2019 Jersey Owners Manual

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Jersey Owners Manual






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This manual has been produced with the highest integrity, however we assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Content printed in this manual is subject to change. © 2019 Jersey Canada. All rights reserved. 3

Jersey Owners Manual

Farm Reference Information Farm Name: Jersey Prefix: Name: Tel/Cell: Email: Jersey Canada Membership I.D.: Jersey Canada On-line Password: Premises Identification # (traceability): Vehicle Licence Plate #: Veterinarian Name & #: Nutritionist Name & #:

350 Speedvale Avenue West, Unit #9 Guelph, Ontario, N1H 7M7, Canada https://jerseycanada.com/ T: (519) 821-1020 | F: (519) 821-9150 E: info@jerseycanada.com On the Cover Milksource-I Oh My Martha ~ Reg #: JECANF 13131599 Owners: Yann and Allison Bossel of Liberty Genetics, Kemptville, Ontario Sire: Chilli Action Colton-ET Dam: Milksource Tequila Mistress ET ~ Grandam: Musqie Iatola Martha ET Ex-97 Bobasyl Farms, located in South Mountain, Ontario milks 170 Holsteins and is now home to seven Jerseys (Liberty-Gen prefix). The herd is housed in a sand free-stall environment with a double 10-herringbone parlour. Yann Bossel and his wife Allison purchased Milksource Tequila Mistress in January 2018, who was in-calf, and Milksource-I Oh My Martha was born in June 2018. The Liberty-Gen prefix is now seven years old and the Bossel’s are always interested in cow families with deep pedigrees. Photo by Holly McFarlane 4

Jersey Owners Manual


About Jerseys

The Jersey breed was developed on Jersey Island, one of a series of small Channel Islands between England and France. Jersey Island is about 45 square miles and is renowned as a tourism and banking center, for its remarkable Jersey Royal potatoes and, of course, for the Jersey cow. Sixty years ago, there were over 1,000 properties on this small island where at least a couple of Jersey cows would be kept. Today, there are less than 30 functioning farms. It is theorized that some of the foundation genetics for the Jersey breed came from Africa and perhaps why the breed exhibits strong tolerance to heat and high humidity conditions. For over 200 years the importation of any live bovines, semen or embryos has been restricted on Jersey. This could explain why the breed is noted for its ability to “breed true” to type. In July 2008, the ban on semen imports to Jersey Island was lifted. On Jersey Island the dairy rations were primarily forage-based and required a cow that could efficiently convert grasses and legumes into milk and milk solids. Jersey owners placed emphasis on developing a breed of cows with very high solids levels in her milk. This selection over generations has created a cow with extraordinary levels of butterfat relative to the other common breeds of dairy cattle today. For the first six decades of the 20th century, Jersey Island was the source of breeding stock to start Jersey populations all over the globe. The breed has been particularly noteworthy in New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, the United States, South Africa, Great Britain and Canada. In more recent times these countries have been the source of seed stock for Jersey herds in the Central and South American countries of Brazil, Guatemala, Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Colombia, Venezuela and Costa Rica. Mexico has become a prominent importer and breeder of Jerseys as well. Populations of Jerseys are growing in France, Japan, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Kenya.

Canadian Jersey History Jerseys first came to Canada in 1868 to the province of Quebec. The American Jersey Cattle Club provided registry services to Jersey owners and breeders in Canada until the Canadian association (established in 1901) began its own herdbook in 1905. The breed has known periods of growth, expansion and retreat over the past century. Markets for All-Jersey milk were created and caused a great burst of interest in the breed in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. When pooling of milk was introduced in the 1960’s the breed went 5

Jersey Owners Manual

through a period of decline in activity with the Canadian Dairy Industry loss of specialized markets for milk. Many dedicated owners maintained their interest in Jerseys Dairy farming is one of the and kept profitable animals during this ‘low time’ largest agricultural sectors in for the breed. Canada. In 2017, there were 945,000 dairy cows on 10,951 In the 1980’s, higher production coupled with farms across the country. the introduction of component pricing led to more demand for Jerseys. Over the past two deQuebec and Ontario are cades, record breaking production and sale ring the major dairy producing prices have been set for Jerseys. provinces, representing 49% and 33% of the farms as well Jerseys from Canada have always been well as 37% and 33% of the milk respected and in demand. The breed is versaproduction. tile and responsive and is able to keep up with changing times and requirements. In recent Canada uses a supply years, there has been a renewed domestic marmanagement system where ket for Jerseys, due partially to changes in milk farmers manage their pricing across Canada (to favour the production production to coincide of butterfat), along with many other advantages with the demand for their that the breed possesses. products. This system enables farmers to cover their costs Jersey Canada has seen an increase in the numand earn a predictable and ber of new members joining the association stable revenue directly from and memberships are at their highest since the the market. 1960’s. There is also a substantial increase in the percentage of Canadian dairy herds having at least some Jerseys and animal registrations have reached record breaking levels. This is due to the incredibly efficient nature of the Jersey cow, economics, and in part to embryo and transfer programs.

THE JERSEY BREED There are many advantages to having Jerseys in your herd. But the primary reason is to enhance the quality of your production - protein and fat - and get paid for it. Jerseys are smaller (weighing 400–500 kg / 880– 1,100 lbs), come in all shades of brown (from light tan to almost black), use fewer natural resources, convert feed to milk with less investment, and produce a smaller carbon footprint. They have a longer productive life that produces a nutrientrich milk that fits perfectly with the type of dairy products that consumers want. Jerseys are trouble-free, and in increasing numbers, commercial producers are choosing Jerseys because they calve earlier, stay healthier, breed back sooner and produce a higher value product. You might be asking yourself if one dairy breed is much different from another. After all, they each have the capability to supply milk. The Jerseys 6

Jersey Owners Manual

small body size and impressive metabolic system is something we must emphasize. Listed are a number of distinct differences that Jerseys have compared to other breeds. Nutrient-Rich Milk Biologically, the Jerseys body naturally produces 18% more protein, 29% more milkfat and 20% more calcium when compared to ‘average’ pooled milk. Jersey milk is especially rich in vitamins, particularly high amounts of carotenoids, vitamin A, and has the highest concentration of riboflavin (B2) than other dairy breeds. This unique composition makes Jerseys more efficient for manufacturing cheese, butter and yogurt: yielding 22% more cheddar cheese, 20% more mozzarella cheese, 20% more Swiss cheese, 18% more cottage cheese and 31% more butter. Farmers do not require more Jersey cows to compensate for less fluid milk. It’s simple ‘food science’ where the milk is so nutrient-rich that you just don’t need as much to produce these products. (Source: National All-Jersey Inc, 1993, by Calvin Covington)

Some people claim that products made from Jersey milk simply taste better and are easier to digest. Perhaps it’s the premium quality, the vitamins and/or the A2 beta-casein protein that Jerseys produce naturally. Feed Factor Jerseys are incredibly efficient feed converters compared with other breeds. Studies claim that Jerseys save 13-18% in total feed expenses as they have the unique biological ability to utilize the energy in feed for milk production, rather than expelling it as waste. With feed costs representing approximately 55% of the input in your dairy operation, this can be a significant savings. Breed Younger Jerseys mature earlier than other breeds and can be bred at a younger age and enter the milking herd sooner. Their average age at first service is an entire month younger than the industry average and many producers are breeding their Jersey heifers by 12-13 months of age. Across their lifetime, Jerseys will average 3.3 calvings and experience 3.8 lactations. While all breeds can benefit from Comparing the investment per cow versus reducing their average age at first revenue per cow, Jerseys stack up the best! calving, it is reported that $920 of Return on Investment (ROI) profit per cow could be realized if #1 @ 5.86% - Jersey Jerseys calved at 22 months instead #2 @ 5.00% - Canadienne of the current breed average of 26 #3 @ 4.98% - Holstein months. Of the top three breeds in #4 @ 4.69% - Guernsey Canada, Jerseys experienced the #5 @ 4.57% - Milking Shorthorn largest financial gain. Milking soon#6 @ 4.38% - Ayrshire er simply translates into good cash #7 @ 3.71% - Brown Swiss flow and the dairyness of the Jersey Source: The Economic Analysis of Dairy Breeds, 2014 cow makes this possible. 7

Jersey Owners Manual

Reproductive Leader No matter what size of herd you manage, perhaps the most important management issue is getting cows bred with a minimum of expense or lost production due to unnecessary days open. Numerous reports show Jerseys to be an industry leader in various aspects of reproductive performance. Jerseys require fewer inseminations per pregnancy and have an average of 1.8 breedings per cow - the best value for this trait amongst all Canadian dairy breeds. They have a 56-Day NonReturn Rate of 68% - and that’s 7% better than the industry average. Source: Canadian Dairy Network, 2016 Jersey heifers also have longer heat periods and more standing heat events and this can help detect estrus or alleviate the misdiagnosis of estrus which can be expensive. Easy Calving Jerseys have fewer difficult births than Attributing to a the industry average, requiring less vetproductive life is the erinary attention and they are able to get health of the animal. back-in-calf quickly. Jersey heifers hold an Reproductive performance, 81% unassisted calving rate while Jersey clinical mastitis, disease, injury, cows maintain the highest unassisted and feet and leg problems, all calving ability of all seven breeds at 88%. significantly influence herd Furthermore, the Canadian Dairy Network longevity and culling. indicates a 96% easy calving rate for Jersey heifers and 99% for Jersey cows. Productive Life Dairy producers and the breeding industry have recognized health, well-being and long-term fitness of cattle as economically important. For cows to achieve a productive life, they must calve early and calve often, but they must keep on living. By having the highest rate of ‘staying in production’ and the lowest rate of ‘removal’, Jerseys can live up to their owner’s expectations. Data in both Canada and the United States have shown Jerseys to have superior productive life, meaning lower replacement costs, more calves born on the farm, and greater flexibility to either improve the herd through voluntary culling or to make replacement heifers available for sale. Whether it be their resilient nature, appealing calving ability or pregnancy success rate, the Jersey breed realizes lower annual veterinary and pharmaceutical expenses than average. Source: The Economic Analysis of Dairy Breeds, 2014 The Canadian Dairy Network reports that the top three reasons for culling in Canadian dairy herds is 15% due to reproduction, 8.6% to mastitis and 5.8% to feet and legs. 8

Jersey Owners Manual

Breed Benchmarks

Brown Cana- Guernsey Holstein Milking Jersey Shorthorn dienne

Source: Canadian Dairy Network, 2016 Ayrshire Swiss

Age at 1st service (days) Survival to 1st 120 DIM (1st lact) Survival to 240 DIM (1st lact) Survival to 2nd calving Survival to 3rd calving Survival to 4th calving

514 96% 88% 72% 52% 34%

509 95% 89% 74% 53% 39%

512 97% 84% 69% 44% 27%

506 96% 87% 66% 43% 28%

498 96% 91% 70% 50% 31%

476 97% 91% 77% 61% 42%

532 97% 91% 81% 62% 46%

Other Benefits

Feet & Legs Dairy cow lameness causes significant economic loss from reduced production, extra days open, increased veterinary treatments and premature culling. A University of Iowa field study found that while 90% of the Holsteins examined in the trial showed evidence of foot lesions, only 19% of Jerseys had signs of foot problems. Although the Jersey Classification Scorecard places the most emphasis on Mammary System (48%), there is now an increased emphasis on Feet & Legs (18%). This is largely due to the fact that sound Feet & Legs The Jersey’s hard and Udder Conformation contribute most significantly black hooves make to the longevity and profitability of the animal. her less prone to Jerseys are also hardy and efficient grazers as their foot infections such strong feet and legs allow them to move around pas- as hairy heel warts. tures with ease. Their smaller body size also means less Once again, size damage to wet pasture fields. matters, as her All dairy cattle benefit from hoof care and in many smaller body mass cases, cow lameness is preventable through a carereduces lameness fully managed hoof-trimming program. Jersey Canada resulting from foot has eight video clips available to you on this subject: disease. https://jerseycanada.com/research-resources/

Lower Transportation Costs Since transportation to the processor is charged per hectolitre, a nutrient-rich condensed product also results in lower transporting costs, which affects your monthly milk cheque. This also means that on-farm bulk tanks needn’t be as large and this reduces building and equipment costs. 9

Jersey Owners Manual

Housing When it comes to housing, smaller animals require less space and less space means less capital investment. Research tells us that although you need 12.5% more Jerseys to fill 90 kgs of quota, the Jersey’s compact body size still results in less total square footage than larger breeds. Manure Storage Smaller animals have less manure output, thereby requiring reduced manure storage than larger breeds. It is reported that Jerseys require 24% less manure storage capacity than larger dairy breeds. All Weather Cow There are no climate or geographic barriers for Jerseys as they are very resilient animals and thrive in the heat of Brazil as well as the frigid winter of northern Canada. Carbon Footprint Your nutrient management program and the conservation of our natural resources is important to protect our precious planet. An article in the *Journal of Dairy Science compared the environmental impact of Jersey to Holstein milk for cheese production. It concluded that producing cheddar cheese from Jersey milk consumes fewer natural resources and has a lower environmental impact compared with using milk from Holstein cows. For Jerseys and Holsteins to produce the same amount of protein, milkfat and other solids, the Jersey population requires 32% LESS water, uses 11% LESS land and substantially LESS fossil fuels, and produces LESS waste. The *research claimed a 20% reduction in the total carbon footprint. The Jersey’s small body size combined with higher milk production per unit of body weight, also results in approximately 55% less phosphorus per kilogram of manure than other dairy breeds. Source : Gouvernement du Québec, Règlement sur les exploitations agricoles, Loi sur la qualité de l’environnement (chapitre Q-2, a. 31, 53.30, 70, 109.1 et 124.1) – Annexe VII Jerseys require fewer resources to fill their quota and meet the needs of a dairy operation compared to other breeds. They are the top net income generator of the group of seven. #1 - Jersey #2 - Holstein #3 - Ayrshire #4 - Canadienne #5 - Guernsey #6 - Brown Swiss #7 - Milking Shorthorn Source: Economic Analysis of Dairy Breeds, 2014


SNF Challenge In Canada, milk has two components, butterfat (F) and non-fat milk solids (SNF), which includes proteins and other solids. More demand for butterfat (used to make butter, cheese and yogurt) means more SNF is also produced, which is needed much less. The Jersey breed continues to be the champion in the production of milk with high percentages of fat and protein - the components that the producer is paid on. The Jerseys milk composition translates into the efficient manufacturing of the products that consumers want. *Jersey milk will yield 31% more butter and 25% more cheese at a lower cost per pound of product. *Source: J. L. Capper and R. A. Cady, “A comparison of the environmental impact of Jersey compared with Holstein milk for cheese production”, J. Dairy Sci. 95:165–176, doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4360, © American Dairy Science Association, 2012

Jersey Owners Manual


Jersey Canada

Jersey Canada is the non-profit national association for owners and breeders of registered and recorded Jersey cattle. The association is responsible for the management of the Jersey herdbook and its role is to develop the Jersey breed in Canada. The Herdbook The herdbook, often referred to as our pedigree database, is an on-line register where an animal’s permanent identification, its ancestry, date-ofbirth and ownership is recorded. It also includes breeding and progeny records, genetic markers, classification results and production data from milk recording services for registered cows. In Canada, the herdbook is governed by the Animal Pedigree Act, which supports breed improvement and protects individuals that raise and purchase animals. Accurate pedigree information is essential to the ongoing improvement of the breed. Jersey animals that exhibit true characteristics of the breed provide breeders with a foundation to work toward purebred status. The herdbook’s rules of eligibility ensure compliance with breed standards. Our Vision Canadian Jerseys: Efficiency. Profitability. Opportunity. Our Mission To grow the Jersey breed in Canada by maintaining the integrity of the herdbook and providing tools to increase profitability. Our Values Accountability: Ensuring the reliability and transparency of all information provided by the association. Accuracy: Overseeing the absolute integrity of the canadian jersey herdbook. Growth: Providing tools for continuous breed development to meet the demands of a changing dairy industry. Leadership: Shaping the dairy industry through education and member involvement. Service: Delivering excellent customer service to all members and clients, regardless of location, language, or media preference.

