Elisaveta Boulatova Dylon Feyen Samuel Iun Yekaterina Korotayeva
St. Benedict’s Chapel in Sumvitg, 1988 Art Museum, Bregenz, 1990-1997 Therme Vals, Graubünden, Switzerland. 1993-1996 The Serpentine Gallery, UK, 2011 Bruder Klaus Chapel, Germany, 2007
Herr Zumthor posing for the camera. http:// www.architizer.com/en_us/blog/dyn/39135/ german-town-rejects-peter-zumthor-designedglass-tower/#.UVeUnGAkdyE
Described as a monk, apostle, shaman, mystic and guru, Swiss architect Peter Zumthor, is the designer of some of the most subtle and admired buildings of the last quarter century. His work is serene and intelligent. For him, the place and purpose of a building, as opposed to personal theories and architectural trends, dictate the details of design. The intuitively simple sensory details that he describes in his book, Thinking Architecture, is so clearly translated to his designs. He is known for his reservation, which has not limited his influence on the architectural practice, but perhaps allows him to step back and reflect on what he is doing and why he is doing it. Thinking beyond form and construction, Herr Zumthor’s approach to materiality and sensual details work in harmony to serve the common aesthetic desires, as well as go beyond all practical needs to compliment the human senses as one inhabits the spaces he designs.
As an architect who choses his clients as much as the clients chose him, Herr Zumthor is known for thinking through his projects in a long, almost meditative manner. He causes people to want to give their best. He makes it a unique situation to work with him. “I like to develop the use of the building together with the client, in a process, so that as we go along we become more intelligent.” He knows that he does things that all architects dream about, building only what he wants to. Yet, he takes full responsibly of the building in all aspects, as he believes there are no excuses. No matter the client and building regulations. His works differ from other architects, as he sets himself apart from his famous colleagues. His buildings aren’t flashy, maybe don’t even grab you from first glance, but they are conceived from the inside out, over many painstaking years. Zumthor runs a small office and doesn’t even delegate the choice of a door handle. He hasn’t taken on many projects, and most of the ones he has completed aren’t very big. He gives great importance to local culture and deep sensuality. He remarks that, “while his work is close to Le Corbusier because we share the same culture,” he wants to “make a design on the scale of Oscar Niemeyer”. The great Brazilian modernist of futuristic extravagance, isn’t too different from Zumthor. He has done only what he wants, this being known as both his virtue and burden. In this way he resembles the ethics of Louis Kahn, leaving behind only a handful of masterpieces rather than taking on everything he is offered. Born in Basel, Switzerland, in 1943, into a large Catholic family, he was set to follow his father’s footsteps as a master cabinetmaker. His apprenticeship as a craftsman taught him how to work with his hands, how to absorb the material and feel its essence. He attended Swiss school for applied arts, modulated after Bauhaus learning the basics of design, then studied industrial design in New York at Pratt Institute, never earning an architecture degree, becoming a point on 3
which he prides himself, with no need to rely on computers as students today. He currently resides in Haldenstein, Graubunden, a speck on the Swiss map, almost a recluse. His studio is a pair of buildings he designed himself: one wood, one quasi-monastic glass and concrete retreat, facing the Swiss sloping mountains. Working with clients, Zumthor enters into a relationship with the client, requiring Talmudic discussions and Job-like patience. Capable of not responding for weeks or months at the request of an appointment, Zumthor work takes patience, time, and great desire. It is his commitment to architectural Wahrheit, or truth, as his approach to the projects he selects as desire to fulfill the physical and emotional experience that a design can create. Zumthor’s best known projects are the Saint Benedict Chapel in Sumvitg, Switzerland of 1988, the thermal baths in Vals, Switzerland, completed in 1996, the Kunsthaus Bregenz, in Austria of 1997, and the Bruder Klaus chapel in Mechernich, Germany completed in 2007. At his museums and chapels, visitors respond not just to the look of the buildings, but the sounds, smells, and how the light filters through them. Everything is present, even the feel of the walls and floors. Zumthor describes it as, “beautiful silence that I associate with attributes such as composure, self-evidence, durability, presence and integrity, and with warmth and sensuousness as well.”
