June 2022 California Cattleman magazine

Page 1

June 2022

In this issue... Ag land values continue to climb Beef market insights agriculture addresses mental health June 2022 California Cattleman 1


CLM REPRESENTATIVES Jake Parnell ..........................916-662-1298 George Gookin .................. 209-482-1648 Rex Whittle..........................209-996-6994 Mark Fischer ....................... 209-768-6522 Kris Gudel .............................916-208-7258 Steve Bianchi .....................707-484-3903 Jason Dailey ........................ 916-439-7761 Brett Friend ........................... 510-685-4870 Tod Radelfinger ..................775-901-3332 NEW PLUMAS/LASSEN COUNTY AND WESTERN NEVADA REPRESENTATIVE:


Featuring 2,500 Head of Feeder Cattle on these Wednesdays: JUNE 1 • JUNE 15 JUNE 29 • JULY 20 No Sale the Week of July 4th

Bowdy Griffen ....................530-906-5713

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AUCTION MARKET Address ..12495 E. Stockton Blvd., Galt, CA Office...........................................209-745-1515 Fax ............................................... 209-745-1582

Website/Market Report ...www.clmgalt.com Web Broadcast ......www.lmaauctions.com

Upcoming Western Video Market Sales: June 9 • July 11-13 2 California Cattleman June 2021













1221 H Street Sacramento CA 95814 (916) 444-0845

YOUR ASSOCIATION ALWAYS AIMED AT SUCCESS by CCA Second Vice President Trevor Freitas Having lived in the Central Valley my entire life I’ve always considered myself well-versed in California cattle production. Now in my sixth year as a CCA officer I can say my knowledge of California agriculture has increased exponentially. My time as a CCA officer has shown me how unique our state is in terms of cattle production. The climates, grass seasons, cattle breeds and regulations are just a few of the things that make my cattle background different from producers in every other area of our incredibly large, diverse state. Though there are many things that separate us and make each of our business operations different from one another, I am often reminded that the issues that concern us and the reasons we love our way of life are very similar. Because of this it is imperative that we work together to help our livelihoods continue. From the cow-calf sector to the feedyard we each face our unique trials and challenges but something that impacts us all is water and though there are no easy solutions as we enter our third year of severe drought, it is a harsh reminder that we have got to do something to fix the ongoing dilemma of water shortage. As SGMA becomes a reality in the Central Valley changes in production practices have already had drastic effects on forage markets and those shockwaves can be felt throughout the western U.S. growing regions. As a CCA officer team water is something I hope we can all put our heads together on to enact new ideas, see change and ensure a better future for our operations and the next generation. As a cattle feeder, I am pleased by the discussions that took place at our recent California and Arizona Feeder Meeting in San Diego. The speakers were on point and the messages were well-received. I would also like to convey my greatest appreciation on behalf of the feeder industry in our state for our CCA lobbyists Kirk Wilbur and Jason Bryant. They recently took

the lead on killing AB 2764, known as the Anti-CAFO Bill. It didn’t make it through the assembly, which was a major win for CCA and the California cattle business. That said, I suspect we will see a similar bill in the works again soon. Though we don’t know where, when or how the issue will arise again, I am confident we have the right team in place to face similar legislative proposals when they come about. Another feeder issue I want to mention and make our membership aware of is one that is not new to West Coast feeders but has been compounded in the last year as the labor shortage has escalated. Getting commodities from the Midwest to California via our traditional rail system has created dire problems for those of us in the feeder business. Though cow-calf producers may not have been immediately impacted, it is a stark reminder that when one sector is impacted, we will all eventually be impacted in some way. I would like to assure my fellow feeders and even cowcalf producers that we are committed to seeing action on the state and even federal level to alleviate the problems we are currently seeing. As I prepare to attend the annual CCA and CCW Midyear Meeting near Sacramento this month, I ask that you please let your CCA leadership team know how you feel about these and other pressing issues. I always appreciate hearing from members whether it’s a current issue we are dealing with or something that has arisen that may be specific to their operation. As an officer I am always looking any input that will help guide the direction of the association. There is definitely no shortage of issues that cause frustration among producers so as an officer I always welcome your perspectives. Your ideas and insights might be exactly what we need to hear. The energy and input of our membership is essential in driving this association toward success on behalf of us all.

JUNE 2022

Volume 105, Issue 6



CATTLEMEN’S COLUMN Speaking for us all


BUNKHOUSE From horse arena to legislative arena


YOUR DUES DOLLARS AT WORK CCA opposes market mandates


HERD HEALTH CHECK Ensuring breeding success


NATIONAL STAGE We’re more alike than you’d think


BEEF ABROAD Beef exports topping records in Q1



Analysis of the extension service Land values keep climbing Agriculture unites to address mental health Beef market snapshot


Obituaries and Wedding Bells Buyers’ Guide Advertisers Index

12 22 26 30

33-35 36 42

This month’s cover photo, taken by Meinzahn Photography, shows commercial cattle grazing at Pfeiffer Beach, near Big Sur.

Do you have a passion for photography? Do you have a picture you would like to see on the cover of this publication? Contact us at magazine@calcattlemen.org. We’d love to consider your photos!


CCA & CCW MIDYEAR MEETING Murieta Inn & Spa Rancho Murieta

JULY 25-27

NCBA SUMMER MEETING Nugget Casino Resort, Sparks, Nev.

NOV. 30-DEC. 2

106TH CCA & CCW CONVENTION Nugget Casino Resort, Sparks, Nev.

SERVING CALIFORNIA BEEF PRODUCERS SINCE 1917 Bolded names and businesses in editorial represent only current members of the California Cattlmen’s Association or California CattleWomen, Inc. For questions about your membership status, contact the CCA office at (916) 444-0845. The California Cattleman (Publication #8-3600) is published monthly except July/August is combined by the California Cattlemen’s Association, 1221 H Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, for $20/year, or as part of the annual membership dues. All material and photos within may not be reproduced without permission from publisher. Periodical postage paid at Jefferson, Mo. National Advertising Group: The Cattle Connection/The Powell Group, 4162-B Carmichael Ct, Montgomery, AL 36106, (334) 271-6100. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: California Cattleman, 1221 H Street, Sacramento, CA 95814

June 2022 California Cattleman 5

BUNKHOUSE PASSION FOR POLITICAL ACTION by California Cattlemen’s Foundation Public Policy Advocate Lindsay McLaggan Howdy! I am Lindsay McLaggan, the public policy advocate at the California Cattlemen’s Foundation (CCF). I am excited to be a part of this team and use my legislative experience to advocate on behalf of cattlemen through the regulatory process. Born and raised in San Jose, I attended an immersion public school where I had the opportunity to become fluent in Spanish. However, despite living in the city, at 15, I began attending a rural boarding school in Whitmore where we raised cows, chickens, goats and gardened. My interest in legislation developed when California outlawed my boarding school from operating because it refused state funds and operational mandates outlawing Christian teachings. This reality inspired me to expand my education and acquire the skills to advocate successfully. As a result, I went on to earn an associate degree in political science from Santa Barbara City College, a bachelor’s degree in international relations and economics from California State University, Sacramento, and a master’s degree in business management from Western Governor’s University. Before coming on board with CCF, I served as a legislative aide/scheduler for Assemblywoman Megan Dahle, a dry land wheat farmer in Bieber representing the First Assembly District. Before that, I worked as a fundraiser for Capital Development Strategies and later as an Fair Political Practices Commission (FPPC) administrative assistant at Olson Hagel and Fishburn. Outside of my political experience, I have worked with industrial HVAC installation projects part-time at REO Mechanical, translated legal documents at a workman’s compensation law firm for Hispanic laborers in need of representation and have had several bartending/service jobs along the way. While in school, I studied abroad in Spain and Taiwan to perfect my Spanish and Chinese and backpacked alone through 23 countries (effectively traumatizing my parents). On top of my travels, I have used my experience as a three-sport collegiate athlete in lacrosse, rugby and cheer to found three sustainable women’s sports teams. I established the national women’s lacrosse team in Jamaica on a threemonth mission trip, helped develop the Santa Barbara Mermaids women’s rugby team as a founding member and was the varsity head lacrosse coach at Rio Americano High School during their first two California Interscholastic Federation

6 California Cattleman June 2021

seasons. Making my heart happy, all three of these teams are still operating. In addition to my athletics and academic accomplishments, I recently competed in my first beauty pageant. I was crowned Miss Placer County in June 2021 through Up Pageantry. So naturally, pageantry led me to the rodeo queen world. Since then, I have competed for the Miss Rodeo USA title in Oklahoma. This competition consisted of one whole week of giving speeches, horsemanship competitions and representing the International Pro Rodeo Association during the International Finals Rodeo 52 World Championships. I didn’t win the Miss Rodeo USA title, but I was honored to be voted Miss Congeniality by my fellow contestants. Even though my rodeo queen days are over, horseback riding is one of my passions. I get my fix by sitting on the board of directors for REEL Online Training, awarding youth equestrian scholarships. I am incredibly excited to overlap my knowledge of the legislative process with my passion for agriculture and livestock care to serve our cattle industry effectively. As the public policy advocate, I intend to advance the Foundation’s advocacy priorities and educate state and federal policymakers about the benefits of cattle grazing and beef production. I look forward to working with you in the future, and I feel blessed to join CCF!

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June 2021 California Cattleman 7

YOUR DUES DOLLARS AT WORK CCA CONTINUES TO LEAD IN OPPOSING MARKET MANDATES by CCA Vice President of Government Affairs Kirk Wilbur Earlier this year, Sen. Deb Fischer (R-Neb.) introduced S. 4030, the Cattle Price Discovery and Transparency Act of 2022 (often referred to as the “Grassley-Fischer bill,” as the legislation represents a compromise between Fischer’s S. 543 and Sen. Chuck Grassley’s (R-IA) S. 949, both introduced in March of 2021). CCA strongly opposes Grassley-Fischer primarily because the legislation establishes regional mandatory minimums for the negotiated trade of fed cattle, restricting the ability of producers to utilize alternative marketing arrangements (AMAs) which enable them to market their cattle at a premium. In line with CCA’s opposition to the Grassley-Fischer bill, CCA’s Price Discovery Subcommittee earlier this year drafted a resolution opposing any mandates on negotiated cash trade volumes for cattle, as well as any other policies which limit producers’ freedom to utilize AMAs. CCA’s leadership brought this resolution before the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) ahead of the 2022 Cattle Industry Convention held in Houston this past February. As a result of CCA’s advocacy, NCBA adopted a policy stating that the national association “opposes any mandate on cash trade volumes for cattle or any other legislative or regulatory policies that would limit the methods producers utilize to market cattle.” CCA and NCBA have good reason to be concerned by the specter of government mandates: according to a Texas A&M study, the short-term impact of trade mandates like those contained in the Grassley-Fischer bill would be “a $2.5 billion negative impact in the first year and a cumulative negative impact of $16 billion over 10 years…leveled mainly on cattle producers.” Analysts have also raised concerns that the bill would result in increased costs and decreased consumer choice in the retail and foodservice sectors. In early April, the Grassley-Fischer bill was referred to the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. Ahead of an April hearing in that committee, CCA submitted a letter to Chairwoman Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) and Ranking Member John Boozman (R-AR) announcing our strong opposition to the bill. In the letter, CCA noted that “By imposing mandatory minimums in each region of the country, S. 4030 would be guaranteed to severely disrupt the way California cattle ranchers have chosen to market their cattle.” NCBA’s Livestock Marketing Council, the American National CattleWomen and 27 other state livestock associations also voiced their opposition to the Grassley-Fisher bill ahead of the hearing in the Senate. The Cattle Price Discovery and Transparency Act was heard before the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry on April 26. NCBA and Kansas Livestock Association member Shawn Tiffany testified at the hearing, noting that “Every producer wants fair market value for the 8 California Cattleman June 2021

animals we raise and produce and many of us achieve that true value through valuebased alternative marketing arrangements. Accordingly,” Tiffany continued, “I do not support a mandate of any kind. Regardless of how well intentioned the concept of helping producers obtain fair market value for their animals, the end result will be fewer marketing options for U.S. producers.” Subsequent to the Grassley-Fischer bill’s initial committee hearing, CCA staff met with representatives for both California Senators Dianne Feinstein and Alex Padilla to underscore our opposition to the mandatory minimums the bill would establish. While neither Feinstein nor Padilla sit on the Committee on Agriculture, Forestry and Nutrition, their opposition to the bill could help ensure that the legislation does not advance through the Committee to the Senate floor. As of press time, the Grassley-Fischer bill had not gone through committee markup – the process by which legislation is debated and amended in Committee. CCA will keep members apprised of any developments regarding the bill via this publication and CCA’s other communications. While CCA is staunchly opposed to the market-altering mandates enshrined in this bill, our organization is certainly supportive of several other mechanisms which can enhance price discovery and market transparency. In advocating our opposition to mandatory minimums before the Senate, CCA and other livestock associations have been careful to highlight various alternative policies which would improve ranchers’ ability to realize higher returns for the sale of cattle. In our lobbying efforts before the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Forestry and Nutrition, for instance, CCA and other livestock associations have been clear that we support “less intrusive transparency measures,” such as the establishment of a cattle contract library pilot program, amending Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) to ensure that more trades are reflected in daily and weekly cattle market reports and expanding current LMR regions to avoid circumstances where marketing data is excluded from LMR reporting due to confidentiality concerns within existing regions. In fact, NCBA President Don Schiefelbein reiterated the cattle industry’s support for these policies during a House Agriculture Committee hearing on April 27 – the day after the Grassley-Fischer bill was first heard in the other chamber of Congress. CCA – buoyed by our grassroots membership and the expertise of our Price Discovery Subcommittee – will continue to lead national efforts to enhance price discovery and transparency in the cattle markets and will continue to keep our membership informed as these efforts move forward.





