California Polytechnic State University Technical Association of the Graphic Arts Volume 35
California Polytechnic State University Technical Association of the Graphic Arts Volume 35
ÂŠ 2018 by California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Technical Association of the Graphic Arts (TAGA) Student Chapter Published in the United States of America by Cal Poly SLO TAGA Student Chapter 1 Grand Avenue San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 USA Printed in the Graphic Communication Department at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the copyright owners. All images in this book have been reproduced with the knowledge and prior consent of the artists concerned, and no responsibilty is accepted by producer, publisher, or printer for any infringement of copyright or otherwise, arising from the contents of this publication. Every effort has been made to ensure that credits accurately comply with information supplied. We apologize for any inaccuracies that may have occurred.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Optimal Conditions for Gravure When Printing Silver Conductive Ink
Trends in Ink Type and Finishing Processes for Gravure Printing
Color Management in Cosmetics Packaging
New FDA Label Requirements: Is it Time to Reconsider Gravure?
Using Responsive Food Packaging to Monitor Shelf Life
Emerging Technology in the Gravure Industry Focused on Social Entrepreneurship
Meet the Team
8 · Cal Poly TAGA 2018
PRESIDENTIAL LETTER PRESIDENTIAL LETTER
Cal Poly TAGA 2018
Presidential Letter · 9
Dear Reader, It is my great pleasure to present to you California Polytechnic State University Student Chapter’s 2018 Technical Journal. Our journal’s theme this year is “Innovating Today to Influence Tomorrow.” This year is the 70th anniversary of the annual TAGA conference, and we wanted to commemorate this event with a theme that addresses both the history and the future of printing. We recognize that the printing industry is always changing, and success is dependent on embracing these technologies and embracing these changes. Our design language pays homage to the roots of printing with type treatments resembling letterpress type blocks. We also incorporated student research that focuses on bringing change and adds new insight to technologies in our industry today. And most uniquely, we used variable data printing technology coupled with Scodix’s digital foil capabilities to custom foil stamp the covers of the judges’ journals. We made our packaging completely in-house, using our ESKO Kongsberg i-Cut table to create the die-cut. We are extremely thankful for the support from our beloved faculty advisors, Brian Lawler and Peter Schlosser, the Cal Poly Graphic Communication department faculty and staff, our generous sponsors, and our loving families. We also extend our thanks to you, for believing in us and for believing in the future of an industry that is ever-changing and evolving. We are proud to be where we are today, and we eagerly anticipate what is to come in the future.
Jasper Lim Chapter President, Cal Poly TAGA
10 · Mojo
OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR GRAVURE
OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR GRAVURE WHEN PRINTING SILVER CONDUCTIVE INK Cory D. Mojo
Abstract This paper investigates conditions of the gravure printing process — specifically when applying fine lines of silver conductive ink for the purpose of creating printed electronics — by examining three specific printing factors: print direction, print speed, and nip pressure. Secondary research has been used in compiling information regarding the subject. It was found that lines printed in the machine direction saw increased consistency and a decreased risk of defects including spreading. Lines printed in cross machine direction saw ragged line edges and gaps in the conductive printed wiring. Print speed did not appear to affect line width, however, increased speeds led to increased consistency and reliability of line widths. Increased nip pressure led to increased line width, while maintaining an insignificant relationship with line width consistency over time. It was found that exceedingly low nip pressures could cause pinholes, creating concern for the conductivity of the printed line, while exceedingly high nip pressures could cause zipper-like defects on the line. Fine conductive lines within printed circuits would be far better suited being printed predominately in the machine direction, whenever possible. High print speeds can assist in consistent ink laydown, and high nip pressures can create fuller lines — free of defects — when adjusted purposefully.
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Introduction The gravure printing process is well known for its ability to print at a high quality, with accurate tones and vibrant colors. The recessed cells of the gravure process allow for long-lasting engravings that can be used for mass productions and allow printing on a variety of substrates, from paper to plastic films and more. The process has its fair share of drawbacks, however, and when introduced to the world of printed electronics, these drawbacks may be substantial to determining the legitimacy of the gravure process in this upcoming field. Gravure is already being implemented for use in the field of printed electronics. Its mechanism for a wide print area and fast printing speed is very appealing to the mass manufacturing of basic electronic circuit boards (Sung, 2008). In addition, the gravure process stands out in printing lines of silver conductive ink because of the nature for the recessed cells to potentially accumulate ink several microns in height, perfect for the wiring necessary to complete an electronic circuit (Suganuma, 2014). There are clear weaknesses for gravure in this field according to Paul Fiero (2009), however, such as requiring large amounts of pressure — limiting the production to flexible substrates only — as well as the inherent difficulty gravure has in printing clean, straight lines due to the nature of the recessed cells. With this in mind, what are the optimal printing conditions specifically regarding print direction, print speed, and nip pressure in order to print fine lines of silver conductive ink using the gravure process for the purpose of producing printed electronics? The quality and ability of the gravure process to produce legitimate fine lines for printed electronics can change under certain conditions. For the purpose of this paper, the following printing factors have been chosen to compare resulting effects: print direction, print speed, and nip pressure. Secondary research and experimentation has been compiled for use in preparation of this research paper.
Optimal Conditions for Gravure · 13
Findings Print direction — in this case, referring to the orientation of the printed line to the feed direction of the press — can be a significant factor in affecting the outcome of quality for the line of silver conductive ink. In an experiment done by Paul Fiero (2009) comparing how print direction affects the fidelity of lines printed with commercially available silver flake ink among four different substrates, it was found that in general, lines printed in print direction (PD) were more consistent in size and accuracy to the desired width than those printed in cross print direction (CPD), as seen in Figures 1 and 2. For clarification, PD will refer to lines parallel with the feeding direction of the press, while CPD will refer to lines perpendicular with the feeding direction of the press.
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600 500 400 300 200 100 0
Desired Line Size
Figure 1. Average Line Size (width, in microns) in the print direction.
Comparing desired line size to actual line size. Reproduction from Fiero, 2009.
The opposing directions created lines that had significant difference, in which the CPD had some concerning qualities. According to Fiero (2009), “the CPD lines were much more ragged than the corresponding PD lines…the speed of the press causes the smearing of the CPD lines in a non-uniform way.” This leads to some concern for gravure-printed silver lines in the CPD, as it could have potential issues and could hurt the conductivity of the printed line. Fiero goes on to show that “the CPD lines have an increase in the number of non-printed areas within the print area” creating a potential concern for gaps in the electric wiring, as seen in Figure 3. Again, lines in the PD did not show these problematic gaps and edges, and
Optimal Conditions for Gravure · 15
600 500 400 300 200 100 0
Desired Line Size
Figure 2. Average Line Size (width, in microns) in the cross print direction.
Comparing desired line size to actual line size. Reproduction from Fiero, 2009.
proved to be much more reliable. However, lines printed in PD did show greater variation than the CPD when comparing one substrate to another (Fiero, 2009). Even more concerning, research conducted by Seunghwan Kim and Hyung Jin Sung (2015) found that lines printed in CPD are susceptible to ink spreading when applied at a low nip pressure. Specifically, lines produced at 90° CPD with a nip distance of 25 microns created a spreading effect, depicted in Figure 4, where each line is not successfully defined. According to Kim and Sung (2015), “if the roll driving speed differed from the gravure plate driving speed, the [poly-dimethylsiloxane] substrate easily slipped
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Figure 3. Substrate 1 in cross print direction: 200, 150, 100,
and 50 micron wide lines. Note the gaps in the 50-micron line (Fiero, 2009).
at the surface of the gravure plate, the printed pattern underwent spreading, and the printing process was deemed to have failed.” The results from either experiment imply the preference of printing silver ink in the PD, whereas printing in the CPD can cause multiple possible issues.
Optimal Conditions for Gravure · 17
Figure 4. Printed lines at varying print directions obtained using
a nip distance of 25 microns. Note the spreading at 90° cross print direction (Kim & Sung, 2015).
Effect of Printing Speed on Line Width and Reliability Variances in printing speed can typically result in different effects in the realm of printing, such as dot gain due to extra dwell time for a slow printing speed. However, effects like these do not necessarily apply significantly enough when using silver conductive ink to affect the desired outcome — manufacturing a working electric circuit. Direct effect on line width In the case of gravure-printed lines of silver ink, the desired width of the line does not appear to change with increased print speeds. According to research done by Ho Anh Duc Nguyen, Jongsu Lee, Chung Hwan Kim, Kee-Hyun Shin, and Dongjin Lee (2013) on controlling printed line-width for gravure printed electronics, “the width of the printed pattern was found to be the same when the printing speed increases for a given ink viscosity of 10,000 cP.” Therefore, there does not seem to be an association between print speed and the width of the actual printed line.
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Pattern width, wp (µm)
20 15 10 5 0
Printing speed, v (m/min)
Figure 5. Average width of the printed line under various printing speeds at nip pressure of 0.1 MPa. There seems to be a neutral association. Reproduced from Nguyen et al., 2013.
Optimal Conditions for Gravureâ€‚ Âˇâ€‚ 19
Accuracy and consistency of line width over time Aside from the effect of printing speed on the size of the line itself, its effect on how well the press can reliably print an accurate and consistent width is just as important. While printing speed does not appear to change the size of the line over varying speeds, this does not tell us whether the size that is being outputted is accurate to the desired width, nor does it tell us whether the width will change over time for each speed.
Printed pattern width
10mm/s 30mm/s 50mm/s
Number of printing
Figure 6. Reliability test under various printing velocities. Slower speeds gained more width over time. Reproduced from Lee et al., 2010.
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In a study done by Taik-Min Lee, Jae-Ho Noh, Inyoung Kim, Dong-Soo Kim, and Sangki Chun (2010) on the reliability of gravure printing under various conditions, it was found that, “as the printing velocity increases, the reliability of gravure offset printing also increases.” As seen in Figure 6, this means that the faster press speeds led to a more consistent line width, whereas the slower speeds increased in width over time by a greater amount. Also seen in Figure 6 is the accuracy of the printed widths to the desired widths was achieved in greater success for the higher print speeds. Effect of Nip Pressure on the Reliability of Line Width Nip pressure — the amount of force being applied between the plate cylinder and the substrate against an impression cylinder or blanket cylinder (in the case of gravure offset) during the transfer of ink — can have substantial effects on the quality of the printed lines. The effects that nip pressure has on printed products using typical production inks can have similar results when using the silver conductive ink for printed electronics. Direct effect on line width Aside from abysmal ink transfer results, such as the ink spreading that can occur at low nip pressure shown earlier regarding print direction in Figure 4, nip pressure can substantially affect the actual line width of gravure-printed silver conductive ink. As one might expect, according to the same study by Nguyen et al. (2013), “the increase in nip pressure led to the increase in the resulting linewidth of the printed pattern.” The greater force of impression leads to greater ink laydown and density, resulting in greater line widths, as seen in Figure 7.
Optimal Conditions for Gravure · 21
Pattern width, wp (µm)
20 15 10 5 0
Nip pressure, Pnip (MPa)
Figure 7. Average width of the printed line under various nip pressures. Note the presence of defects with increasing pressure. Reproduced from Nguyen et al., 2013.
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Accuracy and consistency of line width over time Nip pressure appears to have a very low effect on the consistency and accuracy of the desired line width over time. According to the previously touched on study by Lee et al. (2010), “as the printing pressure increased, the reliability of gravure offset printing also increased slightly,” however they go on to conclude that “the range of fluctuation was insignificant and was even within the range of experimental error.” Therefore, seen on Figure 8, nip pressure has very little effect on gravure’s ability to print consistently and accurately over a long period of time.
Printed pattern width
0.140 0.130 0.120 0.110 0.100
0.070 0.060 0
Number of printing
Figure 8. Reliability test under various printing pressures. All pressures output relatively similar consistencies. Reproduced from Lee et al., 2010.
Optimal Conditions for Gravure · 23
Effect on line quality Aside from the line width, nip pressure appears to have significant effects on the quality of the printed lines, regarding problematic defects. As seen back on Figure 7, not only did the line width increase with greater pressure, but increased pressure also caused perpendicular defects in the line quality. This was caused by the exploitation of certain imperfections from engraving the cells “which result in small cavities near the cell edge. Under the high nip pressure…the substrate will be deformed leading to ink flowing out and filling in these cavities” (Nguyen et al., 2013). Poor edge quality such as this can cause issues of conductivity, and should be considered when printing conductive ink with gravure. Another concerning defect caused by nip pressure can be seen in the form of pinholes. According to Kim and Sung (2015) in their previously mentioned experiment, low nip pressure can cause pinholes to form within the printed lines. As seen in Figure 9 as well as in Figure 4, pinholes may form when insufficient contact has been made between the ink residing in the recessed cell and the surface of the substrate (Kim & Sung, 2015). This can lead to serious problems with the desired conductivity of the printed silver traces. According to Kim and Sung (2015), “pinholes…can produce an open circuit in printed electronics. The electrical resistance of the conductive line may increase in the presence of pinholes.” This is clearly a notable issue that may directly affect the quality of the printed electronic.
24 · Mojo
Figure 9. Printed lines in PD obtained using nip distances of 25 microns,
50 microns, and 75 microns, respectively. The lowest nip pressure resulted in a type of print defect called pinholes (Kim & Sung, 2015).
Conclusions The gravure process is undoubtedly a possible tool for creating printed electronics, but the question is not whether it can be used, but under which circumstances it can be utilized most effectively. Upon compiling varying factors of gravure printed silver conductive ink, certain suggestions can be drawn. Print Direction The orientation of the printed line of silver ink significantly affected the outcome of the quality of the line. For example, as shown by Paul Fiero’s research, lines printed in PD saw increased consistency in line width, while lines printed in CPD were at risk of having jagged line edges and gaps within the line itself, potentially affecting electric conductivity. As seen in Kim and Sung’s research, lines printed with low nip pressure in CPD were also at risk of spreading, leading to a failed print. When printing circuits, however, it is hard to avoid the necessity of printing in the CPD. It could then be suggested to merely orient the printed circuit so that the majority of lines are following PD when in production. It is also clear to use a wide enough line size (>50 microns) to avoid gaps and holes within the line itself, while also keeping nip pressure at a sustainable point (nip distance of >25 microns).
