Dystopia: An architectâ€™s fascination
Bradley Sowter AR597 February 2013 Kent School of Architecture University of Kent Supervisor: Howard Griffin
I would like to express my thanks to my dissertation supervisor Howard Griffin, without his enthusiasm and guidance It would have been of great difficulty to finish this dissertation. I would also like to thank my family whose eagerness to read my dissertation inspired me to push forward throughout the chapters. I would like to express my appreciation to my friends who gave me an insight into the basics of sociology, philosophy and psychology without which my research would be incomprehensible to me. Lastly I would like to thank Basmah Kaki for her views on the dissertation.
The dissertation focuses on the issues regarding subsystem that are expressed in dystopian fiction. The winners of the RIBA president medals in the last few years presented projects that were aesthetically dystopian. Patrick Schumacher hit out at the RIBA panel expressing his distaste for these highly dystopian imaged based project, worrying for the future of British architects. The premise of the dissertation is to defend these project by analysing dystopian subsystems through dystopian literature by authors such as Orwell, Huxley and Bradbury but to name a few. The secondary aim is to inspire architecture students to push the boundaries of what we deem is 'architecture.' By looking at architecture from a different perspective, students can address concerns of society which previously had gone unnoticed. By taking into consideration issues from the past ,present and future students can design 'buildings' that could change society for the better.
CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 WHAT IS DYSTOPIA?
3.0 TECHNOLOGY: THE FEAR
3.1 RELGION: HEAVEN OR HELL?
3.2 THE MIND OF DYSTOPIA
3.3 A SOCIAL TAKE
3.4 MERGING THE ARTS
5.0 SOURCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
“No universal history leads from savagery to humanitarianism, but there is one leading from the slingshot to the megaton bomb” Theodor Adorno
Fig 1: Image taken from Nicholas Szczepaniak’s: A Defensive Architecture.
Oxford English Dictionary defines Dystopia as an imaginary place or condition in which everything is as bad as possible1. Throughout the last few years the RIBA President’s Medals Student Awards have been presented to schemes that are dystopian in nature. Three projects of note are: Kibwe Tavares' Robots of Brixton, Basmah Kaki's An Acoustic Lyrical Mechanism and Nicholas Szczepaniak's A Defensive Architecture. Patrik Schumacher criticised the award system saying that the board was more interested in aesthetically pleasing designs than practical designs that could be of any use. "Students of the current generation [...] seem to think that the ordinary life processes [...] are too boring to merit the avant-garde’s attention. Instead we witness the invention of scenarios that are supposedly more interesting than the challenges actually posed by contemporary reality. [They contain] imagery [that] suggests a similarly idiosyncratic, unreal understanding of what constitutes a worthy design brief." -Patrik Schumacher1
Fig 1.1 Image taken from Kibwe Tavare’s short animation: Robots of Brixton Fig. 1.2 Image taken from Basmah Kaki’s:An Acoustic Lyrical Mechanism Fig 1.3 Image take from Nicholas Szczepaniak’s: A Defensive Architecture.
Patrik Schumacher also states that; "Architecture co-evolves with other subsystems of society like the economy, politics, the mass media, science etc. In this co-evolution innovative architecture can be as much a catalyst for progress as innovations in science, the mass media, or in the political system. However, I doubt if the invention of other worlds as arenas for imaginative design is the way to achieve this."1 There is contrasting evidence to suggest that multiple subsystems are involved in the fabrication of dystopian societies. This opposes Schumacher's views and is one of the reasons why novelists in particular have this fascination with dystopia. Why is there a fascination with dark imagery and lugubrious atmospheric buildings? The fascination with dystopian imagery as opposed to utopian is paradoxical, this is therefore a topic which creates a magnitude of interest from the likes of Freud and Adorno but to name a few, these views will be explored later. This dissertation has been divided into multiple chapters to investigate different aspect of dystopia. The first chapter's aim is to understand the relationship between utopia and dystopia and how intellectuals perceive the two. This dissertation also investigates dystopia from a psychological aspect as to why we are attracted to dystopian worlds as opposed to utopian. The following chapters will be looking into subsystems such as technology, sociology and religion and by investigating this come to a conclusion as to why we have this fascination with dystopia. 11
Oxford English Dictionary - Second Edition (1989) Schumacher, Patrick. 2012, architectural-review.com/schumacher-slams-british-architectural-education/8625659.article 3 Schumacher, Patrick. 2012, architectural-review.com/schumacher-slams-british-architectural-education/8625659.article 2
Fig 1.6 To understand the meaning of dystopia the primary research of this dissertation relied heavily on novels of the late 19 th and early 20th century. From the founders of dystopian literature such as H.G wells with Time Machine and Zamyatin’s Russian novel We, to the more contemporary literature such as Huxley, Orwell and Bradbury to name a few. Dystopian literature is superfluous with plots that reflect events at the time of publication such as Zamyatin’s We and Orwell’s Animal Farm. To understand why these novels were written, research was taken into the history of the 20th century, in particular Soviet Russia. The paradox of George Orwell by Richard J Voorhees was important to investigate the live of the secret novelist. Primary research was also undertaken by investigating the film adaptations of popular novels such as Ridley Scott’s adaption of Do androids dream of electric sheep?, famously known as Blade Runner. Other adaptations include Alfonso Cuarón adaption of P.D James’ Children of Men and the more literal portrayals of Orwell’s 1984 and Huxley’s Brave New World. Films as a separate entity from literature also formed a part of the research. Fritz Lang’s silent movie Metropolis was a pioneer in dystopian film. Movies such as The Book of Eli and Equilibrium were integral to the understanding of how religion and art integrates itself into dystopia. Films such as The Matrix and Oblivion were disregarded in the investigation due to emphasise of science fiction and their lack of relevance to today’s society. Although a prime example of dystopia, The Island was rejected in the investigation due to its relevance in terms of genetic engineering with Brave new world. Secondary research such as Keith Booker’s Dystopian literature: a theory and research guide and The dystopian impulse in modern literature : fiction as social criticism were used to defend my primary investigation. Richard Smyer’s Animal farm: pastoralism and politics and Robert Baker’s Brave new world: history, science, and dystopia were used as accompanies guides to the novels. As the investigation was carried out the research was documented online as a blog. This enabled peers and the public to comment their ideas on posts which formed part of the primary research.
