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RELATE BOYUAN JIANG 姜伯源 Selected Works 2012-2016


BOYUAN JIANG Selected Works 2012-2016


é–“ RELATE


Contents Preface:

On 'JIAN' I. Time as SamsÄ ra:

Mountain-Water Church II. Surveillance-Free Public:

Pygmalion Pool

III. Banking @ Internet

iBank Headquarter IV. Redeem the Past:

Kanda Mountain V. Mega as Small:

Xs Campus D.C. VI. Community in Breeze:

BREATHE Housing

1

5

21

41

61

99

127

VII. Through the Layers:

Layerinth Public Restroom

153

VIII. Conceal to Enlighten:

Shade Temple IX. Relate:

Other Works

167

189


JIAN, iphone5, 2448 x 2448 pixels, New York, 2015


中文「間」字原作「閒」,小篆寫法為「

The Chinese character ‘ 間 (JIAN)’ is originally composed of a character ‘door’ and a character ‘moon’ within the door (

」,

本義「隙」,是月光從門縫中照進屋内的樣子。

). It refers to the

space of a door gap revealed by the moonlight

《說文解字》引注:「夫門夜閉,閉而見月

shining through it. This poetic initial definition has

光,是有閒隙也」。這個頗具詩意的原義在

evolved into multiple meanings throughout the

歷史發展中已被引申出各種意涵,包括「之

character’s historical development, including ‘between/among’, ‘moment’, ‘room’, ‘bay

間 / 中間」、「時間」、「房間」、「開間(兩

(space between two columns)’, ‘estrangement’

柱之間的面闊,中國古建築之基本模數)」、 「離

and ‘intermingle’, etc. These derived meanings

間」、 「間隔」、 「間雜」等等。不難看出, 「間」

range from the measurement of space and time to the description of human behaviors.

字的含義範圍甚廣,從空間和時間的度量,

Three Chinese words ending with JIAN maybe

到人的行爲舉止、事物的存在狀態,不一而足。

best illustrate the complexity and subtly of

或許三個以「間」為結尾的詞語能最好體現

this character: ‘ 空 間 (space)’, literally means (time)’, literally

「時 這個字複雜而微妙的内涵: 「空間(space)」、

means ‘between moments’; and ‘ 人 間 (mun-

間(time)」、「 人 間(mundane world)」,

‘between emptiness’; ‘ 時

dane world),’ literally means ‘between/among humans.’ It is worth noticing how these precise

三個詞語的字面意義或可用英文分別解釋為

terms in English were translated into somewhat

「between emptiness」、「between moments」 以 及

uncertain ambiguities in Chinese with the use of

「between/among humans」,原本在英文語境中

JIAN.

所指明確的三個單詞卻以一種拿捏不定的模

As indicated by the three words, JIAN describes the situation of one entity being con-

糊姿態出現在中文裏,耐人尋味。

stantly intertwined with other entities. In other

正如上述三詞所暗示的,「間」可被理解

words, it means the status of being related. Today we heavily rely on ‘object’ rather than

為一種基本的存在狀態,它表示一物永恒地

‘relation’ as the basis for understanding the

陷入與他物糾葛之中的情境。換言之,「間」

world: for example, we declare certain particles

即「相關」。今天我們太常以「物」而非物

rather than forces as the fundamental com-

間的「關係」作為認知基礎觀察世界,例如

posing elements of the universe. However the

Preface: On 'JIAN'

1


我們以粒子而非引力作爲宇宙的基本構成要

ontological emphasis on relation is an equally ancient concept which can be traced in many

素;而對「關係」的本体論式的強調其實是

Eastern philosophies such as the social harmony theory in Confucianism and the balance of Yin

東 方 文 明 源 流 久 矣 的 概 念, 除 了「space」-

and Yang in Taoism, etc.

「between emptiness」這種比較近代的轉譯外,

Imagine all kinds of beings are constantly

儒家對個人和社會關係的表述、「中庸之道」

generating concentric circular ripples from themselves; the ripples gradually move out-

的概念,道家的「太極」、「自然」,均存

wards and fill up all the voids, and when ripples

在此類以「間」為本體關懷的傾向。

meet each other, new ripples are generated

設想每種存在、每個個體均以自身為中心

and overlap with the original ripples…These interactions go on infinitely and all beings are

向外輻射同心漣漪,漣漪與漣漪逐漸充滿虛

finally connected and integrated by the ripples.

空,相互碰撞,產生新的波動,又與舊漣漪

The void of ripples thus offers the most abun-

疊加擴散,如此綿延無止,生生不息,可以

dant and unpredictable possibilities. This void is JIAN; its flexibility and fuzziness lead to a moder-

在虛空中聯係萬物。這虛空即是「間」,它

ate approach and a humble balance of various

運動地調和各種矛盾,使之得以統一共存。

intentions. The result is a kind of ‘field’ or ‘atmosphere’ in which the tension can neither be

它既無又有,靈動而曖昧地展現出無窮可能

achieved by sculpturing individual elements nor

性。以此為起點的創造指向一種溫和平煦的

manipulating the overall form; but by respect-

灰色、一種謙恭淡然的平衡,其結果是一種

ing the spontaneous connections among the

「場」、「勢」或「氣」,如水之將落、箭

individuals to resolve the whole ensemble. As for architectural design, the power of JIAN

之在弦,蓄而不發。欲達致此等張力,不能

is best illustrated when encountering the primary

偏執於細節與整體兩極,而應尊重個體間自

contradictions of human cognitions: small-big, few-many, private-public, void-solid, end-start,

屬的潛在相關性,並以此自發之聯係合零為

old-new, dead-alive, mundane–divine… Archi-

整、化整入零。

tecture itself is far from being able to reconcile

具體到建築設計,或許「間」的張力在觸

these contradictions, but it can at least juxta-

及那些人類認知的最基本對立要素之時才得

pose, reveal and balance them, and it is only

Preface: On 'JIAN'

2


by then could architecture be philosophized

以全彰:小大、寡眾、私公、虛實、末始、舊新、

and compared at the same level with other

死生、人天……建築自身遠不夠力量消解這

high cultures. This portfolio discusses the concept of JIAN.

些矛盾,但至少可以並置、揭示、平衡它們,

For instance, projects such as Water-Mountain

而建築本體也只有在應對這些關係時才能被

Church and Shade Temple deal with the rela-

哲學化,具備與其他純藝術形式並論的資格。

tion of time and space; projects like Pygmalion Pool and Xs Campus respond to the tension

這本集子中收錄的作品從上述各種關係探

between individual and collective. The most

討「間」的概念與應用,既有山水堂、一屏

distinct similarity perhaps lies in their formal

寺這些比較純粹的處理空間與時間、建築與

approaches: discrete, homogenous individuals are distributed and integrated in particular

環境關係的案例,也有自証池、河廊園這樣

manners within a holistic entirety. My prefer-

激進回應社會矛盾和自然問題的案例,它們

ence for such approach comes not only from

最明顯的共性在於建築形式的處理手法:均

its competence to interpret JIAN, but also from a cultural point of view. As Lothar Ledderose

質、離散的個體以某种方式統合為(在)一

concluded in his Ten Thousand Things, tradi-

個整體(中)。我對這种手法的偏愛自然源

tional Chinese literati ideology and aesthetics are fundamentally based on the variation and

於它對「間」的詮釋能力,但或許更來自它

recombination of modular systems. From the

與我自身文化傳統的契合。如雷德侯在《萬物》

structure of Chinese characters to the scattered

中指出的,中國古典思維和審美態度正是建

‘perspective’ of traditional landscape paintings; from the social congruity of family and state to

基於模塊組合式的變化和再生,從漢字構字、

the Taoist theory of One and All, JIAN demon-

散點透視到家國一體、一生萬物,這種思維

strates its power which, in Kenzo Tange’s words,

模式滲透進漢人文化性格和處事方式,零整

‘directly appeals to the human heart.’

之間,直指人心。

Architects are object makers as well as void makers, and objects are ensouled by voids.

建築師是造物者,也是造空者,物以空靈,

One doesn’t make the doors; one places them

正是「間」的精髓。無需製造門扇,只要把

in the right position so that the moonlight can

門扇擺在合適的位置,月光自會成詩。

render a poem.

