacted specialists with the Ministry of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry (MNDMNRF). The latter’s Communications Branch replied: “Northern Ontario has many carbonatites and alkaline complexes hosting both LREEs

and HREEs…Alkalic complexes are most abundant in northern Ontario, many of which are great targets for either niobium or REE mineralisation. In northeastern Ontario, carbonatites lie along a north-trending line extending from the north shore of Lake Huron to the James Bay Lowland. Almost all of these intrusions contain abundant apatite, pyrochlore, and other REE-bearing minerals, and many are weathered sufficiently to be associated with vermiculite deposits.” In the vicinity of Timmins and Sault Ste. Marie, carbonatite and alkalic REE-bearing deposits exist. The former are important as the chief source of local REEs in general but the latter are HREE-enriched. Timmins contains thirteen carbonatite and alkalic intrusive suites as against two carbonatite complexes around Sault Ste. Marie. Cataloguing of unmined REE occurrences within the OGS Mineral Deposit Inventory (MDI) database also shows an overwhelming frequency in favour of Timmins: 1,337 against 23. Totally unconventional and perhaps unexpected is a multipleREE deposit in a tailings dam withCont`d on Pg. 16

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More Exploration Required to Access REE Potential in Northern Ontario Cont`d from Pg. 14

in the Timmins District. Six years ago, the Timmins District Geologist, Pierre Bousquet, took samples from the former Atrium nitrogen, phosphate and potash mine southwest of Kapuskasing. Analysis revealed a resource of highly enriched REEs, with total REE content reaching 6,700 ppm; every REE bar one was discovered among the samples, the exception being Promethium, which is used in nuclear batteries and luminous paint (the Ministry added that any sample with higher than 1,000 ppm total REE could be considered economical.) It must be said that a word of caution was expressed by the Ministry: “There is a better potential for LREE in Northern Ontario rather than HREE, but there is no absolute answer to this question as many intrusions are not fully explored. As for depth, many of the complexes in Ontario, especially carbonatites, are often poorly exposed and are largely known only through limited diamond-drill hole data. Many complexes in the James Bay Lowland are also located beneath Paleozoic cover rocks, for which only limited diamond-drill core information is available.”


As mentioned earlier, two US Senators, Arizona Democrat Mark Kelly and Arkansas Republican Tom Cotton, are sponsoring a bill to reduce US reliance on Chinese-sourced REEs. Kelly has described Chinese REEs as “a national security risk.” The sponsors are aiming for enough REEs to meet one year’s needs by 2025 and an end to Chinese REEs by 2026. In this respect, the sponsors are following President Biden’s drive to produce US-mined REEs Page 16


in an attempt to reduce reliance on Chinese REE imports, notably in defense equipment. The USA has traditionally had few sources of REEs: at present, there is just one mine in the country, Mountain Pass, California. One perceptive analysis of REEs and other minerals involved in manufacturing strategically important components indicates that semi-conductors, batteries and many other products will “remain key geopolitical battlegrounds in 2022.” This quotation from analyst GlobalData continues by stating that the USA and China will be “intensifying their fight for dominance over many of the core tech industries and mineral resources that support them.” The report even compares China’s dominance over rare earths with the dominance of OPEC over oil supplies. The USA’s shortage of REEs can only beg the question of whether Canada will help America meet some very substantial demands. Subject to such opportunities actually being authorized by the US Government, they can only increase in line with the size of America’s intended REE stockpile. Quite simply, depending on successful exploitation of its rare earth wealth, Canada has a very strong bargaining position.

Recycling waste The author asked the Ministry whether Ontario’s rare earths have to be extracted from new mines or if there are waste materials that can be utilized. The reply was as follows: “Many of the LREEs are being mined from carbonatites, so new mines are needed to extract them. However, recent studies have shown that REEs can also be extracted from other mining ac-

tivities’ waste material, including the fertilizer industry, oil sand tailings, and mining tailings. “A perfect example would be the new study by Avalon Advanced Materials on tailings of the former Cargill phosphate mine, southwest of Kapuskasing. Their analytical work on the tailings indicates REEs, which preliminary tests showed can be recovered with additional processing (February 2021).” The tactic of exploiting former workings and what are called waste materials has not been lost on other would-be mining companies, so much so that the Ministry conducted a 60-day consultation period to December 6 last year (the comments received are still being analyzed.) The process is intended to consider “regulatory amendments and supporting policy to help recover minerals from mining waste.” Views on health and safety and First Nations rights have also been actively solicited. In the mind of the Ministry is a streamlining of the Mining Act procedure whereby a mine production closure plan must be submitted. The new procedure would mean that an applicant can more easily obtain a permit for the reprocessing/recycling activities on the tailings or waste rock.


There is no doubt that Canada has an influential role in REE production, her oxide resources totaling 15Mt. Enterprises wishing to exploit this opportunity will be supported by the province’s geological agencies, with recycling and reclamation set to play their part. Canadian REEs are well set to supply American requirements and go some way to reducing China’s dominance.

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GALLEON GOLD, West Cache eyes minimum 11-year mine life By Kevin Vincent

Better late than never. It’s not that Galleon Gold was never going to deliver a PEA (Preliminary Economic Assessment) of its highly prospective West Cache Timmins deposit, it just came a little later than the company would have liked. In early January, the company delivered its muchanticipated PEA and the mine development plan outlines an 11-year life of mine based on known reserves. “I am extremely pleased with the first economic valuation for West Cache, as the results from our PEA demonstrate that the project could support a profitable underground mining operation,” said R. David Russell, President and CEO of Galleon Gold. Russell has reason to be excited. “The PEA incorporates the near-term option of using local toll processing, while also suggesting on-site processing becomes increasingly attractive with further growth in the project’s Mineral Resource.” Galleon says mineralization has been planned to be extracted from 20 geological domains, over an

area of 2.1 km x 1.2 km. The deposit extends at depth over 1.0 km from surface, with extraction targets covering the entire vertical extent. The company says there are actually 4 mines in the works. “Due to the large extents of the Mineral Resource, it has been divided into four mining areas (Mines A-D) with separate portals. Each mining area is further subdivided into mining “Blocks” to increase available working faces and limit development requirements prior to commencement of production. Ramps developed from each portal will provide access to the Deposit. Extraction of mineralized material will use the longhole retreat stoping method with cemented hydraulic backfill. Sublevels have been planned at 30 m high intervals. Mining equipment will consist of 30 tonne trucks with 7 and 10 tonne load-haul-dump units,” said the company in its January 10 news release. Production has been scheduled at 2,400 tpd which is equivalent to 880,000 tons per year. Mining and development will be performed entirely by Cont`d on Pg. 20


WEST CACHE GOLD PROJECT ON TREND IN THE TIMMINS CAMP Exploration Blue Sky – Positive PEA – Destined for Development Page 18


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West Cache total operating costs estimated at $916 million Cont`d from Pg. 18

company personnel, with an owned equipment fleet. Mining equipment will be leased over five-year terms. Processing will be performed at an offsite toll process plant in the Timmins area, with tailings backhauled from the process plant to the West Cache site for use as backfill. A contractor will be engaged to transport mineralized material to the toll process plant and backhaul tailings. Total operating costs are estimated at $916 million. “Initial capital costs are estimated at $150 million and are relatively low for a project of this size since they do not include construction of a process plant or a tailings storage facility. The majority of initial capital costs will be for underground mine development since the Mineral Resource extends over a large area. Infrastructure costs are minimal due to the close proximity of the site to Timmins, Highway 101 and an existing powerline. Sustaining capital is estimated at $199 million over the LOM and is primarily for mine development,” said the company. The Mineral Resource Estimate was based on results of 557 holes and 210,000 metres of drilling including 213 holes for 46,380 metres of surface diamond drilling completed since the company acquired the project. Geological modeling undertaken as part of a Mineral Resource Estimate announced in 2021 identified un-assayed areas from historic drilling with significant gold potential by projecting known gold zones intersected in the 2020-2021 drill program. Galleon undertook a re-log and sampling program as well as verified assay data from third party drilling in 2015-2016. These recent results identified additional areas of better geological continuity and were used to re-build the Mineral Resource model wire-framing and mine plan from a combined open pit/underground approach to the all-underground design plan used in the current PEA. The results for the PEA, using the base case assumptions, indicate that the West Cache Project has both technical and financial merit.

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The project’s next steps include: • • • • • • •

Infill drilling to increase near-mine Mineral Resources and convert Inferred Mineral Resources to the Indicated classification Additional drilling along strike and dip to extend mineralization as well as identify new high-grade shoots Deeper exploration drilling to test plunge and area between Zone #9 and West Deep Step-out drilling to test regional targets outside of the known Mineral Resource area– only 10% of the project area has been drill tested Continue baseline and permitting studies in support of bulk sample application Commence planning and studies for initial ramp engineering for bulk sample The financial details of the PEA was performed assuming a 5% discount rate. On a pre-tax basis the NPV5% is estimated at $378 million, IRR is 33.7 % and the payback is 3.0 years. On an aftertax basis the NPV5% is estimated at $240 million, IRR is 26.7 % and the payback is 3.3 years.

“Based on our geologic model, I believe West Cache has the potential to extend the LOM beyond the initial 11 years by expanding the Mineral Resource downdip and along strike,” said Russell. “Moreover, we have explored less than 10% of the Property and recent geological interpretations suggest we should be looking to pursue new exploration targets in untested host rock both north and south of the current Mineral Resource. Our primary exploration goal for 2022 is to add high grade gold ounces and expand the Mineral Resource through surface drilling. In early to mid 2023, pending permits, we plan to commence underground test mining the highgrade Zone #9 area.”


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Lake Shore Gold

A strong community partner Pan American Silver Corp production improved in 2021 compared to 2020 but the Covid-19 pandemic constrained operations as a result of reduced workforce. In January, Pan American Silver released its preliminary production results for the fourth quarter and full year 2021. Pan American Silver’s Timmins mines, Lake Shore Gold’s Timmins West and Bell Creek produced 133.8 thousand oz. of gold for 2021 ranking it just behind Shahuindo mine (134.0 thousand oz) for second most prolific gold mine in Pan American’s gold portfolio. The Delores out produced both of them with 160.1 thousand oz of gold produced in 2021. Lake Shore Gold is a very strong community oriented company within the City of Timmins and it showed its true colours this past Christmas when they delivered hams and a $10,000 cheque to the South Porcupine Food Bank, a day after it made the same delivery to the Timmins Food Bank. The donations were from Lake Page 22


Shore Gold employees at the Timmins West and Bell Creek sites, said Marcel Cardinal, director of environmental and sustainability. “Individuals just felt during the holiday season it would be an opportunity for them personally to give to the community,” he said. The mine staff often give back to the community as most of them were born and raised in the region

of Northern Ontario and right here in Timmins. “They’re involved within the community, most of them were born and raised here and they understand the value of providing whatever they can to the community,” he said. Timmins has the heart of gold and Lake Shore Gold is a big part of Cont`d on Pg. 24

South Porcupine Food Bank treasurer Peter Davis accepts a donation of hams and a $10,000 cheque from Lake Shore Gold’s Marcel Cardinal. Photo credit: Maija Hoggett/TimminsToday

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Inclusion and diversity critical to long-term mining success Cont`d from Pg. 22

that community. The company is a large employer within the region and is committed to inclusion and diversity. They believe this is critical to their long-term success. Supporting inclusion and diversity encourages varied perspectives and experiences, which benefits the performance of the Company. Pan American Silver said it well in a most recent Sustainability Report. Mining is certainly about providing a return for shareholders. But it’s also about looking after workers’ health and safety, it’s about treating the communities around its mines with honour and respect, it’s about minimizing the environmental footprint of its operations to the greatest extent possible, and it’s about constantly striving to have equality and diversity built into its fabric so everyone in the Company, regardless of race, religion or orientation, can have an equal opportunity to excel and create value. They also appreciate that equality and diversity in their workforce are good for business. Mining has traditionally been a male-dominated business. The company is striving to increase the number of women on our Board of Directors and in our employee base at all levels, and the company is really pleased to see progress on that side and strive to be “diversity neutral” in the hiring practices, eliminating bias and prejPage 24


udice as much as possible. Mining requires a reliable supply chain and transport logistics for both supply of materials and products. Pan American Silver and it’s mining operations globally continue to expand on their community engagement activities based on open dialogue and transparency, following international best practices and it is their goal to improve access to quality education in the communities near their mines, continue to improve access to health care in the communities near their operations in coordination with the local government priorities, continue to develop additional alternative economic opportunities in communities near the mines and continue the development of community training programs that attract new talent to their operations. The company’s vision is clear. Values set the standard for how we operate as a business. Operating in a responsible and ethical manner that complies with applicable laws, rules and regulations. Providing a safe and healthy workplace for all of our employees and contractors. Conducting our business affairs free from favouritism, fear, coercion, discrimination or harassment. Providing full, fair, accurate, timely and understandable disclosure to all regulatory bodies, stakeholders and employees. The company focusses on what they call their Pillars.

Our focus is on managing performance in these areas: Community Investment & Sustainable Development; Health & Safety; Human Rights; Water; Employee Attraction, Retention & Development; Climate & Energy; Business Ethics & Anti-Corruption; Biodiversity & Mine Closure; Tailings & Waste. The gold mineralization at Bell Creek mine is mined using underground long hole mining methods. At the Timmins West mine, primary mining methods include longitudinal and transverse long hole mining. Ore from both mines is processed at the Bell Creek mill via single-stage crushing and singlestage grinding, with a portion of the gold recovered by gravity methods, followed by pre-oxidation and cyanidation with carbon-in-leach and carbon-in-pulp recovery. Gold mineralization in the Bell Creek mine occurs in steeply-dipping, shear-hosted sulphide mineralization zones. Gold mineralization in the Timmins West mine occurs in steeply-plunging mineralized zones that occur within or along favourable lithostructural settings. To learn more about the performance of the Timmins mines, see the Individual Mine Performance Section of Pan American Silver’s most recent Management’s Discussion and Analysis. Fore more information you can visit

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Page 25


Agnico Eagle & Kirkland Lake Gold

Creating industry’s highest-quality lowest-risk senior gold producer By Kevin Vincent

It’s business as usual for Canada’s newest top-tier gold producer. Agnico Eagle made a splash in the markets in 2021 when it announced the merger of equals with Kirkland Lake Gold. Agnico Eagle Mines Limited and Kirkland Lake Gold Ltd. announced in September of 2021 that they entered into an agreement to combine, with the combined company to continue under the name “Agnico Eagle Mines Limited”. Two months later, the shareholders of both companies agreed. The merger established the new Agnico Eagle as the gold industry’s highest-quality senior producer, with the lowest unit costs, highest margins, most favourable risk profile and industry-leading best practices in key areas of environmental, social and governance. Upon closing of the merger, the company expected to have $2.3 billion of available liquidity, a mineral reserve base of 48 million ounces of gold, (969 million tonnes at 1.53 grams per tonne), which has doubled over the last 10 years, and an extensive pipeline of development and exploration projects to drive sustainable, low-risk growth. At the time of the announcement, Tony Makuch, President and CEO of Kirkland Lake Gold, stated, “We are very pleased and excited to be Page 26


entering into a combination with Agnico Eagle. It is a unique ‘strength-on-strength’ transaction that combines the two global gold producers with the best track records for increasing per share value. The deal creates an industry leader with a dominant position in the Canadian market that is deserving of a premium valuation and is poised to generate superior long-term shareholder value going forward.” Makuch added that the transaction represents a true merger of equals, with the business of both companies to benefit from the significant financial strength of the merged company, the extensive pipeline of development and exploration projects to drive future growth, and the potential to realize significant operational and strategic synergies along the Abitibi-Kirkland Lake corridor. “It is the right deal for our company and its shareholders, our people, the communities where we operate, and all of our key stakeholder groups.” The merger create what Aginco describes as a best-in-class gold mining company operating in one of the world’s leading gold regions, the Abitibi-Greenstone Belt of northeastern Ontario and northwestern Quebec (the “Abitibi”), with superior financial and operat-

ing metrics. Consolidation within the Abitibi will also provide the new Agnico Eagle with significant value creation opportunities through synergies and other business improvement initiatives. Additionally, the company is established uniquely as the only gold producer in Nunavut and well positioned internationally with profitable and prospective assets in Australia, Finland, and Mexico. During Mining Life’s Mining The Northwest online conference in late 2021, Nathalie Belanger, the company’s Nunavut Recruiting manager stated: “This is very big news for the mining industry and for Agnico Eagle. And in the next couple of months and in the next year, we will know what this will mean for our mines and our employees. But right now, it was just accepted by the shareholders.” Belanger said if anyone wants to know more about Agnico Eagle, they can always visit the corporate website. “We also have the regular social media accounts. like Facebook for our employees and people who like to follow the company.” The combination of Agnico Eagle and Kirkland Lake Gold combined each company’s strengths by bringing together two industry leaders in growing per share value in key metCont`d on Pg. 28




From first field trip to the first pour, Kirkland Lake service and supply companies can help you succeed. Our local companies offer a diverse set of skills and expertise that will save you time and money. Geophysics, earthworks, mine construction and production, advanced fabrication, project management, training testing... the list goes on. Call today to learn more about the advantages of doing business with Kirkland Lake.


