C2Change Magazine Commemorative Issue

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Freedom of Speech?

The Surveillance and Criminalization of Black Activism

March/April 2020

Discrimination & hate Watch

Tracking Discrimination & Hate in America — Part I



The Arts: Frenchwoman, Flo Beauredon, captures Black culture.

Photo Story: Jackie Robinson




07 | About Us


09 Editor's Letter 10 Government & Politics Special: Patriotism/Treason by C2Change Staff

20 Photo Story: Jackie Robinson by R.L. Byrd

22 Current Events: Black HIV/ AIDS Awareness by R.L. Byrd

25 Arts & Culture: Florence (Flo) Beauredon by C2Change Staff

26 Editor's Opinion: Is Kanye Playing A Dangerous Game?

28 Cover Story: Freedom of Speech? The Surveillance & Criminalization of Black Activism by R.L. Byrd

by Rodney L. Berry

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C2Change (Channeling Creative Change) Magazine focuses on providing a racial justice platform for voiceless and disenfranchised people of color.

C2Change Information

Publisher | R.L. Byrd Editor in Chief | Rodney L. Berry Digital Publication/Distribution | ISSUU Inc. C2Change Magazine, founded in 2018, is an online instrument for racial and social justice.

Social Media | Stay in Contact

Twitter.com: c2changemag Facebook.com: c2changemagazine Instagram.com: c2changemagazine Linkedin.com: c2change-magazine Youtube Channel: C2Change Magazine Issuu e-zine Channel: C2Change Magazine

20 | Photo Story 34 Hate Watch: Living Through Hate. Showcasing Injustices One by One by C2Change Staff

48 Dear Gee Advice: People Showing You Who They Really Are.

Advertising & Media Inquiries media@c2changemagazine.com Channeling Creative Change (C2Change) Magazine is a digital publication available online at www.c2changemagazine.com. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. All content is the property of C2Change Magazine and/or the respective artists, writers, photographers and advertisers, and are protected by copyright and trademark laws. Copyright Š 2020.

by C2Change Staff

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EAST ST. LOUIS RIOT OF 1917 During the racial East St. Louis Riot of 1917, a mob beats an African American man in front of a street car, while the militia charged with restoring order stands by and does nothing. (Photo via Getty Images)


LOS ANGELES (RODNEY KING) RIOT National Guardsmen and a police officer take up security positions in front of a burned and looted shopping center, 01 May 1992 in central Los Angeles. The 1992 Los Angeles riots, with looting and arson events, erupted 29 April 1992 when a mostly white jury acquitted the four police officers accused in the videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King, after he fled from police. 52 people were killed during the riots and Rodney King became a reluctant symbol of police brutality. (Photo credit should read HAL GARB/AFP/Getty Images)


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des of struggle is why . . .


SELMA, ALABAMA PROTESTS An officer accosts an unconscious woman as mounted police officers attack civil rights marchers in Selma, Alabama who were attempting to begin a 50 mile march to Montgomery to protest race discrimination in voter registration. Mounted policeman in background are part of Sheriff Jim Clark's Dallas County posse. Police used tear gas, clubs, whips and ropes to turn back the demonstrators as they crossed bridge over the Alabama River at the city limits (Photo via Getty Images)


CHICAGO (LAQUAN MCDONALD) PROTESTS. CHICAGO, IL - DECEMBER 12: Demonstrators march through downtown on December 12, 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A recently released video showing the shooting of teenager Laquan McDonald by Chicago Police officer Jason Van Dyke has sparked almost daily protests in the city and calls for Mayor Rahm Emanuel and Cook County State's Attorney Anita Alvarez to resign for trying to cover up the circumstances surrounding the shooting. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

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There are two types of people: The ones that make change happen, and the ones that watch change happen. Which change are you?


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A s an answer to the country’s declining state of affairs (hatred, division, heightened racial and social tensions) due to the current powers in government, C2Change Magazine was initially pitched

as a 12-month, yearly, charitable contribution of time, manpower, and financial resources to an emerging organization fighting racial and social injustices—but, sometimes, the universe has other plans. And nothing can be more voluminous as a “no thank you” than silence. (We understood and still support their cause because their success is our success.) Their silence was the universe telling us to regroup, repurpose, and turn left. The gravitational pull to keep going, growing stronger each day our country’s freedoms, principals, and core values were challenged or stripped away by the current administration. (One person can be the catalyst for destruction, but it takes a following, either by conformity, duplicity, or complacency to bring the destruction into existence.) With the country progressively going backwards, if not on a new, different and dangerous path, we needed to be a voice. A voice for the voiceless and disenfranchised. A voice that pushes for CHANGE.

Why the name C2Change? We wanted to invoke change not only in the contents of the

magazine, but in the name itself. C-2 Change not only implies seeing about the business of changing our circumstances, but our role in channeling creative change to do so.

Why the chosen format? One of the untapped resources of African American culture (and our

struggle) can be found within the earlier, 20th century issues of the NAACP Crisis Magazine (one of many like-minded Black publications of the era). I found this to be true when researching a relative who was part of the documented 3,000+ lynchings in America's history. Within the February 1918 issue, I found his name (along with many others), as well as, details of the world people of color had to exist within; since then, I've gone through every issue. With this in mind, we used the W.E.B. Dubois years of the NAACP Crisis Magazine as the exemplar of how we wanted to disseminate information—report on the every day lives and injustices of people of color while showcasing our culture and chronicling our history. Each generation should push for the continual change and betterment of our communities for the next generation. C2Change Magazine strives to provide information for communities of color to use in that push—we channel creative change.

R .L. Byrd , Publisher

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"Each generation should push for the continual change and betterment of our communities for the next generation. C2Change Magazine strives to provide information for communities of color to use in that push—we channel creative change."


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s we've said goodbye to an unforgettable 2019 (A year which saw the continuation of asylum seekers being separated from their families and children placed into cages. ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement) rounding up individuals and detaining them for deportation. Hate rhetoric leading to racially motivated mass shootings.) C2Change launched, just days after Black History Month 2020, to chronicle and bring attention to these and other social and racial injustices—providing a platform for voiceless and disenfranchised people of color. In this issue, readers will find today's pressing issues aligned with historical facts in government and politics, domestic news, arts and entertainment, and sports. How far have we come, as opposed to how much further we need to push forward to create change, is the question and answer we channel. Each generation should push for the continual change and betterment of our communities for the next generation. C2Change Magazine strives to provide information for communities of color to use in that push.

Rodney L. Berry, Editor in Chief

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After serving two terms, George Washington, the

first president under the U.S. Constitution, in his 1796 Farewell Address, said of foreign influence: "Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence . . . the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. . . . The rule for conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible."

The rule for conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. President George Washington

President Washington's experience with foreign influence would include French interference in U.S. politics—In 1796, a French agent released private information to the public to try and sway the election in favor of Thomas Jefferson—and with England conspiring with Major-General Benedict Arnold to surrender the U.S. military stronghold of West Point, New York. The latter (British collusion) happening before America's independence and the former (French interference) happening afterwards.

Candidate Donald Trump pled in a July 27, 2016 speech regarding political rival, Hillary Clinton. "And by the way," President Trump informs reporters in an October 3, 2019 interview, "China should start an investigation into the Bidens [his political rival Vice President Joe Biden and son, Hunter Biden]. Because what happened in China is just about as bad as what happened with, ugh, with Ukraine."

Today, in an ironic play of events—Russian interference replacing French interference and Ukrainian collusion replacing British collusion—Washington's rule for conduct regarding foreign nations is being put to test. The 1st president's warning abandoned not only by prominent members and critical offices of our government, but by the 45th president (Donald J. Trump) himself. The president openly (and privately) soliciting foreign political intervention against U.S. citizens and U.S. democratic processes:

History has Lessons to Teach Us

". . . history and experience," said President Washington, "prove that foreign influence is one of the most [destructive enemies] of republican government." Coupled with collusion, personal gain, and abuse of power, he saw its destructive potential; most notable in the betrayal of Major-General Benedict Arnold. Personal Gain/Abuse of Power/Foreign Influence Before President Trump's conspiracy with Ukraine for personal gain, there was Major-General Arnold's conspiracy with the British for money and position.

“Russia, if you’re listening, I hope you’re able to find the 30,000 emails that are missing." Presidential 11/ 0 4 6


According to Armstrong State University's Undergraduate Journal of History, via author Cody Wells, Arnold took over the city using martial law and began appointing staff who lacked the experience and qualifications to address civic concerns and affairs. Additionally, under orders, Arnold shut down shops and businesses to prevent the sale and removal of items left behind by the British; this included items of residents as there was no way to distinguish between the two. The order (meant to stop the transfer and removal of stockpiles needed by the Continental Army to fight the British) ultimately suppressed the financial means of the city's businesses and residents. In an economic crisis, many within the city ignored Washington's order and created black markets for the sale of goods, both, within and outside the city. Among the profiteers was Benedict Arnold himself, "viewed as living luxuriously in a manner that even [General] Washington could not bring himself to approve of." Major General Benedict Arnold

The Oath

As America transitioned into an independent nation, free of British control, one of its beloved generals, Major General Benedict Arnold, on May 30, 1778, signed an Oath of Allegiance to his country: " . . . and I do swear that I will, to the utmost of my power, support, maintain and defend the said United States against the said King George the Third, his heirs and successors, and his or their abettors, assistants and adherents, and will serve the said United States in the office of Major General which I now hold, with fidelity, according to the best of my skill and understanding." Less than a year later—just weeks after writing friend General George Washington (General and Commander in Chief of the U.S. Army) of his dismay in the delay of his May 5, 1779 court-martial trial for unbecoming conduct and crimes—Arnold would begin corresponding (and conspiring) with British Major John AndrÊ.

Before the Conspiracy: The Court-Martial Trial

Before the conspiracy with the British, Arnold faced a court-martial for unbecoming conduct while serving as military commander for the city of Philadelphia. Appointed by General Washington after sustaining a battle injury to a previously battle-injured leg, Arnold assumed the military commander role as the British evacuated the city. The British evacuation (although good for the impending independent nation) left the city economically strapped and wrought with civilian hardships.

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With a lifestyle of sumptuous living rivaling a prince more-so one on a military officer's pay, Arnold's lifestyle ultimately led to financial debt and a search for alternative means of supporting such extravagant living.

". . . when General Arnold had

been but four days in command at Philadelphia, he formed a very suspicious partnership . . .


As noted in the 1865 edition of Proceedings of a General Court Martial for the Trial of Major General Arnold, "On the 23rd of June, 1778, when Arnold had been but four days in command at Philadelphia, he formed a very suspicious partnership, by which goods not wanted for public use, were purchased with public funds and sold for the benefit of himself and partners." But the most damning part of his command was his at-odds-relationship with the Pennsylvania Supreme Executive Council (a faction of the state's governing body) concerning his assumptions about his power, jurisdiction of that power, and overall conduct as military commander for Philadelphia; all of which called for the Council to pass resolutions censuring his behavior. The censure for unbecoming conduct and crimes being the call for the state attorney general's case for prosecution: Charges ranging from the sale and buying of goods to the misuse of government equipment.

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The Acquittal Before the Conspiracy. Serving as a military officer of the U.S., Arnold's case was referred to the U.S. Continental Congress by the Pennsylvania Council. Upon learning of the charges and impending trial, Arnold resigned his command of Philadelphia in March of 1779 as witnesses, like Col. John Brown, came forward to corroborate the Council's case and provide first-hand knowledge of Arnold's misconduct. Col. Brown—to no avail two years prior to the Council bringing forth its charges—wrote Congress about Arnold's misconduct. Again, as the new charges came forth by the Pennsylvania Council, Col. Brown wrote to Congress on the 7th of March, 1779: "[E]nclosed I send you a copy of an impeachment [against] Gen. Arnold, who found means in a very extraordinary manner, and by the help of some very extraordinary minds, to evade a trial. I wish I could say that congress had been less concerned in this matter: perhaps at this day they may be of my opinion, altho' they, contrary and in direct violation of the laws military, and antecedently by them established for the regulation of the army, gave Gen. Arnold a sham trial in congress, without giving me the least notice." In collaboration with the Pennsylvania Council, time quickly elapsed and the patience of Arnold, the Council, and public-at-large grew sour as Congress failed to properly execute a timely response in bringing forth Arnold's prosecution. To appease everyone, the issue was turned over to the Commander in Chief (General George Washington) who referred Arnold's conduct to a court martial. With the court martial trial originally scheduled for May 5th, General Washington wrote President Reed of the Pennsylvania Council on December 4, 1779—a trial delay of nearly seven months—requesting witnesses as noted in the Proceedings of a General Court Martial for the Trial of Major General Arnold: ". . . [Monday, December 20th] is appointed for proceeding in the trial of Major Genl. Arnold. The court martial will sit at the camp in the vicinity of Morristown [New Jersey]. I have written to Mr. Matlack and informed him of these circumstances, and I request the favour of Your Excellency to communicate notice of the same to any witnesses there may be besides." Representing himself, Arnold found relief at the end of his trial in January of 1780 where the charges that could be resolved by court martial trial were either 1) fully explained, 2) admitted to by General Arnold and referred to

General Washington to address, or 3) referred to General Washington to simply address. Washington addressing the referrals by publicly admonishing Arnold’s conduct. Citing the acquittal, and through Arnold's plotted request for West Point, General Washington gave Arnold command of West Point (the most critical military position of the colonies) as a way of gaining back the favor, trust, and esteem of his countrymen. However, unbeknownst to Washington, Arnold had already begun conspiring with the British for the capture of West Point.