Herr Zumthor posing for the camera. http:// www.architizer.com/en_us/blog/dyn/39135/ german-town-rejects-peter-zumthor-designedglass-tower/#.UVeUnGAkdyE
The very nature of Peter Zumthor and his work is enigmatic. He occupies such a unique space in our world and an architect of virtue and honesty in an architectural world of ‘veneers’ and an over-stimulus of messages. He represents an architectural ideal (for many) in how he thinks, practices, and balances the plethora of characteristics that make a good architect. As an architect, he draws many labels yet he himself repels them all. His work is multi-faceted but harmonious and simple. As an architect, he is inspired by a variety of things like the harmonious and dynamic compositions of music, the skill, precision, and meaning of craftsmen, memories, dreams, and past experiences. His whole life’s experiences, knowledge, memories, and passions have continually built upon each other to create the architecture that he has been creating. It is no doubt that Zumthor’s architecture is ‘beautiful’ and is evident that it exudes ‘quality’ and elicits ‘experiences’. In light of this though, many people have mentioned that though they can describe his work, the experiences and totality of his buildings are difficult to articulate. The result of a high proficiency and skill of creating balance and harmony means the type and style of his work is difficult to categorize and place in an extreme. Zumthor’s mind is complex, and it is through his own writings (like in Atmospheres or Thinking Architecture) that a clearer picture can be made of what drives his architecture. To put it simply, the principles of multiplicity tied together in harmony, simplicity, purity, honesty, and a high level of functional, material, and experiential quality are major components in the definition of his work. When Peter Zumthor approaches his work, he does so with a holistic attitude, because he knows that beautiful architecture works in harmony as a sum of its parts. He places much attention to detail, joinery, and the spatial qualities and textures of materials, but he joins them in such a way to create a harmonious design – one that is not trying to be anything, but just ‘exists’ naturally. Details to him aid in establishing the formal rhythm of the building and expressing a message, whether it is: friction, movement, openness, permeability, structure, etc. He has a way with joining the knowledge learned from school and the industry with his innocent childhood memories and emotion. Despite the obvious time gap, inspiration from ‘architectural experiences’ as a child still find its way into his work today. Another major component of his work is qual5
ity of response to the site. A harmonious relationship is desired (note: dissimilar components can still produce harmony) by giving care to the users of the site, the undulations of the landscape, letting the nature of the site speak clearly or by further complimenting the site with more meaning. Much of this love and knowledge comes from his early career in preserving historic buildings. Aesthetically and formally, the architectural language that is displayed in his work is for the most part, simple and elegant. In these simple design moves, not over-crowded with meaning yet meaningless, he gets a large amount of ‘architectural mileage’ out of these simple moves – a formidable achievement in our technologically complex modern world. He is perceptive in seeing the power of ordinary things, such as ‘conventional’ building materials like concrete or wood, components like the right doorknob, or experiences in the sonic and visual realm like the sound made by walking on different materials or its ability to elicit memories. Peter Zumthor is shown then to be an architect in touch with the nature of his own soul and those that experience his buildings. He consciously chooses to represent the virtues of knowledge, thought, durability, and order in his work; contrasting the flashy and immediate pleasures of the 21st Century. He values buildings that have a beautiful silence, not buildings that have too much to say. The narrative created by his work is composed, confident, self-aware, has integrity, warmth, and sensual (speaking to the senses). It is in the simplicity of his work that the essence of a component (e.g. a material, an appearance of light, an opening to another space, a connection) can be brought out and experienced. Although his work is highly steeped in theory and a fascination with the intangible (like memories, dreams, sensations), Zumthor is an active proponent for the tangible and for the material world. He strongly believes that architecture should not be theory but be concrete. It is in a concrete state that architecture (especially his) can be experienced. The whole intent and manifestation of his work was meant for a personal encounter with it. Unfortunately, the written form presented in this essay is not ideal to fully experience Zumthor’s work. Nevertheless, below is an attempt to demonstrate Zumthor’s design principles, specifically the general form, organizing principles and geometries.
St. Benedict’s Chapel (Sumvitg, Graubünden, Switzerland, 1989) Located on the outskirts of a small farming village in Switzerland, this chapel is on a slope overlooking the village. Its mysteriously dark presence and ‘raw’ interior are surprisingly sensual and warm. It has a simple form, with an intentionally singular purpose. It is one volume, with simple construction outside, sparse furnishings, and an expressive yet simple tear drop shaped volume. All activity is under one volume. By locating on such an orientation, it creates two zones: an eastern face that has an imposing height piercing the landscape while the other (north and south) taper according to the landscape. Its gentle sloped roof also hints at the fits in with the hilly landscape. At eye level, the simple form creates dramatic perspectival relationships to the landscape. The plan is in the form of a ‘half-lemniscate (a pendant ribbon), found in Leibniz’s mathematical diagrams, contributing to an orderly and mathematical organization. It can be configured to create a form associated with infinity. Despite this, in plan it can also be likened to a leaf shape, expressing an organic aesthetic or a diamond. An axis is created from the entrance to the altar (though it is not symmetrical with the building). Its construction is primeval and mysterious, like an artifact in a modern world watching over a quiet village.