Jersey Canada Historic Timeline  1901: Incorporated June 11th as the Canadian Jersey Cattle Breeders Association - Jerseys born in Canada were registered with the American Jersey Cattle Association  1905: Establishment of the Canadian Jersey herdbook  1945: 1st edition of the Canadian Jersey Breeder publication  1950s: Office located in Toronto, ON  1955: All Canadian contest launched  1969: Master Breeder award established  1973: Office moves to Waterloo Ave, Guelph, ON  1988: Name change to Jersey Cattle Association of Canada  1990: Office moves to Guelph, ON (current location)  1994: Name change to Jersey Canada  1999: Electronic registry system moves in-house  2012: New website  2014: Economic Analysis of Dairy Breeds study released (University of Guelph)  2015: Canadian Jersey Breeder publication celebrates 70th anniversary  2017: New modern logo; registrations and memberships reach their highest since the mid ‘60’s  2018: New website 11

Jersey Owners Manual


Herdbook • Registers, records and transfers ownership of Jersey animals; • Administers and protects the animal’s registered name and the breeder’s prefix; • Coordinates genetic testing and promotes genetic improvement; • Migrates progeny, production, classification and genetic data into each pedigree; • Maintains the on-line pedigree database portal. Client Support • Provides extended pedigrees of registered Canadian Jerseys; • Verifies if bulls from another country are considered purebred in Canada. Member Programs • Recognizes top performing cows and successful breeding programs through awards, certificates and listings; • Hosts ‘All Canadian’ competition; • Acknowledges astute dairy management practices and leadership with awards. Marketing • Promotes the Jersey breed and its benefits; • Publishes and distributes the Canadian Jersey Breeder globally; • Provides print & digital marketing options.

Outreach • Educates new and potential Jersey owners; • Visits farms and engages with producers; • Hosts the National Jersey Show at the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair; • Coordinates farm tours, participates in industry events and attends shows/sales. Collaboration • Supports regional Jersey associations across Canada; • Partners with experts within the agricultural sector; • Serves internationally through the World Jersey Cattle Bureau; • Brings the dairy community together to learn, share and network. Youth • Supports regional youth programs; • Hosts the Junior Showmanship Competition at the Royal; • Offers awards and scholarships. Information • Answers questions about key indicators of breed profitability; • Highlights successful Jerseys; • Maintains an up-to-date website; • Posts results from top dairy shows in Canada; • Communicates and connects through eNews & social media; • Distributes Jersey information kits.

To visit the herdbook, go to our website and click on “Search an Animal”.

https://jerseycanada.com/ 12

Don’t forget to bookmark it for a direct link!

http://abri.une.edu.au/online/cgi-bin/i4.dll?1 =20282c3e&2=2431&3=56&5=2b3c2b3c3a

Jersey Owners Manual

MEMBERSHIP Being a Jersey Canada member can save you money in animal registrations and transfers. But there is more to being a member. Your membership says that you have a passion for the Jersey breed and you care about the future of dairy farming. It offers you marketing options and the chance to get involved in programs, contests and awards. Membership also means that you are now part of our Jersey family, and whether it’s farm tours, meetings, or you are a virtual fan on Facebook, our family likes getting together and talking about cows. Apply on-line: https://jerseycanada.com/membership/ 10 Reasons You Can Benefit from a Jersey Canada Membership 1. Registration = Profit Registered Jerseys bring in more profit, dominate the Canadian market and are highly regarded globally. Selling an animal with proper identification and pedigree information gives buyers more confidence and increases the value of the animal – it also opens up A.I. incentives. For every animal registered you receive lower rates (than non-members) – and after registering just a few animals your membership has paid for itself. 2. Data Integrity We are the gatekeepers of Jersey data and good information helps you make good decisions. Whether it is pedigrees, classifications, production or show winnings, the data is at your fingertips (on-line) and can give you what you need to invest in resilient Jerseys. As reputable stewards of information, we are responsible and accountable to the herd book, our members and the breed. 3. We Speak Jersey We are a national association with deep roots in the dairy industry. Rules, regulations and requirements continue to change so we collaborate with experts, partner with leaders and participate in progressive programs to ensure a thriving future for the Jersey breed. 4. Communication Hub We have something for everyone to keep you informed and educated all year long. Our renowned Canadian Jersey Breeder publication (quarterly) has a subscription value of over $35 and is included with membership. Our website, eNews and social media networks allow us to interact with you digitally. Advertising options are available to help you market your cattle and build brand equity.

Our services can support your profit model, assess the breeding value of your Jerseys, improve your stock, build on your investment, and develop the breed as a whole. 13

Jersey Owners Manual

5. Recognition Members are eligible for awards that acknowledge leadership, successful breeding programs, top performing cows and astute management practices. We encourage education and provide financial support for youth and young adults through scholarships. 6. Your Association Voting privileges ensure you have a voice, and ultimately your membership says you support the breed, care about its future and can make a difference. 7. True Competition We provide a virtual showring for breeders to reveal the show results of top animals and compete for the prestigious All Canadian Jersey. Respected industry accolades used to promote a cow, herd or family will build your brand/ prefix. 8. Sharing Through events such as farm tours and our annual general meeting, we are here to bring the dairy community together and connect you with ‘like-minded’ individuals to exchange ideas, celebrate and have some fun. Our team has ‘presence’ at various shows and sales to educate breeders on the Jersey advantage. 9. Insight and Advice Our staff is friendly and knowledgeable. We work with our members from coast to coast to help develop a thriving breed. From embryos and genetics to key indicators of profitability - we can answer your questions. 10. Leaders Share Your Passion Our Board and Committee volunteers are leaders and they have an extraordinary opportunity to influence our industry. They are focused on ‘making things better’ for the next generation of Jersey farmers.

Become a Jersey Canada Member & Save Money MEMBERSHIP *New Member $50 *Annual Membership $100 Junior Member (under 22) $25 Non Canadian Resident $125

Regional fees are optional and used to support local Jersey initiatives. 14

*Regional Member Activity Fee (annual optional flat rate) Jersey West

Ontario Quebec

Jersey Atlantic

BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NL NS PE $20 $20 $20 $20 $75 $35 $20 $20 $20 $20

Jersey Owners Manual

SERVICES & FEES **Registration (75%, 87.5%, 93.7%, Purebred Females; Purebred Males) Animals 0 to 3 months of age Animals 3 months plus one day to 6 months of age Animals 6 months plus one day to 18 months of age Animals 18 months of age and over (parentage tested at owner’s expense and subject to approval)

Effective January 1, 2018 Member Non-Member

$20 $31 $61

$31 $51 $71




Recorded 0% (females) $9 Registered 50% (females) $20 Purebreds from percentage dams $20 Registration of dead animals (applies when all registrations in the herd are $6 up-to-date and if the ‘Fresh Start Program’ is used) Imported Animals: Imported animals will be registered or recorded using the same fees for animals born and first registered/recorded in Canada. However, rather than considering the animal’s date of birth, the date the transfer of ownership was processed into Canadian ownership (at the breed registry office of the exporting country) will be used to determine the fee charged for registering/recording the animals in Canada. The privileged lower rate for registration will be available for three months after the breed association of the exporting country has processed the transfer of ownership. After three months, the higher rates will apply. Member Non-Member **Transfer of Ownership Transferred within 60 days of sale $20 $26 Transfer after 60 days of sale $26 $31 Transfer within a family or to settle an estate or partnership $51/herd with no certificates required (all animals transferred to the same owner) add $8/animal if certificates required Bulk transfers: one seller transferring 15+ animals to one buyer $15/animal within 60 days of sale Herd transfer: one seller to one buyer $500

**Embryo Registry

Embryo flush registration Transfer of an individual embryo Bulk sale: (per flush) one seller to one buyer

Genetic Testing

$20 $10 $50 maximum

All male registrations require parentage verification prior to registration.

DNA Test (Microsatellite) SNP Test (administration fee)


Duplicate and new certificates Issuing new certificates as a result of property loss by fire Registration of lease Registration of herd name (prefix) Registration of tattoo combination (refundable if owner becomes a member in the same calendar year) Transfer of registered herd name to new owner Transfer of registered herd name within immediate family (registered herd name and tattoo combination must transfer at the same time) Transfer of tattoo combination to new owner Transfer of tattoo combination within immediate family Rush Service (assessed on a per animal basis for registrations and transfers in domestic situations and does not apply to requests for export purposes)

$50 $5 $7 $5 $35 $5 $5 $6 $3.50 $6 $3.50 $10 15

Jersey Owners Manual

Details: • **Residents of Quebec please add $1 for each registration, recordation, or transfer for Jersey Quebec Regional Development Fee. • All fees listed are in Canadian dollars and are subject to applicable taxes. • Register your Jerseys before they are 45 days old and we will automatically report/activate the animal to comply with proAction requirements. Invoicing & Payment: • All work is invoiced after processing and is payable upon receipt of invoice. • New accounts require Jersey Canada approval before processing proceeds. • All remittances must be made out to Jersey Canada or paid on-line. Visa and Mastercard are accepted.

GOVERNANCE How does Jersey Canada operate? As a national breed association, Jersey Canada operates in a democratic fashion, where members hold political power, exercised directly or indirectly through elected representatives. Simply put, Jersey Canada members direct the actions of the association by exercising their right to vote at general meetings. Between meetings, the Board of Directors or Executive Committee act on behalf of the membership. Jersey Canada members elect a nine-seat Board of Directors that serve for three-year terms and they are listed on our website. The Board works in the best interest of the membership by directing the General Manager. In turn, the General Manager is the point-person for Jersey Canada staff. Staff provide service to Jersey owners and affiliates across Canada. Members Jersey owners are accountable to Jersey Canada staff  (i.e. paying for services rendered). Jersey Canada staff are Board of Directors accountable to the General Manager. The General Man ager is accountable to the Board of Directors. And the General Manager Board of Directors is accountable to the membership.  Many people will find themselves in both the MemberStaff ship and Jersey Owners segment of Jersey Canada, as  a vast majority of members own animals and therefore Jersey Owners make use of the services provided by Jersey Canada. It The above corporate may seem confusing for a single person to be both at structure is in place the top and bottom of chart. It is important to rememto ensure that clear ber that the role of a member is different than the role direction is passed from of a Jersey owner. A Jersey owner is a client of Jersey one group to the next. Canada, as they benefit from registry and marketing services offered by the association. Members hold the power to direct the association by guiding the actions of the Board. Therefore, when wearing your “Jersey owner hat,” you are encouraged to voice any comments or concerns to Jersey Canada staff. This includes concerns regarding invoicing, accuracy of registry work, or quality of service provided. In many cases, Jersey Canada staff will be able to address your concerns directly. In rare situations where staff are not able to immediately assist, your concerns will be taken to the General Manager, and if necessary, on to the Board of Directors. 16

Jersey Owners Manual

When wearing your “member hat” you are encouraged to bring your comments and concerns to the Board of Directors. This includes concerns regarding association policy, objectives, or the strategic direction of Jersey Canada. The Board will consider your input and act in the best interest of all members. Any changes to policy, goals, direction, etc. will be communicated to the General Manager and subsequently, the staff will execute the changes. Jersey Canada Committees Each committee is chaired by a representative from The Process the board and comprised of volunteer members. The Operations Jersey Canada staff serve as secretary and assist Committee appoints with agendas, minutes and carrying out action individuals who have items. Volunteer committee members are listed volunteered to each of the committees on our website. They implement Jersey Canada in March at the programs by working with Jersey Canada staff and time of the Annual assist with developing policies for Jersey Canada by making recommendations to the Board of Directors. General Meeting. The committee rosters If you would like to volunteer to serve on one of Jerare then presented sey Canada’s Committees, please contact us. at the “incoming board meeting” for Genetic Improvement Committee approval, and successful The Genetic Improvement Committee helps influnominees then receive ence the genetic improvement of the Jersey breed a letter of appointment. in Canada. This includes working with Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) personnel, staff at the Canadian The Commitment Dairy Network (CDN) and classification personnel at Committee members Holstein Canada, to ensure that animals are being typically attend two meetings a year, evaluated accurately. As well, the committee works either in person or with partners in the AI industry to promote the use by teleconference. of young sires, identify genetic needs of the Jersey Each committee is breed, and identify current genetics that should be a little different and emphasized in the future. involvement may include: discussions, Marketing & Publications Committee information gathering, The main purpose of the Marketing & Publications idea generation, Committee is to promote the Jersey breed through coordination of a various projects in domestic and international marprogram, and/or kets. Responsibilities include helping provincial/ regional associations with marketing initiatives and participation at an event. In an effort to respect developing marketing programs for Jersey Canada the time and energy of to increase the profile of the Jersey breed. This comcommittee members, mittee oversees print and digital publications of Jerindividuals can serve sey Canada, including the Canadian Jersey Breeder on a committee up to magazine and the association website. six consecutive years. Following the sixth year, Show Committee a two-year sabbatical The Show Committee oversees issues related to Jeris mandatory before sey shows in Canada, including judge accreditation, being able to join the All Canadian Contest, show ethics and show another Jersey Canada regulations. committee. 17

Jersey Owners Manual

Milk Marketing Committee The Milk Marketing Committee works with provincial and national milk marketing groups across Canada with the goal of bringing equity to all milk producers for the product they produce. The committee gathers information on milk marketing conditions, identifies evolving issues that are impacting the industry (and Jersey breed), educates dairy producers/processors and offers ideas/ solutions within the industry. Areas of interest include beta and kappa casein in milk, surplus of components, Jersey milk pricing and industry policies. Youth Committee The Youth Committee selects recipients for youth programs including: Youth Scholarships, Youth of Distinction Award and Next Generation Travel Bursaries.

STAFF The staff at Jersey Canada are a small team dedicated to deliver outstanding customer service. They wear many hats and have a wide range of responsibilities. You can get to know our staff by viewing their bio on our website: https:// jerseycanada.com/staff/. If you need to contact the Jersey Canada office, please reference the list below to direct your call to the right person: Jersey Canada: t: (519) 821-1020 e: info@jerseycanada.com General Manager – ext. 102 • Member liaison to the Board of Directors regarding financial/business affairs; • Official breed representative at events and meetings; • Promotion and market development of the Jersey breed; • Public relations and hosting/organizing farm/office visits; • Networks with industry committees, provincial secretaries and members; • Resource for Jersey breeders, industry partners and office staff; • Support for Jersey Canada programs and initiatives; • Administers government grants; • Manages the office, strategic plan and governance of the association. Office Administrator/Secretary-Treasurer - ext. 100 • Accounting and invoicing of the association; • Processes memberships and magazine subscriptions; • Provides minutes and reports for Board and committee volunteers; • Coordinates board events; • Administers human resources and general office duties; • Assists with registration activity when required; • Support for Jersey Canada programs; • Reception for the Jersey Canada office. Bilingual Registrar and Customer Service Representative - ext. 101 • Performs registrations, recordations and transfers; • Coordinates genetic testing; • Technical support for registration inquiries; • Transfers data from/to industry sources; • Liaison to the pedigree database portal and ABRI; • Produces pedigrees for clients; • Assists with Jersey Canada programs and initiatives; • Provides general client service and industry inquiries. 18

Jersey Owners Manual

Communications Specialist – ext. 103 • Produces the Canadian Jersey Breeder publication: graphic design, writing, editing, advertising, printing, photography, finance and production; • Develops print and digital materials for campaigns, catalogues, brochures, manuals, annual reports, banners and other marketing initiatives to support strategic goals; • Manages print and on-line advertising sales, AD design, rates and contracts; • Maintains the Jersey Canada website and CMS; • Creates and manages digital posts for eNews and social media; • Marketing resource to regional Jersey associations; • Support for Jersey Canada programs. National Extension Agent & Field Service Representative Contact the Jersey Canada office to plan a visit from our field staff. • Visits farms and provides consultation to new Jersey owners; • Assists and answers questions on registrations, transfers, membership, genetic testing and tagging; • Provides advice on feeding, housing and sources of Jersey genetics; • Discusses Jersey Canada services/tools, the value of Jersey milk and breed differences to help your herd thrive; • Representative at trade shows and events.