Optimal Conditions for Gravure · 25
Print Speed Increasing print velocities did not seem to have as much overall effect on the resulting printed lines as some other factors, however, there are still points to be considered. While the research of Nguyen et al. (2013) concluded that there is not a significant association between print speed and actual line width, it was found by Lee et al. (2010) that increasing print speeds led to increased consistency and accuracy of the printed line width over time. Taking this into account, faster print speeds would be a safer choice when creating printed electronics with the gravure process, however, the results do leave room for exceptions under certain possible scenarios.
26 · Mojo
Nip Pressure Changes in nip pressure can have multiple clear effects on the quality and outcome of the desired printed line. Nguyen et al. (2013) found in their study that an increased nip pressure led to increased line width, a clear positive association. However, this increased pressure also led to a defect in which the ink smeared out perpendicularly from the line, creating a jagged, zipper-like effect. In contrast, Kim and Sung’s study (2015) showed that a low nip pressure — specifically, a nip distance of around 25 microns — created a pinhole effect, which can be of serious concern when reaching the desired utility of the electronic. As far as whether increasing nip pressure had an association with increased consistency or accuracy of line width, Lee et al. (2010) found there to be an insignificant relationship. Suggestions stemmed from these studies could include keeping a controllable nip pressure in order to maintain a desired line width, while being sure to avoid defects by balancing between a maximum and minimum recommended pressure, which could vary printer to printer.
Optimal Conditions for Gravure · 27
Concluding remarks It is important to note that this paper only addresses three major factors that could affect the production of silver lines printed by the gravure process, and that there may be many more factors which could potentially affect the outcome of a gravure printed electronic. Due to the ever-expanding and further progression of print, ink, and plate technology, results from these studies could vary when compared to more advanced machinery. The information in this paper therefore is limited only to the resulting effects from print direction, print speed, and nip pressure. While it is already known that the gravure printing process can adequately produce fine lines of conductive silver ink for the purpose of manufacturing printed electronics, it should be known that this applies to certain circumstances and optimized settings, as shown above. Fine conductive lines within printed circuits would be far better suited printed predominately in the print direction, whenever possible. The gravure process’s mechanism for utilizing recessed cells can cause concerns when producing clean line work, as experienced printers know, and there is no exception when printing electronics. High print speeds can surely assist in consistent ink laydown, and high nip pressures can create fuller lines, free of defects, when adjusted purposefully.
28 · Mojo
Fiero, P. (2009, February). Fidelity of Gravure Printed Lines for Printed Electronics. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from gaa.org/ techarticles/fidelity-gravure-printed-lines printed-electronics Kim, S., & Sung, H. J. (2015, February 25). Effect of printing parameters on gravure patterning with conductive silver ink. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 25(4), 9. doi:10.1088/096 01317/25/4/045004 Lee, T., Noh, J., Kim, I., Kim, D., & Chun, S. (2010). Reliability of gravure offset printing under various printing conditions. Journal of Applied Physics, 108(10).doi:10.1063/1.3510466 Nguyen, H. A., Lee, J., Kim, C. H., Shin, K., & Lee, D. (2013, August 06). An approach for controlling printed line-width in high resolution roll-to-roll gravure printing. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 23(9), 5-6. doi:10.1088/09601317/23/9/0950 10 Suganuma, K. (2014). Introduction to printed electronics. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media. Sung, D. (2008, May 23). Gravure as an Industrially Viable Process for Printed Electronics. Retrieved November 13, 2016, from www. eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2008/EECS-2008-70.html
Optimal Conditions for Gravureâ€‚ Âˇâ€‚ 29
CORY MOJO Cory is a fourth year Graphic Communication major pursuing a concentration in Graphics for Packaging and minor in Packaging. Cory would like to ideally get into operations management at a printing or packaging company in Seattle, WA. He thinks the field of printed electronics has a lot of potential to change a lot about not only the electronics industry, but the printing and packaging industry as well. For the electronics industry, this means faster and easier ways to mass produce things like circuit boards, whereas it offers exciting possibilities in the packaging industry for getting consumer packaging to really pop, at low cost and difficulty. His research serves as a compilation of important aspects and optimized factors for printing electronics with gravure which can be seen as a look into where we are with the technology right now. Most of his time is consumed as the General Manager at University Graphic Systems, but you can also find him willing to travel, hike, and do outdoorsy things.
30 · Ainley
TRENDS IN INK TYPE AND FINISHING PROCESSES
TRENDS IN INK TYPE AND FINISHING PROCESSES FOR GRAVURE PRINTING Rachel Ainley
Abstract As humans, we rely on touch, smell, sound, and taste to tell us about our world. As cultural habits change, more reliance is placed on the Internet as the source for business, news, and cultural information. Our world is becoming more interactive in terms of open access to people, information and ideas, yet at the same time is becoming less personally engaging in terms of our sensory connectivity. Newspaper circulations as well as magazine circulations have gone mostly online, and as a result, our exposure to new ideas, images, and products is more narrowly focused based on algorithms. Regardless of whether we get our news and information from a phone, tablet, or computer, we experience digital media through devices that are flat. Print, however, offers the consumer a deeper and more active engagement with the product or narrative. Specialty inks have an important role to play in making a consumerâ€™s experience both tangible and memorable. The use of specialty inks can add visual appeal, functional purpose, and can provide consumers with interactivity through touch and fragrance to connect with a product. Combined with the ability of gravure to replicate images with consistent quality, these specialty inks become powerful marketing tools that are helping to add value to the print market as part of a multi-channel marketing plan.
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Introduction The term “paperless society” has often been used as a way to describe the future — a world where few pieces of paper would need to be printed. With the birth of the Internet and digital media content, the slow decline of the print industry continues to be observed. In a report published in August of 2012, research indicated that printing industry revenue was “expected to continue declining, falling 2.0% during the year to an estimated $76.6 billion” (Moldvay, 2012). In a follow up article by IBISWorld four years later, researchers estimated that “each of the three major segments of print advertising (classified, national and retail) is predicted to drop by an annual rate of at least 8.6%” (“Printing in the US: Market Research Report,” 2016). As a result of shift in consumer habits from paper to online newspapers and shopping, it is projected that by 2020, digital advertising revenue will surpass print advertising revenue with $9.2 billion versus $7.7 billion (Marketing Charts Staff, 2016). No doubt, digital media alternatives create a challenge for the print industry; however, with new technologies, print can remain a strong and vital player in the media and marketing sectors. In order to stay on top of market trends, the print industry must address operational demands that increase the return on marketing investment dollars as well as increase consumer engagement. With respect to operational concerns, Mark Vruno, editor of Printing News, noted a trend towards targeted marketing content and cost savings through increased print efficiency. Further operational trends include waste reduction and an interest in developing more ecologically productive and responsible materials that use fewer toxins, less material waste, and are more energy efficient (Vruno, 2015). According to media reports, the industry has invested in new commercial printers, particularly digital printers that are more economical to run with lower set-up costs and can accommodate smaller print runs (Moldvay, 2012). When engaging consumers in an increasingly digital world, identifying and tapping into “new behaviors” of consumers is essential to staying relevant in the market. In 2015, Scott McDonald, Ph.D., wrote a paper titled What Can Neuroscience Tell Us About Why Print Magazine Advertising Works, and concluded that consumers were more likely to remember the content (including
Trends in Ink Type and Finishing Processes · 33
advertisements) of a printed magazine than that of an online digital magazine. This is good for markets such as gravure printing, because it gives a reason for companies to continue printing magazines and long run publications. According to the research performed by Professor McDonald, he determined that memory and comprehension “from paper-based reading is likely enriched by the multi-sensory experience of holding and manipulating paper” (McDonald, 2015). Joe Pulizzi, a marketing consultant and author, noted in his blog “Why Are Marketers Blind to the Power of Print,” that print “is still the best medium on the planet for thinking outside the box and asking yourself tough questions based on what you read” (Pulizzi, 2013). Adding to the conversation about customer engagement, Jefferson Hack, co-founder of Dazed and Confused, is quick to point out that the millennial consumer is also looking for original creativity. They are considered “time poor” looking for “authentic” and inspiring material (Financial Times, 2015). This same audience is surrounded by a constant bombardment of imagery – particularly now with the ease of sharing photos on cell phones and apps like Snapchat and Instagram. According to Xerox, an estimated 1.3 trillion photos will be taken in 2017 (Xerox, 2016). The result is a consumer population that is saturated with images. This makes it hard to differentiate one product from all the rest of the noise. As a Nielsen survey noted, “ensuring consumers are aware of the product and can find it on store shelves is just as crucial as coming up with that winning new product idea” (Frighetto & Wolf, 2013). In such a congested digital marketplace, Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is expensive and can eat up marketing budgets; this makes print a viable marketing option. McDonald and Pulizzi indicate that the relationship is not digital or print but rather print and digital. The combination can be part of a multi-stream marketing strategy. In order to stand out from the crowd and optimize consumer engagement opportunity, ink companies are developing inks that can help personalize communication. Many of these inks have been developed for the digital print market, which is better positioned for smaller job runs. However, the gravure print market has been hit hard with the downturn in print media — namely the decline of current affairs magazines whose customers have more easily
34 · Ainley
adapted to digital circulation. In order to maintain customer support, gravure printers need to provide competitive options for their clients. They share the same consumers that are “time poor” and looking for something “authentic” and inspiring. Gravure printing is known for high impact image quality and there is evidence to suggest that certain luxury product publications such as Vogue, where the focus is on strong imagery, are defying the trend towards online reading habits. Nicholas Coleridge, international president of Vogue, acknowledges that the connection between the consumer and the product is a relationship he calls the “magazine moment.” Much like Dr. McDonald’s study concludes, Coleridge notes, “It is very hard to replicate the physical allure of a luxury magazine on other platforms…[having] something to do with the sheen of the paper, the way that the ink sits on the page, the smell of money and desire that wafts off the page” (Sweney, 2016). Advertisers and media owners are looking for ways to elicit that kind of physical allure and engagement with their consumer, the use of specialty inks offers a “value added” opportunity. The purpose of this research paper is to identify new ink trends and finishes in the gravure print market and to analyze how they meet the opportunities for consumer engagement. Methodology The research methods used relied on secondary research as regards to analyzing published marketing reports about consumer response to printed materials, print industry reports, newspaper and trade magazine articles, blogs as well as interviews available on the internet. The investigation looked directly to market trends and innovations in inks and finishes for the print industry that are designed help make that memorable connection with the consumer through visual and tactile appeal. Results of this research, therefore, excluded inks with electronic conductive properties used for the printed electronics industry. In a study performed by the Direct Marketing Association in 2010 found “that $1.00 spent on print advertising expenditures can generate an average of $12.57 in sales” and that ratio was found to be the same across all industries which serves to show print as an impactful marketing tool “especially as premium printing techniques continue to evolve” (Gendelman, 2014).
Trends in Ink Type and Finishing Processes · 35
Results There are several key players in the nearly $12 billion ink market, the largest being Sun Chemical (which purchased Flint Group in 2016) with nearly $7 billion in global sales in 2016 combined (“Top Companies Report,” 2017). The printing inks’ global market is estimated to reach $20.4 billion by 2022. New inks add to the printer’s tool kit for their clients, many printers have already expanded their color capabilities using Extended Color Gamut (ECG).The benefit is that the larger color palette offers the ability to produce 90% of the Pantone colors and does not require clean up between job runs and little ink is wasted (Niederstadt, 2016). Some pressures on the ink market that impact the development of new products are environmental concerns and regulations. Typically the solvent based gravure inks are fast drying but not as environmentally friendly as water-based inks. The industry is under pressure to develop inks with lower levels of solvent. This has caused the gravure printing industry to be restricted to only certain areas around the United States. Regulations over ink components are unique to each government or local authority with respect to manufacture, transportation, and usage, it becomes a challenge for companies to remain compliant with laws while continuing to deliver quality products (Milmo, 2017). Government regulations and raw material shortages can add pressure to the ink supply chain. On January 30th, 2017 a fire occurred in Pori, Finland, and disrupted the production in Europe for titanium dioxide, an ingredient in white pigment for paints and inks. According to news reports, the plant produced over 10% of the European need for commercial white pigment. Although it is possible that China could make up the industry shortfall in titanium dioxide, the Chinese government has expressed concern over worsening air quality as a result of increased production. European governments are considering labeling titanium dioxide as a carcinogen if inhaled. Events like this present an incentive for ink manufacturers to explore ecologically conscious manufacturing alternatives. Environmental safety concerns and company compliance continue to be a theme in ink development and market availability. Ink manufacturers are responding to environmental concerns and are producing inks with lower levels of toxic pollutants (Diamond, 2016). Having a larger
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selection of inks containing fewer pollutants could help the gravure print market by allowing them to operate in more regions with fewer environmental problems. Metallic inks are rising in popularity because of their ability to create an impression of quality and value. According to researchers, the global market for metallic pigments is projected to reach $1.2 billion by 2022, and 44% of that figure is represented by paints and specialty coatings (Diamond, 2016). Of the pigments, aluminum is the most popular (one- third of raw pigment market) followed by copper. The luster and sparkle of metallic inks are eye-catching, help bring a higher level of definition to the image and have the benefit of working well on paper and other substrates. Metallic inks are a cost-effective and time-saving alternative to foil stamping. Other inks and coatings that are currently commercially available include thermochromic inks, inks that are temperature sensitive, and metameric inks (inks which look different under different lighting conditions). Some of these inks have a functional purpose while others are more decorative in their application. One example where the purposes of function and artistry combine is the thermochromic ink usage on the Coors can (Figure 1). Coors, in conjunction with Chromatic Technologies, Inc (CTI) developed a “reveal” temperature sensitive ink to coincide with their marketing campaign slogan: “When the mountains on a Coors Light can turn blue, the beer is as cold as the Rockies” (Hurley, 2015). In addition to the “reveal” ink, CTI has gone on to develop a photochromic ink that changes color when under light for treasury, banking, and security industries. Other companies such as Sun Chemical and Nilpeter have developed inks with similar purposes. When ordering from their websites, they categorize each ink by printing type. It is important that the correct ink is ordered for the press as the ink for gravure printers, for example, has different properties than the ink used for web offset printers. All the available inks are listed within each printing process. The light and temperature sensitive inks, including fluorescent and glow-in-the-dark inks, engage the consumer in that they inform the consumer about the product. As a result of the ink’s color changing properties, the individual pays more attention to the product and the physical condition of the
Trends in Ink Type and Finishing Processes · 37
product (hot/cold, light/dark) and therefore increase the customer engagement factor. Advertising that demonstrates these properties can help drive consumers to the point of purchase - as is often said, “seeing is believing.” Decorative inks such as soft touch, raised glitter, and pearlescent inks have a similar impact on the customer as the temperature and light sensitive inks do in that they attract the eye but also stimulate the desire to touch. The desire to engage in the most basic of human desires, to touch, helps to bond the consumer with the product.