Source: http://www. archdaily.com/85656/ multiplicity-andmemory-talkingabout-architecturewith-peter-zumthor/ saint-benedict-chapelplan/
Kunsthaus Bregenz (Art Museum in Bregenz) (Bregenz, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1990-1997) The Kunsthaus Bregenz manifests as a highly geometric building. In plan, section, and elevation, there is a sparse language of walls, spaces, and components. Despite this, because of the art that will inhabit the space and the light management of the façade and overhead openings, its Spartan interior is brought to life. Its vertical arrangement is quite simple; four solid square storeys above grade repeated on each other with a light glass envelope wrapping all around it. Outside, it appears as a mysterious concrete cube with glazing that tends to blur its outline and make it glow with light. In plan, the gallery spaces are square and open, with segments of wall planes lining the perimeter. These vertical planes are then enough to define the space and create openings leading upstairs or service spaces. This simple gesture also indicates a movement though the space – by creating a sense a mystery, the user then has to turn a corner to move to the stairs/elevator. What these walls also do is they shield the user’s view as they are moving up the vertical circulation – only when they arrive and turn the corner do they see the space.
[TOP] Bregenz Art Museum interior staircase view. [RIGHT] Facade to street relationship.
Therme Vals (Thermal Baths in Vals, Switzerland) (Vals, Graubünden, Switzerland, 1993 – 1996) The experiential atmosphere of the Therme Vals in Switzerland (probably one of Zumthor’s most famous works) will be discussed in detail in another chapter. Set within a hill, the baths have a flat and geometric façade, while inside it is a complex arrangement of geometric volumes to create a variety of intimate spaces and negative spaces (hallways). These volumes act also as columns, creating an irregular structural grid for the building. By repeating these volumes, groups are created, which act together to create different zones of levels of intimacy, materials, sound, temperature, and light. The concept of solid and void are expressed through the negative spaces creating by these groupings and the extraneous thicknesses of their walls. The groupings of volumes have an arrangement that is derivative of a convention building. There are some that are spaced out along the edges, acting as walls and forming the boundaries. Then there are some that are in the middle of the plan, acting as columns and defining the pool spaces.
Bruder Klaus Chapel (Mechernich-Wachendorf, Germany, 2007)
Source: [LEFT] http://unit03-metamorphosis.blogspot. ca/2012/12/peter-zumthor-therme-vals.html [RIGHT] Source http://www.archdaily.com/85656/ multiplicity-and-memory-talking-about-architecturewith-peter-zumthor/bruder-klaus-chapel-floor-plan/
Here is another example of his work that consists of a single volume and space. The Bruder Klaus Chapel is a like a sculpture that stands starkly in the Germany countryside. Its form is a tall vertical element that despite being quite rectilinear is dynamic because of its angled faces. It looks like a large cut rock left out in a field, waiting for destination. In section, a simple conical volume creates an opening towards the heavens and defines the space on the ground. In plan the rigid and angled exterior form is contrasted by a bulbous organic interior space, which was formed as a result of a fire burning away wood formwork, leaving a charred, textured concrete shell. Through this burning process, the interior then takes on an entirely new form and atmosphere. Two spaces are created inside, an interstitial entrance way and the main chapel room, which follow the dynamic contour of the exterior form. 10
SOURCE http://www.archdaily. com/146392/serpentine-gallerypavilion-2011-peter-zumthor/
The Serpentine Gallery (London, England, 2011) The Serpentine Gallery is a yearly pop-up architectural event that consists of a pavilion that is designed by a different architect. The 2011 incarnation was designed by Peter Zumthor and is a simply, and seemingly solid black form located on a green field. The building is rectangular in form and low-slung in height. In plan, it exists as two rectangular spaces, one within the other. A hallway is then created in the first layer and in the second, is the main pavilion seating space oriented around a long central green space. The whole pavilion then, resembles a typical cloister in the way that it expresses a stark contrast between a closed exterior and a supple and contemplative interior garden. The focus then, Zumthor says, is on the inside, which is supposed to be a contemplative space for thinking, relaxing, and listening to the qualities of silence being interrupted by nature.
