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MEANINGFUL CIRCULAR METABOLISM the spatial impact of urban metabolism as starting point of design on the city of amsterdam


PREFACE This thesis report is part of the master track Urbanism , specialization urban metabolism at the TU Delft. This thesis is about the spatial impact of urban metabolism. When urban metabolism is an integrated part of the design on the city of Amsterdam. This means I take the theory of urban metabolism as a base and use design goals such as circularity and sustainability. This to see how a city would look if circularity were to be implemented in the city being quantified and integrated in their real size.

The project focuses on the field of flow analysis and urban design. Using flow analysis to validate and quantify the spatial impact of measurements for circularity and using urban design to see how these measurements can be integrated in the context of the city.

Keywords: urban metabolism, electricity, heat, drink water, phosphate, urban design, Amsterdam, circular cities, circular solutions, GIS, allocation tool

COLOPHON Author: Brian Dick Nap MSc student Urbanism B.D.Nap@student.tudelft.nl Student nr. 4116852 Supervisors: First Mentor - Ulf Hackauf Second Mentor - Rients Dijkstra Consult - Alexander Wandl Examiners: Ulf Hackauf Rients Dijkstra Alexander Wandl Willemijn Wilms Floet

Technische Universiteit Delft Faculteit Bouwkunde Julianalaan 134, Delft 2628 BL Delft the Netherlands

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Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions Mauritskade 62 1092 AD Amsterdam the Netherlands


to my parents,

for being supportive throughout my study. Helping me, by listening to my rambles about urbanism

to my friends and family,

for being understanding of my busy period. For being interested in my graduation project and the proces. And a wonderful distraction when I needed it.

to my study friends,

for giving feedback and reflection. And for the fun on the studio and in the bouwpub.

to Alexandra,

for being there in difficult times and being an amazing person. Motivating me to be ambitious.

Urban metabolism, FABRIC, 2014

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TABLE OF CONTENT Preface 2 Table of content 4 Abstract 6 1. Introduction 8 1.1 1.2 1.3

Personal motivation Social & Scientifical relevance Framework: seven step process

10 12 16

2. Evaluating the circular ambitions of Amsterdam 18 2.1 2.2.1

Problem statement Circular economy

21 22

2.2.2

Amsterdam Circular

23

3. Defining the key urban flows in Amsterdam 24 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5

The flows of the city Amsterdam The flows we know Flows to focus on Defining the boundaries Interaction with the region

27 29 30 32 34

3.1.6

The Circular MRA-Region

36

4. The selected possible spatial interventions 38 4.1.1 Possible interventions for the flow 40 4.1.2 Spatial analysis and spatial requirements 42 4.2.1 Electricity 44 4.2.2 Electricity usage 46 4.2.3 Solar panes 49 4.2.4 Windturbines 49 4.2.5 Small windturbines on roofs 50 4.2.6 Combined heat-power 50 4.3.1 Heat 52 4.3.2 Heat demand 54 4.3.3 Geothermal 57 4.3.4 Cold-heat storage in ground 57 4.3.5 Residual heat exchange 59 4.3.6 Combined heat-power 59 4.4.1 Drink water 60 4.4.2 Drink water usage 62 4.4.3 Rainwater input system 65 4.4.4 Greywater reuse system 65 4.5.1 Phosphate 66 4.5.2 Phosphate run-off 68 4.5.3 Decentral sewage 71 4.5.4 Nutrient reclamation hub 71 4.5.5 Urban farming 73 4.6 Design principles of the interventions 75 4.7 Use of the tile-methodology 75 4.8 Catalog of the spatial interventions 76

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5. Creating the allocation tool for the measurements

78

5.1 Allocation criteria based on spatial tiles 80 5.2.1 Data-layers in GIS 83 5.2.2 Stacking the data-layers 85 5.2.3 Same data-layer different output 87 5.3.1 Allocation matrix 88 5.3.2 Allocation matrix use 90 5.3.3 Allocation matrix reflection 92

6. The spatial exploration of circularity in Slotervaart 94

6.1 Slotervaart now 97 6.2.1 Exploration of circularity in Slotervaart 99 6.2.2 Geothermal 100 6.2.3 Residual heat exchange 102 6.2.4 Combined heat-power, biomass 104 6.2.5 Solar panels on roofs 106 6.2.6 Small windturbines in roofs 108 6.2.7 Rainwater catchment from roofs as input 110 6.2.8 Helophyte filter for greywater reuse 112 6.2.9 Nutrient hub for phosphate reclamation 114 6.2.10 Urban farming for phosphate reuse 116 6.2.11 Overview of the spatial interventrions 118 6.3.1 Structure of the circular neighbourhood 121 6.3.2 Structure of circular Slotervaart 123 6.3.3 Slotervaart flows: 2017 124 6.3.4 Slotervaart flows: 2050 125

7. Designing the synergy with urban program 126 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4

Circular retrofitting of Slotervaart Present: 2017 Phase 1: 2025 Phase 2: 2035 Phase 3: 2050 Location persent: 2017 Location phase 1: 2025 Location phase 2: 2035 Location phase 3: 2050

129 130 132 140 148 160 161 162 163

8. Circular Amsterdam made real!

164

9. Epiloge

174

8.1.1 Slotervaart 166 8.1.2 Amsterdam 168 8.1.3 MRA-region 170 8.2 Conclusion 172

9.1 Reflection 176 9.2 References 180 9.3 Appendix 183

Urban metabolism, FABRIC, 2014

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ABSTRACT The main products of this graduation are a new pattern language to map difficult/technical interventions in spatial tiles, a GIS model for assessing urban metabolism potentials and restrictions and a new approach for applying urban metabolism measurements on neighbourhood level. A personal motivation for me is the relation between the urban metabolism analysis and the impact it has on the urban design. Important questions are ‘where in the city should the urban designer or planner do something?’ and ‘how big does the intervention need to be?’ Often these questions are not addressed properly related to the theory of urban metabolism. The spatial component is often lacking and therefore the impact of urban metabolism on urban design is not well established. This graduation project focuses on bridging that gap. The testcase for this project is the city of Amsterdam.Amsterdam wants to be one of the frontier cities in the subject of circularity. This ambition is shown by the reports the city of Amsterdam has made. However it stays unclear how the analysis and the interventions relate to the context of Amsterdam. Where in the city would which measurements be implemented? And how that would change the city, how would it look? This leads to the research question: What is the spatial impact of the meaningful sustainable measurements, for key urban flows, which create a more circular city of Amsterdam? The studied flows in this graduation project are electricity, heat, drink water and phosphate. The project creates an inventory of twelve spatial intervention in creating circularity for the flows. The inventory contains the 1) spatial requirements and 2) theoretical potential. Based on the spatial requirements an allocation tool is created. This GIS based model for assessing urban metabolism potentials and restrictions is one of the outcomes of this graduation project. This model is not only an analytical step towards the urban design, but an outcome in itself. 6

However the goal of the graduation project was to see what is the spatial impact of urban metabolism. For this a location was chosen based partially on the GIS model. For this location spatial exploration is made The exploration shows the possible potential of each measurement and their spatial impact. By comparing all the possible interventions we get a design brief for the location. Then a more in depth design experiment is made for an area in Slotervaart. This to see how the design can not only be a technical solution but also add to the urban quality. The design zoom-in contains 3 elements which can be replicated in the area of Slotervaart in similar areas. These elements are 1) a housing block with row housing, 2) housing block with high density housing, 3) neighbourhood nutrient hub. The design impressions show how the elements look, work together and add value to the site. Showing the relation between how much the interventions solve and their spatial impact. This shows the real spatial impact of the interventions related to the potential circularity. The used process is a new approach for applying urban metabolism measurements on neighbourhood level.


Aerial photograph Amsterdam

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8


1 PROJECT BACKGROUND 9


1.1

PERSONAL MOTIVATION

During my study sustainability and urban metabolism have always been part of my interests. I have been fascinated and inspired by the work of Dirk Sijmons and FABRIC, at the 2014 biennale of Rotterdam. At the biennale they tried to bring the fields of flow analysis, urban ecology and urban design together, also enforced by the title ‘Urban by nature’. In my second project of the master urbanism I first tried to use this interaction between flow analysis and urban design in the concept. In this project, I used food production in an urban environment as a base. During this project I became very much interested in three aspects: can I quantify the spaces needed to place one flow (food production) in an urban environment (‘How big is it?’), can I allocate these spaces in the given environment (‘Does it fit?’) and can I integrate it in a meaningful way (‘Can it give something back to the city?’). This helped me to place my design into perspective, how was my design proposal helping in achieving a more sustainability food production in the city.

much more energy can be generated from wind if we can place wind turbines closer to old windmills and housing?’). These projects inspired me to work on the spatial impact of sustainability measurements during my graduation project. For me it also is important not to focus on one flow, for example food, energy or household waste, but rather to work with several flows and include their possible interaction with each other in this project.

An important article for me was an article written by Sven Stremke (2014). In the article he states that urban metabolism often is, in spite of its great potential, hardly used in urban planning and design. He gives multiple possible reasons for this. For example the representation of material flow analysis (MFA) which lacks a spatial dimension. Or the mismatch between the scale level at which urban metabolism studies are performed (city or regional scale) and the scale level of urban planning and design practice From September 2015 till February 2016 I did (district, neighbourhood, building block). Also an internship at the (spatial) consultancy office the concept of time is not properly dealt with in POSAD spatial strategies (www.posad.nl) in current metabolic studies (Stremke, 2014). Den Haag. POSAD helps governments, NGOs and companies with integrated solutions to This all let to the base of my graduation complex strategic spatial issues. Here project to focus on using the theory of urban I worked on multiple projects related to energy metabolism as a base to quantify measurement in urban and landscape environments. These and use design goals such as circularity and projects included quantifying potentials for sustainability to create a focus point to design local energy production (‘How much energy towards to. can be produced locally by wind, solar, algae?’), analyzing the energy demand in an urban area by creating a database about energy consumption, based on function and building age, in the city of Leiden. In the same projects we also focused on energy saving. By making an inventory of possible energy saving measurements on the build environment and calculating the potential of each measurement on th city. Helping to see which areas to focus on which energy saving measurement. But also the implantation of renewable energy versus the legislation (‘How much more solar 10

power could be generated if we also used monumental buildings their roofs’ or ‘How


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Impression of urban farming in Rotte-area, Rotterdam. Q2-urbanism track project

Solar

Coal

Spatial impact of different energy sources projected on Wieringermeerpolder.

Sijmons, 2014 https://decorrespondent.nl/6021/drie-argumenten-voor-windmolens-waar-zelfs-geert-wilders-om-zou-juichen/663568389-514055fa

Biomass 9x

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1.2

RELEVANCE Cities have been studied a lot, social, cultural, historical but not often as a metabolic organism. As Kennedy (2010, p.1) says ‘while

research on urban metabolism has waxed and waned over the past 45 years, in the last decade it has accelerated.’ However in urban

design and planning it has not often been applied. Important questions are ‘where in the city should the urban designer or planner do something?’ and ‘how big does the intervention need to be?’ Often these questions are not addressed properly related to the theory of urban metabolism. During my review paper it has been shown that so far urban metabolism has often been an accounting exercise. The spatial component is often lacking and therefore the impact of urban metabolism on urban design is not well established. The review paper shows that urban metabolism is a tool for analysis, but it is hard to find examples where it is used as a base for spatial interventions.

The urban metabolism of Brussels, Belgium in the early 1970s Duvigneaud&Denaeyer-De Smet, 1977 http://www.igbp.net/download/18.5831d9ad13275d51c098000258/1376382967821/ Kennedy_et_al_2010_UM_urbanplanning_design.pdf

Environmental sustainability cities are one of the most important challenges of this time (Kennedy et al., 2012). Urban metabolism is one of the theories which can greatly contribute to this challenge. This is one of the reasons why we see an increase in interest for urban metabolism also showing a more practical applications of urban metabolism in the last few years. The International Architecture Biennale in Rotterdam (IABR) in 2014, titled ´Urban by Nature´ helped made the term ´Urban Metabolism´ known to a broader public.

“Urban metabolism considers a city as a system with flows of energy and material between it and the environment. Recent advances in biophysical sciences provide methods and models to estimate local scale energy, water, carbon and pollutant fluxes” (Chrysoulakis et al. ,2013 ,p. 110) The concept of urban metabolism has been around since the ‘50. It originates from the field of Industrial Ecology. After a period of low interest in the ´70 and ´80 it started to reemerge in the ´90 (Kennedy et al, 2010). Nowadays with big data availability and more calculating capacity urban material analyses 12

Image of flows in the city

H+N+S (Raith), 2012 http://2012.iabr.nl/afbeeldingen/5eIABR/HNS_web2.jpg


get better and are made more often, as shown by the over 30 papers being written over the last decade (Kennedy, 2010). Urban metabolism brings new tools for urban designers to work with. However most studies of urban metabolism have primarily been accounting exercises. How can these newly generated knowledge and date be applied in the context of the city. It is overall agreed that urban metabolism can contribute to sustainble urban planning and design (Stremke, 2014). Yet it is not widely used in the field of urban design. This can be due to the fact that urban metabolism originates not from urban design or planning but industrial ecology. We need to understand how we, as urban designers and planners ,can deal with these urban metabolism flows and data. As said by Boer: “We gave the flows away

Phosphate mining in Togo

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Togo_phosphates_mining.jpg

to engineers to solve these systems for us, and now we take these systems back to the realm of design. Saying we also understand how these things work but we can design with them.” (Rotterdam Metabolists, 2015). Meaning we have to reawaken the interest in them and as urban designers bring these flows back to the design aspect. We have to be aware of them but also try to implement these in the field of urban design. The challenge ahead is to design sustainable cities and neighbourhoods directly influenced by their urban metabolism (Kennedy et al. 2010).

Futuristic plan, New York

TERREFORM INC., 2012 http://www.urbanplantscapes.com/plan-has-new-york-seeing-green/

Often when we look for sustainable cities and neighbourhoods now we end up with very promising, green and optimistic images. However when they are dissected to the sustainable elements one can wonder, “how circular are these sketched plans?”. By looking at hem we can see that sometimes not all proposed interventions would contribute as much. So what interventions would needed to be done to create the sustainable city then? But how circular is it?

adapted by author, based on the graduation proces and earlier projects done on metabolism and circularity.

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THE SHIFT FROM LINEAR TO CIRCULAR The modern urban system is a linear consumption system. In this system resources are consumed and waste is produced. This is an unsustainable system, which often generates negative outputs on the environment. In the figure an example of this linear model of metabolism where resources are transformed, consumed and disposed from the city is illustrated. The linear system is also often called the ‘fossil-fuel energy system’, related to the types of energy used to fuel the model (Steel, 2008). As an reaction on this linear system Girardet (1990) proposed a more circular model of metabolism. The circular metabolism is characterized by the reduced amount of resource inputs, less waste generations as outputs, and the efficient use of resources in a system. Here it is clearly visible that the input and the output are reduced by the circularity of the flow. In the graduation project there will be a focus on establishing this circular urban system. And how the system can be more efficient by producing more within its context, being more circular and being less depend on external influences.

AMSTERDAM

INPUT

CITY

Linear urban metabolism

AMSTERDAM

INPUT

OUTPUT

CITY

Circular urban metabolism by author, 2016

A good help with this can be the principle of Trias Energetica (RVO, 2013). In the most basic form it is: Step 1. Reduce (energy) demand. Step 2. Use renewable sources. Stap 3. Use depleting (fosil fuels) sources more efficient. The Trias Energetica will be used in the project to relativize the proposed interventions. And it will show what the focus of an intervention is related to the Trias Energetica. Trias Energetica

adapted from RVO, 2013

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OUTPUT


As said urban metabolism can help in creating a more sustainable development (van Timmeren, 2013) and urban sustainability (Stremke, 2014). However, “this requires the design community

to become much more numerate in energy and material flows.” (Kennedy et al. 2010).

This is key for the setup of the project, to adress some of the problems mentioned by Stremke (2014) in his article. Another important component of the project is to brigde the mismatch stated by Stremke (2014), where he adresses the mismatch between the scale level at which urban metabolism studies are performed (city or regional scale) and the scale level of urban planning and design practice (district, neighbourhood, building block) which is now often happening. Therefor it is important to work through the different scales in this project. Going from regional scale to block scale while relating them to each other through out the project.

Therefor the project combines the field of flow analysis and urban design. Using flow analysis to validate and quantify the spatial impact of measurements for circularity and using urban design to see how these measurements can be integrated in the context of the city. As said before the project will focus on three aspects, can I quantify the spaces needed to place a flow in an urban environment (‘How big is it?’), can I allocate these spaces in the given environment (‘Does it fit?’) and can I integrate How would the circular sustainble city look it in a meaningful way (‘Can it give something like and what interventions have been done to back to the city?”). accomplish this?

Landscape and Energy. Designing Transition. Sijmons, 2014

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1.3

FRAMEWORK: SEVEN STEP PROCES The methodology of this project consists of seven steps. It starts with a policy analysis, which forms the problem statement, and it ends with a design for a more circular city of Amsterdam. The graduation gives two main products: A GIS based model for assessing urban metabolism potentials and restrictions, and an approach for applying urban metabolism measurements on neighbourhood level.

16

The first step is a policy analysis, which shows the ambitions of Amsterdam in the field of circular economy. This results in problem statement that ‘there is often a disconnect between the large scale analysis and the proposed interventions/ measurements’. The main research question derived from it. ‘What is the spatial impact of the meaningful sustainable measurements, which creates a more circular city of Amsterdam for the key flows?’ (1). The next step is to define the scope in this project. An analysis of the current urban metabolism is made. However it is important to set up the boundaries of this graduation project due to the time-frame in which the project needs to be done. This means that the project will focus on some key flows and the system boundaries are defined (2). After setting up the scope the next step is done in two parallel tracks next to each other. In the fist part a target is set for the circular interventions, based on a policy analysis. Where necessary, additional targets are defined. This is based on elaborated assumptions. The theoretical potential gives an insight in how much of each flow is consumed and how much will be consumed in the future for the key flows in Amsterdam. It also gives an insight how much each intervention, chosen for this graduation project, can contribute. This is important to know since it relates the spatial impact to a quantifiable circular improvement for the chosen key flows (3a). Their spatial requirements are mapped based on a literature study of each measurement. These twelve tiles create an inventory which show their spatial requirement (3b). Based on these tiles we can derive criteria for where an intervention would be excluded, unfavorable, theoretical possible or favorable. By

overlaying the maps possible interesting design locations in the city of Amsterdam arise. For this project one location is chosen. The location contains multiple possible measurements and a potential to get more circular (4). For the location an exploration is made for each possible intervention in Slotervaart. The exploration shows the possible potential of each measurement, how much it would solve in percentage, what the spatial impact would be and what would be the impact of the intervention on eye-level. By comparing all the possible interventions we get a design brief for the location. It also gives insight in how circular the location can be when certain spatial interventions are applied (5). For creating a circular neighbourhood of Slotervaart a spatial concept is made. This consists of three elements forming a concept for a circular neighbourhood. To explore how the design can add to the social cohesion and improve living conditions a zoom-in is made of a part of Slotervaart. This zoom-in contains three elements which can be replicated in the area of Slotervaart in similar areas. For these three elements a design exploration is made. The design impressions show how the elements look, work together and add value to the site. Showing the relation between how much the interventions solve and their spatial impact. This shows the real spatial impact of the interventions related to the potential circularity (6). The developed matrix can be used to explore different intervention proposals for the city of Amsterdam and where their potential is. This can lead to recommendations to further elaborate on these sites for creating a more circular city of Amsterdam. The design experiment gives insight in the structure of a more circular neighbourhood and its interactions with the city. It also shows how it can be achieved and how that would look (7). These seven steps are necessary to answer the main research question. And form a crucial step in the graduation process of this project. They are elaborated step by step in the coming chapters.