The Conspiracy

On August 3rd, 1780, Major General Benedict Arnold assumed command of West Point. Weeks later, on August 24th according to the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) Library, Arnold would solidify his conspiracy with the British by accepting an "offer of £20,000 for delivering up [West Point], provided the bag included 3,000 men and specified quantities of ordnance and stores." As the plot evolved, the capture of General Washington, and his men at the citadel, would bring heighten splendor to the British and a crushing defeat for America. With the destiny of the new nation on the line, three men would alter the course of Arnold's intentions; forever changing the course of the nation. On September 20th, General Arnold would meet with Major André for one last time before André's capture by three American patriots poising as British-men in redcoats. With incriminating documents hidden inside his boot revealing the West Point plot (and General Arnold's treachery), the three patriots surrendered André to American forces and the documents were sent to General Washington. Learning of Arnold's treason, according to Cody Wells historical analysis, "Washington cried out, 'Arnold has betrayed us, whom can we trust now?'"

America's Response

After learning of André's capture, General Arnold fled to the safety of the British in New York City. Washington (with André's commander knowing André would be executed) wrote the British commander seeking Arnold's return in exchange for André; with no response, André was tried, convicted, and hung as a spy. Arnold—hated within America and name removed from the annals of history by decrees of both Gen. Washington and Congress—died on June 14, 1801, in England. Watch "A Man Without A Country: Benedict Arnold" on Biography.com

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try of Ukraine to investigate his political rival, former Vice President Joe Biden and son, Hunter Biden.

Before the Conspiracy: The Mueller Investigation

On March 22, 2019 (twenty-two months after Mueller's appointment), Special Counsel Mueller concluded his investigation—an investigation limited to the Department of Justice legal guidance—and submitted his findings to Attorney General William P. Barr in a 448-page report entitled: Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election. Report on the Investigation Into the 2016 Presidential Election by Special Counsel Robert S. Meller III, Volume I and II

President Donald J. Trump

The Oath

On January 20, 2017, Donald John Trump took the Presidential Oath of Office becoming the 45th President of the United States: "I Donald John Trump do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. So help me God." A tumultuous four months later, on May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert S. Mueller III to lead an investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election—and whether the Trump campaign was in coordination with the foreign adversary. (Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein making the appointment after Attorney General Jeff Sessions recused himself citing his unreported contacts with Russian officials, as a Senator from Alabama, while involved with the Trump presidential campaign.) The appointment of Mueller a direct result of the president's May 9th firing of FBI Director James Comey for refusing to announce that the president was not a part of the FBI's investigation into Russian election interference. Shortly after Special Counsel Mueller's findings were made public where his team wrote: "Accordingly, while this report does not conclude [President Trump] committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him." the president (along with his associates) solicited the coun-

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The report, separated into Volumes I and II, focused on Russia's interference in the 2016 presidential election and interactions with the Trump campaign (Volume I); and the possible obstruction of President Trump towards the Russian interference investigation and the work of the Special Counsel (Volume II). The investigation for both Volumes, as identified in the report, was confined to the following investigative parameters: Collusion of the Trump Campaign with Russia. "In evaluating whether evidence about collective action of multiple individuals constituted a crime, we applied the framework of conspiracy law [as defined in federal law], not the concept of 'collusion.'" Likewise, the term coordination is not defined in federal criminal law and the investigation understood the term to "require an agreement—tacit or expressed—between the Trump Campaign and the Russian government on election interference." Obstruction by President Trump The investigation adopted the views of the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) concerning the indictment or criminal prosecution of a sitting president. (A sitting president may not be prosecuted.) The report states, ". . . we determined not to make a traditional prosecutorial judgment." However, per the OLC guidelines, The Special Counsel did initiate a criminal investigation which is permissible during a president's term.

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And the Special Counsel's conclusions, under the aforementioned parameters, are as follows from the report: Volume I: Russian Election Interference Introduction. "Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the campaign expected it would benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities." Volume II: Obstruction of Justice Conclusion. "Because we determined not to make a traditional prosecutorial judgment, we did not draw ultimate conclusions about the President's conduct. The evidence we obtained about the President's actions and intent presents difficult issues that would need to be resolved if we were making a traditional prosecutorial judgment. At the same time, if we had confidence after a thorough investigation of the facts that the President clearly did not commit obstruction of justice, we would so state. Based on the facts and the applicable legal standards, we are unable to reach that judgment. Accordingly, while this report does not conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him." The Acquittal Before the Conspiracy. On April 18, 2019, U.S. Attorney General William Barr held a news conference with Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein to publicly announce that the Mueller investigation had ended, and:

Although Attorney General Barr's framing of the Special Counsel's report essentially cleared the president and his campaign of any wrongdoing, the Special Counsel's investigation produced a total of 2,800 subpoenas; executed nearly 500 search warrants; indicted 13 Russian nationals, 3 Russian companies and 12 Russian military officers; as well as elicited indictments or guilty pleas from many within the Trump orbit, including Roger Stone (Trump Campaign Advisor), Michael Cohen (Lawyer/Executive V.P. of the Trump Organization), Michael T. Flynn (Asst. to the President for National Security Affairs), Paul Manafort (former Trump Campaign Chairman), and George Papadopoulos (former Trump Campaign National Security Advisor). Barr's framing of the Special Counsel's findings, as reported by NPR, provoked Special Counsel Mueller to write the Attorney General on his mischaracterization of the report in a March 27, 2019 letter where he indicated, "The summary letter the Department sent to Congress and released to the public late in the afternoon of March 24 did not fully capture the context, nature, and substance of this Office's work and conclusions."

The Conspiracy

On March 22, 2019, Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller completed his investigation into Russian interference and presidential obstruction. On April 18th, Attorney General William Barr publicly announced his interpretation of the Special Counsel's findings. On May 29th, Robert S. Mueller III steps down as Special Counsel. On June 13th Federal Election Commission Chair Ellen L. Weintraub issues a statement regarding illegal contributions from foreign governments.

His interpretation of the report concerning if the Trump Campaign had coordinated with Russia in the 2016 election interference was that, ". . . the Special Counsel's report did not find any evidence that members of the Trump campaign or anyone associated with the campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its hacking operations." His interpretation on obstruction by the president was that, ". . . the Deputy Attorney General and I concluded that the evidence developed by the Special Counsel is not sufficient to establish that the President committed an obstruction-of-justice offense. (Read Attorney General Barr's full statement as released by CNN.)

Statement Regarding Illegal Contributions from Foreign Governments by Federal Election Commission Chair Ellen L. Weintraub

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On July 24th, Robert Mueller testifies before the House Judiciary Committee regarding his findings into the 2016 Russian Election interference and of presidential obstruction. On July 25th (just hours after Mueller's testimony) President Trump engages in a call with Ukraine's President, Volodymyr Zelensky, where he solicits Ukraine's help in investigating his political rival, former Vice President Joe Biden and son, Hunter Biden; withholding a designated $391 million dollars of Congressional appointed security assistance as a bargaining chip for Ukraine to conduct the investigation. On August 12th, an employee of the intelligence community (acting as a whistleblower) penned a letter to the Chairmans of the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the following "urgent concern": "In the course of my duties, I have received information from multiple U.S. Government officials that the President of the United States is using the power of his office to solicit foreign interference from a foreign country in the 2020 U.S. election. This interference includes, among other things, pressuring a foreign country to investigate one of the President's main domestic political rivals. The President's personal lawyer, Mr. Rudolph Giuliani, is a central figure in this effort. Attorney General Barr appears to be involved as well." Read the full complaint released by the committee (including footnotes and appendix) in the document below.

Statement Regarding Illegal Contributions from Foreign Governments by Federal Election Commission Chair Ellen L. Weintraub

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America's Response

U.S. Laws Federal Election Campaign Laws: Foreign Nationals As stated by Federal Election Chair Ellen Weintraub, according to the Federal Election Campaign Act, it is unlawful to directly or indirectly solicit assistance from a foreign country in connection with any election. Conspiracy to Defraud the United States: 923. 18 U.S.C. § 371—CONSPIRACY TO DEFRAUD THE UNITED STATES According to the general and permanent laws of the United States Code as prepared by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives: If two or more persons conspire either to commit any offense against the United States, or to defraud the United States, or any agency thereof in any manner or for any purpose, and one or more of such persons do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Additionally, according to the United States Department of Justice, the definition of "defraud" relies heavily on the U.S. Supreme Court cases of Hass v. Henkel, 216 U.S. 462 (1910), and Hammerschmidt v. United States, 265 U.S. 182 (1924). In Hammerschmidt, the Justice Department notates that Chief Justice Taft defined "defraud" as: To conspire to defraud the United States means primarily to cheat the Government out of property or money, but it also means to interfere with or obstruct one of its lawful governmental functions by deceit, craft or trickery, or at least by means that are dishonest. It is not necessary that the Government shall be subjected to property or pecuniary loss by the fraud, but only that its legitimate official action and purpose shall be defeated by misrepresentation, chicane or the overreaching of those charged with carrying out the governmental intention. When President Trump solicited Ukraine's help to influence the 2020 Presidential Elections by investigating his political rival—in the process withholding a designated $391 million dollars of Congressional appointed security assistance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)—he and his associates not only broke Federal Election Campaign Laws, but conspired to defraud the United States by prohibiting the disbursement of the security aid by the OMB, as appointed by Con-

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gress, as part of the OMB's legitimate government function. His behavior—and an administration's turning of a blind eye—eroding a long-standing foundation of U.S. democracy, laws, and accountability. Article II, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution: Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors Article II, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution states: "The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors." The impeachment process begins in the House of Representatives (House Judiciary Committee) where if charges are founded, articles of impeachment are prepared. The full House debates and votes on each charge/ article; and with a majority "yea" vote, the offender is impeached on each charge/article and must stand trial in the Senate on the charges. Democratic Controlled U.S. House of Representatives Invoke Articles of Impeachment: Choosing Country Before Party "Well first let me say that this is no cause for any joy." House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) told MSNBC's "Morning Joe" when asked how she planned to handle members of the Republican Party who insist the President did nothing wrong. "This is a very sad time for our country." she continued, "An impeachment of a president is as serious as our Congressional responsibilities can be, apart from declaring war . . . and we always have to put country before party." In a straight party-line vote (Democrats "yea" and Republicans "no"), after 20+ career professionals gave compelling testimony in the House Judiciary Committee's Impeachment Inquiry—including the Director for European Affairs for the U.S. National Security Council, Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Vindman, who listened in on the President's July 25th call; and former Ukrainian Ambassador Marie Yovanovitch who was questionably removed from her ambassador post—the U.S. House of Representatives issued Articles of Impeachment for "Abuse of Power" (Article One) and "Obstruction of Congress" (Article Two). (Read the full Articles of Impeachment here.) Republican Controlled U.S. Senate Dismiss Articles of Impeachment: Choosing Party Before Country Before the U.S. Senate held its January 16, 2020 Im-

peachment Trial of President Trump, before hearing opening and closing arguments and witness testimonies, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, in a December 13, 2019 interview with Sean Hannity stated, "There is no chance the President will be removed from office." He tells Hannity and his audience, "And everything I do, during this [impeachment process], I'm coordinating with White House Counsel." The Senator went on to explain how the Republican controlled Senate would handle the impending impeachment process, "There will be no difference between the president's position and our position as to how we handle this to the extent that we can." McConnnell's stance—despite laws broken and the nation's founding fathers own experiences regarding abuse of power and foreign intervention—reiterated, in various forms, by many of his Republican colleagues like Lamar Alexander, Susan M. Collins, and Tim Scott.