What Is Dystopia? 2.0
What Is Dystopia? 2.0 To understand Dystopia one must understand its origins from Utopia. Derived from the Latin word 'outópos' meaning not a place; Utopia's literal definition is a fictional place in the future. It was first used by Plato in his Socratic dialogue titled The Republic in 380bc, an influential text on philosophy and political theories. The Republic was an idealistic utopian proposal that sets out guidelines on how society could live in 'harmony’, however its main premise was to ask the fundamental question of justice. Plato poses the questions such as what is justice and regardless of merit, why do men choose to behave justly? He investigates these through the subsystems of politics, philosophy , sociology and religion. The term Utopia continued to be used as its literal definition until the 16th Century with the publication of Utopia by Sir Thomas More. The novel speaks about an imaginary island which prides itself on perfect social, legal and political systems.4 This raises debate as to what the true definition of the word Utopia means, blurring the original meaning with a more optimistic connotation. However in Mores' book he tries to clarify the term by saying "Wherefore not Utopie, but rather rightely my name is Eutopie, a place of felicitie.5 " Mores' title of the novel refers to the island being fictional, that is has no place; the society living on the island was Eutopian. It is clear to see how the confusion arises and as to how the word Utopia was adopted as a place perfect in respect of politics, laws, customs, and conditions.6
Fig 1.4: Image Taken from Fritz Lang’s Metropolis
This adopted meaning of Utopia was kept for more than 300 years. It was only until 1952 that J.Max Patrick recommended the distinction between the good place as 'Eutopia' and its opposite, the bad place as 'Dystopia'7. Before this, novelists such as H.G Wells and Aldous Huxley were writing under the genre of Utopian fiction when most of their work were anti-Utopian in nature.
Fig 2: Image taken from Kibwe Tavare’s short animation: Robots of Brixton
H.G Wells published Novels such as The modern Utopia and Men like Gods which are regarded as the last of the great classical utopian novels before turning towards a darker vision of the modern dystopias8. American historian Lewis Mumford called H.G Wells’s novels “The Quintessential Utopia”.
Fig 1.5: Image Taken from The Book of Eli Fig 1.6: Image Taken from Ridley Scott’s Blade runner
Fig 2.1: Artwork of The fictional Island of Utopia in Thomas More’s Novel
What is revealing in the works such as Men like Gods and A Modern Utopia is that one can view it as an ideal society with something being hidden. The backstreets and shadows of the utopian society which they, the government, try to sweep under the carpet. In Men like Gods H.G Well’s “Utopia has no parliament, no politics, no private wealth, no business competition , no police nor prisons, no lunatics, defectives nor cripples.”9 What is intriguing is the absence of defective individuals, all of whom have been bred out of the existance; this includes not only those of inferior intelligence but those with weak imagination, lethargic tendencies, even susceptible to melancholia or depression. 10 It are these flaws in utopian novels and ideologies that bring about the criticisms of philosophers and other novelist such as Aldous Huxley whom was particular critical of Wells' Men Like Gods . 4
Oxford English Dictionary - Second Edition (1989) More’s Utopia: The English Translation thereof by Raphe Robynson. second edition, 1556, in "Eutopism" Oxford English Dictionary - Second Edition (1989) 7 Gottlieb, 2001, p 4. 8 Booker, 1994, p63-63 9 Wells, 1923, p. 80 10 Baker, 1990, P 34. 5 6
What Is Dystopia? 2.0
Fig 1.4: Image Taken from Fritz Lang’s Metopolis Fig 2.2 Image taken from Randy Moore’s Dystopian vision of Disneyland, Escape from Tomorrow.
Fig 2.2 Huxley wrote a letter to Christopher Collins in 1963 saying that Men like Gods; “annoyed [him] to the point of planning a parody, but when [he] started writing [he] found the idea of a negative utopia so interesting that [he] forgot about Wells and launched into Brave New World”11 The letter written by Huxley epitomizes the relationship between Utopia and Dystopia. The word Dystopia (negative Utopia) is defined as an imaginary place or condition in which everything is as bad as possible12. Huxley's letter highlights the flaws in H.G Wells' Eutopian society and poses the question as to whether Utopia and Dystopia are in fact polar opposites. Utopian societies are recognised an idealistic community where by science, Intellect and logical thinking prevails. However H.G Well's Men like Gods and A Modern Utopia are examples of utopian ideologies which cannot be realised due its sadistic satire. Keith Booker an expert in dystopian fiction creates an analogy in his book The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature. Using Disney World as the basis of his analogy he states that it is the "idealization of the American dream and the ideal [...] society of consumer capitalism ...Disneyland indicates the simple fact that what one person considers an ideal dream might to another person seem a nightmare" 13 It is not difficult to see how Wells' Utopian visions of the future can also be viewed as dystopian visions, and this brought about the rise of dystopia as Huxley explained in his letter to Wells. Cyril Connolly a famous critic of the 1940's believed that dystopian novels such as Brave New World could be more opinionated in their few on societies than that of true utopian novels. “To write a philosophic, even a didactic novel about an imaginary Utopia is a most difficult thing. Too often the characters in Utopias are unreal while their opinions are cloaked in the dust of the lecture room. Brave New World is an exception because of the ferocious energy of the satire. 14” – Cyril Connolly Both Utopia and Dystopia are a concept of a terminus in historical development one that feeds on ambition the other on fear. Fictional dystopias are superficial unless the reader thinks there is a chance that the visions could be true either now or in the not so distant future.15 Dystopian novels act as warnings. They envisage an anti-utopian future to represent where society is heading if it does not change. It enables the reader to think critically of the present. The story of the Garden of Eden is a prime example of scaremongering the reader and presents itself in the works of Orwell. 11
Collins, 1973, P 41 Oxford English Dictionary - Second Edition (1989) Booker, 1994, p 1 14 Watt, 2013, P446 15 Dangerous Visionaries 2013 audio 12 13
What Is Dystopia? 2.0
"[Adam and Eve] were given a choice; happiness without freedom, or freedom without happiness. There was no third alternative."1 Garden of Eden also represents a paradise which is Utopian however like the novels such as A Modern Utopia and Men like Gods, Utopia comes at a price of not having freedom. Alternately you can choose Dystopia where you can have freedom but not happiness. This is discussed in greater length later. Dystopias can also offer consolation that makes our own society seems like Utopia. A partial detachment from reality whether that be watching a horror movie or reading a dystopian novel comforts us in knowing that our lives are better than that of the fiction. Watching the news coverage feeds our fears but consoles us in the fact that we are safe. Lastly it is easier to imagine the reality of Dystopia than it is to imagine Utopia. Recently conflicts in Syria, Revolutions in Egypt, and fears of nuclear war from North Korea all form this dystopian atmosphere upon the present. Theodor Adorno stated that “No Universal history Leads from savagery to humanitarianism, but there is one leading from the slingshot to the megaton bomb.”*
Quote from Robert S. Baker’s Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia
Zamyatin, 1924, p.10
Fig 2.3: Image from a North Korean missile launch drill in 2009 Fig 2.4: Egyptian Revolution Poster in 2011 Fig 2.5: Aftermath of the Chemical Attacks in Syria 2013
Technology: The Fear 3.0
"It has become appallingly clear that our technology has surpassed our humanity" -
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Technology: The Fear 3.0
The Industrial revolution of the 19th century had a vital role to play in the emergence of dystopian literature, predominantly due to evoking a utopian ideology. Due to the unrestricted nature of England where by scientific ideas were not censored by the church, groups of scientist and philosophers were allowed to exchange scientific and technological ideas; this was to be known as the industrial enlightenment. It was the discovery of coal and James Watt's steam engine that propelled England into the future in terms of technological ideas. The scientific documents such as Charles Darwin's On the Origins of species started to challenge the idea of god with nature. The new discovers of the past undermined the unlimited faith in the power of religion that had been growing during the two previous centuries.17 Most architects, scientist and novelists alike looked with optimism of England's future, envisaging what wonders could be designed, discovered and written. The descriptive nature of this utopian future in terms of architecture was documented in Manifesto of Futurism by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Even George Orwell noted the idealistic future of the early 20th century.