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D I S C O V E R Page 27


Detour Lake achieves

record quarterly and annual production in 2021 Cont`d from Pg. 26

rics such as production, mineral reserves, cash flow and net asset value. Both companies also share a strong commitment to returning capital to shareholders, with a total of $1.6 billion being returned through dividend payments and share repurchases since the beginning of 2020 (on a pro forma basis). Under the Merger Agreement, the new Agnico Eagle will be led by a combined board and management team of experienced mining and business leaders, bringing together the proven cultures, strengths and capabilities of both companies. Sean Boyd, Agnico Eagle’s Chief Executive Officer stated, “This merger starts a new chapter in Agnico Eagle’s 64-year history and creates the leading low risk global gold company with growing production, low costs and strong ESG leadership. The transaction creates a company with a strong platform of people, assets and financial resources to continue to build and operate a long term sustainable and self funding business. Kirkland Lake is an excellent cultural fit with Agnico Eagle, and we look forward to working together to further grow our business through exploration, mine development and optimization of our high-quality asset base. Over time, we believe that the gold industry will continue to evolve and consolidate and with this transaction we are well positioned to take advantage of high-quality opportunities and be a true Canadian mining champion.” Page 28


Key strategic, financial and operational advantages of the combined business include • • •

• •

The merger will create the industry’s highest-quality and lowest-risk senior gold producer. Maintains a proven and trusted senior leadership team and board with a strong track record of creating value per share Extends industry leadership in ESG and enhances the capacity to make longer term ESG focused investments. The combined entity will be a leader in energy performance and GHG emissions intensity, with a commitment to be Net Zero by 2050 or earlier. Enhances position in one of the most prolific and prospective gold regions in the world Drives fundamental value creation from significant unique synergies estimated at $0.8B over 5 years and $2B over 10 years (Pre-Tax) – The merger provides a unique opportunity to unlock significant operational and strategic synergies along the Abitibi-Kirkland Lake corridor and to leverage sector-leading technical expertise to surface additional value across the portfolio. Highlights track record of growing mineral reserves and mineral resources – The merger combines the only two major gold companies to have grown mineral reserves and production per share over the last 10 years through consistent investment in exploration and value-added acquisitions, with total mineral reserves increasing by 127% from 2011 to 48 million ounces at December 31, 2020 (on a pro forma basis). Enhances and adds flexibility to an attractive minesite and

Kirkland Lake Gold reports production record

project pipeline – The merger combines a robust pipeline of growth projects and exploration opportunities. Provides the financial strength to increase capital distributions to shareholders while investing in growth projects. The merger significantly enhances the financial flexibility to fund both the robust pipeline of growth projects and to build on a proven track record of growing sustainable capital returns to shareholders while maintaining a strong balance sheet. After consultation with its outside financial and legal advisors, the Board of Directors of Agnico Eagle has unanimously approved the Merger Agreement. Kirkland Lake Gold appointed a special committee of independent directors to consider and make a recommendation with respect to the Merger. Based on the unanimous recommendation of the Kirkland Lake Gold special committee of independent directors.

The positive results were driven by record production at Kirkland’s Lake’s Detour Lake gold mine in Ontario and strong performance at its Fosterville mine in Australia. Detour Lake churned out nearly 211,000 oz. gold (up 38% from the last quarter of 2020) as mining hit some of the highest-grade areas in the mine plan and production benefited from mill enhancements completed during the year. Kirkland Lake Gold completed sinking the #4 Shaft at Macassa in January to a depth of 6,400 ft. Additional work, including construction of the loading pocket and other infrastructure development, and connection of the shaft to current operations, is on track to be completed by the end of the year. The outperformance versus guidance was largely driven by Fosterville Mine, where FY 2021 production of 509,601 ounces was significantly higher than original guidance of 400,000 – 425,000 ounces and compared favourably to improved guidance of approximately 500,000 ounces. The record 1,432,616 ounces of production in FY 2021 was 5% higher than 1,369,652 ounces for full-year 2020 (“FY 2020”).

Page 29


Canada Nickel, Crawford Project on track and expands it’s potential By Kevin Vincent

The trajectory of Canada Nickel Company (CNC) continues to put a smile on the faces of global investors. CNC’s CEO Mark Selby has been playfully suggesting that Sudbury’s iconic Big Nickel may need to be moved to Timmins. Of course, Selby is just teasing the market, but his playful undertone is also a serious signal that CNC’s Crawford Township project is emerging as a legitimate contender to become Canada’s next big nickel producer in a global market where the appetite for electric vehicle minerals is skyrocketing. The company began trading on the TSX in late February 2020 and two days later announced a maiden resource estimate at Crawford, which is just north of Timmins and in the long shadows of the historic Kidd Creek base metal complex. Since then the company has been on a flurry of acquisitions and deals that have positioned CNC as the Porcupine Mining Camp’s next rising star. Page 30


In November, CNC concluded 18 separate transactions resulting in the outright acquisition or earn-in to 13 additional target properties within a radius of 95 km of the company’s flagship Crawford NickelSulfide Project, consolidating Canada Nickel’s position in the Timmins area. Each of the additional properties contains one or more ultramafic targets based on combinations of historical geophysical work and drilling over the past 65 years. “The acquisition of these highly prospective target properties represents a transformational milestone for Canada Nickel, on par with the initial discovery of our flagship property, Crawford. The consolidation of these properties underscores our strong belief in the district-scale potential of the Timmins region and in our journey to become a leader of the Next Generation of Nickel Supply – large, scalable, low carbon nickel supply,” said Mark Selby, Chair & CEO of Canada Nickel. “These properties have combined

target structures 40 times the scale of the structure which hosts our current Crawford Main Zone resource (contained nickel of 1.56 million tonnes M&I + 0.76 million tonnes inferred), and like Crawford, all these target structures are near excellent infrastructure. Each target has had some amount of historical work, and in some cases, much more than Crawford did initially, confirming these targets contain the same serpentinized dunite and/or peridotite that hosts Crawford mineralization and, as our last release reported, has the potential to permanently sequester CO2.” The big unknown all along was whether the deposit would “give up” the nickel easily. It’s one thing to know it’s there, it’s another thing to extract the mineralization profitably. Late last year, the company announced further results of metallurgical testing at its Crawford Nickel Sulphide Project that continue to demonstrate significant improvements in metal recoveries relative Cont`d on Pg. 32

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Page 31


Exciting times for Canada Nickel Cont`d from Pg. 30

to the Preliminary Economic Assessment (“PEA”). The latest metallurgical test work results are from a sample taken from the South Low Grade region of the Crawford Main Zone. The achievement of 61% nickel recovery from a low-grade sample is consistent with results from other samples in October of 2021. The company is commencing the first phase of metallurgical variability testing for the feasibility study to better understand metallurgical performance from samples taken throughout the Crawford resource. “These metallurgical testing results continue to demonstrate the potential from our flowsheet optimization program to deliver improvements in recovery well in excess of the 4-5 percentage point improvement that we are targeting for our feasibility study,” said Mark Selby, Chair and CEO. “Each percentage point improvement in nickel recovery would yield a US$92 million improvement in the value of the NPV8% of the project, based on the PEA metrics. While we continue to expect a broad range of recoveries from the samples which will be tested during the variabilPage 32


ity program, the ability to achieve 60+% recovery from samples from the lower grade portion of the resource is an excellent outcome.” In December, CNC announced they were looking for US$10 million and Auramet International LLC quickly came to the table. Auramet is one of the largest physical precious metals merchants in the world with over $22 billion in annual revenues and provides a full range of services to all participants in the precious metals chain, from extraction and production to manufacturing and consumption. Auramet has also provided term financing facilities in excess of $850 million to date in the mining sector and is looking to grow its capital investment business in the precious metals and battery-related metals mining space.

Canada Nickel Announces Successful Drill Results from Recently Acquired Deloro target and Provides Corporate Update On Jan. 24, 2022 the Company announced assay results from its Mahaffy, Dargavel, Kingsmill, and MacDiarmid properties, and provided an update on drilling and cor-

porate activities. In addition to completed drill assay results, partial assays have been received to date from 11 holes drilled at the Company’s Nesbitt property – these results have also been in line with expectations and will be released when all assays are received. “I’m very excited to start the year with successful drilling of Deloro the first of the thirteen targets we acquired at end of last year and the first step in confirming the potential of the Timmins Nickel District. After two very successful years in 2020 and 2021, the year 2022 sets the stage for Canada Nickel to move to the next level with the formal launch of Crawford permitting this quarter, an updated resource next quarter, and a feasibility study expected to be completed by the fourth quarter, which is just over three years from our Crawford discovery,” said Selby. “I am also pleased to expand our capabilities with the latest additions to our team. Canada Nickel is well-positioned not only for success this year but for continued success in 2023 and beyond as we advance Crawford towards production.” Steve Balch, VP Exploration, added, “Today’s successful assay re-








MINERAL SLURRY GOLD • NICKEL • IRON ORE COAL ASH • TAILINGS sults from our initial set of properties outside of Crawford and the success of the first hole at Deloro confirm our targeting approach is correct. Deloro is a great first example having intersected mineralized dunite from just two metres below surface over a length 480 metres. This year we will move beyond our flagship Crawford property and start exploring our thirteen newly acquired regional properties, confident that our targeting approach will yield multiple discoveries. With over 40 km2 of ultramafic rocks yet to explore, we believe our project has the potential to grow to a massive scale. I look forward to further success as we continue to delineate this potential during 2022.” All 20 holes from the regional drill program intersected thick sequences of peridotite and/or dunite with some holes collared in, or ending in, volcanics. The highest-grade inter-

DREDGING SYSTEMS FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE FULL RANGE OF GOODWIN PUMPS PLEASE VISIT WWW. GOODWININTERNATIONALPUMPS .COM section was 0.34% nickel over 28.5 metres in Dargavel hole DAR2101 (0.30% cutoff) within a larger zone grading 0.30% nickel over 162.0 metres (0.25% cutoff) starting at 375 metres downhole. The thickest interval of mineralization was in Kingsmill drillhole KML2101 which intersected 0.24% nickel over 334.5 metres starting at 16.5 metres downhole. The overburden encountered was highly variable with as little as 12.5 metres at Nesbitt and as much as 160 metres at Mahaffy. The Company continues to aggressively advance Crawford and expects to deliver a feasibility study by the fourth quarter of 2022 based on a resource update provided in the second quarter of 2022. The Company also expects to file the initial project description which will formally begin the permitting process for Crawford during the first quar-

ter of 2022. The feasibility study is expected to be delivered just over three years from when Canada Nickel was formed and began drilling the fifth hole on the property. As the company expects to complete the feasibility study for Crawford this year and intends to continue to advance the project towards production, the Company has continued to build the team to ensure we are successful in meeting our objectives for 2022 and beyond. The Company has promoted Christian Brousseau to the position of Vice President, Capital Projects and has appointed Desmond Tranquilla as Project Director. Mr. Brousseau will be responsible for completion of the Crawford Feasibility Study and leading the execution team to develop the Project through to production. Mathieu Boucher has also been appointed as Manager, Environment. Page 33


Moneta Gold’s Tower Gold Project 17 kms in strike length and 4 splays of the gold rich Destor Porcupine Fault Zone By: Mining Life

Moneta Gold Inc. [ME-TSX; MEAUF-OTCQX; MOP-XETRA] is developing its wholly-owned, district scale Tower Gold Project located in the prolific Timmins camp in Ontario, a region area that has historically produced more than 85 million ounces of gold over the past 100 years. The Tower Gold project is located 100 km east of the city of Timmins. The Tower Gold project is comprised of a total resource of 4.0MM ounces indicated and 4.4MM ounces inferred due to district consolidation undertaken by Moneta in 2021. The Company’s 2021 drill program of 72,500 meters was targeted to Page 34


test the expansion of the current resource, with a new mineral resource estimate anticipated in H1 2022. This would position the Tower Gold project amongst one of the largest undeveloped gold resources in Canada, with over 17 kms in strike length and 4 splays of the gold rich Destor Porcupine Fault Zone. The project hosts both high grade underground resources, amenable to bulk tonnage underground mining methods, and near surface economic open pit resources over a combined strike length of 8 km. The majority of gold is hosted within a Timiskaming age sedimentary basin hosting a regional banded

iron formation, adjacent to which the majority of ounces occur, over a strike length of 17 km. Moneta’s 2022 drill program of 70,000 meters will focus on infill drilling and upgrading the resources to the indicated category with some mineral resource expansion occurring as a result of this drilling as well as some exploration drilling targeting new gold mineralization. Moneta’s economic open pit resources are comprised of a total of 3.3MM ounces of indicated resources contained within 116.7MM tonnes grading 0.89 g/t gold and 2.3MM ounces of inferred resources contained within 79.4MM tonnes Cont`d on Pg. 36

Page 35


Moneta well financed, looks to an exciting 2022 Cont`d from Pg. 34

of 0.89 g/t gold, at a cut-off grade of 0.30 g/t gold. The project also includes underground resources comprised of 632,000 ounces of indicated resources contained within 4.9MM tonnes of 4.05 g/t gold and 2.1MM ounces of inferred underground resources within 15.7MM tonnes of 4.21 g/t gold, at a 3.0 g/t gold cut-off. It is expected that the expanded resource base from the most recent 72,500 m drill campaign will result in a significantly expanded scope and production profile in the Company’s updated PEA study, expected in H1 2022, which will address the entire Tower Gold project. The project is located within trucking distance of six mills, each of which could potentially offer toll milling services. Moneta is well financed and has $15 million in cash to carry it through the updated PEA and 2022, 70,000 m drill program. Gary O’Connor, CEO, said, “With the completion of the 2022 70,000-metre drill program, we will be well on our way to upgrading mineral resources for the Pre-Feasibility Study

Page 36


and working towards Feasibility level studies.” Moneta Gold Inc.’s management team combines over 35 years of financial management, geology, and mineral exploration experience. Moneta’s CEO, Gary O’Connor, has a proven track record of project development and brings world-class expertise in mining investment. Together, he and his team are preparing the Company for outstanding economic growth and mineral exploration opportunities. The company is supported by various institutional shareholders, including Scotia (1832), Dundee-Goodman, Eric Sprott, RBC, Mackenzie, K2, J. Zechner and Delbrook. Moneta Gold has 94.7M shares outstanding.

Page 37


Construction of

Côté Gold project

more than 43% completed

By Kevin Vincent

Northern Ontario’s newest gold producer kicked off 2022 with news of a change at the top of the company. IAMGOLD announced in January that longtime President and CEO Gordon Stothart had stepped down and was resigning from the Board of Directors. In the interim, Daniella Dimitrov, the CFO and Executive Vice President Strategy and Corporate Development, was appointed President and Interim Chief Executive Officer. In a news release, the company said, “Ms. Dimitrov brings significant industry and leadership experience and is well-positioned to advance the Company’s strategy through the period of leadership transition, with the support of the Board of Directors and senior leadership team.” Don Charter, Chair of the Board of Directors, stated, “Gord joined the Company in 2007 as our COO and became the President and CEO in March of 2020. He has played a key role in the evolution of the company over 15 years and in particular the championing of our Côté Gold project. On behalf of the entire Board of Directors, I thank Gord for his years of service to IAMGOLD and wish him the very best in the future.” Charter added, “The Board intends Page 38


to immediately conduct a thorough search for the company’s next CEO. In the interim, Daniella brings extensive mining industry and capital markets experience to the Interim CEO position. Stothart remains with the company in an advisory capacity as required to support the transition as well as the development of Côté Gold. In the meantime, the Côté Gold project is more than 43% of the way to its 2023 Q3 production start. The billion dollar gold mine just south of Timmins. “IAMGOLD finished with a strong quarter bringing production for the year to the upper end of revised guidance as we strive to deliver on our commitments,” said Gordon Stothart prior to stepping down. “Looking ahead, we are fully focused on bringing Côté Gold into production and we remain on track to commence commercial production in the second half of 2023. Operationally, we expect continued strong performance at Essakane, following a record year of production in 2021, supporting the turnaround at Rosebel and continued ramp up of Westwood. At the same time, we will continue our review to ensure we focus on value generating assets, maximizing net free

cash flow, and prudent management of IAMGOLD’s capital - towards our goal of becoming a leading high-margin gold producer.” The company expects to spend between $590 and $620 million USD on Côté in 2022. In December 2021, the company announced the appointment of Jerzy Orzechowski as Executive Project Director for Côté Gold. Orzechowski is a senior executive specializing in project development, management, engineering, construction and strategic planning with 40 years of experience working in various project execution strategies and in all phases of large capital projects implementation and execution. In a news release the company said his wealth of experience with large projects will be invaluable in bringing Côté Gold through construction completion to production. The management of the project now reports to Orzechowski and he reports directly to the CEO and is involved in the oversight by the Côté Project Review Committee of the Board. As of December 31, 2021, detailed engineering reached approximately 92.2% with plant civil and concrete deliverables principally completed and mechanical, piping, electri-

PROJECT ON TRACK but closely monitors global logistic risks cal and instrumentation continuing into the first quarter of 2022. Overall, the Côté Project was approximately 43.4% complete. DETAILS Overburden pre-stripping in the Côté pit is advancing and during the period access to fresh rock was achieved to the east. The first ore blast was taken in October 2021 in the southern area of the pit and mining activities broke through elevation 382 throughout several areas of the pit - a significant milestone achieved for the project. Processing facility structural steel erection, which commenced in midOctober, has completed all major lifts with only a minor part of in-fill steel remaining to be erected for the high-bay grinding section of the building. Wall panel cladding installation has started with approximately 32% completed at quarter end. The company remains on track for process building enclosure by the end of the first quarter of 2022. Other civil works associated with the processing facility including the HPGR/secondary crusher building and primary crushing building were completed during the quarter. The primary crusher feeder frames, chutes and associated supports are now on site. Fabrication of conveyors is progressing well with delivery as sections are completed. Major components of the ball mill such as motor, chillers and shells are progressing well, and elements have started shipping. Permanent camp commissioning is complete providing, along with the construction camp, a total of 1388 rooms. The project averaged approximately 800 workers at site prior to the ramp down for the holidays. The permanent potable water treatment plant has been commissioned and the camp is planning to switch to grid power early in the new year. Work on the 42 kilometer 115KV power line has started with tree clearing.