When marketing calves at TLAY, don't forget how essential the 2nd round of shots is. Make sure to include a modified live vaccination!





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June 2021 California Cattleman 9

Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack Nominates Alexis Taylor to Serve as Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs Alexis Taylor, Oregon’s Agriculture Department director, has been nominated by the Biden White House to serve in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An announcement by the White House of nine nominees said Taylor had been appointed to serve as under secretary for trade and foreign agricultural affairs in the department. In part the announcement included thoughts from USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack who said, “Alexis Taylor has dedicated her life to public service. She has not only spent her career serving the American people through her work in U.S. agricultural and trade policy, but also as a Veteran of the U.S. Army. Her nomination builds upon USDA’s commitment to link U.S. agriculture to the world to enhance export opportunities for American farmers and producers and increase global food security. Alexis currently serves as the Director of the Oregon Department of Agriculture, a position she was appointed to in December 2016 by Gov. Kate Brown, where she oversees policy directives for Oregon’s 38 programs and its 500 employees. She received her Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and minor in Communications from Iowa State University.” Vilsack continued, “Alexis is a collaborative leader with a track record of working towards large-scale solutions in partnership with the communities she serves. This spirit and approach position her uniquely for this role and will ensure cohesiveness between USDA and the Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs team. I am confident Alexis is the right person to lead as we continue to address global food security, promote American exports across the globe and strengthen trade

relationships with our global partners.” U.S. Meat Export Federation (USMEF) President and CEO Dan Halstrom issued this statement in support of the nomination: “USMEF is very anxious to see this important position filled, and Alexis Taylor is an outstanding nominee. USMEF and our member companies had many opportunities to work with Ms. Taylor in her previous roles at USDA and we are confident she will be a strong and effective advocate for U.S. exporters and all of U.S. agriculture.” Taylor has worked closely with beef industry leaders in Oregon and other parts of the country and is considered to be an ally of beef producers. Her nomination and subsequent appointment is widely supported by agriculture producers in various food production sectors. House Agriculture Committee Republican Leader Glenn “GT” Thompson noted: “While I would have preferred to see this nomination much sooner, I am pleased President Biden has selected Alexis Taylor to serve as the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs. This position is immensely helpful to our producers, will expand market access and trade promotion opportunities, and can assist the Administration in navigating the unyielding global supply chain crisis.” Thought it seems there is an overwhelming approval of this nomination amongst agriculture advocates, Taylor will have to go through the confirmation process by the Senate before formally being installed in the position.

Biden NEPA Framework Compromises Environmental, Economic Goals On April 19, the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) and the Public Lands Council (PLC) expressed concern that the Biden administration’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) rule undermines progress made over the last several years at a time when efficient regulatory processes are critical to environmental and economic sustainability. “When it comes to federal regulations, ranchers are often caught in the middle of political whiplash, and this CEQ process is no exception,” said NCBA Executive Director of Natural Resources and PLC Executive Director Kaitlynn Glover. “Livestock producers and land managers need regulatory certainty and consistency. By returning to a pre-2020 standard, this rule returns environmental analysis to a failed model that industry and government have long agreed is woefully inadequate and inefficient. This failed model will stall important 10 California Cattleman June 2021

environmental projects, delay critical infrastructure improvements, and impede progress made as part of ongoing NEPA processes.” In addition to their role in water, transportation, and conservation projects nationwide, NEPA regulations play a foundational role in all activities on federal lands. Over the past several decades, NEPA processes have become inefficient and the source of an immense amount of regulatory red tape and uncertainty as producers renew grazing permits, improve rangeland, and participate in USDA voluntary conservation programs. NCBA and PLC, in conjunction with the American Sheep Industry Association, previously submitted comments in response to the Council for Environmental Quality’s (CEQ) Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and have long advocated for a NEPA process that is targeted, concise and timely.

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EXTENSION ANALYSIS Report Examines University of California’s (UC) Agricultural and Natural Resource Programs from California Legislative Analyst’s Office


UC’s agricultural and natural resource programs date back nearly to the university’s founding. Historically, the Legislature has granted UC significant flexibility to design and implement these programs, including determining program goals, setting funding levels and tracking outcomes. In recent years, the state has taken a more proactive role, especially in setting program funding levels. This report aims both to improve the Legislature’s understanding of these programs and assist future state budget decisions. The report has three parts. The first part provides background on UC’s agricultural and natural resource programs. The second part provides a high‑level assessment, and the third part provides recommendations for improving legislative oversight of these programs.


In this section, we begin with an overview of university agricultural and natural resource programs, next discuss the structure of UC’s programs, and then provide staffing and budget information for UC’s programs.


Federal Government Supports Two Main University Agricultural Programs. The National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA)—a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture—provides funding to universities in each state to implement two programs, described below. Agricultural Experiment Stations. Agricultural Experiment Stations (also referred to as “experiment stations” in this report) are research centers at universities that focus on agriculture and natural resources, among other related topics. These centers primarily support basic research, though some projects focus on applied research. As part of their participation in this program, universities must submit and receive approval from NIFA for their associated research projects. Cooperative Extension. The national Cooperative Extension System supports a network of campus and community‑based experts conducting applied research and outreach to farmers, industry, and other stakeholders. The program consists of a partnership between the federal government, public research universities and local governments. Land Grant Universities Implement These Programs. Congress created these programs more than 100 years ago through three key statutes. The first of these statutes— the Morrill Act—granted states land to establish public universities focused on instruction in agriculture and 12 California Cattleman June 2022

other subjects. Years later, Congress provided ongoing funding to these institutions—now known as “land grant universities”—to implement the Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension programs. According to NIFA, these programs helped secure the nation’s food supply and agricultural workforce during the world wars and Great Depression, as well as boosted American agricultural productivity in the postwar years. Today, land grant universities in each state continue to administer federal agricultural research and extension programs. The UC system is California’s land grant institution (established using funds from the sale of land granted to the state under the Morrill Act). Scope of Programs Have Broadened. Over the years, the federal government, states and land grant universities have expanded the scope and specific activities undertaken by the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension. These changes have been particularly notable for Cooperative Extension, which supports many additional activities compared to when it was first established in the early 20th century. For example, in the 1970s, the federal government established and began funding a new Cooperative Extension nutrition education program. At about the same time, several land grant universities (including UC) created the Cooperative Extension Master Gardener program, and, in California, the state began providing ongoing Cooperative Extension funding for a new pest management program. As a result of these and many other changes, land grant universities today manage large and varied portfolios of research and outreach activities covering many national, state and local issues. UC Has Developed Goals for These Programs. Federal statute sets broad policy goals for experiment stations and Cooperative Extension, whereas California state law generally is silent on these programs. Working within these few parameters, NIFA and land grant universities set specific program goals. In its guidance to land grant universities, NIFA identifies several overarching program goals, such as promoting food security, developing rural economies and promoting American agricultural exports. As a condition of receiving federal funding, universities must align their research and outreach activities with these program goals. UC has developed more specific long‑ and near‑term program goals, such as building climate‑resilient ecosystems and strengthening research partnerships. According to UC, these goals are periodically reviewed and updated to reflect new developments and emerging issues. Programs Report a Wide Variety of Outcomes. Each year, UC summarizes program outcomes for the experiment

stations and Cooperative Extension, submitting an over 100‑page report to the federal government and making an approximately 20‑page report available to the general public. In 2019‑20, UC reported that the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension together produced 20 new ideas leading to patents, including the invention of new crop varieties. In addition, the programs sponsored a combined 1,150 policy engagement activities, created 2,240 educational materials, provided over 30,000 workshops and meetings and had 708,400 unique educational interactions with adults and youth. The programs’ activities, workshops and interactions spanned various groups and topics, ranging from workshops for farmers seeking to learn new agricultural techniques to agricultural educational programs for youth.


UC’s Programs Are Overseen by a Central Office. UC’s agricultural and natural resource programs have a complex administrative structure. The UC division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR)—a functional unit of the UC Office of the President, located in Oakland— is the core administering body and is overseen by an executive vice president. Formally, UC ANR oversees both Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension. In practice, however, the bulk of the division’s oversight and activities is focused on Cooperative Extension. UC Has Four Experiment Stations. Shown below, these “stations” are embedded within certain academic departments at the Berkeley, Davis and Riverside campuses. Specifically, each of these campuses has a college focusing on agriculture and natural resources that supports experiment station research, as does UC Davis’s School of Veterinary Medicine. The four deans of these particular colleges oversee their respective experiment stations in partnership with UC ANR. Faculty receiving experiment station funds focus their efforts on federally approved research projects. Faculty within these colleges also conduct other research outside of NIFA‑approved projects. This other research is supported by various fund sources, including state General Fund and competitive grants and contracts from other federal and state agencies. UC Cooperative Extension Operates Out of Numerous Sites. Though some Cooperative Extension program staff also are located on UC campuses, many Cooperative Extension staff work at off‑campus sites. UC has Cooperative Extension offices in 57 of the state’s 58 counties, with multiple offices in some counties. UC ANR typically leases these offices from county governments. UC ANR also owns and manages nine sites known as “Research and Extension Centers.” These centers support specialized applied research and host outreach activities. UC Cooperative Extension experts conduct most of the research at these centers, but they allow other researchers from UC and external institutions also to use the facilities. Cooperative Extension Also Administers 13 Statewide Programs. These programs span various areas, including gardening, nutrition education and pest management. These programs vary in geographic footprint, staff and scope. For example, the UC Master Gardener Program operates in numerous counties, relies heavily on volunteers, and focuses

on home horticulture, pest management, and landscaping, among other topics. In contrast, another program—the Nutrition Policy Institute—is a single research institute located on the Berkeley campus that hires only paid research experts who focus almost exclusively on nutrition research and program evaluation for certain nutrition education programs.


Faculty Conduct Research at the Experiment Stations. At UC, Agricultural Experiment Station researchers are tenured or tenure‑track faculty. Unlike most faculty members, who are expected to divide their time between instruction, research and public service, faculty at the experiment stations are expected to devote their time primarily to their federally approved research projects. Many faculty, however, have joint appointments at the experiment stations and general campuses and thus divide their time between their federally approved projects and their general instruction and other research responsibilities. According to UC, experiment stations employ over 550 researchers conducting over 1,300 research projects annually. Specialists and Advisors Are Key Academic Employees at Cooperative Extension. In contrast to faculty at the experiment stations, academic employees at UC Cooperative Extension historically have not held faculty titles. Rather, academic employees at Cooperative Extension generally fall into one of two groups: Specialists. Specialists are located on UC campuses and tend to focus their efforts on statewide or regional issues. Of the 104 full‑time equivalent (FTE) specialists ...CONTINUED ON PAGE 14

June 2022 California Cattleman 13

...CONTINUED FROM PAGE 13 employed in 2019‑20, a majority (62) were located at UC Davis, followed by UC Berkeley (18) and UC Riverside (17). A handful of specialists are located at three additional campuses (Merced, Santa Barbara and Santa Cruz), and a small number are located at on‑ or off‑campus sites implementing Cooperative Extension statewide programs. (In recent years, some specialists have had joint appointments as experiment station researchers and/or general campus faculty. These specialists divide their time and responsibilities accordingly.) Advisors. Advisors also are subject matter experts but work off campus in Cooperative Extension county offices or Research and Extension Centers. Advisors are expected to be closely involved in their local communities, tailoring their research and outreach activities to community needs. Of the 150 FTE advisors employed in 2019‑20, Central Valley counties had the most advisors, likely due to the region’s disproportionate share of agricultural production in California. Beyond specialists and advisors, Cooperative Extension employs a handful of academic employees with other job titles, such as research scientists and program coordinators. In 2019‑20, 32 FTE employees fell into one of these other categories. Most of these academic experts work in one of Cooperative Extension’s statewide institutes or programs. Nonacademic Staff Help Deliver Cooperative Extension Programs. In addition to academic experts, Cooperative Extension employed 738 nonacademic staff in 2019‑20. These staff support various program implementation functions. For example, these staff help implement Master Gardener and 4‑H youth development programs at the local level. Nonacademic staff also provide basic administrative services—for example, processing payroll and performing clerical duties. Central leadership and administrative staff at UC ANR also are included in this count.