The selection of Zumthor’s works that are seen here are no doubt, ‘simple’. As simplistic as it may be, his work is multifaceted in that in person, they simply ‘exist’ in the site and have a composed musical silence that allows a user to experience its characteristics. It is in this simplicity however, that he is able to speak profoundly to a user by doing away with extraneous components. He only designs what is absolutely necessary. His forms are pure and distilled. His paths through the buildings and the implied uses of a space are fully thought out. The entirety of a material, wall, space, or path is expressed simply and in harmony with each other. His work shares a simple form and demonstrates a restraint in the architect’s design decisions. The materials and colours of his work demonstrate a similar palette. All of his buildings are different in their manifestations as a result of Zumthor’s insightful response to site. A different spiritual experience is offered in each building, relating to the unique aspects of the various programs. Their form is different in the way that it reacts to the different landscapes. 12
Zumthor’s creations integrate accessible designs with an admiration for the materials and for rich details, all of which work intuitively together to serve the aesthetic desires and practical needs of the user. Zumthor focuses on the experiential feeling through a space; what are the effects of a specific door handle to a space? How does the sound of footsteps on a specific material make the user feel? Simple gestures like the door handle having a euphoric click that will echo through the structure or the white noise of footsteps on exposed concrete in an Art gallery. Some architects may overlook these sensory feelings but these are the types of concerns Zumthor would fixate on when choosing the materials for his designs. From this focus upon the physical and emotional experience of architecture arises his admiration for the materials with which he constructs his buildings. Wood features prominently in a number of Zumthor’s works, like St. Benedict’s Chapel. Many believe wood to be an outdated and expensive form of construction. Zumthor however is passionate in the use of the material, the warmth and life it holds creates a comfortable atmosphere for the user. “I reintroduced it as a construction method… because it feels good to be with, to be in” (Kimmelman 4). The Saint Benedict’s Chapel is the pinnacle of the use of wood. The constructions shape unified with the warmth of the material creates an overwhelming feeling of warmth and spirituality. The effect that specific materials lend to the atmosphere, like the warmth of solid wood, explains only part of Zumthor’s passion for the materials, however. By offering them with little ornament, he draws attention to the inherent qualities of the bare material, albeit wood, concrete or stone; in a way that exalts the material, celebrating its very being. The jury of the 6th Mies van der Rohe Award for European Architecture, upon judging Zumthor’s elegant glass and concrete museum, the Kunsthaus Bregenz, interprets the architect’s “[l]eaving all materials un-cladded and unpainted…as a commitment to architectural Wahrheit; and, of course, to the materials’ intrinsic beauty” (6th Mies van der Rohe Award 11). This Idea of Pure materials is comforting in a space specifically meant for the displaying of Art. The Kunsthaus Bregenz is the tabula rasa, a blank slate for which an artist may shape for their exhibit. The form has nothing to hide and in turn celebrates the materials natural aspects. 13
Zumthor would often experiment with methods in which different materials interact with each other. The Bruder Klause Field chapel is a monolithic structure meant to conflict with the landscape and native materials while creating a sense of respect and worship to the natural beauty of the surroundings. The building is formed from wood however the structure stands as concrete. Beginning with a wigwam made of 112 tree trunks, layers of concrete were poured and rammed atop the trees, each around 50cm thick. When the concrete of all 24 layers had set, the wooden frame was set on fire, leaving behind a hollowed blackened cavity, a negative space that gestures to that of what was once there. From this commitment to architectural truth, and from a desire to address the sensory human experience of architecture arose Peter Zumthor’s design for the thermal baths in Vals, Switzerland. A famous composition of balanced spaces amongst the interplay of light, shadow, water, and mist, the Vals baths use thin layers of a stone called gneiss from a local quarry. The stone, extracted from the surroundings, lends to the architecture creating a conflict of manmade structure versus natural belonging. The stone adds a rough beauty to the aesthetic but all the while adding a certain richness and comfort to the experience of the bathers. Pure and Natural Materials that celebrate the Architectural truth of the structure is Zumthors philosophy. A Material must play with the senses and employ an emotional response, if the material does not engage with the user than it does not serve as Architecture.