Equipment delivery is ongoing and inventory on site continues to increase. We continue to closely monitor global logistics risks and, at this time, are not expecting material impacts on the project schedule, although challenges in the global supply chain persist which may be amplified by impacts from the current Omicron wave. The company secured a number of key operations phase permits during the quarter, including the provincial Environmental Compli-

Cont`d on Pg. 40

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Page 39


Confidence in Gosselin resource continues to build Cont`d from Pg. 39

ance Authorization for operations, the key remaining permit, the permit to take water and permits required to support the construction of the transmission line. Community consultations and ongoing implementation of the impact benefit agreements signed with indigenous partners continue. Remaining, noncritical path, minor permits are expected to be received during the remainder of the project. Operational readiness mainly focused on organizational design, and hiring, and initiation of training programs which are expected to ramp up in the first quarter of 2022. Other key activities included the ongoing work related to the identification of spare parts requirements for critical equipment and procurement strategies for key consumables.

On January 27, 2022 IAMGOLD announced additional assay results from its delineation diamond drilling program at the Gosselin zone discovery, centered approximately 1.5 kilometres northeast of the Côté Gold construction project. The Gosselin delineation drilling program is being undertaken as part of the Côté Gold 70:30 joint venture between IAMGOLD, as the operator, and Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Highlights include: • 355.5 meters (“m”) at 0.78 grams per tonne gold (“g/t Au”) in drill hole GOS21-94 from 128.5 m including 96.6 m at 1.50 g/t Au from 383.4 m; • 256.0 m at 2.05 g/t Au in drill hole GOS21-98 from 156.0 m including 1.0 m at 101.0 g/t Au from 284.0 m; and 1.0 m at 197.0 g/t Au from 321.0 m; • 357.5 m at 0.55 g/t Au in drill hole GOS21-101 from 65.5 m including 48.5 m at 1.03 g/t Au from 65.5 m, and 111.0 m at 0.86 g/t Au from 312.0 m; • 173.0 m at 0.70 g/t Au in drill hole GOS21-95 from 228.0 m including 102.0 m at 0.95 g/t Au from 273.0 m; • 87.9 m at 1.30 g/t Au in drill hole GOS21-102 from 335.1 m, including 1.0 m at 60.20 g/t from 383.5 m.


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Craig MacDougall, Executive Vice President, Growth for IAMGOLD, stated: “Our confidence in the Gosselin resource continues to build and these latest results compare well with predicted grades from the resource block model and in some cases have extended the mineralization outside of the resource boundaries of the mineralization model. Our planned drilling program in 2022 will target areas with potential for resource expansion.” The Gosselin zone discovery is located immediately adjacent to the northeast of the Côté Gold deposit and is accessible by construction roads on the developing mine property. A significant milestone was reached on October 18, 2021 with the announcement of an initial mineral resources estimation of the Gosselin deposit, comprising 3.35 million ounces in an indicated category and a further 1.71 million ounces in an inferred category at overall grade similar to the Côté Gold deposit. The mineral resources estimate for the Gosselin zone incorporates assay results from 163 diamond drill holes totaling 54,775 metres, including 95 drill holes holes totaling 38,398 metres completed by IAMGOLD as part of its delineation drilling program. The addition of the Gosselin deposit to the total mineral resources inventory in the Côté District represents a 33% increase in ounces in the measured and indicated resources categories and a 45% increase in ounces in the inferred resources category.


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Page 41

2020 Mining Life Narrow Bolter - Copy.indd 1


12/14/2020 11:33:46 AM

Northern Ontario Discovery Highest silver resource grade in the world

Matt Halliday, President, COO & VP Exploration (left) and Frank Basa, Chairman and CEO (Right). Photo Credit CSCWI By Kevin Vincent

“These intercepts are incredible, and we are continuing to expand on all our major mineralized zones.” That’s a great quote and a great way to kick off 2022 for any company. For Matt Halliday, President and Chief Operating Officer of Canada Silver Cobalt Works Inc. (CSCWI), saying “Our team is extremely encouraged with these results,” it might be an understatement. “We can’t wait to deliver more news on Big Silver, the 17m zone and zone 50 as we are getting results in and compiled” adds Halliday. “We are excited about the major upcoming resource update which will include several of the new highgrade silver veins discovered over the course of the drill program since the last resource estimate was published in May 2020.” Halliday is talking about the Castle Property, near the town of Gowganda which is 80 km west-northwest of Temiskaming Shores. It is also 15 km east of Aris Gold Corp’s Juby Gold deposit, 30 km due south of Alamos Gold’s Young-Davidson mine, 75 km southwest of Kirkland Lake Gold’s Macassa Complex, and 100 km southeast of new gold discoveries in the Timmins West Page 42


area. That’s a mouthful. But Halliday and the Canada Silver team want investors and the market to know that they sit smack dab in the middle of elephant country, surrounded by some of the world’s biggest mines. CSCWI recently discovered a major high-grade silver vein system at Castle East located 1.5 km from its 100%-owned, past-producing Castle Mine near Gowganda in the prolific and world-class silver-cobalt mining district of Northern Ontario. This discovery has the highest silver resource grade in the world, with recent drill intercepts of up to 89,853 grams/tonne silver (2,621 oz/ton Ag). A drill program is underway to expand the size of the deposit with an update to the resource estimate scheduled for Q1 of 2022. In early January, CSCWI released the following drilling highlights: 61 Zone grades include 2,571.53 g/t silver over 0.50m, and 1.12% cobalt over 0.51m in hole CS-21- 77W1, as well as 1,951.82 g/t silver over 0.55m, and 0.76% cobalt over 0.46m in hole CS-21-77. As it relates to the orebody, the company says both intercepts provide an up-dip extension to the 61-vein structure with CS-21-77W1 providing 22m of up-dip extension from

discovery hole CS-21-61 that graded 30,416.91 g/t over 0.42m details of which were released in a press release dated August 9, 2021. Ongoing drilling in the Castle East area is geared toward expanding the existing resource panels outlined in the Company’s maiden Resource Estimate reported in a news release May 28, 2020. The resource estimate was the first ever in the Greater Cobalt Camp. It identified zones 1A and 1B of the Robinson Zone with an average silver grade of 8,582 g/t (250 oz/ ton) in a combined 27,400 tonnes of material for a total of 7.56 million Inferred ounces of silver. The data used a cut-off grade of 258 g/t AgEq (mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability). In May 2020, based on a small initial drill program, the company published the region’s first 43-101 resource estimate that contained a total of 7.56 million ounces of silver in Inferred resources, comprising very high-grade silver (8,582 grams per tonne un-cut or 250.2 oz/ton) in 27,400 tonnes of material from two sections (1A and 1B) of the Castle East Robinson Zone, beginning at a vertical depth of approximately 400 meters. In the meantime, the good news doesn’t stop there. In January the company also announced positive bench-scale leach test results, achieving 99 percent extraction of the contained alkali metal rubidium from drill core sourced from the recently discovered EV battery metals zone at the Granada Gold deposit in northwestern Quebec. Highlights: - SGS bench scale test-work achieves leach extraction of 99% rubidium

- Project economics are enhanced by having gold bullion as a primary metal recovery and rubidium carbonate as a secondary by-product metal recovery - The company is now positioned to use the Re-2Ox Process to accept additional feeds for evaluation under a toll processing arrangement “To successfully leach rubidium from the mineralized material is a major accomplishment for the Re-2Ox process,” said Canada Silver Cobalt Works CEO Frank J. Basa. “It demonstrates its flexibility in treating other feeds using the same chemicals and process equipment that we used to produce base metal EV salts.” “The company plans to reintegrate the precious metal leaching stage into the Re-2Ox process thereby making the process more viable. This precious metal production will permit the production

CSCWI strategically positioned to become Canadian leader in silver & battery metals of EV battery salts by-products at low or no cost. The Company will be working closely with Granada Gold Mine Inc. in the coming months to use the Re-2Ox process to further develop the potential market and economics for the rubidium carbonate salts that would meet the EV battery metals market sourcing needs.” Basa added. A report filed by the company on May 28, 2020, and a signature date of July 13, 2020 indicates CCW has 39,017.96 hectares of electric vehicle (EV) battery metals exploration properties (containing nickel, copper and cobalt) with 15 properties in Quebec and 1 in Northern Ontario. Exploration is underway at the Graal massive sulphide formation in Northern Quebec. The company says drill core has been encourag-

ing with initial XRF results up to 2.79% nickel and 25.68% copper in hole NRC 21 03; lab results are still pending. Canada Silver Cobalt’s flagship silver-cobalt Castle mine and 78 sq. km Castle Property feature strong exploration upside for silver, cobalt, nickel, gold, and copper. With underground access at the fully owned Castle Mine, an exceptional high-grade silver discovery at Castle East, a pilot plant to produce cobalt-rich gravity concentrates on site, a processing facility (TTL Laboratories) in the town of Cobalt, and a proprietary Page 3 of 3 hydrometallurgical process known as Re-2Ox (for the creation of technical-grade cobalt sulphate as well as nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) formulations). Page 43


Understanding and communicating

HR needs of mining industry

Local Mining Sector Hiring Forecast 2017-2027 On June 6th, 2018, during the Canadian Mining Expo in Timmins, the Far Northeast Training Board (FNETB)

launched a 10-year hiring forecast for the mining industry. The forecast was based on data that was collected from mining and mining service industries within the FNETB service area: The Highway 11 Corridor from Latchford to Hearst, East of Kirkland Lake the region extends to the Quebec border, Timmins, Elk Lake, Gogama, Chapleau and the communities along the James Bay Coast. The purpose of the report was to ensure a better understanding and communication of current and future employment and hiring needs of the mining sector to support local recruitment strategies and plans. Since the launch of the report in 2018, there has been a lot of mining development in the FNETB region. That is why an updated version of the report will be produced in 2022. It will focus on the five-year period from 2022 to 2027. The goal remains the same, to fully understand and communicate the HR needs of the mining and mining service industries to inform the implementation of workforce development and adjustment strategies so that the local mining sector can continue to grow and adapt to the demographic and economic shifts and impacts (positive or negative) that are predictable between now and 2027.

Prévisions d’embauche pour le secteur minier 2017-2027 Le 6 juin 2018, lors du ‘Canadian Mining Expo’ à Timmins, la Commission de formation du nord-est (CFNE) dévoilait les résultats des prévisions d’embauche pour le secteur minier. Les prévisions étaient fondées sur les données recueillies auprès des entreprises minières et des entreprises offrant des services aux industries minières sur le territoire de la CFNE : le corridor de la Route 11 de Latchford à Hearst, à l’est de Kirkland Lake la région s’étend jusqu’à la frontière du Québec, elle comprend aussi Timmins, Elk Lake, Gogama, Chapleau, et les communautés le long de la côte de la Baie James. Le but du rapport était d’assurer une meilleure compréhension et une bonne communication des besoins de main-d’oeuvre présents et à venir du secteur miner afin d’appuyer les stratégies et des plans de recrutement. Depuis le lancement de ce rapport en 2018, il y a eu beaucoup de développement dans le secteur minier dans la région de la CFNE. C’est pour cette raison qu’une mise à jour sera produite en 2022. Celle-ci ciblera une période de cinq ans, soit de 2022 à 2027. Le but demeure le même, c’est-à-dire de comprendre et communiquer les besoins en ressources humaines du secteur minier pour informer la mise en œuvre de stratégies de développement et d’adaptation de la maind’œuvre pour que les industries minières continuent de prospérer et de s’adapter aux impacts des changements démographiques et économiques (positifs ou négatifs) qui sont prévisibles d’ici 2027. Cont`d on Pg. 46

Page 44


Explore Your Options in Mining

Information sessions for the future mining workforce

Since 2018, the Far Northeast Training Board (FNETB) has partnered with Canadian Trade-Ex and other organizations to lead activities aimed at promoting job opportunities in the mining sector, more particularly to encourage students and job seekers who are planning their career to consider mining as an option. Under the ‘Explore Your Options in Mining’ banner events such as job/career fairs, school visits, employer presentations, etc were held with that very focus in mind. This year is no exception, but with a different twist. During the 2022 Mining Expo, Grade 11 and 12 students from across the region will be invited to hear from young workers who have pursued a career in the industry and were successful in securing employment in mining, right here in our region. Who better to inform and inspire the future generation of workers than young people who did ‘explore their options in mining’. This activity will be organized by the FNETB in partnership with local school boards and industry. Details will be made available in the coming months. Stay tuned!

Explore tes options dans les mines

Sessions d’information pour la main-d’œuvre future du secteur minier

Depuis 2018, la Commission de formation du nord-est (CFNE) s’est affiliée à Canadian Trade-Ex et d’autres organismes pour mener des activités visant la promotion des opportunités d’emploi dans le secteur minier, plus particulièrement pour encourager les étudiants et les personnes qui planifient leur carrière à considérer le secteur minier comme option. Sous la bannière ‘Explore tes options dans les mines’, des activités telles des foires d’emploi/de carrière, des visites des écoles, des présentations, etc ont été organisée avec cet objectif en tête. Cette année ne fait pas exception, mais avec un angle un peu différent. Pendant l’édition 2022 de ‘l’Expo minière’, les élèves de 11ième et 12ième année de toute la région seront invités à des présentation de jeunes gens qui ont poursuivi une carrière dans l’industrie et qui ont réussi à obtenir un emploi dans le secteur minier, ici dans notre région. Qui de mieux pour informer et inspirer la génération future de travailleurs et travailleuses que des jeunes qui ont ‘exploré les options dans les mines’? Cette activité sera organisée par la CFNE en collaboration avec les conseils scolaires et des représentants de l’industrie. Les détails seront dévoilés dans les mois à venir. Restez à l’écoute!


