Page 1


[R^uced Facsimile

oj the originalTitle-page.]

PRO

APOLOGIA

VITA

SUA:

BEING

Ipampljlet

to a % llcplj)

ENTITLED

"Commit

DOES

THEN,

"WHAT,

thy

way

And

He as

BY

DR.

NEWMAN

MEAN?"

will

Loi'd, and trust in Him, and He will do it. and thy judgbring forth thy justiceas the light, ment

the

noon-day."

to the

JOHN

HENEY

NEWMAN,

D.D.

LONDON:

LONGMAN,

GREEN,

LONGMAN, 1864.

ROBERTS,

AND

GREEN.


CONTENTS PRO

'APOLOGIA

OF

VITA

PART

SUA',

1864.

I. PAGE

Kingsley's Method

Mr,

of

PART True

Mode

of

of my

of ray

85

meeting Mr. Kingsley

.....

III.

Religious Opinions

.

of my

Religious Opinions

from

of my

Religious Opinions

from

Religious Opinions

Answer

to Mr.

Kingsley

1833

to

1839

.

.

to

1841 .

.

137

1839

189

VI. from

1841

to

243

1845 .

PART General

.

V.

PART

History

.

IV.

PART History

103

1833

to

up

PART

History

.....

II.

PART

History

67

Disputation

.

VII. 329 ......

APPENDIX. Answer

APOLOGIA

in Detail

to Mr.

Kingsley's

J)

373

Accusations .

.

,


PART

MR.

KINGSLEY'S

[Piiblished

I

METHOD

as

a

Pamphlet,

OF

Thursday,

DISPUTATION.

April

21,

1861.]


I.

PART

KINGSLEY'S

MB.

method

[Not reprinted I

CANNOT

be

in

fulness

out

he

in

his

to be

10

are

of

to

me

who

has

And

his

as

in

or

the

which

almost he

thereby

them

to

convey.

doings,

as

;

I

other

is not

of

the

hates

I

it

am

that with

gain principles

the

a

personal knowledge doctrine^ and

no

of my

be

as

with

severe

to

truth.

to

hand, the mere

to

other

which

me

it is are

me

as

be

a

that

his

sharp

done

which

I intended

than a

of my

I

best.

lie is the

of the

me

done

So

against proposition

upon

is about

writings

and

his

worst

far

well

;

unfeignedly think,

his invective

retort

bolical hyper-

an

cases

has

his

malice,

half

to

illustration

view

He

in

The as

is Kingsley's pamphlet contemplated in that

taking. no

apposite

are

about

also

or

better

more

certain

motto

contain, the drift,

prefixed.

so

aphorism

as

the

on

should

character,

truth

him

that,

the

Mr.

the

has

he

or

to

in

case"

of

him

motto

it is not

that

say

capable

but

a

who

cannot

that

to

impute

faithfullyfulfils This

There

really believe,

is

I account

A

from

of such

one

he

me

but, while the

taken

I said

I

circumstances

compliment

to

writing

approach

an

one

to

contents,

affords

expression approach

towards

on

beg

has

than

near

by

other

or

prophetical.

proposition.

that

lifetime,

my

it.

with

it is felicitous.

;

he

emphatically

bring

to

better

be.

of the

animus

the

misconceptions

motive

some

in

me

upon

heart, has

my

his

nutshell, the

a

nearest

30

to

first of all, I

"

as

without

right

Title-page

words

20

satisfied

from

possibly

can

in

be

me

nearest

set

Kingsley It is far

opportunity of reading the worst taken has by a writer who pains

is well

surveyed

which

he

of

and

work

Under

Mr. me.

the

having

said

be

can

dead.

am

^565.]

forced

his

I

after

happy

in

charges against discharge his thoughts

should

than

have

to

sorry

DISPUTATION.

OF

Mr.

me,

he

as

also.

Kingsley,

as


70

APOLOGIA

PRO

VITA

SUA.

will be seen, when I come the to consider directly to which the words of his motto relate. I have

subject, enlarged pubhcations;

that subjectin various passages of my on I have said that minds in different states and understand

cannot

another^ and

that

circumstances

in all

cases they according to their capacity, and, if not taught step by step, they learn only so much the less ; that children do not apprehend the thoughts of grown blind nor people,nor savages the instincts of civilization,

be

must

one

instructed

the

the doctrines of perceptions of sight,nor pagans the experiences of Angels. In the men same prosaicminds^ way, there are peopleof matter-of-fact, who take in the fancies of poets ; and cannot others of take in the ideas shallow, inaccurate minds, who cannot of philosophical inquirers. In a Lecture of mine I have men

lo

nor Christianity,

illustrated

this phenomenon by the supposed instance of foreigner,who, after reading a commentary on the of Enghsh Law, does not get nearer to a real principles apprehension of them than to be led to accuse Englishmen of considering that the Queen is impeccable and infallible. 20 and that the Parliament is omnipotent. Mr. Kingsley has read me from beginningto end in the fashion in which the hypotheticalRussian read Blackstone ; not, I repeat, from a

malice, but because to be

so

minds

very

stone-bHnd would

Mr.

to have

as

different

from

been

devotions

life of

if he held and

millions

so

did not

"

that cultivation as

he

sees

them

man

on

in

to

be

or

so

have of

them "

been

have

the

Christians

been

a

taken

himself,30 ^the beliefs

long,

fact is the task he

a

and

scorn

for

which

millions

twenty centuries, ^forthis in spending his pains. Had cautious not mind, he would

moreover

acquiesce in

widely and

customs

upon

is

more

with

scrupledto treat Kingsley does in my own had

and

appears goes

philosopher as scoffing, instance, principlesand

have

which

He

of what

notion

no

his own, to his ignorance. A modest

convictions, even and

of his intellectual build.

constituted

on

of

man

rehgious nearly

for

it for

which

he

large or granted

lead every one to see thingsprecisely himself. But the narrow-minded the are

must

prejudiced by

Apostle bids us standhigbe men."

"

of their narrowness. The very reason in malice be children, but in underI

am

glad to recognizein

Mr.

40

Kingsley


KINGSLEY'S

MR.

METHOD

illustration of the first half of this

an

be

not

honest, if I ascribed

DISPUTATION.

OF

him

to

but I should

precept ;

of fulfilment

sort

any

71

of the second. I wish

I could

speak

of his method

or

of

I

of his convictions.

can

As to his drift,I think its ultimate point is the Catholic Religion. It is I indeed, whom he insulting, still,

views

"

only as

me

attack upon he is ately immedi-

an

representative,

a

fair one, of a class or caste of men, to I ascribe I am of my as own whom, conscious integrity, He desires to impress upon excellence superiorto mine an

and

10

of his drift

favourably either

as

arguing, as

the

on

whole

a

.

the man,

publicmind the conviction that I am a crafty,scheming simply untrustworthy; that, in becoming a Catholic,

I have

just found

and

properlyinterpretedby

am

Roman

of

of the

when

be

to

either

it,

to

a

Church

or

last words

in his drift he

the

does

shall 30

and

He

but

the

follow of

is not

or

of the

fact, that be

must

man

arguing he knave

a

he

is

or

of

troversy, con-

actuallydishonest.

a fool,and (as we which, probablyboth.

he

occasion

one

beat

or

quitesure

would

"

ordinary

other of two "

said that

"

destroy

and

his

he

misfortunes."

destroyhis

truthfulness

honesty,i.e. conscious ;

clergyman

of Eangsley'smethod much severity;

to Mr.

either

am

by) he

person

cause,

evidence

either," he continues,

would

length it

at

"

had of

by

see

I

a

bringing,by openly took I am really

criticize with

tells his readers that on end in one fears I should

He "

that

says

be

far from

so

Catholic

bring me I must

but in his mode He

that

fool.

a

which disputation,

that

;

justify

EngUsh notion I was secretly

genuine Catholic, a

german,

knave

These

;

additional

an

"

pure,

a

confessors

but

I do

common

to openly professing

was

strength to

burden

the

conversion, when

of my

place, any a

I

Established

means 20

and

casuists

Catholic

a

that

right place ;

my

own

become common

sense a

the slave truthfulness,and become of his his of own logic,really puppet seemingly I thought for years past that he had become fancy.

i.e. unconscious

honest dis-

sense,

and own

the

...

former

;

Again, 40

what

"

I

now

When

wonder

see

that

I read

he has

these

if I said Co

become

the latter." p. 37.

outrages upon '

myself,

This

man

common

cannot

sense,

believe


PRO

APOLOGIA

72

what

he is saying ?

state

of mind

'

"

"

"

(p. 56), of reason

what

it is

that

I

am

of silliness,"

boundless

almost

Kingsley's

of scepticism,"

"

"

absurdity

has become sort of which a self-deception to his fundamental as (p. 43). And this change, he tells us, he reallydoes not know be what it will, (p.58). However, let the reason "

a

honesty for

Mr.

considers

he

now

of

SUA.

has been

Such

p. 43.

but till lately,

possessedwith a spiritof simplecreduhty,the child frantic

VITA

"

enough. He is enabled at once, by upshot is intelligible of this professed change judgment about me, to put forward of these alternatives,yet to keep the other in reserve one ; himself need not commit He and this he actuallydoes. its

lo

"

to

a

definite accusation

proof and

admits

stringsto

his bow

the

leg,he

one

I

Oh, but

"

not

am

that

then, you are his arguments have But

a

a

I

;

have

requiresdefinite for he

no

the

use

two

may

exclaim, that

I demonstrate and

on

of the other.

retort,

"

Well,

objectionto reply to

alternative,but been

has

off his balance

knave, he

round

of either

pleasedto

by

when

I have

knave."

allowed

20

I should

to take

them

of full justiceto the method Kingsley thinks it rightto adopt. is who He means bj^ a man silly is to be who to be pitied,but a man is not simply weak and who a man

not

yet Mr.

a

as

time.

I have

this first :

Observe

a

and

turn

may

which disputation, not

not

am

fool ! "

in behaK

better

been at

one

a

are

fool, he

a

himself

recover

can

you

such

^\^^hen he is thrown

;

If I demonstrate *'

againstme,

of definite refutation

"

Avho

man

He

abhorred.

is

means

done

"

"

but a moral leper; a man who, if not a knave, has incapable, him bad about knavery ; nay, rather,30 except thing every has togetherwith every other worst vice,a spiceof knavery who has become His simpleton is one to boot. such, in His simpleton judgment for his having once been a knave. who has drugged is not a born fool,but a self-made idiot,one and abused himseK into a shameless depravity; one, who, is guiltyof drivelling without misgiving or remorse, any of reckless violation of sacred things, of superstition, fanatical of passionate inanities, of unmanly excesses, audacious fathers he

seems

tyranny

and to

brothers.

the

over

This

pride himself

weak, meriting the wrath

upon

as

so

of

judgment, which much charity; and.

is that milder

40


MR.

as

he

KINGSLEY'S

he

when

he withdrew

said,

"

his

language,makes have

you

does

gambled

"

my

This

is

January 14,

being dishonest. than

He their

deep pleasure,"

^what ?

my

very

away

73

why. of

me

letters,even

feel,to

me

DISPUTATION.

know

not

charge of

of your

tone

OF

in his letter to

reallymeant The

"

it, he

expresses

what

that

METHOD

more

"

that

reason,

your

are

you

intellectual sot, that you are a fool in a frenzy. And in his Pamphlet, he givesus this explanation why he did not an

10

face,viz. that he had been told that I was say this to my " "in weak to controversy," health," and was averse pp. 25 He " felt some 28. But I pass on from confine myself to this and

regret for having disturbed these

multiform

consideration,viz. that he has

one

fresh imputation upon made any the charge of knavery ; well and

20

the whole

"

that

Truth

for its

to be

ought not

:

but where

sake

own

virtue

a

He

at all.

me

good

logical necessityof his bringinganother ? I home without a thought of ]\ir. Kingsley; breaks in upon with the charge that I had me the world

me."

imputations, and

with

up

was

the

sittingat wantonly

am

he "

gave

"

informed

need

not

and

on

the Roman

clergy." bringa fragment

When

he cannot challengedon the poiiit in proof of his assertion,and he is convicted of false witness by the voice of the world. Well, I should have more thought that he had now nothing whatever of evidence

to

"

do.

Vain

!"

man

simpHcity in you one

commandment,

you

of the breach

forger,you 30

by

are

to

he

let

us

If you whether

see

If you

arson

crook

you shall not esca]je. does it matter who to you

What

receive a sHght additional deeplystained already? But

Are are

daub

to

you

a

a

swindler By hook suffer

to

going upon

convict

cannot not

or

or or

/ ?

oS the stage, character so

of me, the immaculate (as I have told you p. 27) of think

lover of Truth, so observant * hauU courage and strict honour,'

and

"

40

we

are

broken

not

burglary.

or

what

answer,

have

!

so

of another.

guilty of

"

to make

seems

think

{aside) "

'

and

not

'

do you think I can let you go scot free instead No ; noblesse oblige.Go to the shades, and boast that Achilles sent you thither." old man, method But I have not even yet done with Mr. Eangsley's of disputation.Observe is said secondly : ^w^hen a man as

this

to

be

pubhcan of myself ? "

"

a

knave

or

a

fool,it

is D

commonly 3

meant

that

he is


APOLOGIA

74

either the that

the

one

or

the other

hypothesisof his

entertained

; or,

of one, who this is not

after all has not

in the

antithesis which

he

speaks along, from he

of

me

the

as

SUA.

; and

that,

being

a

"

either in the

fool is too

absurd

sense

to be

sort of

contemptuous acquittal But enough to be wicked. Mr. Kingsley proposes to himself he suggests to his readers. Though

again,as

all what

at

VITA

PRO

a

wit

dotard

utter

an

beginning of

insinuates,he proves

from

his my

and

fanatic, yet all the end,

Pamphlet to writings,and

at

length

in his last pages he openly pronounces, that after all he was liar and deceiver. in thinkingme a conscious rightat first,

Now I say, dotard

that, in spiteof

I wish

arrow

which

to dwell

lo

this

point. It cannot be doubted, professingto consider me as a and driveller,on the ground of his having given of my being a knave, yet it is the very staple up the notion of his Pamphlet that be. knave after all I must a By or insinuation,or by implication, by question,or by irony, or by sneer, or by parable, he enforces again and again which he does not categorically enunciate. a conclusion For "I instance know that men used to 20 (I) P. 33. suspect Dr. Neivman, I have been inclined to do so myself, of writinga whole sermon for the sake of one single passing hint, one phrase, one epithet,one little barbed on

his

he

delivered

unheeded,

as

with

his

fingertip,to the very heart of an initiated hearer,never to be withdrawn again." How I to know that the preacher,who was (2)P. 34. had the reputation of being the most of his acute man intimate acquaintance generation,and of having a specially with the weaknesses of the human heart, was utterlybhnd 30 to the broad meaning and the plain practicalresult of "

a

sermon

like

this,delivered

before

men,

who

fanatic

and

hot-headed

hung upon his every word ? That he did not foreseethat they would think that they obeyed him, cealments by becoming affected, artificial, sly,shifty,ready for conand equivocations ? No one would have suspectedhim to be a dishonest (3)P. 36. if he had not man, perverselychosen to assume a stylewhich (as he himself confesses)the world always associates with dishonesty." 40 (4) P, 46. // he wiU indulge in subtle paradoxes,

young

"

"

"


KINGSLEY'S

MR.

OF

METHOD

DISPUTATION.

75

in rhetorical

exaggerations if,whenever he touches on the questionof truth and honesty,he will take a perverse pleasure in saying something shockmg to i^lain English notions, he .

take the consequences of his own At which most

must

^

'

inclined to cry He had a human it

reason

(6)P.

He

50.

readers

be

mil

doubt

:

but

he has

gambled

true, "c."

so

continues

"I

:

because

save

pages, world, if not

:

of my

alone,after that

no

once,

True

these

10

Let Dr. Newman

:

away.'

eccentricities'^

"

(5)Pp. 49, 50.

it

should

have

never

written

duty to show the my the mistake (!)of his not

was

Dr. Newman, how caringfor truth arose. And this is the man, who when accused of (7) P. 52. countenancing falsehood, puts on first a tone of plaintive(!) ""

''

startled

and

faction have

innocence, and who

as

"

I done

(8) P. /

and

?

Why "

55.

I

"

(9) P. 57. '

'

economical

There

there are say that difficult to help. As

one

What

is

of smug seK-satisI said ? What

have

trial ?

my

Dr. Newman

'

"

teaches

is clear

wronged him.

have

sake to be

no

at

last,

So far from

virtue, he considers

by man." wasting words

unattainable no

in

use

of Dr.

statement

.

*

on

deeply I

thinkingtruth for its own it a virtue so lofty to he as

20

then

ask,

am

What how

now

see

should

Newman's.

people in the world soon as they are got

this

on

I shall whom out

only

it is very

of

one

scrape,

they walk straightinto another." Dr. Newman wisdom has shown (10) P. 58. enough of that serpentine type which is his professedideal is a very economical Yes, Dr. Newman person." Dr. Newman tries,by cunning sleight-of(11) P. 58. hand logic, that I did not believe the accusation to prove '

"

'

''

30

when

I made

it."

(12) P. 59. shall complain which the a

These

crane,

had

as

Dr.

These

instance

place is

in

a

If Dr.

words.

only remind

can

caught among

done

Neioman

his

last of

not

hard

are

them, I

befel the stork

stork

title-pageof 40

"

of

all he

could

has, by

'

him

the cranes, to make

economising

Newman

of the fate

though

even

himseU '

on

Hke

the very

pamphlet."

words these

bring

us

slanderous

subsequent

page.

to

another

assaults

upon

and

far me,

worse

but

its


76

APOLOGIA

Now

be

it may

Mr.

asked

take

Kingsley originalassertion

and

PRO

a

of me, such

granted ; but

that

Dr.

he

now

got very

He

is

assertion

Why a

only aiming

now

why

;

should

knave

! he

hke

is he not he not now

had

of

at

was

It

somewhat

least

;

he

is

first,

quite as

justifymorally his original

to

do

so

?

that

I

am

hberty to

"

liar and

a

perfectrightto

a

and

he said at

the

say

his

random

at

thing which to

not

was

professedliar,

a

his references

insinuate

course

should

this ?

as

up

it, and

bad.

Well, why

spoke

has

but

very

SUA.

Newman

proving, not perhaps the

something

"

course

patron of lies ; he

a

VITA

make

lo

such

"

charge,if he chose ; he might have said, I was virtually right,and here is the proof of it,"but this he has not done, but on the contrary has professedthat he no longerdraws a

from

works,

my

He

outrages

myself,

This

/ believe I has

before, the inference

in his eyes, and I do not say that now.'' virtue

what

in p.

"

47,

I

for its

he

teaches

that

And

in p.

56, "I

Why

should

being

a

he not ! because that he caUs

knave

Avith wisdom.

They

great Hterary and wdth

almost

Why himself withdraw

for that

he

!

because

that

call this

not

sermon

was

ground

of my

is synonymous too certain)

(as is

abilitymay

which

it is

he

has

of honour

once

(wonderful to say !)at the very magnanimous resolution,he

co-exist

taken which

has been

made

that

he

lets it out

of

time

credit

to

refuses

once

30

to

though, is recording the bag that ;

only a professionand a pretence ; denial accepted Dr. Newman's what I thought it did ; and

for he says, p. 27 : "I have that [the Sermon] means heaven

20

silliness."

not

relinquishmentof

cleverness

believe

high feehng

concession

the

no

be.

not

a

barristerial

even

boundless

should

a

cannot

this his

me

just quoted, [My prevailingsuperstitionthat

the

on

is

fool ; adding to the readers]have fallen perhaps into

"

words

it is

'

man

sake

that

to

saying ?

said, This own

do

who wrote dishonesty; the man of such a sin." alreadypast the possibility not

is

it need

conscious

honesty. disthese

if I said

he

Truth

of my

I read

wonder

believe

And

for truth.

care

"When

what

sense,

cannot

man

tvrong."

was

real

no

he did

distinctly, p. 43,

common

upon '

as

says

forbid''(oh!) "that I should withdraw my given, at whatever disadvantageto myself."

word^o Disad-


KINGSLEY'S

MR.

METHOD

OF

DISPUTATION.

77

be advantageous to him which proclaimingthat the concession of honesty is a disadvantage to him, he thereby impHes my that I am still, unequivocallythat there is some probability I am informed d!^shonest. He by those from goes on, whose judgment on such points there is no appeal,that and strict honour, I am also precluded, hault courage,' en

vantage ! but nothing

is untrue

therefore

;

can

in

"

'

the

by

explanation,from past writingsto prove

of my

terms

Dr. Newman's 10

then, man

"

declared

I have

to the 1st of

up

Dr.

fault that

any

thing

It

else.

I

; it was,

been as

honest

an

him

Dr.

depends entirely on

of

And

I shall

thought

ever

other

any

assertion."

to have

Dr. Newman

February,1864

Newman's

only

using my

show, be

to

Newman

he has so whether he shall sustain the reputation which from Mr. Kingsrecentlyacquired,"(by diploma of course ley.) If I give him thereby a fresh advantage in this to argument, he is most welcome to it. He needs, it seems as as possible.'^ advantages me, many What a loyalto his rash promise, princelymind ! How the subject of it, how conscientious how dehcate towards "

20

in his

of it interpretation

! I have

thought of

no

irreverence

actuated Scripture Saint, who was by a very from Mr. Kingsley's, but somehow since I read different spirit have been running in my his Pamphlet words head, which Thou hast also with I find in the Douay version thus ; with a grievous thee Semei the son of Gera, who cursed me but I swore I went when to him, saying, to the camp, curse

towards

a

"

I will not

kill thee

guiltless.But 30

do

blood

art

to

wise

a

shalt

him, and thou

with

Do

the sword.

with

thou

not

and

man

bring down

thou

hold

knowest

him

what

to

his grey hairs with

hell."

Kingsleybe open ? If he charge of lying,why arraign ? could he not say so as a man Why must he insinuate, question,imply, and use sneeringand irony, as if longing I

Now

intended

to

touch

burn in

a

He 40

he

his

could

ask, Why still to

forbidden

a

if fingers,

double

he

Mr.

me

on

did

so

considered

stillhe

Why

?

hot

blow

me

changed his opinion ; and change,he said that,if any

this

the

fruit,which he

sense," and

first said

not

and a

as one

was

must

cold in

afraid would he one

"

palter

breath

?

patron of lying; well, to the logical ground of asked

him

what

it was,


APOLOGIA

78

PRO

VITA

SUA.

could

that he reallydid not know. only answer Why he change back again,and say he did not know why ? He had quite a rightto do so ; and then his conduct would have hena so far straightforward and unexceptionable. in the very act of professing But no to believe ; in my he takes care the world that it is to show sincerity, and nothingmore. That very proceedingwhich a profession at p. 33 he lays to my charge,(whereas I detest it,)of avowing one thing and thinkinganother, that proceeding he here exemplifieshimself ; and yet, while indulgingin lo practicesas offensive as this,he ventures to speak of his

he

could

not

"

sensitive admiration "

I

forgive you.

of Sir

"

hault courage

Knight,"

"

I forgiveyou Romance, said Wamba, that she

as

a

says

and

strict honour

the

heroine "

Christian.'*

That

"

!

in

the

means,"

"

does not forgivehim at all." Kingsley'sword of honour is about as valuable as in the jester's the Christian charityof Rowena. opinion was But here we are brought to a further specimen of Mr. Kings of disputation, and having duly exhibited ley'smethod it, Mr.

-

I shaU

have

It is his

done

with

last,and

him.

20

he has

reserved it for his intentionally last. Let it be recollected that he professedto absolve from his original me chargeof dishonestyup to February 1. And

further,he impliesthat, at

I had

not

of that

yet involved

sin.

He

conviction, that

says

the time when

myself in that

any

I have

was

writing,

hopes I shaU take warning, and he says, cautiously. It depends entirely,"

he

"

more

Dr.

he

fresh acts suggestive had a great escape of

Newman,

he has

whether

he shall sustain "

the

act "

on

reputationwhich

30 recentlyacquired (p.27) Thus, in Mr. Kingsley's he wrote these words, still then, when judgment, I was of dishonesty, innocent for a man he sustain what cannot actuallyhas not got ; onlyhe could not be sure of my future. Could not be sure ! Why at this very time he had already noted down vaUd proofs,as he thought them, that I had already forfeited the character which he contemptuously accorded He had to me. ary cautiouslysaid "up to Februthe Title-page and last three 1st," in order to reserve of my not Pamphlet, which were published till pages February 12th, and out of these four pages, which he had 40 not whitewashed, he had alreadyforgedchargesagainstme so

.


MR.

KINGSLEY'S

METHOD

OF

DISPUTATION.

79

of

dishonestyat the very time that he imphed When he gave was nothing againstme. plenary condonation, as it seemed to be, he had

that

yet there

done

his best that

at p.

27, what

indeed was

I

did

and

p. 27 10

only out

was

he

But

not

at

so say meant

him

permit

colour

and

to

force

handsel.

So

his

to

20

the

''

he

fifth act

knew)

my

had

all those insinuations "

thereby knavery

charges of "

did

gave miserable "

of

four

heart

got by

in the

start, and

a

to

found I

pages,

before

did

give

to

him

permit

had

which

economy,"

an

"

strict honour

he

"

been simply out a knave again ;

in

he

began suddenly found two, three, and (for four profligateeconomies in as many

he

play. Nay,

what

to be

in order

honour

enormity he

fact

have

to exhaust

his direct

that, in

the of

matter

a

past, which

strict

in the

horror

committed

talk

countenance,

to "

present, which

best

between first,because great deal about my

once,

to

and next, because he meant about my knavery in the not

well

At

59.

made

frenzy,which would proved me too soon

he

and

58

at pp.

already

knew

He

ticket of leave ; but that ticket it forfeit when he gave it.

upon

he

my

place,had

it.

enjoy

never

to say

had

he

;

p. 58

idiotcyand of

he meant

pretence

a

I should

as

that

me

as

that

Title-pageand language of distress

those

Reflections,and

and

he

the

uses

this

perplexity at

appalling

discovery. breaks soon why this coup de theatre ? The reason Up to February 1, he could not categorically arraign for lying,and therefore could not involve me, (as was for his case,)in the popular abhorrence which necessary

Now on me so

30

us.

is felt for the could

and

courage

four

40

and

of Rome

am

So

been

with

at

I

once

condoned

as

soon

guiltyof

am

made

he

ever

as

"

(saving his

hault

three

or

the hour

of doom

the

odious

Scavini

moralists,"and

"

to do names "

and

their

to

knavery of knavery of a whole

the

what

am

the

guilty of knows

man

but,

:

directlypronounce honour ") that I

bear, not sins,but the sins of other people also,and,

own

instead.

"

strict

I have

I

me

and

economies, then

new

only my though

wise

casuists

openly

for Semei with

of

"

him

compeers

"

and

and

priesthood

and the is come, is down upon

he

da

St. Alfonso

Neyraguet,"

"

;

dents, antece-

my

"

the

Liguori," Romish

pupils,"and

I

am


APOLOGIA

80

PRO

VITA

SUA.

once merged and whirled away in the gulph of and hjrpocrites, and rogues. quibblers,

at

But

have

we

what

I

him

towards

enough

easy

but, though

ill ; "

I

sake,

own

my

I

but

;

not

am

I think wish

Kingsley than that he by his feelings.But what economies this talk of my What is the precisework at

am

am

object of reallyfeel sad

in warfare

with

the for

him,

difficult to

it is very

whom

Mr.

I

I

say.

real

ment get up resenthas never It is seen. persons to be irritated with friends or foes, vis-a-vis ; I am writing with all my heart against what no

he has said of me, himself. Priesthood

to

at the

finale. I

for his

now

towards

writing,for

yet got

even

obhged

am

I wish

but

not

reserved

stroke, thus

notorious

with

war

him

one

conscious

personalunkindness

of

lo

it necessary to write as I am and for the sake of the Cathohc

impute nothing worse carried furiously shall I say of the upshot and equivocations and the to

has been

which

; but

it is directed

there

is such

a

to

to away

of all hke

?

effect ?

thing as legitimate

has its laws ; there are thingswhich may fairlybe done, and thingswhich may not be done. I say 20 and with stern sorrow he has attempted it with shame ; he has a great transgression attempted (as I may call it) ; warfare

war

:

"

poison the

to

I

wells.

I will

quote him

and

explain what

mean. "

Dr.