"I agree [the president] did something inappropriate, but I don't agree he did anything akin to treason, bribery, high crimes, and misdemeanors." — Senator Lamar Alexander In explaining why he opposed allowing witnesses in President Trump's trial, retiring GOP Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN) told NPR, "I agree [the president] did something inappropriate, but I don't agree he did anything akin to treason, bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors." The Senior GOP woman Senator of 23-years, Susan M. Collins (R-ME) told CBS Norah O'Donnell: "I believe the president has learned from this case. . . . I believe he will be much more conscious in the future." The lone African American GOP Senator Tim Scott (RSC) said via a Twitter feed: "You cannot mix facts and fiction without having the premise of deceiving the American public, and that's what we saw here in our chambers." After the President's acquittal by the Senate, Mitt Romney (R-Utah), the only GOP Senator to vote against the president on "Abuse of Power" (Article One), as reported by Politico, said: "The president asked a foreign government to investigate his political rival. The president's purpose was personal and political. Accordingly, the president is guilty of an appalling abuse of public trust."

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Conclusion: Death by Suicide?

223 years ago (1796), the United States' first president, George Washington, forewarned the nation about patriotism and foreign influence through his own interactions with both—through the betrayal of Benedict Arnold and France's interference in the U.S. Presidential Election between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. (Arnold conspiring with the British for personal gain shortly after being cleared of crimes and unbecoming behavior in a court martial trial. France, disseminating information to sway the 1796 Presidential election in favor of Thomas Jefferson.) Fast-forward to the present. We find history repeating itself with a technology-based foreign attack on America's elections by our adversary, Russia, to sway the election in the favor of Donald J. Trump. And the president, himself, conspiring with a foreign power (Ukraine), for personal gain, just shortly after being cleared by Attorney General William Barr of an investigation regarding Russian Election interference and presidential obstruction.

Today, one may argue that we are living within, and witnessing, an age of one or a multitude of the "Towering Genius" Lincoln spoke of—whether residing at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, housed at the Department of Justice, or walking through the Halls of Congress. What do we do? Lincoln poised the question of what to do when such a "Towering Genius" would sprout up among us; and answers the question with: "And when such a one does, it will require the people to be united with each other, attached to the government and laws, and generally intelligent, to successfully frustrate his designs."

At what point then is the approach of danger to be expected? I answer, if it ever reach us, it must spring up amongst us. It cannot come from abroad. If destruction be our lot, we must ourselves be its author and finisher. As a nation of freemen, we must live through all time, or die by suicide.

With history repeating itself with the experiences, lessons, and warnings of past leaders forgotten with time; it seems imperative that we relive their experiences (as we've done in the previous pages) and redeliver their messages and warnings. One such noteworthy warning comes from a young Illinois Senator, Abraham Lincoln (soon to become the nation's 16th President), in his The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions speech where he warned his audience of an impending destructive force. A force not from outside the nation as President Washington had warned 41-years earlier, but a destructive force coming from within the country itself: A destructive force he would call the Towering Genius. "Distinction," Senator Lincoln said of him, "will be his paramount object, and although he would as willingly, perhaps more so, acquire [distinction] by doing good as harm; yet, that opportunity being past, and nothing left to be done in the way of building up, he would set boldly to the task of pulling down." The man (or woman) Senator Lincoln spoke of would not be satisfied with a path well traveled by others; or maintaining the traditions, norms and rules of law already established; but his or her goal would be to dismantle and destroy if distinction would be his end result. Watch Matthew Pinsker's "Understanding Lincoln: Lyceum Address, January 27, 1838" for a synopsis of Lincoln's speech on Vimeo.com

President Abraham Lincoln Lincoln's speech would come on the heels of horrific scenes of violence which stunned the nation. (In two separate incidents, a mob would murder Elijah Lovejoy, a Presbyterian minister and abolitionist, for printing anti-slavery literature; and abduct a Negro (Francis McIntosh) from jail, tie him to a tree, and set him ablaze.) In the wake of the violence, he warned of the demise of a country without the rule of law. But a more important take-away from his speech—as we enter another election season with foreign intervention—is that of a foreign attack on the nation: "At what point shall we expect the approach of danger?" he asks. "By what means shall we fortify against it? Shall we expect some transatlantic military giant to step the ocean and crush us at a blow? Never! . . . At what point then is the approach of danger to be expected? I answer, if it ever reach us, it must spring up amongst us. It cannot come from abroad. If destruction be our lot, we must ourselves be its author and finisher. As a nation of freemen, we must live through all time, or die by suicide." And in this time of ambivalent patriotism—if destruction be our fate—one can only question if the gun is already in Lady Liberty's hand, with the finger of a dying democracy on the trigger. 18 / 0 4 6

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A Peek at the Next Issue of C2Change Magazine

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May 2020

The Call to Harm & Kill

The Radicalization of American Terrorists

Discrimination & hate Watch

Tracking Discrimination & Hate in America — Part II

2020 Elections


The Arts: Melanated Excellence: The Genius of Entrepreneurs Noble Johnson & Tyler Perry

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Photo Story: Viola Gregg Liuzzo


20 JACKIE ROBINSON On April 15, 1947, a 28-year-old Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier and became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball; breaking a 60-year history of the sport being segregated. Hired by Brooklyn Dodgers' owner, president and general manager, Branch Rickey, Robinson became part of Rickey's "Noble Experiment." (The Noble Experiment was the recruitment of a great athlete, but more importantly, the recruitment of an articulate, tolerable man, of great character, to end segregation in baseball.) Articulate. Man of Great Character. Tolerable. All attributes Robinson would need to endure the hate, discrimination, prejudice, and violence he would encounter as the MLB's first black player. Hostilities Rickey knew would be hurled Robinson's way both professionally and in his personal life. And for Robinson's rookie year, contractually, Robinson was asked not to lash out angrily at the hostilities, but to respond nonviolently. Robinson would agree for the good of the sport and the continued integration of baseball and tampered down his temperament and outspokenness in a time when America was deeply segregated, lynchings of blacks still occurred, and racial injustices played out in every part of daily, Black life. After fulfilling his Rookie year, Robinson (now one of the most popular and well known men in the country) would use his MLB position and notoriety to champion Civil Rights. In 1949, he appeared










(an investigative committee on disloyal and subversive citizen activities particularly relating to communist and fascist ties) where he firmly made the distinction between racial discrimination and communist ideology, stating: "the fact that it is a communist who denounces injustice in the courts, police brutality, and lynching when it happens doesn't change the truth of his charges." After retiring from Major League Baseball in 1956, at the age of 37, Robinson would continue fighting for civil rights for those both on and off the baseball field. (The practice of nonviolence being the precursor for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights movement.) In his 1972 autobiography, I Never Had It Made, he noted his pride and frustration in both baseball and life as a Black man; recounting the opening day of his first World Series from this following 20-years-later perspective: There I was, the black grandson of a slave, the son of a black sharecropper, part of a historic occasion, a symbolic hero to my people. The air was sparkling. The sunlight was warm. The band struck up the national anthem. The flag billowed in the wind. It should have been a glorious moment for me as the stirring words of the national anthem poured from the stands. Perhaps, it was, but then again, perhaps, the anthem could be called the theme song for a drama called The Noble Experiment.... As I write this twenty years later, I cannot stand and sing the anthem. I cannot salute the flag; I know that I am a black man in a white world. In 1972 [the year penning his autobiography], in 1947 [his starting year with the Dodgers], at my birth in 1919, I know that I never had it made. As he continued his fight for change—protesting the lack of black mangers, executives, and staff in baseball—Robinson called for Major League Baseball to hire a black manager as he threw out the first pitch, before game two of the 1972 World Series. Nine days later, Robinson would die of a heart attack at the age of 53. Three years after his death (1975), Major League Baseball would hire Frank Robinson of the Cleveland Indians; the MLB's first black manager.

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Jackie Robinson Smiling Jackie Robinson (1919-1972), Brooklyn Dodger from 1947-1956, the first black major league baseball player of the 20th century. He was entered into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.







according to the kaiser family foundation, blacks account for more

people living with hiv—an estimated than any other to represent the

468,800 of the more than 1.1 million people— racial group. Additionally, Blacks (along with Latinos) continue majority of deaths among people with HIV and new HIV diagnoses.

"I AM GREATER THAN AIDS" VIDEO FEATURING JUSSIE SMOLLETT, ALIMI BALLARD, JESSE WILLIAMS & OTHERS. To learn about HIV/AIDS and available resources, visit: http://www.GreaterThan.org.

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HIV|AIDS Awareness


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people, wrongly oppressed, silenced and slaughtered. I would like to be remembered for making a change and difference for all brown people." The author of "A Soul's Second Chance", Flos activism and artwork can be found at flobeauredon.artspan.com.

FLORENCE "FLO" BEAUREDON (artist, author, and activist) has a mision: "To restore the glory and honor to a magnificent race of



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25 FLO BEAUREDON “I HAVE ALWAYS BEEN CURIOUS ABOUT OTHER RACES, ESPECIALLY THOSE OF AFRICAN AMERICAN DESCENT AND ONE DAY A YOUNG, BLACK FAMILY OF 4, FROM WEST AFRICA, MOVED IN OUR NEIGHBORHOOD . . ." Florence is a self-taught dynamic artist, with a flair for uplifting Black Culture and memorializing on her canvas, with acrylic and oils and a host of other raw materials, the centuries of atrocities and abuse done to an entire race of people for no other reason than the color of their skin. But the fire that burns bright in her soul is for racial equality and justice which came to her as a kindergärtner in Pau, southwest of France. She recalls, “I have always been curious about other races, especially those of African American descent and one day a young black family of 4, from West Africa, moved in our neighborhood, with 2 little girls around my age. I was honored to meet them and learn the many differences in our cultures, traditions and upbringing. We quickly became the best of friends. Imagine my dismay, however, when we started school as kindergärtners at the age of 3 (French children started schooling much earlier than some cultures) and racism and discrimination reared its ugly head. My mother and [school] Principal remembers it best but apparently one day during recess, my two best friends were being taunted and ridiculed by older bullies! Young white boys who thought making them feel unworthy and less than special was the RIGHT thing to do. Before I knew it, I picked up as many rocks as my little backpack could hold and I pelted them as hard as

I could until my backpack was empty! These bullies felt the heat from my anger and ran into the office bloodied and afraid. I knew this sort of violence was not acceptable, but my three-year-old soul knew that something had to be done to protect my friends and restore their dignity. Fortunately, I was not expelled from school and quickly learned the cause and effects of unnecessary violence; subsequently, the fire inside me glowed very brightly and my light for justice for my brown friends would turn ON. Some four decades later, that fire has not been extinguished!”






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Is Kanye Playing a Dangerous Game?

Many have stated that Kanye West (also known as Ye and

could now support a man who has done such a shameful job

most recently, the "Greatest Artist That God Ever Created") is

with the relief efforts of Hurricane Maria and the rebuilding

on a downward spiral. His incoherent rants; his embrace of the

of Puerto Rico. Additionally, many are in shock and awe of his

‘Make America Great Again’ mantra and hat; and his fatherly

support of Trump’s ‘Make America Great Again’ mantra (When

bromance with Donald Trump have many speculating that these

was America ever great for people of color?) and his referral to

are all cries for help (or an ingenious marketing scheme). And

Trump, in the now infamous Oval Office meeting, as a father

while I don’t agree with any of his antics, there is one thing that

figure and the red MAGA hat making him feel like superman.

I can’t deny: Good or bad, Kanye has everyone talking about him. The good coming from the president and GOP commentators praising him and his actions where they had ridiculed others for many of the same actions. (NFL and NBA players come to mind who were mocked and told to stick to sports when they spoke up for their beliefs.) The bad coming from what appears to be everyone else; from politicians, to celebrities, to every day citizens.