What is the spatial impact of the meaningful sustainable measurements, which create a more circular city of Amsterdam for the key flows? What are ambitions of amsterdam on circularity? What are the key flows for the city of amsterdam related to a spatial impact?

What is the theoretical potential of possible sustainable measurements? What are the spatial requirements the meaningful sustainable measurements? where in the city should we intervene with which measurements?

How much is theoratical possible in the local context? How much is practically possible in the local context? How would that look? What should (not) be done in the local context? What are the synergies with the urban program? What is the quantified impact of these interventions?

Framework graduation project by author, 2016

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18


2 EVALUATING THE CIRCULAR AMBITIONS OF AMSTERDAM 19


20


2.1

PROBLEM STATEMENT Amsterdam is trying to have a leading role in Europe on the field of the circular city. This ambition is shown in the multiple reports published by the municipality related to the circular city in recent years, the many meetings held around the subject of circulairty and the outspoken amibtions of Amsterdam on circularity. These ambitions of Amsterdam as a circular city are explored. This is done by doing a policy analysis on the most important documents made for the municipality. These documents show how the city of Amsterdam is working on the topic of the circular city. This analysis shows that a link between the large scale analysis and the proposed interventions/measurements is often lacking. As a result of this, this creates a lack of knowing the impact the interventions have on the city of Amsterdam spatially, and how much they contribute to the circularity of the city. The main research question of this graduation project tries to address this problem. The main research question is ‘what is the spatial impact of the meaningful sustainable measurements, which create a more circular city of Amsterdam for the key flows?’ Amsterdam is trying to have a leading role in Europe on the field of the circular city. This ambition is shown by the multiple reports published by the municipality related to the circular city in recent years. The two main documents are ‘Towards the Amsterdam circular economy’ (2013) and ‘Amsterdam Circular’ (2015).

Amsterdam Circulair

FABRIC, 2015

Towards the Amsterdam Circular Economy DRO, 2013

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2.2.1

Present

Future

CIRCULAR ECONOMY In ‘Towards the Amsterdam circular economy’ (2013) they give an overview of the different flow cycles. This is done for their present situation and their possible future cycle. In the report they give the current and desirable Food future cycles for food, phosphate, waste, water, electricity and heat.

“An important question in this context was the space requirements that these cycles would require in the future and to what extent this would serve as an invitation to adopt a more integrated approach.” (DRO, 2013)

Each cycle is depicted on a global scale, on Phosphate the scale of the Netherlands, the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area, the city of Amsterdam, district and neighbourhood, all the way down to the scale of the residential block or individual dwelling. This helps in grasping the link between relevant scales (DRO, 2013). The document gives a good exploration in the subjects and possible future cycles of the flows Waste however if the city where to implement the document it is unclear where to start and to intervene. However it does note the importance of the shift from linear to circular, and from centralised production to local sources (DRO, 2013).

Water

Electricity

Heat Cycles present situation an future perspective 22

DRO, 2013


2.2.2

AMSTERDAM CIRCULAIR

The report ‘Amsterdam Circular’ (2015) goes a step further then just an exploration. In it the municipality of Amsterdam has outspoken its ambition to focus on a more efficient way to reclaim nutrients and material. It also mentions that Amsterdam has circularity as one of its pillars in its sustainability plan (FABRIC, 2015). In the report a material flow analysis (MFA) for the metropolitan region of Amsterdam (MRA) is made. This is used to come to two potential sectors to stimulate circularity in Amsterdam. These sectors are the building sector and the organic waste flows (FABRIC, 2015). For these two sectors a regional vision is proposed and set of tools/spatial interventions to create more circularity is made (FABRIC, 2015). However the document does not show the influence on how it would be integrated in the different parts of Amsterdam. Also how much/often they are needed and how much they contribute to the circularity in the two sectors is unclear. The missing link between the large scale analysis they made and the circular measurement they propose form a base for this graduation project. The graduation project tries to address this to see what the spatial impact of circular urban interventions is.

Material flow analysis of the MRA-region FABRIC, 2015

Proposed vision on circularity in organic flows FABRIC, 2015

The policy analysis of these two documents leads to the problem statement. To address this statement (missing link between large scale analysis and small scale proposals) the main research question is made:

What is the spatial impact of the meaningful sustainable interventions, which create a more circular city of Amsterdam for the key flows?

Spatial vision on circularity in organic flows FABRIC, 2015

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3 DEFINING THE KEY URBAN FLOWS IN AMSTERDAM 25


WIND SOLAR

RAINWATER

RESIDUAL HEAT

ELECTRICITY EXPORT COAL

INDUSTRIAL WATER

WIND SOLAR

ELECTRICITY

GAS

WASTEWATER

HOUSING

GREYWATER

HEAT

TRASH BURING OLD/HEAT STORAGE

WASTE

FUEL DRINKS FOOD

FOOD DRINK WATER

UTILITY INDUSTRY

ORGANIC INORGANIC

BUILDING WASTE EMISSION

GOODS BUILD MATERIALS

AGRICULTURE TRANSPORT

IMPORT WASTE

Sankey-diagram of flows of Amsterdam by author, 2016 BASED ON: FABRIC, 2015 IenM, 2017 Stremke et al., 2016 Metabolic, 2014 Choi & van Heeswijk, 2014

1: Sankey-diagram is a specif type of flow diagram. In this representation the width of the arrows is shown proportionally to the quantity of the flow. By their representation they show the major transfers of flows in the system. This helps to find the dominant contributions to an flow.

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BLACK WATER

PHOSHATE


3.1.1

THE FLOWS OF THE CITY AMSTERDAM Since the graduation project only has a limited amount of time it is important to scope and focus towards the essence of the project. To help scoping different material flow analyses (MFA) are combined. This analysis is represented as a Sankey-diagram1. This representation as well as a criteria list help to define the key flows and the system boundaries. The key flows in this project are electricity, heat, drink water and phosphate. The chosen system boundaries are the municipal borders of Amsterdam. However a short exploration of possible interaction with the region is made. When drawing a line some elements will fall outside of the scope. These elements however can greatly contribute in the circularity of Amsterdam. It is therefore important to be aware of this impact. However the project will focus on the context within the city of Amsterdam. This since that is the field of expertise as an urbanist and most interesting for the municipality of Amsterdam. Similar to Amsterdam Circulair (FABRIC, 2015) a material flow analysis (MFA) is made for the city of Amsterdam. This is needed to get an understanding of the current urban metabolism of Amsterdam. The data is represented in a Sankey-diagram1. It combines multiple different MFA’s into one to give an overview of the flows entering and leaving the city. The material flow analysis uses mainly data from Amsterdam Circulair (FABRIC, 2015), URBAN ENERGY METABOLISM (Choi & van Heeswijk, 2014) and the Urban Pulse (Stremke et al., 2016). Data about energy is also derived from the Klimaatmonitor (IenM, 2017). Also the MFA of Circulair Buiksloterham (Metabolic, 2014) has been studied to check the combined Sankey-diagram on completion.

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3.1.2

THE FLOWS WE KNOW VS. THE CONSQUENCES If we look at the Sankey-diagram it offers some interesting insights. Often we are aware of the input side of the diagram. It is the fuel we fill up our cars with, food we eat, the water we use and the goods we buy. It already gets more abstract with the buildings we live in and the materials they are made of. Even more abstract is electricity and heat since it isn’t tangible but we are still aware of it. The disconnection often happens at the output side, the consequence of the inputs and the negative spin-off it generates. This is due to the fact that the negative spin-offs are not always as visible. These outputs can be simplified in four categories. These are heat, air pollution, water pollution and waste. This simplification can help with understanding the necessity to be more circular. The negative outputs are often a effect of the linear inputs.

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3.1.3

FLOWS TO FOCUS ON When talking about the metabolism of a city it is important to understand the current urban metabolism of Amsterdam. However, considering all flows would go beyond the scope of this graduation project, the diagram is already a simplification of the actual situation. Therefore, because of its complexity it is important to bring focus in the graduation project towards the key flows. This focus will be done based on a few criteria To define these key flows, the different material flow analysis have been combined into the Sankey-diagram which will be used to narrow it down

The criteria for choosing these key flows are: • the flows have a spatial impact, meaning they require a spatial intervention. • the flows have enough available valid data, this is needed to make the project quantifiable and relate spatial impact to numerical impact. • And the flows have a social relevance meaning they are a relevant topic with society at the moment, such as depleting sources as fossil fuels for energy or phosphate which is one of the main ingredients for fertilizers for food production. As a result, the key flows are electricity, heat, drink water and phosphate.

WIND SOLAR

RAINWATER

COAL WIND SOLAR

ELECTRICITY

GAS

HOU

HEAT

TRASH BURING COLD/HEAT STORAGE

FUEL DRINKS FOOD

FOOD DRINK WATER

UTIL

INDU

GOODS BUILD MATERIALS

AGRICU

TRANS IMPORT WASTE

Sankey-diagram of chosen flows by author, 2016

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RESIDUAL HEAT

ELECTRICITY EXPORT INDUSTRIAL WATER

WASTEWATER

USING

LITY

USTRY

BLACK WATER GREYWATER

WASTE

ORGANIC

PHOSHATE

INORGANIC

BUILDING WASTE EMISSION

ULTURE

SPORT

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3.1.4

DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES Besides the flows it is also important to define the spatial boundaries of the graduation project. This because urban metabolism considers the city a system, where flows and goods go in and out of the system. This means a line has to be drawn to show where it would be considered in the system or coming from outside the system. Therefore, data on these flows needs to be available or to be calculated easily. The chosen border is the municipal area of Amsterdam. This defined area is chosen as the required data is available for this area. This because data from the municipality of Amsterdam can be applied in this graduation project (Energieatlas, maps. amsterdam.nl).

Defining the boundaries as the municipal boundaries by author, 2016

32

For this graduation project it is important to draw the boundaries of the system not only for the Sankey-diagram. It will also help to quantify the usage of resources at the moment and it gives me an area to allocate the design measurements in. This however creates some drawbacks and it’s important to be aware of them and discuss them. The border used is the municipal line. This makes it easy to use the available data given by the municipality. The Energy atlas (den Boogert et al., 2014) contains not only information about gas use, electricity usage but also shows potentials of different local energy sources and


residual heat sources. By drawing the border it is easier to calculate not only how much is consumed, but also gives a space to allocate the sustainable measurement in and gives a goal how much could be saved in an area. Thus helping to answer the question ‘does it fit?’. Another border could have been the MRAregion border. This border was also used in the Amsterdam Circulair (FABRIC, 2015) report for the material flow analysis. However it is unclear how the area is defined. Thus making it difficult to get clarity on the data. Also not all municipal areas included in the MRA will have such precise data. This would take to much time to make quantifiable, which is unfavorable in

the limited time of this graduation project. However drawing the border does also create some disadvantages. Because drawing the line around the system does not mean that it stops there, some elements in the region also influence the metabolism of the city or offer a good opportunity to create a synergy. So it is very important to be aware of these potentials and influences.

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3.1.5

INTERACTION WITH THE REGION Before zooming in to the city a small analysis has been made at the potentials of the Metropolitan Region of Amsterdam, the MRA region. This is important because the city is not an isolated location. It is connected to its hinterlands and its region and exchanges flows with this region. The analysis shows that resources such as phosphate can be re-used within the region on agricultural land and electricity can be generated for the city by wind parks and solar fields which have a higher yield in the region than in the city. However the focus of this graduation project lays within the city.

Potential elements in the MRA-region by author, 2016

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In the map possible regional elements of interest have been drawn. These offer an opportunity to deal with a flow named in this report, for example heat from the steel mill (Tata steel) can be used in the heat network of Amsterdam. Or the reclaimed phosphate of Amsterdam can be recovered and reused in the Aalsmeer area to grow crops. The small study shows a map with potential sources/synergies near the city, based on the selected flows. When we add these outside elements to the material flow analysis (MFA) we can see how these elements work in the bigger system.


In the region there are multiple heat sources. These industries now discharge their heat in the water or air. By adding these elements to the heat network, their residual heat can be the input in the heat system. These sources are Tata steel, Diemercentrale, Forbo Flooring and warmtekrachtcentrale almere (RVO, 2017). Good sources for phosphate are Aalsmeer where organic waste from the flowers can be used to reclaim phosphate and the sewage plant near Haarlem. Also the phosphate reclaimed in the city can be used in the surrounding region places such as Aalsmeer, Hillegom and Ilperveld have agricultural functions which need phosphate (CBS, 2017).

Schiphol has an important function acting as a national hub. Many flows travel through the airport. This makes it plausible that there is the opportunity for synergy between the flows of Amsterdam and Schiphol. However the added complexity of Schiphol related to the complexity of the city of Amsterdam is too much. Also there is not enough data available at the start of this graduation project to include Schiphol in the graduation project.

35


3.1.6

THE CIRCULAR MRA-REGION It is important to create this interaction between city and its region. They can benefit from each other and exchange flows. Phosphate reclaimed in the city can be reused on farmland nearby and electricity produced by wind-parks on sea and solar farms can flow to the city. The image shows how this synergetic region could look like. And which flows would go out and into the city. However this project will now focus on what measurements need to be done in the city since there is a lot to win on the core of the city, which acts often as a sink on these flows.

Synergy between city and hinterland by author, 2016

36

Eleboration on the calculations for this proposal can be found in the appendix and in the usage tabels under the name region (4.2.2, 4.3.2, 4.4.2 and 4.5.2)


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38


4 THE SELECTED POSSIBLE SPATIAL INTERVENTIONS 39


4.1.1 POSSIBLE INTERVENTIONS FOR THE FLOW For each flow there are different (spatial) interventions which help to replace the current source or help with the re-use of the flows. To limit the amount of spatial intervention for this project a short list is made. These twelve are chosen since they require a spatial intervention or change of the infrastructure. Therefore they could play a role in the field of urban design.

New sources are the use of renewable sources. Reuse corresponds with the reuse of residual flows and efficient use of depletable resources links partially to reclamation and buffering. By categorizing these interventions we can see where the graduation project focuses on. If new interventions would to be added one can look at the scheme and see that for example on electricity there is no focus on buffer electricity. These interventions are based on design Following the same methodology these can be projects done by POSAD (2015, 2016), added later. FABRIC (2014, 2015), PoĚˆtz&Bleuze (2012), Deijs&Atteveld (2015) and Studio Marco The interventions now are only the ones with Vermeulen (2015). These elements are chosen a spatial impact on a urban level since these since they are spatial interventions on the are relevant for an urban designer/planner to urban fabric. Therefore these are some of the design with. Other measurement which can tools the urban designer can use. also influence the circularity of a flow can be The interventions can be placed in four interventions on building level (isolation to categories 1) new source 2) reuse 3)buffer and reduce gas use) or on social behavior (shorter 4) reclamation. This partially links back to the showering to reduce water use). Trias Energetica (RVO, 2013) These have not been included in the projects since the focus of this report lays on the urban designer/planner.

electricity New source

Solar panels

Heat

Drink water

Geothermal

Rainwater input

Reuse

Residual heat exchange

greywater reuse

Buffer

Cold-heat storage in ground

Phosphate

Windturbines on roofs Windturbines Combined heat-power

Reclamation

Urban farming

nutrient reclamation hub Decentral sewage

Chosen interventrion for this graduation project by author, 2016

40


Spatial requirements tiles by author, 2016

41


4.1.2 SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND THEORETICAL POTENTIAL These twelve interventions have two components, which influence how much and where in the city they will be placed. These are the 1) spatial requirements and 2) theoretical potential. 1) The spatial requirements are represented as spatial tiles, giving an overview of the spatial limitations, opportunities and chances of each intervention. These are made by drawing the spatial impact of literature analysis. 2) The theoretical potential gives an insight in how much of each flow is consumed and how much will be consumed in the future for the key flows in Amsterdam. It also gives an insight how much each intervention, chosen for this graduation project, can contribute. This is important to know since it relates the spatial impact to a quantifiable circular improvement for the chosen key flows. In the next chapters each flow will be discussed separately. Giving an introduction to what the flow is the interventions chosen in this report, an overview of theoretical potential and the spatial requirements of the different interventions.

EXAMPLE OF BUILD UP SPATIAL TILE For the four different flows twelve circular interventions are explored. These interventions are based on design projects done by POSAD (2015, 2016), FABRIC (2014, 2015), PoĚˆtz&Bleuze (2012), Deijs&Atteveld (2015) and Studio Marco Vermeulen (2015). Based on literature the spatial requirements are mapped and visualized. This is done in the form of generic spatial tiles. These tiles give an overview of the limitations, potentials, benefits and requirements of each intervention. The literature study done for these twelve interventions builds up the visual tiles. By visualizing them it makes it easier to communicate the techniques. It can also contain a lot of information while still being easily readable. The tiles are generic so they can be adapted not only for Amsterdam but for each city wanting to be more circular on the key flows. On this page an example is given of the build up of the geothermal tile, more elaborated information can be found on in each chapter of the flow and its interventions (geothermal, 4.3.3).

1. 2.

x PJ

1. Spatial requirements 2. Theoretical potential by author, 2016

42

The restrictions of windturbines POSAD, 2014 http://posad.nl/projects/energietransitie-model/


EXAMPLE OF THEORETICAL POTENTIAL • GEOTHERMAL REQUIRES HEAT HUB

• REQUIRES GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL IN THE GROUND

• CANNOT BE APPLIED IN CERTAIN AREAS

• REQUIRES ENOUGH DISTANCE BETWEEN SOURCES

• REQUIRES CERTAIN MINIMUM DENSITY AND HEAT USAGE

• GEOTHERMAL SOURCES CAN HOLD ADDITIONAL URBAN PROGRAM

The potential is calculated in a few steps. This helps to create an overview of consumption and circularity of Amsterdam. First is the ‘usage now’. Here data is gathered about the flow consumption of Amsterdam in the current situation. This is based on different sources, such as Energieatlas, CBS or Urban Pulse. Next is ‘usage 2050 (non circular)’. This is important to know, to see how the consumption of the flow develops towards the future. For example gas consumption is anticipated to decline in the future. This due to measurements such as isolation are almost fixed to happen. The development of flows is based on research done by PBL (for electricity and heat) and the future grow-rate of inhabitants of Amsterdam predicted by Bevolkingsprognose (for phosphate and drink water). The last is ‘usage 2050 (potential)’. This shows how much can be solved by the circular measurements. The circular measurements consist mostly of the selected twelve design interventions. The ‘usage 2050 (potential)’ shows how much theoretically each intervention can contribute in achieving circularity. This helps to define how important a certain intervention is and helps to create hierarchy among them. The potential is calculated using different sources, these will be elaborated in the chapter of each flow. Circularity can be achieved on different scales, as shown in step 2. Not everything can be solved 100% in the city. These diagrams show the division of circularity in the city, the region and import/run-off. This way giving an overview how much can be solved in the city theoretically. When reflecting on the circular metropolitan region of Amsterdam this potential can help to define projects of flows to solve in the proximity of Amsterdam. The diagrams shows the development of the flows towards 2050 and the theoretical potential of possible measurement on the different scales (city/region). This links back to 3.1.6 where the interaction between city and region was shortly proposed.