Newman

tries,by cunning sleight-of-hand logic,

when I made to prove that I did not believe the accusation I did beheve it. Therein he is mistaken. it,and I behoved

indignant denial. But when he goes on to ask why I should beheve his denial, if I did not consider him trustworthyin the first instance ? I can only 30 I reallydo not know. There is a great deal to be answer, said for that view, now that Dr. Newman has become (one needs suppose) suddenlyand since the 1st of February, must also

his

with

sneers,

1864,

a

convert

Liguori and fear,as much word

Dr.

Newman

be the

to

the

economic

his compeers. I am honest man as any may

write.

views

of St. Alfonso

da

in doubt and henceforth can be, conceriiing every How

can

I tell that I shall

of one of the cunning equivocation, three kinds laid down as permissible by the blessed Alfonso da Liguoriand his pupils, when confirmed even by an oath,4o because then we do not deceive our neighbour,but allow not

*

dupe of some


him

himself

deceive

to to

use

and signification, he

of them '

it ?

mean

It is

double

a

which

take

to

proof have I, then, that by does not signify, Dr. Neivman

'

said it !

"

Pp. 58, 59. questionsshaU be answered

I did not say it,but I did mean Now these insinuations and

10

have

hapless hearer

What

choose.

never

81

fore, admissible, there-

which

sentences the

leave

may

I

'

?

and

words

DISPUTATION.

OF

METHOD

KINGSLEY'S

MR.

it ?

"

in their proper places; here I will but say that I scorn and detest lying, and quibbling,and double-tongued practice,and slyness,and cunning, and smoothness, and hate as cant, and pretence, quiteas much any Protestants them

and

;

I pray

all this is

But

be

to

kept

from

the

bye

by

just now

;

of them.

the

snare

my

present subject

that I am Kingsley; what I insist upon here, now bringingthis portion of my discussion to a close,is this immanly attempt of his,in his concludingpages, to cut the ground from imder my feet ; ^to poison by anticipation and to the pubUc mind againstme, John Henry Newman,

is Mr.

"

20

readers, suspicionand

my

of every thing that I may I caU poisoningthe wells.

mistrust This "

as

I

honest

some

can

I

it ?

but

am

.

.

Dr.

intends

to

be

; and

of

doing so, I should self-possession ; but most

be

lest in

how

suddenly and

our

this

its fruit.

protest againsta method

all know

in

time

wasting my

to his foul calumnies

and

'

said it !

never

.

I

'

?

a

is to take

taunt

controversy

so

violating my

base

pace

"

; "

effect,

saying a word in answer what he knows is precisely can hardly get myself to

and

most

imaginationruns

at what

much

as

of proofhave I, that by does not signify, Newman

it say it,but I did mean can only say, that, if his

I did not Well, I

"

says,

What

.

mean

I

can

How

him.

reply to

be, concerningevery word Dr. Newman I tell that I shall not be the dupe

? cunning equivocation

*

'

man

write.

in

say

fear''he

in doubt and

henceforth

am

any

may

30

imaginations of

into the

infuse

^the

away

base

and

cruel,

and self-respect cruel it is. with "

sajdng,

us,

We how

Caesar's wife

suspected,"is an instance of what I rriean. is the of the moment, The habitual prejudice, the humour in defence read a w hich leads a to good us turning-point should

40

sense

not

or

a

be

bad. The

We very

interpretit by same

our

antecedent

sentiments, according as

pressions. imour


82

APOLOGIA

jealousyis is

story of

a

wards

of to

cause

remark

sane

"

'*

;

able

was

his

shut

in the

up

talks !

Controversies

legitimatewarfare pubHc mind and to its Kingsley is able thus to lO is it

;

I succeed, the less will " Ars est he will convincing, suggest that more

natural, he

am

if I

naturallyhe

senses.'*

the

if Mr.

how,

readers,the If I

artem an

mistake

How

was,

in

by the reason misgivingsof

my

success.

answer

he

to the

practiseupon

am

stimulated, pretence. There

and

and

Asylum,

think

be decided

be my celare

aversion

our

that, when he pleaded his the estabhshment, the only strangers visiting

some

appeal

or

SUA.

being by

person

? dislikings Any

I

awake,

he elicited in

should to

a

VITA

of dissimulation

or

Lunatic

a

would

you

is not

or

of truth

tokens

are

PRO

am

if I show

logician;

will tell them,

warmth,

I

acting the

am

indignantinnocent ; if I am calm, I am thereby detected I am too a smooth as hypocrite; if I clear up difficulties, plausibleand perfectto be true. The more triumphant are

statements, '_the

my

certain

more

be

will

my

defeat. will it be if Mr.

So but

I do not

judgment I

for

Kingsley succeeds

instant

an

readers

my

pages, I shall say at all,that

the

in

of them.

I have

Whatever these

from

that

course

; 20

manoeuvre

eventuallyform of me they will believe

may

confident

am

in his

believe that he will.

in what

me

misgiving

no

harsh with a man or they will be ungenerous who has been so long before the eyes of the world ; who has to speak of him from personalknowledge ; whose so many natural impulse it has ever been to speak out ; who has ever spoken too much rather than too little ; who would himself

saved

have

to hold

enough

and

doctrines

slurred

not

think

who have name,

if he

scrape,

; who

has

ever

had

been

been

of his opponents ; who

wise

so

fair to the has never

self reasoningswhich told againsthimhis to name or proofs given authority

never

thought unsound, at least

or

plausible;

to

testimony

who

has

which

never

he

shi'unk

did

from

he felt that he had committed one ; than for himself ; consulted for others more has given up much that he loved and prizedand could

a confessing

who

arguments

has

he

tongue

facts and

over

; who

which

a

many

his

has

fault when

ever

retained, but and

Truth

that

he

better than

loved dear

honesty

friends.

better

than40


KINGSLEY'S

MR.

And serene

you, "occur

Mr.

as

shall

a

which

Kingsley,

I your

in

am

any

again

pages. with

I

now

than

METHOD

of

train

slanders and

little

henceforth

charge?.

OF

as

fly I

into

can

occupy

DISPUTATION.

thought

higher

disturb.

can

Your

space.

heli^,

83

in

myself

the

course

not

with

and

more

Away

with

name

shall of you,

these but


PART

TRUE

MODE

[Published

OF

as

a

II.

MEETING

Pamphlet,

KINGSLEY.

MR.

Thursday,

Ajpril

28,

1864.J


II.

[PART

MODE

TRUE

in

{The preface continued,

make

(I and

I had

in

51,

in

writing

my

shall

throw

myself

which

my

care,

may

is

and

more

stain

dirt not

I

will fall to I think

the

dirt

;

will

some

I think him.

with

but

no

dirt

about

virtues, and may

also

that

does

at case

is

become not

large. for

;

Truthfulness

men

it

supernatural it from

mthdraw

It may

be

to

take

more

longer than According to the

of ;

to

Natural

them.

the

virtues

is such

Truthfulness

difficult

cognizance

indeed,

virtues

are

judge [about] or and charity : but it can the natural judge about

can

one

and

stain,"

sticks

is immortal.

Truthfulness

stick, but

will "

There

it will

Throw

say,

mean

fitted

serious.

"

to

dirt

Some

because

more

time, but

well,

to

of

of Untruthnot

is

a

they

course

season.

rest,

used

used

he

upon

and

the

charge it

"

Veritas. saying, Prsevalebit world is not the (about) which to faith, hope, as uphold, such

judge

the

much

cast

may

their

;

I

which

in

one

confine

to

in

for

stick

and

mean

can,

because

but

I shall

which

pleases,

the

old

20

he

of

from

disfigure me Archbishop Whately

agree

I

He as

same

it

31

"

drift

the

thousand

about

one

they ground

as

the

[I] select formidable[J

:

not

other

only

long

as

2, pp. 29

reader

against ?

me

imputations

me,

enough, and (,will)stain.

do

is

Part

of the

rest, it may

the

Like not

on

indeed

fulness, it

other

They

nature.

"

Untruthfulness.

of

487)

p.

)

:

out

there

for

see

the

special imputation,

charge

many stick

before

set

pages, directs upon

one,

:

Apologia,

my to

edition

1865

in these

accuser

to

And

order

Volume

the

be

^the

"

as

me

10

"

What

myself

from

this extract 41

pp.

KINGSLEY.]

MR.

MEETING

OF

in

this

of it, as

or

that

it may

;

but

mankind

jurisdictionof

particular be

difficult


APOLOGIA

88

PRO

VITA

SUA.

for the Court of Queen's Bench at Westminster to try a case took Hindoostan which in that is place ; but fairly[,] of right. Mankind has the right a questionof capacity,not

judge of

to

Truthfulness

in

[thecase

of]a Catholic,as

Protestant, of an Italian,or of doubted^ that in my hour, in God's

of

case never

a

though

even

Still

will acquitme while I live.

it be not

confident

more

mankind their

I

;

under

is greater than I

unjust

lo

in

and

their repentance for their

am

injustice

their sin.

twenty years and

For

and unreasonable(,)

I think, touchy of

rather I had be an excitement ; but I in fact than am,) belong to any other (as heaven. They are as generous, as they are

hasty and burly ;

of which

acquittal,

suspicious and

most

them

think

eventual

countrymen.

own

my

of

seasons

Enghshman, race

I of such

am

seeingthat my judges are indeed, Enghshmen the

in the I have

hour, my avenger of untruthfulness,

the world

and

will appear,

Chinese.

a

at least

more

as

I have

borne

sensitive,who

an

the

am

imputation, objectof it,

they can be, who are only the judges. I have not set 20 had have an it,first,because I never myself to remove in them saw opening to speak, and, next, because I never I have wished to appeal from the dispositionto hear. him shall I pronounce Philipdrunk to Philipsober. When to be himseK again ? If I may judge from the tone of the public press, which represents the public voice, I have I have been treated to take heart at this time. greatreason by contemporary critics in this controversy with great and I am fairness and gentleness, gratefulto them for it. as

However, the decision of the time and mode has been

taken

it has been

Catholic

so.

cause,

out

I

am

hands of my bound now

to the

; and

I

am

defence of my thankful that

to the as a duty to myself, Priesthood,to give account cumstantially delay,when I am so rudely and cir-

Catholic

myself without any I accept the charged with Untruthfulness. I shall be and best shall do I meet to it, challenge; my of

content

when

I have

done

[I confine myself then, Untruthfuhiess 2 38

;

and

80

I

so.

in these

hereby

pages, cart

to the

away,

as

charge of so

much

10 think]consider Hindoostan] Hindostan in 1865. not reprinted The matter between [ ],pp. 88-95, was


which

rubbish, the impertinences,with Accusation

examine, whether have

or "

"

anxious

state "

or

show

to

10

"

am

into

worked

credulity,"or

my

create

in him

powers

of my

"

have

"

food,"

rhetorical teach

in

gerations," exag-

style comprehension," or or

"

my a

"

exalt the magical blank astonishment," or Church," or have unconsciouslycommitted "

strikes "

mission "to teach in

root

Protestant

had

better

among an

the

at

the

"

Catholic

seas,"than

the

of

gentry

be

sent

to

all as

the

of the

savages

University,'*

Irish Catholic

"

"

tries," sophisgambled aw^ay my reason," or adopt have published sophisms piledupon sophisms,"

have

or

"

to

morbid

a

as

and

"

"

"

"

Accuser's

my

which myself to a statement look down on morality," or without hope of heaven," or South

"in

am

nonsense

eccentricities

"

utterly beyond

furthest

here

"

hunger for mind," or indulge in subtle paradoxes of

of

Pamphlet

pitch of confusion," perfection," or am

a

self-deceptionto

carried

or "

I

the

89

it necessary

think

I shall not

swarms.

KINGSLEY.

MR.

MEETING

OF

MODE

TRUE

"

or

"

in mj^ sermons culminating wonders," or have barristerial seemingly scepticalmethod," or have make almost boundless or silliness," great ability and subtle dialectician," a or perhaps have mistakes," or am lost my misquote Scripture," or am temper," or border very closelyon the Pelagian or antiscriptural," heresy.""Pp. 25. 27. 43. 45-50. 53. 54. 56. 57. 58. 61. These all are impertinences ; and the list is so long that which I am almost might given them room sorry to have there be better used. they are, or at least However, a portion of them ; and having noticed them thus much, have

or

"

"

20

a

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

30

I shall notice them

no

more.

which is to furnish the staple Coming then to the subject, of my publication,the question of my Truthfuhiess, I first which the Act of Accusation direct attention to the passage contains at p. 28 and p. 56. I shall give my reason presently, I begin 'with it. is speaking of my Sermon My accuser It must be Innocence, and he says, that it is not a Protestant, but a Romish

why

"

Then 40

at p. 56 he

to it that

continues, "Dr.

epithet.

He

Newman

on

Wisdom

rememhered sermon."

"

does not

called it in his letter to

me

and

always P. 28.

apply of the


90

APOLOGIA

7th

of

PRO

VITA

SUA. '

January, (publishedby him,)

I remarked

that, but considered

i^ a

Besides, I have now nothing to say Reflections,'in p. 20, which are I refer.

that '

'

Protestant

he

only he,

:

in

Protestant

I should

?

At

that very time he repudiate that name reason

other, he

or

If he

the forgets,

have

was

of now

world

ground

open

to me,

deliberately repeats the epithet an tion, utterlyimaginary conversa'

puts it into my mouth, I call the man Protestant.'

a a

In them

one.

sHp of the pen. to that letter. It is

'

to his

'

Protestant

a mere

which who

preached

you

preached

that

called him

sooner

a

when

Sermon

Buddhist.

and lo to scorn teachinghis disciples Protestant, under which, for some finds it convenient to take shelter. does

not, the famous

article in the

British

Critic,(the then organ of his party,)of three years of before, July 1841, which, after denouncing the name other Protestant, declared the objectof the party to be none than the unprotestantisingthe English Church." In this passage asserts accuser or implies, 1. that my the Sermon, on which he originally grounded his slander againstme in the January No. of the Magazine, was really20 '

and

'

in matter

of fact

"

"

Romish

a

Sermon

; 2. that

I

ought

in my Pamphlet to have acknowledged this fact ; 3. that I didn't. 4. That I actuallycalled it instead a Protestant Sermon. 5. That I published it,twenty at the time when years

I should

ago,

Sermon.

have

denied

By

6.

consequence, that it was Romish a "

avowed

that

"

of the

"

be

a

"

Romish

committed

the additional

Sermon. such

to

If my

reparation make

cannot

Here

that

out

I he

means

called

it

Protestant

now

two

points separately.

has

Church,

I

was

time

to

have

therefore,

guilty

I knew

to

too, in 1864, I have not

mean

for my

any be

a

30

tant Protes-

this,I submit mistake, but I

thing else. considered

Sermon.

styledit a Popish Sermon.

;

2. He

Let

me

I. I in

take

in

1844

these

Certainly,when

disown date

him

points

and 1.

does

owe

main a

denial

dishonestyof callingit

accuser as

Protestant

a

; 7. and

at the

now

two

are

have

1864

but

Sermon,

was

in that

Sermon

only,when I was in the Established dishonestyof preachingwhat

not

it

I should

the word

than

my

I was in the English Chm'ch, I did at an earlier Protestant," and that, even Accuser whether names ; but just let us see "

40


TRUE

MODE

OF

MEETING

KINGSLEY.

MR.

91

this fact is any thing at all to the purpose of his accusation. How Last January 7th I spoke to this effect : can you informs of a certain thing that Father Newman us prove "

about

the

Sermon word

:

which it

use

you

does

Vicar

"

thus

me

Clergy," by referringto a Protestant of St. Mary's ? My Accuser answers There's a quibble! why, Protestant is not the have used when at St. Mary's,and yet you would ! now Very true ; I do ; but what on earth Koman

of the

"

this matter

to

how

?

argument

my

does

this word

"

10

Protestant," which I used, tend in any degree to make word should I have used argument a quibble? What my Protestant ? Roman or twenty years ago instead of "

"

Romish

My

"

?

20

imphes, and, is to be

but

so

did

not

by

the

name

years

Church

was,

I should

nor

have

much

Sermon. if the

is

a

'

'

called The

was

the

worse

Roman "

;

denial, Romish

or

"

or Anghcan question,and

in my for it, thus informs

that Father Newman you prove thing about the Roman Clergy,by

"

Romish

was

"

:

"

can

asked

Romish

internal

an a

"

Established

Neither

word "

Protestant bit the

I been

the Sermon with

between

Media

Anglo -cat hoHc'

or

that it

argument

"

answered,

I do now, "

been

Via

Had

'

for

"

a

of the

then, substitute "

a

pleases,

something

is

doctrine

that

Anglo -cathohc

be

to

knows.

the other.

denied, and as

Well

there

Anghcan granted that

have

have

have

who

all the world

that the

what

I should

never

should

quite as

see

the

one

not

so, if he

say

that there is

now, ;

ago,

thinks, that

bered remem-

Sermon."

of denymg basis that very takes for granted that I allowed.

Romish

Protestant, but

nor

he

Romish

a

the

on

it says

is neither

but

large body

Accuser

my

and

twenty

"

that

"

always be

it must

; he may

Tractarians, as

said,and

ever

Protestant

I

I suppose, a Roman

proceeded

positionwhich

"

Protestant

a

"

means.

that

says

say

of

movement

which

manner

it is not

Protestant

It

30

no

indeed

that He

by

accuser

"

of

us

a

How

certain

referringto an Anglican of St. Mary's ? The What of the argument remains justwhere it was. cogency I gained in the argument, what has he lost,by my have but not Sermon," a Protestant an said, Anglican having ? Sermon What dust then is he throwing into our eyes ! or

Sermon Anglo-catholic

"

of the Vicar

"

"

"

40

For

instance

:

in

1844

I

lived

at

Littlemore

;

two

or


92.

APOLOGIA

miles

three

distant

PRO

from

VITA

Oxford

SUA.

and

;

Littlemore

lies in

so that of particular three,perhaps in four,distinct parishes,

it is difficult to say, whether they are in St. Mary's, in Sandford, the line in Cowley, or in Iffley, or or

houses

Oxford,

of demarcation

running

through them.

even

"

say in 1864, that live in Oxford, because I lived I

Now,

ing suppos-

ago I did not out at Littlemore, in the letters of parishof Cowley ; and if upon this there were mine produced dated Littlemore, 1844, in one of which I said that I lived,not in Cowley, but at Littlemore, in to

were

twenty

years

"

"

lo

St.

dicted Mary's parish,"how would that prove that I contrabe myseK, and that therefore after all I must supposed to have been livingin Oxford in 1844 ? The be proved by the discrepancy, that would utmost such as

would

it was,

be, that there

in the state of the fact

or

me,

There

would

be

in Oxford in the

1844,

I do not

Littlemore." habitat

in

should

be

I

not

givingthe

same

not

it

"

I did not

been

be

in

my

and

;

be

20

Mary's,

that

saying

Littlemore

for it. I should

reason

live

saying

I live in St.

Oxford, but

I

proving

I

in the Parish

Littlemore

as

so

to

as

Sermon

my

of in

;

Sermon, and not should, if asked, have called it a

have

I should

case

spot of

place or

I lived at Littlemore

Oxford, because

either was

parishes.

but

And it

In

either in

of the

should be naming the same place for the twenty j'ears ago I should have spoken of it I should have spoken Mary's,Littlemore, and to-daj^

alibi ; St. as of it

the

years

live in

1844

alibi.

an

about

saying in 1864,

ago, because of Cowley." I should

twenty

Parish "

be

confusion

some

to the hmits

confusion

no

I should

residence.

my

was as

Protestant

In

both

cases

and

that

on

Roman.

a

Roman,

was

else ;

else, then of the

Via

though

by

one

Media

is

a

now

a an

Roman

ground

I called in

1844

have

called

by

another. name

denied

30

and that

of its

have

fact,whatever

but

;

Anglican Sermon,

I should the

I should

name,

Cowley. January, 1864,

thing being somethat something

The we

doctrine

give to

it ;

natural and usual to Priest, find it more Oxford call it Protestant : I, as an Vicar, thought it more I then called it, to call it Anglican ; but, whatever exact whatever I now call it, I mean and the same and 40 one

I,

as

a

Roman

objectby

my

name,

and

therefore

not

another

object, "


TRUE

MODE

the

viz. not

the

be called

"

Economies

connect

me

double-dealing moraHsts, But, whether

2.

10

committed Wisdom been

he

no

or

Innocence

it is ; and this is the to insist. It is for this cause

his

Pamphlet, I had

though, when

20

on

me

which

by

one

by

order

to

does

he "

is

consider

Romish,"

"

;

it

leads

Protestant."

I

to

be

that I wish

made this

on

undeniable

conscious He

the !

"

have

Sermon

my

which

on

to

has

Romish

a

specially

the above

extract

him,

answer

so

thinks

his

shall notice

"

him

of

nothing

himseK

order

in

I have

but

an

them,

it,I could not pass by the attack

"

a

Mary's

Sermon, he is and

that I made

"

of

repeat, is

that I in 1864

calUng

point on

meaning by doctrine merely,

Romanist, which

made

to dwell

insist and

Romish

of

by

in

merely

not

it contains.

and

I

of St.

about

prove

can

in the behef

firm

all along,most

ado

Protestant

a

Sermon

from

Much

logicalfault

any

and

a

considers

he

as "

What

Church.

Catholic

the Vicar

Accuser means by my my actuallyone of those specialtwo, after February 1, which he thinks with the shifty casuists and the

three,or four, committed sufficient to

argument,

and

of what

it is

nay,

;

The

93

Protestant.

AngKcan or is a specimen

This "

Media

Via

KINGSLEY.

MR.

Church.

Roman

sound, whether

MEETING

OF

phenomenon fact, that "

Romish ''

but

on

"

work This

me,

that, whether

for

here Sermon

savouring of

a

behef

now

I have

in

viz. that

"

the

not

the

Romanist." severe

charges one

this extract

real it is

calKng it committed

logicalself-contradiction or not, I am very well aware I wrote it, I ought to have been elsewhere, that I was conscious a Romanist, teachingRomanism ; if he does not believe this himself, he wishes others or to think to the same comes thing ; certainly so, which I prefer to consider that he thinks so himself, but, if he hkes the other hypothesisbetter,he is welcome to it. He behoves then so was a firmly that the Sermon Romish Sermon," that he pointedlytakes it for granted, before he has adduced of proof of the matter of a syllable fact. He starts by saying that it is a fact to be bered." rememIt must be remembered that ahvays/' he says, any

that, when

"

30

"

"

"

it is not 40

Romish a

thesis

"

Protestant, but a Romish parentage is a great truth a

for

inquiry. Merely

to

Sermon," for the

p. 28.

refer his readers

Its not

memory, to

the


APOLOGIA

94

PRO

VITA

SUA.

Sermon

them his side. Hence on is,he considers,to secure It that, in his letter of January 18, he said to me, to me, that, by referring seems on pubHcly to the Sermon which my allegations are founded, I have given every one an opportunityof judging of their injustice,that is, an "

it is

^^

opportunity of seeing that

they

The

Via

of there

transparently just.

are

Media, held all along by at least a large party in the Anghcan Church, and now less than former not at any time, is too subtle for his notion

being

a

intellect.

allowable lo an Accordingly,he thinks it was figureof speech, not more, I suppose, than an bole," hyperwhen referring of the Vicar of St. Mary's to a Sermon in the Magazine,to say that it was the writingof a Roman "

"

"

and

Priest ; in

Act

an

serious

to

as

indeed

may

the

to superfluous

good

to

arguments

be necessary, of Accusation, such as his

why, they

as

of

matter

point, form,

Pamphlet, but they are who will only just one

of any

sense

the

prove a

in*tothe matter himself. Now, with respect to the so-called arguments which he in proofthat the Sermon is Komish, ventures to put forward I shall answer them, together with all his other arguments, look

in the

the

latter

this

portion of

Reply

;

here

I do

20

draw

but

of the

reader,as I have said aheady, to the phenomenon itself,which he exhibits, of an unclouded confidence that the Sermon is the writing of a virtual member of the Roman communion, and I do so because it has made own a great impression on mind, and has my attention

suggested to I say,

takes

he

that

course

I

shall

pursue

of

a

the

Sermon

Catholic

;

and

and

one

is

the

actual, of

or

impatient

Father

it.

to provo

granted that

it for

virtual

writing

are

the

me

in

my

to him.

answer

same

:

at

the and

Newman there

has

a

notion

very

the Vicar been

is the

conscious

no

30

Roman of

of St.

change

having Mary's

of mind

he beheved then he believes now, and what ; what To he beheved then. beheves now dispute this is

in him he

frivolous ;

to

distinguishbetween

present is subtlety,and is

to

his

past self and

identity writer really

This seekingopportunity to be sophistical. honest part, when that he acts a straightforward

thinks

"

says

A

CathoUc

Priest

his

ask for proof of their

informs

us

in

his

Sermon

he on

40


TRUE

KINGSLEY.

MR.

95

St.

Mary's," and he quibblerwhen I forbid of unSo singulara phenomenon in a man him to do so. doubted and I shall pursue abihty has struck me forcibly, it opens.] the train of thought which It is not he alone who entertains,and has entertained, and (of) my pression such an opinion of me writings. It is the imof large classes of men ; the impression twenty There has been a general years ago and the impressionnow. for years where I had no right to be ; feehng that I was in Protestant Romanist that I was a Uvery and service ; that I was doing the work of a hostile Church in the bosom and knew of the Enghsh Estabhshment, it, or ought to need it. There of arguing about known have no was so particularpassages in my writings,when the fact was thought it to be. patent, as men Fu'st it was certain, and I could not myself denj^^ it,that Protestant." certain I scouted the name It was again, that many of the doctrines which I professed were popularly and generallyknown as Church, as badges of the Roman of the Reformation. from the faith Next, how distinguished could I have come by them ? Evidently,I had certain and

Wisdom

preached

Innocence

that

thinks

10

MEETING

OF

MODE

I

am

at

shuffler and

the

"

"

"

20

friends

advisers

and

underground and

my certain

with

ecclesiastics

of

said

and religion, myself a Protestant it out

themselves a

Jesuit.

and

such

had

still. Others

the

when men

The

he] my

matter

:

"

of

matter

a

indignationarose

in consequence that at large, 6

even further, and fact,of which they

proof in their hands, that I was actually the opinionswhich I advocated spread, further than I, the feeling went against

this

5

went

had

as

stronger and took

now as

withal

went men reUgion. Then actually been received into leave given me to profess

world,

younger

And

I had

advocating understanding

was

to the

And

waxed

me

old

the

that

that

gave

some appear ; there was between Stonyhurst or Oscott

at Oriel. Beyond a doubt, I rooms doctrines,not by accident,but on an

further, and 30

did not

who

communication

a

wider

at the

range.

laiaveryof

conspiracy greater[,] of its being the received behef of the public craft and mtrigue,such as they fancied they and

between

present

it became

[ ],pp. 88-95,

accuser

of

tvas

course

not

7

a

all the

reprintedin

1865.

such] so dishonourable


96

APOLOGIA

beheld

with

which

to

their

indebted

been

There

[own]

CathoHc

the

PRO

been

has

for her maintenance

the very instruments in these last centuries and extension.

still,which increased largeclasses,of whom regardsthe preachersof doctruies,

circumstance

the irritation and aversion I have

were

eyes,

Church

another

was

SUA.

VITA

felt by the

speaking,as and so unpalatable;

to them

and that was, that they If they were spired ina developed them in so measured way. taken for by Roman theologians,(and this was granted,)why did they not speak out at once ? Why did lo and anxiety as to they keep the world in such suspense what to be the upshot was coming next, and what was of the whole ? Why this reticence,and haH-speaking,and plainthat the plan of operaapparent indecision ? It was tions had been carefully and that mapped out from the first, these men its accomwere plishment, cautiouslyadvancing towards so

new

as

far

as

safe at the moment

was

; that their aim

hope was to carry off a largebody with them of the graduallyto leaven young and the ignorant; that they meant and to open the gate 20 of the risinggeneration, the minds the sworn of that city,of which defenders, to they were outside of it. And who lay in ambush when in the enemy of the party to the contrary, protestations spiteof the many actual their movement there was at length an among and then another, and one went to Rome, over disciples, and the worst the worst anticipations judgments which had received their justification. formed of them been And, You wiU see, he first had said of me, when men lastly, will go, he is only bidinghis time, he is waitingthe word their

and

"

of command

arguments

I did leave the said to each This was

Rome,"

from and

and, when

Anghcan

other, the

"

Church

It is

just

ago, who took no view of what was partlythe effect of that

than

years

more

sense

going

CertainlyI obstacle 6

33

as

consider

in the

way

as

of mind

state

on.

my

you]

we

knew

for the Roman, said : I told you so." of men of masses twenty an

own

and

external

And

common-

partlythe tradition, to the case,

present time.

it is the great

20 it would

be

30

length then they at

being favourablyheard,

regards]against I told

years,

we

remains feeling,

that, in of my

after aU, after my

of former

denunciations

as

gate] gates

at


present,when I

now

a

I have

member

of

MR.