If Kanye feels Trump is a father figure to look up to, one can say like father, like son, as Kanye’s personality is very similar to Trump’s—both are self-glorifying; crave acceptance and praise; and have delusions of grandeur. Let Trump tell it, he’s smarter than any of his generals; any of the experts in any field, including scientists; and smarter than the CIA, the FBI and the NSA. In comparison, Kanye has stated that he is the “number one Rockstar

Flash back to September 2, 2005, the day Kanye solidified his

on the planet” and that the spirits of musicians “Bob Marley,” “Fela

rise with his comment about President George W. Bush not caring

Kuti,” and “2Pac” flow through him. Billionaires (because of his

about black people on the televised ‘Concert for Hurricane Relief,’

brilliance) should invest their money in him. Yet despite Kanye’s

a celebrity fundraiser for those impacted by Hurricane Katrina. It

self-glorifying and grandeur claims, Kanye, unlike Trump, may

was a bold, just statement about the treatment of Blacks following

stand to lose his following and fan base. He is not Donald J. Trump.

the hurricane as people were dying, help was not being provided in a timely manner, and the citizens of New Orleans were being called refugees and treated as criminals. Kanye’s comment shined a light so bright that the world stood up and took notice of how black Americans were being treated in their own country. Flash forward 13-years later and many people find it hard to believe that the same Kanye West that was so powerful with his words concerning the treatment of blacks during Hurricane Katrina,

Trump has a loyal base of followers that see no wrong in any of his beliefs, comments, or actions. An example would be the alleged accusations of sexually assaulting women—specifically, the Access Hollywood tape of him discussing grabbing women by their genitalia—yet his female supporters still flock to his rallies wearing t-shirts stating, “grab me by the p@&&#”. (Lest not forget that over 50% of white women voted for him regardless of the sexual assault

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President Trump Hosts Kanye West And Former Football Player Jim Brown At The White House WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 11: (AFP OUT) (EDITORS NOTE: Retransmission with alternate crop.) U.S. President Donald Trump hugs rapper Kanye West during a meeting in the Oval office of the White House on October 11, 2018 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Oliver Contreras Pool/Getty Images)

allegations.) He can make outlandish and fictitious statements and

the founder of Papa Johns, John Schnatter, who was forced out of

his supporters will hold up signs repeating his exact words, chanting

his company behind his racial slur, as well as his views about NFL

them as factual. Kanye, on the other hand, has made similar wild

players protesting during the national anthem. Both of these men

and erratic statements about issues, like, slavery being a choice, and

(who don’t look like Kanye) received severe consequences for their

most recently, America’s gun problem stemming from illegal guns.

actions. Kanye may not be able to weather his self-created storms

Post his 2005 Hurricane Katrina comment, it appears that every

as fans grow weary of his erratic antics and superiority complex.

time Kanye makes a wild statement, it’s followed by an explanation and ultimate apology after receiving backlash from his base.

Time will reveal Kanye’s future (or issues); his behavior either


will be determined to be a cry for help or an elaborate marketing

Currently, Trump is only beholden to his core supporters. He may

ploy. Whatever the reveal, Kanye will get some notoriety out of it,

be the president, but he is only here to serve those that support him.

while at the same time, losing some of his depth, credibility and

He also has the power of his bully pulpit, having no problem using

supporters. If the latter is reveled (an elaborate marketing ploy),

it to take down his enemies. With a tweet, Donald Trump can give

he’s playing a very dangerous game and may soon find himself the

someone a nickname, and his supporters will jump onboard and

loser, asking: Was the marketing strategy a game worth playing?

support him in mocking and ridiculing the person. These people have no loyalty of party or country, they only have loyalty for Donald Trump. Kanye believes that he will get this same loyalty from his fans and supporters, but may soon realize that he is not granted that same levity. Just as we saw when he interrupted Taylor Swift at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, the masses will turn on him when he makes a move they don’t agree with. Another thing that Kanye doesn’t seem to be aware of is that he is dependent on his fans buying his music and radio stations playing his recordings. Once these people grow weary of his antics, his financial stability may be in jeopardy when they stop supporting him with purchases and airtime. Just ask the president of Chick fil-a, Dan Cathy, who saw a swift backlash to his brand when he stated the company was opposed to gay marriage. Or more recently, 27/ 0 4 6





On March 13, 2019, the NAACP sent letters

to the chairmen of the House Judiciary and Homeland Security committees of the U.S. House of Representatives with the following concerns: “As the nation’s foremost civil rights organization, we are concerned about the safety and well-being of the people, the families, the neighborhoods, and the communities we serve and represent…. [W}e are also concerned about reports of people and organizations being singled out for investigation and surveillance because of their activism.” Concerns echoed (and substantiated) by a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit by Color of Change and the Center for Constitutional Rights. A lawsuit confirming the surveillance—by tactics typically reserved for counter-terrorism and national security threats—of Black activists involved in high-profile demonstrations like those in Ferguson, Missouri (Michael Brown protests) and Baltimore, Maryland (Freddie Gray protests). Concerns reminiscent of the FBI’s Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO) that targeted activist groups and individuals like the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Concerns that continue to give rise to the ever persistent, decadesold question: Can black voices protest and speak freely without being surveilled, criminalized, and blacklisted?


Can black voices protest and speak freely without being surveilled, criminalized, and blacklisted?


inequalities, “the way no one in San Jose would hire me or John when we began to get involved in the Olympic Project for Human Rights back in 1967, or when we came back from [the 1968 Olympic Games in] Mexico City—how I struggled to feed my family, the lengths I went to, after taking my stand.”

The answer may lie buried deep within America’s forgotten history. A history of more-common-thannot, similar experiences like those of olympians Tommie Smith and John Carlos for speaking out about the marginalization of black lives: “I will never forget, either,” Tommie Smith said in his autobiography, Silent Gesture, as he described the backlash he and teammate John Carlos received for calling attention to America’s


Or the experiences of the 21-teachers of the Elloree, South Carolina School District who quit their jobs rather than deny membership in the NAACP: 28/ 0 4 6

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Colin Kaepernick’s shutout of the NFL for kneeling during the national anthem to protest (and call attention to) police brutality. Their experiences now a part of a long history of life-altering consequences for black outspokenness, activism and protest—even when the voices and actions point to, speak of, or shine a light on an injustice, reality, or simple truth.

A TIME BLACK VOICES WENT UNHEARD. One Hundred and Sixty-nine years after 20 African slaves landed in Jamestown, Virginia—their 1619 arrival considered the precursor to the North American slave trade—the First Amendment was ratified guaranteeing free speech and the right to peaceably assemble. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. — US Constitution First Amendment (Ratified 1791) “We took a position and stood by it not thinking about the consequences,” Rosa Haigler Stroman recalled in a T&D article. “As to locating another job, it took me four years to find another teaching position. Everywhere I went, I was told that I was a troublemaker and could not be hired.” Or the experience of American film and screen legend Eartha Kitt following a White House luncheon hosted by First Lady, Lady Bird Johnson:

These and other constitutionally guaranteed rights and freedoms were not extended to the descendants of those 20 Africans nor any person of African descent living within America’s “Land of the Free” either as a slave or freed man. Fast forward eight generations to 1857 and an enslaved Dred Scott would bring national attention to his enslavement by petitioning the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court’s decision: People of African descent born on America’s soil— whether free or enslaved—are not citizens and have

“…President Johnson decided that you should not be seen anywhere and that’s why you’re having a hard time getting work,” Kitt recalled in an interview discussing the blacklisting of her career. “[A]nd when they ask the question about what is the basic problem—and you tell them—you find they don’t want to hear that . . .. You get punished for telling the truth.” Or the experiences of Marc Lamont Hill, fired from CNN for a United Nations speech where the phrase “from the river to the sea” was considered irresponsible and anti-Semitic. Or Jamele Hill’s suspension and eventual separation from cable network ESPN for tweeting her opinion about President Trump being a “white supremacist.” Or



no rights, privileges, or a recognized voice. The decision would not only set the course for the American Civil War (1861-1865), but lead to the 1866 passage of the U.S. Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment (citizenship for people of African descent). Citizenship—after centuries of being a voiceless people—that would be ill-received, challenged, and progressively stripped of the same constitutional guarantees enjoyed by the nonmelanated masses. Denied rights and privileges that would increasingly give rise to millions of voices some 100 years after the Fourteenth Amendment’s passage. Voices that would fuel a civil rights movement to overturn and correct generations of ill-treatment and purposefully inflicted life challenges. (Educational, employment, and housing challenges. Civil and social injustice challenges. Law enforcement, judicial, and medical bias challenges.) Challenges that would not only come from one’s fellow Americans, but from the very governments (local, state, and federal) supported by black patriotism and black tax dollars.


under Southern segregation—painted an unflattering picture of the Causey’s small Choctaw County, Alabama community. The magazine’s unflattering, portrayed treatment of people of color by Choctaw County’s white citizens would ignite a vicious backlash against the Causey’s. (The white community stopped doing business with them; revoked their credit, called in their loans, and repossessed their property; and systematically stripped the family of its business, livelihood, and way of life.) Allie Lee lost her teaching job; her husband, Willie, lost his logging business; and the family fled their home (leaving behind most of their possessions) in fear of the mounting threats of retaliation and violence. “I told the truth in the magazine,” Allie Lee told Life in the follow-up article, “A Sequel to Segregation.”—The follow-up article exposed Life’s readers to the extent the Causey’s were punished for sharing the conditions of their lives, under segregation, in the first article.— “Justice and integration is what I want,” she told the magazine through a letter to her brother, Silas. “Here is a mean place, Silas.” she wrote. “The story they did on us is true. The pictures are true, the school is true. The work is true, the home is true. But these people are very, very mad.”

GOVERNMENT CHALLENGES. “The FBI’s FOIA [Freedom of Information Act] Library contains files of public interest and historical


Photographed by world-renowned, AfricanAmerican photographer Gordon Parks, one of the many disturbing citizen attempts to mute black voices is documented within the pages of Life Magazine. Allie Lee Causey and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Albert Thornton, initially appeared in Life’s 1956 article, “The Restraints: Open and Hidden.” It was one of a series of articles the magazine would print around the South’s anger (and resistance) to the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision. The article—exposing the dark realities of black life


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But the most disturbing information were the "disruptive measures" employed by the FBI


value. . . . Please note, that the information found in these files may no longer reflect the current beliefs, positions, opinions, or policies currently held by the FBI.

and hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, the targeted groups and leaders the FBI deemed black nationalist, hate-type organizations included:

“Some material contained in this site may contain actions, words, or images of a graphic nature that may be offensive and/or emotionally disturbing. This matter may not be suitable for all ages. Please view it with discretion.”

Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

The above disclaimer precedes the redacted files of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Counter Intelligence Program known as COINTELPRO (19561971). Initiated by the Bureau’s director, J. Edgar Hoover, the program was to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize the activities of [groups they deemed were] black nationalists, hatetype organizations and groupings, their leadership, spokesmen, membership, and supporters, and to counter their propensity for violence and civil disobedience.”

Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam (NOI)






H. Rap Brown and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale and the Black Panther Party (BPP) Stokely Carmichael and the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) But the most disturbing information within the COINTELPRO documents were the “disruptive measures” suggested and employed by the FBI against the aforementioned groups, its leaders, and their 31/ 0 4 6


supporters. Disruptive measures used to curtail and stop the exercising of their Constitutional Rights with some of the most egregious measures—measures still being reported used to intimidate and scare activists into silence today—documented by the following FBI field offices: Philadelphia Field Office (Extracted from an August 30, 1967 Memorandum) The Philadelphia Field Office documented cases involving local police “disruptive measures” of surveillance, car stops, harassment, and arrests of citizens affiliated with RAM activists. One such case involved the full-time surveillance of a Philadelphia residence associated with RAM activism in which “[c]ars stopping at [redacted] residence were checked as to license numbers. When they left the residence area they were subject to car stops by uniformed police. The occupants were identified. They then became the target for harassment. . . . Any excuse for arrest was promptly implemented by arrest. Any possibility of neutralizing a RAM activist was exercised.” The memorandum went on to detail how the disruption involved repeated arrests: “Other RAM people were arrested and released on bail, but were re-arrested several times until they could no longer make bail.” New Orleans Field Office (Extracted from a March 28, 1968 Memorandum) The New Orleans Field Office suggested the “disruptive measure” of using the news media as a means to sow discord within the SNCC and Black community. The Memorandum noted: “As a disruptive tactic, it would appear that the Bureau might desire to contact a trusted source in one of the national wire services such as AP [Associated Press] or UPI [United Press International] and have this individual write an article for national distribution . . ..” The suggested article would push a fictitious narrative around the misappropriation of funds raised by SNCC supporters for the purpose of causing distrust and turmoil within and outside the organization. SURVEILLANCE. CAR STOPS. HARASSMENT. ARRESTS. FALSE NARRATIVES. MEDIA MANIPULATION. Prescribed government measures used against American citizens exercising their rights to assemble, protest, and petition one’s Government for a redress of grievances. Measures exposed when

a group of activists calling themselves The Citizens Commission to Investigate the FBI would break into the FBI office in Media, Pennsylvania on the night of Monday, March 8, 1971. On that night, when the country would be engulfed in the Muhammad Ali vs. Joe Frazier fight (dubbed the Fight of the Century), the group would steal 1000’s of documents that would be leaked, anonymously, to the press. With the actions of the FBI now exposed, the leaked documents would spur a 16-month investigation by the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities— known as the Church Committee. The committee would review over 10,000 documents, call over 800 witnesses, and its findings would lead to the 1976 establishment of the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; today’s oversight committee for the U.S. government’s intelligence communities.