序 :「間」

3


I. Time as Samsāra:

Mountain-Water Church

山水堂 2012


Peak Ridge Hill

Waterfall

Basin

Lake

Bank

Hill

Die

Stack

Shan

Mountain

Li

Shui

Plan

Water

Concept drawing of mountain and water on the site

Mountain and Water: Chinese Symbolism of Eternity The site opens up to a bay towards east, and enjoys a green mountain view towards west. There is a strong contrast between the straight site boundary along the railway and higway and the curving boundary along the mountain. The site with the entrance at one end suggests a linear movement along an axis. In traditional Chinese philosophy, mountain and water in nature symbolizes spiritual eternity. They be-

came a major theme for traditional Chinese paintings since Song Dynasty. ‘Stacking mountain, planning water’ is a key design method for traditional Chinese Gardens: using smaller massing of stones, creeks and ponds to imitate the real mountain and river/lake to create an intimate connection between the mortal scale of human world and the eternal scale of nature. The concept

8


Congregation Block Priests’ hostel

Cascade Pond

Cloister

Parking

Activity Block Corridor Bell Tower

Yi

Move

Bu

Huan

Jing

Step

Change

View

Mountain-Water Church

Changing Views in Movement montage shows the similar strategy integrated with the spcial movement route design. ‘View changes with steps moving’ describes the rich visual experience in traditional Chinese gardens. The effect is achieved by spreading views along a continuous itinerary, a technique widely adopted in traditional Chinese garden designs. The combination of framed views (pointing) and unframed views (moving)

is arranged along the ritual route in the final design to provide such spatial experience as well as unifyiing the complex into an inseparable wholeness. Time is an essential theme for religion and the movement in space provides the opportunity to experience time. Learning from traditional Chinese paintings, the design creates a continuous movement with changing visual experience.

9


Finale

Pause

Diminuendo

Climax

Buffer

Start

Route, rhythm and nodes in the painting ‘Dwelling in Fuchun Mountains’

Fins on facade divide the continuous view

Ritual route in Mountain-Water Church

Ritual Movement: Experiencing Time as Samsara The fins on facade divide the continuous view into fragments. While visitors can sense the continuity along their movement, they can only see fragemented views, thus the same landscape is constantly being rediscovered. The religious experience is created as a spatial journey of rediscovery. Visitors will pass through an exterior pond and a small casade upon their arrival at the

entrance, while at the climax of the route they will rediscover a water place at the altar, which flows out to form the cascade. Here the start and the end of the rediscovering journey are connected by the water as a loop symbolizing the concept of Samsara. The public and priest's circulation routes are diverged at the lobby block. There is also a priest gate at the north end of the complex.

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Priests circulation

Cloister: cycling movement

Altar: climax Rediscovering the water

Corridor: Meditation

Cascade: Connecting end with start

Ficus religiosa: Enlightenment

Pond: start Walking on water

Public circulation

The journey of rediscovery

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Ground Floor Plan 1 Parking / 2 Pool / 3 Children Play Room / 4 Bell Tower / 5 Lobby / 6 Side Chapel / 7 Toilet / 8 Preparation Room / 9 Assembly Hall / 10 M&E / 11 Cloister / 12 Library / 13 Prayer’s Room / 14 Priests’ Kitchen & Dinning / 15 Individual Cells


First Floor Plan 16 Congregation Hall / 17 Altar / 18 Choir Practice Room / 19 Biblical Study Rooms / 20 Priests’ Living Room / 21 Individual Cells / 22 Bell Tower


Section AA

Parking

Pond

Corridor

Section BB

Corridor

Plaza

Lobby


Assembly

Lobby

Altar

Biblical Study

Cloister

Individual Cells

A journey through the church


1.Glass roof skylight 2.Primary beam 3.Steel cladding 4.Bitumen water proof 5.Insulation 6.Louver for AC system 7.Translucent glass 8.Interior fins 9.Exterior fins 10.Bracing beam 11.Sliding door 12.Timber floor finishing 13.Transparent glass 14.Primary column

15.Plant soil 16.Drainage 17.Concrete 18.Sand & cement 19.I section steel joist 20.Steel water tank with water proof tile 21.Water 22.C channel 23.Steel tie 24.sky light diffuser

Congregation hall details

Temple for Life Timber construction details are designed to create a warm, clean, tectonic expression. The facade fins look like continuous pieces from interior to exterior, yet they are actually separated interior and exterior pieces. The fins are fixed on bracing beams spanning between primary columns. This detail allows large windows and sliding doors to be installed between the two layers of fins. The water at the alter is contained

within a waterproofed steel tank, which is independent from the timber members. The light is filtered through the timber fins from all sides and warmly rendered before entering the alter space. The water, with the lectern and cross in it, is the essence of the space to complete the journey of rediscovery and represent the concept of time loop.

16


The Congregation Hall


View of lobby entrance


Plaza

cascade

bridge

Cloister

Altar

Pond

Model, view from west

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II. Surveillance-Free Public:

Pygmalion Pool

自證池 2013


The various warning signs and vandalism found in Douglass Housing & news reports covering public negative expectation towards poor people and public housing in New York City.


The Realm of Architecture

Less surveillance

Typical public pool spaces under surveillance

Inject temporarily private spaces free from surveillance

More surveillance

Others Actions (towards us)

reinforce

cause

Others Beliefs (about us)

Positive

PYGMALION Our Beliefs EFFECT (about ourselves)

Negtive

influence impact

Contempt

Respect

Our Actions

(towards others)

Destructive

constructive

Pygmalion Effect machanism

Pygmalion Effect in Public Housing The site for the pool is a NYCHA managed public housing in upper west Manhattan called Douglass Housing. The majority of occupants living there are low-income class whom contrasts sharply with middle class residents occupying the surrounding blocks. Same as many other New York public housings, numerous surveillance cameras, strong fences and warning signs that requiring residents behave ‘cor-

rectly’ can be found everywhere in Douglass Housing. These management measures transform the site into a prohibitive space that lacks the sense of community and decency. It is clear that the NYCHA, or the ‘ruler,’ tends to associate the residents with the typical labels given to low-income class such as crime, vandalism and drug addiction. This low expectation overwhelms the physical space of Douglass Housing.

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Surveillance-Free Islands

Roof Terrace & Auditorium

Congregation Square Interior Pool

Cafe

Exterior Pool

Slope Entrance


4. Circulation Islands 9. Auditorium 10. Platform 11. Roof Terrace

Roof Plan A

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pool Plan

Circulation Islands Private Islands Platform Interior Pool Exterior Pool

A

1. Congregation Square 2. Slope Entrance 3. Community Cafe 4. Circulation Islands 5. Private Islands

B

B

Ground Plan 0

27

2

6

14m


Concept drawing depicting the vertical surveillance-free islands and three horizontal public levels


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1

2

3

4

7

8

9

10

5

6

Surveillance-Free Islands XX-YY-ZZZZ (R=Private, U=Public, E=Elevator, P=Platform, S=Staircase, ZZZZ: Water depth in m) 1 Island-U-P-3.5: Platform&Light Well 2 Island-R-E-3.8: Library 3 Island-R-E-3.7: Gymnasium 4 Island-R-E-1.4: Office & Yoga 5 Island-R-E-3.3: Table & Cenima 6 Island-R-E-2.9: Kids & Bedroom 7 Island-U-S-2.5: Diving Board 8 Island-U-S-4.0: Diving Board 9 Island-U-E-4.5: Public Restrooms 10 Island-U-P/E-1.8: Platform, Cafe&Restroom

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Study model

Surveillance-Free Islands The Pygmalion Effect is a self-fulfillment prophecy being widely adopted in Psychological studies to describe the phenomenon that ‘other’s negative expectation towards us will make us look down upon ourselves and thus behave ‘bad’ accordingly, which in turn makes others react with deeper negative expectations and finally form a vicious cycle’. In other words, the lower expectation we have towards a

group of people, the worse they will behave. On the contrary, positive expectations – trust, appreciation, dignification – will foster good behavior. As an example, in the famous documentary ‘The Pruitt-Igoe Myth,’ the residents recalled how this effect influenced their life before the project was demolished: After some light bulbs were broken, the management office installed protective shell for all