KINGSLEY.

97

to make a

great aim is considered

defence. Not only am my un-Enghsh communion, whose

most

to be the extinction

of Protestantism

of attack Church, and whose means be to are supposed unscrupulous cunning and popularly how I originally to have came deceit, but [besides,] any of Rome relations with the Church at all ? did I, or my I, in Oxford, in opinions,drop from the sky ? how came to present myself to the eyes of men gremio Universitatis, investiture of Popery ? full-blown How in that could could I have the conscience, with warnings, I dare, how with prophecies, with accusations againstme, to presevere advanced in a path which towards, which ended in, steadily ? And how the rehgion of Rome I now to be trusted, am when long ago I was trusted,and was found wanting ? It is this which is the strengthof the case of my Accuser his arguments in themselves, which ^not me against ; I shall easilycrumble into dust, but the bias of the court. It is the state of the atmosphere ; it is the vibration aU echo his (bold)assertion around(,)which will [more or less] of my dishonesty; it is that prepossessionagainst me, which takes it for granted that, when reasoning is my ments convincing it is only ingenious,and that when my stateare unanswerable, there is always something put out of sight or hidden in my sleeve ; it is that plausible, but cruel conclusion to which men are [so]apt to jump, that is imputed, something must when much be true, and that it is more hkely that one should be to blame, than that

and

10

MEETING

OF

MODE

TRUE

the

Protestant

"

20

30

should be mistaken many real foes which I have to Accuser

my

makes

in

blaming him

fight,and

these are the ; the auxiharies to whom "

his court.

break through this barrier of prejudice Well, I must againstme[,] if I can ; and I think I shall be able to do so. When first I read the Pamphlet of Accusation, I almost such a heap of misrepresendespairedof meeting effectively tation and such a vehemence of animosity. What the was good of answering first one point, and then another, and 17

his arguments in themselves,] the articlesof impeachment which from my -RTitings, and 31 court]advances something]much

has framed 24 35

misrepresentation] misrepresentations APOLOGIA

jj

he


I

the

to

whole

circle of

its abuse

point

would

forgotten,as

haK

second

the

to

got

?

What

be

the

was

;

of

use

my

soon

as

bringingout

for the refutation or views separate principles separate counts in the Indictment, when rejoinders

hundred

a

of the

would

of

this

by

their number

of

when

the first

going through answer

SUA.

VITA

PRO

APOLOGIA

98

sort

confuse

but

and

their

and

condensinginto a pamphlet of ought freely to expand ?

volumes

What

of interminable

means

itself into

to

half

dozen

a

there, except the expenditure lo

was

pages,

reader

hope was there length,matter

readable

a

which

the

torment

What

diversity?

right even

set

of that

one

series

Assailant's own my singlepassing hints," to use he with his as tip[,] had delivered finger language,which, "

of

"

"

?

against me All

those

being He

(already)a positive idea

had

matter, and with

separate charges [of his] had their force in and the same of one great imputation.

illustrations to

stamp

it with

called

interpretation. He

an

his whole

illuminate

to

form, and

a

me

liar,

a

it

quicken

to "

a

simple,

to the English pubhc a plausible 20 broad, an intelligible, a in detail charge one arraignment ; but for me, to answer and charge two two, and charge by reason by reason one, three three, and so to proceed through the by reason and repHes,each of which whole stringboth of accusations to

was

was

independent of the rest, this would be certainly as regardsany effective result. What I needed correspondingantagonist unity in my defence, and be

lost

labour a

where

that

was

commentators of

cation much

more

to

be

found

We

?

see,

in

the

of

case

an exemphfipropheciesof Scripture, I am the principle which on 30 insisting ; viz. how of the sacred powerfuleven a false interpretation on

the

key to the visions clingto the mind [ ] case),[ mainly] because (I have found it so in my own positiveand objective,in spite of the fullest they are claim upon that they reallyhave demonstration our no

text

is than

of the

none

at all ; "

how

a

certain

Apocalypse,for instance, may

"

"

belief.

The

reader

"

says,

else

What

form] force own case] the case of my own my it opens 35 they are] the view, which 36 they reallyhave] it reallyhas

can

23

18

the to

prophecy

proceed] on

34

on

us,

is 37

belief]reception


TRUE

?

mean

"

MODE

just

Dr. Newman

as

KINGSLEY.

MR.

"

I

What, then, does asks, a way reflected,and I saw

perplexity.

Yes, I said to myseK, his very does Dr. Newman What meaning ; had my 10

me

words,

not

as

his ultimate

by

which

Mind

and

direction

same

very

turned

already.

He

about

arguments,

my

point, but

1

mean

"

It

into which

that

as

is about

question

"

in the

99

"

Accuser

my ?

mean

of my

out

MEETING

OF

asks what

I

not

;

about

not

that

about

my

mean

my

pointed musings about

actions,

my

livinginteUigence,

I write, and argue, and act. its Beliefs and its Sentiments

He

asks

about he

and

;

my

shall be

not for his own sake, but for mine, for the sake ; in Religion which I profess,and of the Priesthood of and of and friends which I am included, unworthily my my foes,and of that generalpubHc which consists of neither one the other,but of well-wishers,lovers of fair play,sceptical nor interested cross-questioners, inquirers,curious lookers-on, and simple strangers,unconcerned yet not careless about

answered

"

of the

20

the issue

My what

(, "

for the sake of all these

perplexity did not I had to do, though

the

which exposure the true key to my

known

is dressed

as

up

a

I shrank

from

it would

whole

hving

in my

hour.

an

entail.

hfe ; I must

be seen what I that it may be extinguished which may to be

he shall be

last haH

both

that

gibbers instead and

man,

clothes.

not

as

False

recognized

the task

and

I must, I said, give I am show what (,)

not, and

am

answered).

I

a

the

phantom

me.

I wish

of

which

scarecrow

ideas

be

may

refuted

by argument, but by true ideas alone are they expelled. I will vanquish, not my Accuser, but my judges. his charges and criticisms on me I will indeed answer one lest any one should say that they are unanswerable, by one (^), indeed

30

but

such

of my

a

mind

history of my began, in what

shall not

work

reply.

I wiU

draw

the

be

out,

I will state

;

external

as

the

scope

far

nor

may

as

point

accident

at

the

stance sub-

be, the which

each

I

opinion suggestion had its rise,how far and how they [were] developed from combined, modified, were within, how they grew, were 5

or

pointed]points

II

did not last]had not Footnote in 1865. {^ This

20

important parts

are

Sentiments] sentiments

lasted was

done

in the

Appendix, of

preserved in the Notes. )

which

the

more


PRO

APOLOGIA

100

in collision with

were

how

myseK

for how

long a

consistentlywith and

made

I had

SUA.

each

I conducted

far, and

VITA

the

other, and were changed ; again them, and how, and how time, I thought I could hold them ecclesiastical engagements which towards

the

with

positionwhich

show, what is the very truth, I held, and have held for so many

I filled. I must

^that the

"

"

doctrines have

years,

which

been

taught

tant (speakinghumanly) partlyby the suggestionsof Protesfriends,partlyby the teaching of books, and partly

me

the

by

of my

action

mind

own

for that

phenomenon

which

that

should

have

left

Church

from

I

house

"

for

a

wonderful

dread

;

which

has flourished

so

"

classes and

"

them

the had

I

What an

of sophistries

proposed

hour, I determined

many

I have

difficulties in

many

ReUgion

a

so

contrary

after subdue aid

so

many

tions, revolumany the reason and

of

fraud

(in the

the schools.

20

the

myself in

to

with

away

ages, among

and the

father's

my

Hfe, in such

not

at the end

on

and

lo

wonderful,

so

if forsooth

as

varieties of social of men,

I shall account

I turned

once

!

civil,could heart, without

the

many

seems

kindred

my

to

conditions

and process)

thus

which

pohticaland overcome

and

: so

through so

such

nations, amid

to

of half

course

of ten

days. However, am fulfilling design. How my

I to say all that has to be said in then as to the materials of my And

reasonable

a

?

compass ; I have

narrative

no

written notes to consult, no autobiographical explanations treatises or of tracts which at the time gave of particular of definite transactions or offence, hardly any minutes

conversations, and of the

I acted.

for the

taken

at

which

volumes ways

a

serve

me,

which

from

time

of letters from

fear, time

to

friends with

drafts

of my to them, but they answers part unsorted, and, tiU this process has

most

place,they are

available

under

I

memoranda,

contemporary

abundance

an

copies or

some are

I have

few motives

feelingsor

I

too

even

moment

for my

have were

and

numerous

published,they I

well

up

in

various

Then,

purpose.

them

as

would ;

in

but

to be to

the

many

though

great pains in their composition, I have thought littleabout them, when they were at lengthout of my hands,

I took

5

held filled]

39

at

length]once

30


TRUE

MODE

Under

these

as

whole

a

or 10

for which

some

verify,

correct,

or

of my

and

down

it ;

and

the

country

letters been

Catholic

doctrine, I

to

moreover

destroyed.

simply personaland

be

to

mean

nothing

historical

doing

am

:

no

far

as

ultimatelydetermined

to be for

or againstme. contrariety of readers, as to the necessity, or judgment among my or value, o r good taste, or religious appositeness, prudence(,)

Of

of my

all

will be

there

course

of the of

enough

room

I shall introduce.

details which

others, in which

speak

to

for what

out

I

bound

am

accused

be

on

gone

within

my

duty I know

face to

my a

Maker.

liar and

faith or my I have done

if I prove such incidental

this, as

knave

a

to

annoyances

(Here ends Part

II

of the 1865

if I

name,

hope as

to are

1864

Hke

not

should

nor

nothing to I

the intercourse

say

:

my

old,

my

I do

But

and

It is early years. shallow or flippant every of knowing my most me

from

me

pleasant to be giving to disputant the advantage over privatethoughts,I might even and

lights

own

my

It is not at all pleasant to be criticized for being so.

be egotistical ; nor pleasantto reveal to high and low, young

has

myself

follow

to

not

and

I may

heart.

own

my

to

me

It is not

to

me

for

laying stress on httle things,of being beside the mark, going into impertinent or ridiculous details,of sounding own praise,of giving scandal ; but this is a case above

and

30

enough up complete

set

to

clear memory, of some friend.

a

explainingmyself,and my opinionsand actions. I am able, simply to state facts,whether as

than

wish,

or

expounding

not

am

they are

20

I purpose

it.

abundance, miless they have

in

own

Moreover, I

I

I write

as

witnesses

are

more

it will contain, I trust, far will answer so

mistake, and

certain,for which I have not written memorial, or the corroboration

There

I

but

first essay,

a

substantial

or

the purpose down in it

been

sketch will of course be my for the first time contemplatemy course

now

; it is

serious

no

has

them

circumstances

I

incomplete.

101

proof sheets. (last)

their

I revised

when

KINGSLEY.

MR.

part, the last time I read

for the most

and,

MEETING

OF

do, I

and

the

called

doing

to

such must

involved

edition.)

I be

were

deserve

between be

to

an

not

my

suffer it. insult ; for

care

in the process.

Prefaceof the


PART

HISTORY

[Published

OF

as

MY

a

Pamphlet,

III.

RELIGIOUS

Thursday,

OPINIONS.

May

5,

1864]


III.

PART

HISTORY

OF

RELIGIOUS

MY

(TO

OPINIONS

how easilybe conceived may the write following history of It

from

shrink

the

keep ringing end, they care

The

task.

in

great

but

"

; my less for disclosures.

but

;

I

Secretum

not

mihi,"

towards

is it the

Nor

to

me

must

meum

draw

men

as

1833).

YEAR

trial it is to

a

myself

words,

ears

THE

their

least

part first trial,to anticipate that [my friends may], upon consider friends what I have written, reading (my may) in it irrelevant much to help ; yet I cannot my purpose I wish whole, it will effect what as a thinking that, viewed of my

10

do.

it to

I

brought

was

reading

the

tillI

from

up

Bible

;

fifteen.

was

Of

Catechism. of my I was After grown

[as I had] of my I

(which such

had) had

as

20

of these

Out

a

bearing [In

in

the

once

on

the

on

paper

to

in

Part 10 15 28

in my

III] Chapter it to do] such] my 1.

"

I used

to

was

child

a

with

and

boy(, "

select

them,

nence promi-

recording). of

Vacation

among

a

sufficient worth

them

Long

1823,)I

in

I

of

have

1820,

or

school

my

for

memory

] (l.) "I

wish

rehgious subjects,

1820, and

two,

which

and

also

are

have

convictions.

Long Vacation of following notices "

the

which

the

prominent recording:

I

recollections

such

paper

mind

my

definite later

on

feelings on

consider

additions

most my

put that

time

(,written

I had

and

then

me

with

transcribed at

the

at

make

to

I

up,

great deUght in tions rehgious convic(a)perfectknowledge

take

to

formed

no

course

thoughts

remained

child

a

I had

but

days

to

sufficiently

were

to

consider

wish

the

me

used

either referred, written in October, 1823, the worth

them

Tales

Arabian

I propose

to

myself my]

16

wish

This

in

commenced E

3

giving

it to

the

public

the a

new

paragraph

in

1865

*


OF

HISTORY

106 true

were

:

RELIGIOUS

MY

imaginationran

my

and

magicalpowers,

OPINIONS

unknown

on

influences,on

thought hfe might be

I

talismans

I an Angel,and all this world a deception, a dream, or my fellow-angels by a playful device concealingthemselves of a material with the semblance from me, and deceiving me world." "

Again, Reading in the Spring of 1816 a sentence from the Saints of Time,' entitled [Dr. Watts's] Remnants that there is nothing unknown to the world,' to the effect, to distinguish in their figure countenance them,' "c. "c., lo or lived in the world, as I supposed he spoke of Angels who it were disguised." (2.)The other remark is this : "I was very superstitious, '

'

'

and I

for

time

some

previous

fifteen] used

was

Of

I

course

external

have

must

other

or

source

conjecturewhence ; and the subject of to me on knew

by he

their

ladies

was

day,

and

will bear

how

witness

to think

heard

of late years

free the

masters

too

spoke Enghsh very family in the village, nothing ; but I knew ; but

Catholic

two

emigre Priest,

an

French

as

CathoHc

a

used

I have

name.

was

butt,

a

of

spoken I only 20

ever

rehgion,which

master

some

sort

no

had

one

boys in the school carefuUy kept from knowing this, or made simply no impression on our or

make

can

the CathoHc

that

we

I

but

no certainly

made

simply

was

old maiden

one

going

got this practicefrom ;

French

The

name.

in commonly were imperfectly. There but

[when

myself on

cross

the dark."

into

but

"

conversion

to

my constantlyto

"

that there either

we

were were

the

knowledge of it minds. My brother

school

was

from

CathoHc

30

ideas. I had

been

once

all that I bore and

a

When

from

away

and preacher(,) I of my

at

was

a

it

to hear was

the

days, and

censer.

lookingover

was

I found

Latin a

some

boy swinging a

Littlemore, I

school

Chapel, with my pieceof music ; recollection of a pulpit

Street

Warwick

into

father,who, I beHeve, wanted

among

verse-book ; and in the first page of device which almost took my breath away 8, 14, 15 These

are

the Author's

[]

27

them

old books copyfirst my

there it[,] with

was

surprise.

but their name] about

them


the book

I have

*'

hand, Verse "

"

to it

attached.

I

this time

At

11th, 1811, Between

first Verses. the

drawn

figureof

a

sohd

indeed be meant may make out to be any thing

is,what

I cannot

beads

of

set

a

boy school-

in my

February

my

I have

necklace, but what

a

else than

10

follow

next

justbeen showing

have

in the first page,

Newman,

"

Book

upright,and

cross

for

"

107

1833.) and

now,

H.

then

;

and

me

written

John "

Book

Verse

before

I have

it to others.

YEAR

THE

(TO

suspended, with not was quite

I suppose I got the idea from some Miss Porter's ; or from some or

httle

a

ten

cross

years

old.

Mrs. Radcliffe's

romance,

religiouspicture; but the thousand objects which should so have fixed these in particular meet a boy's eyes, themselves in my mind, that I made them thus practically I there was certain am own. nothing in the churches my the

strange thing is,how, among

I

attended,

books

read,

I

suggest them.

to

(Anglican)churches

that

decorated

not

were

books

prayer

in those

days

as

and

prayer

I believe

they

now.

are

I

When

20

the

or

be recollected

It must

Old

fourteen, I read

was

Testament,

objectionswhich of Hume's

some

found

and

contained

were

Essays

;

and

father

against the thinking of the

Paine 's Tracts

pleasure

ui

Also, I read

in them.

perhaps

that

understand

on

Miracles.

but

perhaps my French brag. Also, I recollect copying out some perhaps Voltaire's,against the immortality of the verses, How dreadful, soul, and saying to myseK something fike but how plausible! of 1816,) a great When I was fifteen,(in the autumn ences I fell under the influchange of thought took place in me. So

it

at least I gave

was

to

;

a

"

"

30

of

a

Creed, and

definite

received

impressions of dogma, which, through

into God's

my

intellect have

mercy,

beyond the of the excellent man, and sermons conversations long dead, College,Oxford,) (the Rev. Walter Mayers, of Pembroke who of this beginning of divine the human means was been

never

faith in me, my

effaced

or

I 10

read[,]

was

the

Above

the effect of the books

was

hands, all of the

books

obscured.

a

school

work

idea] these ideas

of Calvin.

of Romaine's

26

and

which One

he

put

of the

into

first

; I neither recollect

against]in

denial

of


HISTORY

108

the

title

nor

I do

course

have

the

RELIGIOUS

contents, except include

not

from

come

MY

OF

a

source,

doctrine, which

one

those

among

divine

OPINIONS

of

which

I believe to doctrine of final

viz. the

I received it at once, and beUeved that the perseverance. inward conversion of which I was conscious, (and of which I still am certain than that I have hands and feet,) more would

last into

the

life,and

next

that

I

was

elected

to

eternal

that this beUef glory. I have no consciousness had any tendency whatever to lead me to be careless about I retained it till the age of twenty-one, lo pleasingGod. when it graduallyfaded away that it had ; but I beheve influence on some opinions,in the direction of those my I have childish imaginations which already mentioned, viz. in isolating from the objectswhich surrounded me me, in confirmingme in my mistrust of the reahty of material phenomena, and making me rest in the thought of two and two only supreme and luminouslyseK-evident beings, myself and my Creator ; ^for while I considered myself predestinedto salvation,I thought others simply passed I only thought of 20 over, not predestinedto eternal death. the mercy to myself. The detestable doctrine last mentioned is simply denied and abjured, unless my memory strangelydeceives me, by the writer who made a deeper impressionon my mind than any other, and to whom (humanly speaking)I almost "

owe

my

admired

soul, Thomas "

Scott

of

Aston

Sandford.

I

so

and

an that, when I was dehghted in his writings, undergraduate,I thought of making a visit to his Parsonage, in order to see a man I hardly I so deeply revered. whom think I could have given up the idea of this expedition, so of his even aftei:I had taken my degree ; for the news death in 1821 came as a me disappointment as well upon I hung upon wards the lipsof Daniel Wilson, aftera sorrow. as at St. John's Bishop of Calcutta,as in two sermons Chapel he gave the historyof Scott's life and death. I had been possessedof his ("Force of Truth" and) Essays from graduate. a boy ; his Commentary I bought when I was an under-

What, 17

I suppose,

supreme] absolute

dwell upon

will strike any 19

others,as fancyingthem

I

reader

of Scott's

thought others]my

mind

history did not


THE

(TO

YEAR

109

1833.)

and and writings,is his bold unworldliness vigorous truth wherever it He followed independence of mind. led him, beginning with Unitarianism, and ending in a zealous faith in the Holy Trinity. It was he who first

religion.With

mind Truth that fundamental my the assistance of Scott's Essays, and

admirable

of Jones

work

in

of

10

of

Nayland, of the

Scripturetexts (I think) of my

own

and

later I drew

few months

a

each

of

I have

of

in

planted deep

I made

a

up

Athanasian

collection

a

doctrine, with I

them, before

upon

the

of

verse

proof

the

remarks sixteen

was

still. I also admired

his unworldliness, what

Besides

in Scott

opposition to Antinomianism, and of his writings. They minutely practicalcharacter his resolute

was

him

;

series of texts in support Creed. These papers

to be

true

a

Englishman,and

I

deeplyfelt

the show

his influence

;

I considered for years I used almost as proverbs what to be the scope and issue of his doctrine, Holiness before Growth peace," and [is]the only evidence of life." and

"

"

Calvinists

20

and

the

man,

that

the

on

the

in this that

is

the

elect

parallelor

doctrine very

and

and justification,

Catholics

30

them,

the converted

by of

is much

Catholic

I understand

that

sharp separation between

a

there

;

to the

cognate as

make

world

to say, ; but they go on from Catholicism, differently "

the unconverted

can

conscious

are justified

that

other

be discriminated of their state

the regenerate cannot and hand shade soften

fall away. the awful

antagonism between good and evil,which is one of their dogmas, by holding that there are different degrees of that there is a great difference in point of justification, sin and sin, that there is the possibility gravity between and the danger of falling and that there is no certain away, knowledge given to any one that he is simply in a state of less that he is to persevere grace, and much of the Calvinistic tenets the only one which

end

took

root

"

in

mind

and

divine wrath, of the justified and the unjustified. The that the regenerate and the justified and were one

the

fact

of heaven

hell,divine

:

my

was

and

to the

favour

notion the

same, 5

and

that

the

regenerate, as

Truth] truth or parallel cognate]cognate

21-22

18 or

such, had

the

before]rather than

parallel

gift


HISTORY

110

OF

RELIGIOUS

MY

of perseverance, remained have said already.

This

this time

From

by

mind

my

I have

[to] the doctrine Lord

our

eternal

Himself,

"

years,

warfare

between

given

Serious

as

happiness ; though

a

sense

I have

the

a

deeply opposite

very

Call." delivered

as

I hold

as

tried

and

assent

punishment,

true

I

as

also

was

full inward

a

of eternal in

many

of darkness by a work of

powers

Law's (toCalvinism),

character belief

the

not

me

of the

doctrine

CathoHc

main

city of God and impressed upon

with

OPINIONS

in

that

various

less terrible to the reason. other works, which to two produced of 1816, when in the same autumn me

of

ways

lo

that truth

to make

I

Now

come

impression on fifteen

old, each

years

each, and

to

contrary

deep

a

I

was

planting in

intellectual inconsistencywhich disabled an I read of years. Joseph Milner's long course and enamoured of short of Church was nothing History, from St. Augustine(,St. Ambrose,) and the long extracts seeds of

the

me me

for

the

other

a

Fathers

which

religionof the

the

being taneously with

Milner

I found

primitiveChristians

I read

in

St. John.

and

of this doctrine from

Hence

up

to the year

and

reason

my

thought

remained

the

on

as

simul-

1843

judgment as

a

upon

me

; it had

"

some

date

; but

the

of false conscience.

sort

mind, which men

obliterated

been

earlier

an

so

have

many

to make

myself ; leading with two ideas, so inconsistent driving others to beat out the one idea or

besides

felt

compromise

a

each

between

the

other, "

other

from

and ending in my own minds, case, after many years of intellectual unrest, in the gradual decay and extinction I do not say in its violent death, for why of them, of one it if I murdered I not have murdered it sooner, should

their

"

"

at all ?

obliged to mention, though I do reluctance, another deep imagination,which of me, of 1816, took possession the autumn I

20

Prophecies,

most

at

that conflict of

came

Newton

them

but

:

that firmly convinced St. Paul, Daniel, predicted by stained by the effects My imaginationwas

became consequence Pope was the Antichrist

and

the

I read

there.

it with

am

oppositecharacter] character

5 very 7 given]held

with

very

at "

this

there

great time,

can

opposite 11

reason] intellect

be

30


THE

(TO mistake

YEAR

about

the fact

I should

lead

1833.)

Ill

the will of ;[ ] viz. that it was singlelife. This anticipation, which has held its ground almost continuouslyever since, with the break and of a month month a now then, up to break at all, 1829, and, after that date, without any less connected[,] in my was more or mind[,] with the that my callingin life would requiresuch a sacrifice notion(,) as celibacy involved ; as, for instance, missionary work the heathen, to which I had a great drawing for among It also strengthenedmy some feelingof separation years. from the visible world, of which I have spoken above. no

God

that

"

a

"

"

10

In 1822

I

which

I

came

had

under

very

hitherto

different influences

been

subjected. At

from

those

that

time, then, afterwards Archbishop of Whately, as he was in Oxford, which he remained Dublin, for the few months he was He leaving for good, showed great kindness to me. it in 1825, when he became renewed Principal of Alban his Vice-Principaland Tutor. Of Dr. Hall, making me Whately I will speak presently,for from 1822 to 1825 I saw of Oriel,Dr. Hawkins, at that of the present Provost most I took orders in 1824 time Vicar of St. Mary's ; and, when tions, at Oxford, then, during the Long Vacaand had a curacy I can I was especiallythrown into his company. say have never ceased with a full heart that I love him, and otherwise to love him ; and I thus preface what might of the many sqund rude, that in the course years in which we were togetherafterwards, he provoked me very much from time to time, though I am perfectlycertain that I have such provoked him a great deal more. Moreover, in me to

Mr.

20

30

was unbecoming, both because he was in the first years College,and because(,)

provocation Head

of my

1 knew b

him, he had

t"be

in many

the first who

was

taught me

in my statements. oi limitingand clearing my

cautious

\

service

great

of

and

to

He sense

weigh led in

me

words, and

my to

that

discussion

1

of

mode

and

in

between cognate ideas, distinguishing obviating mistakes by anticipation,which to my

catroversy, and

of

ways

mind.

my

He

been

the that

was] would

be

22

at] in


HISTORY

112

surprisehas to

to

me, of most

Sermons

that

engaged

upon.

Then "

doctrine,he

quarters friendly He

Rome. he

used

is

a

man

snub

to

me

kind

was

enough to do, the first [ \ compositions which I was \

other

of great additions means elsewhere, he gave me the wards ApostolicalPreaching," by Sumner, afterI have

As

belief.

Treatise

he

I wrote, and

to

as

polemics of

himself, and

mind

reading,as

severely,on

to my

of the

exact

in

considered, even

since

been

savour

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

on

the

was

noticed

Archbishop of Canterbury, from which I learned to remaining Calvinism, and to receive the give up my other ways doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration. In many and of use to me, too he was on subjectssemi-religious

lo

semi-scholastic. It

Hawkins

Dr.

was

that, before many made

years and books

the

upon

brought to

the

belief

same

also led

White, who

inspirationthan

of

who

too

taught

the

by

the conversation

to have

me

usual

were

freer views Church

in the

be

an

attack

Scripture.I

of

canon

anticipate

to

me

.there would

over

were

was

of Mr. Blanco on

of

the subject England at 20

the time. There Dr. any

is

that

I gained from principle,which bearing upon Catholicism,than directly

other

one

Hawkins,

more

I have

mentioned I

;

and

is the

that

doctrine

of

Undergraduate, I heard him en preach in the UniversityPulpit his celebrated sermon recollect how the subject,and long it appeared to me, though he was at that time a very strikingpreacher ; but, I read it and studied it as his gift, it made when mosi; a He does not go one serious impression upon me. step,30 I think, beyond the high Anglican doctrine, nay he doC;. it ; but he does his work not reach thoroughly,and his view was (inhim) original[with him], and his subjectw"as selfHe lays down novel one at the time. a proposition, a When

Tradition.

was

an

,

evident the

to

soon

intended

never

and

as

structure

that, if we the

stated,to those who

as

of

Scripture,viz. to

would

formularies

that

teach

doctrine, but learn doctrine,we

of the

Church

;

at all examinei

have

sacred

the

only must

for

to

have

instance

text

vas

'it,

prove

recoi/ise

to

jihe I

10

learned]was

led


and

Catechism,

learning inquirermust in its

true

which

on

10

largefield

though

I did not

It is with

the

about

who,

at

so

the

impatient on It

Butler's

20

it was

the

;

to me,

when

tribute

to

the

of Oriel ; doctrine of

Fellow the

me

I recollect

:

walk, I think,

a

being somewhat

the time. of

which

in their

era

that

suppose,

study

an

of time

a

of

course

date, I

this

Analogy

as

many,

meadow

subjectat

about

at

was

principle belonged to its

subscription-list,

James, then

1823, taught

year

Church

Christ

here

I pay

Wilham

ApostolicalSuccession, in the round

its

held it too.

of the

once.

that

pleasure

of the Rev.

memory

from

name

my do

Whately

I set up. matter a

it became

;

withdraw

Dr.

strike at the root

to

Society was

Association

should

thought.

of

was

Bible

the

Oxford I

of Christianity,the by Scripture. This view, most fruitful in its consequences, opened

verifythem

of its effects

One

considers, that, after

He

doctrines

the

outline,most

a

me

upon

113

1833.)