FREEDOM OF SPEECH TODAY? “A lot of activist around the country are very concerned that we’re getting ready to repeat a very sad chapter of our history. Where people who are rightfully protesting what they consider to be an injustice in their community, which is their relationship with police officers, are now being targeted and labeled as extremists and are going through periods of surveillance and harassment.” — Representative Karen Bass, (D) California As America processed the aftermath of the racially charged white nationalist violence in Charlottesville, Virginia, an official FBI report on the threat of “Black Identity Extremists” was leaked to the public—causing renewed concern about the protections of people of color's First Amendment rights. Prior to the 2017 leak, Color of Change (COC) and The Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) filed a Freedom of Information Act request for "Race Papers" information from the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) and DHS (Department of Homeland Security). Rashad Robinson (Executive Director for Color of Change) wrote, "We launched this effort in July 2016 after hearing a growing number of troubling stories from Black activists following the emergence of the #BlackLivesMatter movement, stories about activists being followed around grocery stores, identified and arrested before events, along with many other suspicious developments." As the COC and CCR Freedom of Information 32/ 0 4 6

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• Christopher Daniels (aka Rakem Balogun), as initially reported by Foreign Policy, is considered the first person prosecuted under the "Black Identity Extremist" designation. Daniels was reportedly investigated after appearing in a 2015 protest against police brutality. • An ACLU of Tennessee lawsuit reveals how police tracked Black Lives Matter activists on social media in 2016 and 2017. • Rep. Karen Bass (D-CA) questions Attorney General Jeff Sessions on a House Judiciary Committee on the "Black Identity Extremists" document (Re: C-SPAN video below). On July 1, 2018, a court ruled against COC and CCR to keep the "Race Paper" documents secret. Keeping the document's origin, context, purpose and proposed use hidden from the American public's view,

and those who are greatly or negatively impacted.

SUMMARY From the times of enslavement, emancipation, Reconstruction and citizenship to the days of the Black Codes, segregation and the Civil Rights Movement; black voices have sung, shouted, chanted, and spoken through a myriad-of-hurdles in the quest for physical and livable freedom. (Freedom to express oneself and be heard. Freedom to speak and protest on the wrongs and ills of the country. Freedom to call attention to the brutality and mistreatment of those sworn to serve and protect.) But as history and present-day circumstances reveal, black voices—even when telling or pointing out the truth—have faced blatant and hidden surveillance, criminalization, and blacklisting consequences. Consequences, not only by the hands of one’s fellow Americans like the Causey’s ordeal chronicled in Life Magazine, but by our very own governments (local, state, and federal) through programs like the COINTELPRO/Black Nationalists of the past, and the Race Papers/Black Identity Extremists of today.


Act request was being litigated, citizens were reporting incidents of harassment while lawmakers demanded answers to the document's origin, context, and purpose; such as the incidents below:

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Photo Credit: iStock.com/KeithBishop

SHOWCASING INJUSTICES, ONE BY ONE, TO OVERCOME AND ERASE IT Hate itself is not a crime---but when it impinges on the life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness of others, we must all be vigilant in the fight to overcome and erase it. Hate crimes, as defined by the Hate Crimes Statistics Act, are “crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, gender and gender identity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity.” Race-based hate and discrimination against minorities throughout history, and the race-related struggles that minorities continue to endure today, is the focus of this "Special 14-Page Feature." 34/ 0 4 6

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NAACP issues national travel advisory for American Airlines.

Video Screenshot: Michelle Dione Snider 04/29/18. Jennifer Schulte, known as "BBQ Becky" on social media, is filmed calling police on Black citizens peacefully barbecuing in an Oakland, California park.

04/12/18. Starbucks apologizes after store manager, Holly Hylton, calls police on Black men waiting on an acquaintance. The men were arrested for trespassing.

According to a recent report by the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at California State University, San Bernadino, hate crimes increased in America's ten largest cities by 12.5 percent in 2017. This increase is the fourth, consecutive, annual rise and the highest total of hate crime incidents reported in over a decade. The most targeted groups, according to the report, were Blacks, Jews, Gays, and Latinos; Blacks being the most targeted of the four. Groups like the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) have noted and reported on the rise of hate crimes during and after the 2016 presedential elections. In a press release "NAACP Sees Continued Rise in Hate Crimes, Legacy of Trump’s Racism", NAACP President and CEO Derrick Johnson stated, "From campaign to election, this president has spewed the language of division and hate and it has manifested in not only racist policies but in racists acts against people of color and other groups."

10/24/17. NAACP issues a national travel adivsory after Black travelers report bias and racially insensitive incidents/conduct by American Airline employees.


Austin, Texas, USA — November 19, 2016: One month after the 2016 Presidential



demonstrators (holding signs, "Make Racists Afraid Again") protest a “White Lives Matter” rally at the southern end of the Capitol grounds. The “White Lives Matter” demonstrators, numbering about 20 people at the most, came from Houston with the message





Crime Law is unfair to white people. (Photo by Vichinterlang/iStock) 35/ 0 4 6


JUNE 2016 – October 2018



White Woman (Identified as Susan Westwood) Confronts 2 Black Women Waiting for AAA with Hostilities and Threats


Jury Orders Waco School to Pay for Child Allegedly Roped by 3 White Students


Hyatt Hotels Announces Ban on Hate Groups

Waco Texas' Live Oak Classical School was ordered to pay $68,000 in damages in an incident which involved 3 white male students accused of bullying a 6th grade black female student. According to a 2016 Dallas News report, a rope was tied around the female's neck and she was pulled to the ground as she sat on a swing during an April 28, 2016 field trip.

Following an anti-Muslim conference held at a Hyatt property by anti-Muslim hate group ACT for America, Hyatt CEO, Mark Hoplamazian, according to the SPLC, issued a statement outlining the company's position against the use of its venues to promote hate and "disparag[e] a group by virtue of their identity...."


09/18/2018 (U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington).

Doctor Claims She Was Racially Profiled While Offering Medical Assistance on Delta Flight

Seattle Sporting Goods Retailer, Big 5, To Pay Black Management Trainee $165,000 In Racial Discrimination and Retaliation Lawsuit.

Dr. Fatima Cody Standford, a Harvard educated doctor, tweeted that she was disappointed in Delta Airlines' diversity as her credential were questioned by the flight attendants as she offered assistance to a fellow traveler in distress.

According to an EEOC press release, "Sanders was called 'spook,' 'boy,' and 'King Kong' and was told that he had the 'face of a janitor.'" The racial comments escalated when an assistant manager allegedly said, 'We will hang you. We will seriously lynch you if you call in again this week.'" The EEOC further stated that " another assistant manager asked Sanders if he was "ready to commit suicide," offering "assistance" when he was ready to do so. Sanders was forced to go on several leaves due to stress from the ongoing racial harassment, threats, and retaliatory work assignments and discipline, according to the agency. Big 5 ultimately terminated Sanders."


White Woman Calls Police on Black Doctor for Canvassing for Democrat in Neighborhood Dr. Amanda Kemp posted on social media that she and her husband were accosted by Lancaster County Pennsylvania's, Bent Creek resident, Elizabeth "Duffy" Johnson, while canvassing for congressional candidate Jess King. Johnson was reported as hostile and threatened to call the police on Kemp as she didn't like the fact that she was canvassing for King.


White Man, Dubbed Permit Model, Harasses Black Women On Photo-shoot on Public Street



Suspected White Supremacists, Gregory Bush, Kills 2 Grandparents at Kentucky Supermarket

13-Years after Hurricane, Roland Bourgeois, Jr. is Charged with Shooting 3 Black Men

Suspected white supremacist Gregory Bush (51) fatally shot Maurice Stallard, Sr., (69) inside a Jeffersontown, Kentucky Kroger supermarket and then shot Vicki Lee Jones (67) in the parking lot afterwards. Stallard was shot while shopping with his 12-year-old grandson. The shootings occurred the day after President Donald J. Trump stated in a speech that he was a "nationalist;" terminology many equate with white supremacy.

On September 1, 2005, Donnell Herrington (32), Marcel Alexander (17), and Chris Collins (18), fleeing flooded New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, were accosted by 3 white men and shot in the neck, back, arm, and buttocks. According to the Guardian, Roland Bourgeois was charged with a Hate Crime for his role in the attack. Herrington's recount of the ordeal can be viewed in Spike Lee's documentary When the Levees Broke.


1) Government Investigations, Laws, and Policy Changes 2) Discrimination and Civil Rights Lawsuits 3) Everyday Discrimination, Bias and Hate Experiences 4) Hyperlinks to third party sources 36/ 0 4 6

Although not an exhaustive list of every-day bias, discrimination, and hate experienced by minority groups past and present, these noted experiences exemplify the challenges people of color face while going about their daily lives in the United States.

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08/30/2018 (Butts County, GA).

Butts County Georgia Cop Sentenced to 15 Years For Lying About Black Man Shooting Her

06/30/2018 (Rockland County, NY)

Woman Arrested for Berating and Assaulting Bus Riders In Racial Tirade

According to the AJC, Officer Sherry Hall claimed, over a police dispatch, that she had been shot by a 230-pound African American man wearing a green shirt and black jogging pants on September 13, 2016—she fabricated the story. She was convicted of 11 criminal charges, including violating her oath, tampering with evidence, and making false statements.

Anne Marie Messiano, 57, began berating and hurling racial insults at passengers on a Rockland County bus. She was recorded yelling, "F—k you and your n—r f—g people!" among other insults. She was arrested for disorderly conduct; aggravated harassment; and criminal obstruction of breathing for choking a passenger.

07/24/2018 (Columbus, OH).


Road Rage Turns Into Racial Berating By Owner of Central Ohio Business Owner 07/10/2018 (Chicago, IL).

62-Year-Old Timothy Trybus Berates Woman For Wearing Puerto Rico Flag Shirt (via NBC News)

Uber Driver Assaults and Calls 9-1-1 On Former Teen Vogue Editor Former Teen Vogue editor, Elain Welteroth, posted that her Uber driver took her to the wrong location, told her to get out of his car and called 9-1-1 telling the operator that she assaulted him. Video taken by Welteroth proves otherwise. 06/29/2018 (Redondo Beach, CA)

07/09/2018 (U.S. District Court, Northern District of Alabama)

EEOC Sues Birmingham Mister Car Wash Over Failure to Promote Qualified Black Applicants Over Less Qualified White Applicants 07/06/2018.

Ohio Mother Posts Facebook Post About A Neighbor Calling Police On Her 12-Year-Old Son Delivering Newspapers

Lawsuit Filed for Alleged Racial Discrimination Against California Cheesecake Factory Kimberly Jones, Lucy Ngaujah, and Latonia Whyte have filed a lawsuit in the Los Angeles Superior Court (June 29) for unspecified damages due to alleged civil rights violations and intentional infliction of emotional distress during a 2017 visit to a Redondo Beach, California location. 06/28/2018

South Florida Man Pleads Guilty to Hate Crime for Threatening to Blow Up Mosque According to the Justice Department, Dustin Hughes, 26, pled guilty to obstructing the free exercise of religious beliefs through a threatened use of a dangerous weapon and explosive; and making a phone call threatening to detonate a bomb at a mosque in Pembroke Pines, Florida. 06/28/2018 (Lancaster, PA)

Video Capture: Sean Williams

White Officer Tases Black Man Sitting On Curb

Sean Williams, 27, has filed a federal lawsuit for being tased by Lancaster, Pennsylvania police officer, Philip Bernot, as he sat on a curb, facing away from the officer. The officer indicated that Williams wasn't complying with demands. Williams indicated he was receiving conflicting directions from the two officers involved. 37/ 0 4 6

DISCRIMINATION, BIAS & HATE WATCH Third Oldest Black Greek Organization Sues Restaurant for Racial Discrimination Tuscaloosa Alumni Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity filed suit against Alabama Restaurant, Cypress Inn, in the US District Court for according to the court documents: "By refusing [Kappa Alpha Psi] service, [Cypress Inn] denied [Kappa Alpha Psi] the right to make and enforce contracts on the same basis as white citizens...."

06/22/2018 (Buffalo, NY)

Buffalo, New York Restaurant Accused of Racial Discrimination Screen Capture: Chris Farell

06/27/2018 (Tuscaloosa, AL)


Catholic Priest Throws Maryland Family Out of Church During Funeral According to Washington DC's Fox 5 News, Pastor Michael Briese, upset that a sacred chalice (golden cup) was knocked over, told the family of deceased Agnes Hicks to get out of the church. Pastor Brise then called the police on the family members. 06/26/2018 (U.S. District Court of Colorado).

