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A Fresher’s Guide to

Architecture

Bradley Sowter

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A Fresher’s Guide to

Architecture By Bradley Sowter

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Contents

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Preface and Acknowledgements

My realisation to study architecture was a few years before having to make this big decision of what I wanted to do in life. Sat in graphics class when my teacher (who turns out trained to be an architect) gave us an exercise to design a kitchen space using one point perspective. Learning the ropes of a drawing board and scale ruler, I became mesmerised with this idea of creating spaces which people could inhabit. I told everyone I was going to be an interior designer! Well I did, until my parents explained to me it was probably architecture that I wanted to do. Now at this time my mother was very sceptical of me wanting to go down this avenue, as I have never been the best at art. Dropping it before GCSE to focus on other subjects my artistic ability was little to none. Therefore, if you are reading this going into an architecture degree coming from an art background, maybe you took the subject at A level or have done a foundation degree, I applaud you as you are in a very good place compared to where I was when I started. If you are reading this, and the only thing you can draw is stick men like myself, don’t despair there is a lot to architecture than making pretty drawings. During my A-levels we were asked to produce a document showing our career path, and as you can see it was very crudely done, but the idea of this is to make sure that the university you pick is the one for you as well as seeing what companies there are out there. At the time of writing this I have always believed that there are three types of Architecture Universities out there, particularly for undergraduate studies. You have the very artistic universities which many student want to attend, myself blown away my first years artwork. Then you have the more engineering Universities which you can tell by the degree, if the degree is in BEng as opposed to B.Arch it is an engineering course. Finally, you have the mixture of the two combining a artistic design sense with the practicability, which us in the architecture realm call ‘buildability’. Each type of university come with their own benefits so it’s important not only to see what kind of University to choose but also what the University expects of you. So what is this book all about, and why read it when you have a million other things to do. The aim of this book is a simple and easy way to understand architecture and how best to approach learning and designing through university. Without prior knowledge of architecture, recommended reading from university may sound

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My realisation to study architecture was a few years before having to make this big decision of what I wanted to do in life. Sat in graphics class when my teacher (who turns out trained to be an architect) gave us an exercise to design a kitchen space using one point perspective. Learning the ropes of a drawing board and scale ruler, I became mesmerised with this idea of creating spaces which people could inhabit. I told everyone I was going to be an interior designer! Well I did, until my parents explained to me it was probably architecture that I wanted to do. Now at this time my mother was very sceptical of me wanting to go down this avenue, as I have never been the best at art. Dropping it before GCSE to focus on other subjects my artistic ability was little to none. Therefore, if you are reading this going into an architecture degree coming from an art background, maybe you took the subject at A level or have done a foundation degree, I applaud you as you are in a very good place compared to where I was when I started. If you are reading this, and the only thing you can draw is stick men like myself, don’t despair there is a lot to architecture than making pretty drawings. During my A-levels we were asked to produce a document showing our career path, and as you can see it was very crudely done, but the idea of this is to make sure that the university you pick is the one for you as well as seeing what companies there are out there. At the time of writing this I have always believed that there are three types of Architecture Universities out there, particularly for undergraduate studies. You have the very artistic universities which many student want to attend, myself blown away my first years artwork. Then you have the more engineering Universities which you can tell by the degree, if the degree is in BEng as opposed to B.Arch it is an engineering course. Finally, you have the mixture of the two combining a artistic design sense with the practicability, which us in the architecture realm call ‘buildability’. Each type of university come with their own benefits so it’s important not only to see what kind of University to choose but also what the University expects of you. So what is this book all about, and why read it when you have a million other things to do. The aim of this book is a simple and easy way to understand architecture and how best to approach learning and designing through university. Without prior knowledge of architecture, recommended reading from university may sound daunting. I spent a week re-reading a chapter from a classical architecture book, talking about classical orders. It was after I asked one of my tutors did I realise they were talking about columns

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A Fresher’s Guide to

Architecture

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Why Architecture?.... If you were anything like myself, A-levels is that daunting time in your life where your teachers pressure you into choosing which career path to go down. You’re in limbo where some your friends may have left school to get jobs, earning some money and you’re thinking about increasing your time spent in education for at least the next three years. It is a big investment and a daunting task. Many schools are specialised in different subjects, in my secondary school for example, it was science and as you can imagine many students wanted to go into medicine, and those failing that - biomedical sciences. Others did not have a clue what they wanted to do and opted to choose a subject that they excelled at during school, hence the large portion of English students at university. Then you have us. The artistic bunch that wonder if there is any money in the creative arts and this word Architecture, so big and grand... like the architect in the matrix.

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My realisation to study architecture was a few years before having to make this big decision of what I wanted to do in life. Sat in graphics class when my teacher (who turns out trained to be an architect) gave us an exercise to design a kitchen space using one point perspective. Learning the ropes of a drawing board and scale ruler, I became mesmerised with this idea of creating spaces which people could inhabit. I told everyone I was going to be an interior designer! Well I did, until my parents explained to me it was probably architecture that I wanted to do. Now at this time my mother was very sceptical of me wanting to go down this avenue, as I have never been the best at art. Dropping it before GCSE to focus on other subjects my artistic ability was little to none. Therefore, if you are reading this going into an architecture degree coming from an art background, maybe you took the subject at A level or have done a foundation degree, I applaud you as you are in a very good place compared to where I was when I started. If you are reading this, and the only thing you can draw is stick men like myself, don’t despair there is a lot to architecture than making pretty drawings. During my A-levels we were asked to produce a document showing our career path, and as you can see it was very crudely done, but the idea of this is to make sure that the university you pick is the one for you as well as seeing what companies there are out there. At the time of writing this I have always believed that there are three types of Architecture Universities out there, particularly for undergraduate studies. You have the very artistic universities which many student want to attend, myself blown away my first years artwork. Then you have the more engineering Universities which you can tell by the degree, if the degree is in BEng as opposed to B.Arch it is an engineering course. Finally, you have the mixture of the two combining a artistic design sense with the practicability, which us in the architecture realm call ‘buildability’. Each type of university come with their own benefits so it’s important not only to see what kind of University to choose but also what the University expects of you. So what is this book all about, and why read it when you have a million other things to do. The aim of this book is a simple and easy way to understand architecture and how best to approach learning and designing through university. Without prior knowledge of architecture, recommended reading from university may sound daunting. I spent a week re-reading a chapter from a classical architecture book, talking about classical orders. It was after I asked one of my tutors did I realise they were talking about columns

