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A garden is more than a thing to tend— it’s a destination

spring 2010

learn interact enjoy

e n j oy ga r de n i ng

enjoygardening.com

S P RING 2010

Read interesting articles Watch gardening videos Meet the experts Browse best-selling books Explore plant profiles & inspiring images MOON GARDENS Grow a nighttime garden for the senses

Celebrate all seasons Subscribe to Jim’s Notebook

Breakfast recipes to WAKE YOUR TASTE BUDS GARDEN PHOTOGRAPHY 101 From how to wow!

discover the possibilities

100 Plant Uses

Favourite Jim Hole’s

S P RING I S S U E 2 010 $6.99 Printed in Canada

reflect relax reconnect


Ne w 20 fo 10 r

Upcycle T he A rt o f

enjoy Great Gardening Books from Hole’s

Lois Hole's Favorite Bulbs Better Choices, Better Gardens By Lois Hole

Lois Hole’s Favorite Bulbs is both an ultimate get started guide for novice gardeners and a comprehensive reference for experienced bulb enthusiasts. Here you’ll find great advice on planting, growing and maintaining flowering bulbs. You'll also find hundreds of tips on where and when to plant, advice on forcing and naturalizing and fascinating sidebars on bulb science and history. $24.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 320 pages • ISBN 1-894728-00-9

R e pu r p o s e , r e c l a i m a n d r e d e f i n e l e i su r e t i m e

enjoy more inspired diy projec ts with Linda Bodo

Linda Bodo breathes life into the ordinary as she upcycles everyday objects into inspired designs for the home. • Easy-to-follow projects

Hole's Dictionary of Hardy Perennials

• Concise step by steps, supported by colour photography

Edited by Jim Hole

• Materials lists, timelines, helpful tips and more

The Buyer’s Guide for Professionals, Collectors & Gardeners

The perennial marketplace is larger than ever, with thousands of species and varieties from which to choose. Keeping track of perennials has become an awesome task—but the experts at Hole’s have a solution. Hole’s Dictionary of Hardy Perennials is the comprehensive guide, perfect for anyone who loves perennials, whether retailer, professional grower, breeder, collector, novice or veteran home gardener. $49.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Hardcover • 356 colour photos • 144 pages • ISBN 1-894728-01-7

Whether you have one hour or one weekend, this book has a project to fit you. Inspired, artistic and easy. The Art of Upcycle turns DIY into DIwise. $21.95 • 9 x 10 • Softcover • Colour • 144 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-09-6 Order online at www.holesonline.com By Phone 1-888-884-6537 By Fax 780-459-6042

Also by Linda Bodo

Ordering Order these and other Hole’s publications online at www.holesonline.com • By Phone 1-888-884-6537 By Fax 780-459-6042 Hole’s • 101 Bellerose Drive St. Albert, Alberta • T8N 8N8

$21.95 • 9 x 10 • Softcover • Colour • 144 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-08-9


58

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Stage

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59

Create an Impression

Landscaping for Curb Appeal By Maggie Clayton

Presenting 23 professionally designed landscape plans that allow gardeners the luxury of implementing designs stage‑by-stage according to time, budget and desire. $21.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 256 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-07-6

What Grows Here? Series What Grows Here? Indoors

What Grows Here? Volume 2: Problems

By Jim Hole

By Jim Hole

Favourite Houseplants for Every Situation

Favorite Plants for Better Yards

Jim Hole takes the guesswork out of caring for houseplants by addressing issues concerning light, water, pests, diseases and more. Complete with full-colour photography and in-depth plant listings, this book gives you the confidence to select the perfect houseplant for every situation.

Brimming with solid advice from one of Canada’s most accomplished gardening professionals, Problems tackles common gardening dilemmas: poor soil, pests, budget concerns and much more. Complete with detailed descriptions of plants you can count on to tackle the garden’s toughest challenges.

$21.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 292 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-06-5

$19.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 264 pages • ISBN 1-894728-03-3

What Grows Here? Volume 1: Locations

What Grows Here? Volume 3: Solutions

By Jim Hole

By Jim Hole

Favorite Plants for Better Yards Jim Hole and his team of expert horticulturists present tried-and-true advice, examples to help you tailor your gardening approach and hundreds of today’s best plants, chosen to fill every conceivable location in the garden—including trouble spots. $19.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 256 pages • ISBN 1-894728-02-5

Favorite Plants for Better Yards Jim introduces the owners of 13 gardens in different stages of development, discusses the problems each faces and offers his expert advice on selecting the best plants for specific locations and conditions. Novice gardeners and seasoned experts alike will discover how to make a landscape their very own. $19.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 264 pages • ISBN 1-894728-05-X


reflect relax reconnect

ISSN 1916-095X

Wouldn’t bend

Couldn’t stay awake

Wrong casting call

SP R I NG 2010

Not a bear Published by Hole’s Greenhouses & Gardens Magazine Publisher

Jim Hole

Editor-in-Chief

Carmen D. Hrynchuk

Graphic Design

Carol Dragich, Dragich Design

Principal Photography

Akemi Matsubuchi

Photographic Assistant

Brenda Lakeman

Image Managment

Had an agenda

Didn’t stand out

Got in a fight

Took second place

Jean Coulton

Contributors Linda Bodo, Roberta Laurie, Pierette Requier, Jen Sayers Bajger, Ian Sheldon Staff Writers

Jean Coulton, Akemi Matsubuchi

Proofreader

NJ Brown

Floral Design

Lisa Alery, Taryn Jones, Liz Nobbs

Food Styling

Alexei Boldireff

Advertising & Promotion Printing

Bill Hole

Worldcolor, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Distribution

Disticor Magazine Distribution Services

Hole’s Publishing Staff

Too well-rounded

Identity crisis

Wandered in

Sleeps with the editor

Publisher

Bill Hole

Publishing Manager

Bruce Timothy Keith

Chief Horticulturist

Jim Hole

Editorial Advisory Group Dave Grice, Olga Jubb, Bruce Keith, Brenda Lakeman, Liz Nobbs, Karen Wilson, Lindsay Zimmer Enjoy Gardening is published twice-yearly by Hole’s Publishing. It is available on newsstands across Canada. No part of this magazine may be reproduced without the written consent of the publisher.

  Missed the Arctic

Really fat head

Abandonment issues

No work visa

For more information on the magazine or advertising, please contact us at: 101 Bellerose Drive St. Albert, Alberta, Canada, T8N 8N8

Telephone 780-419-6800 Facsimile 780-459-6042 Subscriptions 1-888-884-6537

E-mail

Website www.enjoygardening.com editor@enjoygardening.com advertising@enjoygardening.com

Got cold feet

Too grumpy

Turned himself in

Too commercial

About the Cover No bears were harmed in the making of this cover. But their egos did take a beating. Photography: Akemi Matsubuchi

Wouldn’t take off his clothes

Couldn’t keep it together

EnjoyMagSpring10_layout_FINAL2.indd 2

Underage

The winner!

12/18/09 12:27:13 PM


Letter from the Editor

Never fry bacon in the nude. Yeah. I wasn’t expecting to open with that either, but it’s the first thing that comes to mind when someone asks me what I’m sure of. Of course, a close second to that less-than-poignant retort is this little gem: What the hell do I know? You can imagine, then, how surprised I was to be asking the question of myself. What has putting together this issue of Enjoy Gardening made me sure of? Well, a lot more than I thought. Strangely enough, most of it supports a pretty mean argument for never frying bacon in the nude… Learned Lesson 1: You’re not as invisible as you’d think. Editing a magazine can make you feel like you’re working alone, but nothing is farther from the truth. Magazines aren’t made of perfectly crafted words; they’re made of relationships. It’s those relationships with designers, writers, photographers, stylists, proofreaders and print reps that make this magazine happen. Sometimes when I catch myself valuing words over everything else, I remind myself that words express meaning, but it’s in people that you find understanding.

Learned Lesson 2: A good cover can save your behind. First impressions are everything. So when we choose a concept for our cover, we make sure it represents the Enjoy Gardening philosophy. Because our guiding words are “reflect,” “relax,” and “reconnect,” we love creating playful covers with unexpected elements. And while those kinds of covers always mean a lot of work, they’re also always worth the effort. In previous issues, we’ve hauled couches into the forest, loaded a canoe with flats of marigolds and even played croquet with an apple. But let me tell you, none of it was difficult as auditioning teddy bears. Correction: none of it was as difficult as rejecting people’s teddy bears—mine included. Learned Lesson 3: Sometimes it hurts. Learning to trust other people with tasks you’re used to doing yourself is a challenge. When you come up with a vision for a magazine, it’s difficult to believe that anyone else will care for it the way you do. The truth, however, is that the success of a magazine isn’t determined by the person who cares for it most; it’s determined by the person who cares for it best. And that’s a different person at every turn. If a magazine doesn’t change and evolve, it dies. Trusting it in the hands of others is the only way to grow it into what it needs to become. Learned Lesson 4: Nothing else in the world feels like it. Not even close. Happy Spring! —Carmen Hrynchuk

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12/18/09 12:27:14 PM


reflect

Plan Learn Discover inspiration points

12

Moon Gardens Create a nighttime garden for the senses

20

Garden Photography 101 with Akemi Matsubuchi

Advice that takes you from how to wow!

the hot list

28

Jim Hole’s Favourite 100 Plant Uses The extraordinary traits of everyday plants

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relax

Entertain Style Entice

reconnect Do Change Enrich

trend spotting

56

shift

Rockin’ the Garden

84

Warm Up to Gardening

Plan a rock garden that’s a hit

60

Your garden may not have been the only thing lying dormant this winter

Localvores

how do you do Devour the food and the experience

88

62

A Prairie Perspective Art inspired by nature

floral design

68

Rebel without a Vase with Linda Bodo

second look

Tablescaping

Merge wire caricatures with natural foliage

90

Go with the Flow Garden Shower with Linda Bodo

Floral design meets storytelling

Cool off the summer in style

recipes

74

A Fresh Start for Spring Wake up your breakfast routine

enjoygardening enjoygardening 5


the path to enjoy

Let’s Make Something New with Bruce Keith

Sometimes people ask you for something new, but what they really want is something different. And as hard as it is to remember, we all know different is not always new. Three years ago, Bill Hole came to us and asked that we re-envision our magazine publishing program. What Bill wanted was something new—something that reflected lifestyle and the changing demographics of gardeners, a publication that could start fresh and better serve a new generation. After a lot of thought and hard work, Enjoy Gardening was born. But this re-envisioning, we later learned, was tied to the upcoming announcement that Hole’s Greenhouses & Gardens Ltd. was to undergo a

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transformation of its own. The old greenhouses would soon be shut down, and we were going to migrate to a new facility where we could re-envision not only our business but also our focus and our customer relationships. So once again, we had a challenge: establish a new brand to better reflect our new store. This mandate, however, was vastly bigger than transforming a publication was. Brand, as defined by advertising mogul David Ogilvy, is “the intangible sum of a product’s attributes: its name, packaging, and price, its history, its reputation, and the way it’s advertised.” It seemed, then, since we were changing our entire “product” (at least from the customer’s point of view), we’d pretty much have to change everything from the last 40 years into something new, fresh and better.

If our challenge was to try and articulate what we would become, it made sense to start by identifying what we were and what we had been. So we went back to our roots and tried to visualize just what had gone into making the Hole’s brand. Where, exactly, did our reputation for quality information, service and experiences come from? What brought the first customers to Hole’s was the vegetable business, specifically Mrs. Hole selling produce under the big elms on the farm. Later, coldframes and the addition of bedding plants expanded the business. Then, a garden centre and glasshouses built next door in the potato field attracted a new generation of customers. Over time, Ted and Lois’ hard-earned experience became as well-known as their focus on quality, selection and trustworthy information.

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the path to enjoy

After thinking about it, it was pretty obvious that the history of Hole’s brand was the history of Ted and Lois Hole: their vision and their personalities defined the business. All brands have a personality (a set of external attributes) and a character (internal checks and balances), so as an exercise we worked through the elements that made up Hole’s. Welcoming, trustworthy, authentic, honest, generous and responsible made all our lists. At this point it became pretty obvious that we weren’t willing to give these things up.

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But it’s our vision of the future that should control the brand, right? For us, the future was pretty clear—we’d analyzed all of it, over and over again, in pieces. We knew the Enjoy Centre should be a meeting place, a destination for celebrations and that it should inspire that “aha” moment every time you walk through the doors. It will need to encompass the total experience: the rational, the emotional and the motivational. Our essence will be to create an uplifting experience, and our goal, our raison d’être, will be to enrich people’s lives. As one of our future partners from the spa put it, the sum of what we’re offering will be greater than the parts.


As broad as this vision was, it still lacked that new idea—the one meant to perfectly encapsulate our future. So we looked at it again. We knew our past was built on people and that our future was focused on the human experience. And, gradually, as we worked through the plan, talked to consultants and tried again to express the vision, one simple thing became clear: in order to have the best possible future, we would have to build it on the best of our past. Lois Hole was a people person. Her talent lay in her ability to make people feel confident, make them feel good about themselves and inspire them to act. It’s what built the business, inspired this magazine, and it is the

same thing that new generations will come to experience at the Enjoy Centre. The new building will bring together the old and the new: a garden centre, a food market, a spa and a cafe. It will be a place to learn, to grow and to feel good. The brand need say only that. And “that” we already know how to express. So while we still have lots of work ahead of us, from dealing with three-metre-high glass ceilings to working with new partners, the real solution to the challenge Bill set for us was pretty simple: the Hole’s brand and the Enjoy Centre will build their futures on the best of the past. So I guess, in the end, as with all human experience, what’s old is new again…

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reflect

Plan Learn Discover

inspiration points

12

Moon Gardens Create a nighttime garden for the senses

14 16 18

20

See the Night Breathe the Fragrance Hear the Night Music

Garden Photography 101 with Akemi Matsubuchi

21 23 26

Advice that takes you from how to wow!

Lighting Composition Publishing your Photos the hot list

28

Jim Hole’s Favourite 100 Plant Uses The extraordinary traits of everyday plants

enjoygardening enjoygardening 11


12 enjoygardening


inspiration points

Moon Gardens C reate a ni g htti m e garden for the senses

A nighttime garden is a magical place filled with unfamiliar murmurs and inviting fragrances—the perfect place for rest and retreat. At the end of a workday, there may be little time to spend in the yard before dusk, so it just makes sense to plan a garden that comes alive in the evening. The best of these gardens play to our sense of sight, scent and sound. Softly lit shadows, fragrant night air, musical dark water. With a few thoughtful choices, you too can create a space that functions as well in the evening as it does in the day—all it takes is a little night magic.