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Section AA

0

1

3

7m

1.Indoor pool|2.Outdoor pool|3.Congregation Square|4.Viewing Platform|5.Roof Auditorium|6.Roof Terrace|7.Slope Entrance 8.Community Cafe|9.Mechanical room

lights, and this measure ‘only severed to make us want to break them.’ Similarly, NYCHA’s surveillance and over-controlling also contributes to the unsatisfied existing status. Is it possible to create a community pool in which the visitors (mostly the residents) are trusted, supported rather than monitored, prohibited? The design tries to shift the expectation and embark a sense of dignity

in the community by altering the spatial surveillance sequence. The pool is hanged above a sloping landscape, with thirteen towers (‘islands’) vertically spanning between the ground and pool levels. Each island, with a double-floor hydraulic elevator inside, contains functions such as locker, changing room, toilet and bathroom, together with one or two undefined multi-use spaces. The islands can be temporarily

33


The Public Private vs. the Private Public locked at both exits as a totally private realm without any surveillance for the users, isolating themselves from the public water above and the public ground underneath and thus redefines the psychological identity of both levels. Visitors can use the islands in whatever way they preferred and stay for as long as they want while the pool is open. They can bring furniture into the

multi-use spaces and spend an afternoon there without even enter the pool; in this manner the islands become ambiguous spaces blurring the border between public and private, monitored and unmonitored. By returning the absolute control back to the hands of the users, the project might help to build up a positive cycle for expectations and behaviors. The ground, water and roof surfaces are designed as

34


1.Indoor pool 2.Outdoor pool 3.Congregation Square 4.Viewing Platform 5.Roof Auditorium 6.Roof Terrace 7.Slope Entrance 8.Community Cafe 9.Mechanical room

Section BB

0

1

3

7m

Three Surfaces three fields for public congregation while the islands, serving as load-bearing structures, are designed as evenly distributed infrastructural grid intruding into the public. The three surfaces are ‘democratic’ for being uniform spaces for all kind of visitors: the pool is not only intend to be used by the Douglass Housing community, but also surrounding mid-income neighborhoods. Especially in the water at pool level where

all have to wear only minimal cloth, the physical bareness would bring certain degree of equality to all visitors and at least visually help to blend social gaps. The roof level auditorium and terrace are designed as a community outdoor event space that can be visually accessed by the units in surrounding blocks and neighboring high-end developments opposite street. So when concerts or other public events are held on

35


View of ground level island entrances

View from the north congregation square

View of the roof level auditorium


View from the south entrance

Make a Difference? the roof, the residents in the whole area can enjoy the events through their windows without even leaving their own apartments and thus also helps to connect the Douglass Housing community more closely to the surrounding urban context. To what extent can architecture address mental issues and to what extent can it change people’s psychological status and thus change their behavior?

It is always a difficult question to answer. In the Pygmalion Effect Cycle, the ‘surveillance measure’ is the only factor directly related to architecture, therefore the intrusion of the unmonitored islands into the monitored public space seems to be the only possible endeavor an architect could offer for this particular site to socially make a difference.

37


View of interior pool, showing the exterior pool to the left, and a fire-escape staircase as a diving board tower

36


View of interior pool. The islands enclosed various scales and depths of water for different activities

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III. Banking @ Internet:

iBank Headquarter

雲籠行 2014


Site access

Cloud of individuals

Core

Collective boundary

Ground recess

Corner entrance

Cloud in the Box: Individual - Collective iBank is proposed as an institution providing and researching online banking services. The banking industry predicts the future trends of banking to be more customized, internet-based and self-servitized given the rapid development of internet and mobile device technologies. The design of iBank Headquarter started with rethinking the collective - individual relation of a bank

providing purely online products and services. The technology advancement extends the boundary of banking far beyond the traditional spatial boundary of branch buildings and decentralizes the basic unit of banking to individual customers. The seemingly decentralized individuals are, however, all tied back to and controlled by the network host located in iBank Headquarter. The collective image of iBank is a

44


Study models


Concept model of iBank Headquarter indicating individual - collective relation


6/F 1. Lift lobby 2. Research office 3. Staff meeting kiosks 4. Ramp 5. Staff-customer meeting kiosks 6. Restrooms 7. Freight Elevator

Typical floor 1. Lift lobby 2. Individual kiosks 3. Help kiosks 4. Ramp 5. Restrooms 6. Freight Elevator

B

A

A

B 2/F 1. Lift lobby 2. Auditorium 3. Individual kiosks 4. Display kiosk 5. Help kiosk 6. Ramp 7. Restrooms 8. Freight Elevator

0

1/F 1. Experiencing Center 2. Cafe seating area 3. Cafe bar 4. Kitchen/storage 5. Restrooms 6. Freight Elevator

2

6

48

12m


Individual Enclosures Perforated panel / Fritted glass / LED screen

Individual Kiosks Banking kiosks / Display kiosks / Help desk kiosks / Meeting kiosks

Collective Gathering Research office / Auditorium / Ramp / Experiencing center / Cafe

Collective Boundary Core ( restroom + stair + elevator) / Cooling tower

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Section AA

1.Experiencing center|2.Cafe|3.Auditorium|4.Banking Kiosk|5.Ramp|6.Help desk Kiosk|7.Meeting Kiosk|8.Resear-ch office| 9.PV glass|10.Mechanical room|11.Vault

‘cloud’ of all customers confined in a single volume. This ‘cloud within container’ image became the inspiration of the design. The site for iBank Headquarter is located at a trapezoidl ot on Fulton Street, Brooklyn, New York. Facing a small city square, the site is next to a historic bank and surround by commercial buildings. It is at the heart of Brooklyn business district redevelopment plan. Taking

advantage of its location, the iBank Headquarter was programed not only as a headquarter office, experiencing center and research hub, but also a community center for local residents. The site can be easily approached from the Fulton street and the city plaza. The cloud of individual self-serving kiosks rises from the site, reaching out to the surrounding. A thin slab core is attached to the

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Section BB

1.Experiencing center|2.Cafe seating|3.Auditorium|4.Lift Lobby|5.Help Desk Kiosk|6.Ramp|7.Banking Kiosk|8.Meeting Kiosk| 9.Research office|10.PV glass|11.Cooling Tower|12.Restroom|13.Mechanical room|14.Store room 15.preparation room

existing buildings to the east of the site. A transparent box as a collective boundary is then applied to confine the cloud within its volume. To better respond to the urban context, the lower portion of the box is recessed to smoothen the pedestrain circulation around the building. The main entrance is located at the southern west corner, opening up towards the cross of Fulton street and Bond street.

The above-ground space is a large open volume backed with a thin slab of service core. A pixelated system of columns and platforms fill up the large volume, just like the initial concept of the rising cloud in a container. The platforms are kiosks where individual activities such as self-service banking and meeting with staffs happen, while a continuous ramp spiraling from ground level all the way up into the cloud of

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View from Fulton street


customer - staff meeting kiosk

help desk kiosk

staff meeting kiosk

research office working kiosk

S banking kiosk - self-service

S banking kiosk - self-service

S banking kiosk - with helping staff

S banking kiosk - perforated enclosure

Kiosk scenarios

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M banking kiosk -with helping staff / group

M banking kiosk - self-service

M banking kiosk -with neighbour

M banking kiosk -perforated enclosure

L banking kiosk -self-service -with group

Kiosk scenarios

55


View of Research office

View of Atrium

View of Auditorium and Atrium


View of the ramp and kiosks

Banking Kiosks kiosks functioning as a collective space of circulation and gathering. In the banking kiosks, customers can self-serve themselves with the help of machine and software provided by iBank. When encountering problems, they can call staffs from Help desk kiosks locating in the Atrium space. The working model is similar to that of an typical Apple store. The difference is that the machine in

the kiosks is also collecting user data for the research center to develop and update the iBank products and services. The machines used in the kiosks are testing samples to help iBaWnk to better interact with their customers. The section reveals the onion-like spatial layers: between the center atrium to the outmost glass box are the Help Desk Kiosks layer, the Ramp layer and the Individual Kiosk layer.

57


View of the south facade and Chase Bank building

Physical for Virtual? While the internet revolution has alreday changed the way we communicate with each other and started to reveal its fundamental impact on human society, its influence upon physical spaces is yet to be examined. The iBank project is an experiment of architectural potential to incorporate such changes of the emerging virtual community. Is it possible to physicalize a space for an organization primarily con-

ducting online business? Will internet services eventually replace human face-to-face communication? If so, is there any necessity for a public space to be built at all? The design of iBank questions the relation between physical and virtual through the juxtaposition of its clear and blurry boundaries.