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I also bought a book on Amazon about Egyptian architecture, which turned out to be an encyclopaedia. Throughout this book, I will be taking you on a journey from entering into the world of architecture during your fresher year all the way through to completing your master’s degree. Semi biographical in tone this book acts as an anecdotal book looking at the highs and lows in which you will inevitable face. You can choose to read this book in two ways. Either you can read it chronologically or you can skip to chapters in times of need. The book is split into 3 main parts. The first two Are self explanatory. Part 1 focuses on Part 1 studies and acts as a ‘foundation’ to your studies. This covers areas that you should know before graduating and tricks and tips on how to get the best out of the course. Part 2 follows the same logic and looks at your Masters degree, but going deeper into the meaning behind architecture. Instead of spilling information, the aim of this section is to make you ask questions about yourself, your design influences and how you want architecture to be moulded in the future. The final section looks at health and well being during your studies. How to manage your time, cope with critics and how to change it to your advantage. We also look at mental health and issues that arise within architecture and university as a whole and ways in which we can tackle these. Throughout the book guest authors, share their experiences of university and invaluable advice. The premise of this book is to be an introduction into architecture. Within the book there are suggestions on further reading and subjects to look up in your own time to gain a wider knowledge of architecture. Architecture itself is very subjective but with the tools and basic understanding of design you will be in a good position to create amazing projects as well as the most important aspect - enjoying it!

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Preparation for Uni So you have decided on which university to go, and the chances are you and your parents are running about all over the place buying pots and pans for your new accommodation and making sure the student loan company is sorted. It is best to get this out of the way and sorted first. After this initial rush, it is good to take the time to do some research and get to know what architecture is all about.

The best advice is to keep it simple.

A book on buildings for reference

A book on design

A book on materiality

Herman Herztberger’s ‘Lessons for students in architecture’ has stuck with me from day 1 and Jonathan Glancey’s ‘Modern architecture’ has been great for something to flick through. In terms of materials and an easy to read books, I have found the Basics Architecture series by Lorraine Farrelly especially: Construction + Materiality invaluable to my collection. So there you have it three types of books to get you started. You will know doubt start hoarding books to the point you need to invest in more bookshelves or even start selling books, so make small investments to start with. Make sure you have the right equipment for your first year. The university should give you a list with item such as: pens, pencils, paper , scale rulers etc. It would be worth looking at previous years work to see which medium was most commonly used. Spending £100+ on stationary equipment such as water colour markers may be overboard especially when typically students move over to computer software in second year.

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Part 1

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What to expect Architecture is one of them rare subject whereby you do not really know what to expect until you start a course. Similar to Paris Syndrome students are normally shocked as it is not what you initially expect. According to the National Audit Office of 2007 1 in 10 students drop out of the course within the first year. I personally saw about a 15% drop out rate with people opting to transfer to Fine arts degree or engineering. So at this stage it will help to have a little understanding of how the architecture course is structured and how this differs from other degrees. Firstly Architecture is advertised as a 7 year sandwich course, at the time of writing it is 3 years for undergraduate degree, 2 years masters degree with two year out placements. There are discussions at present if the system should change to a 5 year long degree. As you can see compared to other degrees, which are 3 years in their entirety it’s easy to see why there is a large drop-out rate. If you do not enjoy your first few weeks on your course, imagine spending 6 more gruelling years. That is not to say you have to do the 7 years. Many colleagues of mine used their bachelor’s degrees to go into different industries, and a degree in itself opens many doors.

Architecture, especially the undergraduate course has one of the highest contact hours compared to other subjects. Contact hours include lecture, seminars and tutorials. This comes with its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of many contacts hours, up to 20 hours a week compared to some degrees that have an average of 5, is that you get bombarded with architectural information, so grab a pen and paper or if you want to be fancy and dictaphone. The downside is, you have less time to experience social life with your housemates and piers. This unfortunately is the way of life for an architect, in education and in practice, however I will talk about this in a later date, and how to improve your work/social life. This in itself is a reason for people dropping out and the reason why you see architect students sticking together, mainly around the coffee machine for caffeine.

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Unlike your friends who have gone off to university to study what they liked at school you have to learn from the bottom up, but at degree level! It’s kind of like asking you to speak fluent French in a week. It will take a few months to adjust and you will be fine. Many Universities start out with very small projects for you to start with and slowly build up into term projects. As mentioned in the previous chapter, architecture is very subjective. You will have projects throughout undergraduate and postgraduate studies, which will go well, and others you would rather forget about. It is how you react to these little victories or losses which make you a better designer and I will teach you later in this book how you can go about doing this. As I mentioned previously the course is presently structured so that in your first three years you learn the principles of architecture. With this knowledge you can work in an architecture practise as a ‘part 1 architectural assistant’. After working for a year and completing a series of RIBA professional Experience and Development Records (PEDR) you are eligible to apply for a M.arch degree in architecture which is a two year course, delving deeper into architecture and realising your full potential as a designer. Finally you can apply for a part 2 assistant role at a practise where you have to work for a minimum of a year and show that you have fulfilled the RIBA criteria to apply for part 3 ___[add here] The first year at architecture school normally has either none or very little relevance on your overall degree at the end of 3 years. Going into a degree where you do not know what to expect this is understandable. The first year is all about exploring architecture, getting your foot in the door and becoming interesting in certain aspects of design. This is not to say that you can mess around. As mentioned previously many contact hours means you probably won’t have time for that plus you will need to pass each module to continue to the following year. (I failed my final module in first year and had to retake, more on that later.) Many Universities opt for hand drawn work in first year,but as time goes by they are implementing small technology modules so there is a smooth transition between first and second year. Second and Third year is where it counts. Most Universities have a higher weighting on Third year. Second year is normally when you look into new computer software’s and realise you spent hours drawings lines with a setsquare and ruler on a drawing board which can be done with a click of a button on autocad. Third year is where you take everything that you have learnt and apply it to fully resolved building and presentations skills that you have accumulated over many Crits (architecture word for marked presentation).