Figure 1. Thermochromic ink usage on the Coors can.
Scentisphere is a company that markets scented varnishes and coatings for gravure printers. Scent advertising tries to capitalize on the fact that scent is the sense most strongly tied with memories and emotions. The company claims that “using scented coatings and varnishes is proven to add profitability to printer’s bottom line” and that a scented ad had a 19% increase in consumer engagement on print advertisements (Scentisphere). Many consumer magazines have mailing inserts saturated with a scent within the pages of the magazine. Pepsi has used scented ads and store display stands as has the LG to advertise their chocolate-colored phone (Thompson, 2006).
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These inks are attention grabbing and there is a higher cost associated with their usage, which is why different companies refer to them as “added value ink,” “specialty inks,” and “special effects inks.” Specialty inks are more costly in part due to “materials and technologies that make them special, and partly because they are – to varying degrees – custom formulations” (Polischuk, 2006). According to an industry survey, “93% of print and trade service providers reported that sales of value-added enhancements contributed to increased profitability. Equally important, printers reported that several value-added enhancements do not require any additional investment” (Gendelman, 2014). Operationally, when using a specialty ink, the press typically needs to run at lower speeds. Nilpeter has developed a specific set of specialty inks and coatings that can be used with higher speeds on the press which is useful for the gravure printer. On Nilpeter’s website it states that “The unit features adjustable doctor blades, an ink-circulation system, viscosity control, and a drying and vacuum system. Operator safety is ensured by the integrated ventilation system. A versatile G-4 is prepared for both front and reverse-side printing, and offers quick job change and setup adjustable doctor blades” (G-4/G-6). Given the competitive nature and growth opportunity of this area of the printing industry, there will be other companies addressing issues of viscosity, press speed, minimization of waste and cleanup, as well as cost and environmental safety. The purpose of these inks is to bring an interactive quality to the product that it is advertising. Commenting on his approach to using specialty inks to help market products, Chief Marketing Officer of CTI, Pat Edson’s remarks are instructive, “We help the companies that package products fortify their brand presence in today’s marketplace. Our goal is to improve lives through chemistry that alerts, protects and surprises” (Hurley, 2015). These specialty inks serve as sensory marketing tools that influences the consumer behavior through experience and perception. New generation of inks are meant to capture the consumer’s attention through sight, smell, and touch. Specialty inks are helping consumers make these connections from product introduction to curiosity, all the way through to knowledge.
Trends in Ink Type and Finishing Processes · 39
Concluding remarks Specialty inks are adding to the multi-channel marketing approach by adding additional layers of contact with the product. Sensory experiences have the ability to emotionally stimulate and engage the consumer. As these inks and coatings become more interactive, they help to build the relationship between the consumer and the product. Because the digital world is so prevalent in today’s society, printing is constantly challenged to create something unique and interesting. With innovations in gravure inks and finishes, printers are working more closely with advertising to forge a dynamic future together.
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Diamond, C. (2016, July 29). Metallic Pigments Market.Retrieved from www.inkworldmagazine.com/issues/2016-07-01/view_features/ metallic-pigments-market-205815 Financial Times. (2015, April 30). e future for print publishing | FT Business. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/ watch?v=1sH0AjwnYtI&feature=youtu.be Frighetto, J., & Wolf, E. (2013, January 22). Global Consumers More Likely to Buy New Products from Familiar Brands. Retrieved from www.nielsen.com/us/en/press-room/2013/global-consumersmore-likely-to-buy-new- products-from-familiar-b0.html G-4/G-6. (n.d.). Retrieved from web.nilpeter.com/Products/ Value-Adding-Units/Gravure/G-4-G-6 Gendelman, V. (2014, January 08). Print’s Not Dead: Print Marketing Will Thrive in 2014 and Beyond. Retrieved from www.marketingprofs.com/articles/2014/24084/ print-marketing-will-thrive-in-2014- and-beyond Hurley, B. (2015, January 27). Chromatic Technologies, Inc. Retrieved from companyweek.com/company-prole/ chromatic-technologies-inc MarketingCharts Staff. (2016, June 14). US Online and Traditional Media Advertising Outlook, 2016- 2020. Retrieved from www. marketingcharts.com/traditional/us-online-and-traditional-mediaadvertising-out- look-2016-2020-68214/ McDonald, S. (2015, September). What Can Neuroscience Tell Us About Why Print Magazine Advertising Works? Retrieved from www. magazine.org/sites/default/files/MPA-Neuroscience-WhitePaper-f1.pdf
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Milmo, S. (2017, March 7). e 2017 European Ink Review. Retrieved from www.inkworldmagazine.com/ issues/2017-03-01/view_features/ the-2017-european-ink-review Moldvay, C. (2012, August). IBISWorld Industry Report 32311 Printing in the US. Retrieved from www.morrisanderson.com/images/ uploads/documents/32311_Printing_in_the_US_industry_report. pdf Niederstadt. (2016, October 20). Staying ahead of trends in flexible packaging. Retrieved from www. flexogravure.com/dossiers/ staying-ahead-of-trends-in- flexible-packaging Polischuk, T. (2006, June 01). Glitter, pearlescent, fluorescent, thermochromic-even the names of specialty inks raise the specter of something exciting. Retrieved from www.packageprinting.com/article/glitter-pearlescentfluorescent-thermochromicand-8212-even- namesspecialty-inks-raise-specter-something-exciting-br-31120/ all Printing in the US: Market Research Report. (2016, November). Retrieved from www.ibisworld.com/industry/default.aspx?indid=433 Pulizzi, J. (2013, July 24). Why Are Marketers Blind to the Power of Print? Retrieved from www.linkedin.com/pulse/201307241444395853751-why-are-marketers-blind-to-the-power-of- print
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Scentisphere. (n.d.). Scentisphere Scent Marketing & Branding. Retrieved from www.scentisphere.com Sweney, M. (2016, November 20). Still in vogue: luxury magazines defy print market gloom. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/media/2016/nov/20/ still-in-vogue-luxury-magazines-defy-print- market-gloom Thompson, S. (2006). A push to make dollars from scents. Advertising Age, 77(44), 4. Top North American Companies. (2017, March 7). Retrieved from www. inkworldmagazine.com/heaps/ view/3246 Vruno, M. (2015, November 1). Pressing On: Editor’s Note in Printing News. Retrieved from www.printing- news.com/article/12125830/ pressing-on-editors-note-in-printing-news Xerox. (2016, October 13). e Future of Printed Photo Publishing. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/ watch?v=uf2bC0m9x8M&feature=youtu.be
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RACHEL AINLEY Rachel is a fourth-year Graphic Communication Major pursuing a concentration in Design Reproduction Technology and minor in Integrated Marketing Communications. Rachel would like to align her interests with a job that involves her passion for design, event planning, and working with people. Her research focused on the challenges the print industry faces and also examines the opportunities there are for print to add value to marketing plans. “It’s obvious to note that digital media alternatives have replaced good portions of the print industry but I thought one of the more interesting things that I discovered in my research was based on a study about neuroscience and print advertising.” The research concluded that consumers were more likely to remember the content (including advertisements) of a printed magazine than of an online digital magazine. Outside of school, Rachel loves to travel and explore new places. She also loves to socialize with friends, cook, and find inspiration on Pinterest.
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COLOR MANAGEMENT IN COSMETICS PACKAGING
COLOR MANAGEMENT IN COSMETICS PACKAGING Kelsey Burgett Recipient of the 2018 Harvey Levenson Undergraduate Student Paper Award
Abstract This research tested the color management and accuracy of lipstick packaging. This research is specifically targeted at drugstore brand products that typically cannot be tested by the consumer before purchasing. In purchasing makeup, we all want the perfect color for a reasonable price. At stores like Sephora, you can try countless shades of foundations, lipsticks and eye shadows before choosing ones that suit you perfectly. However, this luxury comes at a much higher price. Lower end products sold at drugstores usually cannot be tested before purchasing. This means that for consumers of lower-end products, there is not always a guarantee that a product will work for them. More often than not, the foundation does not match their skin tone, the lipstick is not the color advertised and the eye shadow is not as pigmented as they thought. This can be very frustrating for consumers on a budget who cannot afford to purchase several different shades of one product in order to find the right color. In fact, 32% of global consumers feel that personal care manufacturers do not understand their needs, according to PR Newswire. This also affects manufacturing companies; because if the makeup gets returned, it cannot be resold if it has been used. This ultimately creates waste, as well as a bad brand reputation. Even if consumers do not return lipsticks that failed expectations they are still unsatisfied with the product and may be less likely to purchase from that brand again.
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A large aspect of this problem, specifically with lipsticks, is that printers typically cannot reproduce the same vibrancy of color that the lipstick provides. Moreover, many of the brighter red shades are out of gamut for the printer. By testing the color accuracy of lipstick packaging against the product, this research will determine what percentage of colors are outside of the printable gamut, and how this problem can be remedied with different printing techniques.
Color Management in Cosmetics Packagingâ€‚ Âˇâ€‚ 47
INTRODUCTION Audience for the Project The audience for this project is manufacturers and packagers. This research calls to the manufacturers of lipstick packaging to pay more attention to the color accuracy of their products. By producing more accurate product, I predict that there will be a decrease in the number of lipsticks returned and an increase in customer satisfaction and loyalty to the brand. Ultimately, this research will determine whether there are any trends in the color inaccuracy of the packaging, how inaccurate the printed colors are on average compared to the actual lipstick, and explore other printing possibilities to create more accurate labels. Significance The purpose behind this study is to finds a way to make cosmetic packaging more accurate and personalized in order to help manufacturers produce a more reliable and accurate product for their customers. If this research yields successful results and finds a better way to reproduce a larger percentage of lipstick shades, it will be applicable to many brands and manufacturers. In addition to decreasing the rate of returns, increased color accuracy will increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. This project combines color management, package design, and cosmetics. The paper itself will provide insight into the package design of cosmetics companies and give an outlook on the market to see which companies produce the most accurate prints, how packages are currently printed, and uncover patterns in reproducing certain colors.
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LITERATURE REVIEW Cosmetic Packaging Background Drugstore makeup consumers do not get the same experience as high-end makeup consumers. “Women approach some cosmetic products skeptically, like lipstick. Women only buy lipstick after sampling it to judge its desirability” (Marketing News Weekly, 2013). If the customer cannot sample the product, however, the decision will have to be based primarily by the packaging and brand perception. If the packaging is not accurate, the customer will be dissatisfied with the product and the chance of the product being returned will increase, as well as decreasing the likelihood of brand repurchase. The population for this study will be different drugstore brands of lipstick. A range of colors will be selected and tested for color accuracy against the packaging to determine how accurate the package is and whether there are any patterns in which shades tend to be less accurate. Many lipstick packages have a reputation of lacking color accuracy, which can make consumers more skeptical to purchase the product without being able to test it. Research has shown that there is little difference in ingredients between expensive and cheap makeup. In fact, the difference in price lies in packaging, marketing, celebrity endorsement, and the idea that “cosmetics consumers actually believe ‘more expensive’ means ‘better’” (Anneli, 2010). Perhaps the high-end makeup is better quality than the drugstore version, but not always. A lot of the time, consumers can find products of very comparable quality for a much cheaper price. The trouble lies in selecting the correct one that will work for the consumer. When the brand has a reputation for having inaccurate label colors, consumers are likely to be hesitant when purchasing an unfamiliar color.
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Color Management vs. Brand Color Management Color management is of extreme importance in reproducing brand colors. Jean-Marie Hershey notes that “In these instances, the use of process color is often limited to images, while branding elements are reproduced with special match colors to…achieve more consistent reproduction.” This philosophy should also be applied to lipstick packaging. The color swatch should be reproduced using special match colors in order to achieve the most consistent and accurate color reproduction. Additionally, the printing process used to create the packaging is also crucial to accurate color reproduction. Whether the label is printed using spot or process colors can have a great affect on the accuracy of the color produced. On the subject of printing brand colors with different printing processes Hershey states: It’s all about the gamut of each device and the reproduction of CMYK in flexo, as opposed to CMYK in gravure and CMYK in offset. If brand colors are reproduced in CMYK rather than as spot colors, management of the process is critical to assure that it matches within tolerances. If a brand color is reprinted using different printing technologies, it is important to re-separate the colors every time using color profiles of the actual inks on the actual substrates for each printing process. With different substrates, you have to match the entire process to take everything into consideration. (2009) When accurate color matching is crucial, management of the process becomes even more important. Moreover, when using process colors, it can be difficult to achieve a consistently perfect match; meanwhile, using spot colors can be too expensive, especially when a brand has to create a spot color for every shade of lipstick they sell. Instead, it would be more effective to combine these two and use a combination of CMYK as well as a spot red to create more vibrant colors and expand the printable gamut.