JERSEY ORGANIZATIONS Regional / Provincial Jersey Associations Throughout Canada, there are a number of provincial/regional Jersey organizations that help to promote the Jersey breed, offer services to members of Jersey Canada and provide social settings for Jersey breeders to meet. Ontario and Quebec both have Jersey organizations with hired staff due to their size and level of activity. Jersey West and Jersey Atlantic are umbrella organizations in the Western and Atlantic provinces that coordinate Jersey promotion and development in those regions. If you are new to the Jersey world and are looking for a breeder to see some Jersey herds or purchase cattle/embyros, contact any of these organizations: Jersey West (est. 2006) represents Jersey breeders in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Representatives are available from each of the four provinces and they are involved in breed promotion and events. www.jerseywest.ca @Jersey West Jersey Ontario (est. 1946) has a multi-faceted role that includes member support through fieldwork, breed promotion, selection/marketing of cattle/ embryos, youth programs, calf rallies and cattle shows. They assist new breeders with their Jerseys and are active in milk marketing initiatives. This work is funded through a voluntary member support program (VMS). www.jerseyontario.ca @JerseyOntario E: ontario@jerseycanada.com 9-350 Speedvale Ave W., Guelph, ON, N1H 7M7  T: (519) 766-9980  F: (519) 766-9981 19

Jersey Owners Manual

Jersey Quebec has been active in representing Jersey breeders in Quebec for many years and has seen a dramatic increase in the number of new breeders incorporating Jerseys into their operations. They sponsor a spring and a fall sale, help coordinate other sales in the province, facilitate herdvisits and host gatherings to support and promote the breed in Quebec. www.jerseyquebec.ca @jerseyquebec E: info@jerseyquebec.ca CP 274 succursale bureau-chef, St-Hyacinthe, QC, J2S 7B6 T: (450) 771-2227 F: (450) 778-9637 Jersey Atlantic (est. 2006) represents Jersey breeders in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. They are involved in the regional promotion and support of the breed through social media, publications, youth sponsorship and at shows. @JerseyAtlantic World Jersey Cattle Bureau The World Jersey Cattle Bureau (WJCB) was established in 1951. One of the very first world conferences was held in Canada in 1954. The objectives of the WJCB are to: • be a global source of information on the breed; • promote the breed and products it produces; • share information that improves the breed; • encourage and assist the education of young people interested in Jerseys. WJCB membership consists of 16 national associations in countries where the Jersey breed is well established, and 11 associate members in countries where the breed is developing. There are over 600 individual life members. The WJCB established a Jersey Education Travel Award (JETA) for younger dairy producers who have developed a track record in Jersey farming. The Bureau also initiated the first World Jersey Cheese Festival in May of 2008. The WJCB holds annual meetings and every few years they host a world conference. Canada had the honour of hosting in 2005 and will again in 2020, with tours from Quebec to British Columbia. www.worldjerseycattle.com @worldjeresycattlebureau


Jersey Owners Manual

Jersey Canada Services


Registered Jerseys bring in more profit, dominate the Canadian Jersey market and are highly regarded globally. Selling an animal with proper identification and pedigree information gives buyers more confidence in their selection and increases the value of the animal. It also opens up A.I. incentives and export opportunities. Jersey Canada registers over *10,500 animals annually and approximately *84% are registered electronically. Purity designations are based on the association’s by-laws, herdbook regulations and government legislation. *2017 Registration Statistics Can anyone register their Jersey animals? Although you don’t have to be a Jersey Canada member to register your purebred Jerseys or record your percentage animals, our members receive discounts on registrations and transfers - plus there are numerous exclusive benefits and perks. You Can Register Your Jerseys On-Line or Manually – It’s Your Choice Online Registration Section 1 – Getting Started 1. Your “Member I.D.” is your Jersey Canada account number. To obtain a password for your online account, contact the registrar at info@jerseycanada.com or (519) 821-1020 (ext. 101). Please allow one day for password activation. 2. From the Jersey Canada homepage (https://jerseycanada.com/) there are two ways to access the on-line registration portal. You can click on the “Online Registration” quick link or alternatively, you can click the “Login/Register” text (top right of home page underneath SEARCH field). Once you have entered the member portal, it’s always a good idea to bookmark it for quick future DIRECT access. 3. At the “Signon” screen, enter your “Member I.D.” and the assigned password. It will prompt you for a NEW password. Please verify your new password and record it for future reference. If you forget your password, contact the Jersey Canada Registrar. 4. Click the “Signon” button and you are now logged into the Jersey Canada registration portal. 21

Jersey Owners Manual

Section 2 – Creating a New Batch of Registrations 1. Proceed to online registrations. Click “Online Transactions” at the top of your screen (on right). 2. On the batch screen, all your batches will be listed as “initialized”, “validated” (not submitted) or “submitted”. To start a new batch of registrations, click “Create a New Batch” (center of screen). 3. If there are any special requests/notations to be made, enter them in the comments section (i.e. premature calf, late born calf, possible freemartin, special ownership instructions, pedigree request, parentage verification). 4. Once comments are completed, click “Create” to proceed. On the next screen, click “Add” for the registration form. Section 3 – Submitting Your Registration 1. Enter the information as indicated on the form. If you are registering an ET calf, enter the date of implantation as the AI/Mating date. When entering dates, use this format: dd/mm/yyyy. Include straw/embryo number for embryo implants (found on implantation certificate). 2. Enter the Dam and Sire registration number in the “Dam ID” and “Sire ID” boxes (i.e. 10013706) - do not include spaces. The animal name will appear if the number is entered correctly. For animals not registered you can use JEUNKNDAM (for the Dam), JEUNKNSIRE (for the Sire) or XXUNKNSIRE (if NOT Jersey). For animals that are not in the Canadian database, but have registration numbers, enter the registration number and animal name in the comments section. 3. After completing the registration application, select an option at the bottom of the form. Use the “Validate and re-display form” and if any errors/warnings exist they will be highlighted. Please go back, check the information and repeat step 2. Then click “GO”. If you would like to delete an application and start over, select “Delete this record” and click “GO” to next record. 4. Once your application is verified (with no errors), your batch listing will be displayed. If you need to change the information on an application, click “Edit” to go back to the application window to make the changes. Section 4 – Adding on Registrations 1. To continue with more registrations, click “Add” and repeat steps 1-4 above. 2. Once registrations have been completed, click “View Batch Summary and Batch Submission Screen” for the records (top center). A summary of your submitted registrations will be displayed. If you would like to add more comments, click “Edit Comments” in the “Batch Options” section, then “Update”. 3. Once you are satisfied with the registrations, click “Submit this batch to Jersey Canada” (Batch Options). 4. The next screen will indicate if your registrations were successfully submitted. To view the batches, click “List All My Batches”. To create a new batch of registrations, start the process over from Section 2 above. 5. When you have completed your registrations if you log-out of the portal or leave the online transaction section, you will be asked to sign back in. 22

Jersey Owners Manual

Manual Registration When using a manual (paper) registration form, be sure to fill out the information as indicated on the form. The Application for Registration can be downloaded from our website (https://jerseycanada.com/registration/) or paper registration forms can be sent to you upon request. A manual registration example is provided below as a visual reference.

Remember to sign and date the application form, indicating that all information contained in the form is true. To complete the process, either: 1. Take a photocopy and send the original in the mail to Jersey Canada; 2. Fax the form to Jersey Canada, and keep the original. Note: Extended pedigrees are available upon request at a fraction of the regular cost at the time of registration.

Registration FAQ Tips to Help Save Time and Money 1. Send us hair samples when registering bulls - this is required. 2. When registering ET progeny, ensure that a flush report on the donor dam is sent to the Jersey Canada office. 3. All flush dams must be parentage tested. Animals from the flush cannot be registered until testing is complete. 4. If you have received a registration paper that has an error, please forward the incorrect paper back to the Jersey Canada office with notation on what the error is. It will be corrected and re-issued immediately. 5. Dairy producers in Canada are able to register through their Dairy Herd Improvement program using the ERA program. CanWest DHI and Valacta are can help you keep your registrations up-to-date and reduce your paperwork. If a calf has been born with an abnormality, please complete the Calf Abnormality Report and send it to us for recordation. The Calf Abnormality Report is available for download from our website (https://jerseycanada.com/registration-faq/) or upon request from our office. 23

Jersey Owners Manual



does it mean?

A purebred Jersey is any animal which is typical of the Jersey breed and is at least 31/32 (96.87%) Jersey. “31/32” means that 31 of the 32 great-greatgreat-grandparents (the 5th generation) listed in the pedigree are registered Jerseys. An extended pedigree lists: 2 animals in the 1st generation 4 animals in the 2nd generation 8 animals in the 3rd generation 16 animals in the 4th generation 32 animals in the 5th generation IMPORTED JERSEY - 1



Paternal Grandsire

16 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Grandsire 17 Great-Great-Granddam


18 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Granddam 19 Great-Great-Granddam






Paternal Granddam


20 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Grandsire 21 Great-Great-Granddam


22 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Granddam 23 Great-Great-Granddam


Maternal Grandsire


24 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Grandsire 25 Great-Great-Granddam


26 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Granddam 27 Great-Great-Granddam




Maternal Granddam


28 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Grandsire 29 Great-Great-Granddam


30 Great-Great-Grandsire

Great-Granddam 31 Great-Great-Granddam


GENERATION - 5 32 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 33 Great-Great-Great Granddam 34 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 35 Great-Great-Great Granddam 36 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 37 Great-Great-Great Granddam 38 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 39 Great-Great-Great Granddam 40 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 41 Great-Great-Great Granddam 42 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 43 Great-Great-Great Granddam 44 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 45 Great-Great-Great Granddam 46 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 47 Great-Great-Great Granddam 48 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 49 Great-Great-Great Granddam 50 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 51 Great-Great-Great Granddam 52 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 53 Great-Great-Great Granddam 54 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 55 Great-Great-Great Granddam 56 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 57 Great-Great-Great Granddam 58 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 59 Great-Great-Great Granddam 60 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 61 Great-Great-Great Granddam 62 Great-Great-Great Grandsire 63 Great-Great-Great Granddam

Jersey Owners Manual

Rules of Eligibility for Registration Jersey Canada recognizes Jersey breed associations of all member countries of the World Jersey Cattle Bureau. Upon importation, Jersey Canada shall review the rules of eligibility of the foreign registry to verify conformity with Jersey Canada’s eligibility requirements. The Jersey Canada association defines “purebred” to be any Jersey male or female which is typical of the Jersey breed and is determined to be at least 31/32 (96.87%) Jersey. The following animals qualify for registration by the Jersey Canada association, provided they are properly identified and documented (Jersey Canada bylaw 19 & 20): 1. Animals born in Canada whose sires and dams are registered in the Canadian Jersey Cattle Register. 2. Imported animals registered in a herdbook recognized by Jersey Canada. An extended pedigree must be supplied for the imported animal if requested by Jersey Canada. The extended pedigree for all imported males must have five (5) or more continuous generations of registered Jerseys, including no fewer than 31 of 32 registered Jerseys in the fifth generation of the pedigree. 3. Animals born in Canada whose dam is registered in the Canadian Jersey Cattle Register and whose sire is registered in a herdbook recognized by Jersey Canada, provided the sire’s extended pedigree includes five (5) or more continuous generations of registered Jerseys. 4. Animals imported into Canada as embryos (whose sire and dam are registered in a herdbook recognized by Jersey Canada), provided the sire’s extended pedigree includes five (5) or more The Fresh Start continuous generations of registered Jerseys. Program 5. Properly identified females may be recorded as The Fresh Start Program a base animal if they are of unknown parentis a special, once-inage but exhibit characteristics of the Jersey a-lifetime initiative breed (Article 2). Base animals will be assigned a designed for owners of purity of 0% by the Association. Jersey cattle who would 6. Properly identified females which are the like to begin or resume product of a percentage Jersey female and a registering their animals. purebred Jersey male shall be eligible for registration at the arithmetic average of the sire and Exclusive one-time-only dam’s Jersey percentages. significant discounts are 7. When sired by a Jersey male, which is not eligiapplied to registrations ble for registration in the Canadian Jersey Catand transfers of tle Register, properly identified females shall be ownership as a group of eligible for registration at the arithmetic averJerseys are entered into age of the sire and dam’s Jersey percentages. the Canadian herdbook. 8. Properly identified Jersey males may be regisTo participate in the Fresh tered only if they are considered purebred as Start Program complete defined in Article 19. the Fresh Start Program 9. All males must have their parentage confirmed Application available at through testing (microsatellite or genomic profile) by a https://jerseycanada.com/ laboratory approved by Jersey Canada in order registration/ or contact to be included in the Jersey Canada Herd Regthe Jersey Canada office. ister. 25

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Reproduction Mixes and Registrations Maintaining the integrity of the herdbook is the most important part of the Registrar’s job at Jersey Canada. This means ensuring that calves are registered with the correct dam and sire. We have several policies in place which help to monitor this, including random spot checks and parentage verification for bull registrations, over-age females and whenever the sire is in question. One of the biggest obstacles we’ve had is identifying calves that come from pooled semen or reproduction mixes (Repro-Mixes). A reproduction mix generally includes the semen of three highly fertile bulls. Sometimes a mixture of beef, Holstein and Jersey bulls is used so that breeders are able to pinpoint the sire by appearance. The reproduction mixes that include three Jersey sires are more popular since they guarantee purebred calves. Calves from other mixes are more difficult and costly to register since the sire must be identified through a microsatellite or SNP genomic test. Sometimes these calves are registered incorrectly at the time of registration, because only one of the three bulls registration numbers is entered. It is imperative that a calf is identified as having several potential sires when it is being registered. This alerts us to the fact that we should request parentage verification and send out a kit for testing or register the calf with an unknown sire so that SNP testing can occur through Holstein Canada. When registering a calf from a “Reproduction Mix”, please enter a “dummy” registration number for the sire, such as JECANM99999999, rather than one of the three potential sire’s registration numbers. Our computer system will then alert us that something irregular is happening. It is also a great idea to name the calf with the ‘Reproduction Mix’ rather than a bull’s name, so we know which sires are possible. For example, a calf could be named YOURPREFIX REPRO 13 CICILIA to indicate that “Reproduction Mix 13” was used.

PREFIX REGISTRATION & NAMING ANIMALS Once you have decided to register your animals, the very next thing to do is to select a herd name (Prefix). 1. Prefixes may be registered online through the Jersey Canada website (https://jerseycanada.com/prefix-registration/), manually (by sending us the Prefix Registration Form) or by contacting Jersey Canada. 2. It is possible to use the same prefix that you use for another dairy breed if that prefix is not already registered to another Jersey breeder. 3. Prefixes may be shared between family members and/or business partners. 4. Upon receipt of the application and prescribed fee, Jersey Canada will allocate a name or combination of letters and/or numbers to the breeder. 26

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5. The Association reserves the right not to allocate names that are identical or simiNaming Animals lar to names already allocated or that are misleading or inappropriate. What you need to know 6. Owners of allocated names may authorize before you name your animal. other members of their breeding enter• The prefix of the animal is prise to use their herd name. the breeder who owns the 7. When discontinuing their breeding endam at the time of breeding. terprise, owners of registered names may In order to be recognized for transfer their registered name to another breeding animals, you must breeder. (Jersey Canada bylaw 16.3) have your own prefix. • The full name of the animal Partnerships & Prefixes can be a maximum of 30 The prefix at the beginning of an animal’s characters including spaces. name is the breeders equivalent of an au• If the breeder of an animal thor putting their name on the cover of a does not have a registered book or a painter signing their name in the prefix, the existing owners corner, it says “this is my work”. But what prefix may be used by happens when it’s a team effort between adding a “C” in the front of two breeders in a partnership? If you look the animals name. The “C” through the herdbook, our breeders have will indicate that the animal found a number of solutions that work for was not bred by the original their partnership and the 30-character limit owner. on animal names. Ideas: • Take turns assigning each breeder’s prefix (i.e. PAULLOR GROVE JENDALL and SLEEGERHOLM NORMAN JORDAN - Bred and Owned by Paul & Lorraine Franken and Mike Sleegers); • Use both prefixes, alternating which goes first (i.e. ST-LO DESPRESVERTS IRIA ET and DESPRESVERTS ST-LO NORA - Bred and Owned by Ferme St-Baslo & Ferme Pres Verts Inc.); • Use both prefixes, alternating which goes first and shortening the second (i.e. SPRINGLEA SV REMAKE VISTA BELLA and SPRUCEVALE SL VANGUARD ET - Bred and Owned by Springlea Holsteins & Sprucevale Jerseys); • Create a new prefix for the partnership (i.e. FDL CELEBRATING BELLE - Bred and owned by Groupe Fleur de Lys = Hillover, Pepin, Jobson & MacKinnon).