Fig 3.0: Isometric of Basmah Kaki’s: :An Acoustic Lyrical Mechanism Fig 3.1: Portrait of Rudolf Clausius, one of the founders of thermodynamics. Fig 3.2: Perspective drawing from La Citta Nuova by Sant’Elia, 1914. Fig 3.3: Portrait of Charles Darwin author of ‘On the Origin of Species’.
“In the early 20th century, the vision of a future society unbelievably rich, leisured, orderly, and efficient – a glittering antiseptic world of glass and steel and snowwhite concrete- was part of the consciousness of nearly every literate person. Science and technology were developing at a prodigious speed, and it seemed natural to assume that they would go on developing18 “- George Orwell So why was there a change in perception of the future; from a optimistic utopia to a pessimistic dystopia? O'Brien a character in George Orwell's 1984 epitomizes the definition of dystopia saying that it is "the exact opposite of the stupid hedonistic Utopias that the old reformers imagined"19. It was these pessimistic views of utopian critics of the late 19th and early 20th century which gave rise to dystopian literature. The publication of the second law of thermodynamics in 1850 by physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius stated that entropic decay is inevitable and irreversible. In this context one can see the future as a deteriorating society that can only get worse. 17
Booker, 1994, P.12 Crick, 1984, P.319-320 19 Orwell, 1949, P. 336 18
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Technology: The Fear 3.0 Fig 3.4: Image of Dr Ian Wilmut, leader of the team that created Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell.
Fig 3.4 Adorno a German sociologist and philosopher like many other critics acknowledged the achievements of modern science but feared the ability to manipulate nature. He believed that this was the first step in the rise of the machine that would finally culminate in a technocracy that would rule mankind20. It is this anxiety of technology and how far would it go which would be the foundation of dystopian novels. Brave New world by Aldous Huxley was and still is celebrated for epitomising a technocratic dystopian future. Rebecca West praised Huxley's novel in the 1932 publication of the Daily Telegraph Review stating that; “It is, indeed, almost certainly one of the half-dozen most important books that have been published since the war.” 21-Watt, Critical Heritage, 198,202 One of the reasons why Brave New World is an exemplar technocracy society is that the technology that was conveyed in the book has a rational truth which is reflective of the time of publication, which in turn, made it more of a fascination to read. Joseph Needham was a leading biochemist of his day so his critique of the book would satisfy the taste of the critics when it comes from a scientific view point: “In the world at large, those persons, and there will be many, who do not approve of his “utopia,” will say, we can’t believe all this, the biology is all wrong, it couldn’t happen. Unfortunately, what gives the biologist a sardonic smile as he reads it, is the fact that the biology is perfectly right, and Mr. Huxley has included nothing in his book but what might be regarded as legitimate extrapolations from knowledge and power that we already have. Successful experiments are even now being made in cultivation of embryos of small mammals in vitro, and one of the most horrible of Mr. Huxley’s predictions, the production of numerous low-grade workers of precisely identical genetic constitution from one egg, is perfectly possible.22” - Watt, Critical Heritage, 204 Needham is referring to the Bokanovsky's Process in Brave New World; a fictional cloning technique used to create multiple genetically identical embryos from one egg. It is clear that this dystopia (at the time was still known at a utopia) ,in which Huxley creates a grotesque projection into the future, provides reason why Huxley was worried about the misplaced faith in technical and bureaucrat expertise that could only result in the "spiritual self-mutilation" of the race.23 Huxley was the grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, a famous biologist who was an advocate of Darwin's theories. Two of his brother were also exceptional biologists so it was inevitable that Huxley grew up learning and admiring scientific discoveries. He respected modern science, however viewed it when applied to technology as a powerful expression of darker forces as well as a potentially enlightening ones.
Baker , 1990, P.7 Watt, 2013, P.198 - 202 22 Watt, 2013, P.204 23 Baker, 1990, P.58 21
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Fig 3.5: Syd Meadâ€™s illustration of the Voight Kampff Machine in Blade runner, used as a lie detector. Fig 3.6:Image taken from the Freise Brotherâ€™s short film adaptation of The Machine Stops
Technology: The Fear 3.0
There is a dehumanizing notion from Brave New like other dystopian novels. Using the Bokanovsky's Process producing up to 97 identical people loses the individuals sense of identity. It's not just the social implications of genetic copying but also a study of industrial technology in a world state where economic and social stability compensates for the vulgarization of intellectual life and absence of responsibility In the world of architecture one can view new technology to design as dehumanizing. Technology is meant to make existence easier however it has the tendency to dissociate us from reality. We have an optimistic view that excessive insistence of technology can provide us with rational solutions to all human problems.24 Does it still make us human if we eradicate humanely problems? In Philip K. Dick's Do androids dream of electric sheep, Dick discusses the meaning of being human. If technology becomes so advanced how can one distinguish between human and machine. In the novel the only way to differentiate between the two is to perform a empathy test. This is an example of de-humanising people by humanising technology. The protagonist Deckard is a bounty hunter whose sole purpose is to track down rogue androids and 'retire' them. As the novel progresses Deckard becomes sexually involved with a female machine named Rachael Rosen, which undermines his former ability to regard androids as nothing more than machines. 25 He also becomes aware that his fellow bounty hunter Phils Resch has no remorse for retiring androids and wonders whether he himself is becoming a machine due to the dehumanisation of murder. This juxtaposition between Human and Machine depicted in Philip K. Dick's novel conveys the two notions of an effete human and an effete machine. This anxiety of how far technology can evolve and the battle of hierarchy between human and machine culminates in the notion that machine will lead to the mechanization of human life and finally to control of human life26. This is exemplified in E. M. Forster's The Machine Stops where the expatriate human race relies on a machine to live. Isolated from the outside world the humans live in a technocracy society underground. Each person lives in a cell that is a paradise of electronic gadgetry and conveniences but that is also a virtual prison outside of which he or she seldom ventures. The society are governed by strict instructions laid out in the "Book of the machine". This is reflected in Zamyatins Novel We Whereby the one state is ordered by the "Table of Hours."27 Forster's Machine controls all aspects of the human race just like the Morlocks in H.G Well's Time Machine control the Elois. This all encumbering nature of control by "machine" has the ironic effect of mechanising humans. 24
Booker, 1994, P.292 Booker, 1994, P.121 26 Hillegas, ? , P.89 27 Booker, 1994, P. 149 25
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Religion: Heaven or Hell 3.1
â€œReligion gives happiness and protection from suffering at the price of forcibly fixing them in a state of psychical infantilism â€œ Sigmund Freud