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Effects of Better Color Management Increased color accuracy of lipstick packaging will be beneficial for both manufacturers and consumers. Manufacturers will be able to produce a more accurate package, which will decrease the number of products returned, increase customer satisfaction, and increase customer loyalty to the brand. The brand will gain a reputation of creating accurately representative packaging, which in turn will make the buying experience more effective and efficient for the customer. If the consumers trust the color they see on the package is the same color as the product, they will be more likely to purchase from the same brand in the future.
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RESEARCH METHOD This study looked into creating a more accurate way to recreate colors for lipstick packaging. By testing a variety of shades between different brands of drugstore lipsticks, this study aimed to find the downfalls of reproducing certain colors. Purchasing makeup at a drugstore can often be frustrating as the color portrayed on the packaging is often inaccurate to the actual color of the product. The objectives of the project were to: • • •
Test the color accuracy of lipstick packaging to the actual product. Determine how different, on average, the advertised color is from the actual color (ΔE) Determine whether there is a pattern for which lipstick shades are outside the printable gamut given current manufacturing methods. Explore different methods to create more accurate color reproduction for color swatches on packaging.
Data Collection Plan The study involved conducting color accuracy tests to compare the product color (swatched onto white uncoated paper) to the swatch color on the package. Using a spectrophotometer, the color values were measured and compared. Subsequently, it was determined what percentage of lipstick shades cannot be reproduced accurately as a result of being outside the achievable printing gamut.
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Procedure Color Accuracy Tests I will run color tests on the products to find the differences between the advertised colors on packaging and the actual product. First, I will purchase several sample lipsticks from 3 different brands, making sure to select a range of shades for testing. Then, I will swatch each shade on paper. Next, I will measure the color value using a spectrophotometer and compare it to the color swatch printed on the packaging. I will use a spectrophotometer to test the CIE L*a*b* values of each color and then find the ΔE. Finally, I will determine which shades tend to be the most different.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Four lipsticks were purchased from three different brands (Revlon, ELF, and Rimmel). The four lipsticks included a bright red, a dark red/purple, a pink, and a tan shade in order to accurately represent the range of colors produced by each brand. The lipsticks all had matte finishes. First the CIE L*a*b* values of the labels would be measured and averaged, then the lipsticks would be swatched and measured, and then the two values would be compared and the delta E calculated for each shade of lipstick. First, I attempted to use the spectrodensitometer to measure the CIE L*a*b* values of the colored labels while they were still on the package. This was very challenging because each label sticker has white text that includes the shade name and number as well as what type of lipstick it is, leaving only small areas of solid color. This resulted in skewed values because the densitometer was picking up white values in addition to the color being measured. To correct this, an x-acto knife was used to remove and dissect the label, cutting out the largest areas of pure color and overlapping them to create a larger area of solid color. This resulted in much more accurate and consistent readings. Each label was measured three times and the average was taken, inputting the data into a spreadsheet.
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Put a blob of lipstick on the paper
Pick a point near the top where the “ink” is consistent, and measure at the point Draw a stripe with an ink knife, using the Scotch tape as the metering limit (thickness)
Strips of Scotch Magic tape (approximately 0.0025 in. thickness
Figure 1. Lipstick drawdowns
Next, the lipsticks were swatched. To ensure that the density of each swatch was even, two pieces of scotch tape were laid down on a sheet of uncoated paper ¼ inch apart, creating a channel, as seen in Figure 1. A dab of lipstick was then applied between the tape and dragged down using a pallet knife to create an even, smooth, consistent layer of lipstick. If the channel did not completely fill, more lipstick was applied and dragged down with the pallet knife. This process ensured that each sample had identical thickness. Then each sample was measured with the spectrodensitometer three times, the average was taken and input into the spreadsheet. Then, using an Excel formula I found the ΔE for each lipstick and its respective label. The ΔE76 formula was used, which essentially finds the distance between the two numbers.
∆E*ab = √(L2*– L1*)2 + (a2*– a1*)2 + (b2*– b1*)2 This tends to give higher values of delta E than the other formulas, but it is the most simple to calculate.
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Figure 2. Four of the lipstick colors in the custom drawdown created by the
author. The drawdown used strips of Scotch Transparent tape with a caliper
of 0.0025 in. Experimentation showed that an ink film thickness this thin was adequate to measure the spectra of the lipstick colors.
Figure 3. Kelsey Burgett preparing her lipstick drawdowns.
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Each lipstick was recorded in the spreadsheet, using the average function on the spectrodensitometer to record the CIE L*a*b* average of three scans. The labels were compared to the lipstick swatch, and the ΔE was calculated using the 1976 formula. The lipsticks for each brand go in order of shade (red, dark red, tan, and pink).
Revlon Certainly red
Cherries in the snow
Silver city pink
Party in the Buff
ELF Red Carpet
Table 1. CIE L*a*b* averages
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58 · Burgett
Lipstick ΔE Delta E
25 20 15 10 5 0
t r x k k d w uff in pe ou Re no Pin Pin ar e T e B k M y S y e l t C h n he lin Ci d Win in t Pin ai r t in t Sk y er Re y e v t l s C ie r Si r Pa er h C
n) nk d) d) (re k re (ta Pi 14 10 Dar ( 4 12
Figure 4. Lipstick ΔE
The Revlon labels appear to be printed with a spot color using offset lithography. The ELF labels appear to be printed with a spot color using flexography. The Rimmel labels appear to be printed with a spot color using gravure. Revlon had the highest average ΔE of the three brands tested, with an average of 14.315. ELF had the lowest average ΔE of 9.317, while Rimmel had an average ΔE of 9.793. For both Revlon and Rimmel, the lipstick with the highest delta E was the red shade. This could be because it is very hard to reproduce red shades since they often fall outside of the printable gamut. The outlier for ELF was the pink shade, with a very high ΔE of 17.935. Surprisingly, ELF (the cheapest brand of the three) had some of the best color reproduction, with ΔE values for the other three lipsticks averaging around 6. ELF also had secondary packaging, holding the lipstick tube in a paperboard box.
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The general guidelines for ΔE are as follows: ΔE
Not perceptible by human eyes
Perceptible through close observation
Perceptible at a glance
Colors are more similar than opposite
Colors are exact opposite
Under these guidelines, the ΔE values collected in this experiment are either perceptible at a glance or colors are more similar than opposite. It is intriguing that the colors printed on the label are so far from the actual lipstick color because it appears that all the labels were printed using a spot color, which typically provides very accurate color reproduction.
Visible Color Gamut RGB Color Gamut Pantone Color Gamut CMYK Color Gamut
Figure 5. Color gamuts
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CONCLUSIONS All the lipsticks tested in this experiment proved to have fairly poor color reproduction. All the colors tested showed that the color difference is easily perceptible by human eyes, which is generally unacceptable in the printing industry. It is important that label printers improve their color accuracy so customers can be more satisfied with the lipstick shade, and feel that the label accurately reflects the true shade. It would likely be effective for lipstick label printers to create a different process for printing to ensure better color accuracy. One suggestion is to use a 4-color process and adding a 5th spot color of red in order to expand the gamut of red shades that can be reproduced. Overall, doing this would allow the reds to be more vibrant and accurate to the actual lipstick.
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THOUGHTS ON THE GRAPHING OF THE LIPSTICK COLORS VS. PANTONE COLORS An addendum provided by Professor Brian P. Lawler in cooperation with the Cal Poly chapter TAGA executive board By plotting the colors of lipstick that Ms. Burgett tested in her senior project, it shows that most are inside the GRACoL gamut. Therefore, most lipstick colors can be printed accurately on a sheetfed press using the GRACoL standard. However, there are a number of lipstick hues that are outside the gamut of GRACoL, and very likely outside other common CMYK gamuts (FOGRA, SWOP). The solution, we believe, is to create a 5-color ICC profile using standard GRACoL CMYK inks for the body of the color, and adding a fifth color to expand the gamut to include ALL of the lipstick colors. This is not difficult. We made a selection of red Pantone colors that were close to the lipstick colors in the research paper, then, using Lab values provided by Pantone, we plotted those colors compared to the measured lipstick colors in the project. The Pantone colors selected were chosen because they are in the range of colors of these lipsticks, but they also include colors that are brighter and more saturated than any of the lipstick colors measured. We found two Pantone colors that are very close to the lipstick color that is the furthest outside the GRACoL gamut, thinking that building a profile with this color could expand the gamut on press to include the color of the “outlying” red lipstick. However, the Pantone colors selected for being the closest were closer to the axes of Lab than the lipstick colors (Delta-E values of about 4.8 and greater), meaning that the colors possibly provided by adding these are not adequate for expanding the gamut to include the lipstick colors that lie beyond GRACoL. They fall just short of making this possible, and do not expand the gamut of colors by much. Two other Pantone colors are well outside the GRACoL gamut, and also enclose the outlying lipstick colors measured. These are Pantone 1945 and 1795. The idea of making a 5-color ICC profile using one of these colors to expand the gamut is tantalizing.
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Pantone colors (unless intentionally made otherwise) are opaque, making them inappropriate for any “process color” printing. So, for this expanded-gamut color profile to work, an ink formulation of a color similar to Pantone 1945 or 1795 must be made that is also transparent. Once made, the process for making the 5-color ICC profile would be relatively straightforward. First, measure the Lab values of the standard GRACoL inks used in the plant where the printing will occur. Second, create an ink drawdown of the fifth color, using the standard technique for such tests, and — once dry — measure the Lab value of the color of ink chosen. By inserting these colors into a profiling program like X-Rite’s i1Profiler, along with the measured Lab values for the GRACoL inks used in the same plant, a 5-color profile can be built. Once that profile is built, it can be used to create five color separations of any cosmetics that a packaging firm might want to print that will include a significantly expanded red gamut to include many more lipstick colors than a standard CMYK gamut can print. To be done effectively, this process should be done in two stages: one to build a test target (and then to print that target using the five colors), and the second to measure the resulting printing to build the 5-color ICC profile. This is standard procedure for such tests. A very important consideration in any workflow using this profile would be to ensure that photos of the lipsticks or other products to be reproduced by this profile be made, and maintained through photography and page layout, in RGB color using a large camera gamut (Adobe RGB would be good; ProPhoto RGB would be slightly better; sRGB would be inadequate). Converting to CMYK-Red should be done at the last stage of production, and files prepared using this workflow would almost certainly be more effective at reproducing lipstick colors that previously could not be reproduced using CMYK inks in standard gamuts.
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Figure 6. In this diagram the wireframe is a plot of the colors of the GRACoL
color space from the standard GRACoL ICC profile. Inside and outside its gamut are single-point plots of the lipstick colors measured in the accompanying
research paper. In addition to those colors are numerous Pantone colors, four
of which are candidates for an additional color to be added to GRACoL to create an expanded gamut color profile. Of these Pantone colors are numbers 1795
and 1945, both of which are far enough outside the measured lipstick colors to include them. Theoretically, an ICC profile with five colors (CMYK plus Red) can be made that will expand the color gamut of GRACoL enough to include all of the lipstick colors.
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Ahmad, N., Billoo, M., & Lakhan, A. (2012). Effect of product packaging on consumer buying decision. Journal of Business Strategies, 6(2), 1-10. Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/1321689628?accountid=10362 All the way with digital. (2014, Apr 16). Progressive Digital Media Packaging NewsRetrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/1544852866?accountid=10362 Best in packaging: Recent novelties in beauty packaging (2015). . Chatham: Newstex. Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/1695765481?accountid=10362 Crossing the Digital Divide. (2014, Feb 18). Progressive Digital Media Packaging News Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/1545683722?accountid=10362 Guthrie, M. F., & Kim, H. (2009). The relationship between consumer involvement and brand perceptions of female cosmetic consumers. Journal of Brand Management, 17(2), 114-133. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/10.1057/bm.2008.28 Hershey, J. (2009). Great expectations...A primer on brand COLOR management. PackagePrinting, 56(1), 14-14,16,18. Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com. ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/docview/224552491?accountid=10362
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Kumar, S., Massie, C., & Dumonceaux, M. D. (2006). Comparative innovative business strategies of major players in cosmetic industry. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 106(3), 285-306. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.calpoly. edu/10.1108/02635570610653461 Mass personalization: Product and branding strategies in order to serve increasingly demanding consumers - reportlinker review. (2015, Nov 04). PR Newswire Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/1729402571?accountid=10362 Miller, J. (2013). Digital print in packaging. PackagePrinting, 60(6), 28-32. Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/1411127006?accountid=10362 Patents; “cosmetic products application” in patent application approval process. (2013). Marketing Weekly News, , 249. Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com. ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/docview/1374919401?accountid=10362 Rufus, Anneli. (September 10, 2010) The Cosmetics Racket: Why the Beauty Industry Can Get Away With Charging a Fortune for Makeup. Retrieved from: www.alternet.org/story/148140/the_ cosmetics_racket%3A_why_the_beauty_industry_can_get_away_ with_charging_a_fortune_for_makeup
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Rundh, B. (2013). Linking packaging to marketing: How packaging is influencing the marketing strategy. British Food Journal, 115(11), 1547-1563. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/10.1108/ BFJ-12-2011-0297 Smith, M. (2001). A color connoisseur. Printing Impressions, 43(8), 34-36. Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/219691798?accountid=10362 Wilken, E. (1998). Taking guesswork out of color work. Graphic Arts Monthly, 70(12), 72. Retrieved from ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.calpoly.edu/ docview/203288974?accountid=10362
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KELSEY BURGETT Kelsey Burgett graduated from Cal Poly in 2017 with a degree in Graphic Communication, concentrating in Design Reproduction Technology. She is originally from San Diego, California and after graduation she moved to the Bay Area. Someday Kelsey would love to work for a publication house doing book or magazine design. She hopes that her research will help to increase color accuracy across other industries. In the cosmetic industry, especially drugstore cosmetics, color accuracy of packaging could help people make better buying decisions and increase customer loyalty among brands. In her spare time, Kelsey likes to do puzzles, work out, and binge watch The Great British Baking Show.