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Every year follows a similar structure. You have parts of the course called modules and there are normally split between Design projects and Essays. Design modules can be in form of architectural projects or live builds where you get hands on in construction and Essays are self-explanatory including Dissertations in 3rd year and masters. Interesting fact about architecture students and the course in general. It has one of the highest percentages of dyslexic students. Many architecture students choose the course to get away from writing, myself included. The benefit of the course structure, however, is that design modules are more important than essay modules and thus weighted accordingly. My design Tutors believed essays were a waste of precious design time and should ‘bash’ them out to be done with them, which is true to some extent, that they should not be a hindrance on your time spent designing, but they do play a vital role in your understand of architecture and something I will touch on later. Dissertation on the other hand hold much more value than Essay and can be weighted the same as some design modules. These are integral to the course and help you expand your own thinking in architecture. They require a lot more time then Essays and word count can range between 8000 - 15000. However, dissertation is normally only required during your final years of your undergraduate degree and master’s degree so by then you should be a whiz at essay writing.

24 Months Experience (PEDR) Proffesional CV and Career Evaluation Case Study 3 Years Study at a RIBA accredited University

1 Year Architectural Work Placement with PEDR

RIBA Part 1

2 Years Masters Study at a RIBA accredited University

Written Examination

RIBA Part 2

RIBA Part 3

Traditional Pathway

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Oral Examination

ARB Registered Architect &

The second half of the year and which take up the most about of time, but is also the most enjoyable, is the project design work. In the following chapters, I will talk about design work, the different stages of design, what to look for, and the final outcome.


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Studio Culture Z Z Z

Z Z Z

Z Z Z

Studios, Units, Groups there are many names given to them. I am referring to the space in which architecture student’s work. I remember when I was showed around my University on an open day and we passed by the first year architecture studio. What I heard still resonates with me today. “This is the first year architecture studio. You will see people working here late at night most nights including weekends. If you come home in the early mornings of a late night, you will no doubt see people still working here.�

As someone who has not even started the course this remark made be very nervous. Especially as in my head all I was thinking was, if this is how the first year students work, imagine the long hours the students in the years above do with the increasing workload. The Studio itself is normally made up of a room full of computers, if you are using software to create your designs, or large drawings boards if you are working with pencils. All of this is normally hidden under vast amounts of balled up paper, energy drinks, pro plus and fast food take away containers.

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Being a humanitarian subject, architecture is a very socially engaging course, and similar to other subjects such as drama you will talk to many people in your year and get to know them very well. The studio is an amazing place where like-minded people meet and exchange ideas. It is also a place where you can have a laugh and enjoy yourself whilst working on drawings. The studio culture also puts you in good stead for working in an architectural firm. However there are some down sides to studio culture which I shall mention here and the reasons why I tended not to abide by the rules. Dependant on how the studio is split up you could be working alongside a group of 10 or more, in my case, in first year it was more like 150. Peer pressure in the studio is present. There is an idea that time spent in the studio = better marks. Whilst in essence this is true, you have to put in the work to get good marks, the amount of hours you spend in a certain space does not equate to better marks. In fact, if you want to get good marks you need to produce better work that is it. If there is a group of students in the studio working until 3am in the morning to finishing some work, other students will feel the need to also put these hours in. I used to believe that if you were to go home at sleep at 10am these other students, have 5 hours of work more than you. This is like a chain reaction resulting in a 24/7 work regime. This may work for you, especially if you need motivation however this constant pressure may result in paranoia and definitely lack of sleep. There is also a paradox of knowing within studio culture. You will no doubt; either by working in the studio or during presentations see other students work. It is much easier to judge other peoples work than your own. Many students have their own fresh ideas and you might feel that their designs are superior to yours. This is because it is very hard to rate your own work. There is a tendency to be self-deprecating on the course, which is because of the diverse nature of students work and the need encapsulate this diversity into a single project. Stress by proxy is one of disadvantages of studio culture. When deadlines are looming and there is stress in the air, like a virus it spreads. You might be feeling fine however, the stress in the studio from individuals may cause you to be anxious of the workload. As mentioned previously this is why it is imperative to continuously monitor your time management to ensure that even if other people are stressing that you are sticking to your targets.

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The Brief

BRIEF

A module brief assignment or ‘brief ’ for short is a document put together by the module convenor of your design unit. The time of these assignments can range from a week to a year however; they all follow a similar pattern. The main points of the brief are as follows: A Scenario This will give you an insight into why there is a need for your architectural intervention. In your first year at University, these scenarios are straightforward. The scenario will discuss a problem and suggest a solution. as you progress further into your studies especially at Masters level you will encounter Scenarios where there is no recommended solution and it is up to you to figure out how to approach this problem with an architectural proposal. Whilst reading the scenario it is worth noting down key words to research.

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The Site Similar to the scenario the module convenor will give you a site on which the project. The convenor will also most likely give you a site boundary on which your proposal should sit within. This is normally shown on a Ordnance Survey map with a red line. In one of my first design projects, we were even given the volume in which our design should be... a 4x4x4m box. It is important to understand at this point, if you are reading this as a first year student, that design constraints may sound like it hinders the creative process, however especially at the begining of your studies, they help sculpt your design and prevent you from a little thing I like to call ‘artistic block’. Design Requirements Design requirements can be set out as a checklist or in a few paragraphs. This section normally entails what the programme of the building is and which spaces you should design. You might also be given the recommended sizes of each of the spaces. If this is the case, it is worth getting acquainted with these sizes. I used to cut out little squares to represent each space so you could compare the sizes of each are. Treat design requirements as a checklist, and make sure that you print them out and pin it to your bedroom wall. Remember that design requirements are the bare minimum to pass the module however, I will discuss this in detail later on. Time Scale The brief will tell which dates you will be presenting your work and what is expected. You will have non assessed presentation which will give your tutors an indication of where you are with your design, this is normally midway through your assignment. You will also be given a deadline day for your crit where you will be presenting your work which will be marked. It might be the case that the module convenor will add additional dates on this time scale with what they expect to be completed each week. This is to ensure that you do not have a backlog of work leading up to your deadline, which will be inevitable especially without personal time management.

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The Basics So you have a brief, where do you go from there? Many people have different approaches and it is up to you to find which approach suits you. There are 6 basic categories that I will discuss in the following chapters which will put you in good stead for your project. Presidents - The architects that you should know about Research & Site analysis - What to look for and when is it overkill Concepts - drawings, models & how to improve your concept Drawings - The different types of drawings available to you Technology - Environmental and how to go about detailing Journals and Portfolios - How to document your work Many people treat this is a linear time-line, from research to concept to a finished presentation. This is great to grasp an understanding of the project however as mentioned previously you can encounter ‘artistic block’ as you are bound by a set of parameters that you have set yourself. It is easier in my opinion to work some of these categories in parallel to one another, and to continuously re-evaluate your work. The diagram opposite page shows how I generically used to plan my time during my studies. For a more in depth view on how this is structured please see the chapter on time management, where I will discuss the different zones and Gantt charts which will help you structure your time and your drawings. The blue boxes of the diagram indicate milestones within the project and tasks need to be carried out no only to meet these deadlines but also to keep a consistency especially with the documentation of your work.