ANIMAL IDENTIFICATION Assuming you already have your Premises Identification Number, the next step is recording the animal’s birth and activating the Animal Identification Number (all 15 digits). This means tagging your animal within seven days or before it leaves the farm, whichever occurs first. We often get asked if there are tags specific to Jerseys, as the National Livestock Identification for Dairy (NLID) organization is located at the Holstein Canada headquarters. We assure you that even though you are calling Holstein Canada and you receive your tags from the Holstein Canada Brantford office, they are not just tags for Holsteins, they are dairy tags and can be used on any dairy cow. 27

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NLID Tagging Proper identification is the backbone of having registered cows. Without it, the background of an animal is unknown and therefore the ability to predict that animal’s genetic performance accurately is impossible. Prior to registration and before reaching the age of six (6) months, each animal must be completely and permanently identified by tattoo markings. Alternatively, identification can be done by means of electronic identification devices (RFID) or NLID tags in both ears of the animal. National Identification Dairy (NLID) or Agri-Traçabilité Québec (ATQ) tags should be used as the primary identification for registration purposes. Animals registered in this way must have one tag in each ear with the same number on them. The number inscribed on the tag will be that animal’s registration number. It is not mandatory to tattoo when using NLID or ATQ tags as the primary identification method.

To ensure the best retention of NLID tags: 1. Place panel or button tag in the centre of the ear, between the two ribs. 2. Place the metal tag on the upper flap of the ear, a short distance from the head, 90 degrees from To order NLID tags: 1-877-771-6543 ~ www.nlid.org the edge of the ear, with NLID, P.O. Box 2065, Brantford, ON, N3T 5W5 enough space left for the To order ATQ tags: 1-866-270-4319 ~ www.agri-tracabilite.qc.ca calf’s ear to grow into it. If an animal loses a tag, please contact NLID or ATQ to order a replacement. A replacement tag will be printed free of charge and sent to you. Replacement tags have the same number as the former (lost) tag. Tattoo Letters Tattooing (Year: 2019-2026) If tattoo markings are also the identification tool used, you G for 2019 can request from Jersey Canada a set of identification letL for 2023 ters exclusive to the owner/breeder at the prescribed fee. H for 2020 These identification letters are to be tattooed in the right M for 2024 ear of the animal. In the left ear, the specific year letter and J for 2021 farm or management number as desired can be used. N for 2025 Tattoo placement must allow space to accommodate your K for 2022 NLID/ATQ tag. The same identification may not be used for P for 2026 any other animal of the same breed. Note: The letters I, O, Q and V are not used as Contact Jersey Canada for approval to transfer/reuse herd year designating letters. letters by another owner/breeder. In order to ensure a proper, legible tattoo, the following steps should be taken: 1. Place a halter on the head of the calf & tie securely. 2. Remove all dirt from ears with a clean rag & alcohol. 3. Ensure the tattoo pliers have the proper letter/number combination by testing them on a piece of paper. 4. Spread ink on the centre of the ear either between the two ribs or between the upper rib and top of the ear. Note: Be sure to avoid major blood vessels. 5. Put some ink on tattoo pliers and apply pliers to the inked area of the ear. 6. Rub ink into tattoo holes with thumb or toothbrush. 28

Jersey Owners Manual

GENETIC TESTING Genomic testing increases the accuracy of mating selections and identifies ideal herd replacements. By testing as many females as possible, we can increase the probability of finding the outlier genetics that have been transmitted in the Jersey population. What Kind of Test? Genomic testing uses genetic information for a given animal and compares her genome to a reference populaSNP and Microsatellite tion with known phenotypes. A phenotype is the physical Testing expression of a gene, such as actual milk production, milk components, and physical conformation. Genomic evalua- Many Jersey owners are quickly learntions of the future depend on proper animal identification, ing what a great official milk records and classification today. management tool Jersey Canada’s mission is “To grow the Jersey breed in the SNP genomic Canada by maintaining the integrity of the herdbook and testing (GenoTest) is. providing tools to increase profitability.” Maintaining the Not only does it allow integrity of the herdbook means ensuring that all dates, you to select the best numbers and pedigrees are correct. In some cases, this means that a parentage test is necessary, particularly when replacement heifers for your herd, but it it comes to verifying the sire and dam of an animal. can also confirm the Jersey Canada requires parentage tests in these situations: parentage of animals. • Registering a bull: Jersey Canada bylaws state that every SNP genomic testing male registered in the Canadian herdbook must have its provides a distinct parentage confirmed at the time of registration. The owner advantage over tradipays for parentage testing when registering a bull. tional microsatellite • Embryo donors: Any Jersey cow that is flushed must have testing for parentage a parentage test completed before any calves resulting verification – as from embryos can be registered. The owner of the donor cow pays potential sires do not for the test. have to be suggested. • Registering an over-aged Jersey: Any Jersey that is 18 This difference arises months or older when they are registered must have a between the two tests parentage test. The owner pays for testing over-aged animals. because microsatellite • A calf born early or late: Calves born more than 15 days confirms parentage by too soon, or 15 days too late (consider-ing the breeding matching microsateldate) may require a parentage test. Jersey Canada pays for the lite sites on the DNA testing of calves born really early or really late. of the animal being • Random spot test: Jersey Canada randomly selects one in tested and on the DNA 300 AI or natural service calves, and 1 in 25 ET calves for a of the suggested sire, parentage test. These random tests are called “spot tests”. while SNP testing Jersey Canada pays for spot tests. eliminates potential sires based the pres• Any time the owner isn’t 100% sure of the calf’s sire or ence of particular dam: Sometimes two cows calve at the same time, or a SNP’s and the likelicow is bred to two different bulls, or a heifer is implanted hood that various sires with an embryo and then later rebred, or heifers are excould have contribposed to a bull before being confirmed pregnant. If there uted these portions of is some chance that the expected mating may not be corgenetics. rect, Jersey Canada requires a parentage test of the calf. The owner pays for the test in this situation. 29

Jersey Owners Manual

Genomic testing is a great tool to help you identify the unprofitable females much sooner. There is no minimum age for testing, so the earlier you cull the heifers that aren’t going to move your herd forward, the more rearing costs you save. This is the best way to make genomic testing work for you. While it is true that most of the time Jersey owners are sure of whom the sire is, mix-ups SNP Testing do happen. Sometimes the wrong straw is Use the Genotype Request Form grabbed during insemination. Sometimes a available from Jersey Canada, cow is purchased in-calf and no breeding inHolstein Canada or obtain a ‘hair formation is supplied. Whatever the reason for collection kit’ from a Clarified Acparentage verification, SNP testing is a great credited Veterinarian (who will also option. submit your sample for you). If you would like to conduct parentage veriJersey Canada fication through SNP testing it is important https://jerseycanada.com/geneticto register the calf to be tested first. Holstein testing/ Canada and CDN are unable to correctly laPhone: (519) 821-1020 (ext 101) bel samples without a registration number. Email: info@jerseycanada.com If you are uncertain of the sire, use a ‘dummy’ registration number during registration, such Holstein Canada as JECANM99999999. This will alert us that (Genotest) https://www.holstein.ca/Public/ something is different and we can process the en/Services/Genotyping/Genotypregistration with an un-known sire. Eventually ing results confirming parentage will be available Phone: 1-855-756-8300 (ext 600) and we can adjust the sire of the calf and comEmail: customerservice@holstein.ca plete the registration paper and certificate conLab: Holstein Canada, c/o Genomic firming parentage. Testing, P.O. Box 610, Brantford, In this case above, registration fees will be ON, N3T 5R4 charged before testing occurs. Holstein Canada will send an invoice for the GenoTest. After reClarified sults are received, another administration fee Accredited Veterinarian will be applied to your Jersey Canada account. and Zoetis This fee is only charged when parentage veriPhone: 1-800-506-6683 fication is necessary - not for every animal that Email: genetics.ca@zoetis.com SNP testing is conducted on. Microsatellite Testing If one of your animals has been selected for a (parentage only) spot test, a microsatellite kit will still be sent Obtain the CATTLE submission out, but you also have the option of sending a form Quantum Genetix hair sample to Holstein Canada for SNP testing. https://quantumgenetix.com/wpIf you would like to do this, simply let us know, content/uploads/2018/08/GS-cattlepay and send us a copy of the invoice. We will submission-2018-06.pdf then credit your Jersey Canada account. Mandatory Tests Quantum Genetix/Genserve Phone: (306) 956-2071 • All bulls must have their parentage confirmed Email: dna@quantumgenetix.com by a genetic test at the time of registration in Lab: Quantum Genetix, Site 501, order to be included in the Jersey Canada herdComp 11, RR Station Main, book.Properly identified Jersey males may be Saskatoon, SK S7K 3J8 registered if they are considered purebred. 30

Jersey Owners Manual

• Applications for registering males will be accepted temporarily for 120 days, pending a genetic test to confirm parentage. The genomic test will be accepted domestically for parentage verification. • If, after 120 days, the parentage for the animal in question has not been confirmed by a genetic test (either genomic or microsatellite), the animal in question will be removed from the Jersey Canada herdbook with no refund of the registration fee. • In the case of embryo transplant calves, donor mothers must be identified through a genetic test before any of her embryo transplant daughters can be registered. Jersey Canada recommends going through the parentage process (microsatellite or SNP) at the time of the flush in case of accidental death of the donor. Collecting Hair Samples What you will need: • A submission form to record animal information of samples collected • A paper envelope for each sample to be collected • Marker or pen • Scissors to cut off excess/ dirty hair • A clean comb or brush • Tape Tail Hair Sample Procedure 1. Clean the tail switch to remove any foreign material. Comb or brush the tail to remove any dead hair. If needed, wash, clean and rinse with water. Wait for the tail to be completely dry. The sample must be free of urine or manure. Dirty samples will not be processed. Contamination will make the sample unfit for testing. 2. Select 5-10 tail hairs near the base of the tail switch and quickly pull hairs upward (against the grain of the roots). Visually inspect to ensure that hooked or bulbous roots are attached. Repeat until 20-30 hairs with roots have been pulled. 3. Trim the ends opposite the roots to remove dirty, wet or excess hair. (Note: feces and urine in the hair can degrade the sample and make it unfit for DNA testing) 4. Place the hair sample in a paper envelope. Use a separate envelope for each animals sample. 5. Clearly label the envelope with the unique identity of the animal. Record the animal information on the submission form. The animals ID on the envelope must correspond to the animals ID on the submission form. 6. To collect a sample from another animal, clean hands or put on a clean pair of surgical gloves and repeat the above steps. 7. Place the envelope(s) along with the submission forms into a larger envelope and mail or express post the package to the appropriate lab.


Jersey Owners Manual

TRANSFERS When an animal is purchased or sold, the registration paper must be signed by the original owner and submitted to Jersey Canada to update an animal’s ownership. This will ensure that future progeny can be recorded under the correct ownership and corresponding prefix. How to Process a Transfer Transfers avoid any gaps in the pedigree or loss Jersey Canada can accept transof purebred status and points when results fers by mail or fax. Complete are credited to the correct prefix (breeder and the Application for Transfer owner) for awards (Production, Constructive of Ownership (reverse side of the and Master Breeder) and shows. Transferring Certificate of Registry) for each animal the animal to the buyer increases her value for being transferred and send it the new owner! to us: Transferring from One Canadian Owner to Mail: Jersey Canada, 350 Speedvale Ave. West, Unit Another in Canada 9, Guelph, ON, N1H 7M7 • The Animal Pedigree Act requires that all animals sold as purebred must be officially Fax: (519) 821-2723 (please fax transferred by the seller within six months both sides of the Certificate of Registry) of the sale date. It’s always better to send us Important Information: this paperwork immediately and qualify for When animals leave the herd (i.e. our ‘within 60-day transfer discount’. culling, dead, sold for beef) we suggest • The new owner will have free access to the that the owner return the Reganimal’s full pedigree and performance inistration Certificate(s) to Jersey formation online; Canada for documentation indi• Whoever submits the certificate will be incating the reason. This is imporvoiced for this transaction unless otherwise tant when an animal is not to be specified. transferred to a new owner for • If the animal is bred at the time of sale, this various reasons. information should be included as the result- A duplicate Registration Cering calf will carry the prefix of the owner at tificate may be issued upon the time of breeding. request if the original is lost or • If the animal is owned by a partnership, a unobtainable. signature from each partner is required unWhen an animal is leased, the less signing authority has been designated owner must contact Jersey and is on-file with the Jersey Canada office. Canada to inform us of leasing details (i.e. dates, breeder, etc.), • If transfer papers are received without the which will be recorded in our signature of the registered owner(s), Jersey database (applicable fees apply). Canada will contact the owner for confirmation. Transferring a Canadian Animal to an American / Foreign Owner • The animal must be transferred to the new owner in the Canadian herdbook. • Jersey Canada will communicate with the appropriate American/foreign association to facilitate the transfer of the animal to that herdbook and the Canadian registration paper will be sent to the American/foreign association. This process may be initiated by the seller, the new owner or Jersey Canada. • The American/foreign association will then add the animal to their herdbook and process a new registration paper for the new owner. • Please note that there are two transfer fees in total - one from Jersey Canada and one from the appropriate American/foreign association. 32

Jersey Owners Manual

Transferring an American/Foreign Animal to a Canadian Owner • The animal must be transferred with the American/foreign association first. • Have the original owner submit the transfer to their breed association. • Once the American/foreign herdbook has been updated with the new Canadian owner, they will send the American/foreign registration paper to the Canadian buyer. • The Canadian buyer (now listed as owner) should send this registration paper to Jersey Canada. • Jersey Canada will add the animal to the Canadian herdbook and process a Canadian registration paper for the Canadian buyer. • If you are unsure whether the transfer has taken place, let us know. We can check the ownership record and/or submit the transfer request on your behalf to ensure the animals can be entered into the Canadian herdbook. • Please note that there are two transfer fees in total - one from Jersey Canada and one from the appropriate American/foreign association. Identification of Animals Imported from the USA Since February 2018, dairy cattle entering Canada from the United States must be identified with the U.S. National Animal Identification system (NAIS) compliant radio frequency (RFID) tag, which begins with the numbers “840” (U.S. country code). Prior to February 2018, cattle had been allowed entry without this tag. The U.S. “840” ear tag is equivalent to animals with Canadian approved ear tags for traceability. However, when it comes to traceability AND herdbook registration in Canada, double identification (dual tagging) is the standard. To conform to both traceability and herdbook registration, the US imported animal must be identified with an electronic “840” RFID tag and/or a visual panel tag. These can be ordered through NLID or ATQ where you currently purchase your approved dairy tag sets. Both numbers will be added to the herdbook. If a dairy animal loses its official U.S. “840” RFID tag, you can use a set of tags from NLID or ATQ or replace it with a tag set from your inventory. The “840” tag cannot be reproduced in Canada. The original “840” tag remains as the main registration number and the new tag sets will become the animals new identification number. It is also important to report both numbers to the tracking system database to ensure they are cross referenced. Animals imported from out-of-country need to be reported when they arrive (at their first point of entry in Canada) to the tracking system database: CCIA (CLTS database: http://www.clia.livestockkid.ca) or ATQ (SimpliTrace database: www.atq.qc.ca) in Quebec. A full fact sheet on identifying cattle imported from the U.S. is available on the proAction website: https://www.dairyfarmers.ca/proaction/resources/ traceability.