68 · Clark
NEW FDA LABEL REQUIREMENTS
NEW FDA LABEL REQUIREMENTS: IS IT TIME TO RECONSIDER GRAVURE? Sydney Clark
Abstract The FDA has recently released new regulations that will change the format and information included on the nutrition facts panel of all packaged food. A significant portion of food packaging both domestically and globally is printed using the gravure printing process. Research in this report will show how these changes will affect gravure printing companies, as well as how these regulations may result in choosing gravure over its biggest print competitor, flexography.
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Introduction The food packaging industry is a market that has continued to experience expansion throughout the years. Rising at a steady compound annual growth rate of 2.9% per year (PMMI 2016), the claim can safely be made that food packaging is a profitable industry. The projected market value for packaged food in the United States in 2016 was $372.77 billion (Statista, 2016), a promising number for an industry that many consider to be dying. Gravure and flexography compete against each other as the top two most common ways of printing of food packaging (Eldred, 1993). Each process is unique and chosen for specific reasons. Flexography tends to be more conventional for short runs due to its ability to easily change out plates. Gravure tends to be cost effective only in high volume runs, but trumps flexography with its ability to print extremely high quality color detail on various substrates, at high speeds, and with low waste. FDA Regulations The nutrition facts panel is a very important component on packaged food that is strictly regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The panel contains vital information including serving size, calorie content, nutrient information, and percent daily values of certain nutrients. The regulations for this panel have remained unchanged for the past two decades; however, in May of 2016 the FDA announced that new regulations would be implemented. These changes are drastic, and companies must be prepared to successfully implement them. In this side-by-side comparison of the old label and new label, we can see that some of the information has remained the same, while other information is noticeably different. Going from top to bottom, the first noticeable change is serving size. Serving size must now be printed in a larger, bold font than previously required. The calorie amount per serving is noticeably larger and bolder, and “calories from fat” is no longer required. The requirements for total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat have remained the same. Minimal line type changes have also been added to segment the sections of the panel. Regarding sugar content, both daily percent value and amount of added sugar must be included. Vitamin A and C daily
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value will now be optional for companies to place on the package, but Vitamin D and Potassium will be required in addition to Calcium and Iron. The footnote section will also be revised so that consumers will be able to better understand that the 2,000 calorie diet size is just a reference number, and percent daily values will differ from person to person. The deadline to comply with these changes is July 26, 2018 (FDA 2016).
Figure 1. Original vs. New Format. Source: FDA, 2016
These changes not only require in-depth research to be conducted by the food manufacturer, but are also crucial to be updated in format for print. Printing food packaging is typically a process in which files are sent between many different platforms. It is pivotal
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for the manufacturer, package designer, and package printer to work together in order to ensure the final design meets the customer’s needs as well as maintaining FDA regulation. 7-Step Guide for Implementing Change The packaging printing market is dominated by two main processes, flexography and gravure. In the United States, flexography is used more often, but globally, gravure is used much more often (Keif, 2016). Since such a large portion of food packaging is printed with the gravure process, the gravure printing industry will be greatly affected by the changes to the nutrition facts panel. Southern Graphic Systems (SGS), “a global leader in integrated packaging and marketing production,” recently released a 7-step guide to aid companies in the transition process for implementing the new nutrition facts panel. This guide was created to aid food manufacturers, designers, printers, and converters with instructions to address these changes (Food Safety magazine, 2016). In this report, the SGS model (each of the seven steps are noted in quotations) will be used as a guideline for research to show how the gravure industry specifically will be affected by the change in the nutrition facts panel regulations. It is important to remember that there are many different bodies that collaborate to produce a final package design, including the manufacturer, designer, materials supplier, and printer. This report will focus heavily on the printer side, as gravure is a printing process, but will also include how the other areas will be affected.
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Step 1 SGS lists the first step in preparing for changing the food packaging label as “Understand the Impact.” Every company in the United States that manufactures food or deals with food packaging will be affected by this regulation. Those affected will need to take a step back and view future changes with an overarching perspective. This phase is a good time for everyone who plays a role in the development of the food packaging to meet and form a plan of action. Collaboration between manufacturers, designers, printers, and suppliers will allow for the brand to decide the best approach as to where research should be focused. Together, these entities can discuss where to start nutrition information research, if the product in need of reformatting is making a profit, and analyzing overall productivity. As it relates to gravure, printers must realize that repackaging will be a very expensive process. The FDA regulation change might cause manufacturers to order new packaging (which would require a new cylinder to be imaged) before the old cylinder needs to be retired. With the deadline approaching in just over a year, printers have time to communicate with manufacturers and to plan out the best time to switch over to the new label and retire the previously imaged cylinder simultaneously. Effective communication between the printer and all other parties involved in the repackage will ensure that the brand has the most successful and cost effective transition.
Who is involved in the package printing process?
Figure 2. Package printing process.
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Step 2 The next step in the process is “Team, Timeline & Training” (SGS 2016). Assembling teams in this step will help move the process along faster, and because of the natural segregation of tasks in this process, the “teams” are in essence already formed. The manufacturer, designer, materials supplier, and printer can all be considered individual teams. Within these teams, it is important to form a timeline that will guarantee the final project to be completed by the July 2018 deadline. In terms of print, pressmen must anticipate high volumes of orders because of this change. This might even call for some jobs that are traditionally printed with flexography (common for shorter runs) to now be printed with gravure. In an interview with Blake Steward of Pacific Southwest container, it was noted that when the company received high volume orders (having a threshold around 250,000) to be run on their flexo press, the process often took multiple days to complete, producing more waste than necessary during the process. This is due to the number of times plates had to be changed out on the press, and the amount of makeready waste that goes along with each plate changeout (Steward 2016). Gravure can print at the highest speed of any process, making it the best choice for this particular job (Eldred 1993). On a gravure press, a job like the one mentioned at Pacific Southwest Container could easily be completed in less than a day and with much less pressmen interaction. In many cases of high volume orders, printers are more inclined to choose gravure over flexography. Step 3 As previously stated, a brand is created through the collaboration of multiple different entities. The manufacturer, designer, materials supplier, and printer each play a unique role in brand management. This leads into the third step of SGS’s plan, “Update Brand Strategy,” in this step that each brand researches and strategizes for implementation. The manufacturer must conduct research to ensure they have all necessary information to print on the label. Having to redesign the nutrition panel will often lead to redesigning other elements of the package. Introducing a new label synergistically with new package design is a smart move on the manufacturer’s part,
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because it gives the company a chance to readdress their target market. Gravure Packaging reports that “packaging can play a pivotal and if not the most important role in distinguishing your product from the rest,” this places a heavy importance on the design process, as it is often the deciding factor for consumers as well as a representation of the brand. If the printer has decided to change processes from another to gravure, they must communicate this with the designer. Gravure is known for its excellent color reproduction, consistency of ink coverage, and capability of printing high quality images and fine lines (PNEAC 2016). Other advantages, such as ability to print metallic inks, continuous images, and high color strength are also to be considered. When the designer knows the capabilities of the press, they can account for these advantages when conceptualizing a design, allowing them to make the package much more eye catching than before. This gives a window of opportunity for the brand to be revamped, simply by changing printing processes. Step 4 After brand strategy has been updated, manufacturers can move on to “Plan Packaging Changes” (SGS 2016). With the change in labelling, many companies will reconsider the size of package they want to sell their food in. If a product is already being printed with gravure, changing package size will not affect the process much. This is because of the variety in width of substrates that the gravure press can handle. Cylinder sizes range from three inches to twenty feet (PNEAC 2016), giving the ability to print on substrates of respective sizes. As long as the substrate has a smooth surface and is flexible enough to bend around the cylinder, gravure can print extremely high quality color on almost anything. However, if a product is being printed with flexo and the manufacturer decides to increase the package size, the printer might consider moving the job to a gravure press which can handle a larger substrate. Gravure will have a definite advantage over flexo in food packaging on long runs for packaging because of how resistant the cylinders are to wear (Eldred 2016). Other packaging changes that might affect moving a job to a gravure press would be if the manufacturer chose to use a lighter weight substrate or film, which prints with higher quality
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on a gravure press. It is important to make sure that the substrate desired by the manufacturer is in line with food safety regulations in this step as well. Step 5 After the final packaging has been decided on, companies are advised by SGS to move on to the “audit process, data, and suppliers.” Auditing will help printers decide which jobs need to be run on which presses simultaneously, ensuring the most effective course of action for the plant. Conducting an analysis of print expenses will supply the data that printers need to assign jobs to presses. Changing printing processes on a packaging printing job requires a lot of process examination to make sure the package is up to manufacturer standards, as well as the FDA regulation. Investing in a new press, especially a gravure press, is a big investment for a company, research that is conducted must define a spending limit for new equipment and supplies. However, the audit process would help the company see if they will achieve their return through predicting the high volume of orders. A complete review of the chosen process with the new nutrition label and package design must be finalized before any final action is started. Step 6 Before going to print or investing in a new press, companies must “scope resources and costs” (SGS 2016). In a report on food packaging trends, PMMI states that “Food companies must cost-justify new investments in equipment, with most respondents saying their companies look for returns on investment in under two years.” There are many costs associated with redesigning a food package as it relates to print. With gravure, the cost of engraving new cylinders is the most substantial. To keep this cost low, printers should look into the ballard shell engraving method, where “copper is plated, non-adhesively, onto a specially prepared cylinder, It is easily stripped off by hand when the image on the cylinder is to be replaced” (Eldred, 1993). This engraving method allows for the cylinder to be reused, and also allows easy change outs when a new image is desired (all while keeping costs as low as possible). For companies who are deciding to invest in a new press, they must
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look into that investment cost. After all costs have been set, printers can come up with an estimate for the new food package to send to the manufacturer. Step 7 After all of these steps, the company should finally be ready to go to print in the “execute final plan” phase (SGS 2016). This is the step where all teams will come back together to create the final package. Designers will send the final design and dieline to the printer, where they will gather necessary materials, image the cylinders, electroplate, and print. After all of this research, the brand should have not only a product with a nutrition label that is up to FDA standards, but that also better reflects the brands marketing strategy.
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An Opportunity For Gravure The new FDA changes to the nutrition facts panel are a definite opportunity for gravure printing to gain market share in America. In an article featured in Printing World titled “An Upbeat Forecast for Gravure,” Jan Bormans of Agora Rotogravure made a statement that “Gravure will not only remain a key technology for packaging printing, but there is a tendency towards a renaissance in rotogravure in the market.” The predicted renaissance would largely be due to the overlooked capabilities that can be optimized on a gravure press. Especially as it relates to food packaging, the simplistic process, economy on long runs, and excellent color quality are all benefits of printing with gravure over other processes. Overall, package printing is on the rise, expected to grow by $7.8 billion from its value in 2012 to 2022 (Statista). As the market continues to grow, flexo presses will not be able to keep up with the high volume of demand. Gravure is already being used more popularly in other countries. It is time to take notice of the benefits of this process and implement it more commonly here. Associations like the GAA (Gravure Association of America) can take this as a time to push marketing for gravure and gravure related products. Changes such as this update to the nutrition facts panel that involve the manufacturer, designer, and packaging provider and printer to come together do not happen often. When changes that require meetings like this do happen, however, the companies are more likely to take high-risk, high-reward chances (like investing in more gravure presses). With successful marketing by gravure associations, companies who buy and print food packaging will be more persuaded to make the initial investment in a gravure press if they see the long term benefits in terms of cost and print quality. Other countries have realized the benefits of gravure and already implemented it in more instances than the US, and it is time for the US to catch up. The best time to invest in gravure for food packaging is now.
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PMMI. (2016). Food Packaging Trends & Advances. Retrieved from www.pmmi.org/files/ResearchandTrends/Industry/FoodPackaging-Trends-ES.pdf Value of the global printing industry market in 2013, by product (in billion U.S. dollars). InStatista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved November 10, 2016, from www.statista.com/statistics/316606/ value-global-printing-industry-market-by-product Eldred, N. R. (1993). Package printing (2nd ed.). Plainview, NY: Jelmar Pub. (B. Steward, personal communication, October 20, 2001). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label. Guidance Topics & Regulatory Information by Topic. Retrieved from www.fda.gov/Food/Guidance Regulation / GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ ucm385663.htm Keif, M. (2016, October 17). Gravure Process [Personal interview]. SGSco, & Prime Label Consultants. (2016). Be Ready For Nutrition 2016. Retrieved from www.nutrition2016.sgsco.com Free Guide to Help Companies with FDA’s 2016 Nutrition Facts Label Changes. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2016, from www. foodsafetymagazine.com/products/free-guide-to-help-companieswith-fdae28 099s-2016-nutrition-facts-label-changes Steward, B. (2016, October 17). Printing Processes at Pacific Southwest Container [Personal interview]. Brand Recognition. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2016, from www. gravurepackaging.com/brand.html
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Printers National Environmental Assistance Center. (n.d.). Print Process Descriptions: Printing Industry Overview: Gravure. Retrieved November 15, 2016, from www.pneac.org/printprocesses/gravure/ moreinfo11.cfm An Upbeat Foreceast for Gravure. (2016, August 22). Retrieved from P. (n.d.). Print Process Descriptions: Printing Industry Overview: Gravure. Retrieved November 15, 2016, from www.pneac.org/ printprocesses/gravure/moreinfo11.cfm Total Value of the Food Packaging Market in 2012 and 2022 (in billion US dollars). InStatista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved November 10, 2016, from www.statista.com/statistics/316606/ value-global-printing-industry-market-by-product
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SYDNEY CLARK Sydney is a fourth-year Graphic Communication major concentrating in Design Reproduction Technology. She is from San Ramon, CA in the San Francisco Bay Area. Her career goals are to be a graphic designer or project manager for a food company like Food Network or Williams Sonoma. Sydney believes printing will always be relevant in terms of food packaging, cookbooks, and recipes. She believes her research will help the industry by knowing to expect changes required for packaging that food companies may not know about. Her hobbies include cooking, recipe writing, food styling, photography, running, exploring nature, going to Target, and watching Hallmark movies.