43


electricity Solar panels

Heat

Drink water

Geothermal

Rainwater input

Residual heat exchange

greywater reuse

Phosphate

New source Windturbines on roofs

Windturbines

Combined heat-power

Reuse

Buffer

Urban farming

Cold-heat storage in ground nutrient reclamation hub

Reclamation Decentral sewage

44


4.2.1

ELECTRICITY Electricity is the second largest energetic flow after heat/cold. However it will surpass heat/cold in the future due to the ongoing electrification. When looking at the city of Amsterdam we can see that 19,5 PJ of electricity is consumed yearly, of which only 5% is from renewable sources (Choi & van Heeswijk, 2014). Per person this comes down to about 24.000 MJ of electricity per year, this is enough energy to drive around the earth by car. The current electricity supply is based on large, centralized fossil sources. For its electricity supply the Netherlands is dependent on imports of fossil fuels, which are produced by a limited number of major players, like Russia, Iran or Saudi-Arbia, and they therefore represent a geopolitical risk. per m2 and energy yield As said most of this energy is derived from Energy POSAD, 2014 unsustainable sources mainly gas and coal http://posad.nl/projects/zuid-holland-op-stoom/ (Choi & van Heeswijk, 2014). To become more sustainable and less dependent on fossil fuels we have to shift towards more clean sources of electricity such as solar and wind. However the Netherlands is one of the worst performers in the energy transition in Europe (NOS, 2016). There is a lot needed to catch up. Some good examples of good energy policies are Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. In Germany the Energiewende is a great example. They went from 6.3% electricity from renewable sources in 2000 to 34% in 2016 (Wikipedia, 2017). Also The electric car as electricity buffer, Lombok their solar and wind industry benefited greatly NOS, 2016 http://nos.nl/artikel/2088654-stroom-voor-koelkast-en-stofzuiger-uit-de-accu-van-je-auto.html from it. Giving also the economy a boost and offering jobs (Wikipedia, 2017). The project focuses mostly on new sources in this graduation project. However in the future storing/buffering of electricity will also play an important role. An interesting opportunity for the storage of electricity are the electric cars (Scott, 2016). This can be further examined in a later stage. In this project the focus will be on the generation of sustainable electricity since this is the first necessary step. The chosen interventions are solar panels, windturbines, small windturbines on roofs and Germany’s big four power firms own less than 7% of the country’s renewable generating capacity, 51% of which combined heat-power. was owned by citizens as of 2011. https://us.boell.org/sites/default/files/morris_germanenergyfreedom.pdf

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USAGE & THEORETICAL POTENTIAL: ELECTRICITY USAGE

NOW

2050 ‘NOW’

2050 ‘POTENTIAL’

SCALE

% CIRCULAR

46

COAL

WINDTURBINES

SOLAR PANELS

GAS

HEAT-POWER

WASTE BURNING


4.2.2 ELECTRICITY

This shows the electricity usage of Amsterdam now and its sources. This is based on data retrieved from Klimaatmonitor (IenM, 2017) and from Choi & van Heeswijk (2014). This shows the cities heavy reliance on coal (almost 80%) as source of electricity. The second source of electricity generation is gas and waste incineration (both around 9%). In the current situation only 3% comes from renewable sources (Choi & van Heeswijk, 2014).

The bar shows the heat demand for Amsterdam in 2050 if we do not intervene. Based on perdictions made by PBL (2015) we can conclude that the demand for electricity in Amsterdam increases this is due to the electrification of appliances, transport and society (PBL, 2015). Also adding to the increase in electricity demand is the increasing number of inhabitants in Amsterdam, the IOS (2017) forsees an increase towards 2050 of the population of Amsterdam. If we don’t intervine the means of generation of electricity will be the same.

The third bar shows electricity demand in 2050 with a shift towards renewable electricity production. The potential of these sources is based on the Energieatlas (den Boogert et al, 2014) and Choi & van Heeswijk (2014). It shows that there is a great potential to shift towards sustainble sources mainly being solar (37%) and wind (46%). The amount of electricity derived waste incineration also decreases this is because waste won’t be burned anymore but will be reclaimed for minerals and recycled.

For the electricity production the city will rely on its hinterland. Only a small part can be generated within the city (den Boogert et al, 2014). In the region windturbines can be placed on the North Sea, the IJselmeer or on land and for more solar energy 5% of agricultural land can be converted to solar field. This would be necessary to provide enough renewable electricity to Amsterdam and decrease reliance on coal and gas.

It is shown that for electricity Amsterdam cannot solve it with renewable sources within the city (only 24,8%). If we add the region (61,2%) and use it to generate electricity for Amsterdam too it would increase its circulairty (86%). However there is also a demand for electricity in the region itself. This shows that for electricity the hinterland of the city holds an important role in solving the electricity demand in the city.

47


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS

48


4.2.3 Solar panes Can be placed temporarly on production fields, creating solar canvases protecting crops and generating electricity (Generation Energy, 2016) Rooftop energetic potential: east/west orientation 0,33 GJ/m2 , south orientation 0,37 GJ/m2 (Generation Energy, 2016) Solarfield energetic potential: 0,81 GJ/m2, higher yield because of ooptimization of positioning of solar panels (Generation Energy, 2016). Can have a negatieve impact on ground live underneath panels (POSAD, 2017) Limited placing under heavy restrictions in natural protection areas (EHS), due to governmental restrictions (Generation Energy, 2016) Cannot be placed near (electric) infrastructure (Generation Energy, 2016) Should not be placed in shadows, due to significant loses in efficiency, solar field is as effecient as the least efficient solar panel (POSAD,2017) Can be placed on parking lots, fallow land, temporary land, solar roads (Generation Energy, 2016) Floating solar fields can be created on water, however has a negative impact on the local ecosystem and biodiversity (POSAD, 2017) Limited placing under heavy restrictions in protected cityscape, due to (local) governmental restrictions (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2015) Solar panels cannot be placed on street-oriented facade, not on (visible) historical roofscape, only 30% of the rooftop surface may be covered with solar panels. Limited placing under heavy restrictions on historical buildings, due to (local) governmental restrictions (RCE, 2014) Solar panels cannot be placed on monuments with significant cultural-historic values, on roofs with vulnerable materials and on roofs with unusual shapes and architecture.

4.2.4 Windturbines Cannot be placed in proximity to housing (POSAD, 2015) Cannot be placed in proximity to non-living buildings (POSAD, 2015) Cannot be placed in proximity to living areas (POSAD, 2015) Cannot be placed in natural protection areas (EHS), due to governmental restrictions (POSAD, 2015) Cannot be placed near gas infrastructure (POSAD, 2015)

Creates cast shadow by windturbine, which can have negative impact on livability (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2012) Requires distance between windturbines (>680m depending on size of turbine) (POSAD, 2015) Cannot be placed in proximity to old windmills due to the molenbiotoop, preventing placement of windturbines near historical windmills (POSAD, 2017) Cannot be placed near waterways (POSAD, 2015) Cannot be placed near road/train infrastructure (POSAD, 2015)

49


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS

50


4.2.5 Small windturbines on roofs Small windturbines can be placed on roofs in urban environment (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) Creates cast shadow by windturbine, which can have negative impact on livability (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) Requires building height >20m, to be effecient (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) Electric potential small turbines: 5,4 GJ per turbine (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) Cannot be sheltered areas from wind, due to loss in efficiency (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) Cannot be placed in protected cityscape, due to (local) governmental restrictions (Cace& ter Horst, 2007)

Creates vibration and sound pollution, which can have negative impact on livability (POSAD,2017) Wind can be deflected by build envoirment influencing the local wind patterns (Cace& ter Horst, 2007)

4.2.6 Combined heat-power Produces both electricty and heat from biomass/biogass: 50% heat, 35% electricity of energetic potential of biomass source (Linea Trovata, 2016) Specialized biomass growing flieds cannot be placed in natural protection area (Generation Energy, 2016) Prumning waste of nature areas can be used as biomass (den Boogert et al, 2014), although it has lower energetic value (Generation Energy, 2016) Needs logistical acces for suply biomass material, about 3 trucks with biomass a week (Generation Energy, 2016) Harvesting waste from gardens can be used as biomass (den Boogert et al, 2014), although it has lower energetic value (Generation Energy, 2016) Safety zone around biogas fermenter (Generation Energy, 2016) Combined heat-power plant can produce noise pollution, fermenter can produce smell pollution (Generation Energy, 2016) Different types of biomass have different energetic potentials: (Generation Energy, 2016) energycrops 190 GJ/ha wood 23 GJ/ha used frying fats/oils 35,6 GJ/ton food industry waste 8,6 GJ/ton manure 0,7-7 GJ/ton sewage sludge 6,5 GJ/ton organic house waste 8,6 GJ/ton pruning waste 0,3-2 GJ/ton 51


electricity Solar panels

Heat

Drink water

Geothermal

Rainwater input

Residual heat exchange

greywater reuse

Phosphate

New source Windturbines on roofs

Windturbines

Combined heat-power

Reuse

Buffer

Urban farming

Cold-heat storage in ground nutrient reclamation hub

Reclamation Decentral sewage

52


4.3.1

HEAT Thermal energy is the largest energy unit within the Dutch energy system. In this system there are two states, one of them is Heat which is a relative excess of thermal energy and the other cold which is a lack of thermal energy (Choi&van Heeswijk, 2014). Most of the thermal energy in Amsterdam is needed in the form of heating.

These interventions are geothermal heat, which is a new input source of heat, the reuse of residual heat sources, such as industrial, commercial and hospitals, combined heatpower, which can be a new source or more efficient use of fuels and the cold-heat storage (which buffer heat and cold throughout the seasons summer and winter). In the Netherlands most of the heat is generated It is important to focus on the sources which by the burning of natural gas and this is also the supply the heat to the network since this is case for the city of Amsterdam. Besides the often a critique on the present heat networks burning of gas the city of Amsterdam also has (them being fueled by coal plants) (Boelen, 2015). a heat-network which is supplied by AEB (trash burning plant) and the Diemen centrale(power icefree cycle path plant). The city uses 29,5 PJ of heat in a year industry (2 PJ residual heat and 27,5 PJ gas) (Choi&van new housing Heeswijk, 2014). The city uses yearly about 870 million m3 of gas. This is about half of the monthly production of the gas field of pre-war housing Slochteren. Around the field of sustainable heat there are some interesting sources. The study of Warmsterdam (Deijs &Atteveld, 2015) shows 1,5km 0m the potential of a more sustainble heat network greenhouses 250m in Amsterdam and how to possibly implement it. cold-heat storage Studies done by Vermeulen (2013, 2016) show Heat hub the exploration of (geothermal) heat networks FABRIC, 2014 4km in South-Holland. The potential of sustainble heat is already quite known, especially in the Scandinavian area. A good example is the MalmÜ – Helsingborg region, here it is forbidden to discharge industrial heat in water or air (Odgaard, 2005). The region benefited from the new heat supply heat potential example act of 1979 and the regulation banning of Residual Deijs & Atteveld, 2015 discharge of heat, which helped to set up the exstenive heat network of today (Odgaard, 2005). The Copenhagen district heating system is a heating supply system that uses waste heat from trash incineration plants, and combined heat and power plants (Odgaard, 2005). Instead of dumping the heat in the sea it gets captured and channeled to the heating system and houses (Odgaard, 2005). With that they supply 70% of the heat demand of the city. In the graduation project multiple interventions are used to create a more sustainable heat network for Amsterdam. Design for heat network for Rotterdam FABRIC, 2014

53


USAGE & THEORETICAL POTENTIAL: HEAT DEMAND

NOW

2050 ‘NOW’

2050 ‘POTENTIAL’

SCALE

% CIRCULAR

54

GAS

COLD-HEAT STORAGE

GEOTHERMAL

HEAT FROM SURFACE WATER

WASTE BURNING

RESIDUAL HEAT

HEAT FROM SEWAGE

COMBINED HEAT-POWER


4.3.2 HEAT

This shows the heat demand of Amsterdam now and its sources. This is based on data retrieved from Klimaatmonitor (IenM, 2017) and from Choi & van Heeswijk (2014). This shows the cities heavy reliance on gas (93%) as source of heat. The second source is Residual heat and biomass (both around 2%)

The bar shows the heat demand for Amsterdam in 2050 if we do not intervene. Based on perdictions made by PBL (2015) we can conclude that the demand for heat decreases. This is due to better isolation of buildings and higher energetic labels for new buildings all requiring less heat (PBL, 2015). The decrease is less than proposed by PBL (2015) since there is also an increase in inhabitants which also add to the heat demand (IOS, 2017). However if there is no intervention in the heat sources the supplied heat will com from the same sources, mainly gas.

The third bar shows heat demand in 2050 with a shift towards sustainble heat sources. The potential of these sources is based on the Energieatlas (den Boogert et al, 2014) and WarmteAtlas (IenM, 2017). This shows a great increase of usage of sustainble sources mainly being cold-heat storage, residual heat and geothermal (den Boogert et al, 2014).

Most of the heat demand can be fufilled by sustainble heat sources within the city (den Boogert et al, 2014). A small part can come from residual heat sources in the region such as Tata Steel and other industry in the region these sources can be found with the WarmteAtlas (IenM, 2017).

And the last bar shows how much percent (%) can be solved in the city and it’s region. It shows that Amsterdam can almost completly be gas free (0,9%). Most of the heat demand can be solved within the city (90%) and a remaining part can come from the region (9,1%).

55


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS

56


4.3.3 Geothermal Geothermal sources can house additional urban program besides distribution station such as: sauna, espressobar, greenhouse, tropical garden, sport facilities, urban swimming pool, .... (FARBRIC, 2014) (Deijs& Atteveld, 2015) Heat can be casscaded through different functions since they recuire different supply of heat industry (120 oC), healthcare (120 oC), excisting housing, new housing (Generation Energy, 2016) The geothermal systems requires >45 houses (equivalant heat demand)/ha or >4000 houses for a geothermal source to be feasible (Generation Energy, 2016) Requires fixed distance between sources >1,5km (Studio Marco Vermeulen, 2016)

The systems effeciency increases when the heat demand is higher, so the system is more effecient with higher density (Generation Energy, 2016) Requires distribution system 100m2 per source (Studio Marco Vermeulen, 2016) also requires 50x50m for maintenance (POSAD, 2017) Cannot be placed in locations with groundwater/gasfield protection (Generation Energy, 2016) Cannot be placed in protected natural area (Generation Energy, 2016)

4.3.4 Cold-heat storage in ground Multiple sources can form one larger cold-heat storage field (TU Eindhoven, 2013) Too many sources can influence each other reducing the efficiency greatly (Bodem energie NL, 2017) The demand for heat and cold needs to be in balance for the system to work (Bodem energie NL, 2017) Sysnergy can be found between different sources: industry (heat demand) <-> office (cold demand) (Generation Energy, 2016) Can only be applied in new/renovated isolated buildings since it is low temprature heating (Bodem energie NL, 2017)

Cannot be placed in drink water protection areas (Generation Energy, 2016) Requires >1000m2 of build area or >100 houses to create feasible cold-heat storage hub (Bodem energie NL, 2017) cold-heat storage hub can be designed as an architectural element (FABRIC, 2014)

57


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS

58


4.3.5 Residual heat exchange Possible residual heat providers can be: (Generation Energy, 2016) sewage treatment plant power station industry datacenter Ice skating hall hospital supermarkets offices the main heat consumers: (Generation Energy, 2016) housing hospitals greenhouses Mixed land-us with multiple functions can offer the oppertunity to exchange heat within the plot (Generation Energy, 2016) Distance between source and user needs to be <3km for residual heat to be exchanged (InfoMil, 2017)

Requires >10 houses/100m to create heat network (Generation Energy, 2016)

4.3.6 Combined heat-power See 4.2.6 for eleboration on Combined heat-power

59


electricity Solar panels

Heat

Drink water

Geothermal

Rainwater input

Residual heat exchange

greywater reuse

Phosphate

New source Windturbines on roofs

Windturbines

Combined heat-power

Reuse

Buffer

Urban farming

Cold-heat storage in ground nutrient reclamation hub

Reclamation Decentral sewage

60


4.4.1

DRINK WATER Water is the biggest flow in the city. It is very prominently visible in the dutch landscape and the city of Amsterdam. But the actual drinking water is not as prominent. The city of Amsterdam consumes 56 million m3 (Vitens, 2017) (IOS, 2016 ) water yearly, this translates to about 22.400 Olympic pools. The consumption per person is 69m3 of drinking water per year or 119 liter daily (Vitens, 2017). Amsterdam uses multiple sources for drinking water being Amsterdamse Waterleiding Duinen and Bethunepolder (Waternet, 2016). greywater reclamation souces Although drinking water depletion is not an Possible adapted from Vitens, 2017 imminent problem within the Netherlands, the production of drinking water still costs energy. For the production of all the drink water of Amsterdam 0,28 PJ is required. However not all the water is used for consumption, actually only around 1% is. Most of the water is used for washing and the toilet. For tasks like the toilet we waste precious drinking water. In total we can replace 54 liter of water by grey water or rainwater systems. This can save about 49% of the drink water consumption. Also 86 liter or rainwater input instead of drink water of grey water can be reclaimed from the daily Greywater adapted from Vitens, 2017 water use cycle. If all the greywater would be reclaimed it takes 4m2 (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012) helophyte filter per person. This translates to 324ha helophytes to filter the greywater of whole Amsterdam. The two included interventions are greywater reuse (Kilian water, 2017) and rainwater input (Kilian water, 2017). Greywater reuses the water from different tasks. The water gets cleaned by helopyhte filters and can then be reused for tasks, such as flushing the toilet. Rainwater catchment uses rainwater as input for different tasks. Rainwater catchment is limited by rainfall in the area however. Also it requires more buffering since rain is not an constant flow (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012). Most other ways to reduce drink water usage are social behavior changes and more water Tanner Springs Park, Portland, US. Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012 http://www.urbangreenbluegrids.com/projects/tanner-springs-park-portland-oregon-us/ efficient appliances.

61


USAGE & THEORETICAL POTENTIAL: DRINK WATER USAGE

NOW

2050 ‘NOW’

2050 ‘POTENTIAL’

SCALE

% CIRCULAR

DRINK WATER

62

RAINWATER

GREYWATER


4.4.2 DRINK WATER

This shows the drink water consumption now. This is based on inhabitants (IOS, 2016 ) multiplied by the daily water usage (Vitens, 2017). The consumption does not include industrial usage of water and the usage of drink water by the workforce. This is due to difficulty in retieving the data of water usage of these groups.

The bar shows the drink water consumption in Amsterdam in 2050 if we do not intervene. Based on the Bevolkingsprognose the IOS (2016) predicts an increase in inhabitants. This increase leads to an increase in drink water usage since more people live in the city. Due to increase in efficiency in appliances the water usage will also decline (Vitens, 2017) these savings are taken into account in the next bar under savings.

The third bar shows drink water consumption in 2050 with the theoretical potential of drink water replacement sources (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012). These interventrions can be rainwater input or greywater reuse(Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012). They can also both be apllied in combination, although rainwater input is limited by the amount of rainwater catchment(Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012). The remaining drink water can’t be reduced since it’s uses require water of drink water quality within the Netherlands (Vitens, 2017).

The bar shows how much drink water consumption can be reduced in the city. The remaining drink water would still be needed to be imported and supplied to the city. The remaining drink water input can be reduced by social behavior such as shorter showers (Vitens, 2017).