Creeds.

the

to

them

from

YEAR

THE

(TO

I read

has

been

Bishop to

so

rehgiousopinions. Its

and of a visible Church, the oracle of truth and pattern of sanctity,of the duties of external religion, teristics characof Revelation, are of the historical character of this great work which strike the reader at once ; what I most for myself,if I may attempt to determine gained from it,it lay in two points,which I shaU have inculcation a

of underlyingprinciples

First, the works 30

very

of God

is of less

conclusion viz. the

At

matter

necessary

and

was

16 Butler

is

between that the

the separate system which

nected economically or sacramentallycon-

momentous

more

the

between Butler's

analogy

an

system (^),and of this inclined as a boy, theory,to which I was unreahty of material phenomena, is an ultimate the

resolution.

me,

of

idea

sequel; they are the teaching. my

great portion of

a

leads to the conclusion

importance

with

I

in the

opportunity of dwelling on

an

so

this time

I did

itself and obvious

doctrine

at least under

in

its

not

make

the

phenomena,

distinction

which

is

so

discussingthe subject.Secondly,

ProbabiHty is the guide of life,led teachingto which a few years later the question of the logical of cogency

that

the

introduced,to on] of

beginshis work with

Footnote a

in 1865.

that (^ It is significant

quotation from Origen."


OF

HISTORY

114

Faith,

I have

which

on

those

I trace

MY

RELIGIOUS

written

so

of my principles led to a charge against me both scepticism. And to Dr. Whately. I now as

OPINIONS

much.

Thus

to Butler

teaching,which

two

him

owe

was

of

man

a

and

of

great deal.

a

and heart. warm generous loyal to his friends, and to use the particularly I swans." While phrase, all his geese were He

have

of fancifulness

He

was

common

"

and

awkward

still

was

1822, he took me by the hand, and acted (towardsme) the part [to me] of a gentleand encourHe, emphatically, aging instructor. opened my mind, and

taught

timid

think

to

me

first noticed

in

him

by

and

to

use

my

After

reason.

lo

being

in 1822, I became very intimate I was his Vice -Principal at Alban

with

in 1825, when Hall. I became I gave of my Tutor up that office in 1826, when He had College,and his hold upon me graduallyrelaxed. him

his work

done me

to

that

Not but

towards

with

see

mj

I had

not

I influenced

rather

than

with

on

concurred too

line.

as

he had

with and

how

in the London

feet.

others

still,

co-operated20

them.

with

different from

taught

own

my

from

they me,

I recollect

Article of mine

an

when

to walk

deal to learn

well

as

was

one

nearlyso, and

good

a

them

mind

or

eyes

merely

Whately, his remain long was

me

own

As mine

Dr.

to

for

us

to

dissatisfied he

Review, which

good-humouredly, only called Platonic. When I was divergingfrom him (inopinion)(which he did I thought of dedicatingmy first book to him, in not like), words to the effect that he had not only taught me to think, but to think for myself. He left Oxford in 1831 ; White,

Blanco

after

that,

twice, "

far

as

in

(in1834),once he

as

I

recollect,I

can

never

he visited the

^when

left,I have

a

room

always felt

University; once (in 1838). From a

he made

but

30

in the street the

time

real affection for what

; for thenceforward

call his memory

him

saw

himseK

that

I must

dead

indeed given me the practically up from time that he became Archbishop in 1831 ; but in 1834 a us, which, though correspondencetook place between in the most conducted friendlylanguage on both sides, acted as the expressionof differences of opinionwhich was

to

me.

(He

34

had

thenceforward],at least from the

year

1834,


THE

(TO

YEAR

1833.)

115

final close to

told me that our intercourse.)My reason impossible [that] we could have got on together longer (,had he stayed in Oxford) ; yet I loved him too

a

it

was

much

bid

to

him

farewell

without

After

pain.

few

a

years

had

passed, I began to believe that his influence on me in a higher respect than intellectual advance, (I will not say through his fault,)had not been satisfactory.I believe that he has inserted sharp thingsin his later works about

They

me.

thought

10

much

have

in the

What

never

it necessary

he did

body most

this

seek

I have

pain

not

me

so

reading. for

first (,) to teach Erastian

in my and way, would out what

come

to

me

in

the

me

of

point

religiousopinion,was (,) stantive Church, as a sub-

existence

of the

corporation; next to fix polity,which

or

in

of Church

views

prominent point, and,

features far

me

were

of the Tractarian

those

anti-

of the

one

On

movement.

I

know, on this point alone, he Hurrell and Froude intimately sympathized, though Froude's of a later development of opinion here was date.

20

much "

as

In the year 1826, in the course work about then me a

to

Letters

on

that it would

30

as

the

Church

make

my

by blood

an

of

walk

a

(,)he

just pubhshed, Episcopalian." He

boil.

It

said

a certainly

was

said

called most

friends told cornmon powerful composition. One of our but went that, after reading it,he could not keep still, me, his room. It was ascribed at on walking up and down to Whately ; I gave once eager expressionto the contrary opinion ; but I found the belief of Oxford in the affirmative to be too strong for me ; rightlyor wrongly I yielded to the general voice ; and I have never heard, then or since, of any disclaimer of authorshipon the part of Dr. Whately. main The positionsof this able essay are these ; first and State should be independent of each other : that Church he speaks of the duty of protesting against the profanation of Christ's kingdom, by that double usurpation^ in temporals, of the State in the interference of the Church spirituals," p. 191 ; and, secondly,that the Church may justly and by rightretain its property, though separated "

"

from 40

the

State.

they ought may

not

"

The

to be the

justly retain

clergy,"he hired their

says

servants revenues

p.

133,

"

of the Civil ;

and

the

though trate, MagisState,


HISTORY

116

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

though it has no rightof interference in spiritual concerns, not only is justlyentitled to support from the ministers of and from all other Christians,but would, under religion, the system I am more recommending, obtain it much he may effectually."The author of this work, whoever be, argues out both these pointswith great force and ingenuity, and with a thorough-goingvehemence, which perhaps we may

refer

to

the

circumstance, that

he

wrote,

in

not

proprid persona,

for every (and as thereby answerable that he advanced,)but in the professedcharacter lo sentiment of a Scotch Episcopalian. His work had a gradual,but a deep effect on my mind. I am of any other religious not aware opinion which I owe to Dr. Whately. For his specialtheological tenets I had no sympathy. In the next year, 1827, he told me he considered that I was Arianizing. The case was this : though at that time I had not read Bishop Bull's Defensio the Fathers, I was nor just then very strong for that ante-Nicene view of the Trinitarian doctrine,which some writers, both Catholic and non-Catholic,have accused of 20 wearing a sort of Arian exterior. This is the meaning of to accuse Remains, in which he seems passage in Froude's of speaking against the Athanasian Creed. I had contrasted the two aspects of the Trinitarian doctrine,which

a me

respectivelypresented by My criticisms were

are

the

the Nicene. the This

verses

Creed

Creed

effect that

and

some

of

scientific. unnecessarily disdain for antiquitywhich

were

specimen of a certain for several years. It showed growing on me now itself in some flippantlanguage against the Fathers in the 30 I knew little EncyclopaediaMetropoHtana, about whom at the time, except what I had learnt as a boy from Joseph In writing on Milner. the ScriptureMiracles in 1825-6, I had read Middleton the Miracles of the earlyChurch, on and had imbibed a portion of his spirit. The truth is,I was lence beginningto preferintellectual excelto moral; I was driftingin the direction of (the) liberalism (ofthe day i). I was from my rudely awakened had

28

is

of the former

Athanasian

to the

a

been

antiquity]Antiquity (^ Vide Note A, Liberalism,at the

Footnote in 1865.

end

of the volume.

)


THE

(TO at the

dream

end

YEAR

of 1827

by

117

1833.) great blows

two

ilbiess and

"

bereavement. the formal break between beginningof 1829, came Whately and me ; (theaffair of)Mr. Peel's [attempted]

In the Dr.

re-election I had

Claims

Catholic

the

in 1828

Petition

ParUa-

tion. Convoca-

brought into

was

1827

or

to

suggested to me by the theory of the Letters of an Episcopalian. Also I disUked the bigoted two bottle orthodox," as they were invidiously called. (Accordingly)I took part against Mr. Peel, on at all an ecclesiastical or a political a simple academical, not I considered ground ; and this I professed at the time. the Universityby surprise,that that Mr. Peel had taken I did

10

I think

minority, when

in the

againstthe

ment

of it.

the occasion

was

voted

the views

mainly on

so

"

he had and

rightto

no

caU

ourselves

to expose

to turn

us upon to the

round

sudden,

a

on

of

imputation

time-serving,

a great University ought not to be buUied even of Wellington. Also by this time I was great Duke under the influence of Keble and Froude ; who, in addition

and

by

20

that

a

to

the

of

policy as

Whately a

I have

reasons

by

of which

revenge, As head

to

of

of all

men

Duke's

the

change

liberaHsm.

considerably annoyed

was

humourous

beforehand.

he had

at

had

house, he

a

asked

parties; he

he

and

me,

due

given me

took notice

pitality of hos-

duties

set of the

a

least

fond most dinner, and men between of the party ; placed me of port ; he made one me if Provost This and Principal That, and then asked me I was proud of my friends. However, he had a serious clearlythan I could do, meaning in his act ; he saw, more

intellectual

30

given, disliked

dictated

that I Dr. on

was separatingfrom Whately attributed

part

my

think

that

since has friends

in Oxford

men

to

it

be

was

sought

it me.

year 15

to the

1829,

in the

he] his friends

mode course

friends for

own

leaving his

head

the

indulgentfriends than feelingas

his my

of

deserved.

been, that

who

to

party myseK.

a

Never

I who

I do

kinder

or

had, but I expressedmy I gained them, in this in which

I have of

a

27

the] this

copy

of

all. wish not

and

sought friends,but had

man

a

feelingthen

habitual

My not

was

and

good

clientela to

verses.

34

more own

very

Speaking

of

it]this charge


OF

HISTORY

118

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

"

blessings,I said, Blessingsof friends,which to my door, unasked, unhoped, have come." They have come, to my great joy,they went to they have gone ; they came Dr. Whately's great grief. He who gave, took away. my impressionabout me, however, admits of this explanation: During the .firstyears of my residence at Oriel,though there. not (quite)at home proud of my College,I was I was much and used take I often to alone, daily very my walk meeting Dr. Copleston, by myself. I recollect once then Provost, with one of the Fellows. He turned round, lo and with the kind courteousness which sat so well on him, made and said, Nunquam minus me a bow solus, quam solus." At that time indeed cum (from 1823) I had the intimacy of my dear and true friend Dr. Pusey, and could my

"

"

not

fail to

cause

of

admire

and

soul

a

revere

full of

religion,so

devoted

so

good works,

to

the

faithful in his

so

affections ; but he left residence when I was gettingto know him well. As to Dr. Whately himself, he was too much

; and

that

At and two

to

no

I

I

year

was

had

preached

been

had

two

persons

alive, beneficed could

who

From

knew

me

clergymen, no

tell better than this time

my

any

one

tongue

I

was

as

Next

degree.

to

like

me

and, if I

longer my I

or

so may out of it till 1841

;

20

to be

Sermon.

best at that time

else what was,

one

began

for the B.A. It

my 1826.

College,

written

University

Examiners

(In 1828 I became Vicar of St. Mary's.) the feeling of spring weather after winter shell ; I remained out of my speak,I came The

in

of my

Tutors

well received.

first

my

of the Public

one

of the

with

ease

my

did I open

things changed

position; besides, I

this gave me Essays which

known.

one

being at

at this time

familiarly.But

I became

time

of my

in Oxford

one

fully and

heart

allow

superior to

my

him

was

it were,

friends. in those

.

still30

are

They years.

loosened, and

spoke spontaneously and without effort. (One of the two,)A sln'ewd man, [who knew me at this time,]said (of I have he is been told),"Here is a man who, when me, silent,will never begin to speak ; and when he once begins to speak, will never stop." It was at this time that I began I

35

A

36

a

shrewd man

man

who]

a

Mr. Rickards 1864, 1865'] fellow who

edition

subsequentto

1875


(TO to have years.

gained and

intimate

upon

perhaps which

party(,)of called 10

around

I

the

me

of that

a

of

course

in

thus

And

myself.

conscious

not

was

the first elements

discern

we

two

Froude.

Hurrell saw

for

particular of our probationer deacon) (afterwards ArchWhately then, an signsof an incipient

I(saac) Wilberforce

Richard

and

119

1833.)

with

affectionate

Fellows, Robert man,

YEAR

steadilyincreased pupils, and was my

influence,which I

acute

THE

afterwards

movement

Tractarian.

primary author of it,however, as is usual of sight. Having out was motive-powers, great versity, carried off as a mere boy the highesthonours of the UniThe

and

true

with

turned

he had

steps, and

his

of John him

with

Keble

was

20

the

I

a

this very letter in my

day

done

honour into 30

I say to of all the Fellows.

the

1 had

when

!

another an

and time

account

hinaseK

on

and

what

he had

whom

my

justthen to

Keble

I

quite sinking

of

When

tion, admira-

one

day

I

earliest friend

did

of my occasion

of Arts

been,

which

name

than

rather

how

Keble, and had

of the

unworthy first

the

dear

took

it till Keble

desirous

had

passed

" I had to years. receive the congratulations

he cry out, did I look at him !

Master

great

to my

to

and

reverence

awe

a

"

I bore

eagerness

business

unaffected

time

with

been

with

what

I heard

how some

Street

with

at the

Oxford.

to

up

came

mentioned, with "

had

His

spoken of, with I

forty-two years, forty! I have latelyhad

abashed

so

I seemed

that

me,

walking in High Keble

felt

then

ground."

heard

of

him,

Tower,"

and

hand,

room

a

fellowshipat

I write

Undergraduate

exclusivelymy to the

hasten

my

changes which

on

hands, which I sent (Wilham) Bowden,

friend, John almost

the

after

memory

my two

in

was a

hands the Tower, to shake How is that hour fixed in

Fellows.

and

I

election to

of my

for into

sent

was

Provost

that

first time

The

?

occasion

on

Oriel,when with

country. Need

in the

pastoralwork

holier satisfaction in I say that I am ing speak-

and

better

a

haunted

which

the admiration

from

sought for

so

as

"

was

just

There's Then

at

collegegive to introduce teous, gentle,cour-

almost

to

put

too it was Then of countenance. reported,truly of brilliant reputation, the or falsely,how a risingman and loved present Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Milman, admired

him

out


HISTORY

120

somehow

him, adding,that else.

one

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

he

(strangely)unlike

was

I

when

at the time

However,

OPINIONS

any elected Fellow

was

of Oriel he was not in residence,and he was which of the marks years in consequence and liberal schools. of the evangelical me have about "

1828

had

"

ever

say

that

Do

"

of

one

At

for

me

bore

upon

least

so

I

brought us together sayings preserved in his

Froude the

know

you

I

story of the murderer

the

good thing in his life ? Well ; if I what good deed I had ever done, I should and Newman Keble to understand brought

done

one

asked

was

each

it is

:

Remains,"

who

Hurrell

thought.

ever

of

shy

I had

lo

other."

The

Year

Christian

made

It is

in 1827.

its appearance

and

praise a book of the language.

scarcelybecoming, alreadybecome one of the classics When the generaltone of rehgiousliterature was so less nervestruck an and impotent,as it was at that time, Keble note and woke a new original up in the hearts of thousands in England. music, the music of a school, long unknown I pretend to analyze,in my Nor own instance, the 20 can effect of religious teaching so deep, so pure, so beautiful.

not

necessary,

which

has

I have

in

that

it

I had

learned of my

both

only

not

truths

two, which

same

recast

first of these

The

in the creative what

was

may

word, the Sacramental

of the

large sense

am

intellectual the

were

Butler, though

master.

a

me,

yet I think I

;

main

is, the doctrine that material phenomena of real things types and the instruments not 30 doctrine, which embraces (in its fulness), AngUcans, as well as Catholics,befieve about

a

"

what

called ;

properly so

Saiats

of

Communion

the

to

so

two

the

Sacraments "

from

new

called,in system ; that

be

unseen,

the

saying, brought home

which mind

tried to do

till now

never

wrong

are

to

but

"

also

[in its

the

article of

fulness];

and

of Mysteries of the faith. The connexion called is sometimes this philosophy of rehgion with what above ; I knew little of Berkeleyism has been mentioned I ever have Berkeley at this time except by name ; nor hkewise

the

"

"

studied On Mr.

him.

the second

Keble,

for it.

It

intellectual

I could runs

say

a

through

which principle

great deal very

much

; if this

I were

gained from the place 40

that I have

written,


gained for me probabiHty is

has

and

YEAR

THE

(TO

hard

many

121

1833.) Butler

names.

teaches

danger of this us of many minds, is, its tendency to doctrine, in the case sider destroy in them absolute certainty,leading them to conconclusion as doubtful, and resolving truth every into an opinion, which it is safe (indeed)to obey or to full internal with profess,but not possibleto embrace that

saying, 10

this

If

assent. "

be

the

who is

can reallypray seriouslyin doubt

to

?

a

soul !

be

to

were

would

I considered

a

allowed, then the celebrated soul,if I have God, save my of devotion

highestmeasure a Being, about

but

:

"

he

existence

whose

ing by ascribdifficulty trine, docto religious give

this

that Mr. Keble met which of assent

firmness

the

The

guide of hfe.

God, if there be

0

"

the

we

introduced which it, but to not to the probabilities of faith and love which accepted it. In livingpower it is not to say, of rehgion, he seemed merely matters makes certain, but intellectually us probabilitywhich It probabilityas it is put to account by faith and love. it which force to is faith and love which a probabihty give the

20

has

in itself.

not

and

Faith

love

are

directed

towards

an

Object ; in the vision of that Object they Hve ; it is that able Object,received in faith and love, which renders it reasonviction. to take probabiHty as sufficient for internal conabout the argument Thus Probability,in the became of religion, matter an argument from Personality, in fact is one form of the argument from Authority. which Mr. Keble illustration,

In Psalm 30

to

"I

:

and

horse

mouths

will

must

guide thee with

held

be

to

mine

have

mule, which

ask the

for Hteral

commands

;

understand

speaker,they they anticipatehis

of him

Poem

for St. Bartholomew's

of God's

Worcester

word

"

;

and

who College,

in

ye

like

difference,he used

to

say,

Friends

do

not

children.

his haH wishes.

Day, note

remarks, 25

eye.

not

understanding ; whose and bridle, lest they fall

their

but, from

the

Be

no

bit

thee." This is the very upon between slaves, and friends or

of the

quote the words

used with

-words, and from it is,that Hence

he

speaks of quotes Mr.

in his

about] from

knowledge

Bampton

the

of

love in his "

Eye

Miller, of Lectures,


MY

OF

HISTORY

122

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

"

of Scripture, the specialpower as on having this Eye, like that of a portrait, uniformly fixed upon us, turn where will." The view thus suggestedby Mr. Keble, is brought we Tracts for the Times." in one of the earhest of the forward "

treated

as

of it

go

the

which

Doctrine.

a

are

difficulty.It

is in outline

which

the result of

an

constitution

quahty reach

lo

that that

:

a

assemblage of concurring that, both accordingto 20

mind

human was

follows

as

habit

of

the

and

will of its

mind, that certainty

of

to

strictest scientific demonstration certitude a

not

and

which probabilities propositions ; that logicalcertainty,might create a mental might equal in ; that the certitude thus created created by and strengththe certitude which was

a

measure

be

of the

certitude

not

certitude

such

it did

beautiful

was

able to possess, whether theology,or as to the fact of

the

the

love

were

we

and convergingprobabilities,

did

who

those

are

code

a

not

of natural

truths

; that

as

We

of the matter, for I made

and

was

Liberty.

subjectedto

even professto be logical ; and complete it by considerations of my implied in my UniversitySermons, Essay Miracles, and Essay on Development of

it did

revelation,was

Maker

of

not

because dissatisfied,

was

My argument

the

to

;

tried to

certitude

absolute as

I

but

of the

root

Ecclesiastical

on

servants

as

Law

a

at all disputethis view

myself;

but religious, accordinglyI own,

not

sons,

I did not to

Gospel is

The

but addressed commandments, wish to please Him."

of formal

God, and use

"

8 I say,

In No.

might in given cases plain duty, though not to

and

;

and

to

others

that

have

to

given individuals in other

stances circum30

:

"

sufficed which probabilities Moreover, that as there were which other probabilities to create certitude,so there were were adapted to create opinion ; that it might legitimately and to of duty in given cases matter be quite as much a definite of have about fact to a an a opinion given persons strength and consistency,as in the case of greater or of it was titude a duty to have a cernumerous more probabilities ; that

accordinglywe

bound

were

24

create] suffice for

25

27

have]

32

possess

to be

more

or

created] brought about to create]for

less


THE

(TO on

sure,

viz.

fact to

a

sort

of

according were brought about

entertain

(as

the

as

it

1833.)

123

were) graduated scale

attachingto probabilities

home it

YEAR

a

and,

as

pious behef,

or

to

us,

of

assent,

professed the case might be, a pious opinion,or a

reUgiousconjecture,or at least,a tolerance of such belief, opinion,or conjecturein others ; that on the other hand, it was less strong as a or duty to have a beHef, of more it was a duty not texture, in given cases, so in other cases to believe, not to opine, not to to conjecture,not even tolerate the notion that a professed fact was true, inasmuch it would other be credulity or superstition, some as or This was moral fault,to do so. the region of Private Judgment in rehgion ; that is, of a Private Judgment, not formed and accordingto one's fancy or Hking, arbitrarily and under a sense but conscientiously, of duty. Considerations such as these throw new a Hght on the and have led me of to to seem Miracles, subject they the view which I took of them in my re -consider Essay in I do not know what the date of this change 1825-6. was a

or

10

20

in me,

That

of the train

nor

there

of ideas

on

which

it

founded.

was

already great miracles, as those of a fact estabhshingthe Kesurrection, was

had

been

the as Scripture, been sometimes had principlethat the laws of nature suspended by their Divine Author ; and since what had might happen again, a certain probabihty, happened once attached to the idea, at least no kind of improbability, was taken and

in

with 30

itself,of miraculous

miraculous

accounts

in later

intervention to be

were

regarded in

times,

connexion

the

verisimihtude, scope, instrument, character, circumstances, with which they presented themselves to us ; and, according to the final result of those various considerations,it was our duty to be sure, or to beHeve, or to opine,or to surmise, or to tolerate,or to reject,

testimony,and

or on

to denounce.

Miracles

1826 two

which

they

in 1826

I considerbd

that

classes,those to

were were

to

be

The and

main my

difference between

Essay in

miracles

which

were

1842

be

be

rejected; whereas regarded according to 18

took] had

:

that in

sharply divided

were

to

Essay

my

is this

taken

received, and in

1842

their

I

saw

into

those that

greater or less


OF

HISTORY

124

which probability,

RELIGIOUS

in

was

them,

about

certitude

MY

some

OPINIONS

sufficient to

cases

other

in

only

cases

create

behef

or

opinion. Moreover, the view

of the

from

argument

Analogy,

besides, in recommendation Miracles.

It fastened which

History

I had

It is Milner's down

from

Effusionsof work.

He

marking which "

learned

as

a

from

to

time

This

grace.

this thing some-

me

Ecclesiastical

the

of

upon upon

divine

theory of Church from Joseph Milner. boy the

the visible Church

time, largeand is the

come

temporary

leading idea

lo

of his

of the Day of Pentecost, as Effusionsof the Spiritof God,

begins by speaking the first of those

from

coming

visited the earth since the age have Vol. i. p. 3. In a note he adds that Effusion there is not here included the to

age

of Christ."

in the

idea

"

itseK

doctrine,that

above,

which

on

founded, suggestedto

question was

Spiritof

'

term

of the

'

miraculous

God

"

or

but

;

extraordinaryoperations of

still it

Milner's

the

for me, admitting of applyingto it the principle at his abrupt ipse dixit,but

was

natural

generaltheory,and 20 analogy, not to stop short boldlyto pass forward to the conclusion, on other grounds that, as miracles accompanied the first effusion plausible, of grace, so they might accompany the later. It is surely and on the whole, a true anticipation(though of a natural there are course exceptions in particularcases),that gifts and according to the ancient graces go together; now, Catholic

doctrine, the gift of miracles and

attendant moreover,

as

shadow

such

of

viewed

was

transcendent

sanctitywas

of every

not

as

sanctity:

the and

rence, day's occur-

periodof Church historydiffered nay further, as one widely from another, and, as Joseph Milner would say, there

have

been

disorder,and in the or

mid-day gloom, there

because had

we

of

generations or centuries

times of

of revival,and

as

was

did not

see

miracles

with

our

own

happened in former times, or were time taking place in distant places: "

10

from

time to

be

fervour, and another in twilight religious force in the popular argument, that, no

not

very

degeneracy or

region might

one

30

time] at

certain

intervals

29, 30, 33 as] since

eyes, miracles at this not now

but 16

I must not]

not

not


THE

(TO dwell

a

Froude

Hurrell in turn

and

a

would

be

Nor

have

highestgifts, those to

he

and

his heart

narrative, not

for their

have

they

to

before

me.

tenderness

graceful

considerate-

those

to whom

along engaged

am

it

him,

upon

introducingothers

sake, or because I love because, and so far as, views. In this respect theological Froude, in his intellectual aspect,

so

influenced

then, I speak

my of Hurrell

own

much

as

"

high genius, brimful and overflowingwith and which too many ideas and views, in him original, were for his bodily strength, and which crowded strong even and jostledagainst each other in their effort after distinct shape and expression. And he had an intellect as critical and speculativeand bold. Dying prelogicalas it was maturely, as

"

of

man

a

he

as

their

depth.

when

even

they

the

conflict and

his

of the

hierarchical

reason

His

opinionsarrested

did

not

admiration

openly hatred an

in

conclusion, by the very

ultimate

and

did, and

opinion, his religiousviews

of

state

30

him all

am

into my

them,

was

describe

free elastic force and

opinion, and

loved

to

patient winning

of belief and

have

He

in 1836.

attempt

matters

and

20

to

I

by him,

him

first in 1826, affectionate friendship

endeared for

;

it is

truly many-sided, that

so

me

the

discussion,which

in

opened

words

he came in which aspects[,] of the speak gentlenessand

versatihty of mind, ness

in

the plajrfuhiess,

of nature, the

I knew

most

"

I here

few

a

till his death

1829

presumptuous

except under 10

about

of the

man

him.

and

closest

the

from

him

m

125

pupil of Keble's, formed

a

reactingupon

in

was

with

was

1833.)

which

subject,to justice(^).

longer on

impossibleto do

and

YEAR

gain

of the

Reformers.

He

system,

of

their

of their multitude

and

assent. my Church of

dehghted

sacerdotal

transition-

reached

never

influenced He

and

Rome, in the

power

me,

professed notion

and

of

his of full

"

of the maxim, The liberty. He felt scorn Bible and the Bible only is the religionof Protestants ; instrument and he gloriedin acceptingTradition as a main idea of the of religiousteaching. He had a high severe he considered intrinsic excellence the of Virginity; and

ecclesiastical

"

Footnote of the

in 1865.

volume.)

(^

Vide

note

B, Ecclesiastical Miracles, at the end


HISTORY

126

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

Blessed Virgin its great Pattern. Saints

of the

had

he

;

keen

a

OPINIONS

He delightedin thinking appreciationof the idea of heights; and he was more

sanctity,its possibiHtyand its of miraculous ference interthan inclined to beheve a largeamount He as occurring in the early and middle ages. and mortification. He the principle of penance embraced he had to the Real Presence, in which had a deep devotion He firm faith. to the Medieval was a powerfully drawn Church, but had

He

Enghshman

an

to the

not

the real and

Primitive.

to

the

truth

abstract

insightinto

keen

a

in his

the backbone He concrete.

had

; but

was

lo

to

classical taste,

most

a

he

adherence

severe

geniusfor philosophyand art ; and he was fond of of rehgion. He had no historical inquiry,and the politics of the He had no appreciation turn for theologyas such. writings of the Fathers, of the detail or development of and

a

doctrine, of the definite traditions of the Church their matter, of the teaching of the out of which of the controversies or

they

in

Councils, took

He

arose.