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Religion: Heaven or Hell 3.1
Nietzsche, an outspoken philosopher of the 19th and 20th century believed that religion and science have a lot in common. Both subsystems control, to some extent, a person's life with technology, slowly surpassing religion. Nowadays we are so highly dependent on technology that when technology fails the world grinds to a halt, this is epitomised in Foster's The Machine Stops. Electrical faults at airports and train stations make transport near on impossible. It seems we put as much trust in technology as the previous generations put their faith in religion. The difference between science and religion is that individuals have a need for quasireligious subsystem to gain a sense of identity and protection. Freud believed that infants feel helpless and have a longing for a strong powerful figure. He assumed that this could be with religion and god but also it could be a strong figure such as Hitler or Stalin. This notion of a physical figure becoming a godlike symbol is superfluous throughout dystopian literature such as We,1984,Brave New World and Animal Farm. In all cases the totalitarian regimes creates a quasi religious aura to reinforce the governments ideology without question upon the proletarians. This idea of a government using religious techniques to indoctrinate the nation originates from the communistic soviet regime. Marx believed;
Fig 3.7:Image taken from the Hughes Brother’s film The book of Eli Featuring Denzel Washington Fig 3.8: Karl Marx was a German Philosopher and socialist, he believed religion disillusioned the population. Fig. 3.9:Friedrich Nietzsche was a German Philosopher who coined the phrase "God is Dead"
"Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of a spiritless situation. It is the opium of the people29". - Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, 1 Aldous Huxley turns communistic view of religion on its head with the creation of soma, an opiate drug. Soma claims to have “all the advantages of Christianity and alcohol; none of their defects.”30 This is perplexing as Soma is given out by the totalitarian party. Huxley's use of this drug in Brave new world reinforces the notion that religion is still used in some form to manipulate the population. Freud stated that the soviet communism is the re inscription ,not the denial of religion31. We and Animal Farm challenges these issues of early day Soviet Russia. The centralised theme for Zamyatin's We is the dehumanizing effect of technology. However religion also becomes ordered and systematic. the protagonist D-503 like the rest of the inhabitants are numbered so that "Nobody is 'one,' but 'one of'"32 This notion of forming a faction that one loses their self worth is ironic as the need to be part of a religious group to understand your own identity is paradoxical. In social psychology the idea of deindividuation by being part of a group is linked to violent and antisocial behaviour33. Much like a lynch mob one can become detached from individual morals.
Booker, 1994, P.30 Marx, 1884, P.1 Huxley, 1932, P.54 31 Booker, 1994, P. 30 32 Zamyatin,1921, P.8 33 Roeckelein, 2006, P.150 29 30
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Religion: Heaven or Hell 3.1 Fig 3.10: Fresco Painting of 'The Creation of Adam' by Michelangelo. 1511 A.D Fig 3.10
What is sophisticated about adopting the religious system upon the totalitarian regime is how the government stopped the population from finding out. In 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 the authors use the concept of an atomic war as an excuse for why there are no records of history, where as in novels such as Animal Farm the proletarians know no different. Referring to Christianity by Nietzsche as the "Slave Morality"34 and that religion represents the single most oppressive force in civilization it is apparent as to why Soviet Russia adopted this regime. Religion like communism gives happiness and protection from suffering at the price of forcibly fixing them in a state of psychical infantilism [...] succeeds in sparing many an individual neurosis.35 This is evident in 1984s minutes of hate which is likened to extreme Baptist bchurch services whereby the community are essentially brainwashed. The anger and hate towards Emmanuel Goldstein, the leader of an anti-party group called "the Brotherhood", Is likened to Satan and in contrast , Big Brother to God; "With a tremulous murmur that sound like 'My Savior!' she extended her arms toward the screen. Then she buried her face in her hands. It was apparent that she was uttering a prayer" 36 - Orwell,1984,9 The notion of having a good and an evil strengthens the parties control over the proletarians. Furthermore the ongoing war with Eurasia unites Oceania in the trust of Big Brother. It is fair to say that Ingsoc's ideology is that of protection against suffering through a delusional remoulding of reality. Unlike Brave New World and We, Orwell's totalitarian government strictly controls and limits the fulfilment of sexual desire. Echoing their predecessors in the catholic church, It is clear that the ban on religion comes about not because organized religion is so radically different from the Party, but because the two are all-too-similar and would therefore be competing for similar energies.37 Winston Smith , the protagonist, rebels against this ideology and has sexual relations with a young woman named Julia. When found out and arrested the story echoes that of Adam and Eve in that they had a choice between freedom or Happiness; "Just think, Those two, in paradise, were given a choice happiness without freedom, or freedom without happiness. There was no third alternative. Those idiots chose freedom and what came of it? of course, for ages afterword they longed for the chains."38 Like Winston in 1984 protagonists from Brave New World and Fahrenheit 451 have a longing to understand themselves through history and books as opposed to belonging to a group. "[Without history] you cannot differentiate between present and past, cause and effects, or lies and truth, each protagonist is eager to obtain and hold on to a genuine record of the past that the totalitarian regime would like to distort or deny completely."39 - Gottlieb, Dystopian Fiction East and West Universe of Terror and Trial,12
Nietzsche, 1887 , P.156 Freud, 1930, P.22-23 Orwell, 1932, pg 17 37 Booker, 1994, P. 210 38 Gottlieb ,2001, p. 43 39 Gottlieb ,2001, p. 12 Roeckelein, 2006, 35 36
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Religion: Heaven or Hell 3.1
In Brave New World the protagonist pursues the great works of Shakespeare which has been outlawed, where as the protagonists in Fahrenheit 451 and The book of Eli, pursue and protect the works of the Bible. It is in these books that the protagonist find their strength to break the isolation of the regime - a regime that cuts off man from woman ...the present from the past and the world within from the world outside.40 Religion also brings hope to society portrayed in Fahrenheit 451, The book of ELi and Children of Men. Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 is likened to Orwell's 1984 whereby the "Party" eradicates the past for their own benefit believing that: "those who control the present, control the past and those who control the past control the future.41"- Orwell-1984,19 In Bradbury's novel firemen are set out to destroy books in order to eradicate history. The notion of fire used to destroy the books symbolises not only the destructive nature of the flame and the satanic imagery but also liken to a phoenix and the rebirth of knowledge. The questioning nature of the protagonist leads him to take a book which turns out to be the last known edition of the bible. Hence forth the protagonist's mission is to reinstate the knowledge of the past as a disciple. This idea of protecting the knowledge also resonates in The Book of Eli where the King James bible brings hope in the attempt to repair society.