Source: [CLOCKWISE FROM TOP] http://lh5.ggpht.com/JKaoCgFq9u4/SvysY4cdraI/AAAAAAAAfPQ/Ym8XffIeFcg/ DSC_0453.JPG, http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3076/3175 992708_4738782f27_z.jpg, http://theredandthewhite. files.wordpress.com/2012/02/vals_central-bath.jpg, http://deannachampagne.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/ bruderklaus_entry.jpg
Therme Vals, interior view. (Plummer).
“Interiors are like large instruments, collecting sound, amplifying it, transmitting it elsewhere. That has to do with the shape peculiar to each room and with the surface of materials they contain, and the way those materials have been applied” —Zumthor, P. Atmospheres: architectural environments, surrounding objects (20). Zumthor’s ability to create unique atmospheres and truly authentic sensory experience in his buildings is astonishing. The way he thinks of his designs is not only bounded by geometry, material aspects and three dimensions of physical reality. Zumthor thinks in multiple dimensions: he fully understands how building will age and how it will look after a certain period of time, the way the interior will be illuminated with natural and artificial light, the way it will sound, the way it will feel, the dialog the materials will speak and the temperature they will have. Bringing all the sensory qualities of a space together, Zumthor makes sure to find a balance and have them in peace. In other words, understanding the power that the light, sound and temperature have on human perception of a space he manipulates them to transport the visitor to a desirable atmosphere and convey a statement of Architectural Truth existing in his designs. St. Benedict’s Chapel in Sumvitg, Switzerland The peaceful and harmonious atmosphere in the St. Benedict’s Chapel is a product of smooth zenith light, coming from narrow strip of glass just beneath the roof and warm character of solid wood. Zumthor intentionally designed the floor to have a slight bulge in it to elicit a creak with each step, making the sound a tool to recreate the aura of warm and peaceful rural house: “That was on purpose. [The creak] would exist below your level of consciousness. Call it romantic, I guess” (Zumthor in his interview to Michael Kimmelman). The tactile qualities of wood also play an important role in this case, since the interior space is quite small and being so close to wood forces the user to touch and experience it. In a harmonious tandem the light, sound and texture of materials in a small wooden chapel appeal to all human senses and awake an aura of silence and comforting solitude. 17
Source: http://www.getkempt.com/ art-threat/the-architect.php
Kunsthaus Art Museum, Bregenz, Austria
Therme Vals, Graubunden, Switzerland
The Kunsthaus Bregenz was planned as a daylight museum. The facade made of translucent glass shingles serves as a skin to diffuse daylight, which first passes through rows of windows and then through the light ceiling panels in the halls. Although the light has been refracted three times (glass facade, insulating glasswork, illuminated ceilings), it illuminates the halls differently depending on the time of day or year. In this way, a natural lighting atmosphere is created although the building has no visible windows (2), which makes it a bright and spacious lantern. The open hallways with polished concrete finish make every single sound to cause echo, dramatizing the busy atmosphere of the gallery and emphasizing the controversial character of modern art exhibited there. The experience a visitor can get in this museum is always unpredictable, since the interior and exterior coexist and redefine each other through the game of constantly changing light conditions.
The unique spa complex in Vals is an acknowledged example of Zumthorâ€™s mastery of manipulations with sensuous materials and atmospheres. This building is a vast symphony of light, acoustic effects, water and stone of different temperatures and textures. The experience of the main hallway and swimming pools is marked by the constant alternation of light and shadow, stone and water, interior and exterior spaces, creating a secluded and almost mystique atmosphere. By using slits in the roofing, Zumthor uses natural light to create a mood within the space and produce a unique visual experience throughout the complex. Each of the enclosed smaller units has a completely different aura, depending on which type of bath it contains. Zumthor creates a sensational experience inside the units establishing a relationship between color and temperature of water. For instance, a very hot steam bath is lit with red, while a cool pool with alpine flowers radiates a blue light. During the bathing, the splashing sounds of water are amplified throughout the space, washing out the boundary between public and intimate components. Natural stone finish on all surfaces changes the temperature and carries the organic theme throughout the spa complex and establishes a dialog between the nature, the user and the site, speaking of the moment of architectural truth present in this design
SOURCE [TOP] http://img689.imageshack.us/ img689/5171/bregenzmuseumanimmmtra1. jpg [RIGHT] http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/ wpcontent/uploads/2009/02/801169555_ outdoor-pool1.jpg
[BELOW] Bregnez Art Musuem inteior view. [LEFT] Exterior glalss panels. (Plummer).