I should view of thingson the whole. courageous of enteringinto the minds of others did that his power equal his other gifts; he could not beheve, for instance,

eager,

an

say not

that On

reallyheld the Roman points he would many I did

him, when

and

Cavaher

of the

stamp, and

was

the

opponents of the

love

shocked

was

by

beheve

but

that

He

seemed

not

to

Bill.

owe

so

much.

2

of

degeneracy Italy.

He

made

was

trariety con-

high Tory of the Toryism with

smitten

preciseadditions from

look with

in the

a

friend

admiration

and saw

to

to

my whom

towards

degree to disUke

same

keen] vivid

appreciationof] set

15

had

16

Fathers, of] Fathers,

on

18

matter, of] matter, made me] taught me

to

35

me

and

Rome,

a

abroad ; he went which he thought he

Catholics of the It is difficult to enumerate I derived creed which theological the Church

He

agreed

Church

Theocratic

in the

was

disgustedwith

of the Reform the

He

I

understand

kind, the

different

a

fact.

no

on

no

sufficient value

on

17

doctrine, of]doctrine,on

19

or

of] or

20

Antichristian.

be

to

not

of

were

theory

between the

not.

His

difficulties.

my

Church

I

with

I

viewed

Ecumenical

on

the

30


(TO He

Reformation. Blessed

the

to

Real

in the

fixed

in

deep

Virgin,and

led

he

1833.) the

me

127

idea

of devotion believe

graduallyto

me

Presence.

is

of

opinions to be important. In proportion of the shadow I moved out of (that)liberalism as which had hung over earlydevotion towards course, my my in the Long Vacation returned the Fathers of 1828 ; and I set about to read them chronologically, beginning with 1830 About St. Ignatiusand St. Justin, a proposal was made to me by Mr. Hugh Rose, who with Mr. Lyall (afterwards of Canterbury) was Dean providing writers for with a History of a TheologicalLibrary, to furnish them I accepted it,and the PrincipalCouncils. at once set to of Nicsea. It was work the Council on launching myself There

remaining

one

mentioned, and that

10

YEAR

THE

on

with

ocean

an

my

the least

innumerable

currents

; and

I

drifted

was

history, and then to the Church of Alexandria. The work at last appeared under the title of The Arians of the Fourth and Century ; of its 422 the first 117 consisted of introductory pages, back

the

source

far from

first to

ante-Nicene

"

20

254th, and I do

not

of Nicsea

occupied at when

know

read, course

of my mind.

that

did

not

of

Bishop Bull,

till the

pages. that to consider

England

whose

introduction

appear

twenty

of the doctrines

exponent

chief

most

I first learnt

the basis of the Church

granted

30

then

the true

was

and

Council

the

and

matter,

"

of

; but at

works

quity Anti-

Christianity I take this

it for

time

I

this

principle. The of reading which I pursued in the composition work was directlyadapted to develope it in my What in the ante-Nicene principallyattracted me

was

my

the

period was

great Church

of

to

cal Alexandria, the histori-

of

Of Rome for some teaching in those times. centuries The battle of comparatively little is known. Arianism first fought in Alexandria was Athanasius, ; the champion of the truth, was Bishop of Alexandria ; and in his writingshe refers to the great religious of an names earher date, to Origen, Dionysius,and others who were the glory of its see, or of its school. The broad philosophy centre

15 of

launching]to launch Bishop Bull, which

26 27

Bishop Bull, whose works] the works 29 work] volume was] were


HISTORY

128

MY

OF

RELIGIOUS

and Origen carried doctrine ; theological

of Clement the

not

OPINIONS ; the philosophy, away I have drawn out some

me

and

of it in my volume, with the zeal and freshness, of a neophyte. Some the partiahty(,) portions of like music their teaching,magnificentin themselves, came to ideas,which, with inward to my ear, as if the response

features but

with

little external to encourage them, I had cherished based on the mysticalor sacramental These were and

of the

spoke

(to

manifestation Nature

:

Dispensations of

or

to

that the exterior

mean

senses) of

our

was

them

but

historical,was

world, physical and itself.

Economies

various

I understood

the Eternal.

so long. principle,

realities

[outward] greater than

parable [^]: Scripturewas

a

lo

the

gory alle-

an

literature, philosophy, and

mythology, preparation for the

pagan

but a properly understood, were in a certain Gospel. The Greek poets and sages were sense thoughts beyond their thought to prophets; for those high bards were given." There had been a (directly) divine dispensationgranted to the Jews ; (but)there had been in some sense a dispensationcarried on in favour of 20 "

He

who

people,had

not

the Gentiles. elect out

sight. In

of His

had

taken

therefore

the seed of Jacob cast

the

the fulness of time

rest

both

for His

of mankind Judaism

and

framework, nought ; the outward which concealed yet suggestedthe Living Truth, had never the it was intended to last, and been dissolvingunder it and of the Sun of Justice (which shone) behind beams through it. The process of change had been slow ; it had at sundry but by rule and measure, been done not rashly, had

Paganism

to

come

"

times

in divers

and

manners,"

another, till the whole into

first one

disclosure

doctrine)was (evangelical And

full manifestation. further

and

anticipationof

thus

room

was

and

then

brought

made

for the

deeper disclosures,of

truths

to be veil of the letter,and in their season its without still remains visible world The revealed. and in her sacraments divine interpretation ; Holy Church to the her hierarchical appointments,will remain(,)even

the

still under

end 10

of the

a

symbol

of those

heavenly facts

them] these passages

Footnote this

world, only

omitted in 1865.

title.]

[^ Vid.

Mr.

Morris's beautiful poem 38 only] after all but

with

30


THE

(TO fill eternity. Her

which

human

in

but

are niysteries

language of truths

in

when

me

I

was

and

which

to

young,

already connected

with

Year. I suppose

to

it

was

with

the

the

129

1833.)

unequal. It is evident how much correspondence with the thoughts

is

10

YEAR

the

the

there which

had

attracted I have

which

and

Alexandrian

mind

in all this

was

the doctrme

Analogy

expressions

human

the

school

Christia-n

and

to

the

held earlyChurch that I owe in particularwhat I definitely about the Angels. I viewed them, not only as the ministers pensations, employed by the Creator in the Jewish and Christian disthe face of Scripture, find on but as we as

carryingon, Visible

as

Scripturealso imphes, the Economy

World.

I considered

motion, fight,and

them of those

as

the

real

of the

of

causes

fife,and elementaryprinciples of the physical universe, which, when offered in their developments to our senses, suggest to us the notion of caUed the laws of nature. and effect, and of what are cause have

(This doctrine)I 20

drawn

for Michaelmas

Sermon

[thisdoctrine]in

out

day, written

later than

not

my

1834.

I say of the Angels," Everj^ breath of air and ray of light and heat, every beautiful prospect, is,as it were, the skirts of their faces of

a

see man

garments, the waving of the robes God."

who,

of

would a

flower, or

he treats

which light,

of those

be the a

whose

thoughts herb,

or

something so beneath him existence,suddenly discovered in the presence of some that he was powerful being who hidden behind the visible thingshe was was inspecting,() who, though concealing his wise hand, was giving them their beauty, grace, and perfection, ment as being God's instruwhose for the purpose, ( ^)nay, robe and ornaments those objectswere, which he was so eager to analyze ? a

pebble,or

"

Again, I ask what when examining

a

ray in the scale of

as

"

30

"

"

and

I therefore

and

simple hearts

remark with

"

that the

we

Three

may

say

with

grateful '

0 all of the Lord, "c., "c., bless ye the Lord, praise for ever.' " Him, and magnify Him I considered there Also, besides the hosts of evil spirits, middle in neither in heaven, nor a was 8at/xorta, race,

Holy Children,

works

ye

6

it was] It was, 8 I suppose not later than 1834] in 1831

connected] associated 20

APOLOGIA

ji

I suppose,


HISTORY

130

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

partiallyfallen, capricious,wayward ; noble or benevolent or malicious,as the case might be. They crafty, of sort o r to, a intelligence races, nations, inspiration gave and the action of bodies politic Hence and classes of men.

hell ;

that of the is so different often from and the character them. Hence compose the instinct of states and governments, of religiouscommunities inhabited I thought they were and communions. intelligences. My preferenceof the Personal to by unseen

associations,which who

individuals

I to this view. naturally lead me of the Prince the mention by thought I think I conin the Prophet Daniel ; and sidered of Persia of such intermediate that it was beings that the the Angels of the Apocalypse spoke, when it introduced the

would

Abstract

lo

"

it countenanced "

"

Churches."

Seven In

I made

1837

a

further

into

hands

my

of this doctrine.

development his

on

Wood,

Francis

great friend,Samuel

I said to my which came

death,

"

a

letter

an

idea.

in

I have

Fathers, (Justin,Athenagoras, Irenseus, Ambrose, 20 Clement, Tertullian,Origen,Lactantius, Sulpicius, Nazianzen,)hold that, though Satan fellfrom the beginning, The

of the

mass

Angels fell before the deluge,fallingin This has lately come daughters of men.

the

a

solution

remarkable Daniel I

speaks

of

if each

as

but

which

notion

a

think

love

with

the

across

me

as

nation

had

there

that

ing. help holdits guardian beings with

I cannot

are Angel. a great deal of good in them, yet with great defects,who of certain institutions,"c., the animating principles are "c Take high virtues, and England, with many

yet a

cannot

in its

Church, these

It

Catholicism.

low

a

spiritneither

of heaven

?

"

"c.,

They] These beings

5

so

different often] often

inhabited 8-9 they were had their life in certain unseen when

17

my

not

itself to How .

.

John

Bull

is so

the Christian

,

.

straighton

one are

to the

or we

other

of

to avoid

very

image

"c.

2

14

.

? .

go

that

Has .

of the truth

Scyllaand Charybdis and

me

hell

parts, surrendered

simulations

of Christ

to

seems

nor

so

by

different. unseen

these assemblages intelligences]

Powers

it introduced] in its notice of great] an intimate and dear


(TO I

am

that

aware

THE

YEAR

have

I

what

1833.) been

131

saying will, with

doing credit to my imagination at the men, many of my Hippoclides doesn't care ; judgment expense I am not settingmyself up as a pattern of good sense or of any thing else : I am but [vindicating myself from the charge of dishonesty. There is indeed another view of the of the same tion dissertaEconomy brought out, in the course be

"

"

"

"

10

subject,in

the

on

has

afforded

History of the Arians, latter imputation ; but concludingportion of my Reply.]

it for the

serve

While

various

events

I believed

Agitationwas had

that

there had been a had Bourbons the been dismissed : ; it was unchristian for nations to cast

Shortly before,

going

on

vital

questionwas(,)how being liberalized ? there some

30

there

such

was

distraction

Again, great Reform I wrote. The Whigs as had

the

told the

Bishops had

of the Prelates

some

streets to

we

such

quarters, such imbecile

of Churchmanship principles

and

me

was

had

the

Grey

were

sovereigns who

more,

around

into power ; Lord set their house in order, and insulted and threatened in come

in

re-

in

off their governors, and, much the divine rightof inheritance. 20

I

were

mind. my in France

Revolution and

engaged

was

into

way

which

work the writing my upon happening at home and abroad, brought out into form and passionateexpressionthe beliefs which had so graduallybeen winning their I

Arians, great which

my

for the

matter

so

The

London. Church

from

the

subject

in others

alarm

seemed

of

keep the apathy on

to

been

;

the true

radicallydecayed, of the Clergy. active the day, an

in the Councils

The (Blomfield,) Bishop of London and had been open-hearted man, the diluting high orthodoxy of the

of for

engaged

years

Church

by

the

in

intro-

for the passage in square brackets the followingwas substituted : giving a history of my opinions, and that, ^v'ith the view of by them showing that I have come through intelUgibleprocesses of The doctrine indeed of the Economy thought and honest external means. has in some as pernicious, intrinsically quarters been itself condemned if leading to lying and equivocation, Avhen appHed, as I have appHed as 5-10

in

1865

"

it in my conduct. pages

17

remarks

of my

My

upon

answer

to

of it in my History of the Arians, to matters this imputation I postpone to the concluding

Volume.

believed]held

28

Councils] councils


OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

HISTORY

132

(members of)the Evangelicalbody into places who and trust. He had deeply offended men agreed(inopinion)with myself,by an off-hand saying(as it was reported)to the effect that belief in the Apostolical of

duction

of influence

had

succession

you,"

count

venerated

gone out with he said to some

the of

the

party itself [seemed] with their late ,

such

venerate

others

and

out

as

men

the

It

(Ryder,)the

I admired

which

I did

that

not

was

can

most

Evangelical (seemed)to

successes,

unworldliness

Scott.

and

in Milner

much

so

and simplicity

lost that

have

-jurors. We gravest and

And

of the old school.

persons

"

Non

not

lo

Bishop of Lichfield,

then

of similar sentiments, who were of the ranks of the Clergy,but I

not

yet

moted pro-

thought little

class. I thought they played into the hands of them a as thus divided and With the Establishment of the Liberals. I compared threatened, thus ignorantof its true strength, of which I was that fresh vigorouspower reading in the behaK of that In her triumphant zeal on first centuries. Primeval

to which

Mystery,

had

I had

great

so

devotion

a

of my Spiritual 20 youth, I recognizedthe movement The self-conquest of her Incessu patuitDea." Ascetics, the patience of her Martyrs, the irresistible of her Bishops, the joyous swing of her determination I said to myself, me. advance, both exalted and abashed I felt affection for this pictureand on that ; Look on own Church, but not tenderness ; I felt dismay at her my at her do-nothingperplexity. prospects,anger and scorn I thought that if Liberalism once got a footingwithin her,

from

my Mother.

"

"

"

it

victory in

of the

sure

was

the event.

I

still I

Church

the

the

organ. dealt with of

second

a

At 14

me

Established

Catholic

of which She

before

kept

ever

greater than

she

and

the

nothing,unless she would or strongly, was

there

set Apostolic, but

was

that

Church,

and up

that

saw

powerless to rescue principleswere crossed my leaving her, the thought never

her.

mation ReforAs

that from

that the

and local presence this. She must was There

was

was

be need

Reformation.

this time

I

was

disengagedfrom

30

beginning, (the)

she

be lost.

to

imagination; was something

Collegeduties, and

17 power] them] the Evangelicals 38 Reformation] reformation

Power


health

my

had

YEAR

THE

(TO

sufEered

the

from

133

1833.) labour

involved

in

the

It was composition of my Volume. ready for the Press in July, 1832, though not published till the end of 1833. I was his and easilypersuaded to join Hurrell Froude Father, who were going to the south of Europe for the

health

of the

We

set

former. in

out

December,

expeditionthat my written

were 10

"

few

a

indeed

was

in the

before

it,but

not

than

more

Exchanging, as I was, definite Tutorial labours, and the literary ships quiet and pleasantfriendof the last six years, for foreign countries and an unknown led to think that some future, I naturallywas inward of action, changes, as well as some largercourse At Whitchurch, while waiting for was coming upon me. two

one

or

the

down

mail

Guardian these

20

;

of them

are

during this Lyra Apostolica

It

1832.

which

Verses

go on to vision is

which

speak more

of

some "

of

brought

which out

about

verses

begin with these unearthly Friend

the vision"

less

or

the

I wrote

words ?

"

and

haunted

in the

"

:

(which)

me

whole

my Are

: "

that

series of

compositions.

I went

with

Falmouth,

to

Angel,

the tracks

these

after it.

various

to

coasts

friends at Rome

my

;

of the went

Mediterranean, parted

down

for the second

time

Sicily(withoutcompanion), at the end of April,and got back in the early part of July. to England by Palermo The strangeness of foreignlife threw me back into myseK ; I found pleasurein historical sites and beautiful scenes, in men and not We manners. kept clear of Cathohcs I had a conversation with the Dean tour. our throughout of Malta, a most pleasantman, latelydead ; but it was about the Fathers, and the Library of the great church. to

30

I knew

the

than

Abbate

who

Santini, at Rome,

did

no

more

and I made Froude Gregoriantones. copy two calls upon at the Monsignore (now Cardinal)Wiseman CoUegio Inglese,shortlybefore we left Rome. (Once we heard him preach at a church in the Corso.) I do not recollect being in a room other with ecclesiastics, any in Sicily, who called except a Priest at Castro -Giovanni on

for

me

when

11

the

me

I

was

labours] work

ill,and

with

I wished

whom 16

was]

were

to

hold


OF

HISTORY

134

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

attended the a Services, we controversy. As to Church Tenebrae, at the Sestme, for the sake of the Miserere ; and all. My generalfeeling that was the spirit All, save was, "

of man, is divine." I saw nothing but of the hidden life of Catholics I knew

what

external

was

I

nothing.

;

still

was

into driven back isolation. myself, and felt my in my from England was thoughts solely,and the news Bill for and The the came rarely England imperfectly. in progress, and filled Suppressionof the Irish Sees was mind. I had fierce thoughts against the Liberals. lo my more

It

the

was

inwardly.

manifestations. not

even

forced

to

I

A

look

at

stop

a

time, and

of the Liberal

success

I became

fierce French the

day

all that

I

vessel

the

from

and

On

beautiful

the

whole

city,was

what

had Diligence. Bishop of the Whitehall one already sounded me as to my filling which he had just then put on a new ing footpreacherships, indignantat the line which he was taking,20 ; but I was and from Steamer I had sent home a letter declining my the appointment by anticipation, should it be offered to At this time I was me. annoyed with Dr. Arnold, specially though it did not last into later years. Some one, I think, whether certain interat Rome, a asked(,)in conversation answered Christian ? it was ])retationof Scripturewas that Dr. Arnold tian took it ; I interposed, But is he a Chris? The subjectwent head at once out of my ; when saw

The

its

though

return,

my

me

I would

Algiers;

Paris, I kept indoors of that

saw

fretted

instruments at

was

tricolour. at

which

cause

againstits

of London

"

"

afterwards

I

taxed

was

explanation, than I thought 1 must Arnold

Dr. have

the

about

meant, who

But that

have

is to

"

been Old

(Arnold

answer

the

it I could

with

((what

I

believe

alludingto Testament

answers

for Arnold

I

the It

more

in

fact))that free views

some

"

"

no

the

:

for ?

say

was

thought I must interpretation,)

was

at

Rome

Apostolicawhich

too

Lyra appeared monthly in the British Magazine. The the feelingof shows motto both Froude and myself at the time : we borrowed from M. Bunsen and Froude chose the words in which a Homer, 15

31

we

began

day] twenty-fourhours thought I must have been alludingto] must

30

of

a

have

had in mind


THE

(TO

YEAR

1833.)

135 "

You shall know Achilles,on returning to the battle,says, that I am back again." difference,now Especiallywhen I was left by myself, the thought came is wrought, not that deliverance me by the many upon but by the few, not it Now by bodies but by persons. the words, which w^as, I think, that I repeated to myseK had ever from been dear to me school days, Exoriare my of ^now too, that Southey's beautiful aliquis! poem Thalaba, for which I had an immense liking,came forcibly mind. I began to think that I had a mission. to my There of my friends to this effect,if letters to my sentences are

the

"

"

"

10

they are

he

make

might

gravity, down

at

I struck

"

had have

We to

once

but

I

for

I have

said,

'"

to

simied

thought

that

with

England."

we

great I w^ent

that

I

dying, and

w^as

I gave them, as he wished ; I repeated," I shall not die,

die."

agamst have

never

in

Monsignore

wish

a

I said

;

do

of

leave

presentiment grew stronger. island,and fell ill of a fever

of the

servant

I shall not not

Rome

the

last directions.

against light." I what

work

a

and Sicily,

My

for my

begged

visit to

the middle

into

took

we

courteously expressed

second

a

Leonforte.

at

20

destroyed. When

not

Wiseman,

have

light,I

been

not

able to make

out

sinned at

all

I meant.

laid up I got to Castro-Giovanni, and there for was Towards the end of May I set off for nearly three weeks. ing Palermo, taking three days for the journey. Before startfrom irni in the morning of May 26th or 27th, I sat my down on bed, and began to sob bitterly.My servant, my

who 30

only

had

acted

as

asked

nurse,

my "

(him),

answer

I have

what

work

a

to

ailed do

in

me.

I could

England."

of a vessel aching to get home ; yet for want I began to visit for three weeks. kept at Palermo the Churches, and they calmed impatience, though my I did not attend I knew services. nothing of the any At last I got there. Presence of the Blessed Sacrament off in an for Marseilles. We were boat, bound orange I

I

was

was

becalmed it

was

have

a

that

whole I wrote

since become

week

in the

Straits of Bonifacio. "

Then

lines, Lead, kindly light,"which I was the well known. ^^ritingverses the

25

set

oli]left


1S6

HISTORY

whole

time

and

much At

of

off

set

for last

for

I

and

The the

published

I the

have

ever

religious

The laid

was

Assize under

not

Sunday,

Sermon the

considered

and

movement

of

in

title

kept 1833.

July the of

was

14th,

the

arrived the

on

Mr.

Keble It

Apostasy."

National

day,

reached

Pulpit.

University "

I had

This

day(,

or

till

brother

My

Lyons.

at

night

stop

too

was

days

Paris,))

before.

Marseilles,

to

got

travelling

several

at

house.

following

of

for

did

hours

few

I

length

delay

mother's a

OPINIONS.

fatigue up

and

again,

compulsory

only

Tuesday. preached

I

my

Persia

At

passage.

off

got

RELIGIOUS

MY

England.

the

England,

was

my

and

me,

(excepting

from

OF

as

the

start

lo

of


IV.

PART

HISTORY

[Published

MY

01'

as

a

RELIGIOUS

Ftuuphlet,

2Vi

F

3

OPINIONS.

lorsda//,

Maij

12,

1864.]


PART

In

spite

of the

foregoing

to

tell ;

but

wrote

desire

MY

which dress

returned

the

and

England,

to

which

events

followed,

so

I

have

as

to

no

make

before. which has gone keeping with the narrative hitherto I had relapsed into the every-day life which led ; in all things the same, object was except that a new in I had own rooms given me. employed myself in my of a Church, I left before reading and writing, and in the care the I returned to same England, and occupations when back I was first vehement again. And yet perhaps those carried for the beginme feelings which on were ning necessary I

in

soon

of the

When a

Movement

the

begun,

I

danger

had which

who

William

Palmer

W(illiam)

Mr.

Arthur

To

others

fitted a

Part

Mr.

those

affectionate

make

Palmer

of and

his

stand, if

a

IV] Chapter

stand II

and

Worcester

of

could

mind be

and

host

a

Keble,

and

made, 2

men

with

Hurrell Mr.

me,

College (not a

now

Catholic),

kindle

of

the

was

able

before

is to

name

already specific religion of

the

the

Mr.

were

long

He

cast

once

correspondence

home

him,

remembrances.

by

in

were

Rose's

knew

was

that to

zealous

Magdalen, who is Mr. Hugh Rose.

Hugh

who

found

threatening

of these

Dublin

Perceval,

I

opposition

Several

reached of

mention

of

in was

it

over.

abroad,

time

principal

had

Mr.

was

counsels, and

The

Froude,

minds

from

that

when

afterwards,

me

its Church.

their

other.

of

commenced

at

and

united

each

home

got

nation

had

and

;

special need

movement

the

30

1839).

TO

I have romantic no story pages, it is my because duty to tell ings place. I have not exaggerated the feel-

I up

1833

them,

took

they

as

to

them

20

I

(fROM

OPINIONS

OF

with

10

RELIGIOUS

HISTORY

things

IV.

in

pleasant

man

above

the and

all

to literary powers against the calamity

wrote]

have

written


HISTORY

140

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

of the times. and

He was giftedwith a high and largemiiid, of what was sensibility great and beautiful ; he

true

a

Avith warmth

wrote

and

cautious

shortened

and

energy

his

life,Pro

;

and

he

had

cool head

a

spent his strength and that Dei, as he miderstood

He

judgment.

Ecclesia

earher he had been the first sovereign idea. Some years the UniversityPulpit at from to give warning, I think Cambridge, of the perilsto England which lay in the biblical and The theologicalspeculations of Germany. Reform lu agitation followed, and the Whig Government in their distribution into power he anticipated came ; and of

Church

the

patronage

authoritative

introduction "

liberal

of

"

liberal I mean opinions into the country [: by liberalism in religion, for questions of politics, as such, not

"

into

come

this narrative

at

He

all J.

feared

that

do

by

tlie

Whig party a door would be opened in England to the could be closed grievous of heresies,which never to unite again. In order under such grave circumstances Churchmen front against the a together,and to make the British 20 coming danger, he had in 1832 commenced in the to Oxford Magazine, and in the same year he came summer term, in order to beat up for writers for his publication that occasion I became known to him through ; on Mr. Palmer. in aid of His reputation and positioncame his obvious fitness,in point of character and intellect,to most

the

become a

movement

delicate

of

centre

to

were

ecclesiastical movement, if such the action of a party. His on

an

depend

health, his premature death, would

have

frustrated

the

expectation,even though the new school of opinionhad been more exactlythrown into the shape of a party, than 30 in fact was the case. backed But he zealously up the first he in it ; and, when efforts of those who were principals went

abroad

to

die, in 1838, he allowed

Sermons, bade to

our

But

us

as

man,

stir up the true

there

of

giftthat

was

a

volume

hearts

who, when

in us, and

solace of

my

failing,

were

betake

of

him

gratitudeto

ourselves

Mother." were

of health, which from

"

the

the

me

and

of attachment expressingmy feelings by addressinghim, in the dedication

other hindered

availingthemselves

reasons,

besides

those who

so

of his close

Mr.

much

Rose's

state

admired

him

co-operationin

the

40


TO

1833

(FROM

both as coming fight. United general scope of the Movement,

with

each

the with

a

and

name,

ecclesiastical his

characters

10

Rose no

could

lose, and

to

not

a-head

go

they

of the

had

means

positionin

a

had

intimate

large I

had

relations

clerical connexion nobodies

were

antecedents

no

the

responsibih'ties ; he

he a

in

were

in discordance

were

Rose

and

Froude

through the country.

Mr.

serious

superiors;

University, and

own

and

they

141

the first in their estimate

other from

Church,

direct

no

he

adopted for attainingit.

be

to

1839.)

;

with

fetter

to

us,

had country, as Froude horseback, a bold rider, as on

across

scruplesin doing. Froude was also in his speculations.After, a long conversaso tion with him the logicalbearing of his principles, on

Mr.

said

Rose

had

Froude keen

with

quiet humour,

be afraid of inferences."

to

seem

of him

that

It

was

strong hold of first value, that he

that

''

he did not

simply the truth ; and that principles,

perceptionof their

comparatively

was

indifferent to the

20

revolutionaryaction which would attend their application to a given state of things; whereas on in the thoughts of Rose, as a practical man, existingfacts had the precedence of every other idea, and the chief test of the soundness of a line of policylay in the consideration whether

it would

work.

This

was

one

of

the

first

occurred to his questions,which, as it seemed to me, ever mind. With Froude, Erastianism, that is,the union (so he viewed and State, was the parent, or if it)of Church the parent, the serviceable and not sufficient tool, of "

"

liberalism.

30

Till that union

never

could

and

unselfish

an "

Rose

was

a

this word him

to

epithet,reproachfulin

conservative."

Mr. I

snapped. Christian

doctrine

how and, while he well knew high the temper of Mr. Rose, yet he used to

Rose

in criticism

Magazine

was

safe ;

was

him

apply to

to

be

in

of

a

By

bad

his

own

mouth

luck, I brought

; "

out

letter of my which I ^\Tote own, had inserted into the

something he

vehement

for my pains, for line,he had as high could a disdain, as Froude have, of a worldly ambition, and sensitiveness of such an imputation. extreme an But there was another reason and a more still, elementary

though

24

:

Rose

ever]

on

got

a

pursued

every

a

occasion

rebuke

conservative

34 into

the] in

his


142

HISTORY

one,

which

Living

OF

severed

Mr. do

movements

great ideas worked had both to

the

us

the

from come

through

Oxford

Movement.

of committees, nor are the post, even though it

thingssoon

took

and spontaneously,

of our Universities own. purpose centres of intellectual movements. How set

natural

the

are

could

their zeal, unless they was together,whatever in a sort of individuality ? Now, first, had lo we in Suffolk,Mr. Perceval unity of place. Mr. Rose was Surrey,Mr. Keble in Gloucestershire ; Hurrell Froude act

men

united

were no

in had

to go for his health in Oxford ; this was

was

well in the A

far

Barbados.

an

importantadvantage,and

of the

that

place,was unity was

history,common with

mind

Mr.