JUNE 8-9, 2022




Power Metals Corp Explores for Critical Elements By Frank Giorno

Power Metals Corp is ready to take a major step forward in its quest for drilling for Lithium (Li)–Cesium (Cs)–Tantalum (Ta) at its Case Lake Property by seeking an Ontario license to drill at its Case Lake Property. Power Metals announced it has prepared documents for an exploration permit from the Ontario government for a drill program on its Case Lake. The purpose of the drill program will be to expand the Li-Cs-Ta mineralization at West Joe Dyke and the Li-Ta mineralization on the Main Dyke. The drill program will also explore to search for new LiCs-Ta mineralization over the 2 km between West Joe Dyke and Main Dyke. The drilling program when licensed will proceed with the participation of Power Metals new partner Sinomine (Hong Kong) Rare Metals Resources Co Limited. The two companies will fully fund the drilling program. Sinomine is one of the largest producers of rare & light minerals products in the world. The Beijing based Sinomine Resource Group acquired the historic TANCO Lithium Mine in Manitoba giving the new partnership a wellsituated processing facility for lithium, cesium and tantalum. Sinomine’s investment in Power Metals will further contribute to the advancement of Case Lake. Page 46


Photo: Pale pink to grey pollucite with white veining next to pale green spodumene at 49.5 m, PWM-18116, West Joe Dyke

“Power Metals is a promising mining company with enormous potential in lithium, cesium and tantalum resources, Sinomine will work closely with Power Metal to develop together to achieve win-win relations, and eventually to make major breakthroughs in the field of rare & light minerals.” said Wang Pingwei, Chairman and CEO of Sinomine. “We are excited to get back to Case Lake with our new partners Sinomine to continue where we left off after our very successful first drill program,” said Johnathan More, Chairman & Director of Power Metals. “Power Metals has already drilled over 13,000 meters to date and this next program will follow up with this exciting discovery of cesium that is on surface and open in all directions. Phase 1 will include a fully funded 20,000-meter drill program.” Case Lake Li-Cs-Ta Property is a three-commodity property with Lithium (Li), Cesium (Cs) and Tantalum (Ta) mineralization in the form of spodumene, pollucite and Ta-oxide minerals. West Joe pegmatite dyke is unique in that it is one of the few cesium-rich pegmatites in the world. Only three deposits of cesium have been globally mined for cesium: Tanco, Manitoba, Sinclair, Australia

and Bikita, Zimbabwe. But the cesium supply has been depleted in each of these deposits at a time when the global demand for cesium is rising. The Case Lake Property is located in Steele and Case townships, 80 km east of Cochrane, NE Ontario close to the Ontario-Quebec border. The Property is 10 km x 9.5 km in size with 14 identified tonalite domes. The Case Lake pegmatite swarm consists of six spodumene dykes: North, Main, South, East and Northeast Dykes on the Henry Dome and the West Joe Dyke on a new tonalite dome. Case Lake Property consists of 556 cell claims in Steele, Case, Scapa, Pliny, Abbotsford and Challies townships, Larder Lake Mining Division. The Case Lake Property is owned 100% by Power Metals Corp. Power Metals Corp. is a diversified Canadian mining company with a mandate to explore, develop and acquire high quality mining projects. We are committed to building an arsenal of projects in both lithium and high-growth specialty metals and minerals. We see an unprecedented opportunity to supply the tremendous growth of the lithium battery and clean-technology industries. Learn more at:

Page 47


Thunder Bay’s Mining Industry

takes centre stage

Mining big business in Thunder Bay Approximately 400 Thunder Bay mine service and supply companies support mining regionaly and globally. In recent years, new discoveries and a strong metals market, have driven interest in exploration and mining in Northwestern Ontario and continue to do so. Similar in size to France, Northwestern Ontario is a vast land of minerals with gold production from 5 mines, soon to be 6 and in the near future more are being added to the list. The Lac des Iles mine north of Thunder Bay is the only pure play palladium mine in Canada. In addition there are many major exploration projects forecasted to become NWO’s future producing mines! John Mason, Project Manager -Mining Services with the Thunder Bay Community Economic Development Commission (CEDC) was co-host to the Mining the Northwest Virtual Event in November 2021, along with Glenn Dredhart, President of Canadian Trade-Ex and his team. John Mason,opened the event by acknowledging that Thunder Bay is located on the traditional lands, the traditional territory of Fort William First Nation, signatories to the Robinson Superior Treaty of 1850 and acknowledge the shared lands of the Métis peoples as well. This was done to show respect and recognition for the indigenous peoples of Canada. “We certainly live in remarkable times with respect to the exploration mining scene in the Great Northwest. With that said, CEDC, last year, embarked on a Mining Readiness Strategy (MRS) in 2020/21,”Mason said. Page 48


“We put out an RFP (request for purchase) that was won by MNP LLP Consulting and TBT Engineering. They led us through a path of working with the Producing Mines and 14 Advanced Exploration projects located in Northwestern Ontario,” explained Mason. “The consultants gave us a great template to go forward with - a true ‘mining readiness strategy’ - on the back of these major projects,” Workforce, mine service and supply, electrical and transportation infrastructure, research and development and innovation, needs and opportunities were all studied in the MRS process. All intel for the study came directly from the mining/exploration companies. Many of the projects that were studied under the MRS, were represented at the Mining the Northwest virtual event organized by Canadian Tradex and their new conferencing platform Virtex November 30, December 1 and 2nd 2021. Detailed presentations that were given at the Mining the Northwest event were presented by Presidents, their Mine GMs and/or Chief Geologists. The presentations themed, Projects in the Pipeline were all well received, and attendance exceeded online capacity. Most presentations had up to 100 plus stakeholders from within the industry present (over 2000 individuals registered for the event). In addition, a strong roster of mine/project procurement managers hosted one-on-ones, promoting service and supply opportunities, and over 70 resumes from future employees, were exchanged with human resources managers.

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The virtual event featured opportunities and workshops evolving from procurement, workforce training, education, career development and indigenous partnerships. “They were all part of the three-day event. We truly had, I would say, an all-star lineup for you,” said John Mason. During his opening remarks Mason, referred to some very impactful numbers on the reserve and resource categories for current mines and advancing projects that are maturing to production status in the next few years. Mason pointed to the propospects for a very fruitful mining future in Northwest Ontario. The mineral basket in the Northwest currently contains 15 million ounces of palladium and some 51 million tonnes of lithium ore (lithium oxide). By 2026, in just four short years, Northwestern Ontario Mines will be producing about 1.6 million ounces of gold. This will equate to 22-26% of Canada’s annual gold production. Certainly, these are astounding numbers! Northwestern Ontario is seeing a boom in Mining like none other. The presentations are available at: Page 49


Argonaut Gold Update on Magino Project

Magino Project

Construction project continues on schedule for first gold pour Photo: Aeriel view of Plant Site progress (Argonaut Gold) By Frank Giorno

Argonaut Gold’s capital expenses (Capex) review released in December 2021 found costs increased 57% to C$800 million (US $622m) over the previous capex estimate of C$510 million (US $397m) released, in October 2020. Argonaut attributes the largest increases to higher cost of goods, inflation, covid-19 impacts, changes to the scope of the project, the tailings management facility (TMF), and provision of permanent natural gas fueled power. The tailings management facility costs rose 69% to C$130 million and the natural gas power generation for the site was 140% higher at C$41 million. Site development costs were up 120% to C$138 million, and the owner’s pre-production General and administrative expense also went up 120% to C$55 million. Argonaut’s contingency fund increased 118% to C$33 million making the 13% rise in process plant costs, to C$219 million, look modest. The Magino project is on schedule except the process plant. The civil works at the mill site was falling behind schedule, but Argonaut spent extra funds brining it back on track to get the mill back on schedule. Argonaut officials explained its Engineering and Construction contract with Ausenco Engineering Canada shielded it from most of the cost increases. The Engineering, and Construction (EPC) includes all costs to deliver a turnkey facility that is ready to go. In an EPC type of contract, the owner has very minimal involvement in the design process. Meanwhile Argonaut Gold’s latest drilling results released in November 2021 brought some positive news as it discovered high grade intersects 16.0 Page 50


Metres at 6.1 g/t Gold and 7.0 Metres at 8.8 g/t gold at Magino’s Elbow Zone. Though Argonaut Gold expected 2021 to end with approximately US$230 million (~$290 million CAD) available between its cash and existing revolving credit facility. Argonaut is conducting a review of its financing and strategic alternatives. As well, Argonaut’s existing consolidated operating portfolio is expected to generate positive cash flow throughout the remainder of the Project at the current gold price. The Magino project currently has measured and indicated resources of 144 million tonnes grading 0.91 g/t gold for 4.2 million contained oz. and an inferred resources of 33.2 million tonnes at 0.83 g/t gold for 886,000 contained oz. of gold. A gold price of $1,200 per ounce was used in these calculations. Production, consisting of an open pit mine, and carbonin-pulp gold recovery are planned, with an expected start up during the first half of 2023. The Magino Project is located 195 kilometres north of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. It is in Finan Township, approximately 85 kilometres northeast of Wawa, Ontario and 10 kilometres southeast of Dubreuilville, Ontario. Argonaut has a much higher level of confidence in the current EAC now that it is a year into the project. It has worked through the process facilities’ challenges when it encountered rock unevenness, stripped approximately 75% of the TMF area but completed construction of about 20% of the TMF. Most of the remaining work is primarily constructionrelated with the remaining civil work. Argonaut believes Cont`d on Pg. 52

Page 51


Majority of remaining work for is

Magino Project

‘bolting things together’

Cont`d from Pg. 50

the risk of further significant increases to the EAC are low with a significant contingency in place.


Concrete work continues on the plant site. Roof bay sections erected with first lift of process building steel completed. Heating of Ball/SAG mill area in progress. Stripping on the north embankment of the Water Quality Control Pond (WQCP) is completed and the north west embankment stripping has commenced. Overburden removal and rock placement continues at the TMF. Groundwater Wells continue to be installed, with 20 of 21 installed. First DX900 drill rig on site and in production, with a simulator on site for continued training. Sections of dorm buildings have been transitioned from temporary sewer infrastructure to permanent.

Community & Permitting The company has had monthly meetings when possible to provide environmental updates to its Indigenous partners: Michipicoten First Nation, Batchewana First Nation, Missanabie Cree First Nation, Métis Nation of Ontario, Red Sky Métis Independent Nation, and Garden River First Nation. They’ve hosted a groundbreaking ceremony at Magino with members of Indigenous communities, local mayors and Minister Greg Rickford, the Ontario Minister of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry, hosted various site tours, including tours with the Town of Dubreuilville, the Algoma Workforce Investment Corporation and members of the Regional Employment Help Centre, had a site visit from the Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks with no issues identified, had the Wawa Chief Building Officer inspector performed final walkthrough of the 458-person camp, commenced groundwater monitoring well work, completed the installation of the air monitoring station, which is now operational, started biological fieldwork Page 52


Aeriel view of Open Pit (sediment, benthic and fish tissue sampling) as well as on-going hydrometric monitoring and the fish habitat compensation is progressing with the fish relocation crew on site. The Argonaut Gold, Magino Project team continues to engage with community members and all Indigenous communities to ensure their neighbours are well informed of all activities with the Project. Recently Argonaut attended and presented at the Mining in the NorthWest Virtual Conference. The event included a job fair, an Indigenous Partnership conference and Mining Community forum. They Assisted local organizations in Dubreuilville in providing toys for children of all ages, gift cards, food, and small gifts for all in the Community during the holiday season. Argonaut continues to assemble and mobilize their teams and build infrastructure. They’ve continued configuration of the IT and Communications internal network, generators for the 458-person camp are being installed, sections of the dorm buildings have been transitioned from temporary sewer infrastructure to permanent and hydrant and waterline installation was completed. Just some of the upcoming milestones include the continuation of the management for open pit drilling, blast monitoring and dewatering, continue WQCP stripping and rock placement and exploration drilling which will continue with four diamond drills. Argonaut Gold is a Canadian gold company engaged in exploration, mine development and production. In addition to the Magino Mine, the company’s primary assets are the El Castillo mine and San Agustin mine, in Durango, Mexico, the La Colorada mine in Sonora, Mexico and the Florida Canyon mine in Nevada, USA.

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2021 Success

Bodes well for Construction of

Greenstone Project By Frank Giorno

Equinox Gold Corp. reported a successful 2021 fourth quarter for its global operations, including the start of construction at its Canadian Greenstone project near Geraldton-Beardmore, Ontario. The Greenstone project is a multimillion-ounce gold project located in the top-tier mining jurisdiction of Ontario, Canada. The project is owned as a joint venture by Equinox Gold and Orion Mine Finance Group, with Equinox Gold holding 60%. With the expectation of producing more than 5 million oz of gold over an initial 14-year mine life, and more than 400,000 oz of gold annually for the first five years (60% attributable to Equinox Gold), Greenstone will be one of the largest gold mines in Canada and a cornerstone asset in Equinox Gold’s portfolio. Equinox Gold produced 210,400 oz of gold in Q4 2021 and achieved its fiscal 2021 guidance with 602,100 oz of gold produced for the year, a 26% increase over 2020 production. Another positive according to Equinox Gold’s CEO, Christian Milau, was that Equinox Gold did not incur additional debt during 2021, a remarkable feat as many operating mines experienced cost increases mostly due to Covid-19 slowdowns Page 54


and shortages, and creeping inflation. During 2021, Equinox Gold produced its millionth oz of gold as a company and achieved $1 billion in revenue. In addition to strong cash flow from its operating mines, Equinox Gold has more than $300 million in cash, $200 million available to draw on a revolving credit facility, and an investment portfolio worth approximately $450 million at current market prices. Heading into 2022, Equinox Gold remains focused on growth. The company is commissioning a new mine in Brazil, advancing construction at Greenstone, permitting a mine expansion in California and conducting exploration programs across its operations with a focus on mine life extension. Production from Greenstone, expected to commence in the first half of 2024, will be integral to the company achieving its vision of becoming a millionounce producer. The Greenstone area has a long mining history. Gold was first discovered between 1916 and 1918, followed by a number of discoveries in the 1930s that led to the start of mining. From 1930-1970 the Hardrock deposit was mined by the former Hard Rock, MacLeodCockshutt and Mosher companies.

More than two million ounces of gold was mined during that time. The Greenstone project also has a long development history. From 2008-2012 Premier Gold owned the project and undertook significant exploration, which resulted in a favourable mineral resource estimate. In 2014 a Preliminary Economic Assessment (PEA) was completed. In 2016 an initial Feasibility Study was completed, which allowed for the start of project permitting. Between 2018 and 2019 the Provincial and Federal Environmental Assessments were approved and three Long-term Relationship Agreements were signed with local Indigenous communities. Additional drilling and engineering studies were completed and an Updated Feasibility Study was released by Premier Gold in 2020. In April 2021, Equinox Gold bought Premier Gold and formed the 60/40 joint venture with Orion to advance Greenstone Mine to production. Eric Lamontagne, General Manager of Greenstone Gold Mines reported in a recent newsletter that “As construction activities continue to ramp up, not only has Greenstone Mine been busy constructing the Project, but we have also been busy updating stakeholders about Cont`d on Pg. 56

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An Economic Driver In Northern Ontario Cont`d from Pg. 54

our activities. We participated in the recently held Mining the Northwest Virtual Expo and Conference with presentations outlining our activities, providing an overview of our human resource needs and connecting with suppliers via our procurement team. The Greenstone Mine is truly proud to be part of the Northwestern Ontario mining community.” Eric was also a guest speaker at the Projects in the Pipeline conference and started his presentation during the event by acknowledging the Greenstone project’s partners. The project is located within Treaty 9 Territory which is home to Animbiigoo Zaagi’igan Anishinaabek, Aroland First Nation, Ginoogaming First Nation and Long Lake #58 First Nation, and also home to the citizens of the Métis Nation of Ontario. They are all strong supporters of the project and Greenstone Mine is committed to working in a spirit of partnership with Indigenous communities and the Municipality of Greenstone to realize opportunities in business ventures, training and education, employment and community development. Greenstone Mine is an economic driver to the region and to Northern Ontario as a whole. The project will provide approximately 800 jobs and 1,300 regional jobs during construction and 500 jobs during the initial 14-year mine life, employment that is expected to reduce the local unemployment rate by up to 6%. The project will create numerous business opportunities in the region, helping to accelerate economic recovery from Covid-19, Page 56


support growth in the region and bring numerous long-lasting benefits to Northern Ontario. Greenstone Mine is also expected to contribute more than $1 billion in Provincial and Federal taxes during operations and make more than $3 billion in Ontario purchases during construction and operations. Initial construction capital is estimated at $1.5 billion to build a 27,000 tonnes-per-day open-pit mining operation with primary and secondary crushers, a process plant, power plant, administration building, a permanent effluent water treatment plant and ponds, and a tailings management facility. “For the mining side we are looking at well over 200,000 tonnes per day with 31 trucks,” Eric stated in his presentation. Early works construction commenced in the spring of 2021 and Eric was proud to mention during his presentation that with over 200,000 hours worked to date, there had been no lost-time incidents.

Full-scale construction commenced in October 2021, kicked off by a groundbreaking ceremony attended by the chiefs of each Indigenous community, the Honourable Minister Rickford, Minister of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry and Minister of Indigenous Affairs, Mayor Beaulieu from the Municipality of Greenstone, and senior members of Equinox Gold, Orion and Greenstone Mines. In the construction announcement, Christian Milau stated that Equinox Gold intends to “build a gold mine that can be considered an industry example for responsible mineral development.” The Temporary Lodge was completed in September and currently houses 250 workers with an overall capacity for 650 construction workers. Mine pre-production is targeted to commence in the fourth quarter of 2022, the power plant and tailings management facility should be available for use by the end of 2023, and the Highway 11 handover should also be completed during that time period. First gold pour is targeted for the first half of 2024. Eric’s presentation ended with an impressive list of supplies and services that will be required for the operation, including primary concave reline services, conveyor

Greenstone Mine requires

suppliers, contractors and workers splicing, mill re-line, HPGR changeout, fuel dispatch, tool crib, wash bay attendant services, blasting mats movement, sharpening and hose repair services, dewatering services, surveying services, renovation services, PPE supply, TSSA work, small equipment maintenance, labour services, IT services, temporary skilled trades services, small equipment rentals, crane rentals, hand radio and repair services, scaffolding services, used mobile equipment purchases, office supplies, lifting devices, transportation services, concrete pump rentals, fencing and gating services and auxiliary mobile equipment rentals. Greenstone Mine continues to invite suppliers and contractors who are interested in being considered to provide these goods and services, and asks that they complete the “Expression of Interest (EOI)” questionnaire located on their website at There are also many career opportunities and positions available at the site in the next few months such as: Quality Manager, Mill Operations General Foreman, Accounts Payable Technician, Camp Contract Coordinator, Mine Operations Superintendent, Cost Controller, Mill Manager, Mill Maintenance Superintendent, IT System Administrator, Chief Mine Engineer and Senior Purchasing Agent. Some positions are currently being filled and some are coming available, so it is important to keep updated by visiting It is truly a great time to be a part of the mining industry and a great time to be living in Northwestern Ontario. Equinox Gold is a growth-focused Canadian mining company operating entirely in the Americas, with sev-

en operating gold mines and a clear path to achieve more than one million ounces of annual gold production from a pipeline of development and expansion projects. Equinox Gold’s common shares are listed on the TSX and the NYSE American under the trading symbol EQX.