And the last bar shows how much percent (%) can be solved in the city and it’s region. Showing how much circularity can be achieved if Amsterdam reduced drink water consumption by used rainwater and greywater for tasks which do not require drink water. This shows that 62.5% drink water consumption can be reduced.

63


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS

64


4.4.3 Rainwater input system Can also be created as recreational parks or nature development areas (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012) (De urbanisten, 2013) It can help with stormwater management in the city (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012)

Can be designed as water roof (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012) or water square (De urbanisten, 2013)

can produce around 5m3 per 100m2 roof (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012) Requires to be stored to buffer for water usage indoors (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012) Underground parking garages can be combined with underground water storage (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012)

4.4.4 Greywater reuse system Can also be created as recreational parks or nature development areas (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012) (Kilian water, 2017) Requires open space to be designed (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012)

Requires around 4m2 per person to filter the greywater to reuse (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012)

Requires a constant flow of water through the helophyte system for materials to sink and water to be purified (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012) Can also be applied on vertical surfaces in vertical helophyte filter systems (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012)

Is only usable in new devolopment or renovated buildings since it requires new water infrastructure (Kilian water, 2017)

65


electricity Solar panels

Heat

Drink water

Geothermal

Rainwater input

Residual heat exchange

greywater reuse

Phosphate

New source Windturbines on roofs

Windturbines

Combined heat-power

Reuse

Buffer

Urban farming

Cold-heat storage in ground nutrient reclamation hub

Reclamation Decentral sewage

66


4.5.1

PHOSPHATE Nutrients are essential materials for every living organism. Some of which are besides essential also exhaustible. One of the most important ones is phosphate. Phosphate is required for the production of fertilizers and thus essential for food production (Schoumans, 2008). The depletion of the phosphorus reserves is expected within this century (Schoumans, 2008). Besides depletion 75% of the world reserves of phosphate from mines is controlled by one country, Morocco (Frisby, 2014). This creates a big dependency on the few suppliers. Therefore the phosphate cycle has to be improved to reduce the dependency on the depleting resource. Often the role of the city gets marginalized compared to the agricultural role. However the city is an important final sink in the phosphorus cycle. In Amsterdam alone almost 750 tonnes of phosphates are discharged, of which 60% (Stremke et al., 2016) through wastewater. In Rotterdam it is shown that less than 2% of their phospahte cyle gets recovered (FABRIC, 2014). Once phosphate is discharged into the water and sea it will be lost within the phosphate circle since it is very hard to reclaim. So we should â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and we can â&#x20AC;&#x201C; do something about it. In the city of Amsterdam almost 750 ton phosphate is consumed yearly (Stremke et al., 2016). This comes down to about 0,92 kg per person in a year . This is done through food consumption. In Amsterdam there is enough phosphate going ,as waste, out of the city to fertilize 62500 footbal fields (NEMO, 2012). And most of this is reclaimable. And if it is reclaimed in the city it will be lost in the cyclus for years. The reclamation is very do-able with modern technologies and proven in some projects. In Swedem the government has set the goal to reclaim 60% of the phosphate from sludge (Stark et al., n.d.). And has Amsterdam multiple initiatives with the new sewage plant, the Amsterdam Arena and Heineken Music Hall reclaiming phosphate. This shows the growing intrest in reclaiming phosphate.

food waste separation, installation of kitchen grinders, urine diversion, and separation of blackwater. Some of these will require an urban spatial design and these will be the focus of the project. The interventions chosen are nutrient hub and decentral sewage, which focus on the reclamation of phosphate, and urban farming, to reuse phosphate locally (FABRIC, 2015).

Discharge of phosphate in Amsterdam Stremke S., Spiller M., Voskamp I. & Vreugdenhil C., 2016

Scheme of Bioraffinage FABRIC, 2015

ArenA Boulevard functioning as phosphate recovery area http://www.zuidoost.nl/artikelen/duurzaam/arena-grondstofleverancier-fosfaatfabriek

There are different methods of recapturing phosphate. These can be comprehensive

67


USAGE & THEORETICAL POTENTIAL: PHOSPHATE RUN-OFF

NOW

2050 ‘NOW’

2050 ‘POTENTIAL’

SCALE

% CIRCULAR

68

MANURE

WASTEWATER

WASTE

RECLAIMED

DECENTRAL SEWAGE

NUTRIENT HUB

URBAN FARMING


4.5.2 PHOSPHATE

This shows the phosphate run-off and consumption now. This is based on data from the Urban Pulse (Stremke et al., 2016). The main sources of run-off are manure from defication (from livestock, pets and animals), wastewater (urine and feces) and waste (mainly being organic waste)

The bar shows the phosphate run-off in Amsterdam in 2050 if we do not intervene. Based on the Bevolkingsprognose the IOS (2017) predicts an increase in inhabitants. This increase leads to an increase in phophate run-off since more people live in the city and thus the city has more wastewater and waste run-off. Manure is not taken in to calculation since it is hard to predict its curve.

The third bar shows phosphate run-off in 2050 with the theoretical potential of shifting towards phosphate reclamation and re-use. Showing that almost 70% of phosphate can be reclaimed in Amsterdam. This potential reclaimation is estaiblished using decentral sewage (Metabolic, 2014) and nutrient reclamation hubs (FABRIC, 2014)

The bar shows how much of the phosphate can be re-used locally and how much can be exported to the region. The reclaimed phosphate can partially be re-used within the city of Amsterdam using urban farming (FABRIC, 2014) and the remaining reclaimed phosphate can be exported as fertilizer (FABRIC, 2015) to the agricultral hinterland of Amsterdam. These can for exemple be the greenhouses in Aalsmeer or the fields of Haarlemmermeer. The phosphate usage for these locations is derived from the CBS (2017)

And the last bar shows how much percent (%) can be solved in the city and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s region. Showing how much circularity can be achieved if Amsterdam maximalized phosphate reclamation. This shows that 68.1% of all the phopshate flowing through the city can be recoverd within the city.

69


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS

70


4.5.3 Decentral sewage Reclaimed nutrients can be mined and sold as raw materials to pharmaceutical industry, food industry, cattlefodder industry or biofuel industry (FABRIC, 2015) Reclaimed phosphate can be used in urban farming or exported to agricultral areas as fertilizer (FABRIC, 2014) (FABRIC, 2015) Can be used in densification areas since it is easier to lay down the required infrastructure (FABRIC, 2014). Also the densification would then not lead to the capacity problem at the existing sewage treatment plant (PoĚ&#x2C6;tz&BleuzeĚ , 2012) Separating urine and feces, this increases the nutrient reclamation since most phosphate is in urine. Urine is 1% of wastewater flow but contains 85% of the nitrogen and 50% of the phosphate. By separating black-, grey- and yellowwater we can reclaim up to 90% of the nutrients (Metabolic, 2014) Is only usable in new devolopment or renovated buildings since it requires new sewage infrastructure (FABRIC, 2014) and no-mix toilets (Metabolic, 2014) Can produce smell pollution

4.5.4 Nutrient reclamation hub Reclaimed nutrients can be mined and sold as raw materials to pharmaceutical industry, food industry, cattlefodder industry or biofuel industry (FABRIC, 2015) Reclaimed phosphate can be used in urban farming or exported to agricultral areas as fertilizer (FABRIC, 2014) (FABRIC, 2015) Overdue products from supermarkets and other food-related retail can be added in the nutrient hub to reclaim the nutrients (FABRIC, 2015) Organic waste can be collected from the neighbourhood reducing complexity in collection structure and providing social cohesion (FABRIC, 2014) Can produce smell pollution Kitchen grinders can be installed which ease and automate the transport of organic wast to the nutrien hub through the (decentral) sewage system (FABRIC, 2014) Sewage can be connected to the nutrient hub combining it with the decentral sewage (FABRIC, 2014)

71


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS

72


4.5.5 Urban farming Urban can provide social functions and awereness on the nutrien flows (Biesboer, 2014) Grown products can be sold on (local) market (FABRIC, 2014)

Different types of spaces can be used for urban farming: rooftops, underutilized green or fallow areas (PoĚ&#x2C6;tz&BleuzeĚ , 2012) (FABRIC, 2014) Reclaimed phosphate can be reused locally giving insight in the phosphate cycle and creating awereness (FABRIC, 2015) Urban agriculture can reuse 12kg/ha phosphate as fertilizer to grow crops and food (NEMO, 2012)

73


74


4.6

DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF SPATIAL INTERVENTIONS For the different interventions a short design exploration is made. This very basic analysis shows the different design solutions in a conceptual way. It shows how interventions can be solve in different proximity being in region, city, neighbourhood or block. And the different ways the can be implemented, either on ground level, facade or roof. This small exploration helps with showing the different ways the intervention can be designed.

4.7

USE OF THE TILE-METHODE The tile-methodology is very useful for showing and communicating the different circular intervention. The tiles give a quick overview of the spatial restrictions, possibility and opportunities. The can contain a lot of information from different sources the tiles can combine all in one tile. New measurements can be added using the same tile-methodology, doing a literature study and mapping it in the tile. Since the tiles are also generic they can be easily used and applied in other locations and projects. On the next page an overview is shown of the tiles with their corresponding flow and focus. By bundling the tiles and inventorying them they can be used by urban designers to get a grip on the technical complexity of the circular interventions. By translating them to a spatial language they are made easier to understand and grasp. This way more urban planners and designers can use them. By making more of them and elaborating on them engineers can give input which can be mapped in these tiles. Making the tiles act as an mediator between engineers and designers/planners. At the moment the tiles can still be improved upon showing more spatial characteristic and spatial organization in them, making the spatial requirements more readable in the drawing.

75


4.8 Catalog of the possible spatial interventrions for the key flows for a more circulair city of Amsterdam

electricity Solar panels

Heat Geothermal

New source Windturbines on roofs

Windturbines

Combined heat-power

Reuse

Buffer

Reclamation

76

Residual heat exchange

Cold-heat storage in ground


Drink water

Phosphate

Rainwater input

greywater reuse

Urban farming

nutrient reclamation hub

Decentral sewage

77


78


5 CREATING THE ALLOCATION TOOL FOR THE MEASUREMENTS 79


5.1 FORMING ALLOCATION CRITERIA BASED ON SPATIAL ANALYSIS With the spatial tiles we can say where to allocate the interventions in the city. This is based on a few spatial allocation criteria which can be derived from the tiles. These criteria are density, functions, open space ratio, building height and building age. These criteria influence where the spatial interventions are impossible, unfavorable, possible and favorable. If these requirements are put in a matrix (5.3) with the spatial interventions it shows in which types of space, which measurement is favorable. From the spatial tiles created in the last chapter we can deduce a few criteria which overlap in the tiles. These criteria influence where the spatial interventions are impossible, unfavorable, possible and favorable. As an example the spatial tile for geothermal (4.3.3) is shown. The allocation criteria deduced from the tile are: density (inhabitants/ha), function, open space ratio, building age, usage flow and geothermal potential. These criteria combined influence where in the city to allocate geothermal. Criteria such as density (inhabitants/ha), function, open space ratio, building age, usage flow also influence other tiles where to allocate interventions. This means that if these data-layers where to be stacked it could shown where the intervention would have the most potential in Amsterdam. GIS (Geographic information system)is used to help as a tool for analysis. This will be elaborated in 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 .

80


ALLOCATION CRITERIA GEOTHERMAL • • • • • •

DENSITY (INHABITANTS/HA) FUNCTIONS (HOUSING, RETAIL, OFFICE, INDUSTRY...) OPEN SPACE RATIO BUILDING AGE CONSUMPTION OF HEAT (USAGE FLOW) GROUND GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL

81


DENSITY (INHABITANTS/HA)

FUNCTIONS (HOUSING, RETAIL, OFFICE, INDUSTRY...)

OPEN SPACE RATIO

BUILDING AGE

CONSUMPTION OF HEAT (USAGE FLOW)

GROUND GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL

2: A geographic information system (or GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. GIS can relate unrelated information by using location as the key index variable. Locations or extents in the Earth space–time may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence, and x, y, and z coordinates representing, longitude, latitude, and elevation, respectively. All Earth-based spatial–temporal location and extent references should be relatable to one another and ultimately to a “real” physical location or extent.

82


5.2.1

DATA-LAYERS IN GIS To help allocating where in the city to propose which intervention the allocation tool is set-up based on the spatial tiles. In the previous step we derived allocation criteria. The allocation criteria form the input for GIS1 (Geographic information system ). This helps to organize and visualize the data and makes it usable to analyze it. In GIS the map of Amsterdam is converted to a 100x100m grid. This grid contains the data derived from the spatial tiles. How the data is based upon and retrieved is described in the following paragraph: • density: is based on the 100x100 data from CBS vierkantstatistieken 100m (http:// pdokviewer.pdok.nl/) • functions: is derived from the dataset Grootschalige topografie GBKA - Alles vlakdekkend per niveau (http://maps. amsterdam.nl/open_geodata/) • open space: is the standard 100x100 minus build space (BAG) (http://maps.amsterdam. nl/open_geodata/) • building age: this is from dataset Bouwjaar in the BAG (http://maps.amsterdam.nl/ open_geodata/) • consumption of gas and electricity: is derived from data set about the usage per block, given by Alliander. (http://maps.amsterdam.nl/energie_ gaselektra/?LANG=nl) • geothermal potential: is derived from the potential map shown in the Energieatlas (den Boogert et al., 2014) • residual heat: is derived Potentie restwarmte gebouwen data-set, given by the municipality of Amsterdam (http://maps.amsterdam.nl/energie_ restafval/?LANG=nl) • height: is derived from dataset pandhoogte in the BAG in 3D, given by A. Wandl. These data-set combined form the base of the allocation tool in the next step (5.2.2) an example will be given how to use it.

100m 100m

83


DENSITY

NATURE AND AGRICULTURE

LIVING

OPEN SPACE RATIO

OLD BUILDINGS

NEW BUILDINGS

GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL INTERVENTION MAP BASED ON THE GIS-ANALYSIS

HEAT DEMAND

GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL IN GROUND

84


5.2.2 STACKING OF DATA-LAYERS TO DERIVE AREAS OF INTERVENTION With the data in GIS we can deduce the influence of the spatial criteria on the intervention based on the spatial tile. In this case the spatial tile of geothermal is used (4.3.3). All followed elaboration and deduction is based on literature and information in the spatial tile (4.3.3) • Density If we look at density it requires a minimum density (>45 houses/ha) and is more favorable with higher density. • Functions It is shown that it is impossible in nature areas and unfavorable with agriculture. However it is favorable with the function housing • Open space ratio The intervention is more favorable in denser build areas. • Building age Geothermal is more favorable in old buildings (1900-1990), since they require more heating, and is unfavorable in new buildings (>1990), since these require less heating due to better isolation. • Consumption of heat Geothermal heat is more favorable if there is a higher demand of heat. And unfavorable if there is no demand for heat. • Ground geothermal potential Geothermal heat is only possible in areas with geothermal potential in the ground, is more favorable with higher geothermal potential. If these data-layers are stacked we can create an map where in the city geothermal heat has the most potential. This can also be done for the other interventions, using the same methodology.

Areas in Amsterdam with high potential for geothermal

85


WINDTURBINES

COMBINED HEAT-POWER

RESIDUAL HEAT EXCHANGE

COLD/HEAT STORAGE

OPEN SPACE RATIO

GREYWATER REUSE

NUTRIENT RECLAIMATION HUB

DECENTRAL SEWAGE SYSTEM

URBAN FARMING

86


5.2.3 SAME DATA-LAYER DIFFERENT OUTPUT PER INTERVENTION Besides using different data-layers we can use the same data-layer and see the influence of the different interventions on the allocation based on the data. The data-layer used is the open space ratio. All followed elaboration and deduction is based on literature and information in the spatial tile (4.2-4.5). • Windturbines Windturbines are impossible in build areas and possible with open areas, since they require space (4.2.4). • Combined heat-power Combined heat-power is favorable in open areas to grow sufficient biomass, which requires space (4.2.6). • Residual heat exchange Residual heat is more favorable in denser build areas since possible sources and demand are closer to eachother (4.3.5). • Cold/heat storage Cold/heat storage is favorable in medium build areas, not favorable in dense areas because too many sources can interfere with each other, and unfavorable in open space (4.3.4). • Greywater reuse Greywater reuse is more favorable in open areas since helophyte filters to clean the water require space (4.4.4). • Nutrient reclaimation hub Nutrient hub is possible in build areas and is unfavorable in dense build areas since it requires some space for implementation of intervention (4.5.3). • Decentral sewage system Decentral sewage is more favorable in dense build areas since it is easier to implement new infrastructure and make it feasible (4.5.3). • Urban farming Urban farming is possible in build areas but more favorable in open space since in more open space more phosphate can be reused locally (4.5.5). This shows that the same allocation criteria has very different outputs based on the different interventions. 87


5.3.1 ALLOCATION MATRIX

This matrix can be used in multiple ways. It can be used from the intervention-perspective (showing on the map where in the city the interventions have potential) or from the location-perspective (showing which interventions can be applied on that location). For this graduation project the design location is based on the location-perspective since then the design can also generate input for other locations with the same typology. The location chosen is Slotervaart, this post war extension district has a varied pallet of possible interventions to explore and to research. This to see the spatial impact of different interventions on the area.