Programs Receive Funding From Several Sources. The state is by far the largest contributor of ongoing operating funds for both the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension. NIFA also provides ongoing federal support— known as “capacity grants”—to these programs. Federal capacity grant allocations are based primarily on each state’s rural and farm population. States are required to match federal capacity grant funding on a dollar‑for‑dollar basis. As evident from the figure, ongoing state support in California far exceeds the required state match. UC Cooperative Extension also receives ongoing support from UC‑generated sources (such as endowment income) and local governments, with a portion of local support reflecting in‑kind resources (such as county facilities or equipment). In addition to ongoing funds, researchers and staff in both programs apply for one‑time competitive grants to support specific research and outreach projects. These competitive grants come from federal, state and private sources, but the federal government is the largest source of this funding. UC ANR Administers Some, Though Not All, Funds. UC ANR primarily oversees federal, state and university funding for Cooperative Extension. (Local support for Cooperative Extension typically is arranged through local agreements between county extension offices and their 14 California Cattleman June 2021

constituent county governments.) UC ANR also administers federal capacity grants to the experiment stations. UC ANR, however, does not administer state funding for the experiment stations. Rather, the university allocates these funds directly to the stations, which, in turn, allocate them among their specific research projects. Experiment station faculty also apply directly for competitive grants without direct involvement from UC ANR. State Recently Began Line‑Item Budgeting UC ANR. Historically, the state granted UC significant discretion to determine how much of UC’s state funding to provide to the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension. The state began changing its approach a few years ago, becoming more proactive in setting Cooperative Extension funding levels. As of 2021‑22, the state budget contains a line item specifically for UC ANR. This line item provides greater transparency over ANR budgeting and gives the Legislature easier control over making annual Cooperative Extension funding adjustments. The line item solely contains state funding for Cooperative Extension, with state funding for the experiment stations still embedded within UC’s main budget appropriation (meaning UC still effectively decides how much to provide for the stations each year).


State Has Role in Supporting Agricultural and Natural Resource Programs. The state perennially faces agricultural and natural resource challenges that require concerted, sustained effort to address. Often these types of issues involve inherent collective action problems, where individual companies or groups lack incentive to fully address the issues on their own. For example, developing alternative pest‑management practices that reduce pesticide use is costly, yet, once developed and implemented, the new practices can accrue statewide benefits to many companies and groups. Also, in some cases, the state is in a better position than companies and local governments to lead and coordinate responses to agricultural and natural resource‑related challenges. Moreover, the state can use agricultural and natural resource programs to promote equity—ensuring small farmers, rural communities and other stakeholders with limited resources have access to accurate and credible information as well as technical assistance and support. Experiment Station Budget Lacks Transparency. Though we believe the state has a role in supporting these programs, we identified some shortcomings with the ways the programs are currently budgeted and overseen. One shortcoming we encountered was in obtaining basic budget information for the Agricultural Experiment Stations. Budget information for Cooperative Extension was much more readily available. For example, while existing university budget displays show how funds are allocated within Cooperative Extension, the university took several weeks to provide information on how much General Fund is allocated to each experiment station, and UC could not provide a breakdown of spending within each station. The lack of comparably detailed information on experiment station funding likely is a function of UC ANR’s more limited role in overseeing and administering funds for that program. Compounding this lack of transparency, the Legislature does not line‑item budget the experiment station budget like it does for Cooperative Extension, even though both programs are intended to address key state agricultural and natural

resource issues in a coordinated effort. State Lacks Sufficient Information for Annually Adjusting Program Funding Levels. Another shortcoming with budgeting for the programs is the limited fiscal information currently available to the Legislature. Though UC annually provides some information on past Cooperative Extension spending, it does not provide comparable, past spending information for the experiment stations. Moreover, it does not provide information on cost pressures and staffing needs for the upcoming budget year for either the experiment stations or Cooperative Extension. State Lacks Oversight and Accountability Over Programs. Despite having a compelling interest in the programs and being their primary source of ongoing funding, the state lacks two other key avenues for overseeing these programs and holding UC accountable. First, the programs lack clear state goals. Having clearly defined statutory goals enables the Legislature to ensure spending decisions and program activities are aligned with state needs. Second, the Legislature lacks regular reporting on program activities and outcomes. Though UC ANR publicly releases an annual report that highlights notable accomplishments, the report does not provide the Legislature a consistent set of metrics to regularly track. Without this type of performance reporting, the state will continue to have difficulty knowing if program activities are well aligned with its program goals and meeting those goals effectively. Though we heard many anecdotes from stakeholders of experiment station and Cooperative Extension activities with clear statewide and local benefits, the state has not set forth any specific outcomes measures by which it intends to assess the effectiveness of these programs on a regular basis.


Recommend More Legislative Oversight. Given the state’s significant role in funding these programs and the recent decision to budget for Cooperative Extension directly, we believe more legislative involvement in these programs is warranted. Below, we offer three recommendations to improve budgeting for these programs and enhance legislative oversight. Identify Funding for Experiment Stations in UC ANR Budget Item. Given the intended nexus between the Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension programs in researching and educating the public, we believe directly budgeting for the experiment stations (in addition to Cooperative Extension) is warranted. Under this approach, the state would have a line item in the annual budget for UC’s agricultural and natural resource programs, with separate schedules for the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension. Such an approach would provide more transparency by identifying the amount of state funding being provided to each of the programs, allow for more targeted funding depending on legislative priorities, increase legislative control over annual funding adjustments and make tracking budget adjustments easier over time. Require Annual Budget Documentation. To assist the Legislature in budgeting for the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension, we recommend requiring UC to submit a budget report in late fall each year (shortly before the start of the budget process). At a minimum, we recommend the report contain: (1) funding by source for

the prior, current and budget year; (2) spending by function and program for the prior, current and budget year; and (3) a breakdown of anticipated cost adjustments in the budget year due to salaries, benefits and other key cost drivers. To the extent the university or the administration wishes to pursue programmatic adjustments (such as expanding the number of specialists or advisors, augmenting a statewide program, or creating a new program) we recommend directing them to provide a description and justification for the proposed change. UC and the administration could follow the standard “budget change proposal” format used by most state agencies when requesting augmentations. This standard documentation contains information on the baseline budget, proposed change and its cost, justification for the change and alternatives considered. Also Require Periodic Reporting on Activities and Outcomes. In addition to receiving information to assist with annual budget decisions, we recommend the Legislature direct UC ANR to report on the past activities and performance of the Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension programs. We recommend this report, at a minimum, include: (1) a summary of the major research and outreach efforts undertaken and (2) data on program outcomes. Given the diversity of activities undertaken by the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension, the Legislature likely will want to consider which outcome measures are of greatest interest. For example, the university could report on new research discoveries as well as provide data on the number and type of participants engaged in outreach activities. Having this outcomes‑oriented report would provide the Legislature a better basis upon which to assess program effectiveness and alignment with state priorities. This performance report could be submitted in the fall in tandem with the ANR budget report or in late winter, if such timing would allow more performance data to be included in the report. Depending upon legislative interest and its usefulness in aiding budget decisions, the report could be submitted every one, two or three years. Weigh Trade‑Offs of Setting Program Goals in Statute. Whereas we think the benefits of the above three recommendations are clear, we also note that the Legislature has the further option of providing explicit statutory program goals for the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension. Typically, the Legislature provides this type of statutory guidance for programs that it categorically funds. Providing more guidance allows the state to set its priorities and monitor spending to ensure it is aligned with those priorities. Having statutory goals is arguably especially salient for UC’s agricultural and natural resource programs, given their vast scope and many competing priorities. Establishing statutory goals, however, could limit the existing flexibility afforded to UC to set its own program goals. Allowing UC to set program goals enables UC experts to be nimble and draw from their expertise to address statewide issues. Such flexibility could be valuable were California’s agricultural and natural resource issues to morph quickly with the effects of climate change and other environmental pressures. Upon weighing these trade‑offs, were the Legislature to decide to provide more statutory guidance, we recommend crafting a set of clear, overarching state goals for the experiment stations and Cooperative Extension programs while still allowing for responsiveness and some flexibility at the local level. June 2021 California Cattleman 15


FOUR TIPS FOR BEEF CATTLE CALVING AND RE-BREEDING SUCCESS by Chad Zehnder, Ph.D., field cattle consultant, Purina Animal Nutrition Calving and rebreeding are two sides of a coin; a calf is ultimately the result of a year-round breeding plan for cattle. Simultaneously preparing for beef cattle calving and rebreeding puts you in position to achieve your breeding herd goals: • A 365-day calving cycle • A tight calving window • More and bigger calves How a heifer or cow calves out will impact how quickly she can be rebred. Speed of rebreeding will impact her ability to stay on a 365-day calving cycle. Because calving and rebreeding are so intrinsically linked and tied to herd success, this timeframe is vital for herd performance and profitability. Follow these four tips for beef cattle calving and rebreeding success: 1. Maintain BCS before beef cattle calving season Cow body condition score (BCS) at calving impacts how quickly a cow returns to heat and helps prepare her for the next calving season. Cows managed for optimal body condition at calving (6 BCS) have shown to rebreed with conception rates of 88 percent or greater. You want cows cycling prior to the breeding season so when they come into heat during breeding season, you have a better chance of getting them bred in the first 21 days. Cows bred early in the breeding season result in calves born early in calving season. Why does it matter if a calf is born early in the season? Calf age has the biggest impact on weaning weight. Calves born in the first 21 days of the season are likely heavier at weaning. Assuming a calf gains between 2.25 and 2.5 pounds per day, every cow heat cycle is worth roughly 50 pounds. The cow’s body condition score also impacts calf performance. Ideal BCS at calving supports colostrum quality, the cow’s stamina during calving and calf vigor. Aim for a minimum BCS of 5.5 at calving for mature cows; 6 is preferable. The minimum BCS for first-calf heifers is 6. Cattle supplementation can help maintain a consistent body condition score. 2. Evaluate your cattle mineral program Mineral nutrition is one of the most commonly overlooked items on the preparation list for beef cattle calving and rebreeding. Make sure you’re providing an adequate mineral program year-round versus right at calving 16 California Cattleman June 2022

or before breeding. Minerals are especially important 60 to 90 days before calving, since they impact colostrum quality, calf trace mineral status and calf health. Cattle mineral also plays a role in tissue repair, helping the cow’s reproductive tract repair from calving and prepare for breeding. If the tract is not fully repaired, a cow may have challenges being rebred or she may not breed back at all. Cows must be rebred within 85 days of calving to have one calf per year. Most cattle operations have room for improvement; more than half of cattle operations do not have a defined breeding season. Of operations that have a defined breeding season, more than 60 percent had a breeding season longer than 84 days. A quality year-round supplementation program ensures cows have the nutrition they need to thrive, no matter the forages available. A balanced cattle mineral is the best choice leading up to calving season and through breeding. 3. Discuss cattle health with your veterinarian If you don’t have a comprehensive herd health program, now is the time to talk with your veterinarian or animal health supplier to develop one. If you have a program, it can be beneficial to re-evaluate and ensure the protocols still make sense. Make sure cow and calf vaccinations are part of your calving and breeding plan for cattle. Since every operation has a different risk level in how and when they calve, the program should be specific to your operation and region. For operations with multiple employees, make sure everyone is familiar and comfortable with the cattle vaccination program ahead of time. Getting everyone on the same page before beef cattle calving begins can help ensure protocols are followed correctly and consistently. 4. Take time to troubleshoot Beef cattle calving and rebreeding are two of the most important events for your bottom line. It can be stressful when things don’t go as planned, but overreaction could make things even worse. Take an objective approach when a challenge arises. Troubleshoot and try to figure out what the true cause is versus making a knee-jerk decision. Involve your nutritionist, veterinarian, suppliers, employees and other key personnel to help identify the cause and potential solutions. A team discussion can help identify the diagnostic work needed to find a solution.