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Start

Brief

Ideas

The Golden Zone

Presidents

Site Visit

Site Analysis

Tech Studies

Desktop Research

Concept Designs

Developed Drawings Design

Journal

Time Management

The Help Zone

Desktop Research

Intercrit

Developed Desktop Tech Design Research Studies Finishing Zone Final Drawings

Buffer Zone

Crit

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Presidents

Not to be confused with presidents like Lincoln and Washington, precedents is a word past round in architecture which simply means which buildings or ethos inspires you. Precedent studies will help you start thinking about design work. My view is that you always need to look at the past to design for the future, and what better way than looking at the modern masters of architecture. Presidents does not just have to be famous architects, it can also be brief specific. For example if you are asked to design a school you might not necessarily think of a famous architect such as Walter Gropius and his design for the Bauhaus. It takes years of study before you can gather a virtual database of architects and their buildings. You can however use sources at hand to gather fast and efficient information. My first port of call would to look through architectural magazines such as the Architect Journal (some articles are online although you will need to be subscribed) The Architectural Review and Detail (for the technology inspiration) Websites such as Dezeen, Architizer and Archdaily have large databases of information. However this is just scraping the surface. Take time to understand the architectural projects you are looking at. Ask yourself the following questions:

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Who is the architect? Where is the building located? What is the ethos and intention of the design? What are the materials used and the reasons for this? Has the environment been a factor in the design? These questions will reveal whether the project you are looking at is a worthy president. The questions will also lead you to research deeper into the materiality of the building, other buildings that share the same material palette and other projects by the same architect. The gathering of information at this stage is vital to your understanding of architecture. Moving onto the famous architecture of the 20th and 21st century I have split the following chapter into 4 sections: Legends - Looking at the Legends in architectural history which will form the foundation of your architectural studies. Contemporaries - Looking at modern architects of today which you probably have already heard of. Upcoming Starchitects - Looking at the new comers to architecture that are pushing the boundaries of what is build-able in the 21st century Visionaries - These architects are aimed at students entering their Masters studies but is good for undergraduate students to be familiar with these architects. Their work may not look architectural but their views on society and the modern world Please note that this is a brief introduction to these architects and I could write a book on each one of these mentioned, so if any of these architects tickle your fancy I implore you to go to your university library and get a book out on the architect.

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The Architects

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Legends

Le Corbusier 32


Le Corbusier 1887-1965 Notable Buildings: Villa Savoye, Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Sainte Marie de La Tourette, Unité d’habitation Le Corbusier is known in the architectural world as the pioneer of Modern architecture and will most likely be the first architect that you will encounter at university. He revolutionised the way in which we think of architectural design. Le Corbusier created a manifesto which looked at his design principles entitled ‘Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture’ 1. The supports Known as pilotis these vertical reinforced concrete supports are set back from the facade. The ‘Dom-ino house’ by Le Corbusier is a great example of this. 2. Free design of the facade Now that there are no supporting structures at the perimeter of the building the facade becomes non-load bearing. Large expanses of glass can be used. 3. Free designing of the ground plan By lifting the ground floor up on the pilotis like stilts, the ground floor can be used for civic or private use opening up many possibilities. 4. Horizontal windows Using an open floor plan large horizontal windows that cut through the building can be used. 5. Roof Garden The roof garden not only provides a domestic luxury, they also provide protection for the concrete roof.

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Legends

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Mies van der Rohe


Mies van der Rohe 1886-1969 Notable Buildings: Barcelona Pavilion , Farnsworth House, Seagram Buidling

Aesthetically similar to Le Corbusier , Ludwig Mies van Der Rohe, believed that “Less is more�. With a keen eye for detailing Mies crafted simplistic forms which were executed perfectly. Although Mies did not have a principle of architecture such as Corbusier his work shared some characteristics.

Simple rectilinear forms

Multi-fuctional spaces due to large open plan living spaces

Large expanses of glass around the perimeter of the Buildings to great harmony with the surroundings.

Exposed Structural detailing

Barcelona Pavilion - Plan Philip Johnson, architect of the Glass House was inspired by the Farnsworth House and worked with Mies on the Seagram Building

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Legends

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Frank Lloyd Wright


Frank Lloyd Wright 1867- 1959 Notable Buildings: Falling Water, Taliesin, Guggenheim Museum, Unity Temple

Frank Lloyd Wright was Born in Wisconsin in 1867 and is known as one of the great architects of his time focusing on the duality of architecture and living. Wright believed that ‘buil Working under Adler and Sullivan in 1887 (Louis Sullivan being the father of skyscrapers) Wright adopted Sullivan’s maxim of “form follows function.” Wrights Philosophies were: Democracy,Integrity and Nature. Wright believed that architecture was for everyone not the elite and that architecture can enhance the lives of people living within them. Wright believed that nature and architecture can have a symbiotic relationship. Wrights design style differed from Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe opted to change his style to the needs of the client and the changing society.

Prairie Style1 Two-story structures

Gently sloping roofs

Single-story wings

Heavy-set chimneys

Utilized horizontal lines

Overhangs

Ribbon windows

Sequestered gardens

Usonian Style Single-story structures

Interior/exterior connection

Simple designs

Large overhangs

Affordable

Celestial windows

Local materials

Naturally cooled spaces

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Legends

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Louis Kahn


Louis Kahn 1901 - 1974 Notable Buildings: Exeter Library, Kimbell Art Museum, National Assembly Building in Dhaka, Salk Institute

Louis Kahn was born in Estonia in 1901 and emigrated to America with his family in 1906. After studying at Pennsylvania University he travelled around Europe admiring the medieval architecture that Scotland and France had to offer. Louis Kahn has inspired contemporary architects such as Tadao Ando, entwining the International style of the modern movement with monumental heavy set buildings. Reminiscent of Le Corbusier’s later work such as Sainte Marie de La Tourette, Louis Kahn uses bare materials such as concrete and brick to create monolithic structures. He offsets the gravity of these structures with punctured geometry ,creating a dance of light throughout his buildings. You can see this in the works such as Exeter Library and the National Assembly Building. If you look at Tadao Ando’s Church of Light you can see the same relationship with light. Louis Kahn in his plans a geometry showed a clear dinstinction between served spaces (habitable spaces) and servant spaces (stairwells , Mep areas etc). Bare Materials Monumental Structures Control of Light Divide between Served and Servant Spaces