Movement

of

essential

more

common

mind

to

first months

condition,besides a

Rose

OPINIONS

post. This principledeeplypenetrated myself from the first,and recommended

which

course

RELIGIOUS

not

out

the penny Froude and

been

without

MY

Palmer

indeed

;

told

another

but

"

required. that

memories,

of antecedents, intercourse of an "

in the

past, and a progress and increase present. Mr. Perceval, to be was a pupil of Mr. Keble's ; but Keble, Rose, and sure, Palmer, representeddistinct parties,or at least tempers, of that

intercourse

in

the

of

authorityand

man

the

Establishment. He

Palmer He

understood

had

conditions

many

the

of controversial

I

he

and expression, deficient

ing writ-

he

well acquainted,as as beHeve, was ; with the Catholic schools. He was as dissatisfied, in his religious cautious and even views, as he was in their

20

only reallylearned theologyas a science ; he

was

the scholastic mode

practisedin and

Mr.

influence.

us.

among

was

in

was

decided subtle

gentlein their enforcement.

But

3o

depth ; and besides, coming from had Oxford into an a distance, he never reallygrown he generallyreceived as such ; nor had he nor was man, geniality any insightinto the force of personalinfluence and conof thought in carryingout a religious theory, was

in

"

a

condition

any

true

which

success

Froude

in the stand

and

I considered

which

had

essential

to be made

Liberalism. be

may

13-14

Mr. Palmer had certain connexion, as it a of high called, in the Establishment, consisting

Barbados. .

20

to

against

of] in

.

.

indeed

was]

Barbadoes.

.

.

was

indeed


1833

(FROM

TO

1839.)

143

Church

Archdeacons, London Rectors, and the dignitaries, belonged to what was commonly called the highfar more and-dry school. They were opposed than even

like,who he

to the

was

their beau

sensible

sound,

and

with

and

Church

rules

in its

supported by Tracts of

Mr.

he wished

for

;

considerable

with

these

the in

was

looked alarm.

by

upon The

Mr.

influenced

consenting to anxiety of his own of us,

he still not

fidgetand

friends

the

at

nervousness

the

course

taking. Froude, for whom high tone in liis project of

naturally un-

advome

the

thoughts

of his own, which his Oriel

he had measures

his

of we

Tracts. not

was

angry with shared

Mr. Palmer stop them. friends ; and, kind as were unnaturallyfelt,for reasons

were

a

were

what

Froude

and

time

men

by

"

for

friends the

at

of them

some

Keble willingto give way. their continuance strongly,and

cated

took

of

measure

Palmer's

to Erastianism, was put down their editor, and mainly their author,

some

interests

some

great point "

call

to

as

safe,

Perceval.

in London, good men a highestprinciple,nd far from

used

Committee,

meetings, to protect

course

of

and organ tion, Associaan

their

was a

Of

board

a

head begun the hand, had out of my own and these, as representingthe antagonistprinciple

with

I,

Palmer

was

existingperil. He

were personality,

the

of individuals.

the other

I, on

20

Mr.

men.

representative; the 10

action irresponsible

ideal in ecclesiastical action

a

real for

liking,

dealing

with

and shocked have bishops and clergy,which must him considerably.As for me, there was matter enough in the early Tracts to give him equal disgust; and

scandaHzed

30

his generosity,when he had to the the London or dignitaries, against me, country clergy. Oriel, from the time of Dr. Copleston to Dr. Hampden, had had a name far and wide for liberality of thought ; it had received a formal recognitionfrom the me serves truly,as the Edinburgh Review, if my memory school of speculativephilosophyin England ; and on one doubtless defend

I much

tasked

whether

occasion, in 1833, when the in

first papers

of the

I

Northamptonshire,he 18-19

not

of presentedmyself,with some to a country clergyman paused awhile, and then, eyeing

Movement,

unnaturally]of

course


"

asked, significance,

with

me

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

HISTORY

144

of them

the bottom

OPINIONS

Whether

Whately

at

was

"

?

in support of the judgment of to me which in a letter, I replied dignitaries. he afterwards published. "As to the Tracts," I said to from words his Pamphlet), every him (I quote my own You taste. has his own one things,another object to some the effect altered to pleaseevery If we to others. one, intended not would be spoiled. They were as symbols

Perceval

Mr.

Mr.

wrote

the

and

Palmer

"

cathedra but as the expressionof individual minds ; and lo individuals, strongly,while on the one hand, they are feeling faulty in mode or language,are stillpeculiarly incidentally done by a system ; whereas effective. No great work was Luther an was systems rise out of individual exertions. e

,

The

individual. he

;

faults of

very

loses, but

his

The I

visit which

various

where

not

think

that

they quite in my clergymen,which the

advertised

I caUed

country, whether I attended

of them

much way.

fared

came

of such

Also

I wrote

rallyin

a

commencing. I did not low made to high Church or a strong pull in union with

was

and

were

They first on

borne

w^as

its

by

headed

were on

:

him

the Revival

They

; the

were

fourth,

headed

as

time

of friends

assembled.

attempts,

nor

were

letters to

various

favour

Church

Church

of the my

visits

I wished

;

to

were

make

they ran with

were

a

to

a

series of letters in

considerable

great courtesy and "

Church

on

length; patience.

Reform."

The

of Church the was

30

opposed to the they might be. Giving

all who

being

as

Scriptureproof ;

doctrine

36

Newspaper

to

whether

care

principlesof liberalism,whoever to the Editor, I commenced name my the Record

acquainted

houses

better, except that they

much

not

fact, that

time

was

20

clergy in

upon

I

at the

from

were

promote

we

similar

of

1833.

year

not, and

or

several

I do

the

of

parts

them

with

series

things:

tion atten-

powerful-

Northamptonshire Rector expedients,which

to the

I made

of a only one adopted during the

of

way

excite he

and

(ifgood

minded) gains. This is the truth by a self-sacrifice." was

individual

an

cause

Discipline ; the second, of the third,on the application an

being on]

answer

The

to

objections;

heading given to them

the

was,


the benefits on fifth,was abruptly brought to I reallyfelt,and what was

discipHne.

a

termination.

in

me

some

also

145

1839.)

of

was

teachingof

TO

1833

(FROM

in

And

then

the series

I had

keeping with

said

the

what

strong

the Editor discovered the Tracts, but I suppose divergence from his otvti line of thought ; for

civil letter,apologizingfor the at length he sent a very of my sixth communication, on the ground non-appearance attack that it contained an Temperance Societies," upon about which he did not wish a controversy in his columns. "

added, however, his

He

10

the Tracts.

I had

the first start

serious

subscribed

of the

regret at the character small

a

in 1828

sum

of

towards

Record.

of the officious

ing, character,which I have been describuncongenial to my natural temper, to the genius of the Movement, and to the historical mode of its success : fruit and joyous energy the of that exuberant were they with which I had returned from abroad, and which I never I had the exultation of health restored, had before or since. Acts

were

"

and 20

home

of the

regained. While

breadth

journey across get to England

back

faces to

Oxford,

once

on

hesitated

and 30

we

Palermo

and

before

And

was

amid

was

health

my

did

not

well to

employed

me.

know

was

ever

scenes

strengthcame friends

some

that it

And

in that

I

familiar

and

rebound, that

a

they spoke I

I

now

thought

wearisome

I had

work

at

I, and

was

the

which

sciousness con-

I had

dreaming about, and which I felt to be so momentous in our confidence cause inspiring.I had a supreme w^hich was were upholding that primitiveChristianity

delivered and

but

such

seeingme, that

been

;

more.

with

me

at

was

Mediterranean, and the France, I could not imagine how^

to

and

I

of the

which

for all time was

by

the

earlyteachers

registeredand

attested

in

;

of the

Church,

the

Anglican

and That ancient by the Anglican divines. religionhad well nigh faded away out of the land, through the political changes of the last 150 years, and it must be

formularies

restored.

40

better

It

would

be

in

fact

a

second

Reformation

: "

not to the reformation, for it would be a return sixteenth century, but to the seventeenth. No time was to be lost,for the Whigs had to do their worst, and come the rescue too late. might come Bishoprickswere already in course of suppression; Church in course of property was a


HISTORY

146

OF

RELIGIOUS

MY

be

receiving unsuitable beginpreachingupon, and enough occupants. else to preach. I felt as on there was no one (board) which first gets under weigh,and then [clearsout] a vessel, the deck (iscleared out),and [storesaway] luggage and live stock (stowed away) into their proper receptacles. in our both it only that I had confidence Nor was cause, in itself, and in its controversial force,but besides,I despised and its arguments (too). rival system of doctrine every and the low Church, I thought that lo As to the high Church the of a logicalbasis than much the one had not more other ; while I had a thorough contempt for the evangelical. confiscation

;

Sees

We

I had

of each

; and

arguments

to

I

that the Apostolical imperative,and its impregnable. Owing to this (supreme)

evidence

grounds of

confidence,it came double aspect in my for it both

to

me

the other hand

thought on

of doctrine

form

soon

knew

cates of the advorespect for the character of many their but did that to not give cogency party,

real

a

would

OPINIONS

essential and

was

to

at

pass

that

time, that there

bearingtowards others,which My behaviour had a enlargeupon.

of fierceness and of

sport ; and

was

a

it is necessary mixture

in

20

this account, I dare I here defendingit.

on

offence to many am ; nor with them and I walked to agree with me, ; step by step, as far as they would go ; this I did sincerely about it,but but if they would care stop, I did not much it gave I wished

say,

walked

with

on,

far.

so

men

them

make

to

much

in its

hear

to

Tract

of

at a

away .

.

.

had

Record

do

It

so.

held

he

wonder

allowed

1S64

out

the

the doctrine

or

anger

deck, and

is cleared

[anothercopy).

also,on

of the latter

a

to

me

I

remonstrance.

not.

or

of dull and

they did not propositionswhich in faith,wrote good correspondent, deck

without

was

was

faction satis-

say so amused

30

Bishops,who, on reading an early ApostolicalSuccession, could not make up

at the

4, 5 clears

186i]the

to

truth

of the

whether

distressed When

the

columns, without one

the

on

his mind

men,

that

me

the

preach

knowing it,and encouraged them to

brought them

satisfaction that I had

some

I liked

the other hand 15

other

was

not

understand. to

a

news-

luggage and live stock away luggage and live stock stored controversial besides] polemical controversial 12 evangelical] position stores

out, and 8

I

self-conceited

the

.

hand] contrary

.

.


spoken I thought the I

asked

was

opponent the

to

him

a

I had 10

of

a

I

I

of his

absurdity,and to leave not unwillingto play "

of the Wise

man,

fool

about

me

;

deign

not

when

and, when do

to

I

matter-of-fact

would

men

kind

of behaviour

I have

ever

trifled with

fault.

I

This

The

was

a

what

not

see

of habit a

I

which

right,did

conversation,

sort

approach

nearest

or

circulated

set it

my

I think Answer

prying

was was

in

subject,it was arguments which I saw

used

never

unsound.

might easilyhave I used irony

Also

so.

an

opinions,)

own

if he accordingto his folly,"especially the which of I reckless was gossip spiteful. a

before

draw

impertinent questions.

me

the words

mouth

was

corrected

be

unwilling to

virtue

could.

asked

who

man,

in my

"

not

was

intellectual he

as

Holy Eucharist," Sacrament," print for

false

pleasantto

too

it.

some

back

147

1839.)

Sacrifice of the

was

step by step (,by

on

get

mistake about

brink

to

with

"

say that the of in the Tract,

to

paper,

TO

1833

(FROM

I meant. with

If

me.

serious

more

clearlyto

be

remember

to

clear of it neverconduct, but which I consider was The matter of this in the case 15. of Tract theless,was I had Tract was supplied to me by a friend, to whom appliedfor assistance,but who did not wish to be mixed up such

20

with into the as

He gave it me, that I might throw it the publication. In shape, and I took his arguments as they stood. chief portionof the Tract I fullyagreed ; for instance, what

to

follow was 30

;

about

it says

arguments,

were

I do

or

the

recollect

not

Council

argument,

some

what

it

of Trent

;

in it which was.

but

there

I did

not

Froude, I think,

disgustedwith the whole Tract, and accused me It is principally in publishingit. through

economy

of Mr.

Remains that this word has got into our language. think, I defended myself with arguments such as these : written by various that,as every one knew, the Tracts were who agreed together in their doctrine, but not persons to be proved ; always in the arguments by which it was Froude's

I

that

"

we

ourselves

must

be

; that

tolerant

the author

opinion, and received ordinarily

that

own

;

that 21

of difference of the Tract the

opinion among a rightto his in question was

of

had

argument not give my

I did

supplied]furnished

own

name

or


OF

HISTORY

148

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

asked for my personalbelief,but only authority,nor was translate friend's a acted one as might instrumentally, these to be good book into a foreignlanguage. I account I feel also that such practices arguments ; nevertheless and

consequentlydangerous ;

are "

be

be

left with

confidence

absolute

This

imprudence

or

and

in my

would

honesty. which

cause,

which

wantonness

but were

publiclife

in

men

for honour

character

a

mistakes

if all such

again, I feel also this, that severelyvisited, not many

to

the

abuse

of easy

admit

then

led

to

me

instanc-

been

I have

lo

airly,to the oppositecharge open, which I took, or words of fierceness in certain steps which said that, I published. In the Lyra Apostolica,I have learn to hate ; must before learningto love, we though words I had explainedmy by adding hatred of sin." In shrink from I said, I do not first Sermons of my one would that it be firm conviction a gain to the utteringmy it vastly more more bigoted, superstitious, country were than at present fierce in its religion more gloomy, more be 20 I added, of course, that it would it shows itself to be." an absurdityto suppose such tempers of mind desirable in The of the press bore these strong themselves. corrector tillhe to more fierce,"and then he put in the epithets got of the first Tract, In the very first page margin a query. I said of the Bishops,that, black event though it would could not wish them a more be for the country, yet we

ing, also laid

imf

not

me

"

"

"

"

"

"

blessed their

work

in my wrote

to

me

the

heresiarchs,I had mercy

;

forth

as

is

souls of I cannot was

their

course,

than

the

he

his

assumes error

of

wishingto

re-establish

it is uncharitable

that this is not

passage

dignitary and

the blood

"

thousands, and

deny

a

Inquisition. Contrasting heretics and said, The latter should meet with no the office of the Tempter, and, so far be dealt with petent by the comgoes, must

embodied authority,as if he were false and dangerous pity. It is a

banished,

spoilingof

of In consequence History, a Northern

the Arian

upon

accuse

of

torture

him

of

termination

goods and martyrdom."

burned

10

evil. to

To

spare the

endanger

towards

himself."

; but Arius very fierce passage it is only fair to myself to ; and

a

imprudence] negligence

m


(FROM say

that neither when

even

I

Pmitan's

da-fewould of my

and

have

TO

1839.)

149

this,nor any other time fiercest,could I have

at

was

ears,

1833

the

I think

sight of

the death

been

of

me.

of my

life,not ofi' a

cut

even

Spanish Again,when a

autoone

and

friends,of liberal

opinions,wrote to evangelical I was the course on expostulate vrith me taking,I said that we would ride over him and his, as Othniel prevailed over Chushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia. Again, I would have no dealingswith my brother, and I put my I said, conduct St. Paul bids us avoid a syllogism. upon "

10

those

who

I must

marriage

of

Church.

No

me

divisions

cause

avoid

under

sister

a

who

had

divisions

cause

you

;

I dissuaded

you."

a

seceded

the

from

White, who different circumstances, now

wonder

such

that

therefore

:

attendingthe

lady from

Anglican

had

Blanco

kiiown

hearing the at the change

that I was general course taking,was amazed which he recognizedin me. He speaks bitterly and unfairly of me in his letters contemporaneously with the first years of the Movement in 1839, when looking back, he ; but of me,

terms

uses 20

which

it would

of the

one

Petitioners

aimual

Emancipation, his sudden bigotswas inexplicableto manifestation made and 30

be

hardly modest

in

me

he says of me in praise is it not that what quote, were but part of a whole of me. He this account says : "In party [the anti-Peel,in 1829] I found, to my great surprise, dear friend, Mr. Newman of Oriel. As he had been my to

him

of the

with That

me.

for Catholic

Parliament the

violent

most

change

the

was

first

revolution,which has suddenly of the leading persecutors of Dr. Hampden,

one

the most

to

union

active

mental

and

influential

of that

member

associa-

tion, called the Puseyite party, from which we have those for the Times. strange productions,entitled.Tracts very AVhile statingthese public facts,my heart feels a pang at the

recollection

between which

that his

continue

affectionate and

man

and

mutual

myself

; not

a

friendship

friendship,

allow principlesof orthodoxy could he whom to now regard regards as one,

in

doomed character

of the

excellent

of

to

perdition. Such

eternal

orthodoxy.

19 Avhen] on the midst of blame

21

is but 23

mischief

What

part These

of are

a

is the must

A\hole account the Author's

[]

of

him

to

ably inevit-

venomous

it create

in

me]

in

occurs


bad

a

OF

HISTORY

150

and

and

heart

the

of the

one

ablest

of the

one

mind, when

narrow

evil,in

for

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

of

refined

John

it

I have

was

which was

of my state

I took

up,

let

I. First

by

;

and

its

I

given

a

of it.

repent of.

The

to

as

now,

a

the of

beliefs

guiltattaches for

my

and

main ever

not.

a

mockery.

fact of

the

first

remark

point on persistence

:

of its truth the

which to

me,

the

as

I

but

;

has

who

man

have not

in

I had

since

only for

conduct

multiform

I have

here

with

was

ciple anti-dogmaticprin-

was a

battle

my

proportion then

enter religion ; I cannot a as religion ; religion,

the

:

of

satisfaction

As

well

father, as

a

into the idea of any other sentiment, is to me

mere

can

devotion

there

be

without

filiallove the

fact

I held in 1816, I held in 1833, God, I shall hold it to the end. under I was Dr. Whately's influence,I had no Even when temptation to be less zealous for the great dogmas of the

of

a

and

Supreme Being.

I hold

faith,and 19

in

21

my

the

in 1864.

at

various

20

in

nothing to retract, and nothing to of the Movement is as dear principle I have changed in many was. things: the age of fifteen,dogma has From I know : principleof my religion

fundamental

dream

without

"

slur upon

a

In

But

have

it

in this I have

Bort

very

:

sufficient test

it.

sort of

I

other

no

confidence, but

consequence

me

This

I make

persuasionin

far

so

up, vain

Here

about

feelingthat

been

with

do

recollect,and

the

I meant

it is at least

strong

a

of dogma principle

belief is

certain

so

1832

no

iii.

(Vol.

nothing to

three

were

developments.

departurefrom

that

!"

Newman

confidence in my position; the position what definitely which lo the propositions about

and

liberalism

certain.

was

given

a

the

was

liberalism

felt

tually effec-

bosoms,

firm more

These

confident.

so

which

me

spoken

now

in

so

doubt.

and I

of

lectual, amiable, the intel-

the

minds, in Henry

have adds that I would p. 131.) He which I do not him, a circumstance much

work

can

benevolent

most

What

Please

times

I used

to resist such

trains

of

beliefs]of the truth of opinions multiform conduct in] all the various proceedingswhich were movement this first head 24 Movement] 22 here] under

30


(FROM his

thought on obscure

to

the

part,

Movement

seemed

as

Such

them.

TO

1833

to

the

was

151

1839.)

or wrongly) (rightly principleof

me

fundamental

of 1833.

in the truth of a certain confident Secondly,I was of definite religious teaching, based upon this foundation ments dogma ; viz. that there was a visible Church (,)with sacra2.

rites which

and

10

Fathers

other

the

on

the

was

of invisible grace.

of

doctrine

the

I

of

1833

changed. the

doctrine, of which

main

began

was

the Tracts

When

I

am

(on the Anghcan Prayer Book, speaking, upon Scripture, St. on Ignatius'sEpistles[,and on the Anglican and) Prayer Book]. (1)As to the existence of a visible Church, in Tract 11, I especially argued out the point from Scripture, viz. from the Acts of the Apostlesand the Epistles.(2)As Prayer

the

which

I

Book.

appealed

Bishop

Visitation

the

Sacramental

and

Sacraments

the

to

"

says,

to

the

Receive

Service, which

rites,I stood on the Service, in

Ordination the

Holy

teaches

Ghost

"

;

to

and

confession

Baptismal Service,in which the Priest after baptism as regenerate ; to the speaks is receiving Communion Catechism, in which Sacramental to verily(and indeed)the Body and Blood of Christ ; do told in which to the Commination are we Service, the of penance works to Collects, Epistles,and ; Gospels, to the calendar and rubricks, (portionsof the Prayer Book,) wherein we find the festivals of the Apostles, other Saints, and notice of certain days of fastingand absolution

; to

of the

30

channels

doctrine

but

;

strengthenedin me, not for the Times I rested 20

the

are

Scripture,of the thought Here again, early Church, and of the Anglican Church. certain I have not on as now changed in opinion ; I am in 1833, and have never ceased to be this point as I was siastical certain. In 1834 and the followingyears I put this ecclebroader doctrine on a basis, after reading Laud, and other Anglican divines on Bramhall, and Stillingfleet the one hand, and after prosecuting the study of the this

that

I

the

child

"

"

"

"

abstinence.

(3.)And 40

it upon various me

:

the

further,as

to

Epistlesof

St.

ways.

One

speaking

of

passage of

cases

Episcopalsystem, I founded Ignatius,which inculcated it in especially impresseditself upon

the

disobedience

to

ecclesiastical


he authority,

who

the

knows

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

does not deceive that Bishop man visible, practisesrather upon the Bishop Inquestionis not with flesh,but with God, secret heart." I wished to act on this principle

sees, but and so the

he

I may

letter,and

the

MY

"A

says,

he

Avhom

to

OF

HISTORY

X52

with

say

that

confidence

I

never

it. I loved to act in the sightof conscious^ transgressed Bishop, as if [I was, as] it were[, in] the sightof God. my It was of my one special(supportsand) safeguardsagainst myself [and of my supports]; I could not go very wrong I had

while that I

put

to

reason

pleasinghim.

It

before

a

I

set

over

in

was

me

lu

to rule

pleasehim personally, by the Divine Hand. engagements, not only

observing my clerical they were engagements, but because I considered of my Bishop. myself simply as the servant and instrument much I did not care for the Bench of Bishops,except as they might be the voice of my Chm'ch : nor should I have I

strict in

respect dis-

no

obedience

formal

mere

but I desired to

me,

him

I considered

as

that

believe not

was

was

because

much

cared

for

Provincial

a

Council

;

for

nor

a

Diocesan

all these

Synod presided over

matters 20 by my Bishop ; but what to me was jure ecclesiastico, the voice of iny Bishop in his own jure divino was person. other ; the no My own Bishop was Pope ; I knew my of the Apostles,the Vicar of Christ. This was successor but a practicalexhibition of the Anglican theory of Church I had Government, as already drawn it out myself(,after various AnglicanDivines). This continued all through my at length in 1845 I wrote to Bishop Wiseman, course ; when in whose Vicariate I found version, conmyseK, to announce my I could find nothing better to say to him, than that 30 I would obey the Pope as I had obeyed my own Bishop in the Anglican Church. him to was My duty point of my his disapprobation was honour the one thing which ;

seemed

to

1 could and

not

honest

by having had

whom and

2 U

bear.

upon in the

I believe

feeling;

and

all my

time

I had

a

out, to any

memory

be

to

me

I have

for

it to

have

been I

consequence

ecclesiastical

choice, I should

a

was

a

my

generous rewarded

superiora man, out preferred,

have

other

Bishop on the Bench, and specialaffection,Dr. Bagot "

i.SGi]Avith 1864

sightof

in

for whose a

man

of

{anothercopy), 1S65.

Bishop] as feelingmyself in

my

Bishop'ssight


noble which

into

than

it

I have

of

in

my retractation

no

I

am

as

now

dogma,

I

as

Articles to my with divine a 3. But

was

his

May

as

I

he

trials

my

not

was

with

him

be

name

ever

to

announce

"

about

I have

said

Pope

Sermon

that

its main

to

as

point again

here

outline.

in my in 1833 and

acceptance of the principle now 1816, so again I am as visible Church, of the authority of of the sacraments, of the religious I

as

but

;

I have

in 1833.

was

the old ones,

to

as

the

I have

which

added

I then

third point on which and utterly renounced

then view of the Church my it as exactly as I can. When

since,

the second

on

held

faith,remain.

which

speak

remarks

clear

Creed

now,

1833, and

the

in

me

rested, I observe

in my belief of a Bishops, of the grace worth of works of penance,

upon

be.

concludingmy confidence

firm

20

considerate

as

with

own fault, that personal relations

happiness to

my

now

which

While

was my familiar

153

!

And on

it

more

was

blessed

and

sympathized

ever

;

1839.)

kind-hearted

as

He

followed

brought

10

and

mind, noble.

was

TO

1833

(FROM

already, and

after

Antichrist.

to be

that

effect.

At

of Rome I

I stood

in

trampled ; "

I will

as young, grown up, I thought Christmas I preached 1824-5

I

was

was

(But) In

1827 I accepted eagerly Year, which people many thought too charitable, Speak gentlyof thy sister's fall." From the time that I knew I got less and less bitter Froude the subject. I spoke (successively, but I cannot tell in on what order or at what dates)of the Roman Church as being the cause bound of Antichrist," as being one of up with the antichrists foretold by St. John, as being many influenced the spiritof Antichrist," and as by having a

the

to

the

in

stanza

Christian "

"

"

30

"

"

something her.

From

"

very

"

"

Antichristian

unchristian

or

"

about

boyhood and in 1824 I considered, after Protestant authorities,that St. Gregory I. about a.d. 600 the first Pope that was was Antichrist,and again that he I thought also a great and holy man was ; (but)in 1832-3

the Church

by deliberate 8

my

of Rome

the

Council

judgment

observe] repeat

was

bound

up

of Trent. I

35

gave and

up

with

When the

the it

notion

was

cause

christ of Anti-

that

in my

altogetherin

again that] though, in spite of this,


HISTORY

154

OF

shape,that

any

when

it,even

RELIGIOUS

I had

reason

my

ordered

so

from me, to 1843.

prejudice,I think up during the Tract Movement,

of her

offence

Blessed

the

devotion, both

in

and

the

to the

of God

honours

theirs, at the

undue

of

science con-

Moreover,

which

at

the

essence

she

paid

to

Saints

the more I grew ; and and to Our Lady, the more

Saints

as practices, gravely shocked,

be

must

renouncing sort

a

thought

I at the Roman

impatient was creations

in the

consist

to

Virgin

I

to her

attached

shrinkingfrom

a

or

least

OPINIONS

specialreproachwas

some

tell ; but

I caiuiot

name,

MY

veneration

if those

glorified

if

could

which

of

pain

they

be

lo

the

were

objects. On

other

the

mind.

In

alluding,I him, he

hand,

Hurrell

Froude

always tending to

was a

of

passage

observes

"I

:

I used

think

idea

versations con-

of my

out

his letters from

of

one

what

to

suppose,

in his familiar

the

rub

abroad,

say in

to

people

oppositionto injudiciouswho

are

Catholics for worshipping Saints, againstthe Roman These honouring the Virgin and images, "c. things perhaps be idolatrous ; I cannot make up my mind 20

talk and may about

it ;

but

to

mind

my

it is the

it is

practicalidolatry,as

written,

Carnival '

the

that

people

is real

sat

down

"

The drink, and rose Carnival, up to play.' I observe in passing,is,in fact, one of those very excesses, to which, for at least three centuries, religiousCatholics in the life of have ever see opposed themselves, as we St. Philip, to say nothing of the present day ; but this he to

and

eat

did not the

know.

to

come

point of as

the

free, as I

when

was

venerable mj'' an

I

Pontiffs the

consider

Council

of

I learned

of Trent

be

to

to

when

course,

history of Christian Rome, I rejoiced,to speak in their

admire I had

the

turning-3o found myself praise. Then,

abroad, the sight of so many great places, shrines, and noble churches, much impressed

imagination.

And foot

at six in the

was

and,

;

was

expeditionon

voices,and

Froude

from

Moreover,

great medieval

singing. 27

across

I

morning I looked

in.

Of

heart

my

came

It

touched

was

wild

some

upon

he did not]

small

church

crowded, and the

was

course

a

also.

country

it

we

was

did

the Mass, not

then

in

Making Sicily,

; I heard

congregation though I did


it at the time.

not know I

10

in my

weary

155

days

did

nor

Palermo,

at

I had

which

comfort

I

received

forget

ever

it.

of the doctrine and Then, again, her zealous maintenance and I recognized as Apostolic, the rule of celibacy,which her faithful agreement with Antiquity in so many (other) dear to me, was which an were argument points [besides,] of Rome. of the great Church well as a plea in favour as her ; but tender feelingstowards I learned to have Thus affected at all. My judgment was not still my was reason viewed when an as institution,as truly as it her, against had

ever

This in

been.

its dependencieson gratitude; how could

love, and could

I

expressed "

that

worthy

loveth

bid father

\^dthstand

or

mother '

we

for the

it,but

preferIt

could

How^

of me.'

us

sidering Con-

Church

our

we

mth

communion

itseli,which

He

from

refrain

we

rushing into

Truth '

affection

admiration, reverence, it,as we do, being melted into tenderness,

and

of Rome

and

and

reason

early Tracts, publishedJuly, 1834. high giftsand the strong claims of the

of the

one

how

between

conflict

the

20

1839.)