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Island Gold and Young Davidson mines set the stage for a healthy 2022 By Kevin Vincent

Alamos Gold’s northern Ontario properties are setting the stage for a healthy balance sheet in 2022. Alamos reported fourth quarter and annual 2021 production early in the new year. The company also provided threeyear production and operating guidance. “With stronger production in the fourth quarter, we met our revised full year 2021 guidance. This was driven by strong performances through the year from both Young-

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Davidson and Island Gold, with the former achieving record mining rates and free cash flow,” said John McCluskey, President and CEO. “This offset a challenging year at Mulatos as we work through a transitional phase with higher costs until La Yaqui Grande comes online in the second half of 2022. This temporary increase in costs at Mulatos and industry-wide inflation are the key drivers of higher consolidated costs in 2022, though we expect a significant improvement in costs in 2023 and beyond,” said McCluskey. “We are pleased to be providing our inaugural three-year guidance which outlines our strong outlook. Our key high-return growth projects remain on track and are expected to support higher produc-

tion at substantially lower costs in the years ahead. The completion of La Yaqui Grande will be the key near-term driver of lower costs, and Island Gold will be the primary driver of significantly lower costs over the longer term with the Phase III expansion. These high-return reinvestments are fully funded and form a key part of our sustainable business model that can support growing returns to our stakeholders over the long term,” McCluskey added. The company also made some senior management adjustments to kick off 2022. Alamos announced the appointments of Luc Guimond as Vice President, Operations and Khalid Elhaj as Vice President, Business Strategy. Léon GrondinCont`d on Pg. 62

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Strong production

performances Cont`d from Pg. 60

Leblanc has been promoted to General Manager at Young-Davidson. Luc Guimond has nearly 35 years of experience in the mining industry in operations management, project management, mine construction, and corporate development in Canada and Australia; and was most recently General Manager, YoungDavidson. He joined Northgate Minerals (a predecessor company) in 2006 as Project Manager of the Young-Davidson project and was later appointed Executive General Manager for Northgate Minerals’ Australian operations. Prior to that, Mr. Guimond held progressively senior positions with Noranda, Hemlo Gold, Battle Mountain Gold and Newmont. He is a graduate of the Haileybury School of Mines and holds a Bachelor of Applied Science degree in Mining Engineering from Queen’s University. Mr. Guimond is a licensed Professional Engineer in Ontario. Léon Grondin-Leblanc is promoted to General Manager, Young-Davidson, where he most recently served as Underground Operations Superintendent since 2018. He joined Richmont Mines (a predecessor company) as Senior Mine Engineer at the Island Gold mine in early Page 62


2016 and was promoted to Chief Mine Engineer later that year. Prior to that, he held progressively senior engineering positions with Agnico Eagle Mines. Mr. Grondin-Leblanc holds a Bachelor degree in Mining Engineering from Université Laval and an MBA from the University of Fredericton. He is a licensed Professional Engineer in Ontario and Quebec. Khalid Elhaj joined Alamos Gold in 2015 and most recently held the role of Director, Corporate Development & Business Planning. As Vice President of Business Strategy, he will support the executive team’s execution of business strategy and evaluation of key strategic initiatives and opportunities, as well as have responsibility for the forecasting and budgeting process.

Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2021 Operating Highlights • Met 2021 annual production guidance: production of 457,200 ounces of gold in 2021 was in line with revised production guidance and represented a 7% increase from 2020. This included fourth quarter production of 112,500 ounces, an increase from the third quarter, with strong performances at Island Gold and Young-Davidson offsetting low-

er production from Mulatos • Costs expected to meet 2021 guidance: total cash costs and allin sustaining costs for 2021 have not been finalized but are expected to be consistent with revised full year guidance of $790 to $810 per ounce and $1,120 to $1,140 per ounce, respectively • Record revenues: sold 112,966 ounces of gold in the fourth quarter at an average realized price of $1,797 per ounce for revenues of $203 million. Full year sales totaled 457,517 ounces of gold at an average realized price of $1,800 per ounce for record revenues of $824 million The company looks to stable production in 2022 with 4% growth expected in 2023: production is expected to be between 440,000 and 480,000 ounces in 2022, consistent with 2021, and increase approximately 4% (based on the mid-point of guidance) to between 460,000 and 500,000 ounces in 2023 and 2024. The completion of the Phase III expansion at Island Gold is expected to drive a further increase in production in 2025 with additional growth potential from Lynn Lake Island Gold is expected to contribute to lower costs in 2024, along with a further reduction in costs following the expected completion of the Phase III expansion in 2025. Total capital guidance, excluding capitalized exploration, of $305 to $345 million in 2022: this includes $290 to $330 million of capital at producing mines and is down slightly from 2021 guidance with lower capital at La Yaqui Grande and Young-Davidson more than offsetting the ramp up in spending on the Phase III expansion at Island Gold. Capital spending for producing mines is expected to decrease approximately 23% in 2023 to between $220 and $260 million, reflecting the completion of construction of La Yaqui Grande, and

Exploration budget

follows up on Island Gold success

remain at similar levels in 2024. Total capital is expected to decline further following the completion of the Phase III expansion at Island Gold in 2025. The total capital budget for 2022 includes: Sustaining capital guidance of $90 to $105 million: down approximately 17% from 2021, reflecting lower sustaining capital at Mulatos. Sustaining capital is expected to remain at similar levels through 2024 Growth capital guidance for producing mines of $200 to $225 million: consistent with 2021 with the majority related to the Phase III expansion at Island Gold and completing construction at La Yaqui Grande. Exploration budget of $40 million: with more than half allocated to following up on ongoing exploration success at Island Gold. Fully funded growth: the Phase III expansion at Island Gold and La Yaqui Grande are expected to be funded through ongoing cash flow and existing cash. The Company expects to generate positive free cash flow in the second half of the year as costs and capital spending decrease with the start of production at La Yaqui Grande. Strong ongoing returns to shareholders: including the existing $0.10 per share annualized dividend (paid quarterly) and planned share repurchases under the Normal Course Issuer Bid. In 2021, the Company returned approximately $51 million to shareholders between dividends and share repurchases, representing a combined yield of approximately 1.8% at current share prices Alamos is a Canadian-based intermediate gold producer with diversified production from three operating mines in North America. This includes the Young-Davidson and Island Gold mines in northern On-

tario, and the Mulatos mine in Sonora State, Mexico. Additionally, the company has a significant portfolio of development stage projects in Canada, Mexico, Turkey, and the United States. Alamos employs more than 1,700 people and is committed to the highest standards of sustainable development.

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Using Virtual Reality to Highlight Careers in Mining Newmont’s Musselwhite mine contributes substantially to the Northwestern Ontario Economy. Newmont’s Musselwhite mine is a fly-in, fly-out operation located about 500 kilometers north of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. Musselwhite’s ore is mined from two main zones below Opapimiskan Lake and is processed on site using a circuit that includes crushing, grinding, leaching by cyanidation, carbon in pulp recovery and electrowinning.

Due to the remote nature of the operation, it can be a challenge to educate prospective employees and recruits about the variety of roles and opportunities on offer at the mine. As part of the Skills Ontario program, Newmont’s Musselwhite mine recently partnered with ORIGIN, an Indigenous-owned company based in Fort William First Nation, to produce a series of 360-degree virtual reality (VR) videos profiling a variety of roles at the

mine. “We are very proud to partner with ORIGIN. These videos are an innovative way of supporting the Musselwhite Agreement and the site’s Indigenous Employment Plan by promoting mining careers among Indigenous youth,” said Shane Matson, Sustainability Manager at Musselwhite. Skills Ontario is an initiative that promotes careers in skilled trades across the province. Through this partnership, Musselwhite will be able to highlight important roles at the mine via ORIGIN’s ImmersiveLink VR platform, which is currently used in more than 100 First Nations and 1,000 schools across Ontario. To date, the viewer has the opportunity to experience a day in the life of a mill operator, a chef and an environmental technician. Mining Life & Exploration News magazine publisher, Glenn Dredhart recently viewed the presentations made available on Newmont’s YouTube channel and commented by saying, “it is impressive to say the least how Newmont has taken

Cont`d on Pg. 66

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66 2022 MINING REPORT Page 64 ML&EN

Our purpose is to create value and improve lives through sustainable and responsible mining Newmont Musselwhite is committed to helping communities surrounding our operation. In 2022, we lookforward to continuing our community engagement with our longstanding partners, and to new opportunities that will continue to support and develop our region.

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Pictured: Melissa Hardy-Giles, owner of ORIGIN Cont`d from Pg. 64

the initiative to educate and demonstrate the many career options available through todays mining operation.” Melissa Hardy-Giles spoke at the Career, Education and Training Day conference at Mining the Northwest Virtual Expo on December 1st, 2021. Her topic was “CHANGING THE WAY WE CONNECT TO CAREER & CULTURE - Virtual learning & development solutions”. Newmont Musselwhite was a sponsor of the event and participated in the Virtual Career Fair and Partnering with Procurement that held meetings with supply and service groups from the region. Melissa is the owner of ORIGIN and has been in business now for over 14 years. She talks about the change from within the industry. Page 66


Melissa said, “we started with our grassroots training, what I’d like to call it, because it’s something that we’ve never let go of. I’d like to say that Origin has been working on reconciliation and supporting reconciliation for 14 years since the beginning. Virtual Reality was introduced mainly because we wanted to not only bring these experiences to indigenous communities and other rural communities but to industry as well. COVID actually helped catapult our Virtual Reality platform called ImmersiveLink.” Melissa mentioned in her presentation, “we take all users on a virtual journey to experience a combination of unique indigenous traditions and cultural practices. We promote diversity and a deeper understanding of our people and indigenous worldviews. Melissa showcased one of the Newmont Musselwhite video’s during her presentation. “What we do is we work with industry, and we create these Virtual Reality experiences. And the experiences are between three and five minutes long normally, and what we do is we try to portray a day in a life in the career as clearly as possible. This way we work with the actual workers on site, they normally

talk about what training they went through, what training they had to complete the day in the life, they’ve been on the job. Some basic everyday tasks they might have, and then they show you around their worksite. And then obviously, with the 360, you can totally look all over the place, you can look down, you can look up and behind you. So you’re basically immersed into the experience, hence the platform name, ImmersiveLink.” Melissa said, “we’re happy to be able to have ImmersiveLink right across Canada, and we’re growing. The process of what we do starts with storyboarding with the industry partner, and we have our crew on site which includes travel. Then we bring it back home after we film. Filming could take anywhere from a day or half a day, depending on the situation and what needs to be captured. But basically, you’re looking at six to eight weeks in total for the completion of an experience.” Newmont’s videos can be viewed online by visiting their website: Musselwhite-Mine-Uses-VirtualReality-to-Highlight-Careers-inMining/default.aspx

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Page 67 69 2022 MINING REPORT ML&EN

By Frank Giorno

Tim Hill, NAP’s former Chief Financial Officer, was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Impala Canada. The NAP corporate office in Toronto will become the regional office for Implats, while NAP’s finance and exploration offices will remain in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

Impala Canada Limited was formed in December 2019 when North American Palladium was acquired by Impala Platinum Holdings Limited the Implats Group, an integrated global platinum group metal producer. Implats was attracted by NAPs’ focus on palladium, its reliable growth potential, its highly engaged team and the revenuegenerating potential of its Lac des Iles Mine.

With this funding, Impala Canada will be a foundational partner in the $2 million capital campaign launched by Roots to Harvest last month. Over the next five years, Roots to Harvest will open the new Roots Community Food Centre dining room, develop and implement monthly Traditional Food Meals for Elders and seniors in Northwestern Ontario, and build five sustainable, regional food projects that will contribute to capacity building, deepening connections to community and Indigenous traditions, and empowering traditionally vulnerable groups – all through the power of food.

Last November, Impala Canada announced a $375,000 investment in Thunder Bay’s Roots to Harvest, representing the largest corporate donation made to the organization to date, and Impala Canada’s largest ever social investment.

The Lac des Iles Mine, a palladium operation with more than 25 years of production northwest of Thunder Bay, Ontario, employs over 700 employees and features a unique, world-class ore body and modern infrastructure, including both underground and surface mine operations. The mine is also noted for its advanced underground methodologies and significant exploration portfolio. LDI is expanding production to become one of Canada’s largest, lowest-cost and safest underground mines, producing a metal that contributes to a cleaner global environment. Page 68


“Our organizations share the same values – caring for one another, respecting culture and diversity, and delivering meaningful support to the community at large to combat the systemic issues that contribute to food insecurity and poverty,” said Tim Hill, CEO of Impala Canada. “As a mining company committed to sustainable practices and a major employer in the region, Impala

Canada is seizing an opportunity to amplify the good work of Roots to Harvest, and we are honoured to play a supporting role as they contribute to both regional and national food security, by working with Indigenous partners to incorporate an Indigenous food and build capacity across the region.” “A gift of this size translates to immediate and long-term impacts for thousands of people in Northwestern Ontario. Food insecurity is a community issue and we’re thankful that Impala Canada is backing this work and our capital campaign in such a significant way,” said Erin Beagle, Executive Director, Roots to Harvest. “This sustained funding will mean that we can dedicate time and resources to tackling the root causes of food insecurity together with community partners and leaders. We’re committed to building strong relationships in order to have an impact on these complicated issues.” The benefit of this investment will extend to individuals and groups across the Thunder Bay region, including seniors and Elders: “The Thunder Bay Indigenous Friendship Centre congratulates Roots to Harvest and Impala Canada on getting one step closer to opening a community kitchen with a focus

Cont`d on Pg. 70

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Helping bring about

positive change

Cont`d from Pg. 68

on traditional foods. Our elders in the Lifelong Care Program will be extremely honoured to share a meal and enjoy ancestral foods with family and community. Food is medicine and helps us maintain balance in our lives. Chi-Miigwetch for the opportunity to promote Mino Bimaadiziwin (Living the Good Life) in our community,” said Charlene Baglien, Executive Director of the Thunder Bay Indigenous Friendship Centre. Impala joins other partners in helping to provide access to healthy food options for Northerners, including the Government of Ontario. Greg Rickford, Minister of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry and Minister of Indigenous Affairs said, “the mining industry plays a critical role in the vitality of northern communities and regions like Thunder Bay. Impala Canada’s investment in Roots

to Harvest is a perfect example of how partnerships between businesses and grassroots organizations can help the vulnerable, strengthen communities, and build capacity and resilience in meaningful ways.” The Honourable Patty Hajdu, Member of Parliament for Thunder BaySuperior North, recognized the significance of this partnership for the constituency: “Roots to Harvest and Erin Beagle have long been a strong voice and community partner to the people and organizations of this region. I’m thrilled for them to undertake this new journey and pleased to see this investment by private industry to recognize and support the important work they do for our neighbours.” Previously, in September 2021, Impala Canada partnered with Indspire with a $150,000 Investment to support post-secondary Education for Indigenous Youth.

“As a mining company producing critical metals and significant employer in Northwestern Ontario, we have the opportunity to bring about positive change that empowers those around us. Inspired by its purpose that within a generation, every Indigenous student will graduate, we are committed to working closely with Indspire to help First Nations, Inuit and Métis people achieve their highest potential. Our aim with this investment is to build educational capacity close to home that will, over time, enhance social and economic prosperity,” said Tim Hill, Chief Executive Officer, Impala Canada. Mining is the largest private sector employer of Indigenous peoples and one of the largest private sector employers in the North. To help further establish a healthy pipeline of talent for the mining industry in Northwestern Ontario, Impala Canada will use this funding to award ten annual bursaries to Indigenous students for the next three academic years. Five bursaries will be awarded to students at Confederation College enrolled in the Trades & Technology programs. And five bursaries will be awarded to students, studying any subject, who are members of the Fort William, Gull Bay or Whitesand First Nations nearby Impala Canada’s LDI Mine, or who are members of the Metis Nation of Ontario or Red Sky Metis Independent Nation. Over the last five years, Impala Canada has ramped up to become one of Canada’s largest, lowestcost and safest mines, producing 9,000 tonnes of ore per day – with a target of 12,000 by the end of 2022.