However the focus of the graduation project was not to create the allocation tool but to see the spatial impact so the tool is used to chose a location for further design and exploration. In this phase the mapping has been done manually. It can be done using GIS however due to the time-frame of the project and the complexity of this action this has not been done.

impossible unfavorable possible favorable POSSIBLE SPATIAL INTERVENTIONS

ALLOCATION CRITERIA

The criteria influence where the spatial interventions are impossible, unfavorable, possible and favorable. If these requirements are put in a matrix with the spatial interventions it shows in which types of space, which measurement is favorable.

l

p

ELECTRICITY SOLAR PANELS

lower d

WINDTURBINES

higher per hec turbine

SMALL WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS

88

The matrix can be a valuable tool in exploring the circular potentials of cities. The methodology is not specific for Amsterdam but is a tool how to deal with where to intervene with which interventions in a city. This means that the methodology can easily be applied on other cities. New interventions can be added by using the tile-methodology and deducting allocation criteria from them or add to the already included allocation criteria. The allocation tool is not on a fixed scale, you can zoom in (10x10m) or zoom out (10x10km) and create a new grid in GIS. The matrix can be made more precise by reflecting on it, elaborating on it or adding to it by experts in the field. By using the methodology it gets more precise. The matrix is not limited by fixed data but can use gradients (high <-> low values) to define impossible, unfavorable, possible and favorable. Thus making it easy to use even with basic data. However more accurate data helps the allocation tool to be more precise. The idea is to continue working on the allocation tool and its potentials after the graduation project in an open source format.

lower d it is eas

COMBINED HEAT/POWER (BIOMASS) INSTALLATION

higher more u

HEAT GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM

higher more u

RESIDUAL HEAT EXCHANGE

higher more u

COLD/HEAT STORAGE IN GROUND

require feasibl capcity

BUILDING ISOLATION

DRINK WATER RAINWATER INPUT SYSTEM

higher for rain

GREYWATER REUSE SYTEM

higher footpri be limi

PHOSPHATE NUTRIENT RECLAIMATION HUB

requires feasible to recla

DECENTRAL SEWAGE SYSTEM

requires decentr

URBAN FARMING TO REUSE PHOSHATE


M

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still it is promising to see that the total potential, including the spatial criteria, differs from the ground geothermal potential. For the graduation project however more calculated potentials were not possible, due to the limited timeframe of the project and since it was not the main subject. Elaboration on the GIS model, methodology and the matrix follows in the chapters 5.3.2 and 5.3.3 .

low > high persons/ha

ure e try ult ing l tur gric ous etai ndus ffice r a h i o

na

can not be placed with nature or housing, can be placed with retail or offices but is favorable with agriculture or industry

lower density is more favorable since it is easier to implement

is unfavorable nature can be implemented with housing or agriculture, is favorable with retail, industry or offices

higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

nature and agriculture are favorable because of abundance of biomass, housing because consumption heat and electricity

monuments and protected city scape limit placement of pv panels

>1,25 ha

-

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GE N CH A

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GI

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same renew new

> 1900

higher buildings influence the wind speed, reducing potential

IL D

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IL D

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old > new

GI

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IL

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PE N

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open > build

height x m

retail, industry and offices are biggest consumers electricity so here pv panels are more favorable

higher density means more people per hectare which limits placing of turbines

(N

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low > high

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At the moment the GIS model has only been used to calculate the potential for geothermal for Amsterdam. However the results from it are very promising since the map created with the allocation tool differs quite some from the ground geothermal potential map. This is logical since in the GIS model the ground geothermal potential map is only ‘one of’ the data-layers instead of the only input. However

low > high

solar potential roof map

more favorable with renovation or newly build since here electricity is more important

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

-

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

the more space is build the more the placing of turbines is limited

> 1900

h> 20m

monuments and protected city scape limit placement of turbines

building needs certain height to be feasible for windturbines on roof

more favorable with renovation or newly build since here placement on roofs can be better integrated

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

-

N

open space is more favorble since more biomass can be grown as input

older buildings require more heat since less isolated, requiring more biomass

system gets more efficient when usage increases

>99/ha higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

favorble for housing since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not enough heat is needed (except greenhouses)

ground capacity the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency

older buildings require more heat since less isolated

system can be applied in exsiting building stock, more favorable because more heat consumed

> 4.000.000 m3 > 0,14 PJ - 140,7 TJ the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is

higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

favorble for housing and retail since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not feasible. Industry and offices can be producers and consumers

residual heat sources the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency. Residual heat radius is 3km to source

older buildings require more heat since less isolated

system can be applied in exsiting building stock more favorable because more heat consumed

the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by exesive heat in surrounding

<153/ha

favorble for retail, industryand offices since they require both heat and cooling. excluded for agriculture since it is not feasible

requires enough useage to make feasible, to much density limites the capcity of the system

-

ground capacity the more is build the more sources are in the ground which leads to maximum capcity of ground potential

-

higher density require bigger footprint helophyte filter which can be limited

favorble for housing and office as input of toilet water

favorble for housing and retail as here grey water can be reused

>x/ha requires enough users for setting up decentral system

> 100.000 m3 > 3,52 TJ < 3 TJ/ha the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by storage capacity of ground

-

most favorable in older buildings in unfavarable in newer buildings since it’s expansive to improve a little

system can be applied in exsiting building stock more favorable because more heat consumed

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing

if water usage is too high the required area to filter water can be too large

Is more favorable with renovation or newly build since kitchen grinders can be installed

the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the nutrient hub is

Is more favorable with newly build, is needed to renovate because new sewage system needs to be laid down

the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the separated sewage system is

5m3 per 100m2

h> x higher buildings more favorable since system can be applied vertical

4m2 p.p.

1,5m3 p.p.

water which can be replaced by rain is consumed per person monthly

setting up helophyte filter takes space so open space is more favorble

requires new infrastructure with enough users, more users make it feasible

Agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful

event locations

Agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful

-

requires new infrastructure with enough users, more users make it feasible

most favorable for housing and office. Here nutrients can be reclaimed and reused directly.

building type

-

requires enough nutrients to be feasible, higher density more nutrients to reclaim

system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to apply in exsiting buildings

system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to aply in exsiting buildings

-

most favorable for housing, but is theoretically possible in every building

higher density require more storage for rainwater

> 1900

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

12kg P/ha there is maximum required phosphate per ha, so if more phosphate is reused required space increases

most favorable is when all reclaimed phosphate can be reused locally it is possible to export phosphate as fertilizer to region

89


5.3.2 ALLOCATION MATRIX USE The GIS model is not only an analytical step towards the urban design, but an outcome in itself. In this part a reflection will be made on the transferability of the methodology/ matrix to other cities and scales but also for the different uses for different actors. This is necessary to see how the methodology can be used and applied. In 5.3.3 the reflection will follow on the matrix and its contents. In this part it will focus on the usage of the different actors and the potential for them. Scales and transferability: As mentioned before in 5.3.1 the methodology is not on a fixed scale, you can zoom in (10x10m) or zoom out (10x10km) and create a new grid in GIS. This means you can make a quick scan of any area of scale. You can make a quick scan on where residual heat in the Netherlands has the most potential. Or see where in the Netherlands geothermal heat can be applied the best as a sustainable heat source. Or it can be used to zoom in to make a more precise estimation of the possible interventions. For example what different type of heat source has the most potential in a certain living neighbourhood. This means that the matrix can be applied on many different levels scales and locations. And the grid can be adjusted accordingly to the scale of the analysis. Besides the scales it can also easily be applied on other cities, regions or even countries. An example is shown how Netherlands and Rotterdam can be analysed in the same way. This since the grid can easily be created in GIS for the to be analysed space. However the usability for the matrix depends on the amount of data available for the location. In the Netherlands there is quite a lot of data accessible, through CBS, PDOK and municipal/ governmental institutes. The usability in foreign countries has not been looked into yet. However it would be reasonable to concluded it can be applied also there.

90

? ?


Actors: The matrix and GIS model are created to act as median between civil engineers and urban designers/planners. However it can be used by many other different actors. In this reflection it will be looked upon which actors can use the proposed matrix and the relevancy for them.

the methodology more usable for the other actors. By implementing their knowledge of the interventions in the matrix the assumptions are discussed, improved and validated. Urban designers/planners: The matrix is developed as a tool for urban designers. It can be used as an analytical tool and help in the design process. It helps urban design and planners explore which interventions should be considered in the design process. It helps them to understand the potential of an intervention without requiring all the background knowledge. This helps in design more circular and sustainable cities since they can be applied more easily in the field of urbanism. Thus making it that circularity can be an integral part of the design and planning process and not dependent of the interest of urbanist.

Municipality/govermental: The matrix can be used by municipality/ governmental to make a quick scan for where which intervention has the most potential in an area to achieve circularity. At the moment cities often donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know where to intervene with which measurements. Because of this it can lead to wrong choices, although having good intentions. For example the implementation of solar panels or windturbines while maybe greywater filtering or geothermal heat has more potential. The matrix can help in decision making in on which flow to focus on in a certain area. It can help to intiate and steer action. As shown different actors can use the matrix in different ways, they are interested in Developpers: different parts and different conclusions from For developers it can be used in multiple ways. it. There can be more actors who can use the When redeveloping an area it can help which methodology however these have been found interventions to include in the renovation. the most relevant. New ones can be added by For developing new areas the spatial concept the fieldwork and applying the methodology in of the area can be the input showing which practice. interventions should be considered when developing in the area. For the developers STEDIN NUON the addition of the economic potential would MUNICIPALITY UTILITY/ GRID OPERATOR especially interesting. GOVERMENTAL PROVINCE

Utility Corporations/grid operator: For utility corporation and grid operators it can be very interesting to see in which infrastructure they should invest in. If they should invest in decentral sewage or greywater system. Since they often manage the infrastructure they fulfill an important role in the transition since often these proposed circular interventions require new infrastructure. Engineers/specialists: For engineers and specialist the matrix is mainly interesting at the input side for them. This because they can validate the numbers and assumptions made in the matrix. This makes

ALLIANDER

ENGINEERS

SPECIALISTS PROGRAMMERS

ENECO

RESEARCHERS AMS

STUDENTS

URBAN CONSULTING OFFICES

URBAN DESIGN/PLANNERS UNIVERSITY DESIGN FIRMS

HOUSING CORPORATION PENSION FUNDS DEVELOPERS INVESTORS 91


5.3.3 ALLOCATION MATRIX REFLECTION For the accuracy of the matrix it is important to have a good reflection of it. By making the reflection enhancements of the methodology can be made, gaps can be addressed and the weakness be dealt with. All this improves the quality, feasibility and validity of the matrix and the GIS model. The spatial criteria now are derived from analysing the spatial tiles. By looking through them in the different tiles similar criteria where influencing the potential in different ways. The chosen (spatial) criteria are a result of this. This means that these criteria are the most prominent ones in these interventions. However when new interventions are included the list of criteria can be enhanced. At the moment there is already the miscellaneous category since there are criteria which are limited to a specific intervention such as geothermal ground potential or building type. A category such as building type can be included as allocation criteria if influences of this category are found in multiple interventions.

gradient is that now even with little data the matrix can be used. However for it to be more meaningful and accurate the input of maximum and minimum values would greatly enhance the applicability of the matrix. An example of this is shown in the geothermal catagory where there is a minimum amount of usage and density of inhabitants. By engaging with engineers/specialist and present the matrix to them the quality and usability of the matrix can be improved. It can then be used by urban planners or other actors in designing with these interventions. This makes it so that they do not require to be specialised in the interventions. If the knowledge in the matrix is legitimate it can be used by many different actors without requiring all the knowlledge about all the included interventions. At the moment this foundation is not there yet, however it forms a solid beginning for the debate with the engineers/specialist to reflect upon. Because it is tangible it can be reflected upon and discussed. The made assumptions are shown in the appendix, 9.3 .

Assumptions:

Potential calculation:

The assumptions of the matrix where interventions are (un)favourable, impossible and possible is based on different levels of assumptions. This means that they are based on the collected literature. Some of the made are assumptions are validated from the theory directly while others are derived from the literature or made on reasoning based of the literature. To improve the quality and accurate of the matrix it is helpful to reflect on it by people of civil engineering or academia specialist in the specific interventions. This enforces that the idea that the matrix and methodology is used a a tool to mediate between the engineers, who have the precise knowledge, and the designers/ planners, who need to be aware of the requirements/potentials of the interventions. At the moment the matrix uses often a gradient between low and high values. To make these more precise the input of these engineers of specialist is required. A benefit of the use the

At the moment only the potential for geothermal in Amsterdam is calculated using the matrix and the GIS model. This is due to the fact of the complexity of setting up this calculation. At this moment the calculation is set up by hand for the specific intervention, in this case geothermal. The calculation as it is now is shown in the appendix 9.3 . The idea was to make a calculation for the stacking of potentials for the interventions. However automating it was too difficult within the timeframe. Because a positive criteria for one intervention can be unfavorable for the other and impossible for the last. This means that for each intervention such a potential calculation has to be made. This calculation in thus intervention-specific. Besides that the values setting up of the calculations are now based upon personal reasoning. During the process the calculation changed a few times because of anomalies

Spatial criteria:

92


of the output. Based on that it is logical that the calculation needs to be used to improve and expose its limitations. The calculation can then be updated and renewed generating a more valid output. This can be discussed with specialists in scripting and calculation, also input from engineers in setting the calculation up is very valuable.

This is partially due to the fact that the interventions are new technology and not widely applied yet. In further elaboration more research can be put in the economical or other potentials besides the technical potential of the interventions. Especially the addition of the economical side it becomes a much more usable model and also adds validation into choosing for an interventions. This can then be Grid representation: easier be communicated with relevant actors The usage of the grid makes it easy to organize, and investors. compare and evaluate the data. This is because the area in each square is the same, for judging Extensions/plugins: on spatial criteria this is a very handy attribute. To enhance the GIS model an integration with For example for calculating the open space ratio other possible tools can be proposed. A good (OSR) you can easily do it because the squares example of such plugin is Project Sunroof have all a same surface area making it easy to (Google, 2017). Project Sunroof calculates the calculate and compare the OSR. solar potential of roofs. Tools like these can However by clustering all the data towards generate valuable input into the GIS model. the grid cells it can create gaps if an object or However at the moment the data is only limited influence which is greater than the grid-cell. usable. The Dutch variant of Project Sunroof is For example in the gas usage map industrial Zonatlas (Klimaatverbond Nederland, 2017). buildings can be bigger than the grid-cell and During the project an integration with the the data is collected in the centre of the build Zonatlas was explored however the amount of footprint and put into the cell. This means data was too low and fragmented. Because of that the data of usage in industrial areas is this a comparison of potential and usage. fragmented while the data of housing and However if it would be possible to use such data offices is much more accurate. Per cell this is as input it can ease the data collection process not a big problem however when averaging to and enhances the usability of the GIS model. districts the potential of an intervention can be lowered due to the fragmentation of data. Analytical tool: However the matrix is not a design tool, it is a analysis tool. It helps in defining the possible interventions it does not give a design proposal. It does give an insight in which interventions would be the most or least beneficial based on theoretical potential.

´Theoretical´ potential: The theoretical potential is chosen since this is often easily derived from literature. Also it is a very relevant one, however others such as for example economical potential is now not included in the matrix and the potential calculation. This is due the fact this is more difficult to define and of some interventions there is little to none information available about the economics about the interventions.

93


94


6 THE SPATIAL EXPLORATION OF CIRCULARITY IN SLOTERVAART 95


SLOTERVAART FLOWS: 2017 MATERIAL FLOW ANLYSIS OF SLOTERVAART NOW, DAILY

WATER PURIFICATION PLANT

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

COAL PLANT

GAS FIELD

518 GJ 19,1 KG PHOSPHATE 1371 M3

0,5 GJ 0,3% ELECTRICITY DEMAND

96

192 GJ


6.1

SLOTERVAART NOW As mentioned the question was also what will be the spatial impact. How do these measurements look on a location? For this graduation project Slotervaart is chosen based on the wide variety of possible interventions which can be implemented in the context. If we look at Slotervaart now we can see that the system is very linear. Many inputs come from outside the location (such as drink water, gas and electricity). The location has many different possible interventions to achieve more circularity these possibilities are explored in 6.2 . Relevant data of Slotervaart: • 11526 inhabitants • 1,46 km2 • 230.217 m2 rooftop area (15,8%) • 609.031 m2 open area (41,7%) • 0.17 PJ/km2 geothermal potential (Choi&van Heeswijk, 2014)

DAILY USAGE PER PERSON: 65 MJ ENERGY

Daily 65 MJ of energy (24 MJ electricity and 41MJ heat) is consumed. This is enough energy to heat 21,7 liter of water to boil! Or charge more than 8 tablets!

120 LITER WATER

Daily we use almost 120 liter of water which is almost 2 baths full of water!

2 GRAM PHOSHATE

Daily we lose 2 grams, the weith of an olive,of phosphate. This may seem like not so much but remember that phosphate is essential for food growth production and ones it is lost in the sewage system it and drained to sea is impossible to recover!

97


ON LOCATION?

? SPATIALLY?

? ON EYE-LEVEL?

? 98


6.2.1

EXPLORATION OF CIRCULARITY IN SLOTERVAART For the location an exploration is made for each possible intervention in Slotervaart. The exploration shows the possible potential of each measurement, how much it would solve in percentage, what the spatial impact would be and what would be the impact of the intervention on eye-level. By comparing all the possible interventions we get a design brief for the location. It also gives insight in how circular the location can be when certain spatial interventions are applied. Besides focusing on its own area it can also show the exchange between areas on the location in the flows, for example one part of the district generates electricity for consumers in the other part of the district. Or the potential of Geothermal is bigger than the heat consumption, therefore it can supply heat to other parts in the city with lack of potential for circular heat interventions using a heat network. The exploration contains the majority of the proposed interventions this is due to the fact that the area of Slotervaart fitted a lot of the possible criteria used in the matrix (5.3) For each intervention an exploration is made. This consists of a few steps. First it is shown on a map how much would needed theoretically, how much is possible and how much is proposed. Then the proposed area is integrated in the area of Slotervaart. Then the spatial consequence of this intervention will be explored. This will be done using isometric drawings (showing the impact on the area scale) and a schematic drawing from eye-level (showing the impact from eye-level). By keeping the image material the same the difference between interventions becomes more visible and easy to compare.

RESEARCHED FOR SLOTERVAART: HEAT: 6.2.2 - GEOTHERMAL 6.2.3 - RESIDUAL HEAT EXCHANGE 6.2.4 - COMBINED HEAT-POWER, BIOMASS

ELECTRICITY: 6.2.5 6.2.6

- SOLAR PANELS ON ROOFS - SMALL WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS

DRINK WATER: 6.2.7 6.2.8

- RAINWATER CATCHMENT FROM ROOFS AS WATER INPUT - HELOPHYTE FILTER FOR GREYWATER REUSE

PHOSPHATE: 6.2.9 - NUTRIENT HUB FOR PHOSPHATE RECLAMATION 6.2.9 - DECENTRAL SEWAGE CONNECTED TO NUTRIENT HUB 6.2.10 - URBAN FARMING FOR PHOSPHATE REUSE

At the end an overview (6.2.11) of the spatial impact of the interventions is given with the space (rooftop, ground or else) they require. This helps to choose which intervention is more meaningful to propose in Slotervaart.

99


GEOTHERMAL POINT PROPOSED 100%

679 GJ - 131%

1 SOURCE

GEOTHERMAL HEAT NEEDED 100%

518 GJ - 100%

100


6.2.2 GEOTHERMAL

101


RESIDUAL HEAT PROPOSED 16 GJ - 3.1%

6 SOURCES

RESIDUAL HEAT NEEDED 518 GJ - 100%

RESIDUAL HEAT AVAILABLE 18 GJ - 3.4%

16 SOURCES

5,9 TJ RESIDUAL HEAT PROPOSED 100%

16 GJ - 3.1%

102

6 SOURCES


6.2.3 RESIDUAL HEAT EXCHANGE

103


BIOMASS GROWING AREA PROPOSED 100%

2,2 GJ - 0.4%

58.154 M2

BIOMASS GROWING AREA NEEDED 100%

518 GJ - 100%

13.103.158 M2

OPEN SPACE AVAILABLE 100%

24 GJ - 4.6%

609.031 M2

REQUIRES 8.9X THE LOCATION TO GROW SUFFICIENT BIOMASS!