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inspiration points

See the Night Many of the features that turn a garden into a place of nighttime splendour will also improve its daytime beauty. Luminous whites, silvers and creams reflect the moonlight and contrast dark foliage, giving your eyes a reprieve from the pinks, blues and yellows that populate most flowerbeds. Two perfect examples are ‘Incrediball’ hydrangea and ‘Affinis White’ nicotiana. Both have striking blossoms and architecture that would enhance any garden, but at night, they stand out from the shadows and create luminous points of interest.

Lighting Made Easy

The lemon yellow blossoms of this evening primrose (Oenothera macrocarpa) open at dusk, making this perennial an ideal choice for a nighttime garden. For best results, give this plant a home in a sunny rock garden with good drainage. Height: 15–30 cm; width: 30–50 cm. Sun. (Above)

Quick Tip

Nicotiana is known for its jasmine-like scent, but it’s this variety’s white flowers that will capture your attention in the moonlight. ‘Affinis White’ blooms continuously throughout the summer, providing a plethora of trumpet-shaped flowers with which to tempt the senses of both gardeners and hummingbirds. Height: 90–100 cm; spacing: 25–30 cm. Sun to p.m. sun. (Above)

Create a nighttime focal point that’s visible from your window. This way, you can enjoy your garden even on nights when the weather keeps you in.

Incredibly large ballshaped flowers are the hallmark of this new variety of hydrangea arborescens. ‘Incrediball’ is a hardy hydrangea bred to have sturdier stems and larger blooms than the similar-looking and ever-popular ‘Annabelle.’ Spectacular, late-summer blooms emerge lime green, mature to white and then age to a darker green. Given sufficient moisture, this shrub will tolerate full sun. Height: 60–100+ cm; width: up to 1 m. Shade to a.m. sun. (Above)

There are numerous ways to supplement moonlight in the garden. Here are a few of our favourite options. • Solar lighting: A few wellplaced solar lights will cast a subtle luminescence on your garden. Because of its recent popularity, solar lighting can be found in every style from path lights that oscillate a kaleidoscope of colours to traditional carriage lights and whimsical paper lanterns. All are fantastic options. • Electrical lights: String lights are ideal for adding a twinkle to evergreens or the rooflines of gazebos. Spotlights are ideal for highlighting a central garden feature, such as a fountain, pond or statue. • Candlelight: Little else can compete with the flickering glow of candlelight. However, to keep your garden safe as well as beautiful, you should house your candles in lanterns or other lidded vessels. enjoygardening 15


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inspiration points

Breathe the Fragrance Our senses come alive at night, so there’s no better time to experience the sweet fragrance of flowers and the pungent scent of evergreens. Evening scented stock are traditionally a favourite, but more unusual options, such as brugmansia (Angel’s trumpet), should not be overlooked. To bring those fragrances indoors, simply plant aromatic annuals near a frequented doorway or an open window.

The gorgeous fragrance of evening scented stock more than makes up for this plant’s unassuming nature. Pale mauve flowers fill the night air with a vanilla and nutmeg scent that can best be described as irresistible. Their airy and unkempt growth habit is best suited to mass plantings or the middle of borders where shorter plants can disguise their bases. Height: 35–40 cm; spacing: 10–15 cm. Sun. (Not shown)

If vanilla-scented mounds of lacy flowers are your thing, then heliotrope is your plant. Its upright habit makes this annual perfect for framing the edges of borders or filling out pots and window boxes. Height: 30–35 cm; spacing: 25–35 cm. Sun. (Above left)

Merely brush past a container of petunias in the evening, and you’ll instantly know why they belong in a nighttime garden. Few other plants perform as exceptionally as petunias, but it’s their heady fragrance that makes these annuals stand out in the evening. ‘Midnight’ (from the Madness series) is a particularly beautiful shade of purple. An old favourite for good reasons. Height: 25–30 cm; spacing: 15–20 cm. Sun to p.m. sun. (Above centre)

Take an evening stroll through a patch of woolly thyme (Thymus pseudolanuginosus) and be instantly refreshed by the earthy, herbal notes it releases. And don’t worry about the thyme because it can withstand light foot traffic. The grey-green foliage of this perennial is covered in bright-pink blooms from late spring to early summer. Drought tolerant. Mat forming. Height: 1–2 cm; width: 30–45+ cm. Sun to p.m. sun. (Above right)

For a sense of drama that’ll keep you smiling, add brugmansia to your patio or garden. This massive annual has impressive trumpet-like flowers that are up to 30 cm long. During the day, the large leaves of this towering plant do a great job of filtering light. During the night, the fragrance from its sweetscented flowers fills the air. Height: 1–2 m. Sun. (Opposite page) enjoygardening 17


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inspiration points

Hear the Night Music We take many daytime sounds for granted, but with the setting sun we become conscious of distant traffic, nighttime birdcalls and rustling leaves. Ponds and other water features come alive when lit for nighttime viewing, but in the dark, it’s the water’s music that becomes its greatest draw.

Whispering in the softest breeze, the elegant blades and seed heads of feather reed grass (Calamagrostis x acutiflora) will create sound and movement in your nighttime garden. ‘Avalanche’ is a particular favourite on the prairies for the interest its towering blades add to the wintery landscape. This clumpforming grass tolerates

poor soils but performs best with good moisture. Height: 90–150 cm; width: 30–45 cm. Sun. (Above left) Finding wind chimes you’ll want to listen to on a regular basis can be as difficult as finding a radio station for your daily commute. However, when you do find the right fit, you don’t want to be without it. (Above middle)

Each fountain, brook or waterfall has a sound and charm unique to itself. Selecting a fountain that’s music to your ears will often mean finding a fountainhead that generates the sound you like. Fortunately, there are almost as many styles as there are gardeners. (Above right)

Did You Know? Frogs are nature’s pest control experts. Frogs eat slugs, cutworms, mosquitoes, earwigs and various beetles.

Garden Frogs 101

Frog calls have their own magic. With diminishing global frog populations, many conservation groups are encouraging gardeners to create urban frog habitats. • If you wish to attract frogs to your garden, you’ll need a body of water with sloping sides. At least part of the water should be shallow; frogs prefer shallow water for laying eggs. • Algae is a vital food source for tadpoles, so a frog pond should be partly shaded (to keep the soil moist) and partly sunny (to increase algae production).

• Frogs do not mix well with fish, so if you have Koi or Gold Fish, you’ll have difficulty attracting frogs. • Provide shelter and shaded areas in the form of rocks, shrubs and low-growing plants. • Be aware that, although enchanting at a distance, frog calls can become quite loud during breeding season. You may not be popular if your frog habitat is located close to your neighbour’s bedroom window.

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inspiration points

Garden Photography

101

20 enjoygardening

with Akemi Matsubuchi

Advice that takes you from how to wow!


Avid gardeners love capturing their labours of love on film, but the results of those efforts sometimes fall short. That is until now. With the few tips and tricks you are about to learn, you too can capture your garden at its best. All it takes is understanding two basic principles: lighting and composition. Capture them both, and you’re on your way to creating memorable photographs. Here’s what you need to know.

Lighting Photography is all about light. No light; no photo. It’s a seemingly basic concept, but being able to “see” the light is one thing; manipulating it to do what you want is another. The prize-winning photo you’re chasing requires you to consider certain details, such as what time of day it is, whether or not you want to capture shadows and if your subject is suited to backlighting. It sounds like a lot to juggle, but you already know more than you think. Here’s a little help with the other details.

Time of Day The time of day you shoot at will contribute significantly to the mood of your photo. For example, early morning and late-day sun cast a soft, warm hue on a scene, earning it the title “sweet light.” Getting it Right

• Shoot the same scene during different times of day. This will help you understand how light changes from a warm, yellow hue in the early morning to a bluer tone in the afternoon and finally back to warm yellow a few hours before sunset. • Take advantage of the clouds. Overcast days produce a flat light that’s ideal for photographing large garden scenes. These conditions light everything evenly (from every angle) and the shadows are minimal to nonexistent. The lack of deep, dark shadows will also allow you to see details that might otherwise be missed. • Note where the sun is. If it’s not overcast and you’re shooting a wide area, it’s best for the sun to directly face the garden. Just watch for large patches of shadows from big trees, houses or fences that could intrude upon your scene.

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inspiration points Shadows Shadows have the unfortunate reputation of always being bad. They aren’t. In fact, they are ideal for adding a dramatic feel and creating shape and form in your subject. So even though flat light (cloudy day light) can soften edges and be an all-around pleasing light, a hard light (bright afternoon light) can give a photo character when used thoughtfully.

Getting it Right

• Note where your shadows fall. When the sun is low in the sky, it creates long, interesting shadows. Just be aware of where those shadow are and if they’re adding aesthetic value to the scene. If the shadow hides important details, you have two choices: shoot at a different time of day so the shadows fall somewhere acceptable, or make the shadows less dark with a “fill light” (a flash or a reflector). • Use a reflector. How much fill you use will be dictated by the amount of detail you’d like to see in the shadowed area. Small scenes, such as a close-up of a flower, can easily be filled with a reflector (anything from a piece of white paper to a professional piece of reflective equipment). The reflector must be placed on the opposite side of your incoming light and may need to be brought in very close to your subject. The closer the reflector to your subject, the more light bounces back in. (Above left) If you pull your reflector in and out of the scene, you can see how it’s affecting your shadow area. Larger scenes require a flash on your camera. Do, however, realize that your flash has limitations on how far and wide it can throw light. 22 enjoygardening

Quick Tips

For adding fill light in a closeup you can use a piece of foam board or, for even more reflection, take a piece of cardboard and wrap aluminum foil around it. For creating shade in a small area to soften your light you can use an umbrella.

Backlighting Backlighting is a technique used to create evocative images with a definite mood. It is also most effective in situations where the scene is small and you’re close enough to a plant to see the light shining through its leaves or petals. (Above right) This translucency showcases a plant’s structure and makes it the primary focus. Getting it Right

• Position yourself properly. Your goal is to make the plant appear as though it’s glowing, so you’ll need to make sure the sun is behind your subject. Just keep in mind that not all plants have the same amount of translucency. • Make sure your flash doesn’t fire. It will fill the shadows, and you’ll lose your high contrast. • Use backlighting any time of day, but be aware that the strong, harsh midday sun can make it more effective. Also, don’t forget to experiment with your exposures and all those fun buttons on your camera. You’ll be surprised at what you can create.


Composition The second main building block of a good photograph is composition. A few basic design concepts you’ll need to understand are effective leading lines, depth of field, angles and focal point. Here’s what you need to know about each.

Leading Lines Being aware of what you see through your lens and making note of where your eye naturally travels are the first steps to understanding leading lines. A strong line (or lines) directs your viewer to your main subject or, if you wish, even off the page. Getting it Right

• Be aware that we instinctively look at photographs from left to right, just like we read. Therefore, how quickly the viewer is introduced to your main subject will be dependant on where you place that subject in the frame. There’s no rule as to where it “should”

go, but remembering how to “read” a photo will help you make the decision. For instance, if you want your viewer to meander into your subject, make it more right adjusted. As the creator of the image, you can use composition to navigate your audience through the scene. • Create dynamic lines. Our brains find diagonal lines much more dynamic than horizontal or vertical ones, so try tilting your camera instead of keeping it level. • Don’t position your subject dead centre in your frame. Adjusting it more to the left, right, top or bottom will break a static feel. (Above) enjoygardening 23


inspiration points

Depth of Field Depth of field is best described as how much of your scene is in focus from front to back. Controlling this element can be a little difficult, but is well worth the beautiful photos it creates. Getting it Right

• Depth of field is controlled by the aperture (f-stop) you shoot at. The more depth of field you have (i.e. f16), the more of the scene stays in focus. • The amount of depth of field is subjective, but there are situations where it can greatly affect the visual message. For instance, when you look at a cluster of flowers, there can be an explosion of colour and several distracting elements in the scene. A great way to isolate a special bloom and make it jump out is by using a large aperture (i.e. f4). By focusing on the key subject, the background falls out of focus. (Above right) This technique (called selective focus) is a little complicated but rewards amply once mastered.

Angles Photographs are nicknamed “stills” to differentiate them from moving film, but the last thing any photographer should do is stay in one place when shooting. Get different angles. Go high, go low, use a ladder or lie on your belly. Most importantly, get inspired. Getting it Right

• Go high. Taking a ladder and shooting your garden from the top step will cast a new look on an old scene. The change of angles and focal lengths gives great variety with a small amount of work. • Go low. Some of the best photos come from looking way up at a plant. For example, using a wide-angle lens to shoot up at a lily will transform it into a towering giant. (Right) • Get close. Using your macro lens will reveal a world you didn’t know existed. It can make a petal or leaf look abstract and really bring alive textures and colours. Note, however, that awareness of leading lines becomes crucial when concentrating on such a small area. 24 enjoygardening


Focal Point Ever looked at a photo and thought it didn’t measure up to the real thing? You’re not alone. It’s a common problem, often caused by “too much information” (a.k.a. your eyes not knowing where to look first). The solution is to narrow down the most appealing area and to focus on that.

Quick Tips

Your hands are not as steady as you may think, so if your macro photos are a bit blurry, use a tripod. This will also force you to slow down and thoughtfully compose your scene.

Getting it Right

• Establish a focal point. Whether it be a tree or a patch of lilies, select a focal point and build your scene around it. • Look for order in chaos. Nature has a way of finding its own order in chaos. When you look at a mass of flowers, examine it closely and you’ll find a section with a pattern that can help the viewer focus.

• Pay attention to details. When shooting items very close-up, watch for bruised petals and leaves. These small details can greatly detract from the perfect bloom. • Get rid of intrusions. Make note of power poles, cars, garbage cans, etc. that might interrupt your scene. If you can’t avoid an unwanted object, change your angle. enjoygardening 25


inspiration points

Publishing your Photos Now that you’ve taken all those photos, the big question is what do you do with them? Share them, of course! Fortunately, the Internet and desktop publishing make this easy. Here are a few tips to get you started. Printing Any camera you buy today will easily make a very good 8x10 print. However, if you’re wanting an 11x14 print or larger, you’ll need to make sure the file is large enough to hold the resolution. This requires a six megapixel(or more) camera for best results. The bigger the file, the more versatility you’ll have, so check that your camera settings have not defaulted to the smallest file size.

Publishing Once you’ve figured out what you want to do with your photos, the next step is getting them out there. Social networking forums, such as Facebook or My Space, make showing off your photos easy. Getting it Right

• Try stepping out of the cyber world. Source a lab, and actually print your photos. • Create your own book, calendar or cards. Photo albums are no longer just boring prints in plastic sleeves. There are companies on the Internet that allow you to download free software for creating books. If you are a Mac user, you’ll have this program on iPhoto. Simply send in your photos online, and a week or so later a beautifully bound book lands on your doorstep. It’s a great way to create a coffee-table book, an upscale portfolio or professional-looking holiday photos.