Bruder Klaus Chapel, Germany “In order to design buildings with a sensuous connection to life, one must think in a way that goes far beyond form and construction.” Zumthor P, Thinking Architecture. The spiritual and awe-inspiring field church of Bruder Klaus is with no doubt the most secluded and mystique of Zumthor’s projects. The chapel was inspired by the story of Bruder Klaus, a helmet, who spoke of a vision, while still inside his mother’s womb and of seeing a star that lit up the world. Zumthor translated this story into the language of architecture and designed an atmosphere where light and rough sensual texture of burned tree trunks acquire symbolic meaning. The aura and mood inside the chapel change depending on the weather and intensity of sunlight. The small round slits in walls filled with mouth-blown glass create an intriguing contrast with heavy wood texture and force the user to follow the pattern and look up, creating a symbolic moment and moving experience for the user. All in all, the sensory experience of Zumthor’s buildings is unique in each case. His design response is always based on site conditions, extensive research and simple, but strong and coherent statement he wants to convey. He prefers to avoid direct sunlight, unless it is absolutely necessary, choosing a diffused or even refracted light to illuminate interiors. The choice of materials is always logical, meaningful and ‘local’. The result is always authentic and moving.
Source: http://www.blueprintmagazine. co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/ architecturepeter-zumthor-brother-clauschapelselectionbrother-claus-chapel.jpg
ASC 406 â€“ Ideas, Tech, and Precedents III Elisaveta Boulatova, Dylon Feyen, Yekaterina Korotayeva, Samuel Iun
Thinking Architecture, Peter Zumthor
Chapter I â€” Herr Zumthor t%FTDSJCFEBTBNPOL BQPTUMF TIBNBO NZTUJDBOEHVSV 4XJTTBSDIJUFDU1FUFS;VNUIPSJTUIFEFTJHOFSPG some of the most admired buildings of the last quarter century t5IFQMBDFBOEQVSQPTFPGBCVJMEJOHEJDUBUFUIFEFUBJMTBOEWJTJPOPGEFTJHO OPUQFSTPOBMUIFPSJFTPSUSFOET t5IJOLJOHCFZPOEGPSNBOEDPOTUSVDUJPO )FSS;VNUIPSTBQQSPBDIUPNBUFSJBMJUZBOETFOTVBMEFUBJMTXPSL in harmony to serve the common aesthetic desires, as well as go beyond all practical needs to compliment the human senses as one inhabits the spaces he designs. t8PSLJOHXJUIIJNJTBVOJRVFFYQFSJFODF JGIFBHSFFTUPXPSLXJUIZPV
t)FQFSTPOBMMZUBLFTPOBMMBTQFDUTPGBQSPKFDU BOEMFBWFTOPUIJOHVQUPBSCJUSBSJOFTTBOEFYDVTFT t)JTXPSLEPFTOPUPOMZTQFBLWJTVBMMZ CVUTUSPOHMZFMJDJUBSFTQPOTFPGVTFSTUPUIFTPVOET TNFMMT BOEMJHIU of his buildings t)JTPSJHJOT - born in Basel, Switzerland, in 1943 to a large Catholic family - set to follow fatherâ€™s footsteps as a cabinet-maker - Swiss School for Applied Arts (modeled after the Bauhaus) - Later studied industrial design at the Pratt Institute - No architectural degree - His studio is in an isolated Swiss village of Haldenstein t5IFQSPKFDUTJODPOTJEFSBUJPOJOUIJTFTTBZBSF UIF4BJOU#FOFEJDU$IBQFM UIF5IFSNBM7BMT 5IF Kunsthaus Bregenz, (4) the Bruder Klaus Chapel, and (5) his entry for the Serpentine Pavilion
Chapter II â€“ Simple yet Meaningful Gestures