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USING RESPONSIVE FOOD PACKAGING TO MONITOR SHELF LIFE
USING RESPONSIVE FOOD PACKAGING TO MONITOR SHELF LIFE India Tatro
INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem The purpose of this report is to explain how responsive packaging can be used to create an impactful design and add functionality to food products. The project includes an explanation of several different types of functional food packaging that are currently being used in the food industry, as well as products that have been proposed. Specifically, this report focuses on how specialty inks and substrates can be utilized to monitor the passage of time during which a product is purchased and used. While useful for many different industries, this paper will focus primarily on utilizing this type of label with the packaging of consumer-level food items. The project focuses on all aspects of integrating these specialty inks and substrates with food packaging including design, production, and end use. The design aspect stresses the importance of a legible, straightforward design that effectively communicates the packageâ€™s abilities to the end user, and how they work in conjunction with the utility of the package. The production section explains the possible challenges associated with printing with the specialty materials used, and how the finishing steps during the production of this label must be altered to accommodate the use of such materials. This section also discusses the cost effectiveness of using such specialized inks and
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substrates, as well as the increased cost on the consumer as a result of this technology. The section on end use focuses heavily on user experience. It includes statistics on the interest levels of different demographics in enhanced food packaging that monitors shelf life, and how likely they would be to take advantage of a package that utilizes that technology. This section will also summarize the shopping habits of average consumers, and how willing they would be to pay extra for packaging that monitors shelf life. Audience The intended audience for this report is food distributors that package premium meat products. Specifically, it targets companies that are seeking a way for their products to have a guaranteed freshness indication that the customer will be able to immediately identify. This report would be of use to the marketing departments of such companies that seek a way to make their products stand out from the competition and give customers a reason to purchase their products. The potential products examined in this report would be intended for commercial use. Interest in the Project Packaging is a part of every modern consumer’s daily life. It is unavoidable, yet often cumbersome and lacking in utility aside from basic containment. This project was chosen in order to examine how simple food packaging could be updated to include additional functionality. The goal was to explore how the packaging industry can adopt new technology, and how this technology can be integrated with existing packaging lines. Though packaging will always be a necessity, it is still important to change with the times and utilize new technology in order to stay relevant.
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LITERATURE REVIEW Print is not dead, it’s simply being repurposed. For years, newspaper was king, but in recent years these publications have struggled to keep up with advancing technology. At the same time, commercial printing has grown. Commercial printing, including packaging, accounted for over 80 percent of the $86.4 billion in revenue that the industry took in last year in the United States. With an ongoing need for product packaging, the packaging industry is likely to continue growing alongside other industrial printing applications. By the year 2020, the U.S. printing industry is expected to be worth nearly $90 billion with commercial printing still being its highest earner. (Statista, 2016) As the packaging industry grows, the expectations of consumers also rise. The demand for intelligently designed, useful packaging is at an all-time high. It’s not enough anymore for a package to simply contain a product. The package must be attractive enough to sell, be useful, and display any necessary information all at the same time. For food packaging, there has also been an increasing demand for packaging that monitor the freshness and safety of the food it contains. Often, this takes the form of a time/temperature indicator. Highly specialized inks and substrates have been developed for the purpose of monitoring the safety and freshness of food products (Rayman, 2). These materials present an excellent opportunity to relay real-time food safety information to both retailers and customers. Current Solutions The company 3M has found success manufacturing a series of time-temperature indicators that utilize layers of specialized paper, film, polymers, and inks to track the temperature threshold and runout times of perishable products. Their MonitorMark Time Temperature Indicators are currently used primarily on secondary packaging (case, pallet, etc.) as a means of monitoring a large subsection of products during transit. The product provided a visual representation of the freshness of the product it is affixed to, including an alert if the product is beyond its set tolerances for time and temperature. According to 3M’s product description: “Some typical
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applications include monitoring of drugs and vaccines, medical diagnostic kits, blood substances, food, ophthalmic solutions, and various industrial applications” (3M, 2011). One limitation of 3M’s MonitorMark product, however, is size. Relative to an average food label, the MonitorMark is quite large. It measures about 95 mm x 19 mm (3 3⁄4" x 3⁄4") and has a thickness comparable to paperboard (see Figure 1). Since this product is so large, it can potentially obscure any other labels being used on the package. The thickness and rigidity of the MonitorMark may also pose a problem in terms of the flexibility of the overall product. This indicator would likely perform poorly on food packaging made from flexible plastic films.
Figure 1. 3M MonitorMark Time Temperature Indicator
Another limitation would be the cost for each MonitorMark product. A case of 500 MonitorMark labels costs approximately $600.00 USD, with each individual label costing $1.20 USD. This is far more costly than traditional labels, which usually cost only a few cents per unit.
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The limitations of the MonitorMark sensor explain why it is currently only being used on the secondary packaging of perishable goods. By using one MonitorMark label for a case of items (usually containing hundreds of individual products), the distributor can monitor the approximate freshness of many products at once rather than each product individually. While a cost-saving solution, this method does not allow for the detection of varied freshness levels of individual products within a case or pallet. For example, the label may show that the case of products is beyond its temperature threshold when that is only true for a fraction of the items included. The distributor, in this case, may unnecessarily discard the products at a financial loss. Ideally, each product would be individually monitored for freshness on the primary packaging, though with the MonitorMark label the cost of this is prohibitive. A similar product, the Fresh-Check label is also in use today. Developed by the privately held company Temptime Corporation, the Fresh-Check label also provides a visual representation of the freshness of a product to the consumer. The label design, compared to 3M’s MonitorMark, is much more simplistic (see Figure 2). The freshness of a product is displayed in three stages: when the product is fresh, when the product is nearing the end of its lifespan, and when the product is expired.
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When the Active
When the Active Center
than the OVAL, the
the product should be
Center is the lighter product is OK to USE.
matches the OVAL, USED SOON.
When the Active
Center is darker than
the OVAL, the product should not be used.
These mushrooms have been
These mushrooms have not been
40°F. The Fresh-Check indicator
indicator is blank in the center. This
transported and stored at or below shows the mushrooms are still fresh.
properly handled: the Fresh-Check visual signal alerts the consumer
that the freshness of that specific package is no longer assured.
Figure 2. Fresh-Check label indicating freshness of product.
Unlike the MonitorMark, the Temptime Fresh-Check indicators are very small, a self-adhesive label. According to the Temptime website, each Fresh-Check label can be tailored to the specific shelf life of the product it is meant for. This flexibility means that their indicators can be used on almost any food item, within reason. The lower cost per unit for the Fresh-Check label means that it is also possible for the labels to be applied to each individual product, rather than to a case or pallet. The Fresh-Check label is currently being used for food products around the world, as well as a significant number of perishable medical products.
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The Fresh-Check labels also dramatically outperform 3M’s MonitorMark in terms of cost. Guy Stuppa, the Commercial Manager for Temptime Corporation in Paris, estimates the cost per unit to be between $.025 and $.035, depending on quantity. Stuppa is also a strong proponent for the usefulness of the Fresh-Check labels in the food industry. He states, “It can be a powerful tool when taste, smell, or quality appraisal cannot predict the freshness of the food. It can also indicate how much time bacteria have had to proliferate on food” (Fortin & Goodwin, 2008). Both the Fresh-Check and MonitorMark temperature/time indicators use the same underlying technology. The labels utilize specially formulated active reagents designed to the specifications of the given temperature threshold and shelf lives of perishable products. When the temperature threshold is exceeded, or the life span of the product ends, the label graphically alerts the user that the product is not safe for consumption. Potential Technology While both the Fresh-Check and MonitorMark indicators are specifically tailored to measure both temperature and runout time, there are other existing technologies with potential for use in the food packaging industry. In the late 1970’s, David Haas, an engineer at the North American division of Philips Electronic Instruments, saw an opportunity for a self-expiring ID badge for use at events and in offices. He founded TEMTEC with his wife, and began developing a time-tracking ID badge. His invention, visually-changing paper (VCP), consisted of a paper badge that would slowly change color over time. Once the set amount of time had passed, the badge would reveal a printed pattern that indicated that it had expired (see Figure 3).
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Figure 3. TEMTEC time-tracking ID badge.
Haas’s invention relied on the technology of different specialty inks and substrates specifically designed to track the passage of time. TEMTEC’s first ID badges came in two parts, and consisted of a precise combination of opaque and transparent films with migrating and non-migrating ink. As time passes, the migrating ink dissolves into the visible layer of film, revealing an “expired” graphic (see Figure 4). To begin tracking the time, the two halves of the ID badge are pressed together, initiating the process that dissolves the ink. Newer generations of TEMTEC’s badges rely on similar technology, but come in one piece and are folded together instead. A major advantage of TEMTEC’s technology is the fact that their process of time tracking is initiated through mechanical pressure applied by the user. The company also claims that the process is resistant to outside forces like excessive changes in temperature, light exposure, etc. This means that the tracking of time can neither be inadvertently sped up by uncontrollable forces, nor slowed down by limiting exposure to these environmental factors. Ultimately, this makes TEMTEC’s technology resistant to tampering and many other external forces.
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Despite the fact that TEMTEC’s technology only tracks time, not time and temperature combined, their visually-changing paper still has potential for use in the packaging industry. Specifically, foods with exact or predetermined shelf lives could benefit from packaging that integrates this technology. Labels like Haas’s ID badges could be applied to the primary container when the food item is packaged to allow both the retailer and consumer to monitor the lifespan of that item.
Image Opaque film
Figure 4. Revealed expired graphic.
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Limitations Due to the special ink and substrate requirements of the FreshCheck, MonitorMark, and TEMTEC VCP badges, it is unlikely at this time that the production of these devices would be integrated in existing food package printing workflows. At their current state, these indicators fall into the realm of specialty printing and would require separate manufacturing at an additional cost to the food distributors. If integrated, there is still the matter of initiating the process of time/temperature tracking. As discussed, the TEMTEC VCP badges require being folded and pressed together in order to be activated. The Fresh-Check and MonitorMark indicators also require special action since a plastic film must be removed from the sensor before they can be activated. These processes, while ensuring accurate information, could significantly slow down the manufacturing and processing times for these food items. Demand While more expensive upfront, food packaging that accurately tracks freshness and shelf life could, in theory, save money. Annually, consumer-facing businesses waste $57 billion worth of food, while consumers waste a staggering $144 billion. (Statista, 2015) The introduction of food monitoring devices and labels is designed to mitigate some of this waste. Smart packaging allows retailers to keep track of perishable foods, and to have greater control on how a product’s shelf life is monitored. When a product is sold, this control is passed to the consumer, who can then make more informed decisions on how their food is handled, when it needs to be used, and when it needs to be thrown away. As food prices continue to increase, the demand for enhanced food monitoring systems rises as well. The problem, for now, is cost. Compared to a package with no additional, specialized components, food packaging that features a smart label or sensor costs significantly more per unit. Unfortunately, this leads to many innovative projects like FreshCheck and MonitorMark being stuck in research and development. Right now, companies simply do not want to pay more for packaging than what they deem necessary. Mark Wheeler, the director
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of supply chain solutions for Zebra Technologies is optimistic that this will change, however. He states, “We can expect the cost/ performance of temperature monitoring solutions to continue to improve.” In the not-so-distant future, food-monitoring labels may play a larger role in the packaging industry.
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METHODOLOGY Purpose The goal of this research is to determine how freshness indicators could be feasibly integrated with packaging for the purpose of monitoring the shelf life of perishable foods. The report also gives insight into the interest level of consumers, and whether or not they would purchase a product that uses packaging with this technology. Data Collection In order to determine the interest levels of consumers a survey was administered to a total of 106 participants. The audience of the survey was mostly composed of students and faculty at Cal Poly, with a smaller portion of respondents from outside the University. The participants were first asked to provide demographic information, including their age range, gender, and whether or not they have children living with them under the age of 18. They were then asked how often they shopped for groceries, how often they threw away food, and the primary reason for them throwing away food. Survey participants were also asked if they would be interesting in packaging that monitors the shelf life of their food, and whether or not they would be interested in paying more for a product that utilizes that type of special packaging. Data Analysis The results of the survey were compiled into a spreadsheet and analyzed. The interest levels of different demographics were recorded and compared. The data collected during the survey showed how groups of people of different backgrounds felt about the possibility of a product package that monitors shelf life, and the likeliness that they would purchase that product themselves.