Expert Advice 26 enjoygardening

Camera phones are everywhere and handy for all occasions, but the files are too small to produce proper prints.

• Build your own gallery on a website. • Have fun. The digital world allows us to photograph with unlimited abandon and to see our results immediately. So enjoy nature with a camera in your hands, and have fun shooting!


Did You Know?

Digital cameras are measured in megapixels, and megapixels are directly related to the size of the files. The number of megapixels correlates to how much you can enlarge a photo and still retain its sharpness. Therefore, buying a camera that is 10 megapixels rather than 6 megapixels is only beneficial if you intend to enlarge your prints. Our advice? Save your pocketbook, and don’t get sucked into buying bigger unless you really mean business.

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the hot list

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Favourite

100 Plant Uses Jim Hole’s

The extraordinary traits of everyday plants For many of us, selecting plants is all about the aesthetics. We want brilliant blooms, fancy foliage and perfect performance. What hardly registers at all is that these beautiful ornamentals have other extraordinary traits. Some are helpful at preventing erosion and at keeping our yards in shape, while others tend to our health—cleaning the air we breathe, feeding us and providing medicinal properties. Those and 100 more reasons are why we’re dedicating this issue to the extraordinary traits of everyday plants. We hope it’ll get you looking at your plants in a whole new light. Enjoy the illumination!

Jim Hole

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For the

Bees and Butterflies Gardens designed to attract bees and butterflies aren’t just beautiful; they also serve a practical purpose. Without pollination, seeds wouldn’t set and the food crops we rely on wouldn’t produce. So lure some bees and butterflies to your garden this year. Here’s what you need to know.

Echinacea purpurea ‘White Swan’ Coneflower Add grace and fragrance to your garden with this coneflower. As a bonus, the blooms will also delight bees and butterflies. The flowers feature yellow centre cones and reflexed petals that are pure white. Bloom time is from summer to fall. As with all Echinacea, ‘White Swan’ is clump forming and drought tolerant once established. Provide well-drained soil. Height; 45–60 cm; width: 30–45 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

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Plant Uses Annuals Borage officinalis Borage Star-shaped flowers in a brilliant purple tone make this herb shine. Any vegetable that needs pollination, such as cucumber or squash, will benefit from having borage planted nearby. Besides attracting bees, this annual herb also serves as a larval food source for some butterflies. The mild-flavoured leaves and star-shaped flowers are similar to cucumber. Readily self-seeds. Height: 60–90 cm; spacing: 60 cm. Sun.

Cosmos bipinnatus ‘Pink Shades’ Cosmos, Sonata Series Simply scatter these seeds and be dazzled by candy-pink flowers and lacy green foliage. This series has a nice compact habit and daisy-like, 10–cm flowers. Irresistible to bees and butterflies alike. An excellent cutflower and ideal for backgrounds or mass displays. Wind tolerant. Height: 50–60 cm; spacing: 25–30 cm. Sun.

Tagetes erecta ‘Gold’ African Marigold, Marvel Series Impressive double blooms make this series a surefire selection—and the bees and butterflies will agree. Held on extra-sturdy stems, the rich golden-yellow flowers are 7–10 cm in diameter. Great garden performance; weather tolerant. Height: 40–45 cm; spacing: 35 cm. Sun.

Verbena bonariensis ‘Buenos Aires’ Verbena This airy annual looks most impressive as it matures. Its clustered heads are densely packed groups of small, purple flowers. Superb as a cutflower. Use as a hedge or in tall borders or mixed planters. To complement this verbena, grow shorter plants in front of it. Heat and drought tolerant. Height: 60–90 cm; spread: to 60 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Zinnia elegans ‘Zowie! Yellow Flame’ Zinnia Wow bees, butterflies and neighbours with the exceptional colouring of this zinnia. Each bloom features a central red-and-yellow cone surrounded by petals that are magenta-orange with yellow tips. This plant has a bushy and vigorous growth habit, so allow good air circulation and don’t crowd. Remove dead blooms. Height: 60–75 cm; spacing: 60–75 cm. Sun.

Did You Know? • Tongue length and body size are the characteristics that determine which insects can pollinate specific flowers. For example, red clover and monkshood rely almost exclusively on bumblebees for pollination. • Insects—primarily bees—along with birds and mammals pollinate two-thirds of the world’s food crops. • Both butterflies and bees feed on nectar (a carbohydrate), but only bees use pollen as a protein source. enjoygardening 31


For the

Bees and Butterflies Perennials Alcea rosea ‘White’ Hollyhock, Chater’s Double Group Hollyhocks are an old garden favourite that shouldn’t be forgotten. Tall and majestic, they’re perfect along a fence or as a background plant in a perennial bed. This one has spires of double, powder-puff flowers from June to August. The slightly hairy and rounded leaves have three to seven shallow lobes. Height: 1.5–2 m; width: 90 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Dianthus ‘Starlette’ Pink, Double Star Series Strong, spicy notes are a nice bonus with this great performing dianthus. You’ll also be thrilled with its perpetual double blooms. Each frilly edged, magenta flower has a deep-red eye. And each variety in this new series features compact and sturdy bluegreen foliage. Mounding form; evergreen. Attracts butterflies. Height: 15–25 cm; width: 15–20 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Eupatorium ‘Phantom’ Joe Pye ‘Phantom’ Shorter in stature than most Eupatoriums, this dwarf variety doesn’t fall short on flower size. In fact, the fragrant wine-red heads aren’t much smaller than those on standard varieties. Joe Pye is one of the showiest fall-blooming perennials available. A favourite of butterflies. A virtually pest-and-diseasefree plant. Clump-forming, upright habit. Keep moist. Height: 80–90 cm; width: 60–70 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Gaillardia ‘Oranges and Lemons’ Blanket Flower Abundant flowers and a longer bloom period make this hybrid superior to other blanket flowers. It’s also heat and drought tolerant and abides poor soils. Its daisy-like blooms have peachy-orange petals with yellow tips. Clump-forming with blue-green foliage. Prefers dry, well-drained soil. A short-lived perennial that reseeds freely. Height: 55–65 cm; width: 30–45 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Monarda didyma ‘Pink Lace’

Phlox paniculata ‘Pink Flame’ (syn. ‘Bartwelve’)

Beebalm You don’t have to wait for this beebalm to start performing—it flowers robustly the first growing season. ‘Pink Lace’ has dark-purple stems that bear light-pink flowers with purple centre cones. The aromatic, bright-green foliage is reminiscent of Earl Grey tea. Will lure both bees and butterflies. Compact and clump forming. Blooms in summer. Avoid dry sites. Height: 55–65 cm; width: 30–40 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Garden Phlox, Flame Series Grow this compact garden phlox, and treat yourself to a bevy of large flower clusters. Bees and butterflies will also be pleased with the pink flowers, which have darker pink eyes. To prolong the midsummer bloom period, deadhead the spent clusters. This series features shorter and more compact plants. Fragrant. Do not crowd; water at base. Height: 25–30 cm; width: 30 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

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Plant Uses Trees & Shrubs Diervilla sessilifolia ‘LPDC Podaras’ Southern Bush Honeysuckle ‘Cool Splash’ Variegated foliage and red stems make this shrub particularly eye-catching. It’s not a true honeysuckle (despite the common name), but its small yellow blooms are tubular shaped and perfect for butterfly snouts. The leaves have deep-green centres surrounded by yellow-to-creamy-white margins. Blooms in early summer. Forms a dense colony and suckers. Easy to grow and tolerates a wide range of soils and light conditions. Height: 75–120 cm; width: 1–1.5 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

Syringa meyer ‘Palibin’ Dwarf Korean Lilac Ideal as a compact hedge or as a specimen shrub, this lilac has very fragrant blossoms. Red-purple buds open to pink in late spring. For best flower colour, pick a spot that’s shaded from hot afternoon sun. To promote more flowers next season, prune just after flowers finish, removing only the seed heads. Burgundy fall foliage. Non-suckering. Height: 1-2 m; width: 1.5–2 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

Philadelphus ‘Belle Etoile’ Mockorange Plant this shrub where you can enjoy its intoxicating orange-blossom fragrance. Its early spring blooms are white with a maroon blotch in the centre. This mockorange also has beautiful mahogany coloured stems. Prune after flowering. Height: 1.5–2 m; width: 1–1.2 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

Malus ‘Rescue’ Crabapple There’s nothing quite like the buzz of bees in flowering fruit trees. To experience it yourself, try this crabapple. ‘Rescue’ is a favourite that produces lots of goodsized fruit. Yellow-green apples with a red blush are 3–5 cm in diameter and mature in late summer. Good for eating and for jelly or juice. Fireblight resistant. Requires another crabapple, apple or pear for crosspollination. Height: 5 m; spread: 4 m. Sun.

Expert Advice If you want beautiful butterflies, you’ll have to tolerate some caterpillars. Unfortunately, those caterpillars chew through a lot of leaves, so make sure to grow a few extra host plants.

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Weeds If you can’t beat ‘em, eat ‘em! And, really, why not? Weeds are just wild plants growing where gardeners wish they wouldn’t. Foraging for them certainly isn’t difficult, and, as you are about to discover, many are not only edible but also delicious. Just be sure to pick weeds that haven’t been sprayed with herbicides.

Did You Know? Burdock roots can be roasted and used as a coffee substitute.

Matricaria matricaioides Pineapple Weed Savour a herbal tea made from the pineappleshaped seed heads of this underappreciated plant. The flavour is similar to chamomile; hence this plant’s other common name—false chamomile. The seed heads (which can be used fresh or dried) have a pineapple-like aroma, as do the finely divided leaves. Short, smooth stems. Annual. Height: 10–40 cm.

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Amarnthus retroflex

Chenopodium album

Arctium minus

Redroot Pigweed Redroot pigweed is related to the ornamental we call amaranthus or love lies bleeding. The tiny, nutritious seeds of this plant’s inconspicuous green flowers turn black as they mature and are fantastic whole or ground into a meal. Substitute one cup pigweed meal for a cup of flour in any muffin or pancake recipe. Young leaves can also be used fresh as a salad green. Erect, sometimes branching annual with a red taproot. Height: 30–100 cm.

Lamb’s Quarters Lamb’s quarters gets its name from the mealy, white particles on the undersides of its leaves. And although it’s those leaves that get all the attention for being delicious, this plant’s mature black seeds can also be ground into meal that looks and tastes similar to buckwheat. Lamb’s quarters can have up to 70,000 seeds per plant and are covered in dense clusters of tiny, grayishgreen flowers. Stems—with light red or purple stripes—are erect and usually branched. Annual. Height: 30–90+ cm.

Common Burdock This invasive and colonyforming biennial isn’t welcome everywhere, but it certainly is a good food source. Dig the fleshy taproots of first-year plants (easily identified by their basal rosettes of rhubarb-like leaves) and use as you would any other root vegetable. Young shoots and leaves can be cooked like spinach, and leafstalks can be peeled and used like celery. Burdock develops stems (often branched) and pink to purple thistle-like flowers in the second year. Seeds are borne in prickly burrs. Height: up to 1.8 m.


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Plant Uses Stelleria media Common Chickweed Chickweed may look fragile, but it’s actually very difficult to pull by hand. That’s because its stems drop roots at the nodes. Left unchecked, chickweed is highly competitive, so put it to good use. The leaves and stems, which have a mild and refreshing flavour, can be added to salads or cooked as a green. Multi-branched stems form dense mats with tiny, white, star-shaped flowers. Annual or winter annual (germinating in fall and maturing in early summer). Spread: up to 50 cm.

Did You Know? Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) could be the next hot ecoproduct. The technique for making soft, silky fabric from nettle fibres has existed for centuries, but what’s spurring current interest is how much more environmentally friendly it is than a cotton crop. Nettles don’t need chemical controls while they grow, nor are chemicals used in the processing—not bad for a weed with a nasty reputation for causing skin irritation.

Plantago major

Portulaca oleracea

Taraxacum officinale

Broad-Leaved Plantain Plantain is a weed pretty enough to be used in flower arrangements. Of course, it’s also suitable for eating. Pick the leaves while they’re young (before the flower stalk appears). Older leaves will be bitter and stringy. Single spikes bear tiny flowers. Fibrous root system; reproduces by seed. Perennial. Spread: 10–20+ cm.

Purslane Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants make purslane a rich source of nutrients. It can be used fresh or cooked and, thanks to its mucilaginous qualities, makes a great thickener for soups or stews. Unfortunately, it’s a difficult plant to remove from gardens. Any bit of tissue will easily root, and its seeds will mature even after the plant has been pulled. It’s even herbicide resistant! Forms prostrate mats with succulent leaves and fleshy stems that are usually reddish. Annual. Spread: up to 50 cm.

Dandelion “Tenacious” might be the most common word used to describe a dandelion. But this muchmaligned weed is a very versatile food source and really does have a beautiful flower—just ask any child! Use young leaves and unopened buds in salads, cook older leaves, brew wine from the flowers or brew a coffee-like drink from the roasted roots. A taprooted perennial. Height: up to 30 cm.

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Incredible Edibles Growing our own food tends to be a fruit-and-vegetable affair. But every once in a while it’s good to look outside the fruit (or veggie) basket for a little inspiration. Some of these offerings are common; others are a bit more unusual. Give both a try.

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Plant Uses

Annuals Lavandula angustifolia ‘Hidcote’ (syn. ‘Hidcote Blue’) True Lavender Lavender is well known as a perfume base and as an ingredient in soaps and lotions. But if you haven’t tried it as a flavouring in cake or shortbread cookies, you’ve missed out. This particular variety is much loved for its flower colour that verges on blue. Silver-grey foliage is evergreen. Use leaves and flowers either fresh or dried. Plant in a sheltered location, and provide mulch for winter. Height: 45–60 cm; width: 50–75 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Lilium lancifolium (syn. L. tigrinum) Tiger Lily Old-fashioned tiger lilies are hard to miss, thanks to their spotted orange flowers and recurved petals. Flowerbuds and bulbs are both edible. Separate the bulbs and use in a stir fry—they taste somewhat like a potato. Blooms in midsummer; clump forming. Height: 1–2 m; width: 45–60 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Humulus lupulus ‘Nordbrau’

Helianthus annuus ‘Mammoth Russian’ Sunflower Sunflowers aren’t just for vases; they also yield delicious and nutritious seeds. ‘Mammoth Russian’ produces huge, 30-cm heads and is easy to grow—just sow directly into the ground. Enjoy the seed yourself, or hang the dried heads as a natural bird feeder. Thin-shelled, striped seeds. Height: 2+ m. Sun.