Churches,

frequentingthe

in

And,

ungratefulfor the

not

w^as

TO

1833

(FROM

to

the

than

more

learn

to

be

of

words world

whole

Me,

?

is not

severe,

and

against judgment,' but for the warning of Moses should a preach new even divinelygifted teacher, who of St. Paul even against Angels gods ; and the anathema doctrine ? and Apostles, who should bring in a new something like that of Records, No. 24. My feelingwas is obligedin a court of justiceto bear witness who a man, I have when said, now, against a friend ; or like my own

execute

"

"

^^

and

shall say,

so

many

things on

which

I had

rather

be

silent.

then, of simple conscience, though it went I felt it to be a duty to protest against feelings, besides this, it was a of Rome. But the Church duty, a because the prescriptionof such a protest was living Church, as expressedin not simply principleof my own As

a

matter,

againstmy

a

catena, but

voice

(by) a

consensus

of her

divines, and

as

an

(by) the

sary necespeople. Moreover, such a protest was integralportion of her controversial basis ; for

of her

36

in not

simply] not simijlyin


OF

HISTORY

156

RELIGIOUS

MY

OPINIONS

testants Gilpin,that Proand solid reason firm give any of the separationbesides this, to wit, that the Pope is But while I thus thought such a protest to Antichrist," be based upon truth, and to be a religious duty, and a rule of Anghcanism, and a necessityof the case, I did not at all attacked for doing it ; Hurrell Froude like the work. me and, besides, I felt that my language had a vulgar and rhetorical look about it. I believed, and reallymeasured, I

the

adopted

a

words, when

temptation,

much the

in

order

I had

that

I knew

but

;

hand,

lo

as say againstRome protect myself against

to

to

charge of Popery.

And

I

now

introduced

come

point, for which I have I felt about Rome. feelings the substantial justiceof the charges againsther, that I considered them to

in

I advanced

safeguardand

a

arise

the

from

to

the

subject of

the

confidence

such which be

other

could,

I

ever

as

them

I used the

on

Bernard

able to

not

were

my

of

argument

"

very

my

that

assurance

an

freest

was

Froude

said

Popery. for

I

I

saying :

were

"

answered, True, we awhile, and go on

but

it ;

men

that

to be

seem

I

used it

ever

call

to

astounded

x^glicanprinciples.All the world and

could

harm

no

what

expositionof

what

at was

20

sheer

making straight

to a deep you will come makes real approximation

path, which I urged in addition,that many Anglican of Popery, yet had died in their divines had been accused Anghcanism ; ^now, the ecclesiastical principleswhich I professed, they had professedalso ; and the judgment which they had formed, I had formed also. against Rome Whatever faults then (had to be suppliedin)the (existing) 30 Anglican system [might have], and however boldlyI might point them out, any how that system was not vulnerable in spiteof her. the side of Rome, and might be mended on chasm

the

across

impossible." And "

In that it

very

might It

seem,

and

elements

with

was

that

I fancied

agreement of the

30

faults]deficiencies

32

was

nearer

to

two

forms

of

faith,close

as

reallybe found, on examination, the of an essential discordance. principles this supreme persuasionon my mind that there could be no rashness in giving to the would

not

vulnerable

the

specialcreed

on

the side]would

not

37

in the process

be

brought

supreme] absolute


world

in fullest

Fathers.

the

I

measure

the

thought

that

substantiallyfounded Fathers

the

had

could

of

come

1839.) and

teaching the

157

Church

the

writings of England was

of

them. I did not know all that upon I felt that, even but when their

said,

happened

tenets

TO

1833

(FROM

differ from

to

the

them.

reporting

I

harm

Anglican, no

said

what

out

I

was

of they had said ; I spoke vaguely and imperfectly, what I thought they said, or what of them had said. some of bending the crooked stick Any how, no harm could come in the process the other way, of straightening it ; it was impossibleto break it. If there was thing in the any Fathers of a startlingcharacter, it would be only for admit of explanation(,or it might suggest a time ; it would to Anglicans) not lead to something profitable ; it could clear

10

I express

Rome. the

Preface

this view the

to

first

of the

volume,

in

matter

which

I

a

of

passage

edited, of the strangeness at

of the Fathers. Speaking of the of sight,presented to the Anglican mind, of some their principles and opinions,I bid the reader go forward hopefully,and not indulge his criticism till he knows

Library

first

20

about

more

them, than "

evil,"I say,

the

than

have

do

no

to

others, and, with

more

steadilyand when, cftepoiv, in

anomalous

as

" he will learn at the outset. Since of the case we can itself,

is in the nature

patience,and the

racer

hopefully to we

the

in

the

trust, all that

details, will

recommend

the

at

patience

Tragedy, look

event,

raj

is inharmonious

length

be

ward for-

re'Aet TrtWtr

and

practically

smoothed." Such

30

the

position,such the defences, such the I thought that it was both incumbent on possibleto us, to meet that onset of Liberal us, and of which all in immediate we were ]Drinciples, anticipation, in the University. And in the Church whether or during the first year of the Tracts, the attack the University upon was

tactics,by which

began.

In November

the second on

Edition

1834

of

was

sent

to

by

me "

a

Pamphlet entitled,

the

ReligiousDissent, with particularreference to the in the University." In this Pamphlet

tests religious

author

Observations of

use

it

was

12

character, it]character, this

18

presented to the Anglican mind] in the judgment of the present day 35 the author 1864, 1865] Dr. Hampden 1873 us] for us

31 to


OF

HISTORY

158

that

maintained,

"

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

is distinct

from Theological a common Opinion," pp. ; that it is but propositionsmethodically prejudiceto identifytheological and stated,with the simplereligion deduced of Christ,p. I ; to that under be placed the Theological Opinion were

Religion

1, 28, 30, "c.

doctrine,p. 27, and

Trinitarian

the

Unitarian,

p. 19 ; that

insisted on, theological opinion (formally) opening for pp. 20, 21 ; that speculationalways left an improvement, p. 22 ; that the Church of England was not dogmatic in its spirit,though the wording of its formu- lo of dogmatism, p. 23. often carry the sound laries may in the following I acknowledged the receiptof this work a

dogma

letter "

: "

kindness

The

with

late

your

will

a

was

which

has

led

to

pamphlet, encourages if I take

forgive me,

the

your me

presenting me that

hope

to

it affords

opportunity

you of

expressingto you my very sincere and deep regret that it been published. Such an opportunityI could not let serious thoughts slipwithout being unfaithful to my own

has

the

on "

subject.

While

I

20

respect the

of

tone

piety which

the

Pamphlet

ings not trust myself to put on paper my feelin it ; tending,as they contained principles tian to make do, in my opinion,altogether shipwreck of Christhe first faith. I also lament, that, by its appearance, and that peace interrupting step has been taken towards mutual good understanding which has prevailedso long in this place, and which, if once seriouslydisturbed, will be succeeded intractable,because by dissensions the more in the minds those who innovation of resist by so justified a feelingof imperative duty." I displays, about

Since

dare

the

that

time

alas !

Phaeton can

sun

;

the

steep of heaven.

we,

Such

was

only

his

the

old

could

not

have

orthodoxy been

on,

11

the

watch

of the down

him

he

lands, which

of the assault

of Oxford

broken,

and

is

driving.

the commencement

upon

got into the chariot

Meanwhile,

suffer from

passing over,

has look

as

and

it was,

may] might

of Liberalism

England for

so

and

;

long

a

it

time,


1833

(FROM had

not

great change taken

a

view

of

take

the lead than

wish

For

resistingit. of

a

be any

to

had

I

;

leading author thing else.

I

never

the circumstances

of

from

school

a

the

not

was

was,

This

159

alreadystarted

myseK,

party

a

1839.)

place in

which

that counter-movement

more

TO

is my

the

person

to

first to last, did

nor

;

I

ever

of the

account

own

of

with

I say it, neither as intendingto disown the of what if ungrateful to was done, nor as responsibility

matter, and

those 10

who

did

and

it is

I

have

with

of

of

a

they

had

down

to

form

years

with

what

I said

private

already

learned

ing foot-

a

time

became

Others of

curates

this

In

opinions

and

their

took

themselves.

tutors

for

conversation,

due

themselves.

and

country,

the

principleswere

my in

turn, they preached the

the

private, junior

my

with

distance, on

or

that

myself,

other

which went

parishes.

had down London from parcels of the Tracts, publications. They placed them in the shops of

local

booksellers, got them

them

to

clerical and

Rectors

with

viewed was

it had me

them,

their brother relation to

of my not

rule."

At

nor]

23

or

which .

.

.

but

this

Movement,

floatingopinion ;

a

Years

after,a friend,writing

Thou

the

the

have

the

been

me

of

such

to

thought about

...

.

.

.

me,

I had

exercise

an

in turn, they] their learned themselves] with which become .

if

people raise,but

a

that he wrote

way

power,

verse

own

my

a

he

as

excesses,

couldst

the time in

less their

or

would

disciples, appliedto

specialimpediments

Thus

curates.

myself,was

"

introduced

newspapers, converted more

a

Gregory Nazianzen,

24-25

into

meetings, and

It never power. in my remained hands. in remonstrance at not

couldst

8

ten

they

and

St.

for

through friends,younger,

was

Undergraduates in

became

status, in

Then

it

heard

others.

degree, and new

Thus

part, than

most

spreading. They

to

of

point

own

my

lived

University,I had lived public,pupils,and

without College,

equality.

told it to

it

had

of my

some

of my

fellows

30

"

deserved, I realized

personal friends

my

the

I

:

I

been

is the custom

20

follows

as

than

me

biddingthan

at my

historyfrom

giving my

am

of

more

and

sake

; the greater part of the time, at no time influenced, not influencing ; and acted on others, without their actingupon As me.

among

nay,

made

time

for my

myself. I sight,and I had

that

at

more

.

.

of

in turn

they acquainted


OF

HISTORY

160

power

;

but

at

MY

could

time

no

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

I exercise

others

over

that

which under the circumstances was imperatively authority, Live and let live. ever was, required. My great principle for a leader. had the staidness or dignitynecessary I never To the last I never recognizedthe hold I had over young Of late years I have read and heard that they even men. imitated

in various

me

it, and

I think

knew

being

our

well how

too

the heart

to have

I felt great impatience at would not allow that we were

me.

of

quite unconscious

was

friends

be at the news,

should

disgustedI

I

ways.

immediate

my

called

to tell

party, lo

a

and (such). I had a lounging, I exercised no free-and-easyway of carrying things on. the Tracts. I did not confine sufficient censorshipupon them to the writingsof such persons as agreed in all things with myself ; and, as to my own Tracts, I printedon them who notice to the effect,that any one a pleased,might what

make

would

he

use

of

reprint them

and

them,

chose, under

if he

alterations

the

scope could not be damaged by such the same (with me) afterwards, as

main was

publications.For

two

I furnished

years

a

a

with their

that

conviction

It

process.

regards

other

20

number

certain

of sheets for the British Critic from while

gentleman

a

who, however, had

scarcelyan

was

sympathy

no

myself, from suffered

I suffered

which a

in

not

for

my

against the

like new

my

the

so

handled When

at

to

Editor

was

first

very

Jesuits

tone.

Church

I

When

Tracts.

a

article

an

I did

curate

1841,

of the writer who

the hands

into

the

to

man

unfavourable critique had been publisheda few propriety,because I had

to

feelingof

a

with

1838

appear which Justification, from

myself and my friends, of splendidtalent, acquaintanceof mine, and

editor, a

was

work

my

months

put it.

I

number, on

before, the

book

Afterwards

30

in it,of appear I had to provide

to

Littlemore, I engaged

fault of his, who, before he (had) entered either in depreciation into his charge,preached a sermon, of it. of Dr. Pusey's view of baptismal regeneration, or a

friend, by

I showed me

in the

they were

a

no

similar

easiness

separate volumes able,learned, and 9 the

as

of

to

the

Editors

Fleury'sChurch

excellent

men,

news] such proceedings

but

who

helped History ;

their after


TO

1833

(FROM

161

1839.)

choice of them little my was had of any intimate have by any and myself. I shall them agreement of opinion between in its place concerning the remark the same have to make

history has

how

shown,

influenced

I could

notion

Lives of the EnglishSaints,which subsequentlyappeared. I have said of inconsistent with what All this may seem for it ; but there not bound to account fierceness. I am my before me, fierce in act, yet tolerant and have been men in their reasonings; at least,so I read history. moderate 10

such

However,

These

Tracts. of them

the case, and was at first startingwere

such

the

end

ineffective ;

and

at

the

its effect upon

short,hasty,and of the

year,

some

when

volume, they had a slovenlyappearance. under these circumstances, that Dr. Pusey joined It was him well since 1827-8, and had felt for I had known us. collected

him

into

a

I used

admiration.

enthusiastic

an

to call him

6 /xeya?.

his scholarlike his immense diligence, great learning, of rehgion, overcame mind, his simple devotion to the cause was me joy, when in the great of course ; and my His

20

last

days of with

cause

His

to make common disposition Fasting appeared as one

a

Tract

on

He 21. date of December fullyassociated in the Movement

series with

the

he showed

1833 us.

the

however, I think he publishedhis Tract and 1836, when started us

the

positionand

a

had But

a

Fathers.

the

Without

name.

any

Dr.

resistance

serious

He

at

him

we

once

Pusey

was

a

and

Professor

and

of

to

gave

should

Liberal

the

to

till 1835

Baptism,

on

at the early date chance, especially

no

making 30

Library of

of

not,

was

have

1834, of

aggression.

of Christ Church

Canon

;

of his deep religious influence in consequence his Professorship, of his charities, seriousness, the munificence

he had

vast

a

family connexions, and University authorities. He was to his

Mr. and

might have been,

Rose

which

relations

easy

with

all that

the Movement

addition, indispensable

friendship wanting to Mr. Rose, the intimate had comfamiliar dailysocietyof the persons who menced

was

the

it. And which

he had

lies in the

loyal affectionateness.

specialclaim

that

livingpresence There

27 APOLOGIA

with that

his

was

no] little Q

their attachment,

on

of

a

henceforth

faithful and a

man

who


HISTORY

162

OF

be the head

could

part

of the

and

not

individuals

but

were

the

in

Mr.

or

of

contest

host

that

and

;

resist the

Movement Such

our

the

was

he

to

inferior to

use

without to

of the

which

was

a

Sir

him

Robert

of mob

sort

a

togetherin

meet

Government,

;

order

we

of the

the

ment Move-

them.

conferred

he

the

was

of

with

placeby rightamong nor

He

it.

the

surprisehow no significancyto the lo the common expression, to give a name, a form,

able

was

side

asked

attached

benefit

externally;

the

only

was,

liberal acts

took

furnished

gained for it a University. In 1829

when

to

who

one

world, and

on

year

side

to what was personality various partieshad

a

and

himself

in

was

the

to

peoplein every new opinions;

partiesin the R(obert)Wilberforce, or Mr. Newman they ranged themselves ; and, when

either on Inglis,men they got there, and fact ; but Dr. Pusey a

there

other

from recognition

Froude,

adopting the

were

front

a

OPINIONS

of the zealous

centre

who

but

so,

with

Movement Mr.

and

country,

only

RELIGIOUS

MY

on

internal of

man

advantage at all largedesigns; he had

hopeful,sanguine mind ; he had no fear of others ; he haunted was by no intellectual perplexities.People are a

to

apt than

that

say

he

is

the

to

nearer

now

he

was

once

; I pray Catholic

that, in his I knew him, he

I believe that I Dr.

became

a

Pusey ? doing as

"

I had

he may than he

and

reason never

the Catholic Church

that

Church

was

Catholic, I

be

near

then

asked,

I did not

see

;

all the

it at

to

day

one

was

judgment, often

was

I said that

when

to

nearer

God

20

all. "

far for

time When

What

symptoms

of of

essential in the leader of

able. thought uncharithis positionis, (as it is,)a first so it. The most a party. Dr. Pusey had

remarkable

this,was

his

confidence

If

his

done, I

instance

in

of

subsequentdefences

advanced

a

considerable

sometimes

was

his statement, in one of when too it had in the direction of Rome, that

of the way

Movement,

"

its stationariness." was hopeful peculiarities among his subjective view of it. He made it in good faith ; it was He saw that there felt at once. Dr. Pusey'sinfluence was be careful to more more more sobriety, gravity, ought its

18 was this Dr.

31 Dr. Pusey had it] advantage] were advantages 35 its 33 too] moreover Pusey possessedpre-eminently hopeful1SG4]its most hopeful1864 {anothercopy),its more hopeful1865 .

.

.

.

.

.


TO

1833

(FROM

1839.)

163

in the Tracts and in the responsibility was through him that the character of the Tracts was he gave to us his Tract changed. When on Fasting,he put his initials to it. In 1835 he published his elaborate Treatise on Baptism, which followed by was other Tracts from different authors, if not of equallearning, and of yet of equal power appositeness. The Catenas which the in occur by projected Anglican divines(, me,) executed Series,[though projected,I think, by me,] were

pains,more whole

10

with

Fathers

but

: "

it

me

direct

I

Dr.

and

me

made

at

done. the

and once

the Rome.

in

they

temper

work

set

a

are

but here have

digression

no

;

was

could

would

the attacks

make

not

their had

in which

one

in not

which move

some

"

of them

ing demand-

authors, such elaborate

we a

changed. brought

was

stood

step

in

to

ment treat-

till both

appearance

I

set

the

about

with

out

Church

comfort, tillthis

precision of was

of absolute

necessityand a plainduty (from soon as possiblea largestatement, and re-assure our friends,and repel

encourage of our opponents. the

us,

Tracts

and

A

the

cry

was

heard

on

all sides

writingsof the Fathers would lead us to become aware Catholics,before we were of it. This of the was loudly expressed by members Evangelicalparty, who in 1836 had joined us in making a ment appointprotest in Convocation against a memorable of the Prime These then Minister. clergymen even avowed their desire,that the next time they were brought to give a vote, it might be in order to put up to Oxford down the Popery of the Movement. There another was of

that

example which largerand more of the Movement principles

of years, their

and

the

others, on

its fortunes

relation

We It

did

to provide as first),

which

;

able to introduce he held in it,which

of the

course

receivingfrom

that

a

writing

not

am

been

Pusey'sinfluence

in defence

followed

and

I

of the Movement

or

narrative.

careful works

its

to have

suspect it was

which

Pusey

of the place which bearing on myself,that they

a

my

set me,

myself.

to

return

of Dr.

from

40

I must

historyeither is a pleasureto

so

30

In 1836 greater accuracy and method. for Translation of the a great project

at

his

the

reminiscences

20

It

like aim

a

advertised

he

of

sense

Movement.


HISTORY

164

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

and quite as important. Monsignore Wiseman, still,

reason

with

the acuteness

that

great Prelate, had

returned

England

to

London

and

the

zeal which

be

might

anticipatedwhat 1836, had

in

doctrines

expected from

coming, had

was

delivered

Lectures

in

of

Catholicism,and created an impressionthrough the country, shared in by ourselves, had that we for our opponents in controversy,not only the our brethren, but our hereditaryfoes. These were on

"

circumstances, which

led to my The Prophetical publicationof viewed relatively office of the Church to Romanism lo Popular Protestantism."

and

This

work

employed

of 1834

the

to

for three

me

end

years, from

1836(,and

of

the

ning begin-

published

was

in

1837). It was composed, after a careful consideration and comparison of the principalAnglican divines of the 17th century. It was first written in the shape of controversial correspondencewith a learned French Priest ; then it was at St. Mary's : lastly, re-cast, and delivered in Lectures with

considerable

re-written It

for

to trace

attempts

Christian

confuse

the

Anglican can Roman so

additions, it

to

rudimental

be

other.

to each

lines

as

little said to tend The

Anglican.

the

In this way

Church

of

to the

them

use

Roman

as

as

and

it shows

that

that

the the

Roman,

as

the

Volume

is not

Tract

71

spiritof

Rome,

which

on

togetheris impossible,and

two

the

gentleto

was 20

the

out

teachingproceed,and to determining the relation of the

Anglican systems to

and

faith and

of

means

retrenchments

publication.

published

the contrary, it is very fierce ; and year before ; on that the Volume this I attribute to the circumstance is 30

the

theologicaland assumes

points in dispute,and

on

the

as

well

as

of difference.

is, that in my

it),not of its

the didactic, whereas little and grants as

so

much

creed, as

A

I deal with

Volume

in its formal

Tract

is written

as

if

4 in

"

much

as

troversial, con-

possible

points of agreement

on

and

decrees

in its traditional

teachingas representedby the

insists further

Tract, being as

more

direct "

Romanism and

action

in the

and

reason

(as I

call

substance

its authorized

prominent writers ; whereas the differences of the discussing its

1836] by 1836

"


with

Churches is

There

Roman

to

had

reconciliation

a

between them. I will state presently.

largerscope

a

It

165

1839.)

too, which

reason

this Volume

But

the

view

a

further

a

TO

1833

(FROM

than

that of

opposing

attempt at commencing the Anglican idea, and based upon Mr. Palmer, about the same time,

system.

an

was

system of theologyon Anglican authorities. was projectinga work of a similar nature in his own way. It was published,I think, under the title, A Treatise on As was the Christian Church." to be expected from the most a learned, most careful composition ; author, it was and in its form, I should say, polemical. So happily at of the Roman least did he follow the logical method Schools, in his Treatise on Perrone that Father dogmatic theology, of the true cast, and saluted recognizedin him a combatant him as a foe worthy of being vanquished. Other soldiers in that field he seems to have thought little better than the a

"

10

of the

lanzknechts

good hearted 20

man

middle

When

reason.

at

ages,

I

Rome

at

a

and, I dare that

knew

later

say,

excellent

time, he

with and

allowed

very

kindme

to

lightthoughts of me, which he had once had, by encroaching on his valuable time with my theologicalquestions. As to Mr. Palmer's it which no was one book, Anglican could write but himseK, in no sense, if I recollect aright,a tentative work. The ground of controversy was cut into squares, and then method This is the proper objectionhad its answer. every and the to adopt in teachingauthoritatively men ; young in fact was for students in theology. My intended work of a directlytentative own book, on the other hand, was I wished and empiricalcharacter. to build up an Anglican theologyout of the stores which already lay cut and hewn the ground, the past toil of great divines. To do this upon him

put

to

ample

for those

penance

"

30

could at was

that and "

be the work

not

under There

received

of

one

man

; much

less,could

it be

well it Anglican theology,however done. (This)I fully(recognized; and, while I) trusted of doctrine would turn statements out (tobe) true my phrase, important ; yet I wrote, to use the common

once

into

correction." was

another

37

motive

important

;

for my

of publishing,

yet] important, still

a

personal


166

HISTORY

OF

nature, which

I think

along felt, that

all

in not

MY

RELIGIOUS

I should there

OPINIONS

mention. an

was

I felt

intellectual

then, and cowardice

basis in reason for my belief,and a moral in not avowing that basis. I should have felt if I did not bringit out, whatever less than a man, it This is one why I wrote and pubprincipalreason lished

having a

cowardice

myseK was.

"

the

PropheticalOffice." It was on the same feeling, springof 1836, at a meeting of residents on the subject of the strugglethen proceeding(againsta Whig wanted all merely to lo one us appointment),(when) some act on collegeand conservative grounds (as I understood as him), with as few published statements possible: I had comanswered, that the person whom we were mitted resisting himseK in writing,and that we ought to commit ourselves too. This again was for the publicaa main reason tion of Tract 90. Alas ! it was portion for whole my without basis for my satisfactory years to remain any in a state of moral sickness, neither religious profession, able to acquiescein Anglicanism,nor able to go to Rome.

that

in the

But

I bore

to

it,tillin

If here

me.

I often

fullybring out,

I submit

occurred

except

when

speak,or

how or

to be

to the

way

made

was

the

for consideration

I

in

was

clear

went

on,

I did

not

whether

20

this

how great difficulties,

to

silent,with due regardfor the position

of feelings

opportunityto say

an

my

objectedto me, that as time writingshinted at things which

in my

of mind

of time

course

it be

more

others. this

on

However,

have

I may

subject. But

to return

"

PropheticalOffice." Volume to my : speak in the Introduction "It is proposed," I say, the 30 to offer helps towards formation of a recognizedAnglican theology in one of its departments. The present state of our divinityis as follows : the most vigorous,the clearest,the most fertile been minds, have through God's mercy employed in the service of our Church too as reverential and holy, : minds and with Ancient as Truth, and as well fully imbued versed in the writingsof the Fathers, as they were lectually intelindeed, for gifted. This is God's great mercy I thus

"

"

which

3

we

must

ever

having]finding

be

7

thankful.

on] from

Primitive

12

doctrine

has

possible:]possible,


167

1839.)

TO

1833

(FROM

been explored for us in every direction,and the original of the Gospel and the Church patientlybrought principles to light. But one thing is still wanting : our champions and teachers have lived in stormy times : poUticaland

other their

have of

10

our

for

remains

harmonize, and how

to

use

;

acted upon obstructed

since

We

have

them

their

variously in

careful

a

consolidation

of

inheritance, but no All is given us in profusion; treasures. to catalogue, sort, distribute,select, us

judgments.

inventory it

have

influences and

day,

complete. of

stores

serviceable

first

and principles

;

We

have

truth

the guesses

of

than

we

little that

is

more

learning,but

Catholic

and

vast

a

and

know

precise opinion,

individual

genius,all mingled in

the

We meet requiringto be discriminated. with truths overstated of detail or misdirected, matters variouslytaken, facts incompletelyproved or applied,and

works,

same

rules

and

inconsistentlyurged indeed

Such

is the

first stages,and 20

state

therefore

or

discordantlyinterpreted.

of every deep philosophy in its of theological knowledge. What

Church's well-being,is not present for our nor invention, nor learning originality, sagacity,nor even in our divines,at least in the first place,though all giftsof in a measure God be unseasonable are can needed, and never need

we

at

used religiously, when need peculiarly but we a sound sive judgment, patientthought, discrimination, a comprehenall private fancies and abstinence from mind, an capricesand personaltastes, in a word. Divine Wisdom." "

The

Media, 30

the

Volume

which

had

subject of a

name

is the

of

writers

Anglican system by

the

Via

applied to

the

doctrine

already been

It is

name.

an

of

expressive

it is because title,but not altogethersatisfactory, of my sight negative. This had been the reason Protestant to the word [in the idea which ; "

it at

all,and

was

but

draw before

"

at

first

dislike it

veyed,] con-

of any (particular) religion profession A Via Media was compatible with infidelity. recedingfrom extremes, ( )therefore I had to

was

a

not

the

"

it out

it had

into

(definite) shape[,]and

a

claims

on

our

34

it

36

I had

38

had] could have

was

respect,it

must

[a] character first be shown

not] viz. it did not denote it]it needed to be drawn

to draw

;


168

to

OF

HISTORY

be

MY

RELIGIOUS

and intelligible,

one,

condition

of

consistent.

reasonable

any

OPINIONS This

treatise

the

was

the

on

Via

first

Media.

The second not in my condition, and necessary too, was I could only hope that it would one day be fulfilled. power. Even if the Via Media were ever so positivea religious it

system, at

was

not

was

yet objectiveand

as

of which

where

originalany

it

the

was

real ; it had

a religion.This I paper I say, and Protestantism but the Via Media, viewed

present

"

Introduction

;

religions .

.