Fig 3.11: Image taken from Michael Radford's adaptation of 1984 depicting Winston Smith's diary Fig 3.12: William Shakespeareâ€™s First Folio: Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, 1623 Fig 3.13: Kings James' Bible
The subsystem of religion is superfluous throughout the works of many dystopian novels however it is the product of religion that is intrinsic in the architectural work exemplified in the presidents medals. The notion of hope in a world where hope is lost, a world where to understand the good you must also understand the bad. A regime that stagnates the population which stunts growth and it is the protagonists that change this with their revolutionary ideas. 40 41
Gottlieb ,2001, P.12 Orwell, 1932, P.19
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The mind of Dystopia 3.2
"It is not possible to wholly free oneself from this chain." Friedrich Nietzsche
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The mind of Dystopia 3.2
Dystopian literature has been analysed and also influenced over the past two centuries by philosophers such as Marx, Adorno and leading psychologist of the time Sigmund Freud. Huxley in particular was fascinated with Freudian and Marxist ideas which energized his novels such as Brave New World.42 The Freudian uses of anxiety and neurosis adopted by the protagonists in Brave New World gives the characters psychological credibility which is likened to many of the protagonists in dystopian literature. Booker claims that Huxley's satirical novels are influenced on the imminent collapse of European culture however Gottlieb believes that significant works such as Brave New World take their substance from the conflicts within the depth of the authors psyche.43 This becomes apparent when conflict that arises within the novel is a reflection upon the author and society. Louis Althusser claimed that the opposing views of individual identity and social demands were the central issue in dystopian literature. When referring to Orwell's Animal Farm which was banned in the soviet union and Eastern European countries, only circulating in prohibited areas in form of illegal samizdat editions,44 it is clear to see this conflict between individual identity and social demand. The notion of oppression is a prerequisite in dystopian literature which gains attention from philosophers and psychologists. Big Brother in Orwell's 1984 uses sexual oppression to gain control of the proletarians. In the same way as Althusser's conflict between individual identity and social demand, Freud claimed there is a conflict between 'Pleasure Principle' and 'Reality Principle'. For Freud the forces that control society derive most of their power through the repression of sexual desire.45 The protagonist in Orwell's 1984 and Zamyatin's WE have sexual relations as form of rebellion against the totalitarian party. One of the reasons behind the prohibited nature of sexual relations in Orwell's novel, likewise in Fahrenheit 451 and A Handmaids Tale, is the party's anxiety of an individual taking control of their life.
Fig 3.14: Image taken from Ridley Scott's 'Blade Runner' featuring Harrison Ford as Deckard in front of the Voight Kampff Machine Fig 3.15: Sigmund Freud was an Austrian Neurologist who was the founder of psychoanalysis Fig 3.16: Image taken from Michael Radford's adaptation of 1984 depicting Winston and Julia portrayed by John Hurt and Suzanna Hamilton Fig 3.17: Theodor Adorno was a German sociologist and philosopher
"An individual who dominates and one who is dominated, one who commands and one who compiles, one who vanquishes and one who is vanquished.â€?46 - Foucault, The Use Of Pleasure: The History Of Sexuality: 2, 215 Huxley and Zamyatin have similar views as Orwell of sexual oppression. However in their novels they do not prohibit, but encourage it to an extent that there is no longer sexual desire. In WE the party issue pink coupons which allows the population to have sexual intercourse with whoever they desire. The notion of regimenting this act not only removes emotional connection between the individuals but also prevents it becoming a form of rebellion. This is likened to the use of soma in Brave New World whereby the issuing of the opiate drug that prevents them from adopting a religion. 42
Booker ,1994, P.17 Gottlieb ,2001, P.270 44 Symer. 1988, P.7 45 Booker ,1994, P.31 46 Foucault, 1989, P.215 43
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The mind of Dystopia 3.2 Fig 3.18: Image taken from Kibwe Tavareâ€™s: Robots of Brixton depicting the oppression of the robots Fig 3.18 Oppression of art is also apparent not only from the outlaw of paintings and books but also the oppression of linguistics. "The arts are ever questing, ever examining itself and subjecting its established forms to review, such ,indeed, is the only possibility open to a genre that structure itself in a zone of direct contact with developing reality" 47- Mikhail Bakhtin The concept of critically analysing society becomes a threat to the totalitarian regimes in dystopian literature - seen as an act of treason. Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf claim that language influences our perception of reality.48 Nietzsche believed that language is only a metaphor for reality, that the speak of trees, colours and flowers cannot justify the original entities.49 Although most dystopian novels integrate the oppression of language, 1984 is one of the few pieces of literature where the expression of language was prohibited. This was done with the invention of Newspeak , a language that was introduced by Orwell's totalitarian party Ingsoc. Unlike the ever increasing vocabulary of the Oxford English Dictionary, the progressive editions of Newspeak diminishes any freedom of expression. The emotion of feeling 'good' is opposed with the word 'not good,' there was no scope for expression. This is reflective of doctors before Sigmund Freud who described patients as being either 'Mad, Bad or Sad.' Some definitions became more precise such as the word 'Free'. "The word free still existed in Newspeak, but could only be used in such statements as "The dog is free from lice" or "This field is free from weeds." It could not be used in its old sense of "politically free" or "intellectually free," since political and intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts, and were therefore of necessity nameless.50 " - Orwell,1984, 174 This restricted freedom of expression goes beyond the boundaries of prohibiting vocabulary exploration. It goes into the psyche of the protagonist. If there is no word for rebellion can an act of rebellion exist? Bakhtin believed that the kind of language we use impacts the way we think and indeed the way we are51, so it was inevitable that the party also try to oppress the very psyche of the society. This is exemplified in Orwell's novel with the creation of the thought Police "The thought police would get him just the same. He had committed--would have committed, even if he had never set pen to paper - the essential crime that contained all others in itself. Thought crime, they called it. Thought crime was not a thing that could be concealed forever. You might dodge successfully for a while, even for years, but sooner or later they were bound to get you."52 - Orwell,1984, 10 This is extrapolated in Andrei Sinyavsky's novel The Trial Begins where the use of 'psychoscopes' can monitor any vibration of a free soul, making each thinking, feeling human being easy detected.53 By being constantly monitored it is clear to see how many people lose their voice in society.
Bakhtin ,1981, P.3 Booker ,1994, P.19 49 Park, 1988, P.116-119 50 Orwell ,1934, P.174 51 Booker,1994, P.19 52 Orwell, 1934, P.10 53 Gottlieb ,2001, P.268 48
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A Social Take 3.3
"Deep below the earth's surface lay the workers' city." -Metropolis
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A Social Take 3.3
Society was a locus in utopian visionaries such as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marx and Engels believed socialism was needed to head towards a utopian future, which Marx viewed as communism. â€œMarxism predicted and tried actively to further a development culminating in an ideal utopia that know no political or economic coercion; the state has withered away, each person co-operates freely in accordance with his abilities, and all his needs are satisfied"53 - Popper, The poverty of Historicism, 73 â€“ 74
Fig 3.19: Image taken from Fritz Lang's expressionist silent movie: Metropolis Fig. 3.20: Joseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 - 1953
Although communism was an utopian ideology Marx claimed that for communism to come into being proletarians needed to revolt against the existing system and a temporary dictatorship needed to be formed which in its very nature is dystopian.