Jersey Owners Manual

EMBRYO TRANSFER If your goal is to build a herd of Jerseys with strong production and type traits, purchasing embryos from animals of high genetic merit may be a good option. Embryo transfer can speed up the genetic progress of the herd yielding profitable cows from strong pedigrees with the will to produce. Embryo transfer also minimizes disease from entering your herd and benefits your biosecurity procedures.

Embryo Transfer Tips Donor Selection Donors can be animals from superior cow families, tremendous producers, show animals, genomically superior animals or a combination of all these. Jersey Canada recommends parentage testing of all donors to help in making better mating’s for a flush. A parentage certificate must be filed with Jersey Canada for every donor dam; either a microsatellite or SNP test is acceptable. Jersey Canada recommends pulling tail hairs from the donor dam the day she is flushed. Selection of Sires Since half of the genes come from the male, it is extremely important to use genetically superior bulls. Selection of Recipients Sometimes, using the farmer’s own recipient is simply not feasible possibly due to unsuitable animals or management capabilities. Cows and heifers as recipients have disadvantages and advantages and the choice depends on careful analysis of various factors such as facilities, health tests, types of animals used, nutrition, and so on. Excess embryos are frozen when insufficient recipients are available; conversely, when excess recipients are available, frozen embryos can be thawed and transferred.


Registering ET Calves Jersey Canada requires a copy of the full flush report before any calves from a particular flush can be registered. This report will list all of the embryos recovered in the flush (as opposed to individual embryo certificates). When registering an ET calf be sure to indicate either the recipient’s ID (in the case of a fresh implant) or the frozen embryo ID. We require every ET calf be matched to a specific embryo. Transferring Embryos Domestically When embryos are sold, the transfer of ownership must be made before the resulting calves can be registered. The calves will be registered as bred by the owner of the donor cow at the time of breeding unless otherwise specified. As with animal transfers, fees will be applied to the account of whoever submitted the transfer information. Flush recordation fees may also apply. Transferring Embryos Internationally Canadian genetics are in demand throughout the world and Canadian breeders work with qualified exporting members of the Canadian Livestock Genetics Association (CLGA).

Jersey Owners Manual

Breeding Records Each breeder shall keep a private record which shall contain full particulars of his breeding operations, including name and number of sire and dam of each calf, date of service or exposure to service of each female animal on the farm, identification and date of birth of calf. Each breeder shall retain his breeding record for a minimum of ten (10) years. This record shall at all times be open to the inspection of officials by Jersey Canada and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada or their designate. If such inspection indicates errors they will be dealt with according to 16.2.3. (Jersey Canada bylaw 17)

Research Pedigrees Before Importing Foreign Animals/Embryos

National breed associations in different countries have unique rules for registering and recording animals based on their officially recognized level of purity. When an animal is imported into the Jersey Canada herdbook, she is subject to Jersey Canada’s rules for registration and recordation. It is possible that a purebred Jersey in another country could be an 87.5% Jersey in Canada as the definition of the word purebred can vary between countries. Before importing foreign animals or embryos into Canada, it is recommended that you contact the Jersey Canada office and request a pedigree for the animals to be researched. We can then tell you if the purity for the animal will change once she is added to the Canadian herdbook.


Jersey Owners Manual


Jersey Owners Manual

Jersey Canada Programs

Visit the Jersey Canada website for more information, applications and specific deadlines for all awards and programs: https://jerseycanada.com/awards/

YOUTH & NEXT GENERATION AWARDS & PROGRAMS Jersey Canada Youth Scholarships Jersey Canada offers two scholarships of $750 each to recognize outstanding interest, knowledge and achievement in the Jersey breed, as well as agriculture in general. The scholarships are available to all young Canadian Jersey enthusiasts enrolled in at least the second year of study at any post-secondary College or University. Candidates must not have previously been awarded the Jersey Canada Youth Scholarship. RAWF Showmanship Competition The Royal Agricultural Winter Fair (RAWF) Showman Competition is open to youth and young adults 10-21Â years of age as of show day. Youth of Distinction To be eligible for the Jersey Canada Youth of Distinction Award you must be 18 to 25 years of age and be involved with the Jersey breed in Canada. This award is presented at the Jersey Canada annual meeting and eligible aged candidates with strong leadership and involvement in agriculture, the community and the Jersey breed are encouraged to apply.

INDIVIDUAL AWARDS Jersey Young Achiever The Jersey Young Achiever Award recognizes the accomplishments of Jersey breeders under the age of 40. Nominations must be accompanied by a resume of accomplishments with Jerseys, the community and family. This award is presented at the Jersey Canada annual meeting. Honorary Life Member The Honorary Life Member Award recognizes long-term leadership contributions to the Jersey breed. Nominations must be accompanied by a resume outlining the nominee’s Jersey involvement through the years. 37

Jersey Owners Manual

Certificate of Appreciation A Certificate of Appreciation is awarded periodically to people within the agricultural industry who render a particular service above and beyond the call of duty to the goals and the objectives of the Association. Recipients have often been employees of industry partner companies. Selections are made by the executive committee of Jersey Canada. Distinguished Service Award Periodically Jersey Canada will present a Distinguished Service Award. This award recognizes a unique long-term commitment to the betterment of the Jersey cow in the areas of leadership, promotion, genetic improvement, marketing - open to any member of the Jersey fraternity. Few such awards have been given in the history of the Association as this is the highest honour recognized by Jersey Canada and is therefore awarded when deemed appropriate. Selections are made by the executive committee of Jersey Canada.

JERSEY PERFORMANCE AWARDS If your registered Jersey cow is 87.5% pure or higher, she is eligible for Performance Awards. Annual Class Leader Annual Class Leader awards recognizes the highest record for milk, fat or protein in each of the nine age classes in any given year and is based in kilograms of milk, fat or protein yield in 305 days production. All Time Class Leader All-Time Class Leader awards recognize the highest ever records for milk, fat or protein, in nine age classes and the list is reviewed annually. The awards are based on kilograms of milk, fat or protein yield in 305 days production. Hall of Fame Hall of Fame awards recognize cows that have on any one completed lactation produced 575 kgs of fat and/or 460 kgs of protein on a 305-day record. There are single and double awards based on how many of the standards the individual cow’s production has exceeded. Hall of Fame Trophy The Hall of Fame Trophy recognizes the Hall of Fame cow with the highest composite BCA for fat and protein. President’s Cup The President’s Cup is presented to the cow with the leading living lifetime fat and protein production record. The winning cow must either be completing an active lactation or have completed their most recent lactation during the preceding year. One award is presented for each trait, therefore there may be two different winners. 38

Jersey Owners Manual


Production Awards Award Levels If your registered Jersey cow is 87.5% Platinum Award (PA) pure or higher, she is eligible for Platinum, Gold or Silver Production awards. If Official 305-day record with a composite the animal meets the composite BCA of BCA (Fat + Protein) greater than 700. Gold Award (GA) Fat and Protein set for each award level, Official 305-day record with a composite Jersey Canada will automatically assign BCA (Fat + Protein) greater than 625. the award to the appropriate record. Silver Award (SA) Are the AWARDS useful? Official 305-day record with a composite BCA (Fat + Protein) greater than 550. Production Awards are very useful, but your animal must be registered and be 87.5% pure or higher to be eligible. The awards are recorded in each animal’s pedigree beside the specific lactation where she earned the award. Production awards are also valuable when promoting your Jersey cow, her achievements and/ or the strength of her family. This information also comes in handy if you are looking to buy a cow and are researching the pedigree. The top 15 producing cows (by age class) are listed in each issue of the Canadian Jersey Breeder with a notation if they received a production award. Not all owners want the paper certificate as the data is collected and stored in the herdbook and can be viewed online. Therefore, Production Award certificates are only available upon request by owners. To receive your paper certificates, contact Jersey Canada. Star Brood Cows Jersey Canada recognizes outstanding Brood Cows, awarding STARS by calculating production and conformation qualifications on progeny that are classified and have completed records. Are the STARS useful? Collecting STARS is very useful, Star Brood Qualifications but your animal must be registered, be 87.5% pure or higher, • Must have at least three (3) registered progeny. have official production records • Points are earned based on daughters’ lifetime and be classified. At least three production and classification. of her progeny must also be • Production points are earned based on either registered and collecting this daughters’ Composite BCA Deviations or Lifetime Solids Production. data. The number of STARS is recorded in each animal’s pedi- • Classification points are earned based on daughters’ most recent final scores. gree along with the year she • At least two (2) daughters must contribute both received it. classification and production points. Star Brood status is also valu• Each STAR requires eight (8) points from progeny. able when promoting your Jer39

Jersey Owners Manual

sey cow, her achievements and/or the success of her progeny. This information also comes in handy +60 2500 kg F and 2000 kg P if you are looking to buy +90 3000 kg F and 2400 kg P into a cow family and are +120 3500 kg F and 2800 kg P researching the pedigree. +150 4000 kg F and 3200 kg P Cows that are awarded STARS are listed in each isAt least 2 daughters must contribute both production sue of the Canadian Jersey and classification points. Breeder. STARS are also converted 8 to points and used to calculate Master points per Breeder and Constructive Breeder awards. STAR Not all owners want the paper certificate as the data is collected and stored in the herdbook and can be viewed on-line. Star Brood certificates are only available upon request by owners. To receive your paper certificates, contact Jersey Canada. Composite Lifetime BCA (F+P) from Production Herdmates +30 2000 kg F and 1600 kg P

Final Score Range GP 83-84

Star Brood Cow Points 1

VG 85-86


VG 87-89




EX 2E+



+1 additional point

HERD AWARDS Master Breeder The Master Breeder Award recognizes long-term excellence in breeding Jersey cows and is based on a points system. The points are calculated using the following criteria. Production points Lifetime for each cow are ac- Level Comp BCA Deviation Points from Herdmates Production cumulated from ei1 +30 or 2000 kgs F & 1600 kgs P 1 ther Composite BCA 2 +60 or 2500 kgs F & 2000 kgs P 2 deviation from herd mates or Lifetime 3 +90 or 3000 kgs F & 2400 kgs P 3 Production totals 4 +120 or 3500 kgs F & 2800 kgs P 4 according to the fol5 +150 or 4000 kgs F & 3200 kgs P 5 lowing table: Classification points for each cow are allocated from the following table. Cows classified Supreme Excellent would receive an extra point. Breeder Sires points are accumulated in one of the followClassification Master ing three classes: Points 1) Superior Type = 5 points (defined as +6 Type upon reachGP 83-84 1 ing 85% reliability while having LPI => +700) VG 85-86 2 2) Superior Production = 5 points (defined as +70 F + P VG 87-89 3 kgs upon reaching 85% reliability while having LPI => +700) EX 4 3) Superior Balance = 15 points (defined as qualifying for EX 2E+ 5 both Superior Type and Superior Production) Star Brood points: Cows would contribute points in the following manner: 1 Star = 6 pts; 2 Stars = 7 pts; 3 Stars = 8 pts; 4 Stars = 9 pts; 5+ Stars = 10 pts 40

Jersey Owners Manual

Additional Master Breeder Qualifications and Rules: • Animals eligible for Master Breeder points are born during an 18-year window beginning three years before the year of calculation. • Calculation of points is run automatically by Jersey Canada based on Prefix. • The total points for a given prefix are averaged over the number of classified females registered during the 18year window. • Herds must have a minimum of five registrations per year carrying the herd’s prefix. • Only animals with 87.5% purity or higher will be eligible for inclusion. • Individual cows must contribute both production and classification points in order to contribute to the overall total for the prefix. • Exported animals will only be included in point calculations if the breeder provides updated data to be inputted in the system. • One Master Breeder Award will be presented each year. • Herds will not be eligible to win the Master Breeder award again until 18 years after their previous Master Breeder Award. Constructive Breeder This award recognizes herds that are excelling in Jersey breeding over a shorter time frame than the Master Breeder. Calculation of the Constructive Breeder Award follows the same method for point accumulation as the Master Breeder Award and has the following differences: • Animals eligible for Constructive Breeder points are born during a five-year window, beginning three years before the year of calculation. • Three Constructive Breeders will be awarded per year to the three eligible herds with the highest average points per registration. • Herds will not be eligible to win the Constructive Breeder award again until five years after their previous Constructive Breeder or Master Breeder Award.


Jersey Owners Manual

ALL CANADIAN COMPETITION The All Canadian contest is a Jersey Canada competition that recognizes top cows in the Canadian show circuit. Traditionally these cows enjoy the attention and prestige of being named an All Canadian. Along with their photo and qualifying show results, winning and nominated cows are showcased in the Canadian Jersey Breeder publication, listed Agri-Brands Purina is the premier on the Jersey Canada website and announced sponsor of the All Canadian Contest. through eNews and social media channels. For each Class, All Canadian winners receive an award at the Jersey Canada Annual General Meeting. Jersey Canada’s rules for the 4-H portion of the All Canadian contest are slightly different to that of the open classes. This alteration supports 4-H privacy and youth inclusivity. General Rules & Details • Animals must be registered at 87.5% purity or higher. • All qualifying All Canadian shows must operate under the Canadian Dairy Breeds Code of Ethics. • Only professional 5 x 7 side view digital portrait photographs taken during the current show year will be accepted. • The owners of each All Canadian entry will be charged a fee per entry. • Approximately 5-7 judges will be selected and contest judges will rank their choice for the top six animals in each class and the total point aggregate will determine the All Canadian, Reserve All Canadian, Honorable Mention, and three nominees for each class. Judges will also select overall All Canadian Heifer and All Canadian Cow. • Animals that have changed ownership during the current show year will be entered in the contest under the name of the current owner listed in the pedigree (as of the entry closing date). It is the responsibility of the entrant to consult with the current owner and inform Jersey Canada if recognition is to be different than that of ownership on the pedigree. • Jersey Canada has the right to merge contest classes if less than six animal entries are received per class Details Applicable to 4-H Class Entries 4-H Jersey Classes • The animal must be the 4-H project of the participant and the 4-H member MUST be leading • 4-H Junior Calf the calf at the show. • 4-H Intermediate Calf • 4-H class entries now include ALL SHOWS that • 4-H Senior Calf 4-Her’s participate in with Jersey animals. • 4-H Summer Yearling • If false information is submitted, the applicant • 4-H Junior Yearling will be disqualified and charged for their entry. • Applicants must have successfully completed the 4-H Dairy Calf Project during the current show year and entries must include the name and telephone number of their 4-H Dairy Club Leader. 42

Jersey Owners Manual

Details Applicable to Open Class Entries • In Ontario or Quebec, qualifying shows must have a minimum of 55 head of JERSEYS exhibited in CANADA. • In all other provinces, qualifying shows must have a minimum of 40 head exhibited in total - including ALL-BREED shows in CANADA. • All submitted animals must place in the top eight (8) at the Royal National Jersey Show or place in the top four (4) in at least one qualifying show in order to be eligible for the open class contest. • To verify the animal’s eligibility and show results, visit the on-line pedigree of your Jersey being entered and check to see if the information is accurate BEFORE you enter your animal in the contest. The All Canadian Contest entry process continues to be offered online and specific rules, entry forms and details can be found at https:// jerseycanada.com/all-canadian-competition/.

JERSEY SHOWS IN CANADA The practice of showing dairy cattle stimulates, encourages and promotes interest in the breeding of registered dairy cattle. It is to the benefit of all breeders of registered cattle and the broader dairy industry to maintain a reputation of integrity, good husbandry and positive animal welfare in the show ring. Jersey cattle must be registered at a minimum of 87.5% breed purity to be eligible to compete in Jersey shows across Canada. Looking for a Jersey show? A list can be viewed on our website: https:// jerseycanada.com/events/ Looking for a Judge? Jersey Canada can provide a list of judges approved for domestic and international Jersey shows.