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2021 was a busy year for Avalon Advanced Materials Inc. By Frank Giorno

Avalon Advanced Materials Inc. is a Canada-based mineral development company specializing in sustainably-produced materials for clean technology. Avalon has four advanced stage projects dealing with lithium, tin and indium, as well as rare earth elements, tantalum, cesium and zirconium. Social responsibility and environmental stewardship are corporate cornerstones. Avalon`s projects include: • Separation Rapids Lithium Project, 70 km north of Kenora, Ontario • East Kemptville Tin-Indium Project, 45 km northeast of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia • Warren Township Anorthosite Project, 100 km west of Timmins, Ontario • Lilypad Cesium-Tantalum Property, Fort Hope, 350 km north of Thunder Bay, Ontario • Nechalacho Rare Earth Elements Project, Thor Lake, Northwest Territories. Avalon advances on Separation Rapids Lithium Project Avalon reported that work is continuing at the Separation Rapids Lithium Project towards acquiring a demonstration scale dense media separation (DMS) plant to begin Page 72


processing the 5,000t bulk sample collected earlier this year and begin producing petalite concentrate product samples for glass ceramic end-users that have expressed interest and for further battery materials test work. Avalon also recently received several new expressions of interest in the lithium battery materials product from consumers also interested in partnering with Avalon on establishing the battery materials refinery in Thunder Bay, Ontario. Once a firm commitment is received, Avalon will proceed with construction and take advantage of additional funding support available from several new government programs announced recently to support creating new battery manufacturing capacity and their related supply chains in Ontario. The property consists of over 17 mineral claims and one mining lease covering a combined area of approximately 3,910 hectares in the Paterson Lake Area, Kenora Mining Division. Avalon also has approximately 2.0% net smelter returns (NSR) interest in certain claims of the East Cedartree Gold Property located near Kenora, Ontario. The Company also recently received results from its recent mapping program on the northwestern part of the Separation Rapids property to follow-up on the new Snow-

bank petalite pegmatite discovery made in 2018. The new results extend the known strike length of the Snowbank lithium pegmatite by 50% to 127 metres and confirmed the widespread presence of coarse grained petalite mineralization, which would make an ideal additional source of petalite for the glass-ceramic markets. The Company is now planning to proceed with a winter diamond drilling program to begin to delineate the size potential of the new Snowbank discovery. There are also several other lithium pegmatites in the same area that may merit initial drill-testing. Preparation of the necessary access trails is underway and work toward securing the necessary drilling permits is progressing. Avalon Metals announced it will fund the winter drilling program at Separation Rapids Lithium Project through a non-brokered private placement consisting of 9,099,994 flow-through units at a price of $0.12 per unit and 2,920,000 nonflow-through units at a price of $0.10 per unit for gross proceeds of $1,384,000. Each flow-through unit was comprised of one flow-through common share and one half of one common share purchase warrant, with each whole warrant entitling the holder to acquire one common share of the Cont`d on Pg. 74


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on the forefront of sustainable best practices Cont`d from Pg. 72

Company at a price of $0.18 for a period of 24 months. Donald Bubar, President and CEO of the Company, subscribed for 250,000 flow-through units and Alan Ferry, Chair of the Board of Directors of the Company, subscribed for 300,000 flow-through units. In conjunction with this private placement, Avalon paid finder’s fees of $90,580 and issued 788,900 non-transferrable finder’s warrants, with each finder’s warrant being exercisable to acquire one common share of the Company at a price of $0.18 for a period of 24 months subject to a hold period which expires on April 22, 2022. The tenth annual comprehensive sustainability report, along with its 2021 annual filings including the audited financial statements were released in November. The 2021 Sustainability Report focused on health and safety, social, environmental and economic matters, including Avalon’s ambitions to produce critical minerals for clean technology in sustainable ways. The report includes a self-assessment of Avalon’s 2021 fiscal year sustainability performance and sets targets for 2022 against the Mining Association of Canada’s Toward Sustainable Mining indicators. It is available at: https://www. sustainability/2021-sustainabilityreport/ “Avalon is very much on the forefront of sustainable best practices in mineral development, with a strong record and a forward-thinking management team that makes sustainPage 74


ability a priority” noted Bubar. Avalon has pursued a practice of acquiring historic mine waste sites extracting valuable metals while fully remediating the waste site and restoring it. Its East Kemptville site is located at a former tin mine site. The Tin-Indium Project is well-positioned to become a precedent for this model in Canada. On February 17, 2021 Avalon announce that it had entered into a binding letter of intent to purchase ownership of 2333382 Ontario Inc., a private Ontario corporation which owns four industrial minerals properties and a demonstration-scale processing plant located at Matheson, Ontario. Among the industrial minerals property assets owned by 2333382 is an asset transfer agreement giving 2333383 the right to acquire full title to the Cargill Carbonatite Complex near Kapuskasing, Ontario. This carbonatite complex hosts significant concentrations of a number of critical minerals, contained both in the bedrock and in the tailings from a historic phosphate mining operation at the site. Previous work done by the company has demonstrated that the tailings contained phosphate levels ranging from 15-20% P2O5 and can be sold “as is” for use in various agricultural fertilizer products. Analytical work done by 2333382 and Avalon on the tailings to date indicates the presence of significant concentrations of rare earths, scandium and zirconium, which preliminary testwork indicates will be recoverable through additional processing of the tailings. This provides significant potential for future

revenue growth. “The concept of extracting value from historic mine wastes while fully remediating the long-term environmental liability, is something we have been advocating for many years, is now recognized as an opportunity to establish the circular economy in the mining industry,” Bubar explained. Avalon appoints Chief Harvey Yesno to its board of directors Avalon appointed Chief Harvey Yesno to the company’s Board of Directors towards the end of 2021. Chief Yesno is a member and former Chief of the Eabametoong First Nation located at Fort Hope approximately 350 km NNE of Thunder Bay, ON, where he now resides. He served as Chief for six terms from 1977 to 1991 and one further term from 2019-21. Yesno also served as Grand Chief of Nishnawbe Aski Nation (Treaty #9 and #5) from 2012-15. From 1993 to 2010 he served as President & CEO of Nishnawbe Aski Development Fund (“NADF”), based in Thunder Bay. From 2011-2012, Chief Yesno served as Director of Community Relations for Ontario’s Ring of Fire Secretariat. “I am pleased to accept Avalon’s invitation to serve on its Board of Directors. I share the Company’s vision for how critical minerals offer an exceptional business opportunity for northern Ontario First Nations to participate in the rapidly emerging global clean economy,” said Chief Yesno. “I became familiar 20 years ago with Avalon’s Lilypad Cesium-Tantalum-Lithium project because it is located just west of Fort Hope in our traditional territory and I now recognize what an exceptional economic development opportunity it represents for Eabametoong First Nation, added Yesno.”

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Rainy River contributes heavily

To achieving production guidance By Frank Giorno

2021 had its challenges for New Gold, acknowledged Renaud Adams, President and CEO, the operator of the Rainy River gold mine in Rainy River, Ontario. Yet the company, and the Rainy River mine closed the year strongly. “We continued to execute on our plans, with the fourth quarter representing our strongest quarter of the year, allowing us to meet our updated consolidated gold equivalent production guidance,” stated Mr. Adams. “Rainy River’s fourth quarter production was up 16% compared to the third quarter, representing Rainy River’s strongest quarter over the last two years, despite a 3-day mill shutdown in December, mainly driven by improved grade due to lower contribution from the East Lobe,” added Mr. Adams. The Rainy River mine is an open pit gold and silver mine, which began operating in 2017. In 2021 the mine produced approximately 235,000 ounces of gold and is on its way to becoming a significant free cash flow contributor in the coming years, as it commences underground mining later this year from the Intrepid Zone. The current strategy of the operation is focused on optimizing the underground plan and extending the mine life beyond Page 76


2028. Development of the decline towards the Intrepid underground ore zone continued to advance on schedule. Concurrently, the Company is focusing exploration efforts with the goal of converting the current underground measured and indicated resource, which sits at 1.8 million gold ounces. With the transition to higher grade underground mining, gold production is expected to increase over the next five years coupled with a decreasing all-in sustaining cost profile to generate significant free cash flow. New Gold and its Rainy River Mine recently sponsored the Mining the Northwest Virtual Expo held in Thunder Bay and participated in the Career Fair. New Gold highlighted that people are at the core of their success. “We depend on skilled, hard-working, and empowered employees to contribute to our business, and we strive to be an employer of choice,” stated Suresh Kalathil, General Manager at the Rainy River mine. “To support this, we create a culture of collaboration and inclusiveness at all levels of the organization, which is reflected in our hiring and advancement practices. In all jurisdictions where we operate, we are dedicated to providing opportunities to maximize local employment.”

New Gold is a Canadian-focused gold company with mine sites and offices in British Columbia and Ontario. The Company’s head office is located in Toronto, Ontario.

On the Corporate level New Gold hires talented professionals in the areas of finance, investor relations, communications and public affairs, legal, strategy, information technology, administration, human resources, corporate social responsibility, and risk management.

On the Operations level New Gold hires skilled professionals for their mine sites in the areas of engineering, mining, community relations, construction, human resources, process control, geologists, heavy duty mechanics, skilled trades, etc. New Gold supports their employees by providing rewarding roles, developing potential and offering competitive remuneration and comprehensive benefits packages. They are committed to diversity, inclusion and employment equity. It is these principles that contribute to their high performance and to their respected position as a leading employer in the communities in which we operate.

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Evolution Mining plans to refocus

the historic Red Lake Mine Complex By Frank Giorno

Speaking at the Mining the Northwest Virtual Conference in December 2021 Kristy Liddicoat the general manager for Evolution Mining’s Red Lake Operations said Red Lake is on a transformation journey. Evolution Mining has owned Red Lake for about 16 months since it purchased the mine complex from Newmont Goldcorp in April 2020. “We want to be a safe state sustainable and profitable operation,” Liddicoat said. “Our number one priority is the safety and well-being of our people, and all the people in the communities where we operate. We are very much focused around living and operating in the community,” Liddicoat stated. “Sustainability is integrated in everything we do; we want to have a positive impact and leave a positive legacy and run a safe and sustainable operation.” The Red Lake mining district had its start in the 1930s, but World War 2 interrupted gold mining in favour of more strategic metals and minerals. The Red Lake Mine opened in 1949. By 2004 The Red Lake Mining District produced 22 million oz. of gold, worth over $US 35 billion at 2014 prices. The two principal mines, Campbell and Red Lake, both have historic ore grades averaging about 0.57 oz/ ton Au (22 g/tonne) according to a report produced by Goldcorp a previous owner the mine had produced ( “Red Lake - Overview & Operating Highlights” . Goldcorp 2013) Page 78


The mine still was full of potential, but Newmont Goldcorp who purchased Red Lake from Goldcorp decided to rationalize its operations and Red Lake was no longer part of its future and sold it to Evolution Mining. “About 14 months ago Red Lake mine was due to close, but now the mine has a new life, and we know the mine has reserves of over 11 million oz. with a mine life upwards of 15 years,” explained Liddicoat at the time of the conference. In the first year of Evolution’s ownership, Red Lake produced 126,339 oz. of gold at an AISC of US$2,044 per ounce which was within both production and cost guidance. The three-year transformation program at Red Lake is well underway to restore the operation’s production to above 200,000 oz. per year at an AISC of less than US$1,000 per ounce. “Our long-term vision for this site is to produce between 300 and 500,000 oz. of gold per year at less than $1,000 ACPOS. There is a lot of work we need to do,” she said. “One of the key things behind that is changing the way we approach mining.” In May 2021, Evolution consolidated its presence in the Red Lake mining district as it purchased the nearby Batemen Mine from Battle North Gold. Evolution’s consolidated operation will consist of the Lower Red Lake, Upper Campbell, Cochenour and McFinley mining areas that will provide ore to the Campbell, Red Lake and Bateman mills with a total processing capacity target of two million tonnes by 2026.

Updating Technology As Evolution pursues its modernization, they are replacing the aging fleets it acquired from Newmont Goldcorp and are looking at becoming more environmentally friendly by adding electric battery vehicles to their fleet. They recently purchased an electric fleet including heavy haul trucks, electric light vehicles and just recently the received their first. The change will remove diesel trucks and end carbon emissions. In addition, mine safety will improve as miners are removed from drilling the rock face in favour of remotely operated drilling. “We are looking at how we can actually mine more productively, particularly in high seismic areas where depth is one and a half to two kilometers and we face fairly significant seismic events,” said Liddicoat.

Red Lake community and First Nations Evolution prefers to employ locally from the community including their Wabauskang and Lac Seul First Nation Partners. However, like many other operations, Evolution is experiencing critical skill

shortages. They look to the local community, other parts of Canada and to attracting engineering, particularly geotechnical programmers and data calculators to work at the mine from their Australian operations. A shortage in skilled local trades has seen Evolution’s apprenticeship programs include recruits from nearby Wabauskang and Lac Seul First Nation. “We have an extraordinarily strong relationship with our First Nation partners,” Liddicoat said. “We are bringing in new people to our community, through our apprenticeship program, as we need to attract people to live in Red Lake and develop critical skills that we need – it’s a beautiful community to live in.”

Mill Modernization Though there are 3 mills at Red Lake owned by Evolution only one operates. Additional mill capacity will be need in the next two years if Evolution is looking to process, and upwards of 2 million t of ore per year during the next two years. Bateman Mill recently acquired in the Evolution purchase of Battle North Gold is currently licensed to 1800 tonnes but has the capacity 2500 tonnes. Page 79


Wesdome`s Eagle River tops 100,000 ounces production

2021 Highlights •

• •

• By Kevin Vincent

“Tough times make tough teams.” One of Canada’s most engaging mine executives says the pandemic landscape 2021 was a roller coaster year for companies around the world. “I would like to thank all of our employees and stakeholders who have made this transformational year possible, despite the obvious challenges of the global pandemic and associated supply chain disruptions,” said Duncan Middlemiss, Wesdome President and CEO. In the company’s first news release of the year, he added, “Tough times make tough teams.” Middlemiss has reason to smile. The company topped more than 100,000 ounces of production at Eagle River, a first in the company’s history. Wesdome Gold Mines Ltd. was one of the first Canadian gold miners to announce fourth quarter (“Q4”) and Page 80


full year 2021 production results and 2022 guidance. Production from the company’s Eagle River Complex in Q4 2021 totaled 62,374 tonnes at an average grade of 12.6 grams per tonne (“gpt”) and a recovery rate of 98% to produce 24,630 ounces of gold, putting full year 2021 production at 265,267 tonnes at an average grade of 12.2 gpt to produce 101,403 ounces, near the high end of 2021 production guidance of 92,000 – 105,000 ounces. At the Kiena mine in Quebec, Q4 production was 38,000 tonnes at an average grade of 14.1 gpt and a recovery rate of 98% to produce 16,929 ounces. Total production for the year at Kiena was 68,470 tonnes at an average grade of 10.4 gpt at a recovery rate of 98% to produce 22,440 ounces, also near the high end of the company’s guidance range of 15,000 – 25,000 ounces.