Fig 3.21: Image take from George Pal's adaptations of Time Machine by H.G Wells
"They openly declared that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win."54 - Marx, Communist Manifesto,34
Fig 3.22:Friedrich Engels was a German Social scientist who co-wrote the Communist Manifesto alongside Karl Marx.
Joseph Stalin enforced this socialist ideals upon Soviet Russia in a time where leaders had to establish a strong central government55 to 'stabilise' the population, known as a total state. By adopting this social system the Soviet Union claimed that they were a progressive society when in fact it was a disguise to hide a dictatorship. These inadequacies in existing social systems evoked anxiety in the population which is evident in the satire of dystopian novels56. Jack London's novel The Iron Heel was one of the first Dystopian novels that was published to express the anxiety of a changing society. However it was H.G Wells ,influenced by the works of London, wrote Time Machine in the late 19th century. Well's first ever published novel did not only confront the change in English society but also expressing his fears of social divide. The novel is portrayed in form of a diary written by an unnamed man who invents a time machine. He describes his travels into the future in search of a utopian society. However what he discovers is not a utopian ideology of the 19th century but of a dystopian reality.
Popper,1957, P.73-74 Marx, Engels ,1848, P.34 55 Smyer, 1988, P.3 56 Booker ,1994, P.20 54
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A Social Take 3.3
Fig 3.23:Oil Painting by Boris Kustodiev named 'The Bolshevik'
What is particular fascinating about this novel is how Wells describes the degeneration of humanity. The notion of the inverse evolution of humanity into a more animalistic state reflects the anxious nature of society after the publication of Darwinâ€™s origins of Species. H.G wells represents this with the introduction of Morlocks. Although 'human' they were an animalistic race that live underground. These ape like creatures in Well's novel represent the proletarians of the industrial revolution and can be seen as a parody of the technologically oriented utopians of Bellamyâ€™s Looking Backward 57. In contrast to the 'Morlocks' another race is described by the traveller, known as the Eloi. A passive effete race which live a banal life on the surface of earth. The Eloi's ancestors perfected the world so that the Eloi could survive without strength or ingenuity, this is reflective of the bourgeoisie. At first glance the novels seems to suggest Well's fear is of capitalism expressed in Fritz Lang's expressionist movie Metropolis, whereby the social divide grows to an extent that there is no longer a connection between the two social groups. However unlike the protagonist in Metropolis who feels empathy for the proletarians, the time traveller feels empathy for the Elois (bourgeoisie). Wells furthermore depicts Morlocks as animals that use Elois as cattle and pray on when they desire. This uprising of the Morlocks, characterised in Marx notion of socialism suggests that H.G Wells is expressing the anxieties and fear of communism. The anxiety of socialism was the premise of Koestler's novel Darkness at Noon and epitomised in Orwell's Animal Farm which also challenges Marx's communist utopia. Animal Farm is an allegory of events after the Great October Socialist Revolution and the subsequence rise of Stalinist Russia. In the novel the revolt against Farmer Jones who represents the last Zsar of Russia gives rise to a new economic system known as 'Animalism' an allegory for 'Communism'. In this new system there stood seven commandments , one of which stated that "All animals are equal"58 reminiscent of the communist manifesto whereby there are Equal liability of all to work.59
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Booker,1994, P.284 58 Orwell, 1945, P.9 59 Marx, Engels ,1848, P.26
A Social Take 3.3
As the story progresses Napoleon, a pig which symbolizes Stalin, becomes power hungry, banishing Snowball, Leon Trotsky, from the barn. This symbolises the death of Lenin, the fall of socialism and the establishment of a dictatorship. The abuse of socialism (Napoleon and Snowball) is depicted in the twisting of the commandments - most famously commandant seven; â€œAll animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than other" - Orwell,Animal Farm, 51 Numerous critics viewed Animal Farm as a criticism against communism judging Orwell as an anti-socialist. However renowned British writer John Atkins maintains that although Animal Farm was primarily an "attack on Stalinism... it [was] an attack from the Left" - a "socialist mockery" of a no socialist Soviet Union61. Both Orwell and Koestler claimed it was necessary to show the real face of dictatorship behind the messianic of soviet 'socialism'.62
Fig 3.24:Ukrainian Front Cover of Animal Farm Fig 3.25:Vladimir Lenin was a communist revolutionary, depicted in Animal Farm as Old Major who started the revolution
Critics also paid attention to the beast fable as a means of controlling direction of the satire or of intensifying the reader's emotional reaction to the objects of satire63. Relating to earlier in the dissertation whereby dystopian novels provide a partial detachment from reality Orwell's allegory of Soviet Russia as a farm has no place , emphasising the anxiety that socialist betray could be universal. The notion of what 'could be' is more frightening that what 'has happened'. The fear that the corruption of socialism could possible happen in Britain influence Orwell's literature. This echoes the concept of the authors psyche that influences the literature. Richard I Symer viewed the novel as three dimensional: "in the foreground is the immediate object of satire, the totalitarian features of soviet society under Stalin; in the middle distance is Orwell's uneasiness about the future of socialism and the larger background is an abiding concern - by the 1940s almost an obsession - with the condition of England's past, present and future.64 - Smyer, 1998,24 Gottlieb claimed that each of these novels challenges our perspective of Utopia and how the promise was abuse, betrayed, or ironically fulfilled so as to create tragic consequences for humanity.65
Orwell,1945, P.51 Smyer ,1988, P.14 Gottlieb ,2001, P.6 63 Smyer ,1998, P.19 64 Smyer ,1998, P.24 65 Gottlieb ,2001, P.8 61 62
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Merging The Arts 3.4
"The first as tragedy, then as farce" -Karl Marx
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Merging The Arts 3.4 Fig 3.26: Image taken from Basmah Kakiâ€™s:An Acoustic Lyrical Mechanism
These subsystems of technology, religion, psychology, philosophy and sociology are all integrated into the students projects, contradicting Schumacher's views. Kibwe Tavares': Robots of Brixton focuses on the issue of social and race oppression. Looking back at past tragedies such as the 1981 Brixton riots and the London riots of 2011. Tavares raises concerns that if these tragedies can happen in the past and present, what is stopping it from happening in the future, that "everything goes round in circles"66. Tavares agrees with Schumacher that he "cannot do this practise"67 but also believes that "a building isn't a solution to all problems"68. The intention of the Robots of Brixton project is not about architecture in the original sense but to evoke a "form of debate"69. This is likened to many dystopian works, especially by George Orwell. The Robots are an allegory to emphasise the social divide of the proletarians, the robots, and the bourgeoisie , the humans. The protagonist, a robot, is humanised echoing the fears of philosophers such as Adorno and reflected in the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. However Tavares portrays the protagonist in such a way that the audience feel empathy. He does this in the form of film whereby the camera is shot from the protagonists perspective. This new concept of integrating film into the realm of architecture.