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June 2022 California Cattleman 17 Farm Credit West

NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE OUR SIMILARITIES ARE STRONGER THAN OUR DIFFERENCES by National Cattlemen’s Beef Association President Don Schiefelbein A few weeks ago, I had the opportunity to travel to the United Kingdom to meet with British officials and discuss the importance of bilateral trade between our countries. Great Britain is no longer part of the European Union (EU) and is seeking to establish its economic independence from Europe by pursuing trade agreements with allies like Australia, New Zealand, and Canada—but there is also a desire to strengthen the special relationship with the United States. Unfortunately, talks have lagged over the past year, but recent events in Ukraine have highlighted the need for both countries to work together to strengthen supply chains and address food security concerns through trade. In our meetings with Members of Parliament and British trade officials, many were surprised to learn that our industry is rooted in family farms and ranches. The British perception of American agriculture is one of “factory farming,” but the reality is our average herd size is 43 head and over 96 percent of cattle operations are family owned and operated. Similarly, there is also the perception that our cattle spend the majority of their lives on a corn-based diet. While corn has an important role to play in cattle feeding, our calves spend most of their lives on grass just like their British counterparts. I share these stories to illustrate that often our similarities are stronger than our differences. British cattle producers employ many of the same practices we do. They maintain small, family-owned herds with initial feeding on grass followed by grain supplements. Likewise, British producers share our strong commitment to animal welfare. For us, the Beef Quality Assurance program provides training in low stress animal handling and livestock care, while the U.K. teaches their producers through a similar program called “Red Tractor.” The U.S. and U.K. both prioritize sustainable cattle and beef production. As America’s original conservationists, caring for our land is second nature. Along the way, cattle producers have improved efficiency and now produce 60 percent more beef per animal while

18 California Cattleman June 2022

reducing emissions by 40 percent per pound. Britain’s Ambassador to the U.S. previously highlighted NCBA’s producer-developed sustainability goals as a particular item of interest. British consumers also care deeply about the sustainability of their food, and our sustainability story makes us a good fit for the British market. One of NCBA’s goals for 2022 is increasing producer profitability and an effective way to do that is increasing your customer base abroad. As American cattle producers, we make a unique product. Our beef is the highest quality in the world and presents a unique flavor profile that consumers around the globe desire. Still, those who have never seen our production methods may have false ideas about how we raise our cattle. At NCBA, we are breaking down misconceptions about our industry and forging relationships to expand future trade opportunities for you. It was an honor sharing our story in the U.K., but it’s only possible because of your daily commitment to raising the highest quality cattle in the world. Thank you for the dedication you bring to the farming and ranching way of life and thank you for your support of NCBA.



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SALE PENDING LOSTINE TIMBER TRACT - OREGON 9,772± acres of timber/grazing land with 2 1/2 miles of Bear Creek frontage, and some National Forest frontage. $9,319,000 1,198± acres with creek available separately. $1,438,260 SALE PENDING

SALE PENDING TRAIL CREEK MEADOWS RANCH - IDAHO 1,100± acres with meadows, forests, and year-round creeks, scenic views, & abundant wildlife. Easily access and public land frontage, less than 1 hour from Boise. SALE PENDING $4,990,000


MCNULTY CREEK RANCH Beautiful 73± acre ranch NW of Portland has fields, wooded areas, a creek, several ponds, a 3± acre lake with 2 docks. Also includes an old farmhouse, barn, shop and outbuildings. May qualify for additional dwellings, with three tax parcels zoned FA-80. $1,450,000


RUSSELL RIDGE FARMLAND 953± acres near Lewiston and Orofino with 622± acres of dry farmland, timber, and canyonlands, possible home site development, great hunting, fishing, and outdoor recreating. $4,284,000

MIDDLE CREEK RANCH - IDAHO 800± acres with 2 homes, 217± acres irrigated, Middle Creek, 3 ponds & 11 springs. Owner may carry with 1 million down, balance at 5% for 15 years OAC. SOLD $2,999,000

WHEELER ROAD RANCH - WASHINGTON 545± acres with pasture and 201± acres of farmland. Half hour to Spokane Valley, and also near Coeur d’Alene, ID. Diversified operation with multiple income opportunities and potential wind contract. Excellent big game hunting! PACMLS: 246545 $2,200,000

YAKIMA RIVER RANCH - WASHINGTON 176± acres has 2 branches of the Yakima River flowing through, older home, barn, & corrals. Great hunting & fishing! Water rights for 110± acres plus sub-irrigation from river. Make offer with or without water rights, or for water rights separately. PACMLS: 251700 $2,000,000

June 2022 California Cattleman 19

Todd Renfrew | Owner/Broker DRE#01838294 | NV20151620313

Farms • Ranches • Recreation • Timber • Vineyards • Luxury Estates • Homes & Cabins


Lawson Ranch

Reservation Ranch

Contact for Price


2,971.51 ± Acres | Elko County • • • •

Some of the oldest water rights in NV Runs 600+ pair 2,169-acres of irrigated land Private airstrip, hangar, homes, barns

Ponderosa Farms $12,900,000

1,668 ± Acres | Del Norte County • • • •

Working dairy ranch Excellent water rights & climate; 3 wells 3 miles of Smith River frontage Sportsman’s paradise

2,882.82 ± Acres | Siskiyou County • • •


Biaggi Ranch $10,900,000

• • •

Historically has run sheep & dairy stock 80-100 head carrying capacity; substantially more for sheep Est. +18,000,000 board foot of timber


Hoff Ranch

Menne Farms


1,382.50 ± Acres | Mendocino County


10,005.40 ± Acres | Tehama County • • • •

Certified Organic farm; alfalfa & grain 1,225-acres under 14 pivots; 11 pivots in hay, 3 pivots in grain, 1,680 ft of wheel line 10 wells; 7 used for irrigation

Run 550-700 cows per season Watered by multiple ponds & creeks In the Williamson Act Home, barn, off-grid/solar

2,450 ± Acres | Siskiyou County • • • •

2,450± acres; 1,168 irrigated acres Irrigated by 21 pivots; 9 new pivots 18 AG wells, 7 domestic wells 90,370 SF in barns & 10,860 SF in shops


Grasshopper Valley Ranch

Island Ranch



16,000 ± Acres | Lassen County • • •

Two large reservoirs: Heath & Cleghorn. Heath Reservoir can irrigate entire valley Runs 880 cow/calf pair for a 6-month season Diverse habitat & recreational opportunities

20 California Cattleman June 2022

Eshom Valley Ranch $7,900,000

1,155 ± Acres | Shasta County • • • •

Seven miles of river frontage Irrigated pasture for 600 cows Unparalleled waterfowl hunting 65ac in hay production & 1886 water rights

3,775 ± Acres | Tulare County • • • •

8 parcels enrolled with the Williamson Act 3 Lakes, 1 domestic well, 3 Ag wells, 5 seasonal ponds, year-round Eshom Creek Premier seasonal cattle grazing land


Harlan Cattle Ranch

Winter Falls Ranch



1,315.26 ± Acres | Plumas County • • •

Land here will feed 800-1,000 cows or up to 1,800 yearlings for the season Water: 2 creeks with water rights In the Williamson Act

1,455 ± Acres | Shasta County • • • •

Leavitt Lake Ranch

Diamond G Ranch



1,360 ± Acres | Lassen County • • • •

Cattle, Hay, & Wild rice ranch Solar power will cover entire ranch Has run 500 head; depending on hay op. Williamson Act on Shasta County portion

Expansive working cattle & hay ranch Large commercial feeding lot Certified organic in both crop & beef 5 AG wells & 5 pivots

San Geronimo Ocean View Ranch $6,250,000

964.23 ± Acres | San Luis Obispo County • • • •

Highway 20 Ranch $2,950,000

681.22 ± Acres | Plumas County • • • •

In the Williamson Act for lower taxes Set up for cattle; Currently run 100 pairs 240 irrigated acres with 2 pivots 441 acres of rangeland

2,607 ± Acres | Colusa County • • • •


Prime hunting & winter grass ranch Up to 320 pair winter carrying capacity 3 wells with solar powered pumps Elk, Deer, Wild Hogs, Turkey, Quail, Dove


Honey Lake Ranch

Secret Valley Ranch



597.13 ± Acres | Lassen County • • • •

In Williamson Act; Conservation Easement Utilized for beef cattle grazing Runs 200-300 steers for the season HWY 1 frontage; ocean views

Alfalfa, grass hay, & grain ranch Two center pivots Has carried 400 pair in the past for season 5 AG wells, 2 domestic wells, springs, creek, ponds, Honey Lake frontage

Wolf Creek Ranch $1,600,000

1,460 ± Acres | Lassen County • • • •

Genuine working cattle & alfalfa ranch Two 130 acre pivots; room for more 103 cow BLM allotment; total of 667 AUM Secret Creek flows about 3/4 mile of ranch

590.96 ± Acres | Plumas County • • • •

Historic working cattle ranch 337-ac irrigated meadow; 254 ac forestland Runs approx. 160 cow/calf pairs seasonally Water derives from Wolf Creek

info@caoutdoorproperties.com | www.CaliforniaOutdoorProperties.com | 707.455.4444

June 2022 California Cattleman 21

Ag Land Values

As nation-wide real estate continues to climb, California ag land prices continue to lead from the National Agriculture Statistics Service The United States farm real estate value, a measurement of the value of all land and buildings on farms, averaged $3,380 per acre for 2021, up $220 per acre (7 percent) from 2020. The United States cropland value averaged $4,420 per acre, an increase of $320 per acre (7.8 percent) from the previous year. The United States pasture value averaged $1,480 per acre, an increase of $80 per acre (5.7 percent) from 2020. The Land Values 2021 Summary report, released by USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) shows agricultural land values increasing at a rate not seen in nearly a decade. This report and its contents provide one of many indicators of the overall health of the agricultural economy and help paint a picture of costs that farmers face as they negotiate rent levels for the near future.

Farm Real Estate Value

The U.S. average farm real estate value, a measurement that includes the value of all land and buildings on farms, clocked in at a record $3,380/acre. This 7 percent increase over last year represents a percentage change not seen since 2014 when values increased 8% over the previous year. In looking at the dollar value of the change, this is a $220/ acre increase over 2020, a level not seen since 2012. These levels vary significantly throughout the country, with the highest real estate values concentrated in areas of the country with larger volumes of high-value crops (think wine grapes and tree nuts in California), as well as areas experiencing upward pressure due to proximity to urban areas. Much of the Midwest experiences higher levels of real estate values, followed by the South and Pacific Northwest, and finally the Plains and Mountain states. On a state-by-state basis, (excluding Northeast states with urban pressure), Nebraska, Kansas and Oregon all posted double-digit percentage changes over last year. These were

22 California Cattleman June 2022

followed by Texas, Iowa, California and South Dakota, each posting over 9 percent year-over-year growth.

Cropland Value

Like the overall real estate value, average U.S. cropland values posted sharp increases in 2021, rising to $4,420/acre. This increase came in as an 8 percent jump over 2020, ...CONTINUED ON PAGE 24

June 2022 California Cattleman 23

...CONTINUED FROM PAGE 22 which was the highest increase in cropland since 2013 when it jumped 14 percent. In dollar values, this yearover-year increase was $320/acre, also not seen since 2013. The distribution across the country follows a similar pattern as overall real estate value, with California and Northeast urban states claiming the highest average cropland values. Again, following that top category is much of the Midwest, followed by the South/PNW, and then the rest of the country. The top three states in terms of percentage growth are Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota, posting gains of 13.9 percent, 13.8 percent and 11.9 percent, respectively.

Pastureland Value

Similar to overall real estate values and cropland values, pastureland values posted strong gains from the previous year, coming in at $1,480/acre on average for the U.S. This is an increase of 6 percent over 2020, the highest increase since 2014, and follows six years of little to no increases in value. However, the distribution of pastureland values across the country differs from the cropland value and real estate values. Instead of the Midwest and California, some of the more valuable state averages are concentrated in the South and the midSouth, with the Midwest and the Plains states making up the next group of higher average values.