Open classes • Junior Calf • Intermediate Calf • Senior Calf • Summer Yearling • Junior Yearling • Uncalved / Dry Intermediate Yearling • Junior Breeder’s Herd - A group of three Junior animals all with the same prefix and at least one animal in the group must be owned in some way by the holder of the prefix. The herd must have been shown as a group at least once and at least one animal must have been consistently present in all placings listed on the entry form. • Milking Intermediate Yearling • Milking Senior Yearling • Junior 2-Year-Old • Senior 2-Year-Old • Junior 3-Year-Old • Senior 3-Year-Old • 4-Year-Old • 5-Year-Old • Mature Cow • Lifetime Component Class - Official lifetime total solids record (combined fat and protein yield) of 4,500 kg or more, based on official DHI records. • Breeder’s Herd - A group of three animals all with the same prefix and at least one animal in the group must be owned in some way by the holder of the prefix. The herd must have been shown as a group at least once and at least one animal must have been consistently present in all placings listed on the entry form. 43

Jersey Owners Manual

Canadian Dairy Breeds Code of Ethics for Dairy Shows “While presenting a positive image to spectators, the following is designed to support good animal husbandry both at home and at a show” Part I The following practices or procedures are considered unacceptable and defined as being unethical in the show ring of registered dairy cattle: 1. Misrepresenting the age of the animal for the class in which it is shown. 2. Balancing the udder by any means other than by leaving naturally produced milk in any or all quarters. 3. Treating the udder, internally or externally with an irritant, counter irritant, or any other substance to temporarily improve confirmation or produce unnatural animation. 4. Minimizing the effects of crampiness by feeding or injecting drugs. 5. Performing surgery of any kind to change the natural contour of appearance of the animal’s body, hide or hair. Not included is the removal of warts, teats and horns, clipping and dressing of hair and trimming of hooves. 6. Inserting foreign material/articles under the skin, into the topline or on the feet. 7. Criticizing or interfering with the judge, show management or other exhibitors while in the show ring or other conduct detrimental to the breed or show tubing cattle. Part II The provisions of this part apply to entries of a breed regulated by a breed association which has adopted this part. 1. If intended for use in contravention of the Code of Ethics, no exhibitor and no agent, employee or other person acting on behalf of an exhibitor, shall have in his/her possession or control any hypodermic syringe, needle or other device, swabs, cloths, or other material, or any medicine, preparation or substance, whether in liquid or any other form. 2. Exhibitors will not be allowed to wrap hocks or drain fluid from hocks at a show. 44

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL WINTER FAIR Jersey Canada hosts the Youth Showmanship Competition and the National Jersey Show at the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair (RAWF) in Toronto, Ontario. Volunteers Needed We are always looking for volunteers to assist at the Royal if you are available to ‘man’ the Jersey Canada booth and/or help with the National Jersey Show (awards, runners, pooper scooper, etc.). Sponsorship Opportunities Jersey Canada is looking for sponsors for Jersey classes at the Royal. All sponsors will be recognized with top class results in the December issue of the Canadian Jersey Breeder. Contact Jersey Canada for more information: (519) 821-1020 (ext 100).

Jersey Owners Manual

3. All entries and the personal property of all exhibitors, their servants and agents and persons acting on behalf of the exhibitors, are subject to inspection by inspectors authorized by a show. All such persons shall cooperate with the inspectors and shall provide all such information in connection with such inspections and shall provide access to the animal and all information reasonably required by inspectors in connection with such inspections and shall provide, if so requested, samples of urine and blood suitable for analysis. Exhibitors shall also remove any udder supports, blankets or other objects limiting the ability of the inspector to undertake a thorough inspection. In particular, the inspectors shall be informed, in advance, of the nature of any medicine, treatment or substance administered to any entry and the reasons therefore. Inspections under this paragraph may be carried out at any time while the animal is at the show and elsewhere in the period ending 30 days after the termination of the show between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. 4. Any inspector may, at any time, require the delivery to him of any hypodermic syringe, needle or any other device, swabs, cloths or other material, or samples or any medicine, preparation or substance, whether in liquid or other form, in possession or control of the exhibitor, his servants, agents or persons acting on behalf of the exhibitor for the purposes of laboratory analysis. 5. (A) Subject to the provision of subparagraph (B), the following entries are disqualified and shall not participate further in the show which the entry is disqualified. (i) Any animal determined by an inspector, who is also a veterinarian, to have an udder manifesting any of the following: localized swelling, oedema, erythema, sensitivity, reddening, firmness, warmth or exfoliation of the skin, but excluding general oedema associated with parturition or mastitis, or a sore in the area where the large blood vessels enter the udder. (ii) Any animal entered by an exhibitor whose servants, agents or persons acting on his behalf, fails to co-operate in the inspection provided for under paragraphs 3 or 4. (B) The inspector’s determination pursuant to subparagraph (A)(i) is subject to an appeal by the exhibitor to the appeal committee appointed by the show for the purpose. Any such appeal must be made by notice in writing delivered to the show management within 1 hour of notification of the inspector’s determination. 6. In keeping with the basic philosophy of the fair/exhibition/show committee, ethics are an individual responsibility. However, it should be understood that violators are subject to the disciplinary provisions of the Rules and Regulations.


Jersey Owners Manual

JERSEY MARKETING Canadian Jersey Breeder Since 1945, the Canadian Jersey Breeder has been the official bilingual publication of Jersey Canada. Available in print and on-line, ‘the Breeder’ is a quarterly magazine that exists to support the Jersey breed and is a valuable resource to help dairy producers strengthen their operation, improve their herd, market their assets and build brand equity. What You Should Know Before Subscribing Subscription requests for the Canadian Jersey Breeder (‘the Breeder’) magazine are for non-members. If you are a Jersey Canada Member you will receive a subscription as part of your annual membership ($35 value). The publication is posted publicly on-line within 30-days of issue release: http://issuu.com/canadianjerseybreeder. Advertising The Breeder magazine and the Jersey Canada website are two primary communication vehicles that we use to inform, educate and connect with members and the dairy community. Both have advertising options for any size budget. As a not-for-profit organization we are able to keep advertising rates low to ensure organizations and farms have marketing opportunities available at reasonable prices. Our professional graphic design team can provide the creative skill and expertise to help you with your marketing and brand building initiatives.


Subscription requests for the Canadian Jersey Breeder magazine are for non-members. If you are a Jersey Canada member you will receive a subscription as part of your annual membership ($35 value). In fact, many people become members to save money on registrations, participate in our programs AND receive this publication. Whether the subscription is for yourself, or you would like to give the gift of Jersey to someone special, you can subscribe on-line: https://jerseycanada.com/subscriptions/ 46

We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada.

Jersey Owners Manual

Current schedules, rates and design specifications are located on our website: https://jerseycanada.com/advertising/

Booking Deadline February January May April September August December November Print AD Schedule

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• Four annual bilingual issues; • Jersey Canada members receive a print subscription as part of membership; • Over 6000 copies distributed each year; • International reach to over 20 countries; • Complimentary copy for potential members; • Available at industry events; • Digital version can be viewed on ISSUU.com; • Graphic design is included.

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Jersey Owners Manual

On-Line Advertising Extend your reach and be noticed on the Internet. @ https://jerseycanada.com/ #1. Web Banner The Jersey Canada website hosts banner AD space that is available on a first-come first-serve basis. A hotlink is included to a landing page of your choice. Cost: $80/week + tax (minimum four week booking). Designer Pixel Specification: 1000 wide x 110 high at 72 ppi resolution in a JPG format.

#2. On-Line Breeder Directory

@ https://jerseycanada.com/breeder-directory/

Our on-line directory includes contact information and hotlinks to your website and/ or social media networks. Cost: $65/year + tax. eNews & Social Media Jersey Canada actively communicates with the dairy community through email and social media. Whether it be reminders, breed information, event dates, registration tips, deadlines, or announcements – Jersey Canada can send information right to your device and keep your farm team in the loop. Subscribe to eNews from our Homepage @ https://jerseycanada.com/ If you already subscribe and your contact information has changed please let us know. Connect With Us

Welcome To Our Jersey Store Jersey Canada branded apparel and accessories are perfect for everyday as well as special events such as barn tours, industry meetings and dairy events. New products are added each year and introduced at the time of the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair - they also make excellent gifts! Visit our on-line store to view the selection: https://jerseycanada.com/jersey-store/ 48

Promote, communicate, sell, inform, awareness, trust, announce, influence, connect: Sales & dispersals Barn tours Cow families Production Classifications Show results Herd awards Genetic evaluations CDN & DHI results Top bulls Farm management All Canadian results Star Brood status Events Products & services Thank a buyer Send a greeting

Jersey Owners Manual

Herd Management

You Can’t Manage What You Don’t Measure As Jersey producers work hard to improve profitability and increase efficiency, a key management strategy is to identify areas where improvement is needed. At the same time, you are able to identify the areas where your herd is performing well. What benefit are you gaining from your current herd management system? Is your heat detection system working? What portion of your herd is pregnant at any given time? Which AI technician gets the most cows in calf? Which cows make you the most money? Which cows cost you the most money? Maintaining a detailed herd management system may seem like a lot of extra paperwork - time spent at the computer (that could otherwise be spent on a tractor) or perhaps you feel that you are collecting data, just for the purpose of collecting data. But recording and using that data could very well help you to identify that hidden “super cow” who catches on the first breeding, calves with no problems, almost always has a heifer, never gets sick, has a low SCC and milks hard every day. These are cows that might otherwise fade into background - but that are no doubt profitable. Accurate herd records, including breeding and calving details, will make submitting registrations easier for you and the Jersey Canada staff, and will also give you confidence in your day-to-day management decisions. After all, you can’t manage what you don’t measure.

PROACTION® AND ANIMAL REGISTRATION When farms are due for a Food Safety (CQM) validation, their compliance with the Animal Care and Livestock Traceability requirements will be evaluated as well. This means that farmers must meet the mandatory requirements related to traceability: Premises ID, Animal ID and Animal Movement. Green is Better As we mentioned in the “Animal Identification” section of this manual, all dairy cattle must be double-tagged with approved NLID/ATQ dairy tags within seven days of birth or before the animal leaves the farm of origin, whichever occurs first. Any calves born on farm and destined for the beef industry may be identified with a single RFID ear tag (approved beef tag), except for provinces that require dual tagging. There are a few things to know before tagging that might be helpful. The new Ultraflex tags have been improved for retention in both shape and of better material. The pin in your applicator must be GREEN as it makes a difference in tagging ease and securing the Ultraflex tag into the ear. NLID provides the green pin with new or first time Ultraflex orders at no fee, if you did not get one give NLID a call 1-877-771-6543. 49

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It’s Simple and We Can Help Now it’s very important to report/activate the tagged animal to the national traceability database within 45 days or before the animal leaves the farm of origin, whichever occurs first. Here is where we can help. If you register your calf with Jersey Canada before it is 45 days old, we will automatically report/activate the animal for you. It’s that simple. I Prefer Paper With the exception of the province of Quebec (ATQ), animals can only be reported/activated ELECTRONICALLY through CLTS. If you prefer paper, or you don’t have access to the internet, we recommend registering your Jersey calf through Jersey Canada. We can save you the extra step as we are able to report/activate the animal on your behalf. Please send us your registration and ensure you build-in some extra time for the mail (before calf is approximately 30 days old). Again, we will register AND report/activate the animal for you but we must receive the paperwork before the animal is 45 days old. Saving Money There is a double bonus with the proAction® reporting window and early registration. We can save you money. The cost to register a Jersey before three months of age is $20 for members ($31 for nonmembers). While approximately 68% of registered Jersey females are 0-3 months of age, this indicates that there is a ton of room for savings for many breeders - as the older the animal, the higher the registration fee. The proAction® reporting deadline not only serves best management practice, it will save many of our members and non-members between $11 and $56 per animal. Animal Move-In When an animal arrives on your farm, it is YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to report the animal move-in event. You will need to report the 15-digit tag number, the date of the animal’s arrival, your Premises ID, the Premises ID of the farm of departure, and the vehicle (single unit) or trailer (tandem unit) license plate number. Suppose you take an animal to a show and then bring her back home: it is YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to report that she RETURNED to your barn within seven days. 50

Jersey Owners Manual

Retiring Tags Tag retirement confirms that the animal bearing the unique identification number is dead or exported, in other words no longer active in the national traceability database. Knowing that an identification number is retired saves valuable time that would have been wasted searching for that animal during an animal health emergency. Retired tags must be reported within seven days of the animal’s passing and disposed of onsite or export. Other Ways to Activate Tags There are also other dairy partners that can help report your animal and activate its tag. These include Valacta, DHI and select brands of herd management software. If you rely on any of these third parties, or perhaps you do not plan to register a particular calf and we cannot help you, please remember it is YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to report the animal to activate the tag to CLTS within 45 days and for Quebec producers to ATQ within 7 days.

WHY MILK RECORD? Improve management information: Both herd and cow performance is measured through testing. This can help you make the best decisions on culling, breeding, feeding, heifer replacements, quota management, etc. Reduce SCC and increase udder health: Easily identify and isolate cows with elevated SCC and repeatedly high bulk tank SCC contribution. Access to variety of health and disease testing: Quickly and efficiently test for multiple diseases from a single milk sample allowing for peace of mind and much less stress on the cows. Increase herd value: Determine which animals are the most profitable based on their milk yields and components. Support for culling decisions: Use milking data to determine which cows are costing you the most money. Quickly find open cows: Using your regular milk sample, cows can be tested for pregnancy as early as 28 days, saving you time and money.

To report animal births, movement or tag retirement, visit: CCIA www.clia.livestockid.ca or ATQ (Quebec) www.atq.qc.ca Milk Recording and Other Services Two organizations in Canada that provide milk recording services and other herd management services are: CanWest DHI (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON) 660 Speedvale Avenue West, Suite 101 Guelph, Ontario N1K 1E5 Toll-Free: 1-800-549-4373 Tel: 519-824-2320 Fax: 519-824-2434 Email: info@canwestdhi.com www.canwestdhi.com Valacta (QC, NB, NS, PE, and NL) 555 boul. des AnciensCombattants, Ste-Annede-Bellevue, Québec H9X 3R4 Tel: 514-398-7880 Fax: 514-398-7963 Email: info@valacta.com www.valacta.com


Jersey Owners Manual

Publishable Lactations Depending on the milk recording services a herd receives, the lactations for each cow may be officially published by Canadian Dairy Network (CDN) - for the world to see - or they may only be reported back to the producer for management purposes only. Publishable lactations are made public on the CDN website and distributed to the breed associations for public access on websites, official pedigrees, sale catalogues, etc. Publishable lactations are the basis for calculating official herd average production levels as well as for inclusion in the calculation of various awards including Master Breeder, Star Brood Cow points, Superior Production, Lifetime Production Certificates and other recognitions at the cow and herd levels. In general, herds enrolled on DHI service levels, that meet the requirements for publishable lactations, will also end up with official genetic evaluations for production traits published by CDN. Classified cows with official production indexes will also receive official type indexes as well as an official LPI and Pro$ value. Herd owners that opt to enroll on DHI at services levels that result in officially published lactations and genetic evaluations can benefit significantly from the exposure this brings to their cows, herd and breeder’s prefix.

Publishable 1

2 3


Officially recognized as a milk recording service the breed Official or associations and the dairy industry. Unofficial Herdbook registration manadatory for at least 80% of 1st lactation females. Unique animal identification Animal ID required. of 8 tests (24 hr superHow Many Tests Minimum vised with samples) or 10 tests Per Year? required per year. Customer Service Representative Assisted or required for half the tests. Use Unassisted of CMRB approved timing device Testing mandatory using AM/PM tests.

Management Recognized as an unofficial service in the dairy industry. Unique animal identification encouraged. Minimum 6 per year. DIY, or Customer Service Representative can assist as requested by producer.