t)FSFQSFTFOUTBOJEFBMBSDIJUFDUJOIPXIFUIJOLT QSBDUJDFT BOECBMBODFTUIFQMFUIPSBPGDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTUIBU make a good architect t)JTXPSLIBTBTFOTFPGSPNBOUJDJTNBOEIJHINJOEFEOFTTUPJU CVUJTBDUVBMMZDPODSFUF MJWJOH GVODUJPOBM and deeply respected by many t*OTQJSFECZNVTJD DSBGUTNFO NFNPSJFT ESFBNT IJTDIJMEIPPE t)JTCVJMEJOHTEPIBWFBOFÃ²FDUPOQFPQMF CVUTPNFUJNFTBSFTPNVDITPUIBUJUJTEJÃ³DVMUGPSQFPQMFUP articulate t5PQVUJUTJNQMZ UIFQSJODJQMFTPGNVMUJQMJDJUZUJFEUPHFUIFSJOIBSNPOZ TJNQMJDJUZ QVSJUZ IPOFTUZ BOEB high level of functional, material, and experiential quality are major components in his work t5IFEFUBJMTBOEQBSUTPGIJTCVJMEJOHTIBWFCFFOQBJOTUBLJOHMZBOEJOEJWJEVBMMZDPOTJEFSFE ZFUJOUIFFOE they still create a harmonious whole this is what he strives for and this is how his architectural message is conveyed t)BSNPOZXJUIUIFTJUFJTBMTPBNBKPSDPNQPOFOUPGIJTXPSL t%PFTOPUPWFSDSPXEIJTXPSLXJUIUPPNVDINFBOJOHPSFYUSBOFPVTEFUBJMToFWFSZUIJOHIBTBQVSQPTF t)FJTBCMFUPHFUHSFBUANJMFBHFPVUPGTJNQMFEFTJHOHFTUVSFT PGNBUFSJBM PSPSHBOJ[BUJPO PGGPSN PGIJFSarchy, of lighting, etc) t)FJTJOUFOUJPOBMJOIJTXPSLUPNBLFBTUBOEJOUIFGBDFPGAGBLF AQVSFMZDPNNFSDJBMPSAVOJOTQJSFEBSDIJUFDture of today t)JTQBTTJPOBOENPTUJNQPSUBOUMZ IJTDPOÃ¶EFODFJTTIPXOJOIJTXPSLUISPVHIANPOVNFOUBMEFTJHONPWFT
Chapter III โ An Experiential Use of Materials
t;VNUIPSQPTTFTTFTBOJOUVJUJWFBOEMFBSOFEBCJMJUZUPJOUFHSBUFBDDFTTJCMFEFTJHOTXJUIBOBENJSBUJPOGPS the materials and rich details ti8IBUBSFUIFFรฒFDUTPGBTQFDJรถDEPPSIBOEMFUPBTQBDF )PXEPFTUIFTPVOEPGGPPUTUFQTPOBTQFDJรถD material make the user feel?โ t4QFOETUJNFรถYBUJOHBOEDPOTJEFSJOHUIFDPNQPOFOUTUIBUNBZQSPWJEFBTFOTPSZGFFMJOHUIBUPUIFSBSDIJtects may overlook t*UJTBMMBCPVUUIFFYQFSJFODFPGBSDIJUFDUVSF t)JTNBUFSJBMTFYQSFTTQVSJUZ BOEBDPOOFDUJPOUPOBUVSF t"NBUFSJBMNVTUQMBZXJUIUIFTFOTFBOEFNQMPZBOFNPUJPOBMSFTQPOTFJGUIFNBUFSJBMEPFTOPUFOHBHF with the user, then it does not serve the architecture
Chapter IV โ The Sensory Experience
t1FUFS;VNUIPSoNBTUFSPGDSFBUJOHVOJRVFBUNPTQIFSFTBOEBVUIFOUJDTFOTPSZFYQFSJFODFTJOIJTCVJMEJOHT t-JHIU TPVOE UFYUVSFBOEUFNQFSBUVSFBSFUIFNBJOUPPMTUIBU;VNUIPSVTFT t)JTBSDIJUFDUVSBMSFTQPOTFJTBMXBZTCBTFEPOTJUFDPOEJUJPOT FYUFOTJWFSFTFBSDI TJNQMFCVUTUSPOHBOEDPherent statement that he wants to convey t-JHIUBQPXFSGVMUPPMUPDSFBUFBUNPTQIFSFEJรฒVTFEMJHIU 4U#FOFEJDUT$IBQFM SFGSBDUFEMJHIU ,VOTUIBVT Art Museum), light alternating with shadow (Therme Vals) and dramatic direct light (Bruder Klaus Chapel) t.BUFSJBMTBOEUFYUVSFToNFBOJOHGVMBOEMPDBMXBSNTPMJEXPPE 4U#FOFEJDUT$IBQFM DPODSFUFXJUIJOUFgrated geothermal heating system (Kunsthaus Art Museum), local stone (Therme Vals) and solid tree trunks (Bruder Klaus Chapel) t4PVOE o DSFBLJOH รธPPS UP JNJUBUF EPNFTUJD BUNPTQIFSF 4U #FOFEJDUT $IBQFM FDIPJOH TPVOET UP FNphasize controversial character of art (Kunsthaus Art Museum), white noise of water to ensure relaxation (Therme Vals) and dramatic silence to create secluded atmosphere (Bruder Klaus Chapel)
“It’s about elevation. Everybody can go up after all.” —Peter Zumthor
Herr Zumthor posing for the camera. http:// www.architizer.com/en_us/blog/dyn/39135/ german-town-rejects-peter-zumthor-designedglass-tower/#.UVeUnGAkdyE