• •

Eagle River underground gold production of 228,759 tonnes at an average grade of 13.8 gpt at a recovery rate of 98% to produce 99,120 ounces. Total Eagle River Complex production of 101,403 ounces, the first time in the mine’s history production exceeded 100,000 ounces. Mishi gold production of 36,508 tonnes at an average grade of 2.4 gpt to produce 2,283 ounces. Kiena Mine embarked on a construction and mining ramp up as per the May 2021 Pre-Feasibility study – fully funded from cash flow. Combined revenue from gold sales of $262.6 million (which excludes an additional $3.9 million from a bulk sample at the Kiena Mine). Published Kiena Pre-Feasibility Study (“PFS”); IRR 98%. Discovered new high grade Footwall Zone at Kiena Complex. Initial sill development and production on the Falcon 7 Zone and discovery of North Contact Zone at Eagle River. Monetized Moss Lake via vendin transaction with Goldshore Resources for aggregate consideration of $57M including $12.5M upfront in cash and 30% of issued and outstanding shares at closing. Included in TMX 30 recognition program for the third consecutive year. This flagship program showcases the TSX’s 30 topperforming stocks based on dividend adjusted share price appreciation. Placed 56th overall out of 220 TSX-listed companies in the annual Globe and Mail Board Games report on corporate governance, and in a multi-way tie for 10th in the materials category


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In June 2021, the company released its annual Environmental, Social, and Governance (“ESG”) Report, prepared using the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (“SASB”) Metals & Mining Standard and providing an overview of the company’s ESG strategies, policies, commitments, and 2020 performance. “2021 was an excellent year for Wesdome,” said Middlemiss. “We achieved two significant operational milestones, record production at the Eagle River Complex of 101,403 ounces, and the commencement of pre-production and construction activities at the Kiena mine in preparation for commercial production in Q2 2022. These achievements have resulted in further de-risking of the company with the addition of a second producing Canadian asset which ultimately increases scale and diversifies cash flow sources, both key steps towards becoming a mid-tier Canadian producer. Looking ahead to 2022, the company sees total production of 160,000 – 180,000 ounces, a 30% - 45% increase over 2021. “We expect costs to be slightly lower than 2021, and are guiding consolidated cash costs per ounce sold to range between $875 - $970 per ounce (US $700 - $775), and all-in sustaining costs (“AISC”) to range between $1,270 and $1,400 per ounce (US$ 1,015 – $1,125). Full operating and financial details for 2021 will be provided in the Company’s year-end financial statements and management discussion and analysis on March 10, 2022. Page 81


PureGold Mine continues to expand resources

By Kevin Vincent

There seems to be no stopping the growth of Red Lake’s PureGold mine complex since declaring commercial production in mid 2021. The only fly in the ointment was Covid-19. In January, PureGold announced proactive measures in response to the small but increasing number of positive Covid-19 cases at the company’s PureGold Mine at the outset of the year. The company has followed stringent screening, hygiene, testing, and contact tracing protocols since the outset of the pandemic and has an exemplary record to date. For a temporary period, administrative staff began working remotely where possible and other on-site staff had been reduced to essential workers only. In a statement, the company said: “During this time, production is expected to continue albeit at a slightly reduced rate. While the ultimate impact on monthly or quarterly production, if any, is not yet known, the Company expects to make up any production shortfall shortly after returning to full production. The ComPage 82


pany continues to monitor the situation very closely and will provide updates as necessary.” In the interim, definition drilling continues to be impressive. In Late January, PureGold reported highgrade drill intercepts returned from surface and underground drilling completed during the fourth quarter of 2021. The recently expanded drilling program was successful in confirming the tenor and continuity of gold mineralization in near-term production stopes, as well as establishing the potential for resource expansion close to existing development. Infill and extension drilling continues from both surface and underground to refine and prioritize mine sequencing, optimize mine production, and support incremental resource expansion in areas of active development. “Our recently expanded definition drilling program continues to provide a stream of precise geological information which supports optimized final stope designs and, ultimately, enhances our high-grade scheduling flexibility and allows us to drive operational excellence

from the ground up,” stated Troy Fierro, President & CEO of PureGold. “These drill results also highlight the fantastic opportunities for increased head grades and resource expansion that we see in many of the mining areas currently under development for production in the next 6-12 months. As we continue to execute our plan to bring the PureGold Mine toward its full potential, definition drilling provides the critical information needed for precise planning while also highlighting opportunities for potential resource expansion and growth.” Definition drilling results highlights: •

21.1 g/t gold over 4.0 metres from drill hole PGP-03-384502; including 49.4 g/t gold over 1.0 metre; 12.2 g/t gold over 6.5 metres from drill hole PGP-03-384512; including 20.7 g/t gold over 3.0 metres; 9.7 g/t gold over 7.8 metres from drill hole PGP-02-3738-11; including 26.6 g/t gold over 1.0 metre; 14.9 g/t gold over 4.0 metres

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from drill hole PGP-02-514308; 63.5 g/t gold over 1.0 metre from drill hole PGP-02-373808; 39.0 g/t gold over 1.5 metres from drill hole PGP-00168; including 54.3 g/t gold over 1.0 metre; 13.4 g/t gold over 4.0 metres from drill hole PGP-02-5143-10

Currently two surface core drill rigs and three underground core drill rigs are executing this definition drilling program targeting production areas in the near-term mine plan, in both the East and West Ramp areas. Results from this drilling will be reported on a timely basis as received. PureGold also kicked off 2022 with senior management changes. On January 4, PureGold announced proactive executive management changes which better align operational requirements with profes-

sional expertise. Troy Fierro, Director and seasoned mining engineer, has replaced Darin Labrenz as President & CEO. Chris Haubrich, Vice President Business Development, has replaced Sean Tetzlaff as CFO. Ashley Kates, Corporate Controller, has been promoted to Vice President Finance & Corporate Secretary. Graeme Currie, Chairman, stated, “On behalf of the board of directors and all PureGold stakeholders, I thank both Darin and Sean for their dedication, commitment, and hard work dating back to the inception of the company. Due in large part to their focused efforts, the PureGold Mine transitioned in just six years from a pre-resource stage asset through construction toward a commercial operation, which today is one of only two operating mines in the re-emergent Red Lake District. We wish both Darin and Sean the very best in all their future endeav-

ors.” “Today’s changes are consistent with the company’s transition to a culture of operational excellence,” stated Troy Fierro. “As the PureGold Mine continues to evolve and grow, so too does the repertoire of skills needed in our executive leadership team to ensure ongoing success. Chris, Ashley, and I each bring our own unique combination of leadership skills and operational experience and I am excited for us to work together in our new roles. In addition to Chris and Ashley I am delighted to be working more closely with Maryse Bélanger, our MGM and my fellow Director, who has been driving operational improvements at the mine site for the past two months. Together, this revitalized leadership group is ideally suited to steer the company through full ramp-up and execute our vision of building a multi-generational Canadian gold mining company rooted in the heart of Red Lake.”

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Frontier Lithium Excellent metallurgical results producing Spodumene Concentrate from the Spark Deposit By Frank Giorno

Frontier Lithium metallurgical results from the Spark Deposit, northwest of the Red Lake Mining District, in Northwestern Ontario, returned favourable results, confirming the suitability and robustness of the flowsheet design. The Spark deposit is located 2 km away from Frontier Lithium’s Pak Project another lithium bearing deposit. A locked cycle flotation test produced a lithium concentrate with grade of 6.15% lithium oxide (Li2O) with a corresponding Li recovery of 78.1 %. “The metallurgical results from the PAK and Spark deposits give us confidence in continuing our work on the pilot plant that will process a combined sample of PAK and Spark ore and is expected to produce 1,000 kg of concentrate to be used for the development of the downstream lithium hydroxide conversion process,” said Dr. Naizhen Page 84


Cao, Vice President, Technology of Frontier Lithium. “Frontier is currently conducting a Pre-Feasibility Study, and the positive LCT results are another major step in de-risking the Project. These results meet and exceed chemical grade requirements for further upgrading to produce compounds for the lithium-ion battery market – a global market that is anxious to source sustainable, low-iron, high purity lithium materials from a favourable authority.” Dr. Naizhen added. The locked cycle flotation test involved six cycles and was very stable indicating good metallurgy. The sample included approximate zonation variability of the resource with dilution at the average Spark resource grade of 1.59% lithium oxide (Li2O) and final iron oxide levels of 0.44% Fe2O3. These results confirm the suitability of the material to meet the most rigorous specifications of the lithium

market. Locked Cycle Test (LCT) flotation work was performed ahead of conducting a pilot plant campaign that will commence in the coming weeks with a representative 7 tonne bulk sample from the Spark deposit. Frontier Lithium, with a head office in Val Caron, Ontario, is aiming to become a leading manufacturer of battery-quality lithium hydroxide to support electric vehicle and battery supply chains in North America. Frontier owns the PAK Lithium Project which contains one of North America’s highest-grade, large-tonnage hard-rock lithium resources in the form of a rare low-iron spodumene. It is one of the top three premium resources by quality in the world. A 2021 preliminary economic assessment (National Instrument 43-101 technical report titled “Pak Property” by BBA Engineering Ltd., issued on April 5, 2021) proposed a fully integrated lithium operation from the resource to achieve downstream conversion plan for production of battery-quality lithium chemicals. The study resulted in an after-tax net present value (discounted at 8 per cent) of $974-million (U.S.) with a 21-per-cent internal rate of return. The Frontier Lithium’s projects encompass 26,774 hectares at the south end of Ontario’s Electric Avenue, the largest land package hosting premium lithium-bearing pegmatites in Ontario. Ontario’s Electric Avenue is located 175 kilometres north of Red Lake, near the Manitoba border. The Project covers 65 kilometres of the Electric Avenue’s length and remains unexplored; however, since 2013, the company has delineated two premium spodumene-bearing lithium deposits (PAK and Spark), located 2.3 kilometres apart. Two other spodumene-bearing

discoveries add to Frontier’s potential: the Bolt pegmatite (located between the PAK and Spark deposits), as well as the Pennock pegmatite (30 kilometres northwest of PAK Deposit within the project claims). In December, Frontier Lithium announced it closed its bought deal financing which saw the company issue 6,453,000 Flow-Through shares of Frontier at a price of $1.86 per Share which included an additional 1,076,000 flow-through shares pursuant to the full exercise of the over-allotment option, for gross proceeds of $12,002,580. Canaccord Genuity Corp. and BMO Capital Markets underwrote the bought deal financing. The proceeds will be used by Frontier to incur eligible “Canadian exploration expenses” that will qualify as “flow-through mining expenditures” as such terms are defined in the Income Tax Act (Canada) (the “Qualifying Expenditures”) related to the Company’s PAK Lithium Project located in Ontario, Canada on or before December 31, 2022. In May 2021, Frontier announced that the Ontario government injected C$363,000 into its pilot of a proprietary process that seeks to overcome certain risks linked to conventional lithium chemical processing used commercially outside North America. Page 85


Generation Mining Limited Marathon Project to produce minerals critical to energy transition By Kevin Vincent

With cash in the bank and one of the most exciting projects in northwestern Ontario, Generation Mining is poised to become one of the region’s prominent mining operations. To prove its commitment, the company sealed a deal in late 2021 to become the 100% owner of their flagship Marathon palladium-copper project. Details of the deal are as follows: Generation Mining Limited entered into a binding acquisition agreement with Stillwater Canada Inc. a subsidiary of Sibanye Stillwater Limited and the Company’s whollyowned subsidiary Generation PGM Inc., pursuant to which Gen Subco will acquire Stillwater’s remaining 16.5% interest in the Marathon Palladium Copper project in Northwestern Ontario. “Sibanye-Stillwater has proven itself to be an exceptional joint venture partner in the Marathon Project,” said Jamie Levy, Gen Mining President and CEO. “We are happy that one of the world’s largest Platinum Group Metal producers will continue as Generation Mining’s largest shareholder as we advance the Marathon Project through the next phase of development,” he added. “We have long aspired to own 100% of this incredible project. The transaction gives us greater flexibility in all aspects of financing and developing the project plus a larger exposure to the potential profits Page 86


flowing from Marathon.” “We believe that the exchange of our direct participation interest for an increased shareholding in Generation Mining is a positive step in providing Generation Mining with more flexibility at project level while allowing us to retain exposure to the Project as it advances to development,” said Neal Froneman, CEO of Sibanye-Stillwater. The next step, currently underway, is a commitment to public consultations. The company announced that a federal-provincial Joint Review Panel completed its review of the company’s Environmental Impact Statement Addendum on the Marathon Palladium-Copper project. The Panel has determined that the information provided is sufficient to proceed to a public hearing. The next major development in the process will be virtual public hearings, which started February 15th, 2022, which are anticipated to take place over a 30-day period. Upon completion of the hearings, the Panel will have three months to complete its Panel Report. The Panel Report will be then reviewed by the federal and provincial Ministers of Environment who will make the joint decision on the approval of the Marathon Project. “This is a major milestone in the development of the Marathon Project,” stated Jamie Levy, President and

CEO of the company. “The company is looking forward to hearing from all participants on their views on the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the Marathon Palladium-Copper project.” The process allows for members of the public, Indigenous groups, government, and other organizations intending to participate in the public hearing. Meanwhile, an independent report on the operational carbon footprint of the company’s Marathon palladium-copper project which, once producing, is estimated to rank as one of the lowest in both Canada and the world per tonne of copperequivalent produced. The report shows that the Marathon project would have the second lowest operating footprint in Canada, at only 1.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) per tonne of copper equivalent produced. The comparison was made with 13 producing copper mines across the country. “Not only will the Marathon deposit produce minerals that are critical to the energy transition, but as the operation is currently modeled in the Feasibility Study, these minerals will also be produced at one of the world’s lowest carbon footprints,” said Levy. “Within the dynamics of changing metals markets and increased consumer awareness, Gen Mining is well positioned to produce a premium product. We are proudly

located in a world class and stable mining jurisdiction with access to green energy, adding significant value to what is an already robust economic proposition”, said Levy. The money to make this happen is now in the bank as well. The company has agreed to enter into a definitive Precious Metal Purchase Agreement with Wheaton Precious Metals Corp. in respect to the Marathon Palladium Copper project. The Marathon PMPA becoming effective is subject to the closing of Gen Mining’s acquisition of the remaining 16.5% interest in the Marathon Project from Sibanye Stillwater Limited. Under the deal, Wheaton will pay Gen Mining a total upfront cash consideration of C$240 million, C$40 million of which will be paid on an early deposit basis prior to construction to be used for development of the Marathon Project, with the remainder payable in four staged installments during construction, subject to various customary conditions being satisfied. “Entering into this agreement with the world’s largest precious metals streaming company validates the potential economics of the Marathon Project and is a significant milestone for the Company and our shareholders,” said Levy. “This stream represents a key cornerstone financing commitment for the ultimate project financing package. Working closely with our financial advisors, Endeavour Financial, we will now focus on sourcing the remaining key financial components of the project financing including project debt, offtake agreements and equipment financing.” On Jan. 27th, Generation Mining Limited and Biigtigong Nishnaabeg (“BN”) announced the signing of a Memorandum of Agreement (“the MOA”) for the Marathon Palladium Copper Project. This MOA signals another important milestone for the Marathon

Project, as it nears regulator approval through the environmental assessment process and is in line with Gen Mining’s Indigenous relations policy and practice of maximizing community participation and benefits throughout the life of the project. The Company recognizes that there are established businesses within the BN community that can contribute to the Marathon Project, and we are proud to formalize this commitment with the signing of this MOA, pursuant to which the Company has committed to: •

Collaborate on sustainable community-based business opportunities that will last beyond the life of the Marathon Project Target and support businesses that include training, development and growth of BN community members in their professional development and long-term employment Support strategic partnerships and initiatives that help BN participate in opportunities to gain management experience in the mining industry Support BN with their strategic goals of growing current and aspirational sustainable businesses.

for the Marathon Project’s closest Indigenous partner community. Jamie Levy, President and CEO of Gen Mining, commented, “Gen Mining respects the Indigenous culture and the environment where we work and plan to operate. We very much value the support of BN for the development of the Marathon Project. We are proud to be partners with BN and look forward to ongoing collaboration in the years to come.” “This Memorandum of Agreement sets a strong foundation for us to work collectively with Gen Mining on a number of business opportunities. It facilitates a process to ensure that our First Nation can and will capitalize on economic opportunities during critical stages of the mine development. We look forward to the implementation and advancement of this MOA” said Debi Bouchie, Director of Operations for BN.

In addition, the MOA defines some of the contracting projects that will be sole-sourced to BN to further maximize economic benefits Page 87


Kinross Gold

Dixie Gold Project from Great Bear Resources acquires

By Frank Giorno

Kinross Gold, once a familiar name in Northern Ontario gold mining, has returned to the region, after a 15-year absence as the company recently purchased Great Bear Resources Red Lake property. The purchase is subject to approval of Great Bear shareholders and review by regulatory agencies. Great Bear Resources is a Vancouver-based gold exploration company focused on its Dixie project in the Red Lake mining district. The Dixie Project has the potential to become one of Canada’s largest gold mines. “We’ve been looking at this asset since 2018 and we have had recent confirmation of our views on Dixie’s potential, we believe now is the time to bring the asset into our portfolio based on our extensive due diligence from the drilling results,” said Paul Rollinson, President and CEO of Kinross Gold during a December 9, 2021, webcast. “We are confident that our purchase of Dixie is well justified by our vision of a high-quality open pit mine on its own and in addition there are significant values that remain to be unlocked,” Rollinson added. “The exploration results to date from over 700 holes and 340 km of suggest a prolific gold system Page 88


that remains unconstrained that open to extension with over 80% of the property still unexplored.” Rollinson noted that the Great Bear Dixie property was unlike the geology of other mines in the Red Lake area and had more in common with the geology of the Helmo Gold mine, near Marathon, Ontario. “The acquisition of Great Bear by Kinross is an excellent opportunity for all stakeholders,” stated Chris Taylor, President and CEO of Great Bear Resources. “I am excited at the prospect that the Dixie project will provide a continuing long-term relationship with our First Nations partners and local communities in the Red Lake area”. Taylor added that Kinross has the technical, development, operating and financial capabilities to advance the Dixie Project, as a top growth priority, from exploration to development. Founded in 1993, Kinross Gold until 2006 owned the Dome Mine in Timmins, Ontario. After Kinross sold the Dome mine, the company focused on a diverse portfolio of mines and projects in the United States, Brazil, Chile, Ghana, Mauritania, and Russia. Headquartered in Toronto, Canada, Kinross employs approximately 9,000 people worldwide. The Com-

pany is focused on delivering value through operational excellence, balance sheet strength, disciplined growth, and responsible mining. The Dixie Project is located 25 km southeast of Red Lake. It consists of 91 square km of contiguous claims. A paved highway and hydro line run parallel to the property. A series of logging roads provide access to the property. The potential of the Great Bear Resources Red Lake Property Over the last few years, Great Bear Resources has received much acclaim as one of the best gold mining exploration companies in the world because of the drilling results at the Dixie gold. The Dixie project is one of the most exciting gold discoveries globally and extensive drilling results have shown the characteristics of a top tier deposit Some mining experts believe Dixie could contain as much as 20 million oz. of gold. With such potential it could become one of Canada’s biggest gold mines. Under the terms of the Transaction, Kinross agreed to acquire all of the issued and outstanding Great Bear common shares that it does not already own. In exchange, Great Bear shareholders will receive upfront consideration of about C $1.8 billion, representing



C$29.00 per Great Bear Share on a fully diluted basis. Great Bear shareholders may elect to receive the upfront consideration as either C$29.00 in cash or as 3.8564 Kinross shares per Great Bear share, both subject to proration. The upfront consideration will be subject to maximum aggregate cash consideration of about C$1.4 billion and a maximum of approximately 80.8 million Kinross shares issuable. As a result of the transaction, Great Bear shareholders will have an opportunity to retain exposure to the Dixie Project, while gaining exposure to Kinross’s diversified portfolio of high-quality operating mines, sector-leading production growth and free cash flow generation in a robust gold price environment. Great Bear has announced it will hold a special shareholders meeting on February 14, 2022, to vote on the Kinross acquisition.