BIOMASS GROWING AREA PROPOSED 100%

2,2 GJ - 0.4%

104

58.154 M2


6.2.4 COMBINED HEAT-POWER, BIOMASS

105


SOLAR ON ROOFS NOW 100%

0,5 GJ - 0.3%

540 M2

SOLAR ON ROOFS PROPOSED 100%

184 GJ - 96%

181.175 M2

SOLAR ON ROOFS NEEDED 100%

192 GJ - 100%

189.514 M2

ROOFS AVAILABLE 100%

208 GJ - 109%

230.217 M2

SOLAR ON ROOFS PROPOSED 100%

184 GJ - 96%

106

181.175 M2


6.2.5 SOLAR PANELS ON ROOFS

107


WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS PROPOSED 100%

1,6 GJ - 0.9%

120 SMALL WINDTURBINES

WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS NEEDED 100%

192 GJ - 100%

12.985 SMALL WINDTURBINES

ROOFS AVAILABLE 100%

25 GJ - 13%

1.680 SMALL WINDTURBINES

WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS PROPOSED 100%

1,6 GJ - 0.9%

108

120 SMALL WINDTURBINES


6.2.6 SMALL WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS

109


RAINWATER CATCHMENT AREA PROPOSED 100%

404 M3 - 29%

207.195 M2

RAINWATER CATCHMENT AREA NEEDED 100%

674 M3 - 49%

345.780 M2

ROOFS AVAILABLE 100%

449 M3 - 33%

230.217 M2

RAINWATER CATCHMENT AREA PROPOSED 100%

404 M3 - 29%

110

207.195 M2


6.2.7 RAINWATER CATCHMENT FROM ROOFS AS WATER INPUT

111


GREYWATER FILTER AREA PROPOSED 100%

740 M3 - 54%

50.622 M2

GREYWATER FILTER AREA NEEDED 100%

674 M3 - 49%

46.104 M2

OPEN SPACE AVAILABLE 100%

8904 M3 - 649%

609.031 M2

GREYWATER FILTER AREA PROPOSED 100%

740 M3 - 54%

112

50.622 M2


6.2.8 HELOPHYTE FILTER FOR GREYWATER REUSE

113


NUTRIENT HUBS PROPOSED (ORGANIC WASTE) 100%

5,7 KG P - 30%

4 NUTRIENT HUBS

NUTRIENT HUBS PROPOSED (+SEWAGE) 100%

17,2KG P - 90%

114

4 NUTRIENT HUBS


6.2.9 NUTRIENT HUB FOR PHOSPHATE RECLAMATION

115


URBAN FARMING AREA PROPOSED 100%

1,3 KG P - 6.7%

58.154 M2

URBAN FARMING (LOW) AREA NEEDED 100%

1,4 KG P - 7,1%

62.559 M2

URBAN FARMING (HIGH) AREA NEEDED 100%

5,7 KG P - 100%

2,0 KM2

OPEN SPACE AVAILABLE 100%

5,7 KG P - 30%

609.031 M2

URBAN FARMING AREA PROPOSED 100%

1,3 KG P - 6.7%

116

58.154 M2


6.2.10 URBAN FARMING FOR PHOSPHATE REUSE

117


6.2.11 Overview of the possible spatial interventrions for Slotervaart and their spatial impact

118


119


DISTRICT CLUSTER • GEOTHERMAL HUB

NEIGHBOURHOOD CLUSTER • NUTRIENT RECLAMATION HUB • URBAN FARMING SPREAD OUT INTERVENTIONS • RESIDUAL HEAT • SOLAR PANEL • GREYWATER REUSE 120


6.3.1

STRUCTURE OF THE CIRCULAR NEIGHBOURHOOD Based on the spatial analysis of each intervention a spatial concept is created for a circular neighbourhood of Slotervaart. This concept consists of three parts: 1) district cluster (such as geothermal heat hub), 2) neighbourhood cluster (nutrients hub and decentral sewage) and the 3) wide spread interventions (such as solar panels on roofs and helophyte filters). These three elements work on diffrent scales due to the scale of the intervention.

3) These are the spread out interventions. These need to be done in the space available to them spread out over a location. The interventions often work on individual or block scale (small scale). These interventions often require space to be really useful.

1) The district cluster works on a city district scale. It can spread around the city based on 3D-printlab the geothermal grid (>1,5km) combining it with important public spaces, such as squares. These clusters hold geothermal heat hubs. Besides that the also focus on awareness and handelsschool buurtsuper understanding of circularity. They provide an educational function to the area. They can make flows tangible through design or hold spaces where there are expositions about circularity. They can also provide more active program The multisupermarket The supermarket is not only there for people to using the geothermal source. The geothermal do there daily groceries, people can also receive hub can be used as a sauna, or provide heated their online ordered packages, trade/sell old water for an urban beach. A tropical greenhouse appliances or other good or 3D-print/fix goods. can be build, or other design possibilities can for multifunctional supermaket as cluster be proposed. Some of these are explored in Proposal FABRIC, 2014 Warmsterdam (Deijs&Atteveld ,2015). They can also include distribution sources or 3D-printing facilities, utilizing new industrialization in the city (FABRIC, 2014). 2) The neighbourhood cluster focuses more on the smaller scale this are interventions like nutrient hubs and urban farming which can be clustered to provide an educational tool and help with the social cohesion. By organizing it on a smaller scale the system does not get to complex and can help with improving the social cohesion. From the analysis it can be derived that urban farming does not solve the phosphate problem since only a small amount of phosphate can be reused locally however it does generate very good awareness on the phosphate circle.The neighbourhood cluster will be elaborated in 7.1.4 since it is one of the Design for heat hub combined with recreational functions FABRIC, 2014 designed proposals. 121


DISTRICT CLUSTER • GEOTHERMAL HUB NEIGHBOURHOOD CLUSTER • NUTRIENT RECLAMATION HUB • URBAN FARMING

122

SPREAD OUT INTERVENTIONS • RESIDUAL HEAT • SOLAR PANEL • GREYWATER REUSE


6.3.2

STRUCTURE OF CIRCULAR SLOTERVAART If we implement the structure on Slotervaart we can see that the Sierplein will be the important district cluster. This can be combined with the social important role the Siermarkt fulfills.

in would translate into a design for a larger part of Slotervaart since the spatial structure is the same. This will be elaborated in the next chapter.

In the area four neighbourhood clusters are proposed, these are placed around social functions in the neighbourhood and are placed strategically in its quadrant. This makes it accessible for the people in the neighbourhood and gives the opportunity to create a more social connected neighbourhood.

In the maps 6.3.3 and 6.3.4 the transition is shown between the metabolic system in 2017 and 2050, with the proposed structue and interventions in Slotervaart. It leads to 96% of the electricity demand solved within location. 34% of the heat can be exported city. 90% of the phosphate gets reclaimed and 6,7% of phosphate is reused locally. And 49% of drink water demand since they now reuse greywater.

For the design a small part of the neighbourhood is chosen were will be explored how the design can add to the social cohesion and improve living conditions. This area is shown on the map. This part is chosen since a design for the zoom-

LOCATION

123


6.3.3

SLOTERVAART FLOWS: 2017

WATER PURIFICATION PLANT

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

COAL PLANT

GAS FIELD

518 GJ 19,1 KG PHOSPHATE 1371 M3

124

192 GJ


6.3.4

SLOTERVAART FLOWS: 2050

HEAT TO AMSTERDAM

WATER PURIFICATION PLANT

WINDTURBINES 674 M3

177 GJ

8 GJ

15,9 KG PHOSPHATE

NUTRIENT EXPORT TO AALSMEER

695 GJ

125


126


7 DESIGNING THE SYNERGY WITH URBAN PROGRAM 127


LOW DENSITY BLOCK

128

SOCIAL NEIGHBOURHOOD CLUSTER

HIGH DENSITY BLOCK


7.1.1

CIRCULAR RETROFITTING OF SLOTERVAART To explore how the design can add to the social cohesion and improve living conditions a zoom-in is made of a part of Slotervaart. This zoom-in contains 3 elements which can be replicated in the area of Slotervaart in similar areas. These elements are 1) a housing block with row housing, 2) housing block with high density housing, 3) neighbourhood nutrient hub. Besides drawing in the measurements it is important to see what they can contribute to the location. Can the design add to social cohesion or improve living conditions. For example, helophytefilters for greywater reuse not only reduce drink water import but it can also create more biodiversity, it can be designed as a park. With these three elements an exploration and impressions are made for a more circular Slotervaart. It also adresses how circularity can be integrated in the design to improve the spatial quality of the location. The design impressions show how the elements look, work together and add value to the site. Showing the relation between how much the interventions solve and their spatial impact. This shows the real spatial impact of the interventions related to the potential circularity. And if it would solve 100% or 0.1%. The design elements derived from the design phase here can be applied in a larger part of Slotervaart. This is due to the fact that the neighbourhood of Slotervaart has parts with a similar spatial structure as the designed elements. These areas are shown in the map, in corresponding with the color their zoom-ins have. The elements will be elaborated on in the following pages, showing how these zoom-ins are made circular using multiple interventions. The added circularity is shown by the bars H (heat), E (Electricity), W (drink water), P (Phosphate). At the end (7.2.1-7.2.4) the transition is given from 2017 towards 2050.

129


The block are shaped by enclosing buildings with often a central green/public space. This type is very common in Slotervaart. If we look at the block now, we can see that it is dominated by the car. In the center of the block there is a patch of green space. However due to the spatial organization the green fulfills no function and is underutilized. The high density block is interesting to see how to deal with the interventions in a higher density. The social neighbourhood cluster is shaped by a clustering of social functions in a neighbourhood. In this case it are two schools, however it can also be other functions such as an elderly home or a small local supermarket. It is important that this location has a function to be a social hub and gathering point for its neighbourhood. However often these places are not as accessible and inviting to stay even though they fulfill public functions. 130


PRESENT: 2017

H E W P

0% 0% 0% 0%

131


132


PHASE 1 : 2025

H E W P

100% 105% 49%

30%

133


SIERPLEIN

134


The heat is supplied by a heat network connected to the geothermal hub on the Sierplein in Slotervaart. The heat is then distributed through the heat network to each of the buildings. On the Sierplein heat is also made visible by implementing heat-related program in the geothermal heat hub (Deijs & Atteveld, 2015). The program can be making coffee, from hot water out of the ground. Or a sauna or spa or possible something else. However the attachment of such additional program is important for the visibility of the flow. People can see that heat can do more for them and also be fun and interesting.

Geothermal hub in Den Haag

http://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/rvo_website_content/energiezuiniggebouwd/747_3.jpg

Geothermal spa, Warmsterdam Deijs & Atteveld, 2015

Solar panels are applied on all flat roofs and roofs with orientation south, east and west. This generates 524 GJ electricity (This is 163% of the demand) for the low density block. For the high density block the solar panels generate 738 GJ electricity (This is 83% of the demand). An extra 400m2 of solar panels would need to be implemented for the block to be self sufficient. However in the low density tile there was a surplus of electricity. This means that if the two elements were to be connected they can exchange electricity. If the two elements are connected and share the electricity produced they produce 105% of the electricity demand. Solar panels can be integrated in the design of the roofs to be more appealing (Tesla, 2016). A lot of development is taking place in the field of solar panels in making them more efficient and appealing.

Solar panels in roof tiles

http://www.zonnepanelendakpannen.nl/zonnepanelen-dakpannen/

Solar Roof

Tesla, 2016 https://www.tesla.com/solarroof

135


136


A nutrient hub is created which forms the local center of (organic) waste. The nutrient hub consists of a few components. The nutrient hub, where the organic wastes are converted to phosphate, and a extension which functions a waste recycle point. The organic waste is collected by hand and by small electric truck. The nutrient hub has a radius about 300m from which the organic waste is collected. About 30% of the phosphate is reclaimed, the rest of phosphate cannot be reclaimed, since it is in wastewater. Principles can be used to promote and reward recycling and waste management (van der Leer, 2016). By designing with it it can be made more visible. People are more inclined to separate waste if they can see what happens with it (marco. broekman, 2017).

Waste collection points van der Leer, 2016

Triciclos Recycling Station Triciclos, 2012 http://www.triciclos.net/en/

The reclaimed phosphate can be reused locally for urban farming. The urban farming is organized around the nutrient hub and the school. This makes it so that the nutrient hub and the urban farm are part of the space of the school. This way the grown food can be given to the schools providing healthy food for the children. The children can participate in the farming and this spreads awareness of the phosphate cycle. The intervention of reusing phosphate by urban farming is mostly an awareness and communication tools since only 6.7% of the phosphate is reused. The remaining reclaimed phosphate (23.3%) can be transported to the hinterland by truck, these areas can be Aalsmeer or Haarlemmermeer were it is used as fertilizer to grow crops. The nutrient hub forms a local waste and nutrient cluster. It provides a social gathering point for the inhabitants and by using social functions it is made accessible. It helps in educating people about circularity and the phosphate flow, providing fertilizer for their gardens and some locally grown foods. Although the urban farming might not provide meaningful circularity it does provide a valuable awareness function.

Urban Agriculture combined with education

http://www.inhabitots.com/edible-schoolyard-nyc-transforms-an-old-parking-lot-in-brooklynintoan-urban-agriculture-oasis-for-students/

Education with Nature

Nursery Fields Forever, 2015 http://www.archdaily.com/781867/nursery-fields-forever-reconnects-early-childhood-educationwith-nature

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For the reuse of greywater helophyte plants are used to clean and reuse the water within the elements. For the small building block a helophyte filter is proposed to filter the greywater. It requires 400m2 helophyte filter needs to be implemented to reuse the greywater. For the high density block 960m2 helophyte filter needs to be implemented to reuse the greywater. By implementing this the drinkwater usage can be reduced by 49%. However this does require the creation of new greywater infrastructure. The water is cleaned by organisms near the plants. Because of this it requires the water to flow through the plants. The length of the system needs to be optimalized (Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012). Because of this you get the zig-zag pattern which cleans the water the most efficient. Each block creates its own greywater system adding to the visibility and incentive for the helophyte system.

Helophyte filters in Flintenbreite near Lübeck, Germany https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructed_wetland#Nitrogen_removal

The underutilized green space is used to design the helophyte filter. The space is organized as a public park. Adding to the ecological value of the greenery and also cleaning the water for reuse in the housing block. This way the greenery fulfills a function for the housing blocks. The design can take shape in many forms from very sleek design to natural. The only requirement is that t he water flows through the system. Greywater filter as natural park design DUS (Dutch Urban Solutions), 2016 https://www.dutchurbansolutions.com/brno

Tanner Springs Park, Portland, US.

Pötz&Bleuzé, 2012 http://www.urbangreenbluegrids.com/projects/tanner-springs-park-portland-oregon-us/

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PHASE 2 : 2035

H E W P

100% 105% 49%

90%

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By implementing shared (electric) cars the amount of parking spaces can be reduced. Besides parking also the infrastructural access can be altered to favor slow traffic (pedestrian and cyclists) over cars. This gives more space for the inhabitants to claim. The electric cars can also be used to balance the fluctuation in the electricity grid and function as batteries for the block (Foster+Partners, 2016). Storing electricity while being parked during day and discharging at night when electricity is mostly consumed but not produced by the solar panels.

Electric cars as battery Foster+Partners, 2016 https://www.car2go.com/NL/nl/

Electric shared vehicles Car2Go https://www.car2go.com/NL/nl/

To increase the amount of reclaimed phosphate decentral sewage can be installed. Since 50% of the phosphate is in the 1% wastewater-flow (urine) separated yellow-blackwater pipes can be proposed (Metabolic, 2014). Inside the houses no-mix toilets and kitchen grinders can be installed (Metabolic, 2014). This increases the reclaimed to 90% of the phosphate use. Besides more reclamation the decetral sewage also automates the process and removes the need to manually collect the organic materials. The dubble infrastructure makes the investment costs high however on the long term it can lead to reduction of costs or even profit because of the increased selling of reclaimed phosphate as fertilizer (Metabolic, 2014).

Decentral sewage hub Waterschoon, 2013 http://www.waterschoon.nl/

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Because the car is diverted and the amount of parking places is reduced there is the opportunity to redesign the inner area of each of the blocks. These areas can be transformed into the courtyard and shared garden of each block. This improves the opportunity to meet each other and enhances the social cohesion and social control over the area.

Shared garden design, Schiebroek-Zuid

Except, 2010 http://www.except.nl/nl/projects/56-sustainable-schiebroek-zuid

Shared garden, Utrecht DELVA, 2016 http://delva.la/projecten/5976/

By implementing different types of plants related to bees and butterflies the ecological climate of the area is improved. These insects can help with pollinate the crops grown on the urban farm. By setting up beekeepers honey can be farmed and the bee, which numbers are struggeling at the moment, can be given a place in the local ecosystem. Butterflies are also essential and by planting different types of plants and flowers they can be protected. Beekeeper with plans to make town â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bee-friendlyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

http://www.weespernieuws.nl/nieuws/algemeen/23913/imker-komt-met-plan-voorbijenvriendelijk-weesp?redir

Butterflies in butterfly garden

http://interieurtips.eu/wp-content/uploads/Vlinders-in-je-tuin-voorbeelden-1024x576.jpg

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The products grown on the urban farm and the nutrient hub can be sold locally on the space near the neighbourhood cluster. This makes the flows visible and tangible and can awaken peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interest in them. Besides awareness it also generates a small income based on the sold products. However this is not the main reason for creating a small market on this location. Market stand â&#x20AC;&#x2122;From your own cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Uit je eigen stad http://www.uitjeeigenstad.nl/

The plastic waste can be collected near the nutrient hub. The waste can be converted to printing material for 3D-printers. Street furniture can be printed with the plastic waste of the neighbourhood (The New Raw, 2015). Creating an identity based on the people and the location. The 3D-printer also helps in re-industrializing the area and helping the new manufacturing trend, using 3D-printing technology. By printing furniture based on plastic waste the square organically takes shape over time.

3D printed furniture from plastic waste The New Raw, 2015 http://3dprintcanalhouse.com/

KamerMaker 3D-printer DUS architects, 2013 http://3dprintcanalhouse.com/

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PHASE 3 : 2050

H E W P

100% 105% 49%

40%

90%

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The car is more phased out and replaced by the (autonomous) shared electric car. By implementing a HODOS to connected to the automated vehicle grid the amount of parking spaces can be reduced (Nap & de Waart, 2016). This since there is no need for parking directly in near the building. Besides the reduced parking the traffic will also be diverted to the outside of the block. This offers the opportunity to redesign the inner area to a courtyards for the block. The helophyte filters can be expanded to filter water for the dense city center, where space is limited. The street then becomes a possible productive street (DUS, 2016). not only solving the greywater problem of its own but also for denser areas while also improving the urban quality.

HODOS (Hop-on-drop-off-spot) for driverless car Nap & de Waart, 2016 https://issuu.com/briannap/docs/boekje_auto_correcting_5cb45866d82ee7

The productive street

DUS (Dutch Urban Solutions), 2016 https://www.dutchurbansolutions.com/brno

The inner area can be transformed into more valable green spaces. Offering also more space for childeren to interact with. Green spaces for childeren lead to less bullying (NOS, 2017). It is also shown that childeren can learn better after playing outside and are more creative (NOS, 2017). They exercise more and the motorics of children are improved (NOS, 2017). Besided that the childeren also bring their parents more in contact with others adding to the social cohesion. Speeldernis

Lobst, 2002 http://www.groenblauwenetwerken.com/projects/speeldernis-rotterdam-the-netherlands/

Green schoolyard

Juffie in â&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Groen http://nos.nl/artikel/2165920-lekker-vies-worden-op-het-groene-schoolplein.html

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Near the nutrient hub urban farming workshops can be given. People are educated about the phosphate cycle, given fertilizer and taught about healthy food. This helps to spread the awareness and can help in behavioral changes based on the instructions given. By giving workshops the small active core of inhabitants can educate ones interested in the subject. Urban farming workshop

NOFFN http://www.recirculatingfarms.org/new-and-beginning-farmers/

Urban gardening workshop

The Holland Project, 2014 http://www.hollandreno.org/event/urban-gardening-workshop/

With the knowledge given people can create their own shared urban farms/urban gardens. These work in relation to the nutrient hub but can be tailor made to fit the needs and request of a small community. By letting them form organically communities are formed based on the social connections already there, adding to the social cohesion of the neighbourhood. Because people are invested in their own space they are more inclined to take care of it and derived their identity from it. The gardens also enhance the livability, add ecological value and can house other communal activities, such as a barbeque. The places help to reduce stress and improve the living quality of its inhabitants (POSAD, n.d.).