EEOC Sues AMI Mechanical Over Discrimination As Hispanic Employees Were Assigned More Dangerous Work Conditions than Non-Whites 06/24/2018 (Charlotte, NC)

89-Year Old Grandmother Denied Using North Carolina Restroom Granddaughter Katossa R. Glover shared on her Facebook page that her grandmother, Evelyn Redic, 89, was denied the use of the restroom at a Shell/Circle K gas station in Charlotte, North Carolina after the church bus had a flat tire and stopped at the gas station to repair the tire. Glover indicated that the 89year old was forced to relieve herself outside the station. 06/23/2018 (Maple Heights, OH)

Ohio Neighbor Calls Police on 12-Year Old Boy Mowing Grass Lucille Holt-Colden hired 12-year old Reginald "Reggie" Fields of Mr. Reggie's Lawn Service to mow her yard. Her neighbor, after noting the youth had cut over the property line, called the police on him. In a video entitled "This is Ridiculous" Lucille HoltColden asks, "Who does that?" 06/23/2018 (Summerville, SC)

South Carolina Woman Harasses Three Black Teens at Public Pool Stephanie Sebby-Strempel, referred to as #PoolPatrolPaula on Social Media, launched an unprovoked verbal and physical attack on one of three teenagers who came to enjoy the Reminisce neighborhood pool. According to ABC News 4, Sebby-Strempel was charged with assaulting the teen and the responding police officers.


New York City actor, Chris Jarell, posted on his Facebook page that Buffalo, New York restaurant Bada Bing kicked him out of the restaurant because of a policy of no hooded attire. Jarell believed he was targeted because of his race as his Facebook post shows a white patron (in the background), in similar attire, seated in the back of him in his snapshot. WKBW-Buffalo featured the incident. 06 - 11/2018 (Biscayne Park, FL).

Biscayne Park, Florida Police Chief and Fellow Officers Sentenced for Framing Innocent Black Men for Unsolved Burglaries According to the Miami-Herald, Police Chief Raimundo Atesiano, and Police Officers Guillermo Ravelo, Raul Fernandez, and Charlie Dayoub pleaded guilty to charges ranging from falsifying arrests warrants to conspiracy for their roles in framing innocent people—primarily African American men. 05/31/2018 (Berkeley, CA)

Berkeley, California Woman (Lauren Milewski) Berates Biracial Family, Claims She’s the Victim Once Police Responds 08/11 - 08/12/2017 (Charlottesville, VA)

White Supremacist Groups Hold Rally in Charlottesville, Virginia Under the banner "Unite the Right," white nationalist and supremacist groups staged a rally in Charlottesville, Virginia to call attention to the removal of Confederate symbols. A counter-protester was killed, and over a dozen injured, when a car plowed into a crowd of counterprotesters. According to CBS 6 TV, the 21-year-old driver, James Alex Field Jr., has been indicted on 30 federal hate crime charges. 05/20/2017.

Bowie State University Student, Richard Collins III, Fatally Stabbed By Suspected White Supremacist Sean Urbanski

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03/20/2017 (New York City, NY)

09/28/2016 (U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington).

Accused White Supremacist Kills 66-Year-Old Black Man in Times Square with 18-inch Sword

EEOC Sues Seattle's Taylor Shellfish For Permitting Ongoing Racial Harassment and Retaliatory Discipline of a Black Maintenanc Mechanic

James Harris Jackson (28), according to the New York Times hated black men. He stabbed Timothy Caughman (66) multiple times with an 18 inch sword as Caughman sifted through trash, collecting bottles for recycling. Caughman, stumbled into a police precinct and later died of his injuries. Jackson is to stand trial on murder and terrorism charges. 01/18/2017 (Press Release)

EEOC Releases Fiscal Year 2016 Enforcement And Litigation Data According to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the agency announced that 91,503 workplace discrimination charges were filed, nationwide, during fiscal year 2017 (October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017). The most frequently filed charges were retaliation (45.9%), Race (35.3%), and disability (30.7%). This is the first year the agency has included LGBT charges in its year-end-summary where the agency resolved 1,650 charges and recovered $4.4 million or victims of discrimination. 12/14/2016 (Box Elder County, UT).

ISU Football Players Nehemiah McFarlin and Atoatasi Fox Racially Profiled in Bank Robbery Investigation 11/21/2016 (Charleston, WV).

West Virginia Man Shoots Unarmed Black Teenager for Bumping Into Him William Pulliam, 62, reportedly shot James Means, 15, twice following a confrontation stemming from Means bumping into Pulliam outside a Dollar General store in Charleston, West Virginia. According to WSAZ 3 News, Pulliam stated to police, "The way I look at it, that's another piece of trash off the street."

According to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Press Release, Jeremy Daniels stated, "My supervisor 'welcomed' me to the job with the information that I was the first black person to work at Taylor for a long time, and that his father used to run 'my kind' out of town. In the military, when I traveled around the world for my country, I never encountered anyone who made me feel that I was less than them simply because of the color of my skin. But when I went to work for Taylor, I was constantly robbed of my dignity for simply being black." The EEOC Sued Seattle's Taylor Shellfish, the largest producer of Shellfish in the U.S., for permitting ongoing racial harassment and retaliatory discipline against maintenance mechanic Jeremy Daniels. The lawsuit charged Daniels endured "demeaning comments and stereotypes about his race and was regularly called variations of the 'N word' as well as 'spook' and 'boy.'" 08/25/2016 (U.S. District Court, Western District of New York).

EEOC Sues Buffalo, New York Employer Who Permitted Racist Slurs and Graffiti, Then Fired Employees Who Complained 08/10/2016 (U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division)

Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department (BPD) Uncovers Racial Disparities in Policing Impacting Minority Neighborhoods The U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, found the Baltimore City Police Department (BPD) engaged in conduct that violated the U.S. Constitution or Federal Law. Its Summary of findings included: making unconstitutional stops, searches, and arrests; using enforcement strategies that produce severe and unjustified disparities in the rates of stops, searches and arrests of African Americans;

10/19/2016 (EEOC Philadelphia, PA District Office).

EEOC Refers Lawsuit for Race Discrimination and Retaliation by 3 Law Enforcement Officers to U.S. Department of Justice. 10/14/2016 (Garden City, KS).

Members of the White Militia Group "Crusaders" Planned to Attack Somali Muslim Community According to the U.S. Department of Justice, Curtis Allen (49), Gavin Wright (49), and Patrick Stein (47) of the white militia group "Crusaders" are in federal custody after planning to attack a large Somali Muslim community in Garden City, Kansas. The three face charges of conspiring to use weapons (explosives) of mass destruction.

using excessive force; and retaliating against people engaging in constitutionallyprotected expression. 07/18/2016 (North Miami, FL).

Autistic Man's Caregiver, Charles Kinsey, Is Shot By North Miami Officer As He Lies On His Back With His Hands In The Air (via NBC News). 07/06/2016 (Falcon Heights, MN).

Police Shoot Philando Castille In Passenger Seat as Family Looks On In Horror

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07/05/2016 (Baton Rouge, LA).

4/12/2015 (Baltimore, MD).

Alton Sterling Shot by Police While Being Aprehended on the Ground

25-Year-Old Freddie Gray, Jr. Dies After Being Placed in Police Van

12/18/2015 (U.S. District Court for the Western District of Tennessee, Western Division)

Hilshire Brands (formerly Sara Lee Corp.) To Pay $4 Million to 74 Black Employees For Subjecting Them To A Hostile Work Environment. According to an EEOC press release, Hilshire Brands agreed to pay $4 milllion as part of a settlement to resolve claims that the company's now-shuttered Paris, Texas plant "subjected a class of Black employees to a hostile work environment that included racist graffiti and comments, that included the N-word and 'boy.'" 06/17/2015 (Charleston, SC).

Dylan Roof Shoots and Kills Nine in Racist Attack in Charleston's Mother Emanuel

Freddie Gray, Jr./Facebook On April 12, 2015, Freddie Gray, Jr., was arrested for possession of a switchblade. (The possession of the switchblade under Maryland law was legal.) Witness video shows Gray being placed inside a Baltimore Police Department transport van; 45-minutes later, Gray was found unconscious and not breathing. A week later, on April 19, Gray died from severe spinal chord injuries. An unbiased account of Gray's death can be heard on the Unlisted Podcast "The Killing of Freddie Gray, Episode 1". 04/04/2015 (North Charleston, SC).

50-Year-Old Walter Scott Shot while Running Away From Police 04/02/2015 (Tulsa, OK).

Eric Harris, 44, Shot by 73-year-old Reserve Duty Officer Who Mistook Gun for Taser

Dylan Roof 4/26/15 Mugshot. Photo: Lexington County Detention Center

04/02/2015 (U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New

On Wednesday, June 17, 2015, Dylan Roof, a self-radicalized white supremacist, entered Mother Emanuel AME Church (affectionately known as Mother Emanuel) and murdered 9 worshippers—two worsippers survived by playing dead. The murdered 9 would later be known as the Emanuel 9. According to the Mother Emanuel AME Church's historical timeline, "a self-acclaimed white supremacist entered the lower level of the church and joined the pastor and eleven other members for Wednesday night Bible study. When entered he asked for the pastor and joined him at one of the tables. After sitting with them for about an hour, when they stood to pray as was customary when a meeting ended, the members bowed their heads and [Roof] pulled out his Glock handgun and commenced to shoot them. When he finished, he had killed nine of the twelve individuals in the room. He was tried, convicted and sentenced to death." The Emanuel 9 from oldest to youngest are: Susie Jackson (87), Daniel L. Simmons (74), Ethel Lee Lance (70), Myra Thompson (59), Cynthia Marie Graham Hurd (54), Depayne MiddletonDoctor (49), Sharonda Coleman-Singleton (45), Clementa C. Pinckney (41), and Tywanda Sanders (26). 40/046


New Jersey Trade Union For Sheet Metal Workers To Pay $12.7 Million for Discriminating Against Blacks & Hispanics According to an EEOC press release, Local 28 of the Sheet Metal Workers' International Association (the trade union for sheet metal journeymen in New York City), in a partial settlement, will create a back pay fund estimated at $12.7 million to settle charges of discrimination over a period of 15 years (April 1, 1991 through June 30, 2006) in hiring, job assignments, and for work-hour disparities. An EEOC analysis of wages and hours found Hispanics and African Americans received fewer working hours as compared to their white counterparts over the same time period. 03/26 - 04/04/2015 (St. Landry Parish, LA).

3 Historically Black St. Landry Parish, Louisiana Churches Set Ablaze By Sheriff Deputy's Son

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03/20/2015 (U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado).

Patterson-UTI Drilling to Pay $14.5 Million To Settle Claims of Race and National Origin Discrimination In Workplace. According to an EEOC press release, Texas-based PattersonUTI Drilling Company, LLC, a multi-state oil drilling company, agreed to pay $14.5 million dollars to settle charges of race and national origin discrimination, harassment and retaliation at its facilities throughout the country. The lawsuit states that "since at least 2006, Patterson-UTI engaged in a nationwide pattern or practice of discrimination based on race and national origin on its drilling rigs, including assigning minorities to the lowest level jobs, failing to train and promote minorities, and disciplining and demoting minority employees disproportionately." The Press Release went on to say that the "employees endured frequent and pervasive barrages of racial and ethnic slurs, jokes, and comments, as well as verbal and physical harassment and intimidation...." The EEOC asserted that the "employees who opposed or complained about discriminatory practices suffered retaliation, including discriminatory discipline and discharge." The agency estimates 1000 or more employees were impacted.

12/05/2014 (U.S. District Court for the Western District of Tennessee, Western Division)

Staffing Companies to Pay $580,000 for not placing Blacks and Non-Hispanics in Work Force. According to an EEOC press release, Staffing companies New Koosharem and Real Time Staffing Corporation agreed to pay $580,000 as part of a settlement to resolve a race and national origin discrimination lawsuit as a result of the companies failing to refer or place four African American women into temporary positions because of their race and national origin. 12/04/2014 (U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division)

Investigation of the Cleveland Division of Police (CDP) Uncovers A Practice of Using Excessive Force In the Communities They Served. The U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, found excessive force to be a pattern or practice of the Cleveland Division of Police (CDP), in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Its Summary of findings included: The unnecessary and excessive use of deadly force, including shootings and head strikes with impact weapons;

03/04/2015 (U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division)

The unnecessary, excessive or retaliatory use of less lethal force including tasers, chemical spray and fists;

Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department Reveals Ferguson's Law Enforcement Driven By The City's Revenue Needs Over Public Safety. The U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, found Ferguson's emphasis on revenue compromised "the institutional character of Ferguson's police department, contributing to a pattern of unconstitutional policing, and has also shaped its municipal court, leading to procedures that raise due process concerns and inflict unecccessary harm on members of the Ferguson community. Its Summary of findings included: Generating Revenue: City officicials routinely urged the Chief of Police to generate more revenue through enforcement. Police Practices: Patrol assignments and schedules are geared toward aggressive enforcement of Ferguson’s municipal code, with insufficient thought given to whether enforcement strategies promote public safety or unnecessarily undermine community trust and cooperation. Municipal Court Practices: Ferguson has allowed its focus on revenue generation to fundamentally compromise the role of Ferguson’s municipal court.