Fig 3.27: At the RIBA Awards. From left to right: Kibwe Tavares (Silver Medal Winner), Basmah Kaki (Bronze Medal Winner) , Herman Hertzberger (Royal Gold Medallist) , Hannah Robertson (Dissertation Medal Winner), Angela Brady (RIBA President).
"I think it's a wonderful way to get across an idea if architects want to affect society and we have this outreach... It's a much better way of building a project scheme... Having the power to visualise how we feel in such a dramatic feel has far more impact than how architects general interacted with people. If we have the power to change with our ideas it's a wonderful idea to do it" 70 - Angela Brady, 2011 Like many dystopian novels their premise is to challenge the system in one way or another, not only is Tavares challenging social issues that he feels strongly about but also challenging the conformity of past architecture as a whole. In similar respects Basmah Kaki's: An Acoustic Lyrical Mechanism confronts the normality of architecture, creating a holistic retreat which also acts as instrument through wind energy. It is a religious building (extension) set on a quarry hillside whereby migrant workers including children workers can go to meditate and pray. Kaki project can be compared to Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 and The Book of Eli, with respects to giving hope to hard of hearing workers where their world has been turned upside down. The retreat is a locus for finding ones identity through religion.
Tavares, Kibwe, 2011 Tavares, Kibwe, 2011 Tavares, Kibwe,2011 69 Tavares, Kibwe, 2011 70 Brady , Angela, 2011, 67 68
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Merging The Arts 3.4 Fig 3.28:Police officer watches on as Reeves Furniture store burns to the ground during the 2011 London riots.
Nicholas Szczepaniak whom was also under scrutiny from Schumacher designed a costal scheme in 2009 titled: A Defence Architecture. The coastal defences act as repository for books liken to Alcatraz Prison In book of Eli. The notion in dystopian literature, that knowledge is power and normally presents itself in form of books. The structures also towers act as an environmental protection device that serves as a warning to mankind of the dangers that lie ahead71. "If the planet is left unchanged as it is currently doing so it is easy to imagine that soon fossil fuels will have become depleted, vast amounts of land will have been lost due to rising water levels or arid climates. Inevitably this will have an undesired effect on social order and the built environment. Resources will become rationed, and public space will become further militarized in order to maintain social order. This will enhance an already emerging sense of inertia across public space"72 - Nicholas Szczepaniak, 2009 (http://www.bdonline.co.uk/nicholas-szczepaniak-westminsterschool-of-architecture/3144387.article), The Dystopian imagery in all the projects adds to the presentation of the narrative however it is the concept that merits their awards. They focused in on individual social issues that that felt strongly about. Tavares' concept was formed from his psyche growing up in society that was impacted by the Brixton Riots and then witnessing the reoccurrence over the summer of 2011. It are these strong connections to the project that are reflected in the outcome, which architects in practise should be inspired by. An architect at the RIBA awards conference viewed these projects as an evolution in architecture; "How can your architecture re-educate us, [the older ones] so that we don't lose our sole in the pursuit of material wealth."73 Allison Brooks, a Juror on the 2011 Jury Panel felt it was necessary to respond to Patrik Schumacher. She viewed the recent flux in dystopian imagery is the beginning of a new movement in architecture. " I came to the conclusion that this 21st-century student work is perhaps more tolerant and humane, rejecting our latent Modernist expectations of the architectural project, the heroically transformative partis. It is accepting of dirt and time; it's not obsessed with newness. Maybe this is the spirit of the age - they are the first generation in 500 years that will not achieve the standard of living of their forbears (us). "74- Allison Brooks. Architectural Review; Mar2012, Vol. 231 Issue 1381, p24-25, 2p
Szczepaniak, Nicholas, 2009 Szczepaniak, Nicholas, 2009 Unknown, 2011, http://vimeo.com/37797527 74 Brooks, Allison, 20012 72 73
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"I saw something more in this year's medallists' projects - something that made a connection between the fictional and the real" -Alison Brooks
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Fig 4.0: Image taken from Nicholas Szczepaniakâ€™s: A Defensive Architecture. Fig 4.1: Zaha Hadid and Rem Koolhass in 1970. Fig 4.2: A collage from Rem Koolhass' Project: Exodus Fig 4.3: An example of a parametric design.
The fascination of Dystopian literature is primarily down to an evocative narrative that has been interwoven with issues that concern society. A novel that not only addresses anxieties of the time but also raises concerns as to where society will be going. Throughout the research one begins to question the very definition of Dystopia. At first glance anti-utopian concepts arrive at a fabricated future which seems to have no relevance to today's society. However the pioneers of dystopian literature such as Orwell and Huxley used the notion of dystopia as an allegory to represent the imminent collapse in society. Dystopias main premise is to warn us of the path we are heading but to also offers us redemption. The winners of the precedent medals confronted issues that concerned them, as the protagonist. Whether that is by giving a sense of hope to mine workers in India as Basmah Kakhi portrayed in her project: An Acoustic Lyrical Mechanism or the anxiety of another uprising in London portrayed in Kibwe Tavares : Robots of Brixton. It would be naive of Patrick Schumacher's to underestimate student's grasp on society. Allison Brooks stated that "one could argue in the tradition of Rem's (collective) AA thesis Exodus." The collaborative student project which involved Rem Koolhaas in 1972 featured a walled city cutting through London, reminiscent of the Berlin Wall. "Once, a city was divided in two parts. One part became the Good Half, the other part the Bad Half. The inhabitants of the Bad Half began to flock to the good part of the divided city, rapidly swelling into an urban exodus."75 - Rem Koolhaas,1972 In its nature the project is dystopian and uses the social struggle of the past to influence the future, the same concept as Kibwe Tavares project. Maybe the time spent in industry has restricted Schumacher's views as to what is architecture. Like Koolhaas, Schumacher was once a student and wasn't restrained to the '21st design movement' of Parametricism*. Criticising students work on the basis of being dystopian is somewhat hypocritical when the company Schumacher is partners of echoes that of E.M Forsters: The Machine Stops. It begs the question as to who is dictating the outcome of the design. Is it the architect or the machine?