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View of the Kiosks and ramp through the south facade


IV. Redeem the Past:

Kanda Mountain

神田山 2016


Relocation to suburban areas vs. Concentration towards city center

Tokyo's Elderly Relocation Plan The greying of Japan is thought to outweigh all other nations as the country has the highest elderly proportion in the world. In 2015, in response to the foreseeing nursing crisis, the Japanese government proposed to move 1 million elderly citizens out of Tokyo to several suburban areas. It is said that this relocation would ‘alleviate the issue of the declining population in rural areas, stimulate regional consumption and create

employment’. However, this plan will take a long time to complete because of local government’s strapped budgets and this proposal is inconsiderate to the actual wills of the elderlies. Tokyo’s aged population is striving to be a part of the city’s dazzling urban culture and deserve the right to stay in the city and the city should face its reality bluntly without trying to hide an entire generation out of vision.

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1980

2000

Statistics showing the aging problem in Japan (left) and a comparison of Greater Tokyo Area’s young population in 1980 and 2000 (right)


Edo map depicting the Kanda River

The Kanda River So what if the elderlies are relocated not to those discrete, remote suburban regions, but even more towards the city center? The concentration of the population is more efficient for nursing resources and such a plan would also redefine the public vision against the greyed population as it forces the city to understand more about the elderlies’ value and aspirations while encountering them directly in a somewhat iron-

ic way compared with the government’s plan. The Kanda River used to be the most important waterway infrastructure of Tokyo as it fed almost the entire water supply for the ancient Edo city and used to mark the very boundary of Tokyo. As the city started to grow, it slowly faded out from the public life and became an abounded landmark at the city center. The Kanda Mountain is extruded along the original

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Forms extracted from the 1820 book Japanese Famous Mountains by Tani BunchĹ?

The Mountains path of the River, whose own history and status quo metaphorically resonates with the aging population’s contemporary conditions. The route of Kanda River passes through many vital urban areas of Tokyo. The diversity and prominence of these areas, together with the 14 subway stations spreading along the river provide unique opportunities for Kanda Mountain to be seamlessly embedded

into the city and generate new hybridized lifestyle possibilities. Mountain, another essential symbolic motif in Japanese culture, is the inspiration for the physical form of the project. Besides the well-known divinity and spirituality of great mountains such as Mount Fuji, there is another tradition related with mountain particularly echoes with the aging theme. Ubasute, literally

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Concept drawing of the Kanda Mountain proposal


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Model of the eleven mountains

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1.Yanagibashi Mountain|2.Akihabara Bridge|3.Health Strata|4.Mount Park|5.Knowledge Hills|6.Akasaka Woods| 7.The Holy Mountain |8.Tameike Waterfall Onsen|9.Toranomon Tower|10.Shiodome Tower|11.Tsukiji Fish Mountain

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Arieal view of the Kanda Mountain


Section of the eleven mountains drawn as a ByĹ?bu

The eleven mountains of the Kanda Mountain drawn as a ByĹ?bu


Model of the Kanda Mountain Proposal

The Eleven Mountains means Elderly Abounding Mountain, refers to the custom allegedly performed in Japan in the distant past, whereby an elderly relative was carried to a remote mountain and left there to die. The story sarcastically reflects the present situation of the government’s relocation plan. A new mountain with a different vision on an abandoned river, the Kanda Mountain tries to juxtapose all these allegorical meanings and through

them critically question the social alienation of today’s Japan. The exact forms of the Kanda Mountain are designed based on a typological study of the 1820 book “Illustrations of Japanese Famous Mountains” by Tani Buncho. 6 basic forms are extracted from the book and developed into 11 mountains to compose the final scheme. Each mountain has a distinct theme

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Yanagibashi Mountain

Yanagibashi Mountain responding to its immediate urban context. The programmatic and spatial arrangements of the mountains are designed to provoke refreshing lifestyles where the value of the elderly traditions could be revealed and respected through the mixing with existing urban energies. The Kanda Mountain ends at the Sumida River at two points. The north one is the Yanagibashi Mountain

which contains mostly residential spaces and the first station of the proposed Kanda Line train which runs through the entire 7-mile length of the project. The next mountain is the Akihabara Bridge located at the cross of the Shinkansen railway and the Kanda River. This spectacular arch highlights the nearby Akihabara Station, which is the heart of the district. Akihabara is famous for being the otaku cultural cen-

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Health Strata

Akihabara Bridge, Health Strata ter and a shopping area for electrical goods, video games, anime and manga related products. The bridge contains shopping malls, exhibition spaces, cosplay squares, etc. besides accommodation for elderlies. The LED billboards hanging on both side of the bridge echoes with the faรงade advertisements culture of Akihabara. The mountain next to the bridge is the Health Stra-

ta located at Ochanomizu where many medical schools, hospitals and healthcare centers are gathered. It is naturally a great site for elderly caring programs to be placed. The mountain is layered by multiple horizontal strips, each being a 5-floor block with a single function such as housing, school facilities, healthcare centers and parks. Sandwiched between the layers are public open floors for meeting and ex-

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Akihabara Bridge and Mount Park

Mount Park ercising uses. The mountain also has a swimming pool utilizing the river water. Linked with the Health Strata is the Mount Park locating next to the Tokyo Dome. The Tokyo Dome, together with the Dome Hotel and the Dome City Attractions Theme Park, is a sporting and recreational destination for the city. The Mount Park is an elderly housing mixed with hotels, casinos and other entertainment

facilities such as the Kanda Eye Ferris Wheel. The west bottom edge of the Mount Park is transformed to a series of arches to accommodate the highways and buildings half-covering the river. The widest segment of Kanda River is located between Lidabashi and Ichigaya, reaching 410ft (125m), providing an opportunity for a double-layered mountain to be erected. The Knowledge Hills is composed

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Health Strata


Knowledge Hills


A new lifestyle of mixed generations

Knowledge Hills, Akasaka Woods by two layers of buildings clamping the waterway. The area is filled with universities and all levels of schools and educational institutions. The Knowledge Hills takes advantage of this opportunity to introduce various educational spaces into the elderly housing serving both the aged generation for part-time educations or night schools and the much younger students for daily curriculums.

Next to the Akasaka Imperial Palace is the Akasaka Woods. The garden of the Palace is one of the four largest green areas in central Tokyo, but restricted for public access. The Akasaka Woods is named after the elevated woods on the mountain which duplicated the experience of the garden in Akasaka Palace. Religion is a dominant part of Japanese cultural tradition. The Holy Mountain is the highest mountain with

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View of the Knowledge Hills and the Kanda River


Akasaka Woods

The Holy Mountain least residential units in this mega-proposal. Numerous boxes containing religious spaces revolve around a central congregation hall. The hall, with its giant waterfall pouring out from the ceiling at the center and a 360 LED screen circling the interior walls, is a multifaith temple and the single largest enclosed public space in the Kanda Mountain. The overall form of the Holy Mountain imitates the silhouette of Mount Fuji,

and the location of the mountain is right at the cross of the Kanda River and the Mount Fuji-Tokyo Imperial Palace axis. The Mount Fuji was originally visible from central Tokyo but was later covered by growing building heights. The Holy Mountain marks the relative direction of the actual Mount Fuji and brings back the memory of the Edo City as well as the blessing of the real holy mountain.

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View of the Akasaka Woods and the garden of Akasaka Imperial Palace


The Holy Mountain


Interior view of the multi-faith Main Hall of the Holy Mountain


Tameike Waterfall Onsen

Tameike Waterfall Onsen Tameike used to be the most important water reservoir and artificial lake for Tokyo. It was reclaimed later and the land is now being used as the site for the Prime Minister’s Official Residence. The Tameike Waterfall Onsen is named after the raised onsen pool and waterfall that reveal the historical water fabric of the area. The original path of the Kanda River runs as a straight

line along what is now the Sotobori Dori road between Toranomon and Shiodome and mainly functioning as a shopping and business district with many corporate headquarters gathering around the area. Toranomon was the name of the southernmost gate of Edo Castle which existed until the 1870s when it was demolished to make way for modern developments. The Shiodome area is filled with skyscrapers and office

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View of the Tameike Waterfall Onsen

Tsukiji Fish Mountain towers. A mountain is placed at each of the two spots providing rentable office spaces, restaurants and bars mixed with residential units for the elderlies. The south end of the Kanda Mountain is located above the remaining uncovered water surface of the south Kanda River where the canal enters the Sumida River. The area is famous for the Tsukiji Fish Market, a cultural landmark and lifestyle attraction that is about

to be relocated to a nearby site by the government in order to leave space for the 2020 Summer Olympics developments. The Tsukiji Fish Mountain utilizes the relocation of the old market by moving the market functions into the mountain. Fishing boats can sail directly into the mountain for unpacking, processing and marketing. Restaurants supply fresh seafood to the visitors and the elderly residents. The last station of

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Tsukiji Fish Mountain


View of the Holy Mountain

Redeem the Past the proposed Kanda Train Line is in this mountain. The Kanda Mountain proposal is a radical reaction to the Japanese Government’s announcement of relocation plan. Despite the obvious sarcasm and playfulness of the design, the megastructure is based on serious site research and tries to provoke practical solutions for Tokyo’s growing aging population. Mountain and water is the two most symbolic figures

in traditional Eastern cultures to represent the power of nature, the symbiosis of these two elements in Kanda Mountain is in line with all the artificial attempts to summon super spirits through physical forms. A great wall is erected in Tokyo to resuscitate the fading ghost of the past.