Excessive force against persons who are mentally ill or in a crisis, including cases where the officers were called exclusively for a welfare check; 12/02/2014 (Phoenix, AZ).

34-Year-Old Rumain Brisbon Fatally Shot Over Mistaken Pill Bottle for Weapon By Police 12/02/2014 (U.S. District Court for the District of Wyoming Division)

Companies Settle $1.2 Million Dollar Lawsuit Where Blacks, Hispanics and Indians Were Verbally Abused and Punished for Complaining. According to an EEOC press release, The EEOC charged well servicing companies Dart Energy Corp., Beckman Production Services, Inc., and J&R Well Service, LLC with violating federal law prohibiting race and national origin harassment and retaliation. According to the EEOC's suit:

Racial Bias: The harms of Ferguson’s police and court practices are borne disproportionately by African Americans, and there is evidence that this is due in part to intentional discrimination on the basis of race. 03/02/2015 (Federal Court, Eastern District of New York).

New York Man Pleads Guilty to Emailing Death Threats to An Employee of an American Islamic Organization 4 1/ 0 4 6

[T]ruck pusher Ken Nelson, as well as other J&R employees, regularly used terms like "wetback" and "beaner" to refer to Hispanic employees, "wagon burner" to refer to Native American employees, and the "N-word" to refer to black employees. According to EEOC, several individuals complained to management, but their complaints were minimized or ignored entirely. Further, the EEOC said, several men were demoted or fired after taking their complaints of discrimination to the Wyoming Department of Employment Labor Standards Division.

DISCRIMINATION, BIAS & HATE WATCH 11/22/2014 (Cleveland, OH).

12-Year-Old Tamir Rice Shot by Police Over Mistaken Toy Gun in Park


down; the second time, officers Scott Aldridge and Bryan Myers took Anderson into custody where events led to her being pinned down to an icy sidewalk. The initial report by the Cuyahoga Medical Examiner ruled Anderson's death a homicide as a "result of sudden death caused by physical restraint while in prone [lying face down] position." Her heart disease and bipolar disorder were additional factors for her death. 09/12/2014 (U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland)

McCormick & Schmick's Restaurants Settles 2008 Lawsuit Over Race Discrimination

Tamir Rice: Facebook/Tamir Rice Foundation's Post Two officers (Timothy Loehmann and Frank Garmback) responding to a 911 call of a "guy with a gun" inside a park shot rice only seconds after arriving on the scene. (What was not communicated by the 911 dispatcher is that the caller also indicated that it may be a kid and the gun may be "fake".) Loehmann was an officer in training being trained by Garmback. A grand jury declined to prosecute both officers (2015). Rice's family received a $6 millioin dollar settlement from the city of Cleveland. Loehmann was fired in 2017 for omitting performance information on his job application. According to The Ingelligencer, Loehmann was hired as a part-time officer in the Village of Bellaire, Ohio.

According to an EEOC press release, McCormick & Schmick's settled a 2008 EEOC racial discrimination lawsuit stemming from alleged claims of patterns, or practices, of discrimination against African-American job applicants by refusing to hire them for front-of-the-house positions, and by denying equal work assignments because of their race. 08/09/2014 (Ferguson, MO).

18-Year-Old Michael Brown Killed by Ferguson, Missouri Officer Darren Wilson

11/20/2014 (Brooklyn, NY).

28-Year-Old Akai Gurley Shot by Police In "Accidental Discharge" Shooting 11/13/2014 (Cleveland, OH).

37-Year-Old Tanisha Anderson Dies in Police Custody

Miami, USA - December 7, 2014: Racial injustice protesters line the streets in reaction to the Michael Brown and Eric Garner cases. Photo: Istock.com 23 days after Eric Garner's death, 18-year-old Michael Brown was fatally shot by Ferguson Police Officer Darren Wilson. According to CNN, Brown's friend, Dorian Johnson—who was walking with Brown when Officer Wilson stopped them—stated Officer Wilson initiated the confrontation where Brown was shot 6 times. Word of the shooting sparked national outrage and protests. A grand Jury declined to prosecute Wilson (2014). A Federal investigation cleared Wilson of civil rights violations in the shooting (2015). 08/05/2014 (Beavercreek, OH)

Tanisha Anderson: Facebook/Justice for Tanisha Post Tanisha Anderson (a mental illness sufferer) died in police custody after relatives called 911 for medical assistance after Anderson experienced two mental-health episodes. The police responded both times to Anderson's home. The first time they were able to calm Anderson

Walmart Shopper Gives False 911 Report Leading To John Crawford III Being Fatally Shot By Police While Shopping For A BB-Gun Sold In Store 22-year-old John Crawford is fatally shot by police while shopping at the Beavercreek Walmart with an unpackaged BB Gun sold in the store. According to video shared by the Dayton Daily News, shopper Ronald Ritchie calls 911 and indicates that Crawford is pointing the gun at shoppers, including children—Ritchie would later recant his statements. Responding officer Sean Williams 4 2/ 0 4 6

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would shoot Crawford in a matter of seconds. Another shopper, Angela Williams, would die from a heart attack stemming from the incident. Both a State grand Jury and Federal investigation declined to indict Officer Williams. No charges were brought against Ritchie for initiating the incident with a false claim. 07/17/2014 (New York City, NY).

Eric Garner Dies After Being Placed Into an Illegal Choke Hold by NYPD Officer Daniel Pantaleo

white supervisor subjected the employees to racial slurs and other racially offensive comments including use of the "N" word. 04/06/2013

Hashtag #BlackLivesMatter Created After the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the 2012 shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin, the social media activist hash tag was created by Patrisse Cullors, Opal Tometi and Alicia Garza to bring awareness to the value of black lives. 02/08/2013

60-Year-Old White Man Verbally and Physically Assaults 19-Month-Old Black Toddler on Plane 12/25/2012 (U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Dallas Division)

EEOC v. RockTenn Services Company, Inc. Over Race Discrimination According to an EEOC press release, The EEOC charged RockTenn Services with subjecting African American employees to, "violent, racist graffiti, including 'KKK,' swastikas, Confederate flags, 'white power' and other racist terms, including 'die, n----r, die.'"

New York, USA - August 23, 2014: Thousands march in Staten Island to protest Eric Garner's death by NYPD cops. Photo: Istock.com "I Can't Breathe" were the words Eric Garner repeated when NYPD officer Daniel Pantaleo held him in an illegal choke hold before losing consciousness—Garner was pronounced dead at an area hospital an hour later. Garner's death sparked national protests across the country fueling the #BlackLivesMatter movement. A Grand Jury declined to prosecute Pantaleo (2014) and the U.S. Department of Justice declined to bring charges against Pantaleo under federal civil rights laws (2019). Pantaleo was fired from the NYPD on August 19, 2019, five years after Garner's death.

11/23/2012 (Jacksonville, FL).

17-Year-Old Jordan Davis Fatally Shot in Incident Over Loud Music

04/30/2014 (Milwaukee, WI).

Dontre Hamilton Shot by Police 14 Times 09/26/2013 (U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland)

Kentucky Coal Mining Company Settles Hiring Discrimination Lawsuit With 19 Applicants According to an EEOC press release, McCormick & Schmick's settled a 2008 EEOC racial discrimination lawsuit stemming from alleged claims of patterns, or practices, of discrimination against African-American job applicants by refusing to hire them for front-of-the-house positions, and by denying equal work assignments because of their race.

Jordan Davis Facebook

Congresswoman Lucy McBath

Jordan Davis was killed when 45-year-old Michael Dunn fired 10 shots into a vehicle of teens for playing their music too loud. The tragedy inspired the documentary "3-1/2 Minutes" which was originally screened at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival and subsequently on HBO. Jordan's mother, Lucy McBath, became an advocate against gun violence and ran for, and won, Georgia's 6th Congressional District on a gun violence prevention platform. Dunn was sentenced to life without parole. 08/03/2012 (U.S. District Court for the District of North Carolina)

09/25/2013 (U.S. District Court, Western District of Tennessee)

U-Haul Agrees To Pay $750,000 To Settle Race and Retaliation Discrimination Lawsuit According to an EEOC press release, U-haul will pay eight current and former African American employees, employed at the Memphis, Tennessee facility, $750,000 in a race and retaliation discrimination lawsuit filed by the EEOC. The lawsuit alleged that a

51 Black Applicants Denied Employment In Caldwell Freight Lines Discrimination Lawsuit According to an EEOC press release, Caldwell Freight Lines, a North Carolina trucking delivery company, will pay $120,000 in a race discrimination lawsuit filed by the EEOC. The lawsuit alledged that Caldwell denied applicants employment based on their race.

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POST-1964 CIVIL RIGHTS LAW & 1967 FEDERAL HATE CRIME LAW 04/06/2012 (Tulsa, OK).

Housemates Gun Down 5 in North Tulsa, Oklahoma


The Matthew Shephard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act

Jake England, 19, and Alvin Watts, 32, went on a killing spree killing three (William Allen (31), Bobby Clark (54), and Dannear "Donna" Fields(49)) and injuring two as the victims walked in close proximity in the predominantly black part of Tulsa, Oklahoma.

The Matthew Shephard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act is signed into law by President Barack Obama. The law expands the 1967 U.S. Federal Hate Crime Law to include crimes motivated by predjudice based on gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and disability.

02/26/2012 (Sandford, FL).

01/01/2009 (Oakland, CA).

17-Year-Old Teen, Trayvon Martin, Fatally Shot by Neighborhood Security George Zimmerman

Trayvon Martin: Photo from the Martin Foundation's Post 17-year-old Trayvon Martin, visiting his father in Sanford, Florida, was fatally shot by the neighborhood security watchman, George Zimmerman. According to CBSNews, Florida Representative Fredica Wilson, speaking on the U.S. House of Representatives floor stated the incident was, "a classic example of racial profiling quickly followed by murder." 06/26/2011 (Jackson, MS).

James Craig Anderson, Beatean and Run Over By Truck in Jackson, Mississippi 47-year-old James Craig Anderson, a Nissan auto-plant worker, was beaten and run over by a group of white men and women in a racially motivated hate crime in Jackson Mississippi. According to FBI.gov, 10 people were charged with federal hate crimes with federal prison sentences ranging from 4 to 50 years. The driver of the Ford F-250 truck, Deryl Paul Dedmon, received 50 years. Dedmon was also charged in state court and received two life sentences for murder. 12/28/2010 (Crane, TX).

Historic Texas Black Church Burned Down By White Supremacist

22-Year-Old Oscar Grant Killed by BART Officer

"Fruitvale Station" Movie Trailer. Directed by Ryan Coogler and starring Michael B. Jordan as Oscar Grant III. A handcuffed, 22-year-old Oscar Grant III was shot by Johannes Mehserle, a Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Officer, after being detained at the Fruitvale Train Station. An internal investigation revealed Mehserle (and partner Anthony Pirone) instigated the actions that led to Grant's death and lied about the incident— bystanders cellphone footage helped shed light on the truth. The 2013 movie, "Fruitvale Station," directed by Ryan Coogler, chronicled the last day of Grant's life. 11/08/2008 (Natchogue, NY).

7 New York High School Students Attack Two Hispanic Immigrants, Murdering One Patchogue, New York. Seven students from Patchogue-Medford High School looking to "beat up some Mexicans," as reported by WNBC-4NY, surrounded two Hispanic immigrants as they walked near the Patchoque train station and fatally stabbed 37-year old Marcello Lucero in the chest. 11/05/2008 (Springfield, MA).

3 Men Burn Down Chruch in Springield To Protest the Election of First Black President Michael F. Jacques, 24, Benjamin F. Haskell, 22, and Thomas A. Gleason, Jr., 21, burned down The Macedonia Church of God 44/046

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in Christ, in Springfield, Massachusetts, to protest the election of President Barack Obama only hours after his election according to MassLive.com. 09/02/2005 (New Orleans, LA).

5 New Orleans Policemen Charged with the Killing and Burning of Henry Glover Henry Glover, an unarmed New Orleans resident, was fatally shot in the back amid the chaotic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Officer David Warren was convicted of the shooting (he was later qcuitted), and Officer Gregory McRae was convicted of burning Glover's body in an attempt to conceal evidence. Frontline has a detailed accounting of Glover's murder, the police coverup, and the ensuing trials. 07/05/2003 (Suffolk, NY)

4 Suffolk, New York Teenagers Set Mexican Immigrants House Ablaze Four white teenagers (ages 15 to17) hurled firecrackers into the home of Maria Garcia, Sergio Perez and their two children. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), the teenagers showed no remorse for the house burning because "Mexicans live there." 06/07/1998 (Jasper, TX)

James Byrd Jr., Dragged to Death in Jasper, TX James Byrd Jr., is beaten, stripped naked, chained behind a truck, and dragged to his death by three white men with ties to white supremacist groups in Jasper, Texas. Byrd, reportedly alive during most of the ordeal, was decapitated when his head hit a culvert as he was dragged. 04/29 - 05/4/1992 (Los Angeles, CA).