C R-

Due to the ongoing public health concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and in order to ensure the health and well-being of our Securityholders, employees, communities and other stakeholders, The meeting will be conducted virtually via live audio webcast, using the Summit meeting platform at Registered Securityholders and duly appointed proxyholders will be able to vote in real time and ask questions at the meeting. Guests may listen to the meeting or ask questions but cannot vote. Transaction is expected to close in the first quarter of 2022. On January 5, 2022, the Commissioner of Competition issued an Advance Ruling Certificate in respect of the Transaction, thereby satisfying the requirement to obtained Competition Act approval The Toronto Stock Exchange has conditionally approved the listing

of the additional Kinross common shares issuable in connection with the Transaction, subject to the delivery of customary closing documentation and the TSX Venture Exchange has confirmed acceptance of the notice of the Transaction by Great Bear. Kinross committee First Nation Participation and Sustainable Development Kinross’ history of strong Indigenous community relationships and industry recognition as a leader in sustainability and environmental stewardship, along with its Canadian identity and headquarters in Ontario will facilitate close ties between the company and the Dixie Project’s local communities, including the Wabauskang and Lac Seul First Nations, which will help to maximize lasting sustainable socio-economic benefits to their local communities and the local area. Page 89


Resident Geologist Program

Recommends exploration for Critical Elements in Ontario By: Frank Giorno

The Ontario Geological Survey recommends critical minerals and metals be the focus for mining exploration in 2022. Critical minerals can be defined as commodities that have specific industrial, technological, and strategic applications for which there are few viable substitutions. They are also at higher supply risk due to geopolitical considerations and market demand. As evidenced by this year’s recommendations, Ontario’s diverse geology provides excellent opportunities for the discovery and future development of new critical mineral deposits. Ontario produced a Draft Critical Minerals list that was published in Ontario’s Critical Minerals Frame-

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work Discussion Paper in March, 2021 by the Ministry of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources and Forestry. The list of critical minerals and metals and recommendations for exploration was produced by knowledgeable staff located in the 8 Resident Geologist Program (RGP) offices across the province. They have been developed using existing OGS geological and exploration data, along with new information derived from the current year’s activities. The Ontario government is developing its first-ever Critical Minerals Strategy to help generate investment, increase the province’s competitiveness in the global market, and create jobs and opportunities

in the mining sector. It will also support Ontario’s transition to a low-carbon economy both at home and abroad. “By developing this strategy, we will strengthen Ontario’s position as one of North America’s premier jurisdictions for responsibly-sourced critical minerals, including rare earth elements,” said Greg Rickford, Minister of Energy, Northern Development and Mines and Minister of Indigenous Affairs. “We are confident this will generate investment, reduce red tape, create jobs and advance Indigenous participation in the sector. Local and global markets, including Ontario-based industries, are looking for reliable, responsiblysourced critical minerals and we are ready to capitalize on this growing market demand.” The proposed critical mineral list from Ontario includes 30 elements and minerals and has an 80% overlap with the proposed list from Canada. However, Ontario has 5 elements and/or minerals, namely barite, beryllium, phosphate, selenium, and zirconium, that are specific to the province. The RGP encourages you to review the current Recommendations for Exploration and feel free to discuss these in detail with any of their Resident Geologist Program geoscientists.

Highlights taken from

Recommendations for Exploration 2021-22 Report To view the full report

English page: French page: File: Southern Ontario – Nickel, Cobalt

The Lavant Gabbro Complex

HIGHLIGHTS • Large portions of the Lavant gabbro complex remain underexplored • Potential target for Ni and Co exploration • Unexplained magnetic anomalies • Abundant outcrop and easy access

The Lavant gabbro complex is the largest mafic body in the Grenville Province of Ontario and is found within the Central Metasedimentary Belt along the western margin of the Sharbot Lake domain, bound to the west by the Robertson Lake shear zone. According to Easton (1992), the complex is a differentiated igneous intrusion, locally layered and displaying a compositional range from ultramafic phases to gabbroic

anorthosite and tonalite. In 2014, Magnus, Easton and Rainsford updated eastern Ontario’s Precambrian geology from aeromagnetic and compiled geological data through a series of maps. From their interpretation and visible map anomalies, it appears that the complex is much more variable and heterogenous than current mapping indicates.

Cont`d on Pg. 92

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Northern Ontario holds tremendous potential for Critical Minerals Cont`d from Pg. 91

Southern Ontario – Molybdenum

Critical Mineral Molybdenum in the Grenville Rocks of Southern Ontario

HIGHLIGHTS • Molybdenum is listed as a critical mineral in Ontario and globally • More than 100 molybdenum occurrences are documented in southern Ontario • Southern Ontario has excellent local, national and international transportation infrastructure Molybdenum, considered a critical mineral provincially, nationally and globally, is used in many industries such as steel, oil and gas, automotive, aerospace, military, and energy. It is also used in electronics and medical equipment. Because of the multitude of large-scale industries that rely on it, the demand for molybdenum has the potential to increase significantly over the next few years Southern Ontario – Rare Earth Elements

REE Potential from Former U-Th Exploration Programs

HIGHLIGHTS • The Tweed Drill Core Library is a valuable resource for drill core from past exploration programs • Overlooked rare earth element (REE) potential from former uranium–thorium exploration programs • Use of UV-induced fluorescence is low-cost, portable, and highly effective in locating REE mineralization On December 7th, 2020, the District Geologist examined drill core at the Tweed Drill Core Library doPage 92


nated from the former Jupiter project in Palmerston Township. Sample descriptions and photos were taken in the middle of the afternoon and fluorescence examination and sampling were conducted in the evening after dark. Sudbury – Graphite

Graphite in the Grenville Province, Sudbury District

HIGHLIGHTS • Graphite is classified as a critical mineral in Ontario, as well as nationally and internationally • The Bissett Creek graphite deposit occurs in graphitic gneisses in the Grenville Province • Additionally, there are 5 prospects and 13 occurrences in the Grenville Province, Sudbury District • The majority of the occurrences are in paragneisses (gneisses of sedimentary origin) The graphite currently produced in Canada is flake graphite. Canadian graphite production in 2020 was 10 000 tonnes, accounting for approximately 1% of world production and placing it tenth in the world (U.S. Geological Survey 2021). Sault Ste. Marie – Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, W, Cs, Li, Bi, Be, Sn, Se

Critical Mineral Potential in the Elliot Lake–Sault Ste. Marie Area HIGHLIGHTS • Critical mineral potential in the Archean suites, Huronian Supergroup and associated intrusions • Lake sediment geochemical anomalies are evaluated for prospective critical mineral target areas using information

from the MDI database and bedrock geology The Elliot Lake–Sault Ste. Marie area has historically been known for uranium (U) and nickel-copper-platinum group element (Ni-Cu-PGE) potential, and several producing uranium mines. Recent attention to critical minerals in Ontario (https:// [accessed December 8, 2021], coupled with geological and geochemical data from the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS), provide an opportunity in targeting this part of the Sault Ste. Marie District (Resident Geologist Program, OGS) for exploration of critical minerals. Kirkland Lake – Cesium

Looking for Cesium in the Northern Parts of the Kirkland Lake District HIGHLIGHTS • Known cesium occurrences present potential for further discovery • Proximal to the fifth largest lithium-pegmatite in Superior Province • An under-explored area specific for critical minerals In keeping with the theme of critical minerals, and as a follow-up to an article describing the lithiumcesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatite potential in the Temagami area of the Kirkland Lake District (SumaMomoh 2021), the following recommendation proposes exploration in the northern parts of the District as potential areas for further cesium and associated rare element mineralization. Cesium (Cs) is an alkali metal, along with lithium (Li), sodium (Na),

potassium (K), rubidium (Rb) and francium (Fr), and is one of the few metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Cesium is rare globally, and the U.S. Department of the Interior included lithium, cesium and tantalum on its final list of critical minerals, deemed critical to U.S. National Security and the Economy. Timmins – Critical Minerals (Various)

Critical Mineral Potential in the Timmins Mining Camp

HIGHLIGHTS • More than 600 critical mineral occurrences recorded in the Timmins camp • Prospects mostly contain base metals including copper, nickel, and zinc • Timmins camp has the potential for lithium, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and beryllium exploration The Timmins Mining District also hold tremendous potential for cesium (Cs), lithium (Li). These critical elements have similar properties, are often found in the same host rocks as REEs and are all needed to support the “green” energy future. Lithium has many uses in manufacturing certain types of batteries, manufacturing aircraft and can act as a powerful flux in glass and ceramics applications. Cesium is used in high-pressure, high-temperature drilling applications. Tantalum is heavily used in the electronics industry, with approximately 75% of all electronics manufactured containing tantalum; it is essential in the miniaturization of devices. Niobium is heavily used in the steel industry, high-temperature applications, and superconductors. One of the most common rock types for locating Nb, Ta, Cs and Li are pegmatites. Timmins – Lithium, Cesium, Tantalum , Niobium

A Green Future with Critical Minerals in the Timmins District Critical minerals are a hot commodity; future innovations and need will change how and where these minerals are mined. LCT pegmatites are a significant potential source for some of these critical minerals and are recommended as a current target for exploration. LCT pegmatites are found in several townships in the Timmins District with areas open for claim registration. The world is slowly recovering from the global pandemic; during pandemic restrictions, there were global decreases in production, manufacturing, and transportation across nearly all industries. Shortages and transportation issues were global news, making many supply and demand issues increasingly apparent. Diversification and discovery are key to increasing sup-



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WWW.LYNNVALLEYMFG.COM ply and availability of critical minerals. This, coupled with the increasing need to decrease emissions causing climate change, turned the focus even more on the alternative energy market. Minerals which will support the development and growth of these technologies are needed—where and how we will source those minerals is the question. Thunder Bay North – Lithium

Armstrong to Longlac Anomalous Lake Sediment Lithium Potential

HIGHLIGHTS • Numerous lithium and cesium lake sediment anomalies • 8 target areas containing numerous anomalous and strongly elevated lithium and cesium values • All target areas associated with known batholiths and/or plutons with potential to host fertile granites and pegmatites Historical exploration activity in the Onaman–Tashota and Caribou Lake greenstone belts in northwestern Ontario has primarily focussed on precious and base metals; however, lithium-bearing pegmatites have continued to be discovered since the 1950s. Cont`d on Pg. 94

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Northwestern Ontario active in search of Lithium Cont`d from Pg. 93

Thunder Bay North – Niobium, Phosphate

Niobium and Phosphate Potential in the Schryburt Lake Carbonatite Complex HIGHLIGHTS • Carbonatite intrusions in NTS map areas 53 A/12 and 53 A/13 • Underexplored area with known niobium and phosphate mineralization • Rare earth element (REE) mineralization potential Carbonatites are a relatively rare type of intrusive rock, comprising more than 50% carbonate minerals and contain the highest concentrations of rare earth elements of any igneous rock. Globally, carbonatites are the primary source of niobium and rare earth elements. Other commodities produced from carbonatite-related deposits include phosphate, iron, fluorite, copper, vanadium, titanium, uranium, and calcite (Verplanck, Mariano and Mariano 2016). Thunder Bay South – Lithium

Lithium Potential in the Bedivere–Lac des Mille Lacs Lakes Area

HIGHLIGHTS • Cluster of lithium anomalies in lake sediment along a northeast-trending regional fault system on the north arm of Bedivere Lake • Biotite granitic pegmatites mapped in the Bedivere and Lac des Mille Lacs lakes area • Lake sediment lithium anomalies at Bedivere Lake located approximately 10 km from a biotite granite intrusion and near the Wabigoon–Quetico subprovince Page 94


boundary The Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) completed a lake sediment geochemical survey covering the Atikokan area (Dyer 1999a). A cluster of lake sediment lithium anomalies located on the north arm of Bedivere Lake returned the 6 highest lithium values, and the 9th highest value in the survey. These high lithium values range from 20.806 to 27.728 ppm Li. Kenora - Geophysical Data

New Data from Metal Earth Program for the Western Wabigoon Subprovince

HIGHLIGHTS • Year four of seven-year, $104 million mineral exploration research and development program • New all-access data compilations and geologic maps for western Wabigoon subprovince can be utilized for exploration geological research and comparative studies Metal Earth is a seven-year, $104 million applied research and development program that is led by the Mineral Exploration Research Centre (MERC), part of the Harquail School of Earth Sciences based at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario. The program received funding in 2016 with field work commencing in 2017 (Mineral Exploration Research Centre 2018). Red Lake – Graphite, Vanadium

Re-examining Graphite Potential in the English River Subprovince with Lake Sediment Data

HIGHLIGHTS • Underexplored area with significant graphite potential and other critical minerals • Anomalous vanadium and nick-

el lake sediment anomalies associated with known graphite mineralization Known occurrence of graphite within English River subprovince

Red Lake – Nickel-Copper-PGE

Ni-Cu-PGE Potential in the Conifer Lake Complex

HIGHLIGHTS • Conifer Lake complex shares mafic-ultramafic rock type and major structure with the economically significant deposits along the Werner–Rex lakes fault • Recent geophysical imagery shows anomalies with magnetic signature of mafic-ultramafic rock The Conifer Lake complex hosts mafic-ultramafic rock type and lies along a major regional structure which are characteristic features of the economically significant deposits along the Werner–Rex lakes fault. Two previously unrecognized inverse magnetic anomalies are discussed and these areas are recommended for exploration because they are consistent with the magnetic signature of mafic-ultramafic rocks. The complex is road accessible and is largely open for acquisition at the time of publication. Due to the continued demand for electric cars, mobile devices and long-term energy storage and the sustained need for the raw materials used in the creation of lithiumion batteries (i.e., lithium, graphite, cobalt and nickel), new sources need to be discovered. Ontario is well positioned to become a global supplier, producer and manufacturer of choice for certain critical minerals, including, but

Need for steady supply of Critical Minerals Globally not limited to nickel, copper, cobalt and platinum group elements. “Industries across Ontario and around the world need a steady supply of critical minerals to support new technologies and emerging industries, including electric vehicles,” said Minister Rickford. “With the development of a Critical Minerals Strategy, the Province can showcase Ontario’s competitive advantage, high mineral development potential and world-class mining sector.” New technologies and high-growth sectors that rely on critical minerals include information and communications technology, electronics, energy, aerospace and defence, health and life sciences and transportation.

“With an abundance of the critical minerals in Northern Ontario, along with a competitive business climate, innovation and talent, Ontario is well positioned to become a leader in the future of electric vehicle and battery manufacturing,” said Vic Fedeli, Minister of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade. “In fact, recent proposed investments of almost $6 billion over the last several months in Ontario’s auto sector will make our province a global hub for EV manufacturing, making us stronger and more resilient as we continue to work towards economic recovery.” New Ontario Mineral Inventory Replaces the Mineral Deposit Inventory. The RGP is also pleased to an-

nounce that they have implemented upgrades to the data entry and online posting components of our rebranded Ontario Mineral Inventory, OMI (formerly Mineral Deposit Inventory, MDI) database. These upgrades promise to provide users with more frequent updates and will allow for ongoing data quality improvements. The OMI is now accessible through our Geology Ontario (http:// en/mines-and-minerals/applications/ geologyontario) and OGS Earth (https://www.geologyontario. websites. Users of OGS publications will continue to find the database referenced by its former name, MDI.

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