Koolhaas, Rem, 1972
* A type of design exemplified in Zaha Hadid's work which uses computer scripting software to inform the architecture
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Sources and Bibliography 5.0 Page 3 – Quote from Robert S. Baker’s Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia Page 10 – Quote from Powder with reference to Albert Einstein. Page 14 – Quote from The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXI (1927-1931) Page 18 - Quote from The Genealogy and moral philosophy (1887) Page 21 - Quote from a title card in Fritz Lang's movie Metropolis Page 25 - Quote from Marx's The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon Page 28 - Quote From Architectural Review 2012
Fig 1 – http://www.presidentsmedals.com/Entry-24281 Fig 1.1 http://b.vimeocdn.com/ts/165/023/165023782_640.jpg Fig 1.2 – http://www.presidentsmedals.com/Entry-28541 Fig 1.3 – http://www.presidentsmedals.com/Entry-24281
Fig 2.4 –http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/ 4/48/EgyptianRevolution.png/230pxEgyptianRevolution.png Fig 2.5 – http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/image s/media/content/2013/0823-syria-chemical-weaponsdebate/ 16791155-1-eng-US/0823-syria-chemical-weaponsdebate_ full_600.jpg
Fig 1.4 – http://davidszondy.com/future/city/Metropolis%2001.jpg
Fig 3 – http://www.presidentsmedals.com/Entry-28541
Fig 1.5 – http://laraandthereelboy.files.wordpress.com /2010/01/book_of_eli_denzel_washington.jpg
Fig 3.1 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4 /40/Clausius.jpg/220px-Clausius.jpg
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Sources and Bibliography 5.0 Fig 3.7 – http://static4.therichestimages.com/cdn/583/387/70/c/wp -content/uploads/2013/09/Book-of-Eli-Braille-Bible583x387.jpg
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Fig 3.21 - http://188.8.131.52/~welovemo/wpFig 3.8 - http://static.guim.co.uk/syscontent/uploads/2012/05/the-time-machine-1960-4.jpg images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2012/9/24/1348475186700/Ka rl-Marx-008.jpg Fig 3.22 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Friedri Fig 3.9ch_Engels_HD.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Nietzsc he187c.jpg Fig 3.23 - http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/history/21h-244imperial-and-revolutionary-russia-culture-and-politics-1700Fig 3.10 1917-fall-2012/21h-244f12.jpg http://www.artshall.com/michelangelo/creation_of_adam.jpg Fig 3.24 - http://georgeorwellnovels.com/wpFig 3.11 – http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-n5cUMlIqPvY/TVqcontent/uploads/2011/08/animal-farm-ukrainian-editionurpTjKI/AAAAAAAAAAw/rYjgg2rESVk/s1600/Down_With_Big_ 1947.jpg Brother_by_LoveisBlindness.jpg Fig 3.25 Fig 3.12 - http://antonk.com/wphttp://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Imag content/uploads/2012/04/Title-page-Mr.-Williames/Profiles/L/Vladimir-Lenin-9379007-1-402.jpg Shakespeares-Comedies-Histories-Tragediespublished-1623First-Folio-Copper-engraving-of-Shakespeare-by-MartinFig 3.26 - http://www.presidentsmedals.com/Entry-28541 Droeshout-London.jpg Fig 3.27 Fig 3.13 - http://www.anglican-mainstream.net/wphttp://media4.architecturemedia.net/site_media/media/cach content/uploads/bible(22).jpg e/c8/ae/c8aec978ef2e0cbb53d2ae16a75d6365.jpg Fig 3.14 - http://ultimatereviews.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2013/10/BladeRunner2.jpg Fig 3.15 - http://ultimatereviews.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2013/10/BladeRunner2.jpg Fig 3.16 - http://www.sosyalbilim.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/09/1984-1984-07-g.jpg Fig 3.17 http://www.nndb.com/people/754/000026676/adorno.gif Fig 3.18 http://m1.behance.net/rendition/modules/11333745/hd/514 3fbc45bdc8a8223ac96686dcde8fc.jpg
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H.G. Wells' The time machine. VHS. Directed by George Pal. Culver City, CA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1960. Oblivion. Blu-Ray. Directed by Joseph Kosinski. Universal City, Calif.: Universal Studios Home Entertainment, 2013. The Machine Stops . Film. Directed by N/A N/A. London : BBC, 1966. From the TV show out of the unknown The Matrix. DVD. Directed by Andy Wachowski. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures :, 19992001. The book of Eli. DVD. Directed by Joel Silver. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2010. The island. DVD. Directed by Walter F. Parkes. Universal City, CA: DreamWorks Home Entertainment, 2005.
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Books 5.2 Baker, Robert S.. Brave new world: history, science, and dystopia. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990. Bakhtin, M. M., and Michael Holquist. The dialogic imagination: four essays. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981. Booker, M. Keith. Dystopian literature: a theory and research guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994. Booker, M. Keith. The dystopian impulse in modern literature: fiction as social criticism. Westport,Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994. Carroll, Noel. The philosophy of horror, or, Paradoxes of the heart. New York: Routledge, 1990. Coleman, Alice. Utopia on trial: vision and reality in planned housing. London: H. Shipman, 1985. Dick, Philip K.. Do androids dream of electric sheep?. New York: Ballantine Books, 19961968. Forster, E. M., and Rod Mengham. The machine stops and other stories. London Andr Deutsch ;,1997. Foucault, Michel. The use of pleasure: vol. 2 of The history of sexuality. 1976. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1984. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its discontents. 1 ed. Austria: Verlag Wien, 1930. Gottlieb, Erika. Dystopian fiction east and west: universe of terror and trial. Montreal: McGill-Queenâ€™s University Press, 2001. Hughes, Robert. The Shock of the new. New York: Knopf :, 19811980. Huxley, Aldous. Brave new world,. New York: Harper & Bros., 1946. James, P. D.. The children of men. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1993. Katz, Steven D.. Film directing shot by shot: visualizing from concept to screen. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions in conjunction with Focal Press, 1991. Koestler, Arthur. Darkness at noon,. New York: Macmillan Co., 1941. Kristeva, Julia. Revolution in poetic language. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. London, Jack. The iron heel. Champaign, Ill.: Project Gutenberg, 1908. Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. Manifesto of the Communist Party. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1848. Marx, Karl, and Serge L. Levitsky. Das Kapital: a critique of political economy. [Abridged ed. South Bend Ind.: Gateway Editions, 1867. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, and Walter Arnold Kaufmann. On the genealogy of morals. New York: Vintage Books, 1967. Orwell, George. 1984: a novel. New York, N.Y.: Published by Signet Classic :, 1977. Orwell, George. Animal farm;. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1954.
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Books, Journals and Websites 5.3 Popper, Karl R.. The poverty of historicism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1957. Roeckelein, Jon E.. Elsevier's dictionary of psychological theories. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006. Smyer, Richard I.. Animal farm: pastoralism and politics. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1988. Voorhees, Richard J.. The paradox of George Orwell. Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University, 1961. Wells, H. G.. Men like gods: a novel. New York: Macmillan, 1923. Wells, H. G.. The time machine; an invention.. Cambridge, Mass.: R. Bentley, 1971. Zamyatin, EvgeniiĂŒâ€ Ivanovich, and Clarence Brown. WE. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Penguin Books, 1993.
Brooks, Alison. "Alison Brooks, judge of the President's Medals 2011, takes issue with Patrik Schumacher.." The Journal of Architecture 231, no. 1381 (2012): 24-25.
Websites RIBA . "Royal Gold Medal 2012 Student crit Q&As." Vimeo. http://vimeo.com/37797527 (accessed February 8, 2014). RIBA. "Royal Gold Medal 2012 - Student Crits Silver Medal - presentation." Vimeo. http://vimeo.com/37786606 (accessed February 8, 2014). "SOCKS." SOCKS RSS. http://socks-studio.com/2011/03/19/exodus-or-the-voluntary-prisoners-of-architecture/ (accessed February 8, 2014).
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