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A proposal to redeem the past


V. Mega as Small:

Xs Campus D.C.

河廊園 2015


White House

Lincoln Memorial

Capitol

Blue: 10 feet flooding zone. White: 1791 map showing the position of Tiber/Goose Creek

Real Danger: Flood in Washington D.C. The Xs Campus for Corcoran College of Art and Design tries to discuss the tension between top-down urban integration and bottom-up local involvements. The design is an urban intervention strategy that integrates existing urban programs and involves the interests of different social groups. This strategy is applied in three scales: a citywide waterway system to resist flooding risk; a campus to reintegrate a community;

and program spaces that requiring the collaboration among various social groups. D.C. is facing a serious problem of flood. Under the influence of climate change, a 10-feet flood will attack the city and affect the central areas around National Mall in the next century. The inland flooding area is paralleled with a historically existed creek that covered in the 1870s (this is

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White House

Capitol

Lincoln Memorial

Xs Campus

The WET-LINE proposal

Befriending the Floods: The WET-LINE Proposal why the flooding zone takes the L shape). The design therefore proposes to reintroduce water back into the city as an infrastructural waterway system that embedded within the existing urban fabric. This proposal, namely the WET-LINE, has the capacity to trap and absorb the flood impact within its own system during extreme conditions while providing opportunities to generate new urban functions along its water-

way branches and creates enjoyable water-intimate public spaces. The Xs Campus is developed as one of these smaller scale new urban structures that introduced along with the WET-LINE proposal. The campus site is selected to be the Randall Community at the Southwest District of D.C. It is one major inland flooding zone with no major urban renew

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During normal days

During flood

WET-LINE flood resisting mechanism

National Mall, the WET-LINE proposal

Xs Campus Site plans, lack of a clear urban function, yet with convenient accessibility and a wide range of existing programs, including commercial offices, residential houses, none-profit Arts club, abandoned schools, recreational center, community health center, church, and city government departments. These functions are detached from each other and break up the site into fragments.

Among them the Randall Junior high school building has gone through many renovation plans since it being abandoned 40 years ago. But none of them last long enough to be realized or make a difference. The latest plan proposed in 2010 is to renovate the building into a gallery and restaurant, but the local community worries that it will also be aborted. They are hoping for some change to be really carried out.

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United States Capitol, the WET-LINE proposal


The Ellipse and White House, the WET-LINE proposal


Verizon Building

Fairchild building

Auditorium & Meeting

Classroom & Office Residential Houses Classroom & Studio

Dormitory Blind Whino Arts Club

Typical Core

Student Activity Center

Community Health Center

Exhibition & Gallery

Library & Classroom

Randall School

Randall Recreation Center

Classroom & Studio

Auditorium & Office Friendship Baptist Church

Metropolitan Police Dept. D.C. D.M.V. Building WET-LINE Proposal waterway axis

Campus site context and nine segments of programs


Communal Collaboration:

The BUBBLE 榭

Urban Integration & Communal Collaboration:

The FRAME 廊

Urban Integration:

The WET-LINE waterway 河

The three basic architectural elements of Xs Campus

Architectural Elements Before this proposal, the Corcoran college of Art and Design had once considered this school as their new campus location. So the design invites the CCAD back as the main campus user and tries to firstly utilize and integrate these existing programs into the campus, secondly encouraging local collaboration with all these social members to bring a real change to the site. The integration is architecturally achieved

by the waterway and a continuous FRAME structure, while the local involvement is supported by flexible programmatic spaces called BUBBLE which grows from the FRAME. The continuous integration is laid out along an implied axis which was once a major street in the original L'Enfant Plan (it was later cut up by railway and highways). The campus is bringing back this urban axis

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5 Study models showing the incremental change and adaptive use of the Xs Campus system. The prefabricated FRAME structure provides opportunities for local stakeholder to be involved into the design and construction process by building their own BUBBLEs or even reconstructing the original building connected with the FRAME to relocate previous functions into BUBBLEs. The models also show the different water levels during floods and normal days.

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View showing the combination of the three basic elements


Flat, double floor

Flat, single floor

Oblique, double floor

Penetrate

Cut

Interlock

Gate

Bridge

Within

H bridge

O bridge

Link

Softedge

Softedge deck

Hardedge well

Xs Campus elements catalog


Oblique, single floor

Passby

Attach

Eat

Over

Surround

Pop

Grow

Grow

Swallow

Circle

Amphitheater

Hardedge dots

Water plaza

Pond

Xs Campus elements catalog


O Bridge & Highway

Residential & Library

Residential & Dormitory

Randall School & Gallery

Classroom & Studio

Basin & Library

Friendship Baptist Church & Community Center

Verizon Building & Meeting room

Blind Whimo Club & Student Performance center

Possible combination scenarios of the elements and existing structures


D.C. Police department & Aditorium

Road & Classroom

Residential & Classroom

Studio & Auditorium & Basin

Community Health Center & Studio

Residential & Lecture Hall

Walkway

Residential & Dormitory & Classroom

Possible combination scenarios of the elements and existing structures


View of the gallery and the renovated Randall School Building


View from the renovated Randall School gallery interior

Urban Integration first by aligning the waterway with it, revealing the old axis radiated from the Capitol. Then the length is divided into 9 segments, each with two cores, providing infrastructural functions such as circulation, toilets and mechanical rooms. Each zone is also assigned with a campus program that can be integrated with the existing context of that segment. For example, the zone with the resi-

dential houses is for Dormitory, as the majority of the houses are for rent now, the landowners may want to rent to the students as well, so this segment can form a living area; the zone next to the church is for Library. This is the most important church around this area, so if the library can be open to public, this segment can potentially form a community center. This logic is applied to all the segments. The idea is that

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1. Existing condition

2. Waterway construction

3. Core construction


4. FRAME installation

5. Weekend market

6. BUBBLEs completed

Incremental construction process


View of the Student performance center & Blind Whimo Club

Social Involvement each segment has its own investment combination of CCAD with certain social groups so that they can collaborate to individually construct each segment. The FRAME is then set along the waterway axis to connect all the segments and optimized to adapt to existing urban fabric, then the BUBBLES are built later. Each segment can design specific FRAME and BUBBLE structures from a catalog independently. The strat-

egy is thus flexible enough for the college and local groups to be involved into the design process. The involvement of the social members is achieved not only by the segmental collaboration, but also through the incremental construction process. Take the Church segment as an example. First the WET-LINE as a citywide infrastructure is constructed, while the residents start to enjoy the waterfront, the foundations

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A potential built version of Xs Campus


The WET-LINE waterway during floods

Open Potential for the FRAME are laid out and define a public open space next to the waterway. When CCAD and the church raise enough funding, the FRAME is shipped and installed. At the same time, the lawn next to the church has become a popular community gathering space, and the church considers to open the building towards it. While the church is preparing for its renovation, the nearby residents start to use the FRAME as a

weekend market place. Finally when the library BUBBLE is installed, the church finishes its renovation and links itself to the FRAME and this segment becomes a community center. This story of one possible scenario shows how incremental construction helps to enhance social involvement in this project. The renderings imagine how some of the existing segments might be transformed with the Xs Campus.