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RESULTS Survey Results A total of 100 responses were gathered for the survey (see Appendix A for a full list of survey questions and results). Of those 100, most individuals were young women. 82 percent of respondents were between the ages of 18 to 29, and 81 percent of them were female. Additionally, 89 percent of those surveyed did not have children under the age of 18. The frequency at which respondents shopped for groceries, however, was more evenly distributed. 40 percent shopped for groceries at least once a week, 27 percent shopped every other week, 14 percent shopped multiple times a week, 10 percent shopped less than once a month, and 9 percent shopped once a month. Survey respondents were also split on how often they threw out food. 50 percent admitted to occasionally throwing away food, 35 percent said they threw food away infrequently, and 13 percent said they threw away food frequently. By far the most common reason (66 percent) for throwing away food was because it had spoiled or gone bad. Other respondents said that they threw food away because they had forgotten about it or didn’t finish it. 2 percent of respondents indicated that they threw away food for a combination of the reasons provided. When asked, 89 percent of respondents said they would be interested in purchasing a food product that utilized a freshness indicator. 75 percent said they would be willing to pay more for a product if it utilized a freshness indicator. Survey data are shown on the next page.
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QUESTION 1 What is your age? Answered: 100 Skipped: 0
17 or younger 18–20 21–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60 or older 0%
17 or younger
60 or older
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QUESTION 2 What is your gender? Answered: 99 Skipped: 1
Female Male Other (specify) 0%
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QUESTION 3 Do you have any children under 18? Answered: 100 Skipped: 0
Yes No 0%
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QUESTION 4 How often do you shop for groceries? Answered: 100 Skipped: 0
Multiple times a week Once a week Every other week Once a month Less than once a month 0%
Multiple times a week
Once a week
Every other week
Once a month
Less than once a month
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QUESTION 5 How often do you throw away food? Answered: 99 Skipped: 1
Never Infrequently Occasionally Frequently All the time 0%
All the time
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QUESTION 6 What is the primary reason for throwing away food? Answered: 100 Skipped: 0
Spoiled/ gone bad Forgot about it Didn’t finish it Didn’t like it Other (please specify) 0%
Forgot about it
Didn’t finish it
Didn’t like it
Other (please specify)
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QUESTION 7 Would you be interested in purchasing a food product that uses a freshness/shelf life indicator? Answered: 100 Skipped: 0
Yes No 0%
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QUESTION 8 Would you be willing to pay a small amount more for a product that uses a freshness/shelf life indicator? Answered: 99 Skipped: 1
Yes No I am not interested in… 0%
I am not interested in a freshness indicator
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CONCLUSION The Future of Monitoring Devices in Packaging Overall, the responses from the survey indicated that consumers are highly interested in purchasing food products that integrate some kind of freshness indicator. The survey also showed that most consumers are willing to pay a higher price for a product if its packaging includes a freshness indicator. This is welcome news for the manufacturers of these labels, since they typically are more expensive than a standard label. It remains to be seen, however, if the food packaging industry will be able to successfully integrate these monitoring devices on a large scale at a marginal cost to the consumer.
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Brockgreitens, J. and Abbas, A. (2016), Responsive Food Packaging: Recent Progress and Technological Prospects. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. Retrieved April 28, 2017 from www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1111/1541- 4337.12174/full Pallottino, F., Hakola, L., Costa, C., Antonucci, F., Figorilli, S., Seisto, A., & Menesatti, P. (2016). Printing on Food or Food Printing: a Review. Food and Bioprocess Technology. Clemente, I., Aznar, M., Nerín, C., & Bosetti, O. (2016). Migration from printing inks in multilayer food packaging materials by GC-MS analysis and pattern recognition with Chemometrics. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 1-12. Moerbach, M. (2016). Manufacturing: Printing–U.S. Industry Report 2016. Statista. Food Waste in the U.S. (2015). NY: Statista. Retrieved February 27, 2017, from www.statista.com/study/16250/ food-waste-in-the-us-statista-dossier Rayman, A. (2010). Use of Indicators in Intelligent Food Packaging (pp. 1-4, Tech.). Ege University, Faculty of Engineering. Retrieved May 20, 2017 from www.ccm.ytally.com/fileadmin/user_upload/ downloads/publications_5th_workshop/Ray man_paper.pdf 3M Cold Chain Solutions: MonitorMarkTM Dual Temperature Indicator (Rep.). (2011). Maplewood, MN: 3M. Fresh-Check Indicator Labels Assure eatZi’s Customers Freshness. (n.d.). Packaging Network. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from www.packagingnetwork.com/doc/ fresh- check-indicator-labels-assure-eatzis-cu-0001
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Fortin, C., & Goodwin, H. L., Jr. (2008). Valuation of Temp-Time’s FreshCheck Indicator on Perishable Food Products in Belgium (Tech.). Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas. Haas, D. (n.d.). Times-up! The Color-Changing, Self-Expiring Badge. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from www.pubs.acs.org/subscribe/ archive/ci/31/i02/html/02haas.html TempTec. (2017). TEMPBadge ID - Secure, Effective, Affordable [Brochure]. Morris Plains, NJ: Author.
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INDIA TATRO Originally from New Hampshire, India Tatro is a Cal Poly Graphic Communication graduate with a concentration in Graphics for Packaging and a minor in Industrial Technology & Packaging. During school she was a member of TAGA for three years, holding the position of Production Coordinator for her third year. While at Cal Poly, India was also a member of a small team of students who helped produce a book on the history of printing and industry leader Mike Bruno with RIT professor Frank Romano. After graduation India moved back to New England and began working for Keypoint Intelligence–InfoTrends, an advisory service and market research firm located in Boston. As of 2017, India is a Research Analyst for their On Demand Printing and Publishing group, where she continues to write about current trends, new technology, and the state of the printing industry.
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EMERGING TECHNOLOGY IN THE GRAVURE INDUSTRY
EMERGING TECHNOLOGY IN THE GRAVURE INDUSTRY FOCUSED ON SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Jacqui Luis
Abstract This research will explore and define the possibilities of gravure printed electronics products based on the idea of social entrepreneurship. Meaning the products addressed that have been innovated in order to solve a problem in a community, particularly for users in the medical and defense fields. However, utilization of such products can be applied to everyday users, too. Products such as bioprinted flexible sensors, ammonia and trinitrotoluene-detecting sensors and graphene solar energy harnessers are found to be examples of social entrepreneurship in the gravure industry. These are just a few examples of solutions for these particular industries, there are countless other modernizations that resolve other issues within the gravure, medical, and defense industries to be addressed as well.
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Introduction The gravure industry, as well as the entire printing industry, is often perceived as a dying field. However, innovation is still very much occurring, as the applications of gravure are broadening, and the production of printed goods are expanding to industries never before explored. New technology in gravure, particularly printed electronics, is changing the face of the industry. However, the technology designed around the concept of social entrepreneurship is directly changing the lives of consumers. Social entrepreneurship is the concept of developing and implementing new solutions to social, cultural or environmental problems. As the technology of printed gravure products improve, the freedom to focus on the benefit to society also increases, expanding possibilities and applications of these printed solutions that can be used by the masses. Solutions like wearables that detect poisonous gas, lightweight solar energy, and battery alternates are examples of solutions that gravure can offer to the world’s problems.
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Results and discussions Gravure improves the lives of users One of the fields that gravure printed electronics has a lot of potential towards is the medical field. Gravure-printed wearable technology can help prevent unexpected doctor appointments and better improve self-monitored body awareness. In a research publication from the University of California, San Diego, Dr. Bandodkar found that fully printed electrochemical sensors work as patches that sit directly on a user’s skin, constantly and autonomously collecting information about their bodily functions, such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rates, skin temperature, and even brain activity. This hybrid sensor patch that combines the use of a lactate sensor and an electrocardiogram to monitor a user’s biological patterns, to gain a more holistic view of their well-being (Bandodkar, 2016). Furthermore, this wearable sensor sits directly on the skin, so it accounts for the possibility of cracking due to skin expanding and contracting; it’s self-healing, in that it can revitalize and continue to collect after being destroyed. Gravure is helping this industry with its high-quality prints due to its unparalleled accuracy, resolution, ink laydown and cost effectiveness (Bandodkar, 2016). Additionally, these wearable devices can help doctors make more accurate prescriptions for their patients who share the data collected from their wearables. In a study conducted in March 2015, nearly 80% of users that use wearables and fitness trackers feel it would be useful for their doctors to have access to that information (Caouette, 2015). More advanced models like the hybrid lactate and electrocardiogram sensors can be utilized by highly active users like athletes and soldiers to optimize workouts and training as well as preventing injury and illness. Preventative technology like these active wearables solves the problem of body awareness by giving users the data to know their own body better, and gain insight of how their lifestyle can help or hinder their wellbeing.
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Figure 1a: Excerpt image illustrating on-body test configuration
(Bandodkar, 2016). Images show “A) photograph of hybrid sensor B) Location of hybrid sensor for mounting on the human body.”
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Potentiostat Turned ON
0.3 0.0 -0.3 0.3 0.0 -0.3
Figure 1b: Excerpt image illustrating on-body test configuration (Bandodkar,
2016). Images show “C) Cycling resistance profile for on-body tests D) Effect of
amperometric measurement on the electrocardiogram signal before cycling (no sweat state) and duringcycling (sweating state).”
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These wearables may help prevent disease and injury, but it cannot eliminate doctor appointments and prescribed treatments altogether. Luckily, gravure is part of the solution to personalized medication dosages. Additive or 4D manufacturing uses contact printing like gravure, flexography and screen to print active antibodies on layered drug-delivery constructs, for products such as oral film formulations that dissolve in the user’s mouth to deliver the perfect drug dosage specifically for that patient (Hernandez, 2016). Innovation in this field is rare, but this 4D biosensor technology is creating a more personalized experience for all patients, and a more accurate dosage delivery for quicker recovery and ultimately a better life. Gravure protects its users Gravure printed technologies can also help protect its users from harm and to keep them safe. Ammonia-detecting sensors are being developed to potentially be a part of wearable device that changes its visual characteristics when hazardous airborne toxins are present. This technology will be fully printed onto polymer called polyaniline (PANI), which has some of the best properties for detecting gas (Syrový, 2016). PANI is flexible, lightweight and easily mountable to nearly any type of surface, totally metal-free and relatively low cost to produce. Gravure, along with other contact printing like flexography and screen, is a key process in this development due to its unique ability to print continuous image composed of homogeneous layers of ink, as well as its durability to solvents. Furthermore, this technology is projected to be used to help users in the workplace, which would otherwise be unaware of an odorless and highly combustible gas leak. This technology can also be used outside to measure and detect environmental pollution in certain areas in the world. That kind of data collection could tell where and when pollution is peaking around the world, so that environmentalists have a better idea of where to target their efforts.
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There is a similar technology that detects the presence of explosive organic compounds, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT). Raman spectroscopy (RS), a rapid, sensitive and low temperature method of detection, has been proven to be a reliable technique for the detection of various compounds due to its non-destructive nature and ability to provide signature vibrational fingerprints of target molecules (Emamian, 2015). Essentially, this device is able to sense highly explosive material when in vapor form, which would otherwise go undetected in an enclosed space like a trench or mine that contains other debris. Unlike lithography, the gravure process in particular is essential to creating life-saving products like these due to the low cost of production, simplicity and ability to print in low temperature environments. In general, this technology will help save soldiers’ and miners’ lives, because it can detect when TNT is present before having to enter a cave or battlefield. Humidity sensors are in high demand in recent trends, especially for temperature-sensitive environments of the medical and defense industries. Although this product doesn’t directly help users like the aforementioned social entrepreneurial products, humidity sensors assist the manufacturing of highly delicate medical and defense products by monitoring and regulating destructive water vapors. In past years, such humidity sensors were produced via lithography, which got the job done, but as their demand increased, it became cost inefficient. Gravure solves this problem, and manufacturers have since began making this switch to gravure due to its high quality, high print speeds, ability to layer low viscosity inks in low temperature environments, and application of variable ink film thicknesses onto a flexible substrate (Reddy, 2013). Gravure produces solar energy Solar energy is continuously on the rise, and gravure has already been made an integral part of production and improvement. Its continuous imaging is beneficial for high volume printed panels that cover maximum surface area for optimum solar harnessing. In an experimental study, organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) are being further developed to be more flexible, as well as commercially printed at high volume (Kapnopoulos, 2016). As stated in
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the study, this type of flexible solar panel would be ideal for “lightweight energy harvesting applications.” Similar technologies have already been used as a solution to portable solar panels; small panels can roll up into your everyday bag, and much larger panels can be rolled out from a semitrailer over a huge amount of surface area. Portable solar energy is a great example of social entrepreneurship because solar energy is a form of clean energy, and the ability to take that power anywhere solves many problems. Soldiers in the battlefield can be able to recharge their technology easily by carrying a portable solar panel. Lost campers in the woods can use that power to send a call for help that they might not be able to if the radio battery died. The possibilities are endless. Graphene: the next big thing for gravure Supercapacitors have the potential to rid the world of batteries, and graphene is the key to manufacturing improved microsupercapacitors. Graphene, named “the world’s strongest material,” has the most promising acting materials and is highly durable, with an exponentially longer lifetime than a battery (Xiao, 2015). In an experimental study, an improved microelectrode pattern printed on a flexible substrate using the gravure process has been theoretically proven superior to today’s microsupercapacitors, and therefore shows great promise for future technologies. Uses and products for flexible microsupercapacitors solve community problems that are similar to those of portable solar panels, the ability to take a long-lasting clean energy source anywhere puts no limits to where everyday tech users can take their hardware. Similarly, since it is flexible and lightweight, it has been considered to develop these microsupercapacitors into wearable devices, perhaps even a wearable that charges other wearables while they are in use on the user’s body. Graphene is not only a key to this specific technology; it is the solution to a number of other technologies on the rise. Graphene can also be used in the medical field. Material expert Vijayaraghavan gave a TED Talk about the futuristic potential uses for this super material. Along with the ability to create solar cells to be used for supercapacitors, he also addressed that graphene has properties that allow transparent conductive coating, which has the potential for what’s called e-paper, a tablet with the
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same weight and flexibility as a piece of paper (Vijayaraghavan, 2014). As innovative and interesting as that sounds, he mentions a better example of the use of graphene that’s closer based around social entrepreneurship. Graphene is ideal for the development of biological, chemical and gas sensors, similar to the ammonia and humidity sensors previously mentioned. Biological devices printed on a flexible substrate with graphene using gravure can be inserted onto or into the user’s body, and allows for the graphene to “talk with one’s cells” due to the printed electronic circuits (Smith, 2014). Being able to monitor this communication will be a revolution to the medical field and further improve and develop doctor-patient relationships. Everyday users can use this technology individually in order to be more aware of their body’s functionality. Graphene is a solution to a various community issues, and gravure is the best printing process observed thus far that can produce innovative results due to many of its characteristics. Inkjet has also been used to experiment producing graphene products, but it is more suited for manufacturing prototypes to be immediately discarded. Inkjet is also very limited in commercial production due to cost and speed. Gravure is built for high-volume commercial production, and all gravure-printed products have a high-quality resolution and can be continuous image, ideal for the delicate and repetitive graphene products that are in demand. One challenge to printing gravure, despite its ability to use low viscosity inks and print variable ink film thicknesses, is that the formulation of inks compatible with this nearly indestructible material has not been perfected. Relevant research stated such that “the absence of graphene in gravure printing can be attributed to the difficulty in formulating suitable inks since graphene possesses poor dispersion stability in common organic solvents” (Secor, 2014). Despite this absence, as of now, gravure remains the best option for developing graphene technology further.