Anonymous, . “Mystical presence.” Architectural Review. 202.1210 (1997): 46-53. Web. 29 Mar. 2013. <http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/201114707?accountid=13631>. Bertoni, Franco. Minimalist Architecture. Basel: Birkhäuser Publ. for Architecture, 2002. Print. Davidovici, Irina. “Review - Books .” Architects Journal (2006): n.pag. Lexis Nexis Academic & Library Solutions. Web. 29 Mar 2013. <http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=355394&sr=BYLINE(Irina)+w/3+Davidovici )+AND+HLEAD(Thinking Architecture)+AND+DATE+IS+2006-06-15>. Dawson, Layla. “Refusing the spotlight, Peter Zumthor designs quiet buildings that still attract devotees.” 1 Jan. 2008. Architectural Record. 11 Oct. 2010 “Focus On.” Architecture d’aujoud’hui May 2011: 22-53. Print. Goodwin, Kate. “Peter Zumthor: the creation of place.” Contract. 49.7 (2008): 38-40. Web. 29 Mar. 2013. <http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson. ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/223753992?accountid=13631>. Heathcote , Edwin. “The unplugged pavilion.” Financial Times Limited [London] 2 Jul 2011, 12. Web. 30 Mar. 2013. <http://ezproxy. lib.ryerson.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/874438587?accountid=13631>. Kimmelman, Michael. “The Ascension of Peter Zumthor.” The New York Times 13 Mar. 2011. 13 Mar. 2011. Web. 2 May 2011. Kroll, Andrew. “AD Classics: Kunsthaus Bregenz / Peter Zumthor.” ArchDaily. N.p., 27 Jan. 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2013. Lynch, Peter. “Pritzker laureate Peter Zumthor” 16 April 2009: 42-43. Architects Journal. Wilson Web. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. Merrick, Jay. “Experiments in space.” Independent [London ] 6 Jun 2011, 18. Web. 29 Mar. 2013. <http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/ login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/870258222?accountid=13631>. Official Web page of Kunsthaus Art Museum, Bregenz, Austria http://www.kunsthaus-bregenz.at/ehtml/k_arch.htm, Accessed 29 March 2013. “Peter Zumthor recipient of the 2006 spirit of nature wood architecture award.” Canadian Architect. Canadian Architect, 28 Sep 2006. Web. 18 Mar 2013. <http://www.canadianarchitect.com/news/peter-zumthor-recipient-of-the-2006-spirit-of-nature-wood-architecture-award/1000056757/>. “Peter Zumthor of Switzerland named the 2009 Pritzker architecture prize laureate.” Canadian Architect. Canadian Architect, 19 Apr 2009. Web. 18 Mar 2013. <http://www.canadianarchitect.com/news/peter-zumthor-of-switzerland-named-the-2009-pritzkerarchitecture-prize-laureate/1000094229/>. Plummer, Henry. The architecture of natural light. New York: Monacelli Press ;, 2009. Print. Richards, Brent, and Dennis Gilbert. New glass architecture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006. Print. Rauterberg, Hanno. Talking architecture: interviews with architects. Munich: Prestel, 2008. Print. Temple, Nicholas. Disclosing horizons: architecture, perspective and redemptive space. Florence: Routledge, 2006. eBook. <http://site. ebrary.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/lib/oculryerson/docDetail.action?docID=10152386>. Zumthor, P. (2006). Atmospheres: architectural environments, surrounding objects. Basel: Birkhäuser. Zumthor, P., & Hauser, S. (2011). Peter Zumthor: Therme Vals (3rd printing. ed.). Zurich: Scheidegger & Spiess. Zumthor, Peter, Maureen Turner, and Catherine Schelbert. Thinking architecture. 2nd, expanded ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2006. Print. 6th Mies Van Der Rohe Award for European Architecture. Barcelona: Fundació Mies Van Der Rohe, 1999. Print.