Hops If you’re a beer brewer, you should be a hops grower, too. Hops is a key ingredient that adds bitterness, flavour and aroma to beer. It’s the conelike flowers (hops) you’ll need, which are produced only on female varieties such as ‘Nordbrau.’ Disease-resistant with large, coarse leaves. Provide adequate support for these vigorous vines. Prune to the ground in fall. Height: 4–6 m; width: 2–3+ m. Sun to p.m. sun.

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Corylus cornuta Beaked Hazel Nut There are sweet nuts to be savoured from this native shrub—if the birds and squirrels don’t beat you to them. Although smaller than commercial varieties, beaked hazel nuts have the same great flavour you’re used to. A dense, compact shrub with dark green leaves that turn yellow in fall. It does sucker, which means it’s a great option for naturalizing. Height: 1–2.5 m; width: 1–2.5 m. Sun or shade.

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Incredible Edibles

Plant Uses

Trees and shrubs Juglans cinerea

Courtesy of Jefferies Nursery

Butternut Butternut trees produce delicious and nutritious nuts with high oil content. Unfortunately, getting to them can be a challenge. First you’ll have to remove a slightly sticky outer husk. Then you’ll need a good nutcracker to break the thick shell. Deep cavities also make it difficult to extract the nut from the shell. This tree’s long, tropical-looking leaves make it hard to believe it’s the coldhardiest nut tree in North America. An upright, wide form with low branches. Yellow fall colour. Provide a wind-protected site; prefers moist conditions. Height: 12–15 m; width: 9–12 m. Sun.

Acer saccharum ‘Jefcan’ Sugar Maple ‘Unity’ It’s not that difficult to tap a maple tree and to make your own syrup. Do-it-yourself instructions are easily found on the Internet or at your local library. Sugar maples, such as this one developed in Manitoba, are preferred for syrup production because they have a high sugar content. ‘Unity’ is an attractive specimen with intense yelloworange fall colour. Prefers a protected site. Height: 10–15 m; width: 7–11 m. Sun.

Juniperus communis var. depressa ‘AmiDak’ Juniper ‘Blueberry Delight’ ‘Blueberry Delight’ is an excellent choice if you want heavy crops of juniper berries. The berries, which are actually seed cones, are a traditional seasoning for venison and are well known as a flavouring in gin. They are bittersweet and piney with a hint of citrus. You can also make a highly aromatic tea from the new foliage of junipers. The foliage of this variety is particularly nice, with a silver-blue cast on the upper surface and dark green on the lower surface. A slow-growing, but very adaptable, groundcover. Dense, wide-spreading form. Height: 30–50 cm; width: 1.5 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

Quercus macrocarpa

Rosa ‘Scarlet Pavement’

Bur Oak Most people wouldn’t consider eating an acorn, but they should. Besides tasting great, acorns are nutritious and easy to harvest. Bur oak will produce heavy acorn crops every two or three years. Regrettably, the slow-growing nature of oaks means you may have to wait up to 30 years to reach this high production point. Bur oak has rugged grey bark and yellow-brown fall colour. Pyramidal form. Adapts to wet or dry sites; likes acidic soil. Height: 20–25 m; width: 9–10 m. Sun.

Hardy Rose Large and plentiful red hips are the prize with ‘Scarlet Pavement.’ Visually stunning in fall, the vitamin-C-rich hips also make great jelly and tea. The strong rose fragrance is another plus of this Pavement series rose. Blooms are semi-double, fuchsiared to scarlet-red and 6–8 cm in diameter. An extremely tough, carefree rose that blooms from summer to frost. Salt tolerant. Height: 75–90 cm; width: 1–1.5 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

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Erosion Controllers Stabilizing slopes and preventing soil erosion can be a big landscaping challenge. But there are plants that can certainly make the job easier. Fast spreaders—above and below ground level—are what you want. Try some of these.

Dryopteris filix-mas Shield Fern Look at a fern in its natural habitat, and you’ll find it controlling erosion, stabilizing slopes and building soil where none exists. Ferns accomplish this with their mat-forming roots and with fronds that hold soil and other organic material. Foliage may burn and break in windy sites. Dark green fronds do best in cool woodland locations. Colony forming. Height: 60–90 cm; width: 60–100 cm. Shade to a.m. sun.

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Plant Uses Perennials Ajuga reptans ‘Mahogany’ Bugleweed The magnificent mahogany leaves of this bugleweed make a dramatic backdrop for its spiked blue flowers. On top of looking great, this bugleweed performs like no other, clinging to the ground and spreading its rhizomatous roots. Grows especially well in moist soil. Height: 10–15 cm; width: 30+ cm. Sun or shade.

Antennaria ‘McClintock’ Pussy Toes Faced with a dry, difficult slope? This mat-forming perennial will take a toehold in the most inhospitable sites. All pussy toes have silvery-grey foliage; however, not all varieties will tolerate foot traffic or transplanting—this one withstands both. Creamy-white flowers in early summer. Drought tolerant; prefers poor soil. Use in rock gardens or between paving stones. Height: 5–10 cm; width: 30+ cm. Sun.

Cerastium tomentosum Snow-in-Summer Smothered in snowy-white flowers, this perennial really lives up to its common name. The creeping habit of its woolly grey foliage also makes it a first-rate groundcover— especially for dry slopes. Excellent performance in poor soil. Flowers from late spring to early summer. Height: 15–20 cm; width: 90–100+ cm. Sun.

Paxistima canbyi Cliff Green Evergreen foliage is not only an appealing feature but also an asset in preventing soil erosion. Cliff green has a great spreading habit, making it a perfect choice for a rock garden or woodland groundcover. Its green-white flowers bloom in summer. Prefers moist, organically rich soil that is neutral to acidic. Do not cut back. Height: 20–40 cm; width: 45–60+ cm. Sun or shade.

Persicaria affinis ‘Border Jewel’ Fleece Flower Short-statured and long-blooming, ‘Border Jewel’ is made to order for the front of borders. Its mat-forming growth habit also makes it well suited to a slope. Boasts pink flowers from early summer to fall. Evergreen foliage turns red in autumn. Performs best in moist soil. Height: 15–25 cm; width: 60–90+ cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Phalaris arundinacea var. picta Ribbon Grass Aggressiveness is a virtue when it comes to taming a slope. And ribbon grass has it in spades. An attractive ornamental grass with white-striped blades. Green spikelets form in summer and mature into cream-coloured seedheads. Variegation will diminish without adequate light. Height: 60–90 cm; width: 60–90+ cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

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Erosion Controllers

Quick Tip

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Minimizing Erosion • Pick plants that are quick to root and spread and that are tough enough to survive a difficult location. Plants with runners or suckers usually fit the bill.

• Use retaining walls to divide an acutely sloped yard into terraces. For smaller spaces, such as flowerbeds, soil can be held in place with dividers built from landscaping materials (e.g. wood or brick).

• Choose perennials, shrubs or trees over annuals, and choose evergreens over deciduous plants.

• Use rain barrels to collect and store runoff from buildings, or redirect it to a dry riverbed or swale.


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Plant Uses Trees and shrubs Juniperus horizontalis ‘Gold Strike’ Juniper The vivid yellow foliage of this newly introduced juniper is stunning in the spring and matures into a spectacular shade of chartreuse. To maintain its bright colour, protect this juniper from the scorching summer sun. Cooler fall temperatures bring out its coral tones. Height: 10–15 cm; width: 90–120 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Microbiota decussata Russian Cypress Wide-spreading Russian cypress has few rivals among evergreen groundcovers and is especially valuable in partially shady locations. The soft, bright-green needles of this evergreen turn purple-brown in winter. A low, spreading form that prefers moist soil. Height: 30 cm; width: 3–4 m. Shade to a.m. sun.

Potentilla fruticosa ‘Pink Beauty’ Potentilla Showy, semi-double blooms that last throughout the summer make this shrub the best pink potentilla around. As with other potentillas, this variety is drought tolerant and adapts to most soils. Compact round form requires pruning to maintain shape. Use in borders or in mass plantings. Height: 60–90 cm; width: 60–90 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Rhus typhina ‘Bailtiger’ Sumac ‘Tiger Eyes’ Tropical-looking foliage might make you think ‘Tiger Eyes’ needs a lot of water, but you’d be wrong. It’s a great xeriscape shrub that will hold soil in place. Fuzzy-looking, rose-coloured stems contrast with its yellow leaves that turn scarlet in fall. Greenish-yellow flowers appear in summer; velvety, reddish bunches of fruit in fall. Tolerates poor soil. Suckering habit, although not as aggressive as in other varieties. Height: 2 m; width: 2 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

Sorbaria sorbifolia ‘Sem’ Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Mindia’ Ninebark ‘Coppertina’ Erosion control is an added benefit with ‘Coppertina,’ but astonishing foliage is the fundamental reason to choose this ninebark. It has white blooms in spring and brilliant coppery leaves that turn reddish once mature. Bright red seeds in fall. Drought tolerant and easy to grow. Prune yearly to maintain shape. Height: 2–3 m; width: 2 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

False Spirea Be delighted as this shrub unfurls its pinkishred leaves along deep-pink stems. The fern-like leaves on this dwarf false spirea then mature to pale-yellow with green stripes. White blooms in summer. Suckers profusely, making it an excellent choice for slopes. Adapts to most soils. Height: 1 m; width: 1+ m. Sun or shade.

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Animal Resistant Rabbits and deer are adorable, but most of us aren’t amused when they forage in our yards. But what’s a gardener to do? Well, start by choosing plants that animals find unappealing. Prickly or poisonous plants are the most obvious, but they aren’t the only ornamentals that nibblers avoid. Check out these suggestions.

Annuals Centaurea cyanus ‘Mix’ Bachelor's Button, Finest Series Bachelor’s buttons are the quintessential choice for a wildflower garden, but they’re not first choice with deer. The long-lasting double blooms also make great cutflowers. Remove dead flowers to promote continuous blooming. Readily self-seeds if allowed. Blue is the most common colour, but this mix includes red, rose-pink and white. Height: 90 cm; spacing: 15–20 cm. Sun.

Sinecio cineraria ‘New Look’ Dusty Miller The striking silvery foliage of dusty miller is difficult for gardeners to resist—but not for animals. ‘New Look’ has wooly looking foliage that’s lobed and shaped like an oak leaf. Frost and rain tolerant, but looks green when wet. Use as an accent plant or to create a stunning border. Height: 20–35 cm; spacing: 15–20 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Salvia farinacea ‘Blue’ Salvia, Victoria Series Salvia (a.k.a. mealycup) is a strongblooming and low-maintenance plant. This particular variety produces deep violet-blue flower spikes all summer— none of which will interest the wildlife. The Victoria series has a compact and bushy growth habit. Heat tolerant. Great as a dried flower. Height: 45–50 cm; spacing: 25–30 cm. Sun.

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Plant Uses Perennials Aconitum napellus Monskshood Easily recognized by its distinctive flowers with hoodforming sepals, this perennial is an old garden standard. And with good reason. The luminous indigo flowers on tall stalks never fail to please. Note: all parts of monkshood are poisonous; even contact with foliage may irritate skin. Upright, clump-forming habit. Blooms in late summer and prefers shade. Height: 90–150 cm; spacing: 30–60 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Convallaria majalis Lily-of-the-Valley It’s hard to disregard the sweetly scented flowers of lily-ofthe-valley. Yet deer, squirrels and rabbits customarily do. An excellent perennial groundcover that forms a dense carpet. Produces elegant blooms in the spring and decorative orange-red berries in the fall. Tolerates dry sites but performs best in moist, shady locations. Height: 15–20 cm; spacing: 45–60+ cm. Sun or shade.

Coryphantha vivipara (syn. Escobaria vivipara) Native Pincushion Cactus Spines effectively protect this pincushion-shaped cactus from animal attack. Native to southern Alberta, this plant is a great drought-tolerant option for a xeriscape garden. Large flowers—at least in comparison to the plant—appear in late spring. Blooms are purple, pink or sometimes white. Rarely needs watering, although moisture requirements are higher in spring when growth is active. Provide sharply drained, gritty soil. Height: 5–10 cm; spacing: 15–30 cm. Sun.

Euphorbia polychroma ‘First Blush’

Astilbe ‘Federsee’ Astilbe Add majesty to your garden with the rich carmine plumes of this astilbe. Ideal for planting en masse in the shade garden. Will also tolerate some sun if soil conditions are moist. Foliage may burn in windy locations. Clump forming; divide regularly to keep vigorous. Height: 45–60 cm; spacing: 30–45 cm. Shade to a.m. sun.

Cushion Spurge Blushing with bright pink throughout spring, the foliage of this cushion spurge is extraordinary. In addition to the pink frosting, the leaves have cream edges and green centres. Textural interest comes from the somewhat ruffled edges of the leaves. As with all spurges, the flowers are actually bracts or coloured leaves (a characteristic shared with their poinsettia relatives). ‘First Blush’ produces white bracts in spring. Nice, compact cushion shape. Rabbit, mouse and deer resistant. Height: 30 cm; spacing: 30–45 cm. Sun.

Festuca glauca Blue fescue Believe it or not, many ornamental grasses aren’t that attractive to deer. And blue fescue is one of them. Its bluegreen blades and seed heads make it a wonderful accent plant. Drought-tolerant, evergreen and clump-forming. Height: 40–60 cm; spacing: 40–60 cm. Sun.

Rudbeckia fulgida v. fulgida ‘Goldsturm’ Black-Eyed Susan ‘Gold Storm’ This perennial will overwhelm you with a storm of flowers from midsummer to fall. Long blooming, low maintenance and long lived. What’s not to love? The golden-yellow petals surround nearly black centre cones. This variety is virtually disease-and-insect-free and of no interest to deer. Performs best in consistently moist soil. Clump forming. Height: 45–60 cm; spacing: 30–45 cm. Sun to p.m. sun. enjoygardening 45


Aralia spinosa Devil’s Walking Stick You don’t want to get too close to a devil’s walking stick and neither will animals. It’s a formidable shrub that thrives on neglect. The branches are ringed with semicircular leaf scars lined with toothlike spines (reminiscent of a spiked dog collar). Large panicles of creamy flowers open in summer and mature into decorative purple-black berries. Burgundy fall colour. Suckers freely, although it is slow-growing in colder zones. Younger plants are usually single stemmed with all the leaves clustered at the top. Height: 3–5 m; width: 3–5 m. Sun or shade.