Jersey Owners Manual

CONFORMATION ASSESSMENT (Classification) Classifying is an inexpensive management tool that evaluates the functional conformation of dairy cows. When used with corrective mating strategies, classification can lead to accelerated genetic progress, profitability and longevity. The Canadian classification system has many linear traits and defective characteristics that are combined to calculate points in four scorecard sections: Mammary System, Feet & Legs, Dairy Strength and Rump. All breeds use the same traits and trait definitions, but each breed sets its own weightings according to breed standards and goals. Since 2005, Canadian Jerseys have been part of the All-Breeds Classification Program, administered by Holstein Canada to offer convenience, efficiencies and value-added service for Jersey producers, as well as for the other breeds. Cost for classification service is approximately $125, plus $11 per animal. Why Should You Classify? Classifying is an inexpensive way to have your animals evaluated against breed standards for type characteristics by an outside party. The modern dairy cow has been bred to produce growing amounts of milk. This persistent stressor has forced the need to increase emphasis on functional conformation and lifetime productive efficiency in our breeding goals. Increasing milk output is most sustainable with corresponding improvements in conformation. Higher scored cows produce more milk and are more profitable. The average Canadian conformation score is 81 points in the first lactation. Jerseys that scored 5 points above national average have an increased daily profit of $0.51. Jerseys that scored 5 points below national average have a lower daily profit of $0.42.

Evaluated traits fit into four categories, with the following traits and their relative weights evaluated under each category: 1. Rump (8% of final score) • Rump Angle (24%) • Pin Width (21%) • Loin Strength (32%) • Thurl Placement (23%) 2. Mammary System (48% of final score) • Udder Floor (4%) • Udder Depth (12%) • Udder Texture (11%) • Median Suspensory (15%) • Fore Attachment (15%) • Front Teat Placement (8%) • Rear Attachment Height (16%) • Rear Attachment Width (12%) • Rear Teat Placement (5%) • Teat Length (2%) 3. Dairy Strength (26% of final score) • Stature (5%) • Height at Front End (5%) • Chest Width (20%) • Body Depth (25%) • Dairy Capacity (25%) • Body Condition Score (5%) • Udder Texture (5%) • Loin Strength (10%) 4. Feet & Legs (18% of final score) • Foot Angle (17%) • Heel Depth (25%) • Foot Composite (research) • Bone Quality (9%) • Rear Legs Side View (15%) • Rear Legs Rear View (29%) • Locomotion (research) • Thurl Placement (5%) 53

Jersey Owners Manual

Conformation Assessment provides an accurate early indicator of the milk production an animal will achieve. The chart below shows the strong connection between the final score of first lactation animals and milk in the same lactation. Trends in later lactation performance are consistent with first lactation scores and performance. The results also benefit you in the following ways: • Provides insight to possible management changes. • Identifies problem cows and should be used as an early culling tool.

For additional information contact the Classification & Field Services department at: 1-855-756-8300 ext. 244  classification@holstein.ca  www.holstein.ca Holstein Canada, 20 Corporate Place, PO Box 610, Brantford, Ontario, N3T 5R4 View the classification schedule on the Holstein Canada website: https://www.holstein.ca/Public/en/Services/Classification/Classification_Schedule 54

Jersey Owners Manual

Eligibility for Classification: • Animals must be registered in the Canadian herdbook; • All imported cattle must be transferred to the Canadian herdbook; • Females must have calved at least once; • To be classified ‘Excellent’, an animal must have had three natural calvings; • Males must be 15 months to be classified and 24 months to be classified ‘Excellent’; • Classification scores cannot be lowered; • All animals must have NLID tag in ear, easy to read for classifier; • Animals presented to the classifier must be in a natural state, meaning that their conformation must not have been changed artificially. Preparation of the animal such as washing or clipping is permitted. Udders must not have been balanced artificially and the use of glue to set teats is forbidden. To arrive at a final score, each animal is evaluated for a series of traits and assigned a linear score corresponding to that trait. Some traits, such as stature, are directly measured, and that measurement will correspond to standards established by the breed in order to determine a linear score. Other traits, such as bone quality, are not directly measured, but are evaluated based upon breed specifications. Linear scores are from 1 to 9. For some traits, 9 is the ideal score, while for other traits (i.e. udder depth), there is an intermediate optimum, meaning that 5 would be the ideal score. Herds will automatically be contacted for classification if they meet one of the following criteria: • If the herd has classified in the past 36 months; • If the client is on a classification program; • If the client owns at least two animals that were born in the last 18 months.

Final Score Categories Excellent

90 to 97 points A cow may gain ‘Multiple Excellent’ status after each calving. A cow is denoted ‘Supreme Excellent’ if classified Excellent after her 10th birthday. Very 85-89 points Good The maximum classification category for first and second lactation animals. Good Plus 80-84 points Good 70-79 points Fair 60-69 points

“Mandatory Revisits” are required for the following situations: 88 point 1st lactation (2 classifiers must be present) 89 point 1st lactation (3 classifiers must be present) 89 point 2nd lactation (2 classifiers must be present) 94 point 3rd lactation or higher (1 classifier present) 95 point 3rd lactation or higher (2 classifiers must be present) 96 point 4th lactation or higher (2 classifiers must be present) 97 point 4th lactation or higher (3 classifiers must be present) Signing Up for the Mid-Round Service: The mid-round classification service is an opportunity for dairy producers to reduce the interval between classification visits from 8 to 4 months. A smaller interval between visits has many advantages, including smaller first lactation groups to show the classifier (particularly for larger herds) and more current herd measurements for mating decisions. 55

Jersey Owners Manual

FEEDING JERSEYS Less Feed More Solids When a Jersey is in production, she will ingest up to 4.5% of her total body weight in dry matter. For the average 450 kg Jersey cow, this works out to 20.25 kg of dry matter per day in her ration. Larger dairy breeds consume 4.0% of their total body weight in dry matter and a 700 kg cow would eat 28 kg of dry matter per day. If you look at the kilograms of milk solids produced per kilogram of body weight in 305 days, the 450 kg Jersey comes in at 1.23 solids/kg, while the 700 kg cow would produce 0.97 solids/kg. In the end, that’s a 21% difference! Jersey cows are fed in a similar way to all other breeds of dairy cattle, however, there are some things to bear in mind when balancing a ration for Jersey cows. Some factors to consider: 1. Dry Matter Intake. Jerseys have been documented to eat a greater percentage of dry matter (DM) in relation to their body weight (4.5%) than larger dairy breeds (4.0%). 2. Energy levels should be balanced but given the Jersey’s lower maintenance requirements, should not be of critical concern. 3. Crude Fat levels in a Jersey ration should often be at a lower level than in a Holstein ration, preferably 4.5% or less. 4. Copper levels. Keep copper at 20 ppm in a Jersey ration, less than for Holsteins. 5. Do not over-feed any single feed source as a balance of sources is preferred, as in any breed. 6. Dry cow feeding regimen is perhaps more important with Jerseys than with other breeds to minimize risk of metabolic disorders. 7. Sharing one ration between two or more breeds is very possible. Work with your nutritionist to find the balance. It may often mean optimizing the ration for the Jerseys and allowing for the larger breed to simply eat more.


Jersey Owners Manual

Feeding Dry Jersey Cows A dry cow ration that is balanced low in potassium is preferred. Calcium levels should be balanced according to potassium levels to reduce the risk of Milk Fever. A balanced transition cow ration should be started three weeks prior to calving and five weeks prior to calving for bred heifers. Be sure to maintain access to dry-cow oriented minerals and supplements. Talk with your veterinarian or nutritionist about the possibility of using Rumensin and Glycol during the transition period. Feeding Jersey Heifers Jersey Growth Chart What is the difference between feeding Jersey Age Weight Hip Height heifers and heifers of larger breeds? (cm) (months) (kg) Typically, Jerseys have a higher feed efficiency 1 48 78 and mature more quickly than other breeds and 2 66 83 can be at risk of becoming overweight if overfed. 3 83 89 Biologically, due to their higher feed efficient 4 100 93 metabolism, this can become an issue when they 5 117 97 are found in a mixed breed setting. Often, the 6 135 101 high-performance ration fed to both breeds will 7 152 104 result in the Jerseys becoming overweight, slow8 169 107 ing down growth and making fat deposits in their 9 187 110 udder - thereby reducing future milk production. 10 204 113 To avoid this problem, heifers should be grouped 11 221 115 according to age - not size - in mixed breed op12 239 117 erations. Competing with heifers of the same age 13 256 118 will help reduce the risk of over-conditioning. 14 273 120 Increasing the age gap by three months could 15 290 121 help to reduce weight gain in over-conditioned 16 308 122 heifers. Making sure that your heifers have lots of 17 325 123 space to exercise will also help keep them at the 18 342 124 proper body condition. 19 360 125 Jersey heifers should be monitored by simply tak20 377 125 ing time to look at their body condition in each 21 394 126 pen and act accordingly. 22 411 127 Newborns (first 3 days) The first 12 hours is the most important. Quality followed by quantity is the key to colostrum. Jersey calves should receive between 150-200g of IgG (unit in which the antibodies in colostrum is measured) in the first 12 hrs of life. Good quality colostrum should contain at least 50g of IgG/L. Quality can be checked with a refractometer or colostrometer. This means the calf should be fed 3-4L of colostrum within the first four hours, followed by another 2L of colostrum before the calf is 12 hours old in order to receive the antibodies they will need to fight disease. Transition milk is usually continued for the first three days. Of the utmost importance is to get colostrum into the calf as soon as possible after birth. A calf blanket could be helpful in cold weather. 57

Jersey Owners Manual

Calf and Heifer Growth Chart for Jerseys


(Source: Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences 2008)

0-2 Months of Age Whole milk or milk replacer is fed to the calf for this period at a rate of a minimum of 6 L/day. The concentration for mixing milk replacer can be obtained from your supplier. An additional third feeding could be included on days that are -25 degrees or colder if the calves are raised in hutches. Calf blankets will provide additional comfort in the cold weather. Calves should have access to fresh water at all times and a free choice calf starter can begin at a very early age. Calves should be weaned off whole milk as soon as they are eating 1 to 1.5 kg of calf starter per day. It is also important to have highquality dry hay available at this age, preferably a fine young first-cut that will provide adequate fiber for rumen development. Calves that double their body weight from birth to weaning have proven to give more milk during their first lactation. 3-6 Months of Age At this time, dry hay is beginning to be fed and calf grower is increased to 2 kgs/day. The large amount of hay being fed ensures that the rumen is working well and that the heifers have a deep open rib. The grain provides the energy needed to keep them growing. Be sure that adequate mineral is provided if not included in the calf grower. 6-16 Months of Age At this time, to ensure adequate growth, the heifers should be switched to a free-choice ration or TMR that is balanced to meet protein, energy, fiber, vitamin and mineral requirements. Heifers will experience puberty and a balanced program will help target the optimal size at first breeding of 12-13 months of age. 17-21 Months of Age The growth rate will start to slow and maintenance will be the key during this period. A new feed program should be balanced to ensure that heifers reach calving age with adequate size and body condition. Bred heifers should begin to receive a transition cow ration at five weeks prior to their expected calving date.

Jersey Owners Manual

CALF MANAGEMENT The five “C’s” to effective disease prevention in calves: 1. Colostrum Adequate intake of colostrum is perhaps the Store the colostrum in single most important aspect of early calf Ziploc freezer bags and care. While newborn calves are born with an active immune system, it has not develfreeze flat for even and oped sufficiently to fight off most infections. effective freezing and Therefore, it is essential that the newborn calf thawing. Include proper receive the antibodies it needs from another labelling of date and animal source - colostrum. on the bag. Conventional wisdom has been to ensure at Fresh colostrum will least one feeding within the first four hours, have the highest level of and then supplement with another feeding nutrients and antibodies before 12 hours. As soon as the calf is born, but frozen colostrum can the level of intestinal absorption of antibodies from colostrum starts to decline (as much as also be effective in meeting 50%) by 8-12 hrs and with no absorption after your herd health protocols, 24 hours. As a result, it is imperative to feed in particular, preventing colostrum as soon as possible to ensure adJohne’s disease. If using equate absorption of antibodies. Preferably, a frozen colostrum, do not feeding within the first hour would be recomthaw with a microwave or mended, with another supplementary feedextremely hot water, as this ing within the first 4 to 6 hours. For Jerseys, at will destroy the antibodies. least 3 to 4 litres of colostrum should be fed in this time period. Nursing a bottle or oesophageal feeding are all effective methods to ensure adequate colostrum intake. If feeding by direct suckling of the cow, ensure the teats are clean and the cow is negative for disease under your herd health protocols. Note that nursing direct from the cow does not allow you to measure the amount of colostrum consumed. If you are collecting colostrum to use for other calves, it should also be collected in the first six hours after calving, as the concentration of antibodies is highest. It is best to test the quality of colostrum with a refractometer or colostrometer before trying to preserve it. Only the best colostrum should be kept for freezing. Freezing colostrum as quickly as possible after collection will ensure a higher quality. The most common diseases related to insufficient intake of colostrum are septicaemia (blood infection), enteritis (diarrhea) and pneumonia. All three can then lead to more complications and more severe diseases. 2. Comfort Calf comfort is often an over-looked part of calf management. Ensure fresh comfortable bedding at all times, as the key to calf comfort is a dry environment. Calves can be housed in a variety of ways, but regardless of use of pens, loose housing, or hutches, ensure adequate ventilation and avoid extreme heat, extreme cold and drafts. It is also important to avoid noxious gases (ammonia, etc.), dusts and molds, as they are strong risk factors for pneumonia. 59

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3. Cleanliness Going hand-in-hand with calf comfort is the cleanliness of its surroundings. Proper disinfection of housing before introducing calves is key to preventing even the hardiest of pathogens. It is recommended to remove the calf from the birthing area within a few hours of birth to avoid disease transmission from the mother or other cows due to calve. As mentioned in calf comfort, a dry housing environment is key, as wet humid environments are ideal for proliferation of pathogens, especially bacteria such as E. Coli and Salmonella. Separation from the birthing environment in a clean sanitized pen is also key in stopping the spread of Johne’s, which is primarily spread through contact with feces from other cattle. A part of cleanliness is the proper cleaning of feeding equipment. All containers and feeding devices for colostrum should be thoroughly cleaned after each use with extremely hot water, adequate cleaning agents, and a device for scrubbing the containers. 4. Calories Inadequate caloric intake is a major risk factor for infection, as the calf is not receiving enough energy to effectively fight infection and maintain immune function. Therefore, it is essential to ensure adequate intake of energy past the first few days, with no missed feedings. Be sure not to dilute milk or milk replacer, as the calf needs the calories as much (or more) as it needs water intake. Note that Jersey whole milk has approximately 50% more energy than 20-20 milk replacer. Calves born in extreme heat or cold, calves born in difficult deliveries and calves with abnormal gestation length may all have compromised abilities to absorb nutrients, so be sure to pay close attention to these calves. 5. Consistency A calf with a minimal stress level will have a better chance to resist infections, so it is important to try and minimize anything that would cause stress in the newborn calf. The key is maintaining a feeding schedule with consistent amounts of feed and times of feeding. If changes For more information are to be made to the feed, the amount of it, the on early calf care, dilution, or the method of feeding, implement visit: these changes gradually. www.calfnotes.com After the first feeding of colostrum, begin adding A series of extension milk or milk replacer to the diet almost immediarticles by Dr. Jim Quigley, ately, so the calf gets used to it. Also, it is prudent to provide calf starter early, within the first week, many of which are Jersey specific. to get the calf used to it almost immediately and providing an additional source of energy to the www.vetmed.wisc.edu/ growing calf. dms/fapm/forms_info. htm Finally, ensure that milk or milk replacer is proDocuments by Dr. vided at a constant temperature. During the next Sheila McGuirk from the three months, whole milk or milk replacer can University of Wisconsinbe fed in amounts of between 6 and 8 L per day, Madison on a variety of complemented by introduction of a calf starter calf management issues. ration. 60