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The WET-LINE waterway during normal days

A Self-limiting Approach For instance, the abandoned Randall School Building is eventually renovated to be a gallery and collaborates with the CCAD as student exhibition spaces. The segment of the Blind Whimo arts club, which is a non-profit organization currently renting an old church building to hold art events, is better utilized with the student performance center being placed nearby. The waterway of Xs campus can be used as

a recreational space or even a transportation canal during normal days. While when flood comes, it helps to control the flood by absorbing flood water within its depth. As the waterway is constructed at the lowest land of the inland flooding zone, it can protect the whole area from being flooded. Rather than a fixed physical form, the final design is a strategy or system to create social, political and

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The Xs campus being constructed and dismantled in different phases and conditions. The tension between the continuous FRAME as ‘X’ scale urban integration and local BUBBLE interventions as ‘s’ scale social involvements.


View of the library

Design for the Undesigned spatial possibilities which in turn restrains the architect, limits his or her own power to certain extents to empower spontaneous involvement of others. Thus, the project tests the boundary of architect’s role and power as a future planner. In this sense, the ‘planning’ aspect of public buildings can refer to this type of ongoing dialogue, a collaborative decision-making in which disagreements and conflicting interests are

resolved. Similarly, the act of campus does not end when the BUBBLEs are completed. It continues as the campus is used, maintained, changed, or preserved over time. So, planning is not a static concept of a fixed scale. In all aspects, it is always in flux.

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VI. Community in Breeze:

BREATHE Housing 悬庭居 Partner: Hansong Cho 2014


Concept collage based on A.R. Walker’s 1909 cartoon for Life magazine


massing site model

Riverside Breathe The design testes the possibility of using shared public spaces to foster the sense of community in a housing project. By introducing communal outdoor gardens, galleries and platforms, as well as by blurring the boundary of private and shared, interior and exterior, the project explores the physical and mental interaction and extension of each household unit and the architectural formation of belonging to a place.

The triangulated site, locating at a waterfront area which is undergoing a redevelopment plan, is isolated by three major traffic roads from the rest of Bronx. It faces the Harlem River and Manhattan Island to the west while enjoying an open view of Bronx downtown to the east. The massing design originates from creating a courtyard as communal space surrounded by housing blocks and eventually evolves into a porous

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site

main axes

HIGHWAY YARD RIVER

three bands

perimeter block

water-yards

site entrances & public promenade

grass-yards & visual corridors

masterplan

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Ground Floor Plan


View of the ground landscape

Ground Breathe scheme. By breaking up the typical perimeter block, several visual corridors and intimate scale courtyards are created, together with the four water-yards introduced into the site by duplicating the form of an existing boatyard, these ground floor public outdoor spaces provide possibility for communal activities while forms a part of the new waterfront park which is currently under construction.

The ground floor functions as communal spaces with an auditorium at the bottom of the north block. A bar, a convenience store and a gymnasium are located at the ground level of the east block along the highway. These two blocks clamp the main entrance facing the cross at the northwest corner of the site, while enclosing a triangulated courtyard together with the northwest waterfront block.

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Section AA


Triple-Level Type

Single-Level Type

Double-Level Type

Three unit types

Unit Breathe The unit typology design originated from criticizing the typical double-loaded corridor plan in majority of New York City’s housing projects. These corridors, as the most often used and probably the only public space in housing blocks, are often dark and narrow pass ways functioning purely as circulation areas which encourage no communication among the residents. In response to such condition, the Breathe

project tries to introduce communal outdoor gardens and galleries into each floor and each unit. By breaking up the unit programs and blurring the boundary of private and shared, interior and exterior, the design aims to activate the public realms in a residential building and also bring natural light and ventilation into residential towers. Three typologies were developed to accommodate

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View of the corridor and yard of the single-level type

Single-Level Type this initial intention. The single-level typology features with courtyards growing from the central corridor all the way to exterior and sandwiched within a unit. As shown in the typical plans, the courtyards grows into and divided each unit into two sides, one with living room and one with dining room and kitchen. The courtyard thus becomes an ambiguous space as it is a public realm within a private unit boundary. These

courtyards not only bring light and ventilation into the central corridor, but also foster the possibility of communal moments in daily life. The double-level typology is structured by one bedroom floor serving two living floors above and below. Each bedroom floor is a volume primarily composed of bedrooms and restrooms. Public circulation is totally eliminated from this floor to make it a compact

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Typical plan and axonometric drawing of a single-level type


Upper living floor

Bedroom floor

Lower living floor


Upper living floor

Bedroom floor

Lower living floor

Typical plan and axonometric drawing of a double-level type


Upper bedroom floor

Middle living floor

Lower dining floor


Upper bedroom floor

Middle living floor

Lower dining floor

Typical plan and axonometric drawing of a triple-level type


View from a living room of the double-level type

Double-Level Type private level. The entrances of the households are located at the living floor at the middle, which is an open plate of courtyards and glass-enclosed living ‘pavilions’ within which a living area, a dining area and an open kitchen are designed. Each living pavilion has a primary courtyard linked to it as an extension outdoor area for that particular unit indicated by the pavement width, yet essentially all outdoor spac-

es are openly connected with each other and shared by all residents of that particular living floor. As the living and dining rooms are the relatively public areas within an apartment, the activities happens inside the pavilions can be viewed and shared with neighbors to a certain degree and together with the courtyards serving as public circulation spaces, the living floor provides multiple opportunities for communication

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View of two living rooms of the triple-level type

Triple-Level Type and sharing among the households. The triple-floor typology flips the typical central corridor into perimeter galleries of a floor plate and also breaks up ordinary apartment functions and vertically stacks them onto three floors. On the bottom floor locates dining rooms as glass pavilions and community mini farms as the perimeter galleries. Residents are encouraged to cultivate vegetables and fruits here

and share the products. The middle floor is a living room level similar to the double-floor, the recessed perimeter galleries allows tall plants on the dining floor grows up into vision; while the top floor composes of bedrooms and small gardens with perforated aluminum panels as enclosures. The three types of units are vertically stacked according to visibility and accessibility to generate the basic

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Study model, view from Harlem River


View from the Major Deegan Expressway


Study Model

Stacking Levels formal logic. In all three typologies, the courtyard spaces are shared by all units on a particular floor. The residents are spatially encouraged (and sometimes mildly forced) to participate in the public spaces. Their life has to interact with the shared outdoor spaces and the design thus testes the possibility of using well-designed shared space to foster the sense of community in a housing project (with the benefit of

living closer to nature). As revealed in the section, the various outdoor spaces blur the boundary of the interior and exterior and render the blocks with fuzzy edges. At a larger scale, the blocks enclose communal courtyards at ground level while leaving openings and visual corridors to the river and the highway. The project title BREATHE highlights the design inten-

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View from a bedroom of the double-level type

BREATHE: Another Lifestyle tion of achieving better life quality by subtracting spaces, or ‘take a breath,’ from the typical capital-driven, ‘economically efficient’ modern housing tower designs. The shared outdoor spaces are considered as incubators of community life and a lifestyle with nature. The back-home journey through the yards, the children from different families playing together in the gardens, the plants changing colors with

seasons, and the fruits and vegetables harvested and shared in Autumn… For the residents, all these scenarios become potential life moments supported by the new spatial configurations of the BREATHE Housing.

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Study model of the three unit types


VII. Through the Layers:

Layerinth Public Restroom

層圍圊 2013


Diagrams showing potential spatial layers in a public restroom

Public restroom spatial layers in a typical function sequence

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Diagrams showing potential spatial layers in a public restroom

Wrapping Privacy The design explores the concept of spatial layering through the typological study of a small scale public restroom. During the long history of human evolution, the social establishment of gender and hygiene has rendered certain parts of our body as 'private' zones, while excretion becomes a super private behavior that would make us feel embarrassed when act in front of others. As a result, we cover our body with

layers of cloths, while the public restroom also evolves from the social meeting space in Rome Empire to the subtly controlled infrastructure today. As a space requiring extreme privacy yet has to be shared with others, modern public restrooms set up many layers between the human body and the toilet while allowing certain extents of communication among the users in it.

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L K J I

L K J

Top layer I Groove E

F

G

H

Toilet

Channel Sink

Middle layer

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D

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Bottom layer

Plans

0

0.5

1.5

3m


Skylight

Structure

Top layer frame

Middle layer mirror

Bottom layer frosted glass, sink, channel,

Bottom layer Toilet & short walls

Three levels of layer axes


View from the entrance


A-A

D-D

E-E

B-B

F-F

C-C

The illusion of multiple layers The design is a two-toilet public restroom aiming to create a sense of privacy for the users by establishing multiple spatial layers, while remaining the possibility for communication between the two users. The parallelogram plan is divided into two sides along its longer axis to provide longer route for each user to enhance the sense of privacy. The restroom is vertically divided into three bands, each with a different grid indicating

different orientations of movements. During the journey from the entrance to the toilet, the users would feel they are getting through many spatial layers, as they are forced to turn three times and their body has to encounter different orientation of layers at three heights. This body movement through multiple layers can potentially accumulate an illusionary sense of privacy in a very short distance and time.