Cash Rent Increases

NASS also recently released data on cash rents that farmers pay, and so far the strong increases in land values have not trickled down to cash rents. This tends to be more of a lagging indicator, and likely will be reflected in future negotiations that producers have with their landlords. Average U.S. cropland rent increased to $141/acre this year, an increase of 1.4 percent over 2020. Irrigated cropland rents increased 0.5 percent to $217/acre, while non-irrigated cropland rents increased 1.6 prcent to $128/acre. Cash rents for pastureland held steady from 2020 to 2021, coming in at $13/acre this year.


The land value report from NASS showed sharp increases across the board in agricultural real estate values, cropland values and pastureland values. The average U.S. farm real estate value increased by 7 percent over 2020, while the cropland value and pastureland value increased by 8 percent and 6 percent, respectively. These increases are the sharpest in six or seven years, with little to no year-over-year increases in the last several years. The same pressures that are affecting many sectors of the U.S. economy appear to be impacting farmland values as well. These levels vary significantly throughout the country, with the highest real estate values concentrated in areas with larger volumes of high-value crops, as well as areas experiencing upward pressure due to proximity to urban areas. So far, the increases in land values have not yet been reflected in cash rents, with the national average cropland rent increasing by 1.4 percent compared to last year.

24 California Cattleman June 2021

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This year’s Midyear meeting is being held just outside of Sacramento! Come get involved with CCA & CCW, catch up with friends and hear updates. Registration includes access to all meetings, Wednesday dinner, Thursday breakfast and Thursday lunch.




REGISTER ONLINE OR CONTACT THE CCA OFFICE Visit ww.calcattlemen.org/events or call the CCA office at (916) 444-0845 to register today.


The schedule below is tentative and subject to change. For the most up-to-date schedule and event details visit www.calcattlemen.org/events.

TUESDAY, JUNE 21 8:30 am – 3 pm California Rangeland Trust (CRT) Board Meeting 11 am – 4 pm California Cattlemen’s Foundation Strategic Planning 4:30 – 6 pm CCA Officer Meeting 5:30 – 8 pm CRT Land Owner Appreciation Dinner WEDNESDAY, JUNE 22 8 am – Noon California Cattlemen’s Foundation Meeting 10 – 11 am CA CCW Heritage Foundation, Inc. 11 am – Noon CCA Leadership Series Noon – 1pm Allied Industry Council Meeting Noon – 1pm Cattle-PAC Meeting 1:30 – 3 pm CBCIA Meeting 1:30 – 3 pm Opening General Session 3 – 4:30 pm Cattle Health 3 – 5:30 pm CCW Executive Meeting 4:30 – 5:30 pm Local Presidents’ Meeting 5:30 – 8:30 pm Dinner THURSDAY, JUNE 23 6 – 7 am Christian Fellowship 6:30 – 7:30 am Breakfast 7 – 8 am CCA Nominating Committee 8 – 10:30 am CCW Workshop 8 – 9 am Federal Lands 9 – 10 am Property Rights and Environmental Management 10 – 11 am Ag & Food Policy/ Marketing/ Tax & Credit Committee 11:30 am – 12:30 pm CCA Board Meeting 12:30 – 1:30 pm Lunch 2 – 4 pm CCW Board Meeting

CALL THE MURIETA INN & SPA AT (916) 354-3900 Call today to make your hotel reservations with CCA’s group rate. Rates start at $179/night.

June 2021 California Cattleman 25

STANDING TOGETHER How the Agriculture Community is Addressing Mental Health from the National Cattlemen’ s Beef Association

While farming and ranching is a lifestyle loved by cattle producers across the country, it comes with its fair share of challenges. Whether it is unpredictable and uncontrollable weather, turbulent markets or complex family dynamics, farm and ranch families across the country are balancing the responsibilities of everyday life and maintaining a viable business. These stressors can certainly take a toll on one’s mental health. However, mental health is a topic that the agricultural community has historically shied away from talking about. According to the American Farm Bureau Federation, 59% of rural Americans believe there is stigma around discussing mental health. As a result, some folks have decided it’s time to start directly tackling this issue. “We’ve really felt the need within our communities,” said Marshal Wilson, co-director of New Mexico State University’s Southwest Border Food Protection and Emergency Preparedness Center. “At first we were careful about how we talked about it, but we need to address it head on.” Wilson stressed the importance of local support for bringing awareness to mental health resources within communities. “It’s got to be a culture change. There’s got to be a movement within our communities,” he explained. Across the country, others are joining Wilson’s cause to combat the stigma of talking about mental health, and they are working to bring resources to typically underserved areas. Whether it’s through open discussions, formal trainings or federally funded programs, the work being done is critical to ensure the health and safety of those who have made it their life mission to conserve the land and feed the world.

26 California Cattleman June 2022

Starting the Conversation “The first thing you have to do is care,” said Warren Symens, a fourth-generation cattlemen from Amherst, South Dakota. Symens believes that the best way to address mental health issues is to openly talk about them. Instead of pretending like the stress of ranching doesn’t bother him, he has decided to be honest about his own experience, even taking to social media to tell his story. While he recognizes the importance of professional counselors, he questions how many of them truly understand the unique circumstances in rural America. As someone who understands the lifestyle — because he lives it — he believes it is important to be open to tough conversations and show empathy to fellow producers when they are navigating challenging circumstances. “Those of us that have the background have to show empathy,” he said. Recognizing the Signs Nathan Lawson, a cattle producer from Spencer County, Kentucky, also understands the need to openly discuss the difficulties that producers experience. In respect to that, he helped spearhead two initiatives that facilitate those conversations. Lawson participated in a roundtable of leaders representing various sectors of the Kentucky agriculture industry. From that meeting, the group secured funding from the Kentucky Beef Council for a program in which the University of Kentucky’s College of Nursing and College of Agriculture partner to host events that bring awareness to mental health. In addition, members of the

group participated in a mental health awareness leader course to provide agriculturists the resources and training to recognize the signs of someone who may need help. Through the online training program, “QPR – Question, Persuade, Refer,” participants learn the warning signs of mental illness, how to ask potentially life-saving questions, and what resources are available. Lawson himself went through the training because he has a heart for helping those around him. He understands the devastating impact that ignoring these critical conversations can have on tight-knit, rural communities. “Suicide is 100 percent preventable,” he explained. On the other hand, he recognizes why rural America struggles to address this topic. “In the agriculture community — whether male or female farmers — we all have somewhat of a John Wayne image, and I think that we apply that to ourselves in such a degree that makes rural people, ag people, the farming community, in particular, a tough nut to crack in terms of willingness to talk about suicide and mental health.” Lawson believes the QPR method helped teach participants to walk through difficult conversations around mental health in an effective way. When people are able to have conversations around such a tough topic, it’s statistically proven that those conversations and general awareness decrease the number of instances where someone acts on suicidal thoughts, he explained. Not only did Lawson go through the training himself, he also had the opportunity to train the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Executive Committee and Kentucky Cattlemen’s Association staff on what he had learned. He believes that equipping more people to help their friends and neighbors, or possibly even themselves, when they are dealing with stressful situations is beneficial for the entire industry. While Lawson believes the training was important, he also stresses that the most effective way to help those around you is to simply be a good friend and listen. “The best friends are the ones that are selfless, the ones that are willing to stand and listen in spite of the time it may take, and ultimately, I think that when we do that, we hear the triggers. We hear the not-so-apparent comments or subtle cries for help. We give them the opportunity to be vulnerable and share what they are struggling with.” Bolstering Resources As the agriculture community works to normalize conversations around mental health, some have found that the problem isn’t the lack of willingness to talk openly, it’s the lack of resources available that facilitate an environment in which farmers and ranchers feel comfortable having a conversation. “We have a tendency to believe people don’t want to talk about stress or mental health, but what I’m finding

is quite the opposite. Given the right circumstances and right atmosphere, they become more comfortable and are more willing to talk,” explained Andrea Bjornestad, an associate professor and extension mental health specialist at South Dakota State University (SDSU). Through traveling across the state to speak at agriculture events, she has found starting the conversation in a comfortable setting allows farmers start to open up with each other — sharing their ideas, thoughts and even their struggles. As a licensed professional counselor with an agricultural background, Bjornestad is working to bring awareness to the importance of providing professional resources to people in rural communities in a way that is compatible with their lifestyle. “Agriculture is its own culture, and just like any other culture we should seek to understand the values, beliefs and traditions that make up the way of life,” she said. However, lack of funding — the problem that threatens the continuation of free counseling services and other rural mental health resources in South Dakota — is a problem shared among states across the country. “There’s a huge discrepancy in access to mental health providers when looking at urban versus rural areas. Somehow, we need to minimize that gap,” Bjornestad said. At this point, many states are administering programs through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) grant funding, but the continuation of that funding is not guaranteed. Despite that, Bjornestad is committed to advocating for the importance of these programs and finding creative ways to get people the resources they need. “We have to think outside the box and bring mental health care in a different way,” she said. When farmers spend hours alone in a tractor, they often want someone to talk to. “Why couldn’t a counselor come to a tractor?” is a question that Bjornestad often asks herself. After finishing her current mental health research projects at SDSU, Bjornestad will lead the establishment of an assistance network to develop and disseminate resources across South Dakota. Where to Find Resources As cattle producers, it’s easy to minimize the challenges and stress of everyday life. In reality, farming and ranching is just as much about the health of people as it is the health of livestock and the land. It’s important to be open, have real conversations and take care of each other. If you, a loved one or a friend need someone to talk to, states across the country have unique programs and hotlines available. Visit farmstateofmind.org to discover resources in your state.

June 2022 California Cattleman 27


BEEF EXPORT VALUE SETS ANOTHER RECORD from the U.S. Meat Export Federation U.S. beef exports soared to another new value record in March, according to data released by USDA and compiled by the U.S. Meat Export Federation (USMEF). March pork exports were the largest so far this year but well below the record-large totals posted in March 2021. Lamb exports continued to gain momentum in March, reaching the third largest monthly volume on record and the highest value in nearly eight years. Beef exports totaled 126,285 metric tons (mt) in March, up 1 percent from a year ago and the third largest on record, while value climbed 33 percent to a record $1.07 billion. First quarter exports increased 6 percent to 353,852 mt, valued at just over $3 billion (up 41 percent). “Global demand for U.S. beef has eclipsed anything I have seen in many years in the meat business,” said USMEF President and CEO Dan Halstrom. “While this momentum is fueled by mainstay markets such as South Korea, Japan and Taiwan, demand is also very strong in China/Hong Kong and key Latin American markets, while exports to the Middle East have rebounded impressively.” Halstrom cautioned that first quarter results do not fully reflect the impact of recent COVID-19 lockdowns in China that have slowed product movement and forced many restaurants to suspend or limit service. These obstacles are likely to have a greater impact on April and May export data. He also noted that while beef demand has been very resilient, inflation represents a potential headwind. “Consumers throughout the world have shown how

28 California Cattleman June 2022

much they value the quality of U.S. beef, but disposable income is under increasing pressure as they pay more for energy and other daily needs,” he said.

Korea emerges as top destination for U.S. beef

March beef exports to leading market South Korea totaled 26,834 mt, up 11 percent from a year ago, valued at $278.3 million – up 58 percent and the second highest on record, trailing only the record total ($316.4 million) posted in January. First quarter exports to Korea were 75,445 mt, up 9 percent from a year ago, while export value climbed 57 percent to $792.6 million. Export growth to Korea has been largely driven by soaring retail demand, but the foodservice climate received a boost in April as Korea removed all COVID-related limits on restaurant operating hours and lifted most social distancing restrictions on consumers. Following a similar course, Japan recently lifted the COVID quasi-state of emergency that was in place in 18 of the country’s 47 prefectures. March beef exports to Japan were 25,690 mt, down 10 percent from a year ago, but value still increased 17 percent to $212.6 million. First quarter exports to Japan climbed 22 percent in value to $594.2 million, despite a 4 percent decline in volume (72,179 mt). China has taken a decidedly different approach to COVID outbreaks, recently imposing lockdowns in several

large population centers. These policies have made it difficult for U.S. exporters to supply beef and pork to China and slowed demand from confined consumers. However, these developments will likely have a more significant impact on second quarter export results. COVID restrictions also slowed demand in Hong Kong, where the mandatory closing time for restaurants was only recently extended from 6 to 10 p.m. and the per-table limit was raised from two people to four. With direct exports to China setting a new record, March beef exports to China/Hong Kong reached 22,745 mt, up 11 percent from a year ago, valued at $207.7 million (up 26 percent). This pushed first quarter export volume to 62,237 mt, up 36 percent year-overyear, while value climbed 59 percent to $582.4 million.