Louis Kahn’s son Nathaniel produced a film entitled “My Architect”

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CONTEMPORARIES

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Norman Foster


Norman Foster Notable Buildings: 30 St Mary Axe (The Gherkin), City Hall, Camp Nou, Sainsbury Centre Le Corbusier is known in the architectural world as the pioneer of Modern architecture and will most likely be the first architect that you will encounter at university. He revolutionised the way in which we think of architectural design. Le Corbusier created a manifesto which looked at his design principles entitled ‘Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture’ 1. The supports Known as pilotis these vertical reinforced concrete supports are set back from the facade. The ‘Dom-ino house’ by Le Corbusier is a great example of this. 2. Free design of the facade Now that there are no supporting structures at the perimeter of the building the facade becomes non-load bearing. Large expanses of glass can be used. 3. Free designing of the ground plan By lifting the ground floor up on the pilotis like stilts, the ground floor can be used for civic or private use opening up many possibilities. 4. Horizontal windows Using an open floor plan large horizontal windows that cut through the building can be used. 5. Roof Garden The roof garden not only provides a domestic luxury, they also provide protection for the concrete roof.

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CONTEMPORARIES

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Zaha Hadid


Zaha Hadid 1950 - 2016 Notable Buildings: Heydar Aliyev Center, Maxxi, London Aquatic Centre, Vitra Fire Station Le Corbusier is known in the architectural world as the pioneer of Modern architecture and will most likely be the first architect that you will encounter at university. He revolutionised the way in which we think of architectural design. Le Corbusier created a manifesto which looked at his design principles entitled ‘Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture’ 1. The supports Known as pilotis these vertical reinforced concrete supports are set back from the facade. The ‘Dom-ino house’ by Le Corbusier is a great example of this. 2. Free design of the facade Now that there are no supporting structures at the perimeter of the building the facade becomes non-load bearing. Large expanses of glass can be used. 3. Free designing of the ground plan By lifting the ground floor up on the pilotis like stilts, the ground floor can be used for civic or private use opening up many possibilities. 4. Horizontal windows Using an open floor plan large horizontal windows that cut through the building can be used. 5. Roof Garden The roof garden not only provides a domestic luxury, they also provide protection for the concrete roof.

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CONTEMPORARIES

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Richard Rogers


Richard Rogers Notable Buildings: Millennium Dome (02), Pompidou, The Leadenhall Building (the Cheesegrater), The Lloyd’s Building. Le Corbusier is known in the architectural world as the pioneer of Modern architecture and will most likely be the first architect that you will encounter at university. He revolutionised the way in which we think of architectural design. Le Corbusier created a manifesto which looked at his design principles entitled ‘Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture’ 1. The supports Known as pilotis these vertical reinforced concrete supports are set back from the facade. The ‘Dom-ino house’ by Le Corbusier is a great example of this. 2. Free design of the facade Now that there are no supporting structures at the perimeter of the building the facade becomes non-load bearing. Large expanses of glass can be used. 3. Free designing of the ground plan By lifting the ground floor up on the pilotis like stilts, the ground floor can be used for civic or private use opening up many possibilities. 4. Horizontal windows Using an open floor plan large horizontal windows that cut through the building can be used. 5. Roof Garden The roof garden not only provides a domestic luxury, they also provide protection for the concrete roof.

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CONTEMPORARIES

Frank Gehry 46


Frank Gehry Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum Le Corbusier is known in the architectural world as the pioneer of Modern architecture and will most likely be the first architect that you will encounter at university. He revolutionised the way in which we think of architectural design. Le Corbusier created a manifesto which looked at his design principles entitled ‘Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture’ 1. The supports Known as pilotis these vertical reinforced concrete supports are set back from the facade. The ‘Dom-ino house’ by Le Corbusier is a great example of this. 2. Free design of the facade Now that there are no supporting structures at the perimeter of the building the facade becomes non-load bearing. Large expanses of glass can be used. 3. Free designing of the ground plan By lifting the ground floor up on the pilotis like stilts, the ground floor can be used for civic or private use opening up many possibilities. 4. Horizontal windows Using an open floor plan large horizontal windows that cut through the building can be used. 5. Roof Garden The roof garden not only provides a domestic luxury, they also provide protection for the concrete roof.

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CONTEMPORARIES

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NICHOLAS GRIMSHAW


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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CONTEMPORARIES

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Renzo Piano


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Upcoming Starchitects

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Thomas Heatherwick


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Upcoming Starchitects

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Bjarke Ingels


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Visionaries

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Douglas Darden


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Visionaries

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Buckminster Fuller


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Visionaries

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Lebbeus Woods


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Visionaries

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Archigram (peter Cook)


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Visionaries

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Cedric Price


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Visionaries

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Rem Koolhaas


Notable Buildings: Guggenheim Museum, Disney Concert Hall, Dancing House, EMP Museum

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Inter-Crits

So Inter-crits ... what are they? Well essentially they are presentations which are not marked. You will have presentations throughout the year, looking at concepts, site analysis along with other things, but the Inter-crit is hailed as a milestone in where you are up to at this certain point in time. Now if it not marked is it even worth turning up? Yes! Although they are not marked I would deem inter-crits more important that the final Crit. This is because after the final presentation there is nothing else you can do. You present, have a beer and hope to the architecture gods that you get a good grade at the end of all of it. Inter-crits however, are the opportunity for the tutors to grill you and for you to grill your tutors. The Inter-crit is normally held around the midway point in your project. This means that you still h ave plenty of time to do work before the BIG ONE! Even though you’ve sculpted this baby of a building with love and affection it is nowhere near complete. Even if you think its complete, trust me, there is a whole lot more you can work on. In my first year of university I used to stick up for my design during inter-crits, even if that meant digging a massive hole in which I couldn’t come out of. Also it becomes very subjective. Your tutor will remark that they do not like an aspect of your build and you will disagree and you will say you like it. You might have stood your ground but at the end of the day, you achieve nothing by it, seeing as you have to do it all over again in your final presentation. I have often felt that inter-crits are the opportunity to step outside of yourself and the bubble that you have immersed yourself into and critic your work along with tutors, and external critic if they are there. There is always parts of your design that you do not like