Creation of urban gardens bij Creatief Beheer Creatief Beheer http://www.dakparkrotterdam.nl/agenda/meewerkdag-creatief-beheer-4/

Volunteers at Urban Farming035 Urban Farming035 http://www.urbanfarming035.nl/author/shaz/

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The 3D printer is scaled up to become a repair cafĂŠ. Just as with the multisupermarket, people can also receive their online ordered packages, trade/sell old appliances or other good or 3D-print/fix goods. Instead of throwing things away they can be fixed, this helps to reduce the amount of waste. The pavilion can reuse material to add to the character of circularity. By giving it a central spot near the nutrient hub it is easily accessible. Fablab and repair workplace marco.broekman, 2017

The Circular Pavilion Encore Heureux Architects, 2015

The furniture on the square can be integrated with charging devices and Wi-Fi. These are then connected to solar panels or the solar panels can even be integrated in the furniture. This helps to make the newly formed square more pleasant as a staying area. Again it also helps to show the benefits of the circular interventions and makes people more aware of the flows, such as electricity.

Solar-powered bench with charging

Soofa, 2015 https://www.re-work.co/blog/iot-boston-soofa-sandra-richter

Bench with integrated solar panels and Wi-Fi

Solar Inside http://www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/solar-powered-bench-is-eco-andgeek-friendly.html

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The market can be scaled up on the newly formed square.On the market local goods and services can be exchanged. Products from the nutrient hub can be sold on the market. It is located on the square so facilities can connect to the heat network for example.

Oogstmark in Rotterdam, Noordplein

https://www.desteronline.nl/maandelijks-oogstmarkt-op-het-noordplein/

Foodtruck

https://foodinista.nl/top-10-food-truck-festivals-lente-2015/

The square at the nutrient hub can be converted to an urban gym. Here people can be motivated about healthy living, combining healthy food with possible exercise. The track can be connected to the heat grid making it possible to keep the track usable all year round. This helps in keeping the inhabitants healthy, reducing stress and contributing to also a healthy city (POSAD, n.d.).

Exercise park

Archi-Union Architects, 2014 https://laud8.wordpress.com/2014/12/11/zhangmiao-exercise-park/

Healthy urbanism

POSAD http://posad.nl/projects/gezonde-verstedelijking/

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During the winter the square can be transformed to an ice skating rink. The ice skating ring generates warmth which can be put into the heating network. This way the energy required for such an ice skating rink is used optimal.

Small ice rink in Oud-IJsselmonde

https://petities.nl/petitions/ijsbaan-oud-ijsselmonde?locale=nl

The school square can be transformed into a water square. This can help with the stormwater management of the neighbourhood but also make water a more visible and interactive part for children. This way children can play and learn about nature and water. By combining all these educational functions around the neighbourhood hub it becomes the center of awareness. The nutrient hub, the 3D-print lab, the market and the water square all work together on making circularity visible and tangible. Especially by catering to children the change of mindset can be initiated since the children are the future inhabitants of the circular neighbourhood.

Watersquare

http://www.urban2020.nl/vijf-tips-voor-maatschappelijk-verantwoord-succes/

Natural watersquare or wadi

http://www.vlugp.nl/projecten/archipel-floriande/

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7.2.1

PRESENT: 2017

1206 GJ 14.783M3 14.783M3 726 GJ

Consumption of flows (yearly) 160


7.2.2

PHASE 1: 2025

452,6 KG P 7227M3 5621M3 58.805 GJ

Consumption of flows (yearly) 161


7.2.3

PHASE 2: 2035

1580,5 KG P 7227M3

58.805 GJ

Consumption of flows (yearly) 162


7.2.4

PHASE 3: 2050

1580,5 KG P 7227M3 7556M3 58.805 GJ

Consumption of flows (yearly) 163


164


8 CIRCULAR AMSTERDAM MADE REAL! 165


SLOTERVAART NOW At the moment the metabolic system of Slotervaart is very linear. Depleting resources, such as gas and electricity from coal, are imported and phosphate is discharged as a waste. The system is centralized and the visible of the flows is hidden far away (coal plant) or underground (pipes and infrastructure). The system is unsustainable and generates a negative spin-of such as waste and pollution

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SLOTERVAART THE DESIGN Slotervaart will export heat (131%) to the city of Amsterdam. It will filter and reuse its own greywater, reducing the amount of drinkwater input 49%. Even more greywater can be filtered from other parts of the city. The sewage and organic waste is collected on neighbourhood level, making it possible to reclaim 90% of the phosphate flowing through the district. The reclaimed phosphate is used as fertilizer and is exported to the hinterland of Amsterdam. Close to all electricity (96%) is produced in the area using solar panels. To balance the energy grid the district uses hundreds/thousands of small batteries, electric shared cars. The area is made more livable and sustainable by implementing the circular design interventions.

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AMSTERDAM NOW The city of Amsterdam is at the moment very dependent on unsustainable sources. The electricity is derived from mainly the two power plants, running on coal. There is a small amount of electricity coming from wind sources (<3%). At the moment waste is burned and gives some heat and electricity but valuable minerals are lost due to the burning. A small percentage of heat (7%) is delivered through the heat network. The heat network is now supplied by hospitals, the trash burning plant and the power plant. Wastewater is cleaned , however the phosphate rich water is discharged making it so that the phosphate is diluted and unreclaimable. The city uses a very central system to deal with the urban flows.

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AMSTERDAM THE EXTRAPOLATION The design and analysis leads to the extrapolation for the more circular city. The heat is derived from sustainable sources and transported through an extensive heat network to all users. The heat comes from the south part from residual heat and geothermal and is transported to the north side. Electricity is partily generated in the city from solar (16%) and wind (7%). The rest is imported from the region (60%). The sewage is solved decentral as shown in Slotervaart and phosphate is exported to outside the city to be used as fertilizer. Greywater is reused in the city. The greywater from the dense city is transported to the outer city parts where there is the space to filter the water. Making the city extensions really â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the Garden citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

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MRA-REGION NOW The MRA-region is depended from sources imported from far away. The electricity is produced in the two main electricity plants. There are some windturbines but they do not supply Amsterdam. The heat is supplied through a central gas structure, which is imported from Groningen but also from Russia. The sewage is centrally collected and in the treatment plant it is cleaned and the phosphate is discharged with the cleaned water to the surface water. The phosphate is transported with the water towards the sea, here the phosphate is diluted and lost in the phosphate-cycle. Drinkwater is transported from the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen towards the city.

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MRA-REGION THE VISION Based on the analysis and the potential calculation a small vision is made for the MRA-region. The vision proposes a circular region. Heat from the region, from industrial sources, can be transported to the city through a regional heat network. Windtrubines on sea and solar fields on land generate electricity. Phosphate reclaimed in the city is transported to the region to agricultural land. Phosphate is used as fertilizer to grow food and crops in the areas, such as Aalsmeer or Haarlemmermeer. The amount of drinkwater is greatly reduced since the city reuses the greywater. Creating a more sustainable region.

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8.2

CONCLUSION If we look back towards the project it is clear that the city can achieve a great deal of circularity with the proposed interventions. When looking at the area of Slotervaart we can see it goes from a linear import location towards a circular system, exporting heat to Amsterdam and filtering greywater for parts of the city. It exports nutrients to the hinterland of Amsterdam and is almost self-sufficient in electricity. At the same time the livability of the neighbourhood is improved and helps to create a more valuable public space. The social cohesion is improved since the circular measurements solve problems for the people and gives it a value to them. The nutrient hub offers a place for people to gather round. The matrix helps to identify areas in Amsterdam where large amount of heat or electricity can be generated which flow towards areas with a lack of potential. All these interactions can be conceptual visualized in a map, showing a circular Amsterdam.

The project tries to show the interaction between the different scales. How nutrients reclaimed on a block level can be transported to the hinterland of the city on a regional level, The developed matrix can be used to explore different intervention proposals for the city of Amsterdam and where their potential is. This can lead to recommendations to further elaborate on these sites for creating a more circular city of Amsterdam.

Possible vs. desirable:

The analysis of Slotervaart shows that the different interventions all have a different impact and different potential. Which ones are desirable is about how much spatial impact do you accept for how much potential. Meaning would you choose one windturbine with a very high, but local spatial impact or solar panels requiring much more space to have the same potential but a lower spatial impact. By doing the analysis for Slotervaart this question is made tangible. It can be used as a tool of The project has given insight in how circularity debate. It can help people of an area chose can be designed and integrated in the city, for the right intervention they want. By giving while still being quantified and showing the them a choice, an image and a potential you potentials. give them options to see what would fit in that

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area. Making it also easier for the interventions to be accepted. In the design experiment the interventions were now chosen on the highest potential in the least space. For this would be a design for a neighbourhood the analysis can be used during the design process to discuss with local inhabitants which interventions they would want. In the case of Slotervaart the design lead to a great improvement of the circularity of the district. The electricity is solved 96% of the demand. Heat can be exported to other areas since more heat is produced (131%) than consumed. The need for drinkwater is reduced by 49%, this is replaced by greywater reuse for tasks which do not require drink water. Phosphate from organic waste and sewage is collected decentral in a nutrient hub making it so that 90% of the runoff phosphate is reclaimed and reusable. Most phosphate is exported and a small part is used locally for urban farming (6,7%). This is used for social awareness purposes.

Centralized vs. decentralized:

Just as with the scales, there is not one more favorable than the other. At the moment the system is very centralized. This is visible when looking through the different scales. Showing the central infrastructure distributing the flows to the users. In the proposed circular vision it is an interaction between central and decentral infrastructures. Electricity for example can be solved decentral on a neighbourhoodscale. However it can be made more durable and reliable by connecting multiple smaller grids to each other. This way they can better manage the fluctuation in the powergrid. The reclamation of phosphate is more reliable on the neighbourhood level, since then it is easier to reclaim the phosphate since there is less contamination and dilution of the sewage to extract the phosphate. However it also requires a certain amount of houses or offeces connected to the systems to make it economically feasible. This shows that there is an interaction between decentral and central in the circular city. However the infrastructure will Scales: be decentralized more compared to the current In â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Towards the Amsterdam circular economyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; situation. (DRO, 2013) it is called the global to local discussion. In the present situation the system uses very global flows. This is shown partially in the MFA. In the graduation project it is shown that some flows are solved on block level, others on neighbourhood level and others on the district level. This very much depends on the intervention proposed. However it seems that a good scale to create more circularity is the neighbourhood level. But this does not mean it is the only level, it requires the other scales to be effective. This adds to the complexity of urban metabolism. However one can acknowledge that the global scale often leads to more unsustainable choices. Also flows intersect and influence each other on different scales. Meaning that for exemple phosphate is related to food. Or that heat and electricity are closly related to each other.

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9 EPILOGE 175


9.1

REFLECTION In this reflection multiple aspects of the graduation project will be reflected upon and concluded. These include the design implementation, the graduation project vs. referenced urban metabolism material, the graduation process and the implementation of the graduation work/ material after the graduation process.

The design implementation: The design could be influenced by all sorts of factors in this reflection an eleboration will be made on what these influences can be. What would influence the cost, who are key actors, how can it be implemented, what might/would obstruct implementations? I-Costs: Cost could be one of the main themes. And although in this graduation project the focus has been on the technical potential it is very important to be aware of the financial part. At the moment we write off because we think something is worthless, and we write it down when it has value. In a closed circular system everything has a value, every mineral/material will have a value (Rau, 2017). Especially in a time where raw materials are getting more scarce the prices will rise and get more unstable. At the same time we should rethink as mentioned and consider what we now see as wastes as resources. By acknowledging that we can put values on flows such as phosphate. The reclaimed phosphate can be sold as fertilizer. The debate can be how is this profit defined, but this would be a research on itself. In Amsterdam Circulair (FABRIC, 2015) they mention that at the moment there is also a lack of pricing externalities and emissions. By including these the market for the flows can be changed drastically. In WaterSchoon (Noorderhoek, Sneek) they set up a decentral sewage system. The project is a good reference and shows that it is feasible with the current techniques to implement decentral sewage. The system uses less water, less energy, produces phosphate and biogas. Now it arrives in the phase of upscaling. This is often still a difficult step upscaling from a pilot-project to a commercial scale (FABRIC, 2015). This is due to the fact that often these systems require new infrastructure, use new technology 176

and are therefor assets as risky. More and more is circularity also proving itself with new business models, this is shown in Groene Dromen (VPRO, 2017) and BlueCity (2017) in Rotterdam. II-Actors: The key actors for the project are mainly the inhabitants/consumers and the government/ municipality. They would hold a key role in shaping the transition. However they would have very different roles. We would need a different role for the government, now it is not an ‘overheid’ (government) but an ‘onderheid’ (an entrepreneurial government). The government should focus more on defending the strong framework for the transition (Rau, 2017). A good example of such shaped transition in the Netherlands is the transition from coal to gas in the ‘60. It was the framework of the government which provided the quick transition (Rau, 2017). Another good example of a good lead from the governmental level are Denmark (heat) and Germany (Energiewende) In Denmark prior to 1979 there was no regulation on heat supply. During the oil crisis in th ‘70 the first heat supply law was formed. By setting up the framework to create the heat infrastructure and formulating laws banning the discharge of industrial heat the transition towards extensive heat networks began. Now heating networks provide heat to 63% of Danish households (Whitehead, 2014). In Germany the government started the Energiewende, the energy transition. Because of it they went from 6.3% electricity from renewable sources in 2000 to 34% in 2016 (Wikipedia, 2017). Besides sustainable goals it also helped creating economic potential, offering jobs in the solar and wind energy industry (Wikipedia, 2017). And although the framework of the government was top-down the implementation is bottom-up. This is shown by the fact that 51% of the renewable electricity production was owned by citizens as of 2011 (Morris, 2013). Since Germany was one of the first to have such big energy transition they can be an interesting case-study for how to achieve it. Kösters (2016) does this and defines three lessons from the


Energiewende. That the energy transition is one of the long-vision, which does gives (economic) benefits but has relatively long return time. That it should have a clear goal, but a more flexible approach to reach it. And solar and wind should not be the only focus of the transition. Especially the storage and balancing of the electricity grid is of demand. Lessons as such can help to create a more effective transition towards circularity and see which tools and policies work and which did not. A local government can initiate the transition, maybe help finance but others are the drivers of the transition. (Jonkhoff, 2017) We can already see a changing role of the municipality. In Amsterdam no more new housing is build with gas as heat supply and the heat network is expanded on (Parool, 2016). They also mentioned the ambition to create the gasless city in 2050 (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2016). Similar ambitions should be made for other flows to create circularity, as shown the municipality does not create the gasless city but shapes the framework to do so. This is the role the governmental levels should have.

is our mental condition. The real goal is not circularity, but a mentality change which will lead to a different relation between human and earth.” (Rau, 2016) This is a very striking quote which should be addressed and dealt with properly. And although awareness on it self is not a guarantee to change I think visibility and incentives related to circularity help in creating this mind change. Because next to the functionality the proposed interventions also help in making the flows more visible and tangible. People are more inclined to separate waste if they can see what happens with it (Marco.broekman, 2017). And also if the can derive their identity from it, meaning that it has a visible impact on their lives. This could lead to a transition of ‘consumer’ to ‘prosumer’ (Marco.broekman, 2017). Thus leading to more appreciation of the flows and a change in mindset and behavior.

Although there is a critical footnote. ‘We do

not need an enlightened politician but we need a date/deadline’ (Agterberg, 2017). This is the moment we start to think about ‘what then?’. If we keep it vague and abstract there will not be a call to action. An interesting concept mentioned by Agterberg (2017) is to organize elections in a neighbourhood for creating circularity in that area. Give them some possible options, with some background knowledge and give them a choice what they want to do. This can help in acceptance of spatial impact of circularity in a neighbourhood. This is now being tested in two neighbourhoods in Arnhem (Agterberg ,2017). The spatial exploration shown for Slotervaart can help in researching and communicating such options with the inhabitants. III-Awerness: Awareness is one of the most influential changes towards circularity. However awareness and necessity are not guarantees to change.

“There is only one reason why there is not any change: because we do not want. The problem

The prosumer Marco.broekman, 2017

The graduation project vs. referenced urban metabolism material: The graduation project started with a reflection and review of Amsterdam Circulair (FABRIC, 2015). And I was inspired by the IABR project done by FABRIC (2014). How does my presented graduation project related to their work? Has the critical approach based on their work given different results? This is the questions is asked when reviewing my materials next to theirs. 177


An interesting point I gave myself is that I wanted to have a design on a location in the city. This is contrary to their work where they work with a spatially generic design. The benefit of having a more spatially generic tile it has a greater replicability. However if it would then to be implemented on a location the design would not fit. The design made for Slotervaart now can be seen as such next step of implementing their theories in a local context and interaction with such context. As shown there are certain aspects of the design which can be extrapolated (8). However the design is tailor made for Slotervaart, as such the calculations are made for that neighbourhood. While the work of FABRIC focuses more on the validation of the possible generic interventions. These generic interventions formed a foundation for my graduation work. By their work I could elaborate more on the implementation of them in a context. In that sense one requires the other to be meaningful. The work of FABRIC is more of strategic and visionary approach, including a lot of research in it. However the design doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t answer how and where in the city these possible generic interventions would be implemented. And how much they contribute to the circularity of an area. This would be the next step and this formed the base for the design in this research project. Because the work of FABRIC was more research and inventorize their priority was not on the design implementation part but more a strategic outline for the region. In the IABR project (FABRIC, 2014).

Graduation process: In this section I will reflect on the graduation process. During it I will highlight and elaborate on some interesting educational moments. At the beginning of the process I knew early which way I wanted to go. How to get there and the complexity of the subject was not something I was aware of at that time. This was partially due to the fact that I did not chose one flow but multiple flows adding to the complexity, and requiring understanding of each of them. However I think this choice for multiple flows has been beneficial 178

since it enriched the project and showed how to really deal with urban metabolism as a more complex system. During the graduation process I had difficulty to come to a site. Because of this I needed to develop the allocation tool which has become a very valuable result from this graduation project. After the graduation project I would like to further work on the tool and its interaction with GIS. My project formed based on a critical approach towards urban metabolism in urban design. Because often there is a mismatch between the analysis done and the design proposed. During the project at times it was easy to fall in the same mistakes as the material I critiqued. This meant that it was very important to link the design I made to the bigger picture I researched earlier. This was done by calculating and quantifying design proposals and see how they would fit in other scales. In the beginning there was the idea to do multiple different types of space. In the end there have been three small design made for one location in the city of Amsterdam. However the process and the build-up approach are maybe more valuable than the designs themselves. Since now the designs are linked to the circular impact they have. This was one of the gaps which was mentioned during the relevancy of this project. The project can easily be expanded on by others, using some of the methodologies used in this project. In some parts of the project it was not about making the design for Amsterdam but it was about setting up a methodology. Things like the spatial tiles and the allocation tool can easily be used in other projects and other locations. Therefore I think these are very important products of this graduation project. However the focus was not those tools, but how we as urban designers would then use them. The tools can be improved by communicating them with people from other fields who know more about the technical side of the interventions. I envision that we as urban designers would then look how we can apply it in the design process. This is something I tried to do by exploring the different interventions in the area of Slotervaart.