Other first quarter results for U.S. beef exports include:

Exports to Taiwan raced to a fast start in 2022, climbing 47 percent from a year ago to 18,243 mt, while export value nearly doubled to $227.2 million (up 92 percent). The U.S. continues to dominate Taiwan’s chilled beef market, capturing 80 percent market share. Taiwan has seen surging COVID cases in April and early May but is not imposing lockdowns. After a record year in 2021, demand in Central America continues to trend higher, led by excellent growth in Guatemala, Panama and Honduras. First quarter exports to the region increased 14 percent to 5,950 mt, valued at $42 million (up 38 percent). With foodservice demand rebounding in the Caribbean, exports increased 41 percent to 6,337 mt, with value more than doubling to $56.8 million (up 109 percent). Growth was led by the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and the Bahamas. Beef exports to the Middle East continue to rebound, led by stronger variety meat demand in Egypt and muscle cut growth in Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain. March exports to Qatar were the highest since 2011 and exports to Bahrain were the third largest on record. First quarter exports to the region increased 13 percent to 18,490 mt, valued at $74.8 million (up 38 percent). While first quarter exports of beef variety meat edged modestly higher in volume (353,852 mt, up 3 percent),

these items commanded sharply higher prices as export value climbed 34 percent to just over $300 million. In addition to Egypt, export value increased impressively to Japan, China and the Caribbean. March beef export value equated to $472.73 per head of fed slaughter, up 36 percent from a year ago. The first quarter average was $474.10 per head, up 41 ercent. Exports accounted for 14.7 percent of total March beef production, up from 14.5 percent a year ago, while the ratio for muscle cuts was steady at 12.7 percent. First quarter exports also accounted for 14.7 percent of total production and 12.7 percent for muscle cuts, up from 14.1 ercent and 11.9 percent, respectively.


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June 2022 California Cattleman 29

MARKET SNAPSHOT Drivers for the cattle industry include tight hay supply, drought and rising input costs from Northwest Farm Credit Services A mild winter across the West with little snow cover provided producers with advantageous calving conditions. Mild weather allowed for longer winter grazing and reduced the need to use limited hay inventories. Ranches were able to ration hay, providing tailwinds in a tight feed environment. In eastern Montana, spring is off to a dry start. The potential for continued drought is driving cattle producers to evaluate herd size. Two consecutive years of drought and poor hay/straw conditions could potentially lead to higher abortion rates and weaker calves, particularly in eastern Montana. With tight hay supplies, producers face complex and challenging decisions. Ranchers could turn their cows onto grass, but risk stressing body conditions and impacting the ability to breed back. Montana ranchers have already sold beef cows reducing total beef herd by 90 cows for every 1,000 head from 2021 to 2022. On March 22, 82.5 percent of Montana lands were experiencing severe to exceptional drought. If this drought continues, more cows will likely be sold. If it’s a normal year of precipitation, producers will hold their hay inventory to rebuild farm-level stocks. Feedlots are concerned about hay inventories. Alfalfa is a water intensive crop requiring irrigation in the desert areas of the West. Many producers have already been given notice of reduced irrigation water availability. Lower than normal water deliveries will result in continued low hay inventories. To combat concerns, feedlots in Idaho are offering higher placement prices now to avoid an influx of cows later in the season when hay prices are further elevated. Producers in eastern Idaho are working with nutritionists to mix rations and cut down on hay. Concerned about not having a consistent barley feed supply, a large Washington feedlot formed an agreement with a grain cooperative, who is offering a premium pool for barley that guarantees an additional $20 per ton over new crop market prices to attract additional barley acres. In eastern Oregon and Klamath Falls, irrigation water supplies are well below average for March. The Emigrant Dam and Lake near Ashland, Ore., is currently holding slightly over 4,000 acre-feet of water. The average for March is over 31,000 acre-feet and conditions have worsened from 2021 when the lake held less than 7,000 acre-feet. Water allotment is less than half of what producers usually receive. Oregon ranchers will face tight hay and grass supplies in 2022. Elevated input prices and irrigation water availability 30 California Cattleman June 2022

will dissuade many hay producers from expanding production in 2022. Tight hay supplies will likely persist in 2022. Livestock producers who have historically held two or three years of hay inventory are benefiting. This long-standing custom of holding additional inventory will gain traction again as a means of managing drought risk. Producers who can rebuild their hay inventories will benefit.


Demand Retail meat prices have increased. For the past nine months retail beef prices have stayed above $7. The February All-Fresh retail price was $7.28 per pounds, 16 percent higher than a year ago. The February Choice retail beef price was $7.62, a $1.20 per pound increase from February 2021. Food inflation has risen 7.9 percent over the past year translating into higher consumer prices. This is the fastest food inflation growth in four decades. If food inflation continues to surge, changes in disposable income and higher retail prices may constrain U.S. demand for beef products. Beef isn’t the only meat product with price increases.

February’s retail price for pork and broilers increased 14.7 percent and 14 percent, respectively. Meat prices rising across all products will limit substitution effects providing some relief for beef demand as food inflation will likely continue throughout 2022. Shifting domestic consumer habits will create headwinds for premium beef demand. Restaurant demand will likely increase in 2022 but will not return to prepandemic levels. Restaurant sales command premium prices, especially for beef. In March 2022, fewer people are eating out than in July of 2021. The National Restaurants Association reports that the consumer preference shift to dining at home will be long-lasting. Beef exports have shown steady growth. January exports reached 287.6 million pounds, a 41.6 million pounds increase from last year. South Korea, Taiwan and China all had gains in shipments. The weakened U.S. dollar in 2021 fueled modest tailwinds for beef exports. Coupled with a tightening U.S. herd, exports are likely to decline in 2022 if the U.S. dollar continues to strengthen. Total beef exports to China in 2021 more than doubled year over year, up 114 percent, making China the thirdlargest beef export destination. Following nationwide losses of pigs from African Swine Fever in 2018-19 shorting domestic pork supplies, Chinese beef imports rapidly rose. As Chinese pork production returns to normal production, beef demand is forecast to remain stable. The Chinese consumer gained an appetite for beef that is likely to stay, even with increases in pork availability and rising beef prices. In January 2022, Japan was the top export destination for U.S. beef. On March 24, the U.S. and Japan reached a trade agreement allowing for greater U.S. beef exports. The U.S. shipped $2.4 billion (about $19 per person in Japan) worth of beef to Japan in 2021. This new agreement will reduce exporter uncertainties by enabling U.S. beef to be competitive in Japan against Trans-Pacific Partnership countries. West Coast ports are the largest beef export location. Contract negotiations between the Northwest Seaport Alliance, which operates 29 West Coast ports, and longshoremen have begun. The current contracts expire July 1, 2022. Previous contract negotiations have created significant port slowdowns that lasted for months. Delays in negotiations are a risk and could amplify current shipping issues and create headwinds for beef export demand. Supply Tight cattle supply is the primary driver for beef price increases. In the traditional cattle cycle, higher beef prices would incentivize producers to grow their herd. However, limited feed supplies and prolonged drought have caused cattle herd reductions. Cattle producers in South Dakota, Texas and Montana are experiencing the greatest reductions in their herds. High feedlot placements in 2021 and the first quarter of 2022 suggest cattle supplies

will be tighter than expected into 2023. Feed Drought in South America, uncertainty from the conflict in Ukraine and pressure from competing crops are reinforcing strong corn and feed prices. Yields and production estimates for Brazil’s and Argentina’s corn and soybean crop have been reduced. A lack of moisture and elevated temperatures have slashed yield estimates. Conflict in Ukraine has disrupted markets for two of the largest global grain exporters and consequently injected uncertainty into the grains market. This remains a fluid and evolving situation, putting upward pressure on global corn and feed prices. High production costs from increases in fertilizer and fuel prices supports higher corn prices. Increasing corn prices will provide headwinds to feedlot margins. As feedlot margins are squeezed by feed costs, it will impact what feedlots can pay for feeder calves.


Drivers for the cattle industry include tight hay supply, drought and rising input costs. Over 60 percent of all U.S. cattle inventory is experiencing drought conditions. Where conditions reach “severe drought” levels, the results will likely be devasting for cattle producers, furthering cattle liquidations and creating headwinds for producer profits. While liquidations may limit short term downside risks, they also hamper long term recovery prospects. Rising food inflation could impact domestic beef demand, and meat exports remain strong.


Northwest FCS’ 12-month outlook for cattle suggest slightly profitable returns for cow/calf producers, who will face higher feed costs associated with rising global grain prices. If drought conditions persist, producers may reduce herd size to ensure they can provide remaining cattle with adequate nutrition. Stronger cattle prices and rebuilding hay inventories will provide tailwinds to cattle producer profitability.

June 2022 California Cattleman 31

California Cattle Council Seeking Requests for Proposals The California Cattle Council (Council) is launching an effort to allocate funds to local agricultural associations, producers, researchers or other interested individuals to conduct work that fulfills the priorities of cattle producers at a local or county level. The Council is using this opportunity to offer partnerships to fund local initiatives and priorities as a trial with the hope to build this program out further in the future. This year, grants will be limited to $10,000 per project. For a copy of the Request for Proposal (RFP) that includes all the information a person will need to apply for funding visit https://calcattlecouncil.org/work-withus. Proposals are due on June 17, 2022. Please share the RFP with any organizations, qualified individuals, or researchers that could utilize these funds to advance a local project or address a challenge. When reviewing projects for funding, the Council will pay close attention to ensure the proposals meet the requirements outlined in the RFP and are not duplicative of existing projects or initiatives. When producers overwhelmingly voted to support and form the Council in 2019, one objective made clear

by producers throughout the campaign was to ensure only a fraction of Council funds were used on administration and the vast amount of dollars brought in were to be put towards funding projects. Now in its third year, funds allocated to administration and oversight remain low. The Council also has a healthy financial statement that will allow the producer board governing it to fund effective and impactful projects. As part of this commitment, the Council specifically seeks to partner with other agricultural associations, firms, researchers, qualified individuals, etc. to complete work on the Council’s behalf. By doing this, Council dollars can be maximized. Leveraging resources and in-kind contributions from existing organizations and seeking to contract with qualified individuals that have specific expertise allows the Council to avoid having to hire multiple internal staff which carries a significant cost. To learn more about these grants and the Council’s commitment to maximizing Council dollars through funding projects with partnerships and to subscribe to monthly updates from the Council visit https:// calcattlecouncil.org.

California well represented at 2022 LMA Annual Convention & World livestock Auctioneer Championship Shipshewana Auction, Inc., Shipshewana, Ind., will host the 2022 World Livestock Auctioneer Championship (WLAC) on Saturday, June 11. The 58th annual WLAC will take place in conjunction with the Livestock Marketing Association’s (LMA) Annual Convention. A total of 31 semi-finalist auctioneers will compete in the contest comprised of an auctioneering and interview portion. The auctioneering contest will take place during a live sale, where contestants will sell cattle to actual bidders in the seats. Additionally, because of the important, high-profile role, each WLAC semi-finalist must clearly establish and demonstrate their knowledge of the livestock marketing industry in an interview competition. Contestants who qualified to compete are Zach Ballard, Presho, S.D.; Andy Baumeister, Goldthwaite, Texas; Neil Bouray, Webber, Kan.; Justin Dodson, Welch, Okla.; Eric Drees, Caldwell, Idaho; Dean Edge, Rimbey, Alberta; Will Epperly, Dunlap, Iowa; Brandon Frey, Diagonal, Iowa; Joshua Garcia, Goliad, Texas; Philip Gilstrap, Pendleton, S.C.; Steve Goedert, Dillon, Mont.; Brandon Hamel, Natoma, Kan.; Michael Imbrogno, Turlock; Marcus Kent, Dunnellon, Fla.; Lynn Langvardt, Chapman, Kan.; Kyle Layman, North Platte, Neb.; Wade Leist, Boyne City, Mich.; Jacob Massey, Petersburg, Tenn.; Justin Mebane, Bakersfield; Daniel Mitchell,

32 California Cattleman June 2022

Cumberland, Ohio; Sixto Paiz, Portales, N.M.; Ross Parks, New Concord, Ohio; Jake Parnell, Sacramento; Chris Pinard, Swainsboro, Ga.; Jack Riggs, Glenns Ferry, Idaho; Jeff Showalter, Broadway, Va.; Barrett Simon, Rosalia, Kan.; Dustin Smith, Jay, Okla.; Andrew Sylvester, Wamego, Kan.; Curtis Wetovick, Fullerton, Neb.; Tim Yoder, Montezuma, Ga. Reigning World Livestock Auctioneer Champion, Chuck Bradley will be in attendance, along with many other past World Livestock Auctioneer Champions. Each will sell cattle during the Parade of Champions, a portion of the WLAC sale between the semi-finalist and finalist rounds. Members of the 2021 Leadership in Livestock Marketing Seminar class will also be present at the event. If you are interested in viewing WLAC, tune into the live, online broadcasts. The interviews will be on Friday, June 10, and can be viewed live on www.LMAauctions. com or LMA Facebook Live starting at 3:00 p.m. (ET). The auctioneering competition will be at Shipshewana Auction, Inc. beginning at 8:00 a.m. (ET) and will also be streamed live on www.LMAAuctions.com and the LMA Facebook page. Following the event, WLAC will be broadcast as a special, one-hour show on RFD-TV.