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Figure 2: Excerpt image illustrating B) Optical microscopy image of the serially connected OPV module showing the angular shifting of printed layers to avoid any shortcut to the device operation C) A fully printed flexible OPV module.
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Conclusion The future of gravure printed electronics is growing exponentially, and it also has a similar growth in developments of printed electronics products based around the idea of social entrepreneurship. This research has found that there are a number of different types of gravure printed electronics products that can solve an issue within a specific community, especially in the medical and defense industries. Such products include a wearable flexible sensor that solves the problem of preventative technology for personal well-being by collecting data about a user’s bodily activity in real time in order to better monitor vitals and prevent injury and illness. Bioprinting drug dosage on a dissolvable substrate for individual patients using gravure solves the problem of personalized drug distribution. Flexible sensors that can detect ammonia, explosive vapors and humidity lower the risk of users in dangerous environments, and could potentially save lives. Gravure has had impactful influence in solving the issue of clean energy by printing high-quality continuous-image solar panels, but is being improved by creating flexible transportable panels. The increased use of graphene for supercapacitors and biological sensors is helping innovate better solutions for clean energy and medical use, and gravure closely fits the specific printing requirements needed for this newly popular super material. These are just a few solutions to problems in a limited amount of industries; there are plenty more issues in more specific niches that gravure can help mobilize.
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Concluding Remarks Gravure is not dead, and printed electronics is one of the reasons why. There will always be room for improvement for workflow efficiency and sustainability in this rather stagnant industry, but the most successful innovations will be based on social entrepreneurship. Technology that directly helps users, improves well-being and saves lives will be the products the industry will want to support. One concern is that the nature of gravure printing is its staple simplicity; it is very hard to innovate the process. Printed electronics is a relatively new field of study that favors gravure right now, but if a new printing process that better accommodates these up-and-coming printed electronic solutions, gravure will become obsolete in this field. For now, until the invention of this futuristic press, it’s safe to say that gravure is one of the leaders of innovation in the field of printed electronics, and will continue to print solutions for users who need them.
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Bandodkar, Amay Jairaj. (2016). Printed Wearable Electrochemical Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring. UC San Diego: NanoEngineering. Retrieved from: https://escholarship.org/uc/ item/3nf886hp Caouette, H. (2015, April 6). Harris Poll Survey Finds Patients Want a Deeper Digital Connection with Their Doctors - eClinicalWorks. Retrieved 2016, from https://www.eclinicalworks.com/ pr-harris-poll-patient-engagement-survey Danko, P. (2013). Graphene Supercapacitors: The End Of Batteries? | EarthTechling. Retrieved 2016, from http://earthtechling. com/2013/02/graphene-supercapacitor-battery-thats-not-a-battery Emamian, S., Eshkeiti, A., Narakathu, B. B., Avuthu, S. G., & Atashbar, M. Z. (2015). Gravure printed flexible surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate for detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 217, 129-135. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2014.10.069 Hernandez, R. (2016). Visions for the Future of Biopharma Manufacturing. Retrieved 2016, from http://www.pharmtech.com/ emerging-trends-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-2016 Kapnopoulos, C., Mekeridis, E. D., Tzounis, L., Polyzoidis, C., Zachariadis, A., Tsimikli, S., . . . Logothetidis, S. (2016). Fully gravure printed organic photovoltaic modules: A straightforward process with a high potential for large scale production. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 144, 724-731. doi:10.1016/j. solmat.2015.10.021 Reddy, A. S., Narakathu, B. B., Eshkeiti, A., Bazuin, B. J., Joyce, M., & Atashbar, M. Z. (2013). Fully printed organic thin film transistors (OTFT) based flexible humidity sensors. 2013 Ieee Sensors. doi:10.1109/icsens.2013.6688309
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Secor, Ethan B., Sooman Lim, Heng Zhang, C. Daniel Frisbie, Lorraine F. Francis, and Mark C. Hersam. “Gravure Printing of Graphene for Large-area Flexible Electronics.” Advanced Materials 26.26 (2014): 4533-538. Web. 2016. Smith, D. (2014). 5 Applications For Graphene, The ‘Wonder Material,’ That Could Change The Way We Live. Retrieved 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/graphene-applications-2014-6 Syrový, T., Kuberský, P., Sapurina, I., Pretl, S., Bober, P., Syrová, L.,… Stejskal, J. (2016). Gravure-printed ammonia sensor based on organic polyaniline colloids. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 225, 510-516. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2015.11.062 Vijayaraghavan, A. (Speaker). (2014, June 20). What is graphene: Aravind Vijayaraghavan at TEDxManchester [Video file]. Retrieved 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EIL5iPGN7QQ Xiao, Y., Huang, L., Zhang, Q., Xu, S., Chen, Q., & Shi, W. (2015). Gravure printing of hybrid MoS2@S-rGO interdigitated electrodes for flexible microsupercapacitors. Appl. Phys. Lett. Applied Physics Letters, 107(1), 013906. doi:10.1063/1.4926570
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JACQUI LUIS Jacqui is a recent graduate from Cal Poly, earning a Bachelor of Science in Graphic Communication with a concentration in Web and Digital Media and a Media Arts, Society and Technology minor. She is currently employed at General Electric Digital as a User Experience Interaction Design Specialist, working on Edge technology and app development on the Predix Platform. Jacqui was involved with Cal Poly’s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship that inspired her research. The work synthesized in this paper was influenced by her experiences working with startup companies. This innovative mindset allowed her to interpret the gravure process beyond the industrial context that focuses on optimizing efficiencies, and to explore other areas of innovation that could optimize lifestyles and benefit communities. Designing for humanity is not the most optimal way for most companies, but this research is intended to spark conversations in the future about social entrepreneurialism in all fields.
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MEET THE TEAM
Cal Poly TAGA 2018
MEET THE TEAM
Not pictured: Aileen Vasquez, Alice Ish, Allie Nishimi, Amber Huang, Ana Gonzalez, Audrey Johnson, Barrett Lo, Charles Elste, Christine Peters, Cynthia Renteria, Ella Tadmor, Emma Eckert, Erika Arteaga, Hanna Anderson, Kelly Chiu, Kira Svinth, Madi Stepherson, Maya Jain, Mika Arie, Olivia Chan, Reyna Castaneda, Seena Salehian, and Vivian Tran
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President Jasper Lim is a third year at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, studying Graphic Communication and concentrating in Web & Digital Media. He is from the island of Alameda and enjoys taking breaks from school to visit his friends and family back home. For fun, Jasper likes to explore cities with friends, share good food with them, and capture their moments on his camera. He also has a passion for singing and is a part of Cal Poly’s premiere a cappella group, Take It SLO. Jasper is passionate about user experience design, because he believes there is a unique opportunity to create meaningful and thoughtful interactions between humans and software. He aims to further study this field in graduate school. As President of TAGA, Jasper has learned much from his team’s diligence, compassion, and patience and is proud of the work they’ve done this year. Jasper will miss his team but wishes each one the best as some move on to pursuing careers after college.
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Vice President/ Treasurer Molly McCarthy is a third year Graphic Communication major from Burlington, Vermont. Since moving to the central coast of California, she has enjoyed hiking, going to the beach, and exploring various parts of the golden coast. She chose to attend Cal Poly for its prestigious program within the graphic arts. She is concentrating in Graphic Communication Management and is hoping to pursue a career in project management or marketing. Her role as Vice President includes handling internal affairs, managing student coordinators, and overseeing the journal from ideation to output. She is excited to debut the journal at this year’s conference after seeing her team’s hard work all throughout the past year.
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Production Coordinator Ciara Lane is from Alameda, California in the East Bay Area. She is a Graphic Communication Management major and is minoring in Integrated Marketing Communications. For fun, Ciara enjoys hiking, going to the beach, spending time with her friends and family, and traveling. Last summer, Ciara studied abroad in Barcelona, Spain and visited her family who lives in Ireland. Ciara is a dual-citizen and hopes to work in Ireland at some point during her career. This summer, Ciara will be a Sales Management Intern at PepsiCo. After graduating, Ciara hopes to continue a career in Sales Management and wants to work in a team-oriented environment. On the TAGA Executive Board, Ciara served as the Production Coordinator and was responsible for scheduling all production runs as well as coordinated donation and outsourcing options with service and product vendors. Ciara’s favorite takeaway from being involved with TAGA was the opportunity to meet the club and executive board team as well as developing closer relationships with the club’s Graphic Communication faculty advisors.
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Marketing Coordinator Kristen Nagamatsu is from San Jose, and is a second year Graphic Communication student concentrating in Graphics for Packaging. She loves spending time with her friends and family, as well as growing as a designer, student, and leader. In her free time, Kristen enjoys hand-lettering, crafting, and playing basketball. She hopes to spend the rest of her time in San Luis Obispo learning more about the print and packaging industry, and aspires to pursue a career in that field. As Marketing Coordinator in TAGA, she leads a team responsible for fundraising and maintaining the club’s social media platforms. Kristen’s favorite part of TAGA is seeing people with different talents come together and work toward a common goal, as well as watching club members grow in their confidence and abilities.
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Digital Coordinator Ashley Chen is a second year Graphic Communication major from Irvine, California. She is passionate about capturing moments through photography and exploring new design styles. She loves to explore the outdoors with family and friends. Ashley is hoping to work in various design positions and one day hold the position of Creative Director in the future. As the Digital Coordinator, she has learned new leadership skills through managing and working with her team to build the digital format of the technical journal and website as a whole. Ashley has learned a lot through her hands on experience with TAGA the past two years and is excited to apply this knowledge towards future projects.
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Research Coordinator Madeline Hagarty is from Half Moon Bay, California and is a third year Graphic Communication major with a concentration in Web and Digital Media. She enjoys running and painting, and has been a member of Cal Poly TAGA for three years. Outside of TAGA, Madeline aspires to work in a UX/UI design post graduation and looks forward to exploring all that the Graphic Communication industry has to offer. As Research Coordinator, she worked with professors and students within the Graphic Communication Department to gather student research papers for this year’s journal. Madeline has enjoyed being a part of TAGA for the past three years, as it is a perfect example of Cal Poly’s Learn by Doing motto.
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Design Coordinator Ryan Hutson is from San Carlos, California. He is a fifth year Art and Design major concentrating in Graphic Design. He enjoys spending his free time outdoors, attending concerts, and practicing design. After graduating, Ryan’s goal is to pursue a career in branding and identity design. His role as Design Coordinator includes leading a team through the ideation, exploration, and refinement to create this journal while applying principles of design to clearly communicate its contents. Being a part of TAGA has given Ryan the opportunity to expand his knowledge in the printing industry, as well as lead and work alongside other talented individuals.
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134 · Colophon
This journal was designed using Adobe Illustrator and Adobe InDesign. The text face is set in Sabon. The captions and headers are set in Aktiv Grotesk.
All work was done under the guidance of Graphic Communication professors Brian Lawler and Peter Schlosser. Files were printed using EFI’s Fiery Command Workstation and the Konica-Minolta C1100 digital press. The cover was digitally enhanced on a Scodix Ultra Pro Foil at Presentation Folder, Inc. The cover stock used is Pacesetter Digital Gloss 100 lb. Cover. The text stock used was SAPPI McCoy 100 lb. Silk Text. The vellum stock used was Glama Natural Clear paper 40 lb bond translucent vellum. Substrates were cut to size using the Polar 92X Cutter, and the journal was perfect bound using the Müller Martini Amigo 1580 Perfect Binder, with help from the Graphic Communication Department’s ElectroMechanical Technician Robyn Burns.
The journal was bound using a Müller Martini Amigo perfect binder and sheets were cut to size on a Polar Cutter.
The Cal Poly TAGA website (calpolytaga.com) was published using Squarespace.
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THANK YOU Acknowledgments
The 2017–2018 Cal Poly TAGA Student Chapter would like to thank the following people for their help and generous contributions:
Thank you to our faculty and staff:
Professor Brian Lawler, Chapter Co-Advisor Professor Peter Schlosser, Chapter Co-Advisor Dr. Ken Macro, GrC Department Chair Dr. Xiaoying Rong Professor Lorraine Donegan Professor Charmaine Martinez, Art and Design faculty Professor Bruno Ribeiro, Art and Design faculty Eric Johnson, GrC staff Robyn Burns, GrC staff
Sponsors and Supporters Brian Lawler Frank Romano Malcolm Keif, Cal Poly GrC Jules VanSant, PPI Association Michael Bialko, Kodak Dennis Kercher, Scodix, Inc. Paul Cousineau
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