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Animal Resistant

Plant Uses

Trees & Shrubs Juniperus horizontalis ‘LCH47’ Juniper ‘Limeglow’ Deer and rabbits happily stay away from junipers. This variety’s new growth nearly glows and holds its colour well. The feathery foliage does, however, turn coppery gold in winter. Creates great contrast among dark-green specimens and makes a great ground cover when grown in a group. Tolerates hot, dry sites once established. Height: 30–45 cm; width: 60–120 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Berberis thunbergii ‘Monry’ Barberry ‘Sunsation’ Sensationally coloured, this barberry will please as an accent plant or as a low hedge. Beneath the orange cast of its golden foliage are thorns that won’t satisfy four-legged foragers. This dwarf barberry is compact and vase shaped. Drought tolerant. Height: 90–100 cm; width: 1 m. Sun.

Expert Advice

Buxus ‘Green Velvet’

• Deter rabbits, squirrels and deer from your tulips by companion planting them with alliums (which animals dislike) or narcissi (which are toxic). • Use strong wire mesh, plastic cylinders or tree wrap to protect tree bark from hungry rabbits, porcupines and deer. Trees and shrubs can die from this damage, especially if the bark is removed all the way around the stem. Antler rubbing, which frays bark and exposes the inner wood, can also cause trees to die. To prevent damage by deer, you’ll need tall barriers—over 2 m. • Consider purchasing commercial scent or taste repellents for deer and rabbits. There are many on the market, all of which need to be reapplied after rain or extended periods of time. Some products are limited to being applied to woody ornamentals, which means they won’t work for herbaceous plants.

Did You Know? In general, animals avoid plants with the following characteristics: • tough, leathery leaves • exceptional fragrance • milky sap • prickles or thorns

• toxins

Boxwood Boxwood responds well to pruning but shouldn’t get an unwanted shearing from animals. ‘Green Velvet’ is a broad-leafed evergreen with naturally round form and insignificant green flowers in the spring, A good choice for northern gardens. Nevertheless, provide a sheltered site with snow cover. Requires consistent moisture and prefers a cool location. Slow growing. All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested. Height: 60–90 cm; width: 60–90 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Pinus contorta var. latifolia Lodgepole Pine Known for its long, straight trunks, the lodgepole is the most widely distributed pine species in western Canada. Once prized by aboriginals for dwelling construction, it continues to be an important timber species. For landscaping purposes, it has a relatively narrow form, is fast growing and not typically bothered by wildlife. Its sharp needles are dark-toyellowish-green and spiral in twisted pairs. Each scale on the cones, which are 2–4 cm long, is armed with a sharp prickle. Lodgepoles hold their cones for many years. Height: 20 m; width: 4–6 m. Sun.

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Pharmacological Forms

People have been harnessing the medicinal qualities of plants throughout history. However, it’s only in recent history that scientists have deciphered how some plant-based chemicals work. Of course, with lots of plants comes lots of ongoing research, so we advocate growing plants for their ornamental value and leaving any extractions to the experts.

Note: Self-medicating can be dangerous. Consult a physician before using any plant-based remedy.

Annuals Hypericum androsaemum ‘Ignite Scarlet’ St John’s Wort Eye-catching scarlet berries are a surefire way to add late-season colour to containers. The berries, which start as yellow flowers, are held in upright clusters above dark-green leaves. This annual is related to the perennial St. John’s Wort (H. perforatum), which is known as an herbal treatment for mild to moderate depression. Height: 36–90 cm; width: 30–60 cm. Sun.

Trees & Shrubs Crataegus x mordensis ‘Snowbird’ Hawthorn Few things in spring can compete with double white flowers that age to pink. This hawthorn is a relatively small tree with glossy green foliage and few thorns. It produces small, apple-like fruits (called haws), which are mealy but edible. ‘Snowbird’ is resistant to cedar apple rust and is hardier than ‘Toba.’ Hawthorns have been used in folk medicine to treat several conditions, including heart disease. Height: 6 m; width: 4–5 m. Sun to p.m. sun.

Salix purpurea ‘Nana’

Aloe vera Aloe Aloe gel is a common ingredient in over-the-counter skincare products. Its chemical compounds help speed healing of minor burns or wounds. Use this succulent as a droughttolerant annual or as an indoor plant. Fleshy greyish-green leaves taper like spears and have small spiny teeth along their margins. Produces yellow tubular flowers on a branching flower stalk. Height: 60 cm; width: indefinite. Sun. 48 enjoygardening

Dwarf Arctic Willow Willow bark could be called the original aspirin. It contains salicin, which can be refined into salicylic acid—the precursor to synthetically derived acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). The light grey bark of ‘Nana’ turns purplish in winter. Bluish leaves and flexible stems that move gently in the wind add to this shrub’s striking presence. Enjoy as an informal hedge, or prune for a formal look. Height: 1–1.5 m; width: 1–1.5 m. Sun.

Hamamelis virginiana Witch Hazel In the fall, witch hazel drops its brilliantyellow leaves to reveal quirky, ribbon-like flowers. Medicinally, witch hazel water has been used for centuries as a mild astringent to reduce inflammation. It’s still available in drug stores for that purpose. You’ll also find witch hazel listed as an ingredient in some hemorrhoid preparations, eye drops, skin creams and tonics. Prefers acidic soil and a sheltered site. Height: 4–5  m; width: 4–5 m. Sun or shade.


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Plant Uses Perennials Digitalis purpurea Foxglove Don’t be fooled by foxglove’s innocentlooking flowers—they’re extremely poisonous, as are all parts of the plant. However, the chemicals are put to good use once extracted and formulated into prescription drugs, such as digoxin (used to treat heart disease). Tubular flowers in shades of carmine, pink, white or cream have pale interiors marked with dark spots. Flowers are arranged on tall spikes. Clumpforming biennial; allow to self-sow for more plants. Likes moist soil. Height: 60–90 cm; width: 30–45 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Chamerion angustifolium (syn. Epilobium angustifolium)

Echinacea purpurea ‘Coconut Lime’ Coneflower Even though Echinacea has been the subject of much study, how it works still isn’t completely understood. Research suggests active substances in the plant stimulate the immune system. One thing is for certain, though; ‘Coconut Lime’ looks fantastic in the garden. Its double, pompon-like white flowers with pale green centres bloom from summer to fall. Clump forming; provide well-drained soil. Height: 60–75 cm; width: 45–60 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Willowherb Native Canadians used willowherb to treat burns and other skin irritations. Today, extracts from this wildflower can be found in moisturizers, acne treatments, facial cleansers and sunscreens. A Saskatchewan company has patented a compound derived from willowherb for its anti-viral and anti-tumour properties. Also known as fireweed, it’s one of the first plants to grow and bloom after a forest fire. Has pink flower spikes and red stems with greygreen foliage. Rhizomatous roots; spreads aggressively. Height: 90–180 cm; width: 60–100 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Papaver somniferum Oriental Poppy Delicate blossoms belie the potency of this poppy from which morphine, codeine and heroin are derived. All parts of Papaver somniferum are toxic if eaten. Even the mature seeds contain small amounts of the active ingredients. Pink, mauve-purple, red or white flowers in summer mature into large seed pods that look great in dried arrangements. Blue-green foliage. Height: 60–90 cm; width: 60 cm. Sun to p.m. sun.

Filipendula ulmaria ‘Variegata’ (syn. ‘Aureo-Variegata’) Meadowsweet Meadowsweet most certainly lives up to its name. The sweetly aromatic flowers of ‘Variegata’ are feathery white and tower effortlessly over green-and-yellow leaves. The flowerheads contain salicin and are one of the original sources for salicylic acid. In fact, the word “aspirin” is derived from meadowsweet’s old botanical name, Spirea ulmaria. Blooms in late spring. Thrives in boggy sites; clump forming. Height: 60–90 cm; width: 60 cm. Shade to a.m. sun. enjoygardening 49


Dracaena fragrans ‘Massangeana’ Corn Cane Dramatic yellow variegation running down the center of glossy leaves is one reason for this dracaena’s popularity. Its long leaves arc gracefully from the sturdy, upright canes. Corn cane is one of several dracaena species known for its ability to filter out contaminants. ‘Massangeana’ is particularly noted for its ability to remove formaldehyde. Height: 3 m; spread: 1 m. Bright indirect light.

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Plant Uses

Air Purifiers Improving air quality probably isn’t your first thought when selecting indoor plants. But many houseplants plants are so efficient at absorbing contaminants that it should be a consideration. Here are a few of our favourites to add to your home or office.

Did You Know? According to a study by NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America, an assortment of at least 15 air-purifying plants are needed to improve the air quality in an average-sized home (167 sq. m or 1800 sq. ft.).

Algaonema Chinese Evergreen Contrary to what its name suggests, this native of Asia isn’t a conifer. Typically, a Chinese evergreen’s leaf blades are oval and variegated with medium and dark greens. However, some have solid-green leaves. To keep this tropical healthy, do not overwater (it will turn the leaves yellow). Avoid this common problem by allowing the top 1 cm of soil to dry out between waterings. Height: 30 cm; spread: 50 cm. Indirect light.

Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant Arching, lance-shaped foliage is the hallmark of this common houseplant. As a decontaminator, it is particularly good at removing formaldehyde from the air. Household sources of this chemical can include carpets, fibreglass, permanent-press fabrics and paper products. Formaldehyde is also found in tobacco smoke. Spider plants have green leaves striped with white or cream. Insignificant white blooms on long stems develop into plantlets. Avoid tip burn by keeping soil consistently moist, but not soggy. Height: 15–20 cm; spread: 15–30 cm. Bright indirect light.

Chrysanthemum morifolium Pot Mum For an instant and inexpensive boost of colour, add a pot mum to any room. They are available in a variety of flower colours, including white, yellow, pink, purple and red. Dark-green, deeply lobed leaves on a compact, upright habit. Flowers continually; remove spent blooms. Height: 30–45 cm; spread: 30 cm. Bright indirect light.

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Air Purifiers

Expert Advice Indoor plants won’t perform their air-purifying duties if they’re covered in dust. Wipe leaves with a soft cloth, or give your plant a gentle shower. Ideally, this task should be done monthly.

Dracaena marginata Dragon Tree Train the canes of this dracaena to curve, or let it grow straight and tall. Either way, you’ll appreciate the mass of narrow, lance-shaped leaves atop the canes. The dark-green leaves have red stripes along the outer edges. As with other dracaenas, new leaves emerge from the top; lower, older leaves drop to expose more trunk. Known to remove benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene from the air. Height: 3 m; spread: 1 m. Bright indirect light.

Epipremnum aureus (syn. Scindapsus aureus) Golden Pothos This plant’s heart-shaped leaves will ultimately win you over, but its ability to purify the air is also very attractive. This vining plant has green foliage marked with yellow. Grows well in a hanging basket. Propagate by stem cuttings. Take care not to over water in winter. Trails: 2+ m. Bright indirect light.

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Plant Uses Gerbera jamesonii Gerbera Daisy Gerberas are commonly used as cutflowers or annual plants. However, they also make easy-to-care-for houseplants that clean the air. These daisies have a compact habit and toothed, lance-shaped leaves. Long-stemmed, double flowers in yellow, orange, red, pink or white. Remove spent blooms. Keep soil consistently moist, but not soggy. Height: 24–60 cm; spread: 24 cm. Direct light.

Ficus elastica Rubber Tree Rubber trees grow vigorously and don’t ask for much attention. However, you may need to prune to keep an attractive form and acceptable size. All varieties have fleshy foliage, but colour can be dark green, variegated or tricoloured. Solid coloured varieties are less fussy to grow. Good for cleaning the air. Height: 2–3 m; spread: 1 m. Bright indirect light.

Hedra helix English Ivy Any way you grow it, English ivy is an easy-to-carefor plant. This highly adaptable vine is often planted outdoors, where it thrives as an annual or as a perennial in more temperate areas. Leaves are flat with three to five lobes each. Available varieties feature white or yellow variegation, or solid-green foliage. Trails: 2 m; spread: 1 m. Bright indirect light.

Spathiphyllum ‘Domino’ Peace Lily Here’s the perfect houseplant for a low-light area. As with all peace lilies, this variety is a bushy, upright plant with lance-shaped leaves. ‘Domino’ has glossy, mottled-green-and-white foliage. As an air cleanser, it tackles benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. Produces white-to-cream-coloured spathes that each surround a fleshy spike (which is actually the flower). It blooms heavily in spring and sporadically throughout the year. Easily divided. Height: 60 cm; spread: 45 cm. Bright indirect light.

Sansevieria trifasciata

Ficus benjamina Weeping Fig You might not know it by name, but you’ve undoubtedly seen a weeping fig in a mall, office or home. Its foliage is small, ovate and mid green. Often available with a braided trunk. Avoid leaf drop by maintaining consistent moisture levels and light conditions. Tolerates slightly rootbound conditions. Turn for even, full growth. Height: 2–3 m; spread: 1 m. Bright indirect light.

Snake Plant (syn. Mother-In-Law’s Tongue) Snake plants can stand neglect, so they’re perfect for beginners and forgetful waterers alike. Fleshy leaves, which are attractively mottled, emerge at soil level and stand upright. Works to eliminate benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. Propagate by division or leaf cuttings. Growth rate is slow; don’t repot until plant fills the pot. Height: 1.5 m; spread: 50 cm. Bright indirect light.

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relax

Entertain Style Entice

trend spotting

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Rockin’ the Garden Plan a rock garden that’s a hit

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Localvores Devour the food and the experience

second look

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A Prairie Perspective Art inspired by nature

floral design

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Tablescaping Floral design meets storytelling

recipes

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A Fresh Start for Spring Wake up your breakfast routine

76 78 79 80 81

Smoked Salmon Breakfast Sandwich Coconut Banana Breakfast Cookie Lemon Poppy Seed Pancakes with Rhubarb Syrup Raspberry Cream Cheese French Toast Rosy Mango Smoothie

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trend spotting

An insider’s look at what’s hot for 2010

Rockin’ the Garden Plan a rock garden that’s a hit Made to look as though time sculpted the landscape, a rock garden is a classic hit. And this year, it’s making a big impression. Part of a rock garden’s appeal is the way it takes care of itself. With nary an annual in sight, it’s a perennial lover’s paradise. And although it does require some effort and thoughtfulness to compose, a rock garden will provide years of satisfaction with minimal maintenance. A reasonable investment for an ample reward. It’s not hard to understand why this type of garden rocks.