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and you wish you could change, but in your mind you hope that the tutors don’t spot it. I say highlight it, or at least do not lie when they point it out. Explain that is a floor and you have tried a few things and ask them what they would do. This is extremely useful if there are external critics as they have not seen your work before and the cross conversation between them and your usual tutors will be interesting and beneficial. Likewise, if one of the criticisms of your work sounds subjective please ask the tutors to elaborate on their point and then ask them for a suggestion on how to improve the scheme to suit. If they cannot come up with a suggestion then it is purely speculatively and subjective and it is entirely to your digression wither you implement their views into your design work. The drawings that represent during your inter-crit have to be of some quality but do not need to be polished or finished. You are still designing your project and this will be wasting your time. By spending the time finishing drawings and making them look pretty, you will be reluctant to throw them away. The main objective in an inter-crit is as follows; Clearly explain your concept and how you have arrived at it The drawings clearly represent these concepts and narrative Allow and accept criticism Explain where you are hoping to go with the project and what you are looking to present for the final Crit. This final point about where your project is going is important, as it will give the critic panel an idea on your time management of work. You can even ask them if what you believe you can do in the period is plausible. They might recommend suggestions on how to proceed. This is one of the reasons to always have your journal that you are continually updating. The work on the wall might not seem much but the drawings and research present in your journal will give the panel a clearer indication as to where you are. As we are on this point about journals, please give the journals to the panel to have a look at! I have seen many students throughout the years have a 200+ pages worth of a journal but the panel do not look at it. It will especially help the external critics who have no comprehensive of your scheme. If you start your journal from day one it will show to the panel your methodically and linear concept evolve and this will help not only to understand your scheme better but also to help suggest other avenues to research which you have overlooked.

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Back to the drawing board

Inter-crit can go one of three ways. Either it went well, went disastrously or you’re not really sure how it went. Having a good Inter-crit is always nice as it puts you in good stead for the final presentation, all you need to do is plug yourself into the computer and churn out some amazing drawings. When Inter-crit presentations go well you might even use some of the drawings for your final presentation, who knows! If however, the presentations do not go as well as expected, it’s not the end of the world. In fact, this is a chance to step back from your project for a few days and reflect on the remarks given by the tutors. This should be given to in form of a written feedback form with strengths, weaknesses (areas for improvement) and a summation view on your work. In some projects, you are also given a provisional mark, which is ideal to see where you stand at present. Some feedback is hard to decipher, like a doctors notes, so if it is allowed record your presentation on your phone or a Dictaphone. Spend a few days understanding the feedback, and researching avenues of interest that they have suggested. You have worked tirelessly to get your work to a stand to present so you are allowed a views days of not designing. if any of the feedback does not make sense, make sure to contact the tutors involved and ask them, I’m sure they would gladly elaborate on their views. This is a great way of adding to your journal. As I mentioned previously some students believe that projects are a linear process starting with research and end with design when this is not in fact the case. Do not be afraid to put additional research midway through your journal. It will show that you are being

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reflective on your own work, understanding that you have missed a few things and are looking at way of improvement. If you were to put this research at the begging of your journal, your early design work will not reflect this. Once you have absorbed the new information and have refreshed yourself you are now ready to run the final straight to finish line. Remember to look back at the time planning on page 21, as you can see time management and your journal should be ongoing, whilst continuously researching. It is good at this point to write a checklist on what needs to be done for the presentation. This way you can schedule your time effectively. Going straight into producing drawings blind without knowing what the outcome will be, is never a good idea and could result in you not finishing your work on time. You may be in a position where you are reluctant to throw away the work that you have produced during the Inter-Crit. This can be for a number of reasons, from not wanting to do additional work to not accepting the criticism received about the design. It all comes down to personal preference. If it is the former reason, scheduling your time in such manner as a gannt chart will allow you to see if you have time to redo drawings. If the reason is the latter, ask the question why? I have rejected suggested changes in the past as I have believed that my design aligned more with my concept and narrative than what the tutor suggested. The outcome of this means less work to produce but you have an uphill battle to climb during your presentation to explain why you did not change the design. The only way you can win this is by researching and building a case for your design, to the point at which you and the crit panel accepts there is no other design option that encapsulates your views. From here on in you will need to produce drawings that are presentation worthy and also a joy to work on. At the end of the day you want to be able to stand up beside work that you are proud of and can feel good about what the drawing represents rather than showing it because “you have to�. Tutors look for passion in your work and they look for passion in you. The combination of them both is a sure set winner!

Use your phone to record conversations during tutors and presentations

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Crits - Presentations

The Crit, or presentation is the finale of your design work and ultimately what you will be marked on for your design module. As projects increase in scale, workloads and timescale, Crits become ever increasingly stressful. In this section, we will look at how to present, from paper types, to scale, to orientation, composition and presentation style. The way you present your work is as important as the drawings themselves. You can have the most detailed drawings in the world but if you do not convey this to the audience, your attention to detail will fall on deaf ears and so to your marks. Presidents Medals is a good website to look at for drawing layouts. Students are ask to condense their years work into 10 sheets, so a lot of thought has been taken into account when composing the sheets to provide the audience with as much information without narrative voice. Second half of this section will be written by Dr Sarah Stevens, a registered architect and design tutor at the University of Brighton about her views on Crits.

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The Wall The wall is where you normally present unless it is a digital presentation. Traditionally the normal layout for a wall is of potrait and landscape drawings of various scales, outlining your building proposal. Things can become a little more complex when you start adding models to the wall, plinths projections, bi -folding panels, stacking drawings, animation etc. So for starters, it is good to get some examples of wall layouts. A book I would recommend is ‘Composite Drawing’ - techniques for architectural design presentation by M.S. Uddin, which provides a vast array of different compositional layouts. The main premise of the book is to illustrate how one drawing can be a composite of many drawings, providing the viewer with a lot of information. The book also shows examples of different rendering techniques, non-conventional drawing Medias, exploratory drawings and media appropriateness. Another great example to look at are comic artist. Artists such as Chris Ware use small diagrams and symbols to convey their message within the artwork. Architecture have started incorporating this into their professional work with the likes of Bjarke Igels and his comic book strips. I believe composition can be split into two categories. Narrative and Aesthetic. Narrative is unique to your project and something that will entwine itself with your presentation. Having a symbiotic relationship with what is presentation on the wall and your presentation speech will ensure that the audience will pay attention. To do this you will need to think back to your original concept on which the whole project spawned.