Another difficult part is communication. During the graduation process it took a long time to really organize everything in a good story. Eventhough there was a lot of material the structure was unclear. This meant that the effort put in the material was not readable. This was partially due to circumstance and the complexity of the chosen subject. During the process I had to take a moment to really organize the process to see where I started and where I was heading towards. After I had the story clear for myself I also found it much easier to explain my project to others. Not only what I was doing, but why I think it is valuable in the scientific field of urban metabolism. Sometimes communication is still difficult since the understanding of the flows, the intervention and urban metabolism as a theory is complex. Especially since it consists of a lot of visible part some, maybe most, not even tangible. Finding the right way to communicate flow analysis and the circular improvements is still a search. However explaining and presenting the project to people from the field of urbanism and from outside the study field helped me to see what worked and what did not. Making this more graphical and relatable often helped. Making it easier for people to understand if they can imagine it. Having different mentors with different fields of expertise greatly helped me to address the gap between urban metabolism and urban design. It helped me to see the inter-linkage between the spatial design and the quantified impact. By describing my process in this booklet I hope to contribute to integrate urban metabolism in the field of urbanism. To show what the value can be if it were to be an integral part of the design process.

Implementation in concrete projects: After the graduation project I want to continue working on some of the materials created during the graduation process. Especially the GIS model/ matrix and the approach for applying urban metabolism measurements on neighbourhood level. In the weeks towards the end of the study I started to communicate my idea towards others. During these talks the relevance of some of the products of this graduation project was validated, After the graduation I want to continue working on

this project and trying to implement it in the field. I want to set the GIS model up as an open source tool (for educational and research purposes). The approach I want to define and communicate in helping other urban designers and planners dealing with urban metabolism. Because often I can see the interest in such subjects but the technological knowhow of possible circular interventions is a big hurdle. This is because a lot of (technical) knowledge about the interventions is available, however for an urban designer/ planner the spatial requirements and potentials are the interesting parts. By creating a better communication language, by using these tiles, urban designers and planners can more easily design with these interventions, helping to create more sustainable cities. A possible implementation of the graduation project in the field is for the municipality of Haarlem or MRA-region. After the graduation project a meeting will be held with people of the municipality and the MRA-region about the possibilities to find a test case of the project. Their interest was peaked by the spatial translation of circularity. And since they are shaping the energy transition they were interested in the used methodology and products. Another possibility is using the platform Metabolism of Cities (2017). Metabolism of Cities is an open source platform which collects information useful to researchers involved in Urban Metabolism research. By collaborating and using the platform the acquired knowledge can be shared. The GIS model can be further used and improved by other actors, helping to validate the model. And seeing if it can be applied elsewhere besides the Netherlands. In the upcoming time I hope I can share and improve on the products presented in the graduation report. I think it would be a pity if the acquired knowledge about an important problem in urban metabolism, the link between data and design, would be lost.

179


9.2

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9.3 APPENDIX

POTENTIAL CALCULATION Building age 0-1: CASE WHEN “Bouwjaar” > 2010 THEN 0.1 WHEN “Bouwjaar” > 1999 THEN 0.2 WHEN “Bouwjaar” > 1980 THEN 0.4 WHEN “Bouwjaar” > 1945 THEN 0.7 WHEN “Bouwjaar” > 1900 THEN 0.9 WHEN “Bouwjaar” > 100 THEN 0.2 ELSE 0 END Dense 0-1: CASE WHEN “Inhabitant” > 300 THEN 1 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 250 THEN 0.8 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 100 THEN 0.6 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 50 THEN 0.4 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 2 THEN 0.1 ELSE 0 END

GEO 0-1: CASE WHEN “Geothermie” > 0.6 THEN 1.4 WHEN “Geothermie” > 0.3 THEN 1.2 WHEN “Geothermie” > 0.15 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END Gas 0-1: CASE WHEN “gas use” > 75 THEN 1 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 35 THEN 0.8 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 20 THEN 0.6 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 10 THEN 0.4 WHEN “Inhabitant” > 0.01 THEN 0.1 ELSE 0 END OSR 0-1: 1- “OSR”

GEO pot: ((( “industry” *1)+( “living” *2)+ (“nature” *0)+( “office” *1)+ (“retail” *1)+ (“agri” *0.5))+ “OSR 0-1” + (“Age 0-1”*2) + “Gas 0-1” + “Dense 0-1” ) * “GEO 0-1”

183


POSSIBLE SPATIAL INTERVENTIONS

GH TS

B. )

low > high persons/ha

: B NG AG H

LD

I

(g ure g t l e try u in l tur gric ous etai ndus ffice a r n a h i o

GI S

e)

us

ho

n ree

BU I

GI S

FU N

CT

: G IO RO N UN S D US

E

EI

20 14

HA

CB S

( IN

10 0

TY SI

:1 00 X

GI S

favorable

EN

possible

SPATIAL

D

unfavorable

ALLOCATION CRITERIA

impossible

low > high height x m

ELECTRICITY

-

SOLAR PANELS lower density is more favorable

retail, industry and offices are biggest consumers electricity so here pv panels are more favorable

higher density means more people per hectare which limits placing of turbines

can not be placed with nature or housing, can be placed with retail or offices but is favorable with agriculture or industry

lower density is more favorable since it is easier to implement

is unfavorable nature can be implemented with housing or agriculture, is favorable with retail, industry or offices

higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

nature and agriculture are favorable because of abundance of biomass, housing because consumption heat and electricity

WINDTURBINES higher buildings influence the wind speed, reducing potential

SMALL WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS

h> 20m building needs certain height to be feasible for windturbines on roof

-

COMBINED HEAT/POWER (BIOMASS) INSTALLATION

HEAT

-

GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM

>99/ha higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

favorble for housing since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not enough heat is needed (except greenhouses)

-

RESIDUAL HEAT EXCHANGE higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

favorble for housing and retail since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not feasible. Industry and offices can be producers and consumers

-

COLD/HEAT STORAGE IN GROUND

<153/ha

favorble for retail, industryand offices since they require both heat and cooling. excluded for agriculture since it is not feasible

requires enough useage to make feasible, to much density limites the capcity of the system

BUILDING ISOLATION

-

most favorable for housing, but is theoretically possible in every building

DRINK WATER RAINWATER INPUT SYSTEM higher density require more storage for rainwater

favorble for housing and office as input of toilet water

higher density require bigger footprint helophyte filter which can be limited

favorble for housing and retail as here grey water can be reused

-

GREYWATER REUSE SYTEM

h> x higher buildings more favorable since system can be applied vertical

PHOSPHATE

-

NUTRIENT RECLAIMATION HUB requires enough nutrients to be feasible, higher density more nutrients to reclaim

Agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful

DECENTRAL SEWAGE SYSTEM

>x/ha requires enough users for setting up decentral system

URBAN FARMING TO REUSE PHOSHATE

184

Agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful

-

most favorable for housing and office. Here nutrients can be reclaimed and reused directly.


M E)

> 1900

>1,25 ha

-

A

GI GE S: U F GI SA LO S: G W GI US E G S: AG AS W GI AT E E S: E LE PH R C O USA TRI SP G C HA E? ITY T E ?? US WA M AG TE IS E? RN C. ?? ET ?

US

same renew new

monuments and protected city scape limit placement of pv panels

?

SA (N EW /R E/ GE LD

CH A

N

old > new

BU I

: B AG AG E

LD

GI S

BU I

PE

GI N S: SP BU A IL C D E IN GS RA /1 T 00 IO X1 00

O

open > build

low > high

solar potential roof map

more favorable with renovation or newly build since here electricity is more important

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

-

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

the more space is build the more the placing of turbines is limited

> 1900

monuments and protected city scape limit placement of turbines

open space is more favorble since more biomass can be grown as input

more favorable with renovation or newly build since here placement on roofs can be better integrated

older buildings require more heat since less isolated, requiring more biomass

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

system gets more efficient when usage increases

ground capacity the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency

older buildings require more heat since less isolated

system can be applied in exsiting building stock, more favorable because more heat consumed

> 4.000.000 m3 > 0,14 PJ - 140,7 TJ the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is

residual heat sources the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency. Residual heat radius is 3km to source

older buildings require more heat since less isolated

system can be applied in exsiting building stock more favorable because more heat consumed

the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by exesive heat in surrounding

ground capacity the more is build the more sources are in the ground which leads to maximum capcity of ground potential

> 1900 system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to apply in exsiting buildings

system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to aply in exsiting buildings

the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by storage capacity of ground

-

5m3 per 100m2

4m2 p.p.

> 100.000 m3 > 3,52 TJ < 3 TJ/ha

-

most favorable in older buildings in unfavarable in newer buildings since it’s expansive to improve a little

system can be applied in exsiting building stock more favorable because more heat consumed

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing

if water usage is too high the required area to filter water can be too large

Is more favorable with renovation or newly build since kitchen grinders can be installed

the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the nutrient hub is

Is more favorable with newly build, is needed to renovate because new sewage system needs to be laid down

the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the separated sewage system is

building type

1,5m3 p.p.

water which can be replaced by rain is consumed per person monthly

setting up helophyte filter takes space so open space is more favorble

requires new infrastructure with enough users, more users make it feasible

event locations requires new infrastructure with enough users, more users make it feasible

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

12kg P/ha there is maximum required phosphate per ha, so if more phosphate is reused required space increases

most favorable is when all reclaimed phosphate can be reused locally it is possible to export phosphate as fertilizer to region

185


MAXTRIX ASSUMPTIONS • • • •

Founded on literature Assumption based on literature Assumption based on logic Assumption

Solar: • Density :lower density is more favorable • Functions: retail, industry and offices are biggest consumers electricity so here pv panels are more favorable • Building age: monuments and protected city scape limit placement of pv panels (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2015) • Building change: more favorable with renovation or newly build since here electricity is more important • Usage: more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2 Windturbine: • Density: higher density means more people per hectare which limits placing of turbines (POSAD, 2015) • Functions: can not be placed with nature or housing, can be placed with retail or offices but is favorable with agriculture or industry (POSAD, 2015) • Building height: higher buildings influence the wind speed, reducing potential (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) • OSR: The more space is build the more the placing of turbines is limited (POSAD, 2015) • Usage: More favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2 Small windturbines on roofs: • Density: lower density is more favorable since it is easier to implement • Functions: is unfavorable nature can be implemented with housing or agriculture, is favorable with retail, industry or offices • Building height: building needs certain height to be feasible for windturbines on roof (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) • Building age: monuments and protected city scape limit placement of turbines (Cace& ter Horst, 2007) • Building change: more favorable with renovation or newly build since here placement on roofs can be better integrated • Usage: more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2 Combined heat-power: • Density: higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible (POSAD, 2017) • Functions: nature and agriculture are favorable because of abundance of biomass, housing because consumption heat and electricity • OSR: open space is more favorble since more biomass can be grown as input (Generation Energy, 2016) • Building age: older buildings require more heat since less isolated, requiring more biomass • Usage: system gets more efficient when usage increases (POSAD, 2017) Geothermal heat: • Density: higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible (Generation Energy, 2016) • favorble for housing since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not enough heat is needed (except greenhouses) (Generation Energy, 2016) • OSR: the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency (Generation Energy, 2016) • Building age: older buildings require more heat since less isolated • Building change: system can be applied in exsiting building stock, more favorable because more heat consumed • Usage: the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is (Generation Energy, 2016)

186

Residual heat exchange: • Density: higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible (Generation Energy, 2016) • favorble for housing and retail since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not feasible. Industry and offices can be producers and consumers (Generation Energy, 2016) • the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency. More possible sources and supply demand closer to each other. Residual heat radius is 3km to source (Generation Energy, 2016) • Building age: older buildings require more heat since less isolated • Building change: system can be applied in exsiting building stock, more favorable because more heat consumed • Usage: the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by exesive heat in surrounding (Generation Energy, 2016) Residual heat exchange: • Density: requires enough usage to make feasible, to much density limits the capacity of the system (Bodem energie NL, 2017) • Functions: favorable for retail, industry and offices since they require both heat and cooling. excluded for agriculture since it is not feasible (Generation Energy, 2016) • OSR: the more is build, the more sources are in the ground which leads to inteference and maximum capcity of ground potential (Bodem energie NL, 2017) • Building age: system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to apply in exsiting buildings (Bodem energie NL, 2017) • Building change: system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to aply in exsiting buildings (Bodem energie NL, 2017) • Usage: the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by storage capacity of ground (Bodem energie NL, 2017) Isolation of building: • Function: most favorable for housing, but is theoretically possible in every building (Vermeulen, 2016) • Building age: most favorable in older buildings in unfavarable in newer buildings since it’s expansive to improve a little (Vermeulen, 2016) • Building change: can be applied in exsiting building stock more favorable because more heat consumed (Vermeulen, 2016) Rainwater input system: • Density: higher density require more storage for rainwater (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012) • Functions: favorble for housing and office as input of toilet water (Vitens, 2017) • Building age: monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary • Building change: can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012) • Usage: water which can be replaced by rain is consumed per person monthly (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012) Greywater reuse system: • Density: higher density require bigger footprint helophyte filter which can be limited (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012) • Functions: favorble for housing and retail as here grey water can be reused (Vitens, 2017) • Building age: monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary • Building change: can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012) • Usage: if water usage is too high the required area to filter water can be too large


Nutrient reclamation hub: • Density: requires enough nutrients to be feasible, higher density more nutrients to reclaim (FABRIC, 2015) • Functions: agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful (FABRIC, 2015) • Building change: is more favorable with renovation or newly build since kitchen grinders can be installed (FABRIC, 2015) • Usage: the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the nutrient hub is (FABRIC, 2015)

Urban farming: • Functions: most favorable for housing and office. Here nutrients can be reclaimed and reused directly. • OSR: there is maximum required phosphate per ha, so if more phosphate is reused required space increases (NEMO, 2012) • Usage: most favorable is when all reclaimed phosphate can be reused locally it is possible to export phosphate as fertilizer to region

Decentral sewage: • Density: requires enough nutrients to be feasible, higher density more nutrients to reclaim (FABRIC, 2015) • Functions: agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful (FABRIC, 2015) • Building change: is more favorable with renovation or newly build since kitchen grinders can be installed (FABRIC, 2015) • Building age: monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary • Building change: is more favorable with renovation or newly build since kitchen grinders can be installed (FABRIC, 2015) • Usage: the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the separated sewage system is (FABRIC, 2015)

POSSIBLE SPATIAL INTERVENTIONS

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old > new

height x m

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open > build

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low > high

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low > high persons/ha

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10

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10

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favorable

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possible

SPATIAL

D

unfavorable

ALLOCATION CRITERIA

impossible

E)

MAXTRIX VALIDATION ON LITERATURE

low > high

ELECTRICITY

-

SOLAR PANELS lower density is more favorable

> 1900

retail, industry and offices are biggest consumers electricity so here pv panels are more favorable

monuments and protected city scape limit placement of pv panels

WINDTURBINES higher density means more people per hectare which limits placing of turbines

can not be placed with nature or housing, can be placed with retail or offices but is favorable with agriculture or industry

higher buildings influence the wind speed, reducing potential

>1,25 ha

-

solar potential roof map

more favorable with renovation or newly build since here electricity is more important

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

-

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

the more space is build the more the placing of turbines is limited

-

SMALL WINDTURBINES ON ROOFS lower density is more favorable since it is easier to implement

is unfavorable nature can be implemented with housing or agriculture, is favorable with retail, industry or offices

> 1900

h> 20m

monuments and protected city scape limit placement of turbines

building needs certain height to be feasible for windturbines on roof

more favorable with renovation or newly build since here placement on roofs can be better integrated

more favorable with low usage since there is limited output/m2

-

COMBINED HEAT/POWER (BIOMASS) INSTALLATION higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

nature and agriculture are favorable because of abundance of biomass, housing because consumption heat and electricity

open space is more favorble since more biomass can be grown as input

older buildings require more heat since less isolated, requiring more biomass

system gets more efficient when usage increases

HEAT

-

GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM

>99/ha higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

favorble for housing since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not enough heat is needed (except greenhouses)

ground capacity the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency

older buildings require more heat since less isolated

system can be applied in exsiting building stock, more favorable because more heat consumed

> 4.000.000 m3 > 0,14 PJ - 140,7 TJ the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is

-

RESIDUAL HEAT EXCHANGE higher density is more favorable more users and more feasible

favorble for housing and retail since they require most heat, excluded for nature and agriculture since not feasible. Industry and offices can be producers and consumers

older buildings require more heat since less isolated

system can be applied in exsiting building stock more favorable because more heat consumed

the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by exesive heat in surrounding

-

COLD/HEAT STORAGE IN GROUND

<153/ha

favorble for retail, industryand offices since they require both heat and cooling. excluded for agriculture since it is not feasible

-

ground capacity the more is build the more sources are in the ground which leads to maximum capcity of ground potential

requires enough useage to make feasible, to much density limites the capcity of the system

BUILDING ISOLATION

residual heat sources the more is build the more heat is needed, this increases effeciency. Residual heat radius is 3km to source

-

> 1900 system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to apply in exsiting buildings

system requires low temprature heating which is not used and hard to aply in exsiting buildings

the more heat is consumed the more feasible the system is, is limited by storage capacity of ground

-

most favorable for housing, but is theoretically possible in every building

> 100.000 m3 > 3,52 TJ < 3 TJ/ha

-

most favorable in older buildings in unfavarable in newer buildings since it’s expansive to improve a little

system can be applied in exsiting building stock more favorable because more heat consumed

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

can’t be applied in excisting building without renovation, favorable with still to build housing

if water usage is too high the required area to filter water can be too large

Is more favorable with renovation or newly build since kitchen grinders can be installed

the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the nutrient hub is

Is more favorable with newly build, is needed to renovate because new sewage system needs to be laid down

the higher the amount of phosphate the more feasible the separated sewage system is

building type

DRINK WATER RAINWATER INPUT SYSTEM higher density require more storage for rainwater

favorble for housing and office as input of toilet water

5m3 per 100m2

1,5m3 p.p.

water which can be replaced by rain is consumed per person monthly

GREYWATER REUSE SYTEM higher density require bigger footprint helophyte filter which can be limited

favorble for housing and retail as here grey water can be reused

h> x higher buildings more favorable since system can be applied vertical

4m2 p.p. setting up helophyte filter takes space so open space is more favorble

PHOSPHATE

-

NUTRIENT RECLAIMATION HUB requires enough nutrients to be feasible, higher density more nutrients to reclaim

DECENTRAL SEWAGE SYSTEM

>x/ha requires enough users for setting up decentral system

URBAN FARMING TO REUSE PHOSHATE

requires new infrastructure with enough users, more users make it feasible

Agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful

event locations

requires new infrastructure with enough users, more users make it feasible

Agriculture, housing and retail are the most interesing places to reclaim phosphate through nutrient hubs since here organic waste is most plentiful

-

most favorable for housing and office. Here nutrients can be reclaimed and reused directly.

monuments make it difficult to adapt the building which is necessary

12kg P/ha there is maximum required phosphate per ha, so if more phosphate is reused required space increases

most favorable is when all reclaimed phosphate can be reused locally it is possible to export phosphate as fertilizer to region

187


Graduation MSc Urbanism TU Delft 2016-2017 P5 Report Brian Nap 4116852

First Mentor: Ulf Hackauf Second Mentor: Rients Dijkstra Consult: Alexander Wandl

Meaningful Circular Metabolism  

This thesis report is part of the master track Urbanism , specialization urban metabolism at the TU Delft. This thesis is about the spatial...

Meaningful Circular Metabolism  

This thesis report is part of the master track Urbanism , specialization urban metabolism at the TU Delft. This thesis is about the spatial...

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