Brilliantly coloured and perfectly poised, a cyclamen’s petals are impossible to resist. Heart-shaped leaves with silver markings add to this plant’s charm. Cyclamen coum is low growing, blooms from late summer to fall and does best in partial shade. Apply deep, loose mulch for winter. (Opposite page) enjoygardening 57


trend spotting

An insider’s look at what’s hot for 2010 If you’ve got a natural slope with ample sunlight, you’ve got the perfect place for a rock garden. Here are some tips to get you started. Getting it Right

• Start small. It takes lots of material and energy to create a large rock garden, so start with a bed just over one metre wide and two metres long (4'x8'). You can pack a lot of plants into a space that size, especially if they’re smaller alpines. It will still be labour intensive, but on a smaller scale. • Prepare the soil properly. Most alpine and rock garden plants need good drainage and, therefore, require gritty soil. To create the perfect mix, add at least one part coarse, sharp sand or finely crushed rock to each part organically rich soil. Supplemental grit can also be added to the planting holes. • Choose the right plants. Rock gardens are primarily comprised of perennial plants that thrive in good drainage. Most contain alpines, other low-growing perennials, dwarf bulbs, dwarf conifers and miniature shrubs. Some of our favourites are profiled in this article. • Place rocks thoughtfully. Combine small, medium and large rocks to create a natural-looking landscape. Seat rocks into the soil by one-third to one-half their width or height—this mimics natural stone outcrops and provides stability. Also place rocks so their grains run parallel to each other. Ideally, cover 20–40 percent of the area with rock, keeping in mind that a medium-tolarge-sized rock will weigh about 45 kg (100 lb).

Science & Technology

Tufa Tufa—a valued rock garden material—is porous and composed almost entirely of calcium carbonate. Plants grow successfully on this rock because it is a mineralrich nutrient source that absorbs water and holds it. Tufa is also soft enough to bore easily, allowing you to create growing spaces for plants. 58 enjoygardening


• Top-dress. Top-dressing with crushed limestone or pea gravel isn’t done only for esthetic reasons. It also reduces erosion and compaction, retards evaporation and keeps roots cool. Deep collars of top-dressing around plants are also helpful in preventing what is called winter wet—moisture that sits at a plant’s crown, causing roots to break during freeze-thaw cycles. • Create a container rock garden. A miniature landscape contained within a stone (or faux stone) trough is a less labour-intensive way to enjoy rock gardening. Provided your container is placed on the ground, has good drainage and is thoroughly watered before freeze-up, you can successfully overwinter plants—even in colder climates, such as ours. Of course, you will need to be selective with your plant material. Try hens and chicks, low-growing sedum, mountain avens, sandwort, moss campion, alpine willow or miniature spruce. Alpine Sandwort

Arenaria obtusiloba

Sandworts are eminently popular choices for rock gardens, wall crevices or between paving stones. This one sports white flowers in summer. Mat-forming and evergreen. Avoid winter wet. Height: 10–15 cm; width: 30 cm. Sun. Gentian

Gentiana sino-ornata

Dramatic cobalt-blue flowers are what attract people to gentian. This one is also a latesummer to fall bloomer, which makes it a valued addition to a rock garden. Shiny needle-like foliage is semi-evergreen. Height: 5–10 cm; width: 30–40 cm. Shade to a.m. sun. Alpine Thyme

Thymus comosus

No rock garden would be complete without at least one kind of thyme. Pretty pink flowers shine above the greyish foliage of this species. Height: 2–5 cm; width 15–30 cm. Sun to p.m. sun. Golden Primrose

Vitaliana primuliflora ssp. Praetutiana

Evergreen foliage provides its own stunning show after the bright-yellow spring blooms of this primrose have faded. It has rosettes of grey-green leaves with frosted edges, which arrange themselves into attractive looking cushions. Avoid winter wet. Height: 2–5 cm; width: 15+ cm. Sun to p.m. sun. enjoygardening 59


trend spotting

An insider’s look at what’s hot for 2010

Localvores Devour the food and the experience

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It’s a simple concept: a localvore is someone who prefers to buy locally produced goods—especially food. Granted, each of us may have a different definition of local, but that’s fine. Becoming a localvore doesn’t mean having to follow a rigid set of rules. For some, buying and living local is about ecology. For others, it’s about showing support for a community. But for many of us, being a localvore is simply about having a good time—sourcing tasty food and the pure entertainment of doing so. Whatever your reason, this is a worthwhile trend to try on. Here are a few tips to get you started.

No desire to grow it yourself? No problem. There are plenty of U-pick farms that grow everything from potatoes and corn to strawberries and saskatoons. They supply the bucket, and you supply the ambition. If you’re craving something in particular, you can call ahead to check availability; however, being content with what’s seasonally available is part of being a localvore. You can find online provincial listings of both U-pick and farm-gate sales locations.

Farmers’ markets are another great way to taste the season’s best. Besides fresh produce, there are usually preserves, baking, meats, honey, fresh flowers and crafts to be found. A farmers’ market is also the perfect place to get to know your local suppliers—which is especially important if you want to source them during times when the market is closed. For city dwellers, markets often become urban escapes that don’t actually require you

to leave the city. If you’ve never been, give one a try. It’s a great way to spend a Saturday. Canning—once a necessity when fresh produce was scarce in winter—is making a much celebrated resurgence. Of course, you might be more inclined to try some of the interesting jellies or chutneys instead of the familiar tomatoes your grandmother made. Whatever your tastes, though, you’re likely to find something to tempt

you. If you’re new to preserving and want to try it from scratch, be sure to consult a reputable source for instructions and safety tips. And what’s a trend without fashion? Market bags come in a variety of fabrics and styles. The best ones are washable, easy to carry (or pull) and look good on the job. To keep true to the localvore premise, purchase them from a local store or crafter, or make them yourself!

Want a really close food source? Grow a stand of peas in your yard. No yard? Then grow them in a container, and let them climb a piece of lattice. Kids love the sweet taste, and it’s hard to beat the nutritional value of freshly picked vegetables eaten out of hand. If you’ve got a freezer, you can also enjoy the nutritional benefits out of season. enjoygardening 61


second look

A Prairie Perspective

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Ar t i nspir ed b y n atu r e

It is in the vast open spaces of Alberta and Saskatchewan that artist and illustrator, Ian Sheldon, finds his inspiration. Best known for his landscape paintings of the prairies, Ian seeks to depict the deep attachment he has to the big sky and wide horizon that nourish his soul. We hope his work will speak to your nature, too.

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The return opens its arms at sunset in a water colour wash of blue pink

spilling into a sky full of

under a wash of mauve,

in the slowness of the sun’s long arc sinking and what goes on under pond surfaces

hinting at the coming of spring,

at longer summer nights.

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There is something, always too big here. A long low cloud breaks the dread of flatness, open to all of heaven. Ponds hold pieces of sky. The horizon will not give comfort. Snow pulls the prairie open even more. —Pierrette Requier

Excerpt taken from “The Return” Writing the Land Anthology Alberta through Its Poets. Pierrette Requier lives in Edmonton and writes in both French and English in a studio overlooking her garden. For her, being raised on a vast prairie and being aware of la terre (the soil) meant knowing it had the last word and needed to be related to. enjoygardening 67

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oral design

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Tablescaping

F l or a l d es ig n me e t s s to r y tellin g Think outside the vase. That’s all it really takes to create a tablescape of treasures. The concept is simple: thoughtfully combine flowers, keepsakes and everyday objects to create arrangements that speak to a theme— any theme! We created examples inspired by trips to France, coffee with friends and even the colour green. All it takes is a little inspiration, and we’ve got more than enough to get you started. So begin here, then take a peek through your closets and keepsakes. Your tablescape is but a treasure hunt away.

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floral design

Why not serve some unexpected at your next coffee with friends? A vase, coffee beans and two glass vials are all it takes. To create your own, fill an interesting vase with coffee beans and nestle in your cream and sugar. A single cymbidium orchid in a water pick keeps the look elegant and the coffee beans dry. (Below)

Holiday keepsakes aren’t just for photo albums and cluttered drawers. Keep them out in the open where they can be enjoyed. We created our holiday scape by placing a handful of coins, some train tickets and a few stamps on a breakfast tray. Next, we added three glass vases of varying heights and lined them with photocopies of pictures from a recent holiday. Sentimental, inexpensive and inspired. (Above)

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Parfait glasses aren’t just for ice cream. We filled this one with water, some decorative gravel and a dollop of hydrangea cut fresh from the flowerbed. Nestle them among curly willow as we did, or add name cards and set them next to your place settings. It’s an inexpensive idea that’s both fun and stylish. (Above)


Quick Tip

A Vase with a View We’ve shown you how to use coffee beans, photographs and rocks to fill glass containers, but there are many other materials that come to life under glass. Most of them are already in your home or garden. Here are a few of our favourites: hard candy, dry beans, grains, buttons, beads, coins, salt, hard spices, leaves, moss, bark, cocoa fibre.

To create this breakfast look, we simply potted up a large coffee cup with a few succulents and a tiny kalanchoe. The addition of a few orange slices lends a sense of fun that should put a smile on the grumpiest of early risers. (Above)

When the sky is, literally, the limit, go high with your tablescape. We opted for drama and showcased cascading plumes of chartreuse amaranthus. A cluster of vases filled with rocks and succulents continue the green theme, which is repeated a final time with the moss. (Above)

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floral design

How to

Create a Tablescape There are really only two rules of tablescaping: find an inspiration and be fearless in expressing it. All the other details can be tweaked along the way. There are, of course, principles such as scale and proportion to keep in mind, but understanding them is very instinctual and, likely, something you’re already good at. So give this project a try. Everything you need to know is right here.

Step 1: Choose a location

Any flat surface can be turned into a tablescape, but some obvious choices are mantles, tabletops and ottomans. For example, we used a breakfast tray on a coffee table. Not only does the breakfast tray create the perfect selfcontained niche, it’s also easily moved out of the way. Step 2: Choose a theme

We’ve gone with a travel theme but could have just as easily chosen keepsakes from a night out at a play or a weekend at the beach. But don’t think your theme has to always relate to an event. It can be inspired by anything—a colour or even a letter of the alphabet.

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Step 3: Choose items that relate to and complement each other

Your goal is to create unity or harmony, so tell a story with your objects. Think about colour, scale and proportion, and don’t forget to reinvent everyday objects and to use unexpected materials. For our travel-inspired tablescape, we used ticket stubs, coins, stamps and some vases lined with holiday photos. Lavender, maps and books were also collected. Step 4: Select a focal point

Think about whether or not there’s a particular object you want people to see first. If so, you’ll want to build your design around it. You’ll also want to consider your sight lines—not all your surfaces will be at eyelevel. We chose to highlight the vases lined with photos.

Step 5: Start arranging

Be brave arranging your materials. There really is no wrong way to create a personal design. Just keep your theme in mind and stay true to that inspiration. Grouping objects in odd numbers and remembering to vary heights will also contribute to a sense of unity and balance. Step 6: Edit

Once you’ve put in everything you “think” belongs in your tablescape, take a critical look and start editing. Remove items, and see if it simplifies your story and creates more unity. Sometimes more is just more.

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recipes

A

Fresh Start for Spring Wake up your breakfast routine

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In the season of new beginnings, put a spring in your morning with some new breakfast recipes. Experiment with a new ingredient, like rose water in a smoothie; lighten up a familiar dish; or try something completely unexpected, like a breakfast cookie. Whether you need a quick bite to dash out the door with or have time to linger over a leisurely brunch, you’re sure to find a recipe here that pleases.

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recipes

Smo ke d S al mo n Brea kfa s t Sa n dwich Salmon, citrus and an airy biscuit make this breakfast sandwich light and delicious. (Serves four) 45 mL (3 tbsp.) mayonnaise 15 mL (1 tbsp.) grapefruit juice 4 chive and ricotta biscuits, split 225 g (8 oz) smoked salmon 1 large tomato, sliced Arugula Butter (for frying) 4 eggs

1. In a small bowl, stir together mayonnaise and grapefruit juice. 2. With a serrated knife, cut the biscuits in half, creating tops and bottoms. 3. Spread the grapefruit mayonnaise on the bottoms. Atop the mayonnaise, place a few leaves of arugula, a slice or two of tomato and a pile of smoked salmon. 4. Preheat a large non-stick frying pan over medium heat. 6. Add butter to the pan. When the butter foams, add the eggs, one at a time. 7. Cook the eggs on the first side until the whites are nearly completely set (two or three minutes). 8. Using a spatula, gently flip each egg. 9. Turn off heat immediately, but let the eggs sit in the pan for another 15 seconds (this will help set the yolk). 10. Lift each egg out of the pan, and place yolk-side up atop the smoked salmon. Serve immediately.

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Chive & Ricotta Biscuits (Makes 10–12) 500 mL (2 cups) all-purpose flour 20 mL (4 tsp.) baking powder 5 mL (1 tsp.) sea salt 30 mL (2 tbsp.) finely chopped chives Finely grated zest of 1 lemon 1 egg 250 mL (1 cup) ricotta cheese 60 ml (1/4 cup) plain yogourt 30 mL (2 tbsp.) olive oil

1. In a large mixing bowl, stir together flour, baking powder and salt. 2. In a medium bowl, beat the egg and then incorporate the ricotta. 3. Add yogourt, olive oil, chives and lemon zest to the egg and ricotta, and mix well. 4. Make a well in the centre of the dry ingredients, and pour the wet ingredients into the well. 5. Stir until just combined. Do not over mix. 6. Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface, and gently knead gently about eight times. 7. Shape the dough into round biscuits about 2.5 cm (1") thick. 8. Arrange on a parchment-lined baking sheet, and bake in a preheated 220°C (425°F) oven until golden brown (10–12 minutes). 9. Cool on a wire rack.


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recipes

Co co n u t B anana Brea kfa s t Cookie A quick and easy on-the-go breakfast, this healthy cookie is perfect for reluctant morning eaters.

(Serves six) 500 mL (2 cups) whole-wheat flour 60 mL (4 tbsp.) flax meal 5 mL (1 tsp.) baking powder 2.5 mL (1/2 tsp) baking soda Pinch sea salt 30 mL (2 tbsp.) butter 85 mL (1/3 cup) brown sugar 2 eggs 2 ripe medium bananas, mashed 30 mL (2 tbsp.) applesauce 5 mL (1 tsp.) vanilla 250 mL (1 cup) rolled oats 250 mL (1 cup) unsweetened shredded coconut

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1. Preheat oven to 180°C (350°F). 2. In a large bowl, stir together flour, oats, coconut, flax meal, baking powder, baking soda and salt. 3. In a separate large bowl, cream together butter and brown sugar. 4. Add eggs, one at a time, to the creamed butter and brown sugar, and whisk well. 5. Add mashed bananas, applesauce and vanilla, and stir to combine. 6. Stir in dry ingredients. 7. Spoon 60 mL (1/4 cup) portions of cookie dough onto a parchment-lined baking sheet. 8. Flatten cookies with the back of a spoon, and sprinkle with brown sugar if desired. 9. Bake until tops are lightly golden (about 12–15 minutes). 10. Remove from tray, and let cool on a wire rack.