Narrative

Aesthetic

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The Traditional Approach For a typical presentation of a complex building, the premise of the wall is to describe how the building functions. To do this you will use the Macro to micro technique. You have probably already come across this before. Starting with a site plan you will continuously zoom in, increasing scale until you end up with details of the building. Advantage: This approach is to convey to the audience the levels of detail in your building and to show it is fully resolved. It is the easiest layout for architects to grasp, so is beneficial if there are external critics on your panel that have not seen your work before. Disadvantage: This approach is that it will not express your creative or individuality. The critics will view the presentation as very technique and will look for floors in the function of your building. If you are looking into using this still, make sure you nail each drawing and leave no stone unturned. The traditional route for presenting your drawings in this manner is to start with the top left image on the wall and end with the bottom right image.

Siteplan

Axo

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Plans

Section

Detail


A Story Does the architecture follow a chronological story where the drawings on the wall can show this journey? This approach is beneficial when the final built form may not suit its function. For example if you were to create a school that looked like a World War 2 bunker underground -you will need to explain why this school is different to your local primary school. In this scenario, a story approach, as opposed to the traditional approach is more appropriate. You will need to take the audience on a journey of discovery from your concept, your investigation and your outcome. The drawings must convince the critics that the obvious solution is ‘a bunker school underground.’

Advantage: This approach is that the drawings do not need to have as much rigour as the traditional approach, however it is good practise to have the traditional drawings in a portfolio to show the critics if required. Creating a narrative within your drawing , you have the option of being more artistic with your drawings and the relationship between each drawing. For example you could show a student venturing through the ‘bunker school’ and you will see the student in each drawing uncovering more information. Disadvantage: This approach is that you will have to revisit old drawings and rework them to bring them up to the standard of a presentation piece. This approach is only really advisable if you have a near on complete building coming over the back of an Inter-crit, minus a few minor changes. The building is the most important part of your presentation, and if you do not have a building, the story is worthless, so keep this in mind if you are thinking about choosing this approach. Finally as mentioned previously, you will also need to mirror the drawings on the wall with traditional working drawings. Some critics view this type of approach as “non architecture” so you will have to make sure to have drawings to back this up.

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Sections This can be used in the traditional approach and the story approach. The section approach is where you break down and compartmentalise different areas of your building and or story. If you have four sections of your building or story you want to prioritise you would split the wall into four distinct sections. This can be done with clear division of space between drawings, orientation of drawings or the aesthetics of drawings. This is normally used when the building is very complex that a single type of drawing does not encapsulate the information, or when multiple site locations are used. Advantage: This approach is that you can prioritise where the audience look. Traditionally when you have a large building and you want the audience to pay attention to a particular area you point and assume the audience will look at where you are pointing. However from experience after a while the audience will lose interest and investigate the rest of the drawing themselves. by sectioning certain areas and zooming in on them, the drawings will have the same as you pointing, but will give the audience freedom to roam the drawing. Disadvantage: This approach is you will need to still show the whole building or buildings as a complete set and not just parts of a puzzle. This may mean having an area of the wall dedicated to the complete building and context, master plan, site plan etc.

1 2 3

4

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Aesthetics The second category to look into is the aesthetic of the wall. These can be applied to any drawing regardless of the narrative or project. The project itself cans architectural brilliant and interesting, but if it looks shabby on the wall, you will not achieve the best grades. Traditionally you will work within the A-paper sizes normally no smaller than A3 on the wall. The most common sizes you will see on a final crit wall are A0s and A1s. These are large enough for the audience to see a few metres away. It is important to check how your image will look before it is printed. On Adobe, software there is normally a View print size option. This will give you an accurate representation of the scale of the image when printed. By doing this you will avoid, detailing areas that will not be seen in printing and printing large images that are void of information. The problem with A-paper sizes however, is that they are terrible a tessellating. The best advice is to measure the size of the wall you are going to present on so you know what sizes you need. Use traditional paper sizes as templates and adapt them to fit. Similarly, standard architectural scales may hinder the sizes of your drawings. Scale bars, on the other hand are more flexible and can be adjusted to the size of your print, and will be the right scale when re-scaled for your portfolio. Paper size determines how important a drawing is. Make sure that the size of the paper corresponds to the narrative your project.

A0

840 x 1189

A1

594 x 840

A2

420 x 594

A3

297 x 420

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Paper Type With your final presentation, it is important to choose the right paper type. If it is hand drawn, it will most likely be on trace-like paper. To make this stand out add a thicker piece of paper behind it before pinning it to the wall. If you are printing onto paper, it is good practice to know the thicknesses of paper from 80gsm to 140gsm. As you increase in thickness, the price of the print will also increase. The benefit of thicker paper is that of a professional look as well as its resilience to curling at the edges. Light 80gsm - Everyday printing paper

90gsm - Colour Everday printing

100gsm - Thicker paper for documents

120gsm - Presentation Paper

160gsm - Lightweight Card Heavy

Different finishes to paper is also important. If your drawings are very colour, or there is a lot of visuals you may opt for a gloss or semi gloss paper finish. This will look polished however there are a few words of caution. Firstly take into account where your wall is location in regards to the lighting the spaces. Spotlights close to the images will be reflected making it very difficult to see the image. Secondly glossy images tend to come out darker in print that matte images. So if you choose to print gloss make sure you do a test piece first and increase the levels to achieve the look you want.

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Composition We have spoken about composition with narrative but composition as an aesthetic on the wall is just as important. Without a clear direction, drawings can end up looking like a “shed of ideas” without have a clear relationship to one another. I, myself have fallen into this trap. Firstly, use a frame of reference if possible. If you do not do this, the audience will have a hard time understanding the drawings relationship with the adjacent drawings. Make sure there is an object in all the drawings that the audience can orientate themselves. This could be in form of the context in which you are building sits or an interesting design proposal, which is shown in all your drawings. To test that your drawings achieve this ask a friend or colleague to look at your drawings and tell you where the drawings are taken from.