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June 2022 California Cattleman 33

IN MEMORY Will Cockrell

Will Joseph Cockrell, was born in the Cedarville Hospital on July 4, 1958 to William (Bill) Cockrell and Betty (Harris) Cockrell. He passed away on April 21, after a long battle with pancreatic cancer. Will lived most of his life in Surprise Valley, with the exception of the years he attended college. He spent one year at Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Ore., and one year attending Wyoming Tech, where he received his Automotive Technician Degree. Upon his return back to Surprise Valley, after school, he met his wife of 43 years, Debra Ann Carey. They married in 1979 and began ranching in a family partnership with Will’s parents. In 1988, they branched out on their own, purchasing one of the former family ranches, the Patterson Ranch. Between the years 1983 and 1992, they had four children. Will and his wife Debra along with their

Ray Hamel

Ray Warren Hamel passed away May 6, in Klamath Falls, Ore. at the age of 92. He was born June 30, 1929, in Sacramento, to parents Fred and Elsie Hamel. Ray was raised on the family cattle ranch in Davis, as a fourth generation cattleman. Shortly after graduating from Davis High School, he was drafted and served during the Korean war as a cook. He met his future wife, Ruthmarie Mulligan, square dancing at the Tremont Hall. They were married May 23, 1959, at the Tremont Church. Ray and Ruthmarie raised three children, Carrie, David and Howard. Ray farmed and ranched in the Davis area with his father and two brothers until 1977; he then moved his family to Dairy, Ore. where he farmed for the next forty plus years. Ray was a social, active man who was deeply involved in farming and the cattlemen’s association for the majority of his life. He enjoyed farming, ranching and hunting. He 34 California Cattleman June 2022

four children have always aspired to be a working team. This working spirit continues on today. Will’s passion has always been the cattle business, besides ranching, he was asked by Ellington Peek one day if he could ship a load of cattle for Shasta Livestock and 26 years later he was still involved with Shasta Livestock and Western Video Market. He always felt that his customers and the buyers were some of the best people he ever met and some of his very best friends he had. Will is survived by his mother Betty Cockrell, his wife Debra Cockrell, his four children Cassie (Cristian) Oyarzun, Ashley Cockrell, Wayne (Carli) Cockrell, and Weston Cockrell. Also, his two grandsons Kiko and Kason Oyarzun, and his three sisters JoJo ( Dan) Henningson, of Twin Falls, Idaho; Carol (Tom) Wulfekuhle, of Billings, Mont.; Jeanne (Craig) Spratling, of Deeth, Nev.., as well as numerous nieces and nephews and great-nieces and nephews. He is also survived by his dog “Axe” his loyal companion, who has known for some time, that something wasn’t right with his master. Services were held on May 3. Memorial donations can be made to the Andy Peek Livestock Scholarship, P.O. Box 887, Cottonwood, CA 96022, or the Modoc County Cattlewomen’s and Cattlemen’s Scholarship Fund, P.O. Box 711, Alturas, CA 96101. Will felt strongly about supporting and trying to keep the youth coming into agriculture. always found time to stop and visit the neighbors; and in later years, Rice’s feed store was a regular hang out to tell stories. His family and friends will always remember him as a kind and giving person. Ray is survived by his wife, Ruthmarie; his daughter, Carrie; his two sons, David (Cindy) and Howard (Kim); eight grandchildren and eight great grandchildren. He was preceded in death by his parents and two younger brothers, Owen and Alan. A memorial service was held at Davenport’s Chapel of the Good Shepherd, on Friday, May 20. A graveside service will be held at the Dixon Cemetery, 800 S. First Street in Dixon on Friday, June 3 at 11 a.m.

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Bill King Los Alamos cattleman He sang the National Anthem at the Salinas and Elks William “Bill” King, 81, Rodeos as well as at the Fiesta Rodeo in Santa Barbara passed away at home on and other fundraising events. Late night jam sessions February 13. A proud sixthwith fellow musicians were always a highlight for him on generation Californian, he Ranchero Visitadores rides and at the National Cowboy was born in Los Angeles on Poetry Gatherings in Elko, Nev. Bill loved to perform Dec. 28,1940. Bill’s mother, on stage with yodeling cowboy Monte Mills who also Consuelo Rickard King, facilitated Bill’s longtime wish to record his own CD. was a member of the de la In 2005, Bill and his brother Chuck were chosen as Guerra and Oreña families, Honorary Vaqueros for the Fiesta Rodeo in Santa Barbara. early California settlers from Bill was recognized as Livestock Producer of the Year by Spain. His father, Captain the Santa Barbara County Fair in 2007. In 2011, the King C. E. King, was a career naval officer whose various brothers were Honored Vaqueros at the Santa Ynez Valley deployments moved the family around the country and Historical Museum. Bill was a member of Los Rancheros abroad. Visitadores (Los Picadores Camp), the Society of Los Even at a young age, Bill made lasting impressions. Alamos, California Rangeland Trust, California Cattlemen’s At 13 he was caught smoking on national TV during the Association, Santa first televised presidential inaugural parade for Dwight Barbara County Cattlemen’s Association, and the Santa Eisenhower in 1953. Bill’s mother once received a letter Barbara County Range Improvement Association. For from the principal at Bellermine boys’ prep school in San those who wish to remember Bill, donations may be made Jose asking politely that Bill not return as he was accused to the California Rangeland Trust or the Santa Ynez Valley of putting dynamite caps on the railroad tracks – a charge he always denied. A gifted athlete, Historical Museum. Bill is survived by his devoted wife Saundra; Bill’s in high school Bill played basketball for Honolulu’s Saint children Jenny (husband Luke), Billy (and daughter Louis School Crusaders who won the Island Territory Championship before Hawaii became a state. Although the Margeaux) and Katy (husband Randy); Saundra’s children King family enjoyed living in different parts of the country, Britt (and sons Ryan and Blake), Craig (wife Tina and children Zach, Olivia, Mariah and Bill’s best times were summers at his mother’s family’s Justin) and Shelli (and sons Grant and Bryce); Bill’s nieces Cuyama and Los Alamos ranches. Bill attended Santa Clara University where he continued Teri (and daughters Ciera and Sammie), Tina (husband Brian and sons Bryson and Cole a/k/a Quad Tracks), and to play sports and stir up trouble with fellow classmates Caci (husband Shawn). who also became lifelong friends. After graduating in 1962 Bill attended law school for, in his words “about 10 minutes” while running a few cattle with his brother Chuck. He had reminisced recently that when he watched his first load of cattle come down the Kellen Patterson Tylie Lax loading chute he knew instantly Jared and Lauren Patterson, Caldwell, Tylie Lax, second daughter of Bobby he wouldn’t be a lawyer and King Idaho, welcomed their first child Kellen and Randie Lax, Adrian, Ore., arrived Bros. Cattle Company was born. The brothers leased a rugged ranch Val Patterson on April 27. Kellen on April 29. She weighed 7 pounds 9 in Parkfield and realized their true weighed in at 8 pounds 15 ounces and ounces and was welcomed by big sister passion – the cattle business. Bill was 20 inches long. Grandparents are Teevin. Grandparents are Dennis and and Chuck continued to run cattle Val and Chris Patterson, Declo, Idaho Kathy Pimentel, Fruitland, Idaho; Bill for the next decade. After the and Brad Ramey and Angie Wiseman, Lax, Adrian, Ore.; and Mike and Jody partnership dissolved, Bill ran his both of Ridgefield, Wash. Falleur, Gearhart, Ore. own cattle herd and operated the receiving station in Buellton for the Templeton Livestock Market until he retired in 2014. Though the cattle business was Derousse & Sparrowk tough, Bill always reminisced about the good times trading cattle on the Sparrowk, Clements. The couple Cassidy DeRouse and Jordan Sparrowk were wed in a ceremony Mexican border, last minute plane has made their first home in Boise, in San Luis Obispo on April 2. The rides to cattle auctions, and all the Idaho, where Jordan is employed by bride is the daughter of Mike and “legends” and great people he met Snake River Farms, a subsidiary of Marcia DeRousse, Escalon. The along the way. Bill’s other passion groom is the son of Jeff and Wendy Agribeef. was singing and playing guitar.

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June 2022 California Cattleman 35

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Mark Your Calendars for the Heritage Bull Sale Sept. 4 in Wilton



AnnualBull Bull Sale: 1, 2018 2022 Sale:Sat., Sept.September 3, Farmington Inaugural FemaleSale: Sale: Oct. Mon.,10, October 15, 2018 2022 Female Porterville


916.712.3696 • 916.803.2685 jj@barrangus.com

36 California Cattleman June 2021

SEPT. 8, 2022 • COLUSA, CA

Tim & Marilyn Callison............................... Owners Chad Davis ..................................... 559 333 0362 Travis Coy ...................................... 559 392 8772 Justin Schmidt................................ 209 585 6533 Ranch Website ................. www.ezangusranch.com


O’Connell Aviator 7727

Hoffman Bomber 8743

VDAR PF Churchhill 2825

VDAR Mirror Image 6207

SIRE: Musgrave Aviator MGS: R B Tour Of Duty 177

SIRE: VDAR Churchill 1063 MGS: VDAR Really Windy 4189


SIRE: Casino Bomber N33 MGS: S A V Final Answer 0035 SIRE: W R A Mirror Image T10 MGS: BCC Bushwacker 41-93

Nathan, Melissa & Kate Noah (208) 257-3686 • (208) 550-0531

Joe Sammis • (530) 397-3456 122 Angus Rd., Dorris, CA 96023

O’Connell ranch Gerber, CA

Call us about females available private treaty. JoinususforSept. 9 forGold our Bull annual Join the Black Sale Black Gold Sale! Sept. 8 inBull Colusa

Registered Angus Cattle Call to see what we have to offer you!


Scott & Shaleen Hogan

(530) 200-1467

• (530) 227-8882

DAN & BARBARA O’CONNELL 3590 Brown Rd, Colusa CA (530) 458-4491



— Since 1878—

Join us at the annual “Performance Plus” Bull Sale in O’Neals on Sept. 6, 2022

Join us at the 47th Annual “Generations of Performance”

Bull Sale Sept. 9, 2022 in Gerber!


(530) 385-1570

Gary & Betsy Cardoza

(775) 691-1838 • honeranch@frontier.com HONERANCH.COM

PO Box 40 • O’Neals, CA 93645 (559) 999-9510

Offering bulls at California’s top consignment sales! Call today about private treaty offerings!

RED RIVER FARMS 13750 West 10th Avenue Blythe, CA 92225 Office: 760-922-2617 Bob Mullion: 760-861-8366 Michael Mullion: 760-464-3906

Simmental – SimAngus™ – Angus


A FAMILY TRADITION Angus and SimAngus Cattle John Teixeira: (805) 448-3859 Allan Teixeira: (805) 310-3353 Tom Hill: (541) 990-5479 www.teixeiracattleco.com | cattle@thousandhillsranch.com

June 2021 California Cattleman 37



Leading Angus & Ultrablack© Genetics Bulls and females available private treaty!