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G-G

J-J

H-H

K-K

I-I

L-L

Through the layers The design also discusses the tension between the dual characters of private and public. The skylight and structural beams at the top layer cross the two sides, and two water channels punching through the centrual boundary wall guid the sink water from one side to the other, directing it to fall into a groove on the ground in which the water will flow all the way to the toilet location of the other side. This spatial gim-

mick breaks the total privacy created by the illusion of multiple layers in a subtle way and reveals the public nature of this building. The sections show the complex spatial relationships established by the different axes at the three levels and the light and water moments when the two users realize the existence of each other within the secured privacy.

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View from the skylight opening


VIII. Conceal to Enlighten:

Shade Temple

一屏寺 2015


'Valley'

'Cliff'

'River View Rock'

'Sacred Rock'

First site investigation sketch depicting the sacred moments of existing featuring spots


Tree framed view of the Hudson River

In Nature Located in the natural context of Fort Tryon Park, the Shade Temple is an experimental structure inspired by Buddhist theories to allow visitors appreciate and experience the energy and spiritual power of the site’s natural landscape. By physically and mentally reframing the site, the temple provides a field for all to recognize and meditate about the ‘Buddha-Nature’ within all beings.

The temple is the combination of the natural site and the artificial structures. The two parts are equally important in this project. The structures were designed to be a minimal intervention of the site to mark and reveal the power of the place while integrating the spiritual moments that already exist there. The Temple itself is a subtle balance and powerful connection of man and nature.

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Section AA

Spiritual Moments The site for the temple, the Abbey’s Lawn, is an elevated lawn at the northwestern side of Fort Tryon Park, close to the MET Cloister museum. It has an amazing landscape diversity and spatial intricacy within its roughly 27,000 square foot area. An initial site visit reveals the various featured natural spots which I found spiritually appealing, including a free-standing huge rock on a piece of clearing land, a view of the

Hudson River framed by trees, a small valley-like landscape and a twenty-feet high cliff. Among them, the tree-framed vies of Hudson River was located right at the center of the site’s west periphery. The above mentioned existing natural landmarks, or spiritual moments, were already attractions for visitors to relax and meditate with, and were evenly distributed along the periphery of site from south to north. With the

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Plan 1. The screen and deck 2. Restroom 3. Pulpit 4. Sacred Rock 5. Meditation Deck 6. Viewing Rock 7. Valley 8. Cliff 9. Stump


Gate

Screen and deck following topographic change

Sattva main entry point located at the south, and with the topography sloping down towards west and north, a continuous walk spontaneously linked all the spots together. These findings laid the foundation for the Shade Temple design. The site investigation method was in line with East Asian traditions, where literati scholars usually identify multiple spots or ‘scenes’ while discovering or visiting

a place in nature, and come up with an itinerary to journey through them. Nature has a powerful spiritual symbolic meaning in traditional East Asian religious history, and the ancient Chinese monks had developed a concept to link Buddhism to nature’s divinity. Sattva is the Buddhist term used to describe all living beings. It was originally used to describe those known as Sentient Beings, i.e. human and animals; and latter,

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Gate in typical open position

Buddha-Nature in the Buddhism development in ancient China, was extended to include those known as Non-Sentient Beings, which includes plants, mountains, rivers and so on. Adopted by many schools in East Asian Buddhism, including the Zen School, the statement “All being possess the Buddha-Nature� is one of the most important theories for Buddhists to understand the relationship between life and nature.

Buddha-Nature can be generally understood as the inherent potential within a being to become Buddha. In early Buddhism, only Sentient Beings possess Buddha-Nature. In the 6th century, the concept of NonSentient Beings also possess Buddha-Nature started to emerge in China. This statement essentially comes from the Buddhist theory of Elements which suggests all beings are formed by identical particles, and thus

175


Half-concealed view of the Hudson River from the pulpit


Screen and Deck

Meditation Deck

Gate and Deck

0

0.5

178

1.5 m


Restroom

Pulpit

Basic elements of Shade Temple

179


Gate closed. The projected strip indicates the gate location

All beings all beings are fundamentally equal. This statement indicates the possibility to rethink the relation between artificial object and natural products. The concept of Shade Temple was rooted in such understanding that the nature itself was an inherent part of the temple, and the artificial structures would only be meaningful when experienced together with the nature.

The final design was merely a continuous screen structure with decking set along the south, west and north periphery of the Abbey’s Lawn, connecting the spiritual moments. The screen was made of charred wood, a traditional Japanese timber finishing method which has a similar symbolic meaning with the Shade Temple: a simple and minimalist artificial touch to reveal the divinity of nature. The screen and decking

180


Gate opens as a curtain

A Screen to Meditate followed the topographic change at all times, and the height of the screen was set according to existing landscape so that when standing at the Pulpit, visitors would find that all of the spiritual moments/landmarks at the periphery were concealed by the screen while still part of the Hudson River remained visible. The screen basically separated the spiritual landmarks at one side and the rest of the lawn at the other

side. The spiritual landmarks were thus become more intimate spaces for individual meditation, while the larger open lawn was dedicated to collective experience and congregational events. Special gates were designed at each of the natural spots to allow visitors pass through the screen and could be locked when individual meditation decks at the periphery side were in use. The gates were composed of wood

181


The meditation deck at the river viewing rock


Assembling details

Conceal to Enlighten strips at the same dimension and spacing of the rest of the screen. The strips of the gate were connected in a way so that when pushing the end strip, the other strips would move one by one, and the gate would open as a curtain. The design also created the effect that after the visitor slides into the screen, the gate would flip back immediately, retaining the continuous screen surface. Thus, the move of penetrating the

screen itself became a meditational moments as well: the relationship between the Instant and the Constant, and the Changed and Unchanged are also essential concepts of Buddhist theories. “I close my eyes in order to see better.� To conceal is to enlighten. The Shade Temple, being simple and elegant as it is, is a platform, a stage, or a backdrop, to embark dialogues between artificial and natural,

183


To conceal is to enlighten


The Pulpit during a congregational event

'Humanature' between human and nature, and most importantly, within human themselves. The screen created a field that strengthens the existing site’s natural power and the nature rendered the screen a spiritual monumentality and function. As the cases of the Scholar’s Rock in traditional Chinese Gardens and the Trees in Penjing Art, the precise control of artificial power over nature and the subtle balance of the two are crucial

to the space. The artificially constructed space cannot, and should not replace nature; it can only carefully locate and possibly guide nature. After all, there is no congenital division between human and nature, they construct each other: human are the evolutionary products of nature, and nature is the imaginary product of human.

186


Model, view from the north


IX. Relate:

Other Works

長物集 2010-2016


《Horizon》Pencil, charcoal on paper, 2009


View of typical floor corridor

VW Center Partners: Chang Qi, Yu Wu, Yue Zhong New Work 2015

192


South elevation

A

A

Typical floor plan

4th floor event space plan

Ground floor plan

193


Section AA

Typical floor framing plan

4th floor framing plan

Foundation plan

194


West elevation

Section BB

Typical floor HVAC, lighting & sprinkler systems

4th floor HVAC systems

Ground floor HVAC systems

195


8 X 72 LED LIGHTS 8 X 36 LED LIGHTS

SPRINKLER PIPE SPRINKLER HEAD

5"Ø LED LIGHTS

Typical floor lighting & sprinkler systems

SPRINKLER PIPE SPRINKLER HEAD 21"Ø LIGHTS

5"Ø LED LIGHTS

4th floor lighting & sprinkler systems

SPRINKLER HEAD

8 X 72 RECTANGULAR LIGHTS

SPRINKLER PIPE

5"Ø LED LIGHTS

Foundation plan

196


South elevation

Typical floor interior

4th floor event space interior


PERIMETER FIN TUBE RADIATOR

MECHANICAL SHAFT


RETURN AIR DUCT SUPPLY AIR DUCT

VAV BOXES

Mechanical distribution (air ductwork & perimeter fintube radiatior)