L e mon Poppy Seed Pa n cakes w it h R h u b a r b Sy rup

Wake up your taste buds with tart, jewel-toned syrup drizzled over light and lemony pancakes.

(Serves four) 4 eggs, separated 250 mL (1 cup) plain yogourt 5 mL (1 tsp.) vanilla zest and juice of 1 lemon 250 mL (1 cup) flour 60 mL (1/4 cup) poppy seeds 30 mL (2 tbsp.) sugar 10 mL (2 tsp.) baking soda Pinch of salt 45–60 mL (3–4 tbsp.) butter, for frying

1. In a medium bowl, beat together egg yolks, yogourt, lemon juice, zest and vanilla. 2. In a separate large bowl, stir together flour, poppy seeds, sugar and baking soda. 3. Add the wet ingredients to the dry, stirring until just combined (the batter should still be a bit lumpy). 4. In a separate bowl, beat the egg whites and salt until stiff peaks form. 5. Gently fold the egg whites into the batter until just combined. 6. Melt 15 mL (1 tbsp.) butter in a large sauté pan over medium-high heat. 7. Pour about 85 mL (1/3 cup) batter into the pan for each pancake. 8. Cook two or three minutes per side, until golden, and transfer to a plate in a warm oven 90°C (200°F). Repeat with remaining batter, adding butter to the pan as necessary. 9. Serve with a pat of butter and a good drizzle of rhubarb syrup.

Rhubarb Syrup 180 mL (3/4 cup) water 125 mL (1/2 cup) sugar 125 mL (1/2 cup) fresh rhubarb, sliced on the diagonal 0.5 cm (1/4 inch) thick

1. In a medium saucepan, combine water and sugar. 2. Bring to a simmer, stirring until sugar has  dissolved. 3. Add rhubarb. 4. Return to a simmer, then immediately remove pan from heat. 5. Set aside to cool at room temperature, stirring occasionally. 6. Store covered in the refrigerator up to five days, or freeze for up to three months.

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Raspb e r r y C r e am C h ees e F ren ch Toa st Tangy raspberries and rich cream cheese make this a decadent twist on a classic. (Serves four) 125 mL (1/2 cup) cream cheese 30 mL (2 tbsp.) icing sugar 85 mL (1/3 cup) raspberry purée 8 slices French bread, 1.5 cm (3/4") thick 4 eggs, beaten 125 mL (1/2 cup) milk 5 mL (1 tsp.) vanilla 60 mL (4 tbsp.) butter Icing sugar (for garnish)

1. In a medium bowl, cream together cream cheese and icing sugar until smooth. 2. Stir in raspberry purée until well combined. 3. Cover and chill for at least 30 minutes (or overnight). 4. Spread 1/4 of the cream cheese mixture on four of the slices of bread. 5. Top each bread slice with a second slice, making a sandwich. 6. In a shallow bowl, whisk together eggs, milk and vanilla. 7. Melt butter in a large sauté pan over medium heat. 8. Dip the sandwiches in the egg mixture, making sure to soak both sides. 9. Place sandwiches in sauté pan, and cook each side until bread is golden and cooked all the way through. 10. Transfer to plates, dust with icing sugar and drizzle with additional raspberry purée. Serve immediately. Raspberry Purée 500 mL (2 cups) fresh raspberries

1. Purée raspberries in a blender until smooth. 2. Strain through a fine sieve, pressing with a wooden spoon if necessary.

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Rosy Mango Smoothie See the day through a rose-flavoured glass when you start your day with this unforgetable smoothie. (Serves four) 500 mL (2 cups) plain yogourt 2 fresh mangos or 250 mL (1 cup) frozen mango pieces, chopped 250 mL (1 cup) fresh strawberries, washed and hulled 10 mL (2 tsp.) rose water 250 mL (1 cup) ice cubes

1. Combine all ingredients in a blender. 2. Blend until smooth. 3. Pour smoothies into tall glasses, and serve immediately.

Food stylist, Chef Alexei Boldireff Award-winning culinary student. Internationally trained. Ready to take on the world. Poised to make a big name for himself in the culinary world, Chef Alexei Boldireff is tackling every challenge he can, impressing a host of happy clients along the way. Whether styling food for magazines or donating his catering services to the MS Society and the United Way, Alexei’s approach to food is always the same: heartfelt and passionate.

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reconnect

Do Change Enrich

shift

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Warm Up to Gardening Your garden may not have been the only thing lying dormant this winter

how do you do

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Rebel without a Vase with Linda Bodo Merge wire caricatures with natural foliage

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Go with the Flow Garden Shower with Linda Bodo Cool off the summer in style

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shift

Warm Up to Gardening Your garden may not have been the only thing lying dormant this winter

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Spring has sprung, and you can’t wait to get back in the garden. But if you’re not careful, your first day could leave you with aching muscles you’d forgotten you had. Like other activities more commonly thought of as exercise, gardening is a great workout. It can decrease your risk of high blood pressure and diabetes, as well as contribute to healthier bones and more flexible joints. But just as you wouldn’t run a marathon without warming up, neither should you start a season in the garden without preparing your body. Here’s what you need to know. Begin with a quick warm-up: two minutes of brisk marching on the spot, followed by 10 deep squats and 10 lunges to limber up your knees. Once you’re warm, move on to the following stretches, being careful not to bounce or to stretch so far that it feels painful. Repeat the stretches after your gardening session, holding them just a little longer for even more benefit.

Quick Tip Treat your body well while working in the garden. • Start slow—leave the heavy lifting until you’re well warmed up, at least half an hour into it. • Don’t stay in the same position too long— change positions every 10 to 15 minutes and alternate tasks.

Neck Stretches

Neck Stretch 2

When working in the garden, especially when planting or pulling weeds, we spend a lot of time looking down toward the ground. This could leave you with a stiff, sore neck if you don’t take care to limber up first. These stretches will loosen both neck and shoulder muscles. Neck Stretch 1 1. Begin by sitting or standing up straight. If sitting, rest your hands in your lap. If standing, let your arms hang loosely by your sides. 2. Tip your chin as far toward your chest as is comfortable. 3. Keeping your chin in that position, slowly roll your head to the right, as if you were going to rest your ear on your shoulder. Hold for 10 seconds. 4. With your chin still toward your chest, slowly roll your head back to centre. Hold for 10 seconds.

5. Lift chin, and return to your starting position. 6. Tip your chin toward your chest once again, this time slowly rolling your head to the left. Hold for 10 seconds. 7. With your chin still at your chest, slowly roll your head back to centre. Hold for 10 seconds. 8. Lift chin, and return to your starting position.

1. Begin by sitting or standing up straight. If sitting, rest your hands in your lap. If standing, let your arms hang loosely by your sides. 2. Tip your chin as far toward your chest as is comfortable. Hold this position for 10 seconds.

• Take frequent short breaks (at least three every hour) and drink plenty of water.

Note: Consult a physician before starting a new exercise regime.

3. Lift chin, and return to your starting position. 4. Tip your head back as far as is comfortable. Hold for 10 seconds before returning to your starting position. 5. Repeat this range of motion nine more times.

9. Repeat this range of motion four more times on each side.

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Body Hug with Torso Twists

Chest and Shoulder Stretch

Gardening tasks that require reaching, such as weeding, raking and hoeing, can leave your upper back and shoulders tight and sore. Reaching for tools often requires a twisting motion. This stretch will loosen up the muscles used for reaching and help give you a maximum range of motion for twisting. While working, try to maintain an elongated back to minimize strain.

Garden chores such as digging or pushing a wheelbarrow or lawnmower can tighten chest and shoulder muscles. This, in turn, could lead to poor posture and strained back muscles. This stretch will loosen your chest and shoulders to ensure you are prepared for the work ahead. While working, remember to use your body weight as leverage to lessen the load on these muscles.

1. Begin by standing up straight with feet hip-width apart and knees slightly bent. Make sure your knees are in line with, but not extended past, your toes. 2. Reach your left hand around your right shoulder. Plant your hand, trying to touch your shoulder blade with your fingertips. Crossing your right arm under your left, reach your right hand around your left shoulder. Plant your hand, trying to touch your shoulder blade with your fingertips. 3. Round your back as much as possible, and hug yourself by gently pulling your shoulders with your hands.

4. Maintaining the roundedback position from Step 3, twist from the waist as far as possible to the right. Make sure your knees are in line with, but not extended past, your toes. Hold for 15 to 20 seconds. 5. Return to centre. 6. Switch your arms so the right arm crosses over the left, and hug yourself again, remembering to round your back and gently pull your shoulders with your hands. 7. Twist from the waist as far as possible to the left. Make sure your knees remain over your toes. Hold for 15 to 20 seconds. 8. Return to centre. 9. Repeat this range of motion two more times on each side.

1. Begin by standing feet together, facing a fence or a large tree. 2. Bend your left arm 90 degrees at the elbow and rest your forearm flat against the fence. Keep your right arm relaxed at your side. 3. Keeping your forearm against the fence, turn your entire body (including your feet) away from the fence, in a clockwise direction, until you feel the stretch in your chest and the front of your shoulder (Note: how far to turn will depend on each person’s flexibility; a quarter turn will not be enough for most people, and some people will be able to turn 180 degrees or more). Ensure that your feet remain together and in line with your hips. Hold for 30 seconds.

4. Release the stretch, and return to your starting position. 5. Bend your right arm 90 degrees at the elbow and rest your forearm flat against the fence. Keep your left arm relaxed at your side. 6. Turn your entire body (including your feet) away from the fence, in a counterclockwise direction, until you feel the stretch in your chest and the front of your shoulder (Note: how far to turn will depend on each person’s flexibility; a quarter turn will not be enough for most people, and some people will be able to turn 180 degrees or more). Ensure that your feet remain together and in line with your hips. Hold for 30 seconds. 7. Repeat this range of motion two more times on each side.

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Lower Back Stretches

Calf and Thigh Stretches

Lower back strain is one of the most common gardeners’ complaints. All sorts of tasks, including weeding, planting and lifting, can lead to back pain and stiffness. These stretches will help ensure a full range of motion and an elongated back. While working, remember to lift from the legs, not the back, and try to focus on keeping your back long.

Gardening can be a great leg workout, with all the lunging, squatting, lifting and pushing that goes on in a day’s work. These stretches will help avoid injury and cramping in your leg muscles. Calf Stretch

Thigh Stretch

1. Begin by standing, feet together, facing a fence or large tree.

1. Begin by standing, feet together, facing a fence or large tree.

Lower Back Stretch 1

Lower Back Stretch 2

1. Begin by standing up straight, feet hip-width apart.

1. Begin by standing up straight, feet hip-width apart.

2. With arms fully extended, place your palms on the fence.

2. Bend forward from the waist, letting your arms hang loosely toward the floor.

2. Place your palms at the small of your back with fingers pointing downward.

3. Step your right foot back, placing the foot flat on the ground.

2. While holding your left hand against the fence for balance, bend your right leg up behind you and grab your ankle with your right hand.

3. If you feel the stretch too much in your hamstrings, bend your knees slightly. Hold for 15 to 20 seconds.

3. Lean back from the waist as far as is comfortable.

4. Bend your left knee and lean into the fence, keeping your arms fully extended. Hold this position for 20 seconds.

3. Keeping your right thigh in line with your body, press your right foot down against your hand. Hold for 20 seconds.

4. With both hands, grab your ankles (or your toes) and roll your shoulders back and around, making sure to keep your back flat, rather than rounded. Hold this position for 15 to 20 seconds.

5. Return to standing, starting from the waist and bringing your head back up last.

5. Straighten your left leg, and step your right leg up to the left.

4. Release the stretch and return to your starting position.

5. Release your hands, and stand up slowly, rounding your back to come up one vertebra at a time. 6. Repeat this range of motion two more times.

4. Drop your head back. Hold this position for 10 seconds.

6. Repeat this range of motion two more times.

6. Step your left foot back, placing the foot flat on the ground. 7. Bend your right knee and lean into the fence, keeping your arms fully extended. Hold this position for 20 seconds. 8. Straighten your left leg and step your right leg up to the left. 9. Repeat this range of motion two more times on each side.

5. While holding your right hand against the fence for balance, bend your left leg up behind you and grab your ankle with your left hand. 6. Keeping your left thigh in line with your body, press your left foot down against your hand. Hold for 20 seconds. 7. Release the stretch and return to your starting position. 8. Repeat this range of motion two more times on each side.

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how do you do

Rebel without a

Vase with Linda Bodo

Merge wire caricatures with natural foliage

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It’s been a while since you’ve spent time in the garden. As a result, Daisy, Poppy and Violet have become unruly orphans that hang out with the wrong crowd. Low-life weeds and contemptuous crabgrass have become their new best friends. The tall shastas, who think they know everything, rebel by slouching. Clearly, an intervention is in order. Have a sense of humour about gardening? Then this project is for you. These wire vases create instant whimsy and make floral arranging a snap. It couldn’t be easier or more fun.

Materials (for a set of three)

Tools

3–4' rigid copper wire, 12-gauge

Pliers

18–20' pliable copper wire, 20-gauge

Wire cutters

Three polished stones or glass gems

Tape measure

Three floral water picks

Electric drill with 1/16" bit

One 2" x 4" board, 12" long Paint or stain (optional)

Hammer Chop saw or jigsaw Sander with 180‑grit sandpaper Tack cloth

Step by Step

1. Begin to make your first flower by looping the 20-gauge wire around a cylindrical object five times (an aerosol paint can works well). Each loop will become a petal. Remembering to leave a 1–2" tail, cut the wire from the main piece. Twist the end of the first loop around the base of the tail on the last loop. 2. Slip the loops off the cylinder, and wrap the tail over the loops to hold them together. Shape each of the five loops into petals, fanning them into a circle as you proceed. 3. Cut a second piece of 20-gauge wire that’s approximately 18" long. Position a stone in the centre of the flower. Secure it in place by threading the wire around the stone five or six times, ending at the underside and remembering to leave a tail at both ends. Fasten tightly by twisting the tail ends together.