TUMBLEWEED RANCHES Greeley Hill, CA • La Grange, CA Stephen Dunckel • (209) 591-0630 www.tumbleweedranch.net twd@tumbleweedranch.net


11500 N Ambassador Drive, Suite 410 | Kansas City, MO 64153 | (816) 842-3757 | aha@hereford.org


Oroville, CA LambertRanchHerefords.com



Call us about our upcoming consignments or private treaty cattle available off the ranch.



14298 N. Atkins Rd • Lodi, CA 95248 Nellie, Mike, Mary, Rita & Families Nellie (209) 727-3335 • Rita (209) 607-9719 website: www.mcpheeredangus.com

thank you to our 2021 Buyers!

Annual Sale First Monday in March 42500 Salmon Creek Rd Baker City, OR 97814

Ranch: (541) 523-4401 Bob Harrell, Jr.: (541) 523-4322


“Breeding with the Commercial Cattleman in Mind”

79337 Soto Lane Fort Rock, OR 97735 Ken 541.403.1044 | Jesse 541.810.2460 ijhufford@yahoo.com | www.huffordherefords.com

38 California Cattleman June 2021

Barry: (530) 6825808 • Carrie: (530) 218-5507 Bailey (530) 519-5189 morrellranches@yahoo.com 560 County Road 65, Willows CA 95988

P.W. GILLIBRAND Registered Hereford Cattle & Quarter Horses

Call us today for information on private treaty bulls or females.


Cattle Co.

Horned and Polled Hereford Genetics

Private treaty bulls available or watch for our consignments at Cal Poly! Dwight Joos Ranch Manager P.O. Box 1019 • Simi Valley, CA 93062 805-520-8731 x1115 • Mobile 805-428-9781 dwight.joos@pwgcoinc.com Simi Valley, CA



Jim Mickelson (707) 481-3440

P.O. Box 2689 • Petaluma, CA 94953

California’s Leading Producers for Brangus, Ultrablacks & Brangus Optimizers

Call a breeder near you today for more information! BALD MOUNTAIN BRANGUS, SONORA (209) 768-1719







SPANISH RANCH Your Source for Brangus and Ultrablack Genetics in the West!


Genetics That Get Results! OMF EPIC E27

Reliable products you are looking for with the dependable service you need. Owned with Owned with Oak Meadows Farms & Schooley Cattle.

Call anytime to see what we can offer you!

THE DOIRON FAMILY Daniel & Pamela Doiron 805-245-0434 Cell doiron@spanishranch.net www.spanishranch.net



Stan Sears 5322 Freeman Rd. Montague, CA 96064 (530) 842-3950

Vaccines Mineral Medicines Supplements ...and more! Antonia Old • (209) 769-7663


CHAROLAIS Feedlot • Rice • Charolais 2015 AICA Seedstock Producer of the Year

Jerry & Sherry Maltby

PO Box 760 Williams, CA bbr@citlink.net

Mobile: (530) 681-5046 Office (530) 473-2830 www.brokenboxranch.com

June 2021 California Cattleman 39


Watkins Fence Company

Over 25 years serving California, Utah and Southern Idaho

specializing in oil pipe • chain link • barb wire

3300 Longmire Drive• College Station, TX 77845 (800) 768-4066 • (979) 693-0388 fax: (979) 693-7994 e-mail: info@bovine-elite.com

(805) 649-1568 Lic # 773420 shane@watkinsfence.com

Full Service JMM GENETICS A.I. Technician & Semen Distributor


• A.I, CIDR & heat synchronization • Extensive experience • Willing to Travel • Well-versed in dairy & beef pedigrees

JORGE MENDOZA • (530) 519-2678 jmmawss@gmail.com 15880 Sexton Road, Escalon, CA




Lostine Timber Tract - OR

9,772± acres of timber and grazing land $9,319,000. 1,198± acres with creek frontage offered separately. $1,438,260


Cascade Timber Ranch - ID

Timbered ranch with meadows, creek, and ponds. Ranch has great hunting, and a private lease on 20,000 more acres. $5,350,000. Or buy part. $2,970,000


(208) 345-3163 knipeland.com

Premium Livestock Feeds “PERFORMANCE THROUGH WWW.BARALEINC.COM ADVANCED (888) 258-3333NUTRITION” • Williams, CA MattMixes Zappetini 526-0106 • Mineral with(530) Ranch Delivery • mzappetini@baraleinc.com • Hi Mag - Fly Control - Rumensin - Custom Mixes • Performance Through • Complete Feeds and Finish Mixes • Advanced Nutrition


  

www.baraleinc.com • (888) 258-3333


Certified Organic

Sales Representatives: Matt Zappetini (530) 526-0106

Williams, CA Matt Zappetini (530) 526-0106 mzappetini@baraleinc.com

Tracy Lewis (530) 304-7246

Ranch Deliveries Available with our Truck and Forklift! We


Proudly Featuring

1011 Fifth Street Williams, CA. 95987 888-473-3333 info@baraleinc.com WWW.BARALEINC.COM

also offer custom formulations to meet your specific nutritional needs!

40 California Cattleman June 2021

We offer blends that contain: Molasses - Zinpro® Performance Minerals - Availa® 4 - Added Selenium Yeast - Rumensin® Available

2022 BULL BUYERS GUIDE Reach your direct target audience with our most anticipated issue of the year!

share your products & services in one of the most respected beef magazines in the business and the only publication that works exclusively for the California beef industry and puts your ad dollars back to work for you! Reach readers in California plus thousands more across the west, including Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, Utah and Washington!



May10, 2022 California Cattleman RESERVATION DEADLINE: JUNE 2022


Amador Angus Ranch................................................................................36 American Ag Credit....................................................................................17 American Hereford Association ���������������������������������������������������������������38 Animal Health International ��������������������������������������������������������������������39 Bar Ale Premium Livestock Feeds �����������������������������������������������������������40 Bar KD Ranch..............................................................................................36 Bar R Angus.................................................................................................36 Biozyme........................................................................................................23 Bovine Elite, LLC.........................................................................................40 Broken Box Ranch.......................................................................................39 Buchanan Angus Ranch.............................................................................36 Byrd Cattle Co..............................................................................................36 California-Nevada Outdoor Properties ���������������������������������������������20, 21 Cattlemen’s Livestock Market ���������������������������������������������������������������������2 Chico State College of Agriculture �����������������������������������������������������������39 CoBank ........................................................................................................17 Conlin Supply Co., Inc................................................................................23 Dal Porto Livestock.....................................................................................36 Dixie Valley Angus................................................................................36, 43 Donati Ranch...............................................................................................36 EZ Angus Ranch..........................................................................................36 Farm Credit West........................................................................................17 Freitas Rangeland Improvements �������������������������������������������������������������24 Fresno State Ag Foundation.......................................................................39 Genoa Livestock..........................................................................................38 Harrell Hereford Ranch..............................................................................38 HAVE Angus................................................................................................37 Hogan Ranch...............................................................................................37 Hone Ranch..................................................................................................37 Hufford’s Herefords.....................................................................................38 Hygieia Laboratories.....................................................................................7

42 California Cattleman June 2022

JMM Genetics..............................................................................................40 Kessler Angus...............................................................................................37 Knipe Land Company...........................................................................19, 40 Lambert Ranch............................................................................................38 Little Shasta Ranch......................................................................................39 McPhee Red Angus.....................................................................................38 Morrell Ranches...........................................................................................38 Noah’s Angus Ranch...................................................................................37 O’Connell Ranch.........................................................................................37 O’Neal Ranch...............................................................................................37 P.W. Gillibrand Cattle Co...........................................................................38 Red River Farms..........................................................................................37 Sammis Ranch.............................................................................................37 Schohr Herefords.........................................................................................38 Sierra Ranches..............................................................................................39 Sonoma Mountain Herefords �������������������������������������������������������������������39 Spanish Ranch..............................................................................................39 Stepaside Farms...........................................................................................37 Tehama Angus Ranch.................................................................................37 Teixeira Cattle Co........................................................................................37 Tumbleweed Ranches.................................................................................38 Turlock Livestock Auction Market ������������������������������������������������������������9 VF Red Angus..............................................................................................38 Vintage Angus Ranch...........................................................................38, 44 Watkins Fence Company............................................................................40 West Coast Brangus Breeders �������������������������������������������������������������������39 Western Poly Pipe........................................................................................24 Western Stockman’s Market.......................................................................11 Western Video Market..................................................................................3 Wraith, Scarlett and Randolph �����������������������������������������������������������������33




Owned with Poss Angus and Reverse Rocking R





Sire: Spring Cove Reno 4021 MGS: Connealy Confidence Plus

Sire: Poss Maverick • MGS: Poss Easy Impact 0119

Owned with Sexing Technologies

Sire: Connealy Confidence Plus • MGS: SydGen CC & 7
















































































STERLING PACIFIC 904 Owned with Brookhouser T-Bone Angus



STERLING LEGACY 0106 Sire: Connealy Gary MGS: V A R Discovery 2240

Sire: Hoover No Doubt • MGS: G A R Prophet


Owned with Revolution Genetics Sire: Connealy Confidence Plus • MGS: Connealy Consensus 578B
















































































(530) 526-5920 • morgon@nobmanncattle.com www.dixievalleyangus.com • follow us on facebook!


Montague, CA June 2022 California Cattleman 43

VINTAGE ANGUS RANCH Thursday, September 1, 2022 • La Grange, CA • 12 noon 29th Annual “Carcass Maker” Bull Sale




1004 1031 1074 1083 1147 1181 1276 1282 1315 1361 1397 1471 0609 1500 1534 1558 1569 1574 1589 1590 1639 1642

V A R Field General 1004 V A R Home Town 1031 V A R Fireball 1074 V A R Main Street 1083 V A R No Doubt 1147 V A R Fireball 1181 V A R Home Town 1276 V A R Fireball 1282 V A R Home Town 1315 V A R Fireball 1361 V A R Alternative 1397 V A R Legend 1471 V A R Enforcer 0609 V A R Step Up 1500 V A R Step Up 1534 V A R Greater Good 1558 V A R Alternative 1569 V A R Greater Good 1574 V A R Summation 1589 V A R Greater Good 1590 V A R Home Town 1639 V A R Home Town 1642

19995314 19976701 19976660 19976676 19996031 19996955 19995333 20001191 20034168 20020355 20032874 20062284 19976669 20131058 20131066 20129699 20131119 20185562 20185564 20129713 20129822 20129823


CED BW WW YW 15 13 14 13 5 6 9 11 8 15 9 5 5 9 9 9 9 11 9 10 5 10

-0.5 66 1.5 78 0.8 78 0.6 69 2.1 85 3.3 87 1.2 70 1.5 85 1.7 75 -1.6 74 0.3 82 2.3 81 1 84 2.3 94 2.1 78 1 86 1.2 72 1.6 102 1.6 96 1.2 82 2.4 79 -0.4 81

128 136 147 119 146 159 132 158 139 135 146 144 156 168 137 149 134 182 175 146 137 150







64 65 66 51 83 75 72 70 67 58 80 81 73 89 70 72 79 82 80 75 70 73

82 53 50 83 79 78 59 60 74 76 35 74 72 66 81 60 55 64 69 68 79 72

77 72 80 81 87 80 82 87 89 79 72 88 94 93 74 89 73 113 101 87 78 93

126 112 115 95 127 125 124 121 126 108 131 128 123 141 126 115 143 127 124 125 125 128

83 97 102 111 73 95 106 87 102 99 92 84 83 82 81 101 77 91 77 82 103 85

209 209 217 207 200 219 230 208 229 207 223 211 206 223 207 216 219 217 201 206 228 213

1.37 1.43 1.7 1.9 1.12 1.43 1.65 1.36 1.61 1.54 1.35 1.35 1.2 1.27 1.15 1.6 1.16 1.4 1.06 1.24 1.54 1.24

0.7 1.29 1 1 0.89 1.26 1.07 0.96 1.2 1.16 1.14 0.85 1.13 1.03 1.04 1.09 1.02 0.96 1.13 0.99 1.28 1.13


VAR will offer the largest volume of multi-trait excellence bulls on the west coast. Whether you need one herd bull or a truck load, the quality runs deep. The over 200 Vintage sale bulls average in the top 4% of the breed for $Beef and $Combined. Posting an average $C score of $302 and marbling EPD of 1.07. Call or e-mail to get on our sale book mailing list!

$C Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1%

353 324 331 351 338 362 357 330 371 344 324 348 339 355 349 340 339 345 330 335 375 348

Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1% Top 1%



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