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STALL SIZES FOR JERSEYS It is widely known that a Jersey cow’s body is about 75% of the size of larger dairy breeds. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that comfortable stalls for Jerseys will be smaller than what is required for larger cows. Ideally, stalls must be sized to allow cows to lie down, stand up, and change positions without pushing, banging, or bumping against any part of the stall. This will help ensure that the cows remain clean, dry, and comfortable. Optimally-sized stalls will reduce or eliminate injuries and swelling to necks, hocks, legs, and hips of the cows in the herd, while making the most efficient use of farm labour by reducing the amount of time required to clean manure from the stall and replace bedding. When building or renovating a barn to accommodate Jerseys in your herd, break the stall design process down into three important steps: 1. Determine your priorities. What is most important to the day-to-day management of your herd? You might consider things such as: cow comfort, ease of handling, efficient machinery use, ability to attend to individual animals, retrofitting an existing structure, number of people working with cattle, accommodating different sizes of cows and/or heifers, bedding type, nutrition program and feeding protocols. It is also important to consider the initial and on-going cost to maintain the stalls. 2. Visit other barns, and learn from others’ experiences. Visit newer or recently renovated barns, and watch how the cows behave in that particular set up. Talk to farm managers about their barns. Ask lots of questions about what they like, and what they would do differently about their barns and handling facilities. 3. Work with a builder to create the barn that is right for you. Professional builders will work with you to integrate all of the desired features of your new or renovated barn, while ensuring that everything meets building code requirements, and giving you a safe and efficient facility for years to come. Stall Dimensions The ideal stall size for your Jerseys will be based on the size of cows in your particular herd, as well as your design priorities. An extension article published by Penn State University explains that, “An ideal freestall will allow a cow to recline, rise, and change position without coming into contact with any portion of the stall except the base or bedding. Items such as partitions, neck rails, brisket tubes, and stall supports should be guides that define the cow’s resting area but do not hinder her movements or result in injuries or entrapment.”1 1 Graves, R., McFarland, D., Tyson, J. and T. Wilson (2005). “Design Considerations for Dairy Cattle Freestalls.” http://articles.extension.org/pages/11015/design-considerations-for-dairy-cattle-free-stalls. 61

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If stalls are too long or too wide, animals will tend to lie on an angle, or will lie backward in the stall, causing more manure to be deposited on the stall surface. This leads to dirty cows and additional labour to clean stalls and replace bedding. The following tables outline recommended freestall and tie stall dimensions, based on values found in literature and personal observations. Table 1: Recommended freestall dimensions for Jerseys Measurement Stall Width A Stall Length - Curb to Front B C D E F G H I J K

Dimensions (inches) 41-48 (42-45 optimal) 90-96 (closed front) 78-82 (open front) Bed Length 64-70 Neck Rail Height - Above Floor 42-50 Neck Rail - Distance from Curb 62-66 Deterrent Strap Height 32-40 Deterrent Strap Forward Location 90 Loop Length 10-12 Loop Height Above Floor 10-12 Brisket Board - Distance from Curb 72-84 Brisket Board Height 4-6 Curb Height 8

References & Helpful Resources Graves, R., McFarland, D., Tyson, J. & T. Wilson (2005). “Design Considerations for Dairy Cattle Freestalls”: http://articles.extension.org/pages/11015/designconsiderations-for-dairy-cattle-free-stalls. Palmer, R. & B. Holmes (2011). “Cow Comfort Issues in Freestall Barns”: http://manitowoc.uwex.edu/ files/2011/10/Cow-Comfort-Issues-2005-Dairy-RoadShow-12-9-04d1.pdf. 62

Anderson, Neil. “Freestall Dimensions”: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (Jan’07). Anderson, Neil. “Dairy Cow Comfort Tie-Stall Dimensions”: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (Jan’14). Bethard, G., & D. Armstrong. “Facility Design for Large Jersey Dairies”: https://www.usjersey.com/Portals/0/AJCA/2_Docs/ Reference/Facility-Design-Jerseys_Bethard_Armstrong.pdf.

Jersey Owners Manual

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison explain the challenge of finding the right balance between large stalls to optimize comfort, and the cost to build and maintain the housing area. “These objectives often are antagonistic and the producer must select a design that considers both criteria. Current research has shown stall usage increases with increased stall size and the use of certain stall base materials. The task for the producer is to weigh the value of the expected increased milk production, lower health costs, and/ or increased longevity in the herd against the extra costs incurred.”2 2 Palmer, R. and B. Holmes. (2011). “Cow Comfort Issues in Freestall Barns.” http://manitowoc.uwex.edu/ files/2011/10/Cow-Comfort-Issues-2005-Dairy-Road-Show-12-9-04d1.pdf. Table 2: Recommended tie stall dimensions for Jerseys


Measurement Stall Width Stall Length Gutter Width Gutter Depth Head Rail –Height above floor Head Rail – Forward location Loop Length Loop Height from floor Brisket Board – Forward location Brisket Board Height Brisket Board Width Manger Width Manger Height Water Bowl Height Stall/Floor Slope Neck Chain Length

Dimensions (inches) 42-48 58-62 (60 optimal) 18 12 38-42 12-14 38-43 10-12 58-63 8 6 30 4-6 16-20 1-2% 36-40

Trainers – Height above chine



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Determining the right stall dimensions for your barn is no easy task. Careful planning is vital to a successful barn design, and proper sizing is essential to cow comfort. Stalls that are too small may lead to injuries, abrasions and swelling, while stalls that are too large require additional management to keep clean and dry. Consider the day-to-day management of your herd, and determine your priorities when it comes to stall design. Take time to talk to other Jersey farm managers about their barn, and what they like and dislike about their setup. Remember that the Jersey cow’s body is about 75% the size of larger breeds, and that finding the optimal stall size for your operation will be worth the effort in the long run!


Jersey Owners Manual

FEED ANALYSIS REPORTS EXPLAINED Reprinted with permission from Progressive Dairyman, July 1, 2016, Issue 7 Canadian Edition By Anita Heeg, Feed Ingredients and By Products Specialist, OMAFRA Laboratory analyses of feeds provide the best indication of nutrient availability, allowing feeds to be utilized to their full potential. Reliable nutritional information is important to not only balance rations, but also allows ration balancing programs to determine the most economical ration that will meet the animals’ requirements. Although most producers have a good understanding of the concepts of dry matter, protein, starch etc., some are unsure what a laboratory analysis report is indicating. In the subsequent paragraphs, I hope to encourage producers to have a better understanding of these analytical reports. Most producers understand the established concept of crude protein, but modern feed analysis reports will also report the availability of protein as a measure of its digestibility, as well as different fractions of crude protein, including by-pass protein, non-protein nitrogen, etc. But what do these all mean? For this particular article an example laboratory report is used. Although the layout of reports may be different between laboratories, the parameters indicated are included in most feed analysis reports. Dry Matter Each report specifies the dry matter of the feed analyzed. This is the moisture free material left after drying the sample in a laboratory oven. The reason for obtaining the dry matter is because moisture dilutes the concentrations of the nutrients present, and it is standard practice to evaluate the feed and balance rations using a dry matter basis. For the remainder of this article, any numbers mentioned will be based on a dry matter basis for that reason. Crude Protein Crude protein (CP) is calculated based on the nitrogen content of the feedstuff. Protein is made up of approximately 16% nitrogen, and in the lab, total nitrogen is measured and multiplied by 6.25 (100/16) to report it on a “crude protein” basis. Generally a corn silage sample will range between 7-9% CP and haylage 18-24% CP. What does this tell us? Without looking at the type of protein it is made up of, it doesn’t tell us more than that it contains nitrogen, including both true protein that contains amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and nonprotein-nitrogen (NPN, like urea and ammonia that also contain nitrogen– urea and ammonia are compounds that rumen microbes can use but they are not directly used by the animal). The report generally splits this parameter down further into soluble protein, Acid Detergent Fiber-CP (ADF-CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber-CP (NDF-CP), and Undegradable Intake Protein (UIP) also known as by-pass protein.


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Soluble Crude Protein Soluble crude protein is most readily available to animals. This consists of small amino acid chains, or non-protein-nitrogen that will solubilize in rumen fluid, and be absorbed across the rumen wall. Soluble protein is the same whether you look at the ‘as fed’ and ‘dry matter’ columns on the feed sheet because it is a percentage of the total crude protein. Preferably, this number should be between 43-63% of the CP in corn silage and 49%-67% of CP for haylage. Remember that the soluble protein content increases for corn silage as it ferments, so it is important to regularly test corn silage over time. By-pass Protein Commonly called by-pass protein, feed analysis sheets often report the fraction of protein that is resistant to degradation by rumen microbes. This fraction goes by a couple of other names like Un-degradable Intake Protein (UIP) and Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP). This fraction of protein is often valued because it can be absorbed in the small intestine. Before going into the ADF-CP and NDF-CP, it is important to understand what ADF and NDF are composed of. ADF and NDF Acid detergent fiber (ADF) refers to the cell wall portion of the forage, made up of lignin and cellulose. The value is important as it relates to the ability of an animal to digest the forage; a higher ADF suggests a decrease in digestibility. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) refers to the cell wall fraction that includes ADF and hemicellulose. The NDF value is related to the amount of forage the animal can consume and as NDF increases the dry matter intake generally decreases. ADF and NDF for corn silage commonly range between 22-30% and 38-50%, respectively. For haylage, these numbers range between 30-39% and 39-50%, respectively. ADF-CP and NDF-CP The ADF-CP is associated with the portion of the CP that is unavailable to the animal as a result of heat damage. In forages this can be natural heating of fermentation, whereas for some feed ingredients, such as distillers’ grain, it is the actual heating process. The preferred range is between 0.8% and 1%. Within this range, nothing deleterious has happened to affect the feed quality. Once elevated to 1.5% to 2%, overheating has occurred and could mean potential damage to the feed quality, making feedstuff unusable to the microbes or to the animal. NDF-CP is similar to ADF-CP, but it is less deteriorating to the feed because it has some digestibility associated with it. Usually, the NDF-CP is linked to bypass protein. Meaning that as NDF-CP increases, the more by-pass protein you will have. NDF, aND and aNDFom On future laboratory reports, NDF will be specified as aNDF, where the ‘a’ indicates that amylase, an enzyme, has been used for the NDF procedure. The next extension to that is the aNDFom, where the NDF is ‘ash-corrected’. It differs from NDF and aNDF in that it is free of ash, which indicates its value on an ‘organic matter’ basis, since ash is inorganic. An ashing furnace is used to 66

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heat samples to extreme temperatures, leaving a residue of ash, which only contains the minerals. The ash is then weighed and subtracted from the NDF portion, giving the ‘ash-free’ NDF, or aNDFom. Why does this matter? When the NDF is determined, residues of ash are often perceived as part of the NDF value. The variability between NDF and aNDFom varies, as some may have higher ash content due to splashing of soil on leaves from rainwater, areas prone to flooding, or soil picked up during harvest. Ash in haylage ranging between 7-8% indicates little contamination, 9-11% indicates contamination, whereas above 11% is considerably problematic. Corn silage ash content varies, but generally is cut high enough that it contains limited amounts of ash due to soil contamination, with numbers ranging between 2.5-3.5%. This extra step to obtain aNDFom may delay results, but can be valuable to know when evaluating the feed. Ontario doesn’t see as much need for aNDF corrections as some other areas do. However, nutrition programs are adopted from the other side of the border and often generate the same type of reports and these numbers are needed to run the program correctly. Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility The NDFD 24 and NDFD48 indicate the number of hours the in-vitro digestibility ran for to determine how digestible the feed source is. In other words, how much of the feed material has been digested by the bugs in the rumen fluid after a set amount of time. For the NDFD24, a number in the 40’s is preferred, however the higher the better. This means that within the timeframe of 24 hours, more was digested and indicates that the feed is being used properly by the rumen microbes. For NDFD48, a higher number is ideal as the test has now run twice as long. A number in the mid to high 60’s is preferred; some may even see values in the 70’s. The NDF disappearance rate is the rate per hour and is based on an equation from Cornell University. Energy An equation is used to calculate energy or total digestible nutrients (TDN), since it is not a nutrient. Nevertheless, it is the first limiting for milk production. In the past, TDN was based on ADF. Since then, Dr. Bill Weiss at the Ohio State University came up with a new equation, now called the ‘Weiss equation’ or the “Ohio State Equation”. This equation includes NDF, lignin, fat, starch, mineral, and bound protein and used to estimate energy values. Here, the NDF-CP is used as a correction factor and on reports often noted by a subscript ‘*w’. Lignin Lignin is the indigestible portion of the plant cell, also known as the glue that holds everything together. This number will increase with the maturity of the forage and usually ranges between 2-4% for corn silage and 4-12% for haylage. It is a good indicator of any digestibility issues as lignin negatively affects the digestion of the cell wall by acting as a physical barrier to the microbial enzymes.


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Energy Net energy lactation (NEl), net energy gain (NEg) and net energy maintenance (NEm) are listed on the report also, but in recent years has generally been derived from all the other components put into a ration balancing program. Generally, the NEg is always the lowest number of the three and should be a number greater than 1. It is looked at mostly by beef producers. The NEm is generally the highest of the three, although similar in range to NEl. Minerals Minerals such as calcium, chloride, phosphorous, potassium, sulphur, magnesium and sodium are also listed. Calcium and phosphorous are generally the main focus for beef producers and generally follow a ratio of Ca:P of 2:1. Monitoring and balancing for potassium level is critical in dry cow rations. However, since most minerals are added at the feed mill via a micro pack, these are not as critical in the individual forage analyzed. Relative Feed Value and Relative Forage Quality The ‘relative feed value’ (RFV) to some extent is ‘old news’. RFV was developed by hay producers in central and mid-west years ago to market alfalfa based hay. It is not used much anymore, but often still recorded on the certificate of analysis using ADF and NDF in its calculation. Although protein is not considered in the calculation, generally a higher RFV indicates a higher protein. A RFV of a 100 indicates it is decent quality hay, whereas a RFV of 150 is exceptionally good hay. The challenge with this number is that it is okay to use when comparing alfalfa varieties to each other. However, when comparing an alfalfa to a grass, the NDF has a much higher impact in the RFV equation. With fresh clippings of spring alfalfa, the NDF will be in the low to mid 20’s whereas at the same point in time, grass would be in the 40% range. This seems fairly high, but in reality, the NDF of a grass doesn’t change nearly as much during the course of maturation as that of alfalfa. At harvest, a grass may have a NDF of 52%; similar to where an alfalfa will be at harvest. The value of NDF weighs three times as much, as ADF, in the RFV equation. An example of spring clippings can have the following analysis: Protein ADF NDF Alfalfa 29.1% 17% 21% Grass 17.7% 21% 41% Note that there is not much difference between ADF and NDF of alfalfa in spring clippings. For this reason Relative Forage Quality (RFQ) has been created which takes in to account the digestibility of forages. Therefore there is a shift towards using RFQ. For corn silage samples however, the RFQ is not a valuable indicator as corn silage is affected by the concentration of starch, which has a dilution effect. Fat Fat reported is a general term but is not really just fat, and should be seen as an ether extract (EE), which on some reports it is called just that, since it consists of waxes, cutins etc. The range for EE on a corn silage sample analysis usually falls between 3-4%, and 3.1-4.6% for haylage. 68

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All report layouts and results will be slightly different. Growing seasons, timing of manure or fertilizer application, harvesting methods, timing and harvesting technique will all affect the nutrient availability of forages. Laboratories update technology, and continue to do their best to calibrate equipment; however small variations may occur. Nevertheless, plenty of reliable information is available for a given sample to aid in precise feeding allowing producers to meet the nutritional demands of the animal. Haylage example: Looking at this haylage sample it is safe to say that the analyzed values are within expected range for the DM, CP, ADF and NDF. Although the crude protein is in the lower end of the range, it has a noteworthy percentage of 66.72% as soluble protein. Both the ADF and NDF reflect a good digestibility and dry matter intake. And as for NEl and NEm; these could preferably be a little higher, but are generally used as a reference as indicated previously. Overall, this forage has good nutritional value based on its certificate of analysis, which is also reflected by the RFQ of 188.3.

**The author would like to acknowledge Ron Piett of A & L Laboratories for his contribution and providing a sample laboratory report for illustration purposes. **


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Outstanding Progress

Learn more about Jersey Canada and the outstanding progress of the Jersey breed: https://jerseycanada.com/annual-reports/



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