Composition Emphasis The next step is to look at composition emphasis. Drawings have a weight to them just like line work, and you can use this when presenting your work to guide the audience’s eyes through their work and help your drawings look grounded. This can be done by having a dominant top or base, a vertical or horizontal emphasis, or a central point of focus. for the story approach I have always tended to have the central point of focus on the final image (bottom right) deemed as the money shot. A high glossy image that tells the overarching story of your entire scheme. The idea behind this is to attract the audience’s eyes from the beginning seeing the result and then taking them on a journey on how you achieved the final drawing.

Drawing layout on Paper Similar to composition emphasis , this can be done on an individual drawing basis, and will in essence affect your composition emphasis. Bottom dominant image tend to be sections where you are cutting through the ground. The lower half of your drawing will be dark whilst the top will be light. Dependant on size of your drawing, it may also have a horizontal emphasis. Exploded axonometric and stacked plans normally have a vertical emphasis

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Cohesiveness Finally, it is important to have cohesiveness throughout your drawings on the wall. This can be done in a variant of ways, from your colour palette, your line works, shading, notations etc. All of these tie the images together into a complete project. You can however, take this one step further by combining the drawings. This can be done by using frames (insetting your images into the paper), using grids.

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Speech

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Health & Well Being

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The Stresses and Strains No Sleep

N o Wo r

k es

s

S tr

Many people reflect on University as the best times of their lives. The friends that you make at university will last a life time and you will reminisce on the fond times you had during your degree. However, with the highs also come the lows. At times during your studies, there will be stressful periods as you try to meet deadlines. For me personally I encountered two stressful periods during my studies. My first time was during my undergraduate degree, in my final project of third year. The culmination of all my grades hinged on my final project so I felt the pressure was on me to perform. Stress really got to me around 4 weeks before the ‘deadline’ and I had a vicious cycle of not being able to sleep to being so lethargic I could not work and spent most of the day worrying that I was not being productive. The sleeping was not helped that it was during the summer term where light was streaming through my window at 5am and would wake me up. My second time was during my final year’s master’s degree. Similarly, to my first stressful episode this was brought on due to the culmination of previous years study hinging off the back of my final years work. The dif86


ference between the two however, was that this episode was not brought on near the end of academic year, near to the presentation,but 6 months prior in November. Unlike before where 4 weeks of not sleeping, which is of course awful, I was able to power through the stress and once I was finished I could prioritise me. This time however, I had to sort myself out and get over my self-induced stress to get through the next 6 months of my course. These episodes are not my fondest of memories of university but they have been the most rewarding. They have allowed me to accept who I am as a person, how stress affects me and how to deal with it appropriately. Learning who you are as a person is just as important as to who you are as a designer. If you look at the most famous architects in the world, their life, their experiences have moulded them into the designers they are today. In this section of the book I will talk you through ways in which to cope with your health and well-being whilst studying architecture, looking at how to manage your time effectively, from a studying point of view and a social view. I will talk about ways in which you can help yourself deal with stress and when to take appropriate action. I will also have a guest contributor to this section,Emmanuel Owusu, Author of ‘My psychosis story,’ who will talk to you about...

If you take anything away from this section it is to understand that you are not alone, 1 in 4 people will experience mental health problems, from mild conditions to those more serious. What is important is that you do not suffer in silence, there are many people on hand to help you through these periods in your life. 87


Rest

“No rest for the wicked!., You have probably heard this phrase before, Architecture schools have been notoriously known as the place where no one sleeps. The idea is that more work can be done the more hours you put in, which in a sense is true - until tiredness creeps in. Especially in a creative environment sleep is need to help you think and to be refreshed. Studies have shown that sleep is necessary for cognitive function. It will affect your ability to multitask and thus your ability to be efficient with your time. A task that should take 30 minutes will take an hour. Sleep deprivation also affects your short-term memory, especially when coming nearer your deadline it is important to know what needs to be done, what has already been done and task that you are a midway through doing. Sleep deprivation affects divergent thinking or creating thinking. In the field of architecture where you are continuously, thinking outside the box this is very important. The brain has an amazing ability of solving problems in your sleep also called creative insights. I struggled with many of these problems, especially the lack of divergent thinking. I would spend sleepless nights, weeks on end trying to solve problems. Pads of papers gone through with scribbles and crossing outs. It got to the point that I need help and visited the university student wellbeing service because I was getting around 90 minute sleep a night. The councillor listen to me and gave some great advice: Imagine you are watering pots of plants with one watering can. You go and water the first two plants before running out of water - what do you do. Do you try to water the other plants with no water? or do you go back to top up? You see the plants is your work and the watering can is your fuel, without sleep and refueling you will not be able to water all the plants.

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Why the lack of Sleep?

It is important to understand why you are lacking sleep. this can be down to a number of things, and each come with their own problems and solutions. The easiest one to tackle is if the reason for lack of sleep is that you are enjoying the nightlife of University. This is purely down to time management skills that I will talk about later. It is important to compliment your studies with social life but it should be balanced for you to achieve a good work/social life. Studio culture is another issue with lack of sleep that we have discussed before. Being peer pressured into thinking working late is the normal, is archaic and is something that needs to be readdressed in architecture school. Studios being open 24hrs a day reinforce this warped ideology. If this is the case with you and your studies, it may be worth taking a step back and seeing how much work you actually produce. Spend two days working 7-12 hours a day and record the work that you have complete. Then the next two days work for 12+ hours a day and see if the workload has increase by a lot. This will give you a clear indication whether working long hours is beneficial for you. Stress and worry of upcoming hand-in and presentations can affect your sleep. This is harder to overcome than the previous two and probably the most common reason for sleep deprivation, However there are a few ways of dealing with yourself. Over thinking before bedtime can lead to you not sleeping during the night. Similar to the diagram on page 27, you will need to include a buffer zone in your day. This is the transition period between you finishing your work and you going to bed. This will give your brain a chance to relax. I used to use dinnertime as my shut off point. As soon as it was time to make dinner I would pack up my things and I would be done for the day. External circumstances are also a factor at university and a reason for your sleep deprivation. This could be due to health issues with yourself, members of friends or family etc. If this is the case it is important to talk to a member of staff or the pastoral care team for them to advice of the best course of action. Protocols are in places such as extensions if issues like this arise. At the end of the day the University wants you to graduate university with a good grade, this will be good for you as well as reflecting well on them, so they will try their up-most to help you through the hard times.

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references 1 - prairie - https://www.britannica.com/art/Prairie-style

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A Freshers guide to Architecture draft  
A Freshers guide to Architecture draft  
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