1 Combined foundation is constructed and truss segments are ready for assembly

2 Core with double-channel beams are erected to receive trusses. Truss segments are laid in position to be assembled.

5 The first truss construction is completed. The ties and castellated beams are installed.

6 The second truss with small linking beams are constructed in similar method.

Construction process

200


3 Truss segments are joined to larger pieves and connected to the double-channel beams.

4 Pieces of truss are welded together one by one with the supporting scaffolds.

7 The castellated beams are constructed and the scaffolds are removed.

8 The enclosure system is completed.

Construction process

201


1

1

2

2

3

3

1. MAIN TRUSS / 2. HANDRAIL / 3. ROOF DRAIN / 4. EXTRUDED-POLYSTYRENE INSUL / 5. DRIP FLASHING / 6. SPRAY FIRE PROOF / 7. MIN- FIBER BLANKET INSUL / 8. WATER PROOF / 9. ALUMINUM CLADDING / 10. PRECAST CONCRETE SLAB / 11. SLIP JOINT / 12. MULLION / 13. 3/4’ GYP BOARD / 14. CASTELLATED STEEL BEAM / 15. DROP SHADE / 16. LOW-E GLASS / 17. CABLE / 18. ADJUSTABLE CABLE TENSIONER / 19. FINNED TUBE RADIATOR / 20. BASE SHOE / 21. FLASHING / 22. HOT WATER PIPE / 23. INTERIOR FLOOR FINISHING / 24. CONCRETE FINISHING / 25. C CHANNEL BEAM / 26. SPANDREL LOW-E COATED GLASS / 27. BALCONY DECK / 28. I-SECTION BRACING BEAM / 29. BALCONY DRAIN PIPE / 30. MAIN TRUSS DIAGONAL MEMBER

0

2

6

14 ft


1

2

4 5 3

6

7 8 9

23 22

10 21

11 12

20

13

14

19 13

15

18 17

1. LOW-E GLASS 2. CABLE 3. HANDRAIL 4. INTERIOR FLOOR FINISHING 5. CONCRETE FINISHING 6. GLASS HOLDER 7. PRECAST CONCRETE SLAB 8. DUCTWORKS 9. CASTELLATED STEEL BEAM 10. SLIP JOINT

16

Detail 2

11. HAT CHANNEL 12. MULLION 13. 3/4’ GYP BOARD 14. MIN- FIBER BLANKET INSUL 15. WATERPROOF 16. HOT WATER PIPE 17. SPANDREL LOW-E COATED GLASS 18. ALUMINUM CLADDING 19. MAIN TRUSS

203

20. ADJUSTABLE CABLE TENSIONER 21. FINNED TUBE RADIATOR 22. BASE SHOE 23. DRIP FLASHING


West elevation

New Museum Analysis Partners: Chang Qi, Yu Wu, Yue Zhong New Work 2014

204


A

B

B

A

Cellar floor plan

Ground floor plan

2nd floor plan

5th floor plan

Section AA

Section BB


Structural joint detail with steel specs

Structure skeleton

Floor slabs


Top of windscreen

Windscreen mid-level Bulkhead roof

Roof

8th floor

7th floor

6th floor

5th floor 5th floor lower

4th floor

3rd floor

2nd floor

Ground floor Cellar

Force flow


Modular air-cooled chiller Chilled water

Water tank

Pump

Hot water boiler Hot water unit

Hot water

VAV box

Fin-tube radiator Radiant heating panel

Fan coil unit (water)

Electrical heating

Fan coil unit (electric)

Water & electrical units

208


Exhaust air Smoke exhaust Exhaust air

AHU 1, office & education (5th, 6th, 7th floors) AHU 2, galleries (2nd, 3rd, 4th floors)

VAV box

Supply air Exhaust air

Fresh air inlet

Return air

AHU 3, lobby, theatre, misc (cellar, mezz, 1st floor)

Air units

209


Typical facade detail 1 STEEL FRAMING 2 STEEL STUD 3 GYP BOARD 4 MIN-FIBER BLANKET INSUL 5 FLUID-APPLIED MEMBRANE 6 METAL FRAMING 7 EXTRUDED ALUM BACK PANEL 8 PANEL CLIPS 9 FACADE MESH

Cellar detail 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

210

STEEL COLUMN w8 EXISTING BUILDING WALL REINFORCING BAR CONC MASONRY UNIT EXTRUDED-POLYSTYRENE INSUL STEEL STUD GYP BOARD CONC FINISHING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE PLYWOOD DAMPPROOFING CONC STRUCTURAL WALL STEEL BEAM W16 METAL DECK CONC STRUCTURAL SLAB


5th floor skylight detail 1 STEEL COLUMN 2 STEEL STUD 3 GYP BOARD 4 MIN-FIBER BLANKET INSULATION 5 FACADE ALUM BACK PANEL 6 FACADE MESH 7 METAL FRAMING 8 ALUM GRATING 9 TEMPERED GLASS 10 BASE SHOE 11 METAL TOPPING SHEET

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

COMPOSITE DECK STEEL FRAME RADIATION PANEL POLYETHYLENE BACKER ROD THERMAL INSUL LIGHTING FEATURE FLASHING SHEET EXTRUDED ALUM FRAME GLAZING CURTAIN CONCEALED FLASHING WALL SHEATHING PLYWOOD

5th floor envelope detail 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

STEEL COLUMN W8 PLYWOOD STEEL BEAM W18X35 FACADE ALUM BACK PANEL FLUID-APPLIED MEMBRANE METAL SOFFIT PANEL EXTRUDED-POLYSTYRENE INSUL METAL FRAMING

211

FACADE MESH STEEL COLUMN W8 STEEL STUD MIN-FIBER BLANKET INSUL GYP BOARD CONC FINISHING CONC STRUCTURAL SLAB REINFORCING BAR METAL DECK STEEL BEAM WT7X11 METAL DECK STEEL BEAM W24X55


Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Plate I, Title Plate, 1761

3D Reconstruction of Le Carceri d'Invenzione New Work 2015

212


Reconstruction of Plate I


Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Plate VI, The Smoking Fire, 1761


Reconstruction of Plate VI


Plate I Reconstruction

Plate VI Reconstruction


New view from the reconstructed Plate VI model


New view from the reconstructed Plate I model


New view from the reconstructed Plate VI model


West Bund Oil Tank Art Center (OPEN Architecture) Shanghai 2014

220


Clubhouse (built) (Rocco Design Architects) Shanghai 2013

222


Clubhouse (built) (Rocco Design Architects) Shanghai 2013

224


Mixed-use development (Commercial & Residential) (Rocco Design Architects) Shanghai 2013

226


Commercial Complex (Rocco Design Architects) Chengdu 2012

228


Hotel (Rocco Design Architects) Taipei 2013

230


Subway Station (Rocco Design Architects) Chengdu 2012

231


Study Booth Hong Kong 2009

232


WKCD Sound Art Center Hong Kong 2011

233


Meditation Micro Partners: Xiayi Shen, Xiaoxu Zhao Hong Kong 2012

234


Lakeside Pavilion Hong Kong 2010

235


Sai Kung Forest Fire Station Hong Kong 2011

236


WWF Anzihe Education Center (School of Architecture, CUHK, work as constructioin volunteer) Anzihe 2011

237


Framing Promenade New York 2014

238


The Masts Shenzhen 2015

239


Des Voeux Road Pedestrianisation Proposal (StudioX-Beijing, Columbia University GSAPP) Hong Kong 2015

240


Des Voeux Road Pedestrianisation Proposal (StudioX-Beijing, Columbia University GSAPP) Hong Kong 2015

241


Vanity Booth Partners: Jingwen Wang, Joann Feng, Peiran Qiu New York 2016

242


Corner Partners: Jingwen Wang, Joann Feng, Peiran Qiu New York 2016

243


Untitled, pen on paper, 2010

Bring In The Wine, ink on canvas, 2014

Lake, oil pastel on canvas, 2014

Drinking Wine (partial), ink on canvas, 2015

244


Bridge, Beijing, 2013

City Hall, Philadelphia, 2015

Woods, Siem Reap, 2014

Time Square, New York, 2015

245


WTC, New York, 2015

Art Museum, Teshima, 2016

NGA East Building, Washington D.C., 2015

Miho Museum, Kyoto, 2016

246


The Plaza, New York, 2016

City Hall, Boston, 2016

MTA 125 Station, New York, 2016

John Street, New York, 2016

247


Boyuan Jiang Portfolio 2016  

RELATE, Boyuan Jiang Portfolio, Columbia University GSAPP and CUHK

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