.

system, has scarcely had I grant the objection and

existence

no

representative. It confess

Popery as

except

in are

my real

lo integral paper." [There

an on

proceed to lessen it. be tried,whether to what is say,] It still remains called Anglo -Catholicism, the religion of Andre wes, Laud, Hammond, Butler, and Wilson, is capable of being professed, acted on, and maintained a largesphereof action, on "

I

or

whether

it be

a

that

Lest

I should

hesitation

or

it would

day

some

be

or

transition-state

popular Protestantism." to

prove

be

a

misunderstood, let

the

about

modification

mere

of either Romanism

me

religion.

observe

that this

20

the

theoryof the Via Media impliedno doubt of the three fundamental points on which it was based, as I have described (them) above, dogma, the sacramental system, and oppositionto the Church of Rome. Other which investigations (had to be) followed (up), gave

still

a

clear

character

tentative

more

got written]. The the three

of validity

I trusted

substantive

basis

of the

Via

elementary points,which enough ; but, not only

I

or [to what I wrote Media, consistingof have just mentioned,

had

the house (itself) to be built upon them, but it had also to be furnished,and it 3o is not wonderful after buildingit,)both I and others if(, was

erred

in detail

be, what

in

determining what

consistent

with

that

furniture

should

the

style of building,and what in itself desirable. I will explainwhat I mean. was I had brought out in the in what PropheticalOffice the Roman and the Anglican systems differed from each in what they agreed. I had indeed other,but less distinctly was

"

12

and

12

lessen

23

oppositionto

26

gave]

proceed] though ,

it.]lessen it were

of

"

I endeavour

:

"

the Church

of

Rome]

anti-Romanism 32

that]its


(FROM enumerated

" "

Besides

for salvation

to

systems

other

the

both,

in

same

Creeds

points in

the

common

we

to be necessary believe in the doctrines

both

we

;

169

common

doctrines

certain

hold, that

believed

both

In

:

acknowledged.

are

1839.)

TO

the Fundamentals,

following passage both

1833

are

Trinity,Incarnation, and Atonement ; in original sin ; in the necessityof regeneration; in the supernatural of the Sacraments ; in the Apostolicalsuccession ; grace of faith and obedience, and in the eternity in the obligation I had said, So much of future punishment." Pp. 55, 56. but I had said enough. This enumeration not implied found a more points of agreement than were great many of the

10

"

in

those

Churches

were

also one contained

are

and 20

of

a

the

and

in those

Church

held

the

in

If the

fundamentals, they

in such

as plainconsequences as outwardlyrepresented the Anglican principlethat

same

fundamentals

was

thingdoth

Enghsh

in

same

or

"

It

an

take

not

Canon

Anghcan

an

fundamental.

were

the

thus

were

them. abuse

which

Articles

very

two

had

in

no

Churches

away

had

1603

purpose

of

the lawful

declared

forsake

to

use

of it ; " that the

all that

Italy,France, and

was

Spain, and

those ceremonies and particular points which matters, ApostoUc. Excepting then such exceptional or as are impliedin this avowal, whether they were many few, all these Churches were evidentlyto be considered as in all lands with the Anghcan. The Catholic Church one

reverenced were

had

been

the

from

one

first for

30

Each

branch

Church,

and

with

identical

was

in the

unity of

centuries

many

portionshad followed their but not to the destruction,whether These were portions or branches Greek, Latin, and Anglican. Each in solido Church early undivided various

own

way

of truth

its

as

that

that Church

of

or

charity.

three

mainly of these

then, injury,

;

to the

the

:

"

inherited

own

early it had

the

possession. undivided

unity with

other branches. The three branches agreed together had branches Some in all hut their later accidental errors. retained in detail portionsof Apostohcaltruth and usage, the

which and

the should

16 are] were

others be

had

not

;

and

these

appropriatedagain by 16

portions might

the others which

or] and in such natural observances G3

be

had


170

OF

HISTORY

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

them slip. Thus, the middle belonged to the age did the middle more Anglican Church, and much age of England. The Church of the 12th century was the Church Dr. Howley sat in the seat of St. Thomas of the 19th.

let

the

a Martyr ; Oxford was engagements to Prayer

our

University. Saving Articles,we might

and

Book

speak,(as)in the atmosphere day, or the Confessor's,or of Henry Alfred's. And we ought to be indulgentof all that Rome of what Rome as taught now, taught then, saving our lo did not what we protest. We might boldlywelcome, even ourselves think rightto adopt. And, when were we obliged should do so with the contrary boldlyto denounce, we on breathe and

live and

medieval

and

which

had

we

differ.

to

the

Church

exultation.

By

and

made

made,

the members

What

basis

than

III.'s

with

pain, not

of

Roman

and

co-operate with and

us,

(if)the there

thought

of doctrinal

our

better

no

by and

actuallytaught ;

towards

And

decrees

formal

our

As

measures.

to

"

say,

Look

while, supply be

spiritof

our

Prospectus to concurred

before short-comings,

any

one

is

and

11, 12 of] to

else."

I referred

28

I have

no

the

us

to

attempt

we

the

much

is very

I

just now.

well

am

it in

to

but

I

the

never

whatever

intention

controversy with] controversial attacks upon 31-32 at or while,](or at while,)

30

the] her

35

contrary to] inconsistent with

36

never

concurred

This

a

Indeed,

slander

political

our

least let

paragraph contrary Library of the Fathers ;

the

in it.

at

own

there

she

in instruments being (direct) I used directly],

practice[of Rome or first, ; let us

71, to which

Tract

that

or

home

at

physiciansto

aware

rulers

ourselves

to

belief

Rome

all that

our

improving the

.

in] do

not

20

we

her

side too there had been rancour controversy with her, and violence in

in

and

disputantshad been tyrannical,(we bore in mind)

again, if

to

or

;

restoration

to

unfair

us,

us

the

to

let

would

thought that

we

that

on

her

her

things,if she

way

apart

real wish

a

let

on

of the

basis further

had

Church

agree

Societydid

were we

could

the

on

own

purityand unity.

committed

not

was

Thus

in all lawful

rules of

was

do

protest,

our

we

Bible

Unitarian

and

Anglican.

Rome

animo,

ex

could

of

reason

very of the

Scripture,we

Trinitarian

;

and

act

of

climate

.

consider

.

.

.

.

myself responsiblefor

of

so


that

implying

Dr.

theory, which

ecclesiastical

the

in

been

(now) drawing ; myseK except by degreesin the course was necessarilythe growth of time.

I took

it up

years.

It

out

any persons, agreed in their view of

who

could

fact ;

hardly

10

171

1839.)

concurred

Pusey

I have

TO

1833

(FROM

two

took

part

in the

that

nor

of ten In

fact,

Movement,

the limit to which our general be carried. principles might religiously I have said enough on what I consider to have And now been the generalobjectsof the various works which I wrote, edited, or prompted in the years which I am reviewing ; I wanted to bring out in a substantive form, a livingChurch founded of England in a positionproper to herself,and on far as paper could do it, and distinct principles as ; as it, earnestly preaching it and influencingothers towards tend

flesh and

it

make

to

blood, with

a

made

livingChurch,

a

"

voice, complexion^

and

of

and

motion

I believe I had no action, and a will of its own. private did I ask for more than Nor motive, and no personalaim. fair stage and no a favour," nor expect the work would "

20

be done

in my

secured

to

; but

days

and

hopefulcircumstances I will mention doctrinal which the

that 30

a

I

between

my

the

ditch, the desire

work

of

build

suggestionstowards as

far 30

and

I

speak

Melanchthon.

Melanchthon,

Anglicanism,

Church, there

of

that in the

work, which 20

out

be

of

"

express

of the was

offering

uppermost

done] accomplished

Melanchton] Melanchthon's

real

fill up

dissertation

Preface

must

to

again,I

theology my

no

was

I wished

point.

system

imply

in

followed Rome

In this Volume a

up and

a

low the

on

man.

Anglican divines, tentative a Inquiry. and]

"

truism

a

between and

faith

only Christianity.I considered a paradox or a truism,

Anglican Church

Church

aimed

; it was

in 1837

justification by

mouth,

difference to

of

either

was

Luther's

in consequence

high

13

that

doctrine

doctrine

intellectual a

dictum

cardinal

that

present.

works, principal originatedin the object of the

Justification

Essay on

paradox in thought that

and

some

historical,which

my

this

the

prospects than

stated.

Lutheran

the

was

thought that enough would be future under, perhaps,more

in illustration

and

I have

I wrote at

I

it in the

continue

in


the

mind

of every true consoHdation

the

day, "

MY

OF

HISTORY

172

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

of the

son

of

EngUsh

Church

this

at

theologicalsystem, which,

a

formularies, to which all clergymen are absorb into to inform, persuade, and itseK religious minds, which hitherto have fancied, that, those

built upon

bound,

tend

may

questions,they

the peculiarProtestant opposed to each other."

on

University Sermons subject of Faith

In my the upon the

tentative

work

; it

there is and

series of discussions

a

Reason

these

;

again

were

and lo necessary grave inquiryinto the ultimate basis of reUgious of

commencement

was

seriously

were

P. vii.

"

an

a

faith,priorto the distinction into Creeds. In like

in

manner

of 1838

summer

the

Real

Presence

idea

except The

a

as

a

attempt

on

an

of the

of the

that

I

of

Fathers

Movement,

to

basis.

which

of the

denial

subjectiveidea

Church

at

intellectual to

it is the

;

publishedin placingthe doctrine

which

Pamphlet

an

is consonant

attached

long

is

our

is and

The

I had

existence

the of

mental fundabeen

so

of space

minds. of the

one

appeared

earhest

in

numbers

ductions pro-

in

20

with the aim of written Magazine, and was introducingthe rehgious sentiments, views, and customs of England. Church of the first ages into the modern of Fleury's Church The Translation menced comHistory was fond of Fleury ^I was under these circumstances :

British

the

"

I express in the Advertisement ; because it presented a sort of photograph of ecclesiastical history it. In the event, that simple without any comment upon

for

a

which

reason

representationof the early centuries had a good deal to do with Anglicanism); but how unsettling me (in my in the fact little I could anticipatethis, will be seen that the

publication(ofFleury)was a favourite He proposed it to me twice, between

Mr. Rose's. 1834

and

1837

;

and

I mention

it

as

one

out

scheme

of

the years of many

how truly my change of particulars curiouslyillustrating opinion arose, not from foreigninfluences,but from the me. mind, and the accidents around working of my own The date at which the portion actually translated began 11

work

32

of Mr.

;

was] work, viz.

21

Rose's]with Mr. Rose

38

it

and was] being at] ,from

3q


determined

was we

Another

Publisher

the

by

173

1839.) on

with

reasons

which

concerned.

not

were

TO

1833

(FROM

work, but drawn from original sources, by my old friend Mr. Bowden, being I need scarcely recall to those a Life of Pope Gregory VII. who have read it,the power and the liveliness of the narrative. historical

the world

given to

was

This

10

in his

author's

relaxation

vacations, from

Series of the

on

his

ordinary suggested to him

summer

It had been engagements in London. originally by me, at the instance of Hurrell The

of the

Lives

Froude.

English Saints

was

jected pro-

which I shall period,under circumstances have in the sequel to describe. Those beautiful positions comhave nothing in them, as far as I recollect, simply inconsistent with the generalobjectswhich I have been to my labours in these years, though the immediate assigning occasion of them and their tone (inwhich they were written,) could not in the exercise of the largestindulgencebe said to have an Anglican direction. At a comparativelyearly date I drew up the Tract on the Roman friends on Breviary. It frightenedmy own at

20

the

composition was

evenings and

later

a

its first appearance,

younger volumes advice

and, several

apparent accident

an

of that

most

of

devotion

ment

afterwards,when

years

began to translate for publicationthe four dissuaded in extenso, they were from doing so by from of duty they listened. It was to which a sense men

the

which

introduced

wonderful of

to

me

and

most

saints.

On

the

attractive

Hurrell

ledge knowmonu-

Froude

's

^

death, 30

in

1836, I

asked

was

to

select

one

of his books

as

keepsake. I selected Butler's Analogy ; findingthat it been already chosen, I looked with some perplexity alongthe shelves as they stood before me, when an intimate It was friend at my elbow said, Take that." the Breviary a

had

"

which

Hurrell I took

have

it

That

an

on

of them

18

could not

had

it, studied

my

dear

17

had

and

with

him

it, wrote

at

Barbados. Tract

from

my table in constant tillthis day. use and thus familiar companion, who

their]which led

in the

to

ingly Accord-

it, and

put the

them, and the

largestindulgence be said to have had littlethat was Anglican direction] congenialwith Anglicanism 34 Barbados] Barbadoes exercise

of the


HISTORY

174

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS.

hands, is still in the Anglican Church. early venerated long-lovedfriend,together I edited a work with whom which, more perhaps than any in the Anglican and annoyance other, caused disturbance Remains however world,( )Froude's judgment(s) ; yet, to the prudence of publishingit, I never as might run heard of one impute to Mr. Keble the very shadow any dishonestyor treacherytowards his Church in so acting.

Breviary into

So

my

is that

too

"

The

annotated

Athanasius

in

course

another

order

of the

heresies which

I should Editor

make

sense

of

thought.

writers

My

the

So I went

point

of

on

the

for years,

up

in

words

of

that suppose what would

not not

much

as

I

could

prospered and

I

July

to

was

1841.

for

the

"

It was, life.

in I

not

a

human

years,

It

the

was

I tried to

which

have

I

I did

last,though I knew

was

spoken

to

of

time

lay

up follow

the

of as

it. 30

doings

a Catholic, in a passage, part of years, since I was in it I will (here)quote[,though there is a sentence

of these

which that

limitation]: requiressome beginningsso small," I said, from elements of thought so fortuitous,with prospects so unpromising,the in the a Anglo -Catholic party suddenly became power National Church, and an object of alarm to her rulers and "

"

From

11

a

tentative

work]

of

20

was

birds their nests." would

dearth

spread.

do

truly appropriated to Bees, by the instinct of

its termination. seven

which

of Rome.

volumes

sunshine

plenty,and, during its We

found

of my

of my

one

such be

1838

cause

to 1841.

Bramhall, nature, do love their hives, and

myself

be

to

are

advocating the

I had

made

history

"

none

of

had

I

doctrinal

Arian.

July

view, the happiest time

home.

at

to the

lo

at to none schools, some various, classical,academical, and artistic,as well as theological,

Movement

keep quite clear

a

St. ; it

historico-

also of the British Critic.

years, from to various

and critical, political, upon

work

This

years.

with

belonged subjects are

The

all.

for up

succeeded

mention

of it for three

of Treatise(s) tentative

a

no

belongs dogmatic work employed me preparationsfor followingit to

the

of

Translation of

was

a

tentative

character


1833

(FROM friends.

20

originatorswould aimed

of

hand.

they

The

first

at

have

found

practicalkind

a

the

threateningsof

that

At

time, my Bishop in light animadversions, but they were 1838.

for the Times.

the Tracts What

took

words, 30

175

1839.)

it difficult to

rather, they for their own sake, because put forth views and principles, true, as if they were they were obligedto say them ; and, as they might be themselves surprisedat their earnestness in uttering them, they had to be surprised as great cause which attended their propagation. And, in at the success in the fact, they could only say that those doctrines were and that to explain was air ; that to assert was to prove, that the Movement in which to persuade ; and they were taking part was the birth of a crisis rather than of a place. In a very few years a school of opinion was formed, fixed in its principles, indefinite and progressivein their range ; and it extended itself into every part of the country. If have still we inquire what the world thought of it, we wonder ment to raise our the excitemore ; for, not to mention and it caused in England, the Movement its partyknown to the policeof Italy and to the backnames were woodmen And so it proceeded,gettingstronger of America. and stronger every into collision with the year, till it came of the Nation, which it began by Nation, and that Church to serve." professingespecially The greater its success, the nearer that collision at was say

10

Its

what

TO

him

in

when

later year,

it in

the

made

in

some

animadversions, on stop them.

I offered to

once

the

I

preferto state in Pamphlet addressed

occasion

I related

heard

were

Charge

a

a

blow

actually came

to

down

me.

upon "

a

the

place on

in which

At

crisis

:

In

allusion

your was

Lordship's Charge made

the

to

opponents of the Tracts

for

Tracts

said that

1838,"

I

for

the

you

treated

said,

Times. them

"

an

Some with

the I wrote to the Archdeacon on indulgence. subject,submittingthe Tracts entirelyto your Lordship's I thought about your Charge will appear disposal. What I said, A Bishop's I then used to him. from the words His is heavy. cathedra ex judgment on lightestword

undue

...

'

24

the

what crisis]

was

coming


book

a

OF

HISTORY

176

be

cannot

a

OPINIONS

any

which

And

occurrence.'

rare

of the Tracts

informed

were

is

light. It

I offered to withdraw

control,if I

RELIGIOUS

MY

which

over

those

were

I had

to which

your

to wrote Lordship had objections. I afterwards your Lordship to this effect,that I trusted I might say sincerely, feel a more that I should livelypleasurein knowing that I was submitting myself to your Lordship's expressed judgment in a matter of that kind, than I could have even '

the

in

Your

widest

Lordship

such

a

ever

That

think

it necessary

I

felt,and it,I was

always

determined

day

on

From

the Tutor

comment

make

swing, friends

of the Articles which

sion

their

I should

entered

the Articles.

upon

in its

was

I had

?

the

upon

doctrinal

my

but

The

conjecture.

1841, 1 had meditated

in

when

Then,

the Movement

the

Movement,

I had

about

actual

of those

was

who

of

cause

the

to

put

therii,I

:

but

doing

my

liked

the

directlyagainst

Via

It

an

nor

enjoined,

"

Against

mean

'

by

of distinctions,

in

Rome

Rome which

? ?

?

'

teeth ;

our

Articles

"

"

they I and

I shall

so

now

are

made then

give

account. "

By things: or

spective, pro-

Media,

been

thrown

was

sign the

"

you

the

and

and straight, subwas tangibledifficulty and thus the question of the

to

manage Rome."

What do answer, I proceeded to make

in

so,

their

Articles ; before me.

you

the paper able to

not

actual restlessness,

neither

the

came can

do

to

so

scriptionto How

will you

apprehen-20

on

am

I had strong judgment against Rome. my I think by my Bishop, to keep these men

"

of

were

questionimplied. Whether, as time went been forced, by the necessities of the

beginning of 1841,

Articles

duties views

have

originaltheory of speculationswhich

I wished

of it.

" said to me, What I did not share the

had

"

felt,that, if

circumstances

when College, what they were

at my

different from

very

on,

that

time

question.' proceed to lo

obey." this portionof

to

I conclude

narrative, with

Public

in to

have

bound

length came, and relatingthe

at

volumes

not

but

measure,

you

my

a

did

the

of

circulation

Roman

1, the

doctrine Catholic

"

might

be

teaching of

2, the formal dogmas of Rome

as

meant

the

one

of three

early centuries

contained

in the

;

later

40


TO

1833

(FROM

the Council Councils,especially in the Creed and

of

sanctioned

usages

with "

thought

that

teaching was

Now I

:

condemned

to the

as

of

use

that

;

that

the that dead

munion com-

these

commonly

doctrine

to be drawn

for the

in and

;

Protestants Roman

formal dogmas, Prayers

countries

dogmas

thought

that the line had

not, and Thus, 1, the

10 were

the

senses,

Articles

not

and

;

in the

'

in all three

in the

condemned

Trent, and as condensed 3, the actual popularbeliefs

above

errors."

dominant

of ;

Rome

by and

it, over

I called

were

Pius IV.

Pope

177

1839.)

the

"

was

Catholic

dominant some

errors some

were,

between was

them. Catholic

a

(inthe Articles) ; 2, the prison of Purgatory was Roman a was demned condogma, which of Ecumenical (in them) ; but the infallibility Councils Roman was a 3, dogma, not condemned ; and the fire of Purgatory was authorized and popular error, an which condemned. not a dogma, was that the difficulties, felt by the Further, I considered whom I have mentioned, mainly lay in their persons mistaking,1, Catholic teaching,which was not condemned in the Articles,for Roman condemned dogma which was ; and condemned in the not 2, Roman dogma, which was which If they went error was. Articles,for dominant further than this, I had nothing more to say to them. doctrine, "

^not condemned

"

"

"

20

A

further

desire

to

which the

I had

for my

the attempt, was points of contrariety Anglican creeds, and to make

ultimate

between

the

Roman

them

few

possible. I thought that by a dominant misrepresented

as

obscured "

30

motive ascertain

and

Popery The

"

and

as

and

main

''

each

creed

was

circumambient

Protestantism."

thesis

Articles do not

oppose

oppose Roman dominant errors

dogma of

then

of

Catholic ;

this : the Essay was my teaching; they but partially "

they for

Rome.

And

the most the part oppose the problem was(, as

I have

said,)to draw the line as to what they allowed and they condemned. Such being the object which I had in view, what were and of widening (of)definingtheir meaning ? my prospects The prospect was encouraging; there was no doubt at all what

11

Ijthe]l.The

and

so

with 2 and

3 in lines 12 and

15


178

HISTORY

of the

OF

MY

of the elasticity

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

Articles

: to take a palmary instance, by one party to be Lutheran, were by another Calvinistic, though the two interpretations contradictoryto each other ; why then should not other

the seventeenth

Articles

be

drawn

limit of that But

with

up

character

intense

assumed

was

a

I wanted

?

in elasticity

the

of

vagueness to ascertain

direction

an

what

equally the

was

of Roman

dogma.

next, I had

of inquiryof my own, which I state a way defending. I instanced it afterwards in my Essay Doctrinal on Development. That work, I believe, I have lo read since I published it, and not I doubt not at all in it mistakes from [that] I have made partly, ; many ignorance of the details of doctrine,as the Church my holds them, but partly from of Rome impatience to my clear as largea range for the principle of doctrinal Development sistent con(waiving the question of historical fact)as was with the strict Apostolicityand identityof the Catholic Creed. In like manner, as regardsthe 39 Articles, I wished method of inquirywas to leap in medias res. my without

"

to institute

could

be

what

a

must,

inquiry how

an

opened who

man

that

so

;

I

conclusions

my

positive. It was but recognition and

full

expressed in a

first essay.

And

text

what

I made

he than

rather it with

the

; "

of

a

first

approximation to supplying

series of illustrations

a

"

"

and difficulty,

a

ledgment with full acknow-

in questionof for difference or error judgment, there was room should of opinion,"and that I to own not be ashamed a mistake, if it were proved against me, nor reluctant to of it." bear the just blame (Proph.0".) P. 31. or

that

"

"

hints in the removal fact

20

ascertaining

than

negative

were

making only

was

requiredsolution "

a

at

I had consciousness, which already PropheticalOffice,as regards the Via

my

Media, that I

far,in critical fairness,the

aiming far more subscribed it might hold was

in

points, whether

minor

so

of

"

"

addition, I

In wish

to go

in the

as

far

was as

was

embarrassed

of Roman dogma, doing to the partieswhose at once who(, if they understood I

direction

was

4

to]of

11 doubt 29

in] for

not] do

not

doubt 35

In

of my the Articles interpreting in

in possible,

consequence

without doubts the 28

what disclosing was meeting,

I

full extent a

of the

required]the required

addition] I will add


(FROM which

licence

encouraged

the

to

TO

1833

admitted,)might

Articles

than

still further

go

179

1839.)

any call to do. of such an in the way objectionthat the Articles were

be

thereby

present they found

at

in themselves 1. But

attempt

the

comes

prompt

actuallydrawn up against Popery," and therefore it was transcendentlyabsurd and that Popery, in any shape, patristic dishonest to suppose tatively belief,Tridentine dogma, or popular corruption authorisanctioned, would be able to take refuge under Not This their text. religious premiss I denied. any the primary doctrine at all,but a political was principle, Popery (at the date of English idea [at that time] of that political what the Reformation). And was principle, and how could it best be kept out of England ? What was ? the great question in the days of Henry and Elizabeth The I saying one was single word in Supremacy ; now, of the Supremacy of the Holy See, (infavour) of favour ? No ; I did not believe in it the foreign jurisdiction hold Justification by myself. Did Henry VIII. religiously Elizabeth faith only ? did he disbelieve Purgatory ? Was zealous for the marriage of the Clergy ? or had she a conscience against the Mass ? The Supremacy of the Pope the essence of the to which, at the time of was Popery the (compositionof the) Articles,the Supreme Head or of the English Church Governor was so violentlyhostile. what it 2. But again I said this ; let Popery mean of the compilers of the Articles,let in the mouths would for argument's sake, include the doctrines of that it even, "

"

"

10

"

"

"

20

"

"

"

"

"

Council, which

Tridentine 30

Articles

was

up, and

drawn

were

not

yet

against which

when

over

they

could

the not

simply directed, yet, consider, what was the [religious] in their imposition ? merely to object of the Government disown Popery ? No ; it had the further object of the best way then was to Papists." What gaining the induce reluctant or wavering minds, and these, I supposed, to the new the majority, to give in their adhesion were symbol ? how had the Arians drawn up their Creeds ? was it not on the principle of using vague ambiguous language, be

"

"

"

which 2

to

the

go] proceed

subscribers 3

would

seem

14 kept do] go disown] get rid of

33

to out

bear

a

Catholic

of] suppressed

in


180

HISTORY

but

MY

OF

which, when

RELIGIOUS

worked

OPINIONS in the

long run, would Accordingly,there was great that, fierce as the Articles might probability, look at first sight, their bark would than their prove worse bite. I say antecedent for to what that extent probability, surmise might be true, could only be ascertained by investigation. sense,

to

prove antecedent

3. But

a

men

doing

heterodox

so,

out

?

consideration

this surmise

lighton very

be

came

at

up

"

who

drew

had

avowed,

the

up

in

the

act

very

of

one

threw

out that

turn

Articles,in the rather

or

which

once,

^what if it should

:

of

lo

those

very number

Articles themselves

had imposed on subscribers, a Papistical doctrines,which they were now thought to deny, as part and parcel of that very now Protestantism,which they were thought to consider divine ? and this was the fact, and I showed it in my Essay. "

those

of

Let

"

very

the reader

second

Book

observe

doctrine,and former

Book

Homilies

: "

of Homilies of

the

doth

necessary

35th

a

The says : wholegodly and some

for these times,

Homilies."

Here

"

Article

contain

the

as

doth

doctrine

of

the

20

the

scription recognizedas godly and wholesome, and subpropositionis imposed on all subscribers of the Articles. Let us then turn to the Homilies, and see what this godly doctrine is : I quoted from them to the followingeffect : 1. They declare that the so-called apocryphal book of Tobit is the teachingof the Holy Ghost, and is Scripture. is 2. That the so-called apocryphal book of Wisdom and the infallible and undeceivable word of God. so Scripture, the Primitive 3. That Church, next to the Apostles' time, and, as they imply, for almost 700 years, is no doubt is

to that

"

"

"

"

most

pure. 4. That the Primitive 5. That

Primitive 6. That

received

1 22

the Four Church. there

by

all

are

first General

Church

to be followed. specially Councils belong to the

Six Councils

which

is

are

allowed

and

men.

in] on

subscriptionto that proposition]concurrence

in that

recognition


(FROM 7. are

of

TO

1833

Again, they speak of a enforcing,as declared by

the

ancient

truth

certain God's

doctors, and

181

1839.) which

they

word, the

sentences

of the

Primitive

judgment

Church.

10

and

Of the learned

holy Bishops and doctors (ofthe being of good authority and credit with the people. of Christ and His Apostlesand all 9. Of the declaration the rest of the Holy Fathers. 10. Of the authority of both Scripture and also of Augustine. 11. Of Augustine, Chrysostom, Ambrose, Jerome, and about of whom thirtyother Fathers, to some they give 8.

the first eightcenturies

Church) of

the

"

title of

Fathers

and

Saint,"

others

to

of

(")ancientCatholic

"c."). doctors(,

They declare that, not only the holy Apostles and of Christ,but the godly Fathers also before and disciples without mth the Holy endued doubt since Christ were 12.

Ghost. 13. That

20 "

Lord's

the

Supper

is the salve of the

preservativeagainst death, healthful 14.

15. and

a

16.

the Lord's

That

Blessed

of bread

the meat

with

That

Ordination

That

Matrimony

19.

That

there

20.

Lord's

That

in heaven

and

are

is is

a

a

6

received

are

is

Blood

an

invisible meat

(ofthy God) ought

other

Sacrament. Sacrament. besides

Sacraments

Supper "(,though

not

the souls of the Saints with God.

alms-deeds 21. That purge and filthyspots of sin, and inestimable 22. That

Blood

and

Body

the mind.

18.

the

the

wine.

in the Sacrament

17.

and

and

ghostlysubstance. That the holy Body

to be touched 30

that

say

immortaHty, the sovereign food of immortality,the

grace.

That

the form

under

Fathers

CathoUc

ancient "

are

such

a

"

Baptism "

as

they).

reigningin joy

soul from

the are

"

and

the infection

preciousmedicine,

an

jewel. mercifulness

good] great

wipes

and

out

10

of

washes

both] both of

away


182

HISTORY

infirmity and

RELIGIOUS

weakness

the duty of 23. That it should need to be That

24.

and

salves

as

fastingis

than

remedies

heal

to

with

with

truth

a

manifest

more

proved.

fasting,used

weigheth much

and

OPINIONS

grievousdiseases.

and

sores

MY

OF

God

;