4. Next, take your 12-gauge rigid copper wire, and cut a stem to the length you desire (12–16"). Hammer flat the first 1/2" of one end. Then bend that end to a 30º angle. 5. Slide the flattened end under the wire wraps at back of stone. Align the tail from the flower petals and the tail from the flower centre. Place the tails parallel to the stem. Cut a 6" length of 20-gauge wire, and fasten the tails to the stem with it, wrapping tightly as you twist. Trim off any excess wire. 6. Decide where you want the water pick to sit on the stem, and affix it in place by tightly wrapping 20-gauge wire (approximately 30") around the pick and stem. Trim any excess wire. 7. Repeat Steps 1 through 6 to make your second and third flowers. 8. To make vase bases, cut the 2" x 4" into three equal pieces. Next, drill a 1" deep hole in the centre of each block. Sand the blocks, and wipe them with a tack cloth. Paint or stain the blocks, if desired, and allow to dry. 9. With pliers, grip a stem about 11/2" from the bottom and wiggle it into the pre-drilled hole of a base. Gently tap pliers with hammer to firmly seat the stem in base. Repeat this process to complete the remaining two vases. 10. Fill water picks, add foliage and arrange your vase set.

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how do you do

Gowith the Flow Garden Shower with Linda Bodo

Cool off the summer in style

The air is dry and tastes of heat. You glance at the treetops for some sign of a breeze, but there’s none. The mercury has tipped the 35°C mark and forecasts indicate no relief, despite the empty promises of rumbling night skies. You briefly entertain the thought of biking to the pool but break into a sweat just pondering it. A cold shower seems like a more favourable solution. Sound familiar? Then give this how-to project a try. It’s the perfect way to cool off the summer in style.

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how do you do

Tip: Copper sheets are available at metal superstores, which are located in most major cities. These outlets purchase leftover materials from metal fabricators and resell to the public in small quantities.

Materials Large plastic planter 18 cups type 50 Portland cement 36 cups play sand Decorative rock Ten 1" x 2" cedar boards, 8' long 11/4" deck screws 1/2" type M rigid copper pipe, 3' long Two 3/4" type M rigid copper pipe, 3' long 3/4 x 3/4" piggyback valve (brass hose attachment) 3/4" stop valve (brass tap to control water flow) Two 1/2" copper pipe end caps 3/4"

Enlarge to 12"W x 21"H

copper pipe end cap Three 1/2" to 3/4" copper pipe adapters 1/2" showerhead adapter 3/4" stainless steel shower flange 6" diameter rain showerhead 1" PVC pipe, approximately planter height 5' x 12" C-110 (0.10") copper sheet Just-for-Copper solderless bonding adhesive Plumber’s Teflon tape Double-sided tape Masking tape Duct tape Garden hose with two female ends

Tools Pipe cutter Hacksaw Funnel 1/2" pipe bender (available at rental outlets) Rasp or file Electric drill and paddle attachment 1/16", 1/2", 1", and 11/4" drill bits Two utility pails Measuring cup Spatula Rubber mallet Level Scissors Needle-nose pliers Cut-off or chop saw Heavy work gloves Tip: You can replace the copper pipe with a shower riser designed for use with claw-foot tubs. The pipe is usually 5' long with a 10" gooseneck projection.

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Enlarge to 12" H x 21" W 3

/4" to ½" adapter

/4" rigid copper pipe cut to same length as PVC pipe 3

½" x 2" rigid copper pipe

/4" pipe end cap

3

Piggy-back valve Drainage holes

Caution: Concrete is caustic, so follow the manufacturer’s directions for safety.

Hose opening

Concrete

Step by Step 1. Begin by creating the shower gooseneck. Cut two 2" pieces of 1/2" copper pipe with the pipe cutter or hacksaw. Remove any burrs with a rasp or file. Set aside for shower assembly. Place one 1/2" end cap on remaining 32" piece of pipe. Fill the pipe with sand using a funnel. Cap the remaining end and duct tape both caps onto the pipe securely. Wrap the pipe with three layers of duct tape. This treatment will prevent any scratching or marring from the pipe bender. 2. Place one end of the pipe in the pipe bender and begin flexing pipe according to supplier’s directions. Take your time with this step. Copper pipe tends to kink very easily; bending slowly and evenly will prevent this problem. Once you have achieved the desired curvature, remove duct tape and end caps, and empty the sand out of the pipe, reserving it for the concrete mixture.

3. Next, create the shower base. Drill a hole with the 11/4" drill bit 2" below the top of the planter. This is where the garden hose will be inserted. Then, drill two holes with the 1/2" drill bit on either side of the hose opening for drainage. 4. Measure and cut the PVC pipe to 2" below the hole for the garden hose. Cover one end of the PVC pipe with double-sided tape and centre it on the interior bottom of the planter. 5. Concrete placed at the bottom of the planter provides stability. In a large pail, mix the cement and sand. Fill another large pail with 10 cups of water. Add the dry ingredients to the water, in small amounts. After each addition, blend thoroughly with the drill-mounted paddle attachment. Blend until the mixture resembles coarse oatmeal. Pour into the planter, stopping 1" from the top of the PVC pipe. Tap sides of planter with a rubber mallet to tamp concrete into nooks and to self-level the top of the pour. Insert a long piece of copper pipe in the PVC pipe. Place the level alongside the PVC pipe and adjust as needed. Allow concrete to cure for 24 hours. Remove the copper pipe.

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how do you do

Go With the Flow 8. To create the shower assembly, cut the / " copper 3 4

6. To create the shower head, begin by enlarging the pattern (on page 92) to 12" x 21". Transfer three copies of the pattern onto the copper sheet according to the template layout below. Wearing gloves, cut out shapes with scissors. 7. Drill a hole with the 1" drill bit in each cut-out as outlined on the pattern. File off any burrs or rough edges. Using needle-nose pliers and a hammer, fold and hammer flat a 1/4" hem around each leaf set.

pipe to the same length as the PVC pipe. Lay out the shower components as illustrated. Prepare and bond all joints, with the exception of the showerhead, with Just-for-Copper according to the manufacturer’s directions.

Template layout

Enlarge to 12" H x 21" W 3

/4" to ½" adapter

/4" rigid copper pipe cut to same length as PVC pipe

Remainder of /4" rigid copper pipe from bottom piece

3

3

½" x 2" rigid copper pipe

3 /4" x 3' rigid copper pipe

Stop valve

/4" pipe end cap

3

½" x 32" rigid copper pipe bent to an arch

Piggy-back valve Drainage holes Hose opening

Shower head ½" shower head adapter Layered copper sunflower leaves

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/4" to ½" adapter

3

3 /4" stainless steel shower flange


leaves

flange

Concrete

Cedar mat

9. Shape sunflower leaves over the shower head by bending gently. If the leaves appear to spin freely on the shower head collar, pinch the opening edges together to tighten the leaves against the collar. Place flange over leaves. Apply Teflon tape to the shower head threads and screw onto the shower head adapter. 10.To create the cedar mat, cut 16 pieces 40" long and 30 pieces 8" long from the cedar boards. 11.With the 1/16" drill bit, pre-drill pilot holes 1" from each end of the 8" pieces and 11/2" from each end of the 40" pieces. Assemble the mat by sandwiching two short pieces between long pieces. Using 11/4" deck screws, attach an 8" piece to each end of a 40" piece. With the 8" piece in place, attach another 40" piece to this unit. Continue as outlined in the drawing at left.

12.Place cedar mat in desired location and position planter at one end. If you are placing the mat on uneven ground, put boards under each end to create a solid base. Drop the shower assembly into the PVC sleeve. If the assembly is loose in the PVC pipe, wrap the bottom of the unit in duct tape until a snug fit is achieved. Feed the garden hose through the opening of the planter and attach to the piggyback valve of shower assembly. 13.Disguise the concrete by filling the top of planter with decorative rock. 14.Turn on the water supply at the building and open the piggyback valve on the garden shower. Adjust water flow to shower head with the stop valve.

enjoygardening 95


the last word

Counter Clockwise with Jim Hole A trip through the greenhouse this week got me thinking about a bunch of odd subjects I normally wouldn’t contemplate individually, let alone all at once: nicknames, hormones, mutants and—wait for it—dancing! Now, it’s completely possible that I was lulled into this contemplative state by watching the fertilizer stock tank fill, but I prefer to think it was the result of scientific reasoning. The inspiration for this odd marriage of ideas came from the hundreds of orange-flowered thunbergia (black-eyed Susan vines) growing in the greenhouse. To my surprise, all of them—without fail—were spiraling up trellises in a counter-clockwise direction. There wasn’t a single clockwise-weaving thunbergia in the lot. It seemed that, like us, plants also have issues with committing themselves to certain directions. Determined to wrap my head around this concept, I walked through the greenhouse and checked out other species of vining plants. As it turns out, many plants have a “handedness” or “chirality,” as it is technically referred to. Of course, some merely ramble ambidextrously sunward, but of those that display chirality, all members within those species have an unfailing handedness. Hops, for example, consistently spiral clockwise. Even when someone pulled a hops vine from its stake and wound it in a counter-clockwise direction, the hops refused to obey this directive. Staying stubbornly true to its nature, it began the process of detaching from its stake and preparing to rewind in a clockwise pattern. Regardless of whether or not plants are righties or lefties, they all follow the same process for finding climbing supports. It goes something like this: before a vine even starts to climb, it begins a strange, slow-motion, circular dance called “circumnutation,” whereby the vine sweeps the air, looking for its dance partner—usually a stake or a trellis. Now, this particular dance may be devoid of sweaty palms, but it’s certainly not devoid of hormones.

96 enjoygardening

After even the slightest contact with its partner, a vine experiences a thigmotactic response, which is a stimulus that allows it to sense a climbing support and wrap around it. As the vine begins to helix, the thigmotactic response releases hormones that make the cells on the opposite side of the vine elongate and wrap around its support. It sounds complicated but comes down to the fact that a vine has only one thing on its mind: sunlight. The higher it grows, the happier it is. So why do vines have left or right tendencies? The answer’s not entirely clear, but scientists do know there is a biochemical basis for it—something they proved by using depolymerizing drugs to change right-handed vines into southpaws. Beyond that, the explanation gets a little foggy, and I have yet to come across any satisfying explanation. I am, however, satisfied with the flashy names researchers have given some of the genes purported to cause spiral growth. In fact, reading about mutant gene T0RNADO2 left me wishing that scientists, rather than high-school jocks, had given me my slightly less-inspired nickname, Spud. So whichever way your vines decide to twine, remember that a plant’s preference for left-handedness or right-handedness represents one more of nature’s secrets. It’s a secret wrapped in science and stubbornness, proving once again that, even when armed with a cool nickname, there’s just no fighting nature.


Ne w 20 fo 10 r

Upcycle T he A rt o f

enjoy Great Gardening Books from Hole’s

Lois Hole's Favorite Bulbs Better Choices, Better Gardens By Lois Hole

Lois Hole’s Favorite Bulbs is both an ultimate get started guide for novice gardeners and a comprehensive reference for experienced bulb enthusiasts. Here you’ll find great advice on planting, growing and maintaining flowering bulbs. You'll also find hundreds of tips on where and when to plant, advice on forcing and naturalizing and fascinating sidebars on bulb science and history. $24.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 320 pages • ISBN 1-894728-00-9

R e pu r p o s e , r e c l a i m a n d r e d e f i n e l e i su r e t i m e

enjoy more inspired diy projec ts with Linda Bodo

Linda Bodo breathes life into the ordinary as she upcycles everyday objects into inspired designs for the home. • Easy-to-follow projects

Hole's Dictionary of Hardy Perennials

• Concise step by steps, supported by colour photography

Edited by Jim Hole

• Materials lists, timelines, helpful tips and more

The Buyer’s Guide for Professionals, Collectors & Gardeners

The perennial marketplace is larger than ever, with thousands of species and varieties from which to choose. Keeping track of perennials has become an awesome task—but the experts at Hole’s have a solution. Hole’s Dictionary of Hardy Perennials is the comprehensive guide, perfect for anyone who loves perennials, whether retailer, professional grower, breeder, collector, novice or veteran home gardener. $49.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Hardcover • 356 colour photos • 144 pages • ISBN 1-894728-01-7

Whether you have one hour or one weekend, this book has a project to fit you. Inspired, artistic and easy. The Art of Upcycle turns DIY into DIwise. $21.95 • 9 x 10 • Softcover • Colour • 144 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-09-6 Order online at www.holesonline.com By Phone 1-888-884-6537 By Fax 780-459-6042

Also by Linda Bodo

Ordering Order these and other Hole’s publications online at www.holesonline.com • By Phone 1-888-884-6537 By Fax 780-459-6042 Hole’s • 101 Bellerose Drive St. Albert, Alberta • T8N 8N8

$21.95 • 9 x 10 • Softcover • Colour • 144 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-08-9


Ne w 20 fo 10 r

Upcycle T he A rt o f

enjoy Great Gardening Books from Hole’s

Lois Hole's Favorite Bulbs Better Choices, Better Gardens By Lois Hole

Lois Hole’s Favorite Bulbs is both an ultimate get started guide for novice gardeners and a comprehensive reference for experienced bulb enthusiasts. Here you’ll find great advice on planting, growing and maintaining flowering bulbs. You'll also find hundreds of tips on where and when to plant, advice on forcing and naturalizing and fascinating sidebars on bulb science and history. $24.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Softcover • Colour • 320 pages • ISBN 1-894728-00-9

R e pu r p o s e , r e c l a i m a n d r e d e f i n e l e i su r e t i m e

enjoy more inspired diy projec ts with Linda Bodo

Linda Bodo breathes life into the ordinary as she upcycles everyday objects into inspired designs for the home. • Easy-to-follow projects

Hole's Dictionary of Hardy Perennials

• Concise step by steps, supported by colour photography

Edited by Jim Hole

• Materials lists, timelines, helpful tips and more

The Buyer’s Guide for Professionals, Collectors & Gardeners

The perennial marketplace is larger than ever, with thousands of species and varieties from which to choose. Keeping track of perennials has become an awesome task—but the experts at Hole’s have a solution. Hole’s Dictionary of Hardy Perennials is the comprehensive guide, perfect for anyone who loves perennials, whether retailer, professional grower, breeder, collector, novice or veteran home gardener. $49.95 • 5.5 x 8.5 • Hardcover • 356 colour photos • 144 pages • ISBN 1-894728-01-7

Whether you have one hour or one weekend, this book has a project to fit you. Inspired, artistic and easy. The Art of Upcycle turns DIY into DIwise. $21.95 • 9 x 10 • Softcover • Colour • 144 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-09-6 Order online at www.holesonline.com By Phone 1-888-884-6537 By Fax 780-459-6042

Also by Linda Bodo

Ordering Order these and other Hole’s publications online at www.holesonline.com • By Phone 1-888-884-6537 By Fax 780-459-6042 Hole’s • 101 Bellerose Drive St. Albert, Alberta • T8N 8N8

$21.95 • 9 x 10 • Softcover • Colour • 144 pages • ISBN 978-1-894728-08-9


Enjoy Gardening Spring 2010  
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