Los Angeles, California (Rodney King) Riot The Los Angeles Riot (a.k.a. the Rodney King Riot) was sparked after a Simi Valley jury acquitted the four police officers on charges of use of excessive force in the brutal arrest of motorist Rodney King. Getty Images: Natrional Guardsmen & Police patrol L.A. streets during the Rodney King Riot.

03/03/1991 (Los Angeles, CA).

Motorist, Rodney King, Brutalized by Four White Policemen Following a high speed chase, Rodney King was pulled from his vehicle and brutally beaten by four white police officers— Theodor Briseno, Stacey Koon, Laurence Powell, and Timothy Wind. The ordeal was captured on video by cameraman George Holliday. 05/17 - 05/20/1980 (Miami, FL).

Miami, Florida (Arthur McDufie) Riot The Miami, Florida Riot erupted after an all white Tampa jury acquitted four police officers in the beating death of motorist Arthur McDufie. Initially, the police reported McDuffie died after crashing his motorcycle in a chase. This was discounted aftrer discovering that the four officers had beat McDuffie into a coma; McDuffie dying in a hospital from the beating days later. The acquital, allowing McDuffie's killers to walk free, sparked outrage, protests, and the ensuing 3-day rioting. According to the Miami Herald, the riots aftermath left 18 people dead, 400 injured, and property damages totaling $100 million. 12/17/1979 (Miami, FL).

Arthur McDuffie Dies After Miami Police Chase Arthur McDuffie (33) was reportedly killed in a chase as he eluded police when running through a red light on his motorcycle. 07/23/1968

1968 FEDERAL HATE CRIME STATUTE According to the U.S. Department of Justice, the "1968 statute made it a crime to use, or threaten to use, force to willfully interfere with any person because of race, color, religion, or national origin and because the person is participating in a federally protected activity, such as public education, employment, jury service, travel, or the enjoyment of public accommodations, or helping another person to do so." 07/23/1967 (Detroit, MI).

1967 Detroit (12th Street) Race Riots as reported by NBC News According to the Detroit Historical Society, the 1967 Detroit Race Riots was the "culmination of decades of institutionalized racism and entrenched segregation." The 2017 film Detroit, directed by Kathryn Bigelow and starring Anthony Mackie, is a fact based drama set within the Riots' chaos. 07/02/1964.

Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Act enforced the constitutional right to vote, prohibited discrimination in public places, prevented discrimination in federally assisted programs, established the EEOC and made employment discrimination illegal, and provided for the integration of schools and other public institutions.

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In the 104-years between the 1863 Emanicpation Proclamation, passage of the 13th amendment in 1865, passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875, to the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1967 Federal Hate Crime Act, discrimination and racially motivated acts, attacks, and crimes were committed, typically, with impunity. 09/15/1963

Birmingham, Alabama 16th Street Church Bombed in White Supremacist Attack At 10:22 a.m., white supremacist bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church—a cornerstone for civil rights activist. Addie Mae Collins (14), Denise McNair (11), Carole Robertson (14), and Cynthia Wesley (14) were killed in the attack. 10-year-old Sarah Collins (Addie Mae Collins' sister) lost an eye and over 20 people were injured.


Voting Rights Activist Murdered on Mississippi Courthouse Lawn 07/15/1954.

U.S. Government Deports Mexican immigrants in "Operation Wetback" 05/17/1954


Richard and Mildred Loving Plead Guilty to Violating Virginia's Racial Integrity Act

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the racial segregation of children in public schools (separate but equal) was unconstitutional.


Alabama Man, Willie Edwards Jr., Abducted and Lynched by Klansmen 12/25/1956

Alabama Civil Rights Leader, Fred Shuttleworth, Home Bombed by Ku Klux Klan 05/13/1956.

Four White Men Kidnap and Rape 16-Year Old Black Girl in Mississippi 01/30/1956.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Alabama Home Bombed 08/28/1955

14-Year-Old Chicagoan, Emmett Till, Abducted and Murdered in Mississippi Delta 12/01/1955

Montgomery Woman, Rosa Parks, Arrested for Refusing to Give Up Bus Seat To White Riders

Lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston set out to prove the inequities of Jim Crow in a six-part PBS series, "Making a Way Out of No Way." 04/09/1951

Florida Sheriff Shoot Black Defendants After U.S. Supreme Court Overturn Their Convictions 09/03/1944.

Gang of White Men Abduct and Rape 24-YearOld Married Woman, Recy Taylor 06/16/1944

14-Year-Old, George Stinney, Executed in South Carolina 46/046

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15. July 11, 1919. Baltimore, Maryland

Jesse Thornton Lynched in Alabama for Failing to Address White Man as "Mr."

16. July 15, 1919. Port Arthur, Texas 17. July 19, 1919. Washington, D.C. 18. July 21, 1919. Norfolk, Virginia


Fisk University Dean Juliette Derricotte and Student Die From Car Wreck Injuries Due to Lack of Nearby, Non-White Medical Facilities

19. July 23, 1919. New Orleans, Louisiana 20. July 26, 1919. Hobson City, Alabama 21. July 31, 1919. Syracuse, New York 22. July 31, 1919. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 23. August 04, 1919. Hattiesburg, Mississippi


Scottsboro 9 Accused of Raping 2 White Women

24. August 06, 1919. Texarkana, Texas

05/31 - 06/01/1921

26. August 30, 1919. Knoxville, Tennessee

1921 Tulsa (Black Wall Street) Race Riot

25. August 21, 1919. New York City, New York 27. September 28, 1919. Omaha, Nebraska 28. October 01, 1919. Elaine, Arkansas 05/17 - 5/24/1918.

White Mob Lynches Pregnant Mother & Riddle Body With Bullets 05/28/1917 and 07/02/1917

1917 East St. Louis, Illinois Race Riot (a.k.a East St. Louis Massacre) Photo Representation

9/22 - 09/24/1906

May 10, 1919 – October 01, 1919

1906 Atlanta, Georgia Race Riots

Red Summer Race Riots of 1919


Dr. George Haynes, a Social worker, educator, and the cofounder and first executive director of the National Urban League, compiled the following list of cities which experienced race riots (white mobs attacking black citizens) in 1919. 01. May 10, 1919. Charlseston, South Carolina 02. May 10, 1919. Sylvester, Georgia 03. May, 31, 1919. Monticello, Mississippi 04. June 27, 1919. Annapolis, Maryland 05. June 13, 1919. New London, Connecticut 06. June 13, 1919. Memphis, Tennessee 07. June 27, 1919. Macon, Mississippi 08. July 03, 1919. Bisbee, Arizona 09. July 05, 1919. Scranton, Pennsylvania 10. July 6, 1919. Dublin, Georgia 11. July 7, 1919. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 12. July 8, 1919. Coatesville, Pennsylvania 13. July 9, 1919. Tuscaloosa, Alabama 14. July 10, 1919. Longview, Texas [added to Dr. Haynes' list]

Civil Rights Act of 1875 The bill addressed racial discrimination in juries, transportation, public accommodations, and schools. Equal and integrated schools was removed from the bill to pass it. In 1883, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 citing that the Constitution did not extend into private businesses; paving the way for generations of segregation and Jim Crow rule. 02/04/1875

Octavius Catto Murdered After Casting Vote In Philadelphia Mayorial Race 04/09/1866

Civil Rights Act of 1866 Following the ratification of the 13th Amendment (which abolished slavery), the House overrode President Andrew Johnson's veto ot the Civil Rights Act of 1866—a bill addressing the rights and equalities of ex slaves—and made it law. The legislation (overturning the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision) was "An Act to protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and furnish the Means of their Vindication."

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DEAR GEE How many people showed you who they were in 2019? Did you believe them or did you choose to ignore the behaviors and signs? I need to discuss a recent phone call I received. And why, when all was said and done, did my mind go to Maya Angelou’s famous saying: “When someone shows you who they are, believe them the first time.”


amily, my name is Gee, and I have lived a life like none other. (Lord, have I lived a life!) Anywho, I’ve been given this C2Change platform to share my thoughts and opinions—with love and Gee’s uncanny sense of humor of course—on life, love and relationships. So, sit down (you’re going to need to) and let’s begin this journey to change. Family, here we are 3-months into 2020, and I (like so many of you) am asking myself: “Chile, where did the time go?” But more importantly: Who was I “REAL” with and who was “REAL” with me is the better question. So, being the truthful and honest person that I am— we only grow with truth, anything else is vapor—I need to discuss a recent phone call I received. And why, when all was said and done, did my mind go to Maya Angelou’s famous saying: “When someone shows you who they are, believe them the first time.” Family? How many people showed you who they were in 2019? Did you believe them or did you choose to ignore the behaviors and signs? Well, getting back to that call (and to answer that question), a few weeks back I was having a great Sunday morning, only to be interrupted by a call from a blocked number. Although my first thought was not to answer, I told myself, it’s Sunday, it could be important or someone in need. “This is the day that the Lord hath made,” I said out loud, “be generous in it and pick up the phone, girl.” Well, I answered only to hear someone call me the infamous “B” word which was followed by a click. My first thought was what a coward. If you’re going to be 48/046

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with you today. As God is my witness, I have no idea who you OR your husband is? I am not guilty of anything, or know what you are talking about. I will pray for you! Her Response: I am a good woman but it’s people like you that give good women HELL!!! You need to check your phone and see who you’ve been calling.

bad, then just be bad. I said a little prayer and continued my morning only to be disrupted again with a text displaying “Homwwrocker” with a couple of Devil emojis behind it. I thought, the devil is really busy this morning . . . and whoever this is, really needs to learn how to spell. Anywho, I knew I needed to squash whatever this was as obviously this person had my private number for a reason. So, I decided to take the high road and texted back: Hello and how are you today? I’m sorry but you have the wrong person, I’m not communicating with anyone. (And by “anyone” I mean a man.) It’s Sunday, let’s just rejoice and be glad within it. Have a beautiful day. The “Texter” responded ten minutes later with: You are not the wrong person. You’ve been calling my husband and telling him you at home. I’ve seen your number. You better never call or see him again. [All this with those purple devil emojis at the end giving what she was saying more fire and power.] At this point I texted: What is your husband’s name? Her Response: You should know who you are calling and let come to your house. My Response: No, I do not! I have not invited any one to my home. You have the wrong person. If you tell me who you are speaking about, we can clear this matter up quickly. Why would you choose to be angry at someone, who is not guilty? Her Response: You clear it up! Why are you calling his phone leaving messages that you are at home? You know who you’ve been calling. My Response: Dear, I’m sorry, but the devil is messing

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My response: I have. If this is Tommy Boy’s woman, then he is my second cousin—we reconnected and exchanged numbers a couple of days ago. If this is Charlie’s woman, then he repaired a television for my brother—his mother is a close friend of mine. Other than that, I have not a clue. Her response (which blew me away): Please, forgive me! I’m Tommy Boy’s, your cousin’s, wife. I am so sorry . . . and embarrassed. Please don’t tell him I called you. LaLa doesn’t tell me anything . . . and never tells the truth. But I love him so much and maybe I should not love him as much as I do. Please forgive me and PLEASE don’t tell him I called. Honestly, he doesn’t take me nowhere no more, and I haven’t met all of his family or friends. I’m so embarrassed and sorry. Please forgive me. My response: Don’t worry. My name is Gee, btw. I’d love to meet you one day. Maybe we can do lunch? My personal thought about the caller, “Poor lady,” I said to myself and asked, “Who has not been ‘REAL’ with her, and who has she not been ‘REAL’ with?” I know my cousin, and the only thing real about him is his Jheri curl, protruding belly, and broken and missing teeth. My heart just goes out to her because first and foremost she hasn’t been “REAL” with herself. Tommy Boy has shown her, and continues to show her, “Who He Is” and she continues to ignore his behavior and all the signs—pretending all is well. Family, when people show you who they are, BELIEVE them like you believe you need air to breathe! Life is way too short! And with 2019 in our rearview mirror of life, I challenge you to ask yourself, “What baggage am I still carrying in 2020? Will I allow people to not be “real” with me? Will I equally not be “real” with them?” Share your comments and thoughts. Until next time, let's continue: Channeling “Creative Change” in every aspect of our lives. — Gee


February 7, 1987 - July 13, 2015

Sandra Bland Facebook

Sandra Annette Bland

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February 5, 1995 - February 26, 2012

Trayvon Martin: Photo from the Martin Foundation's Post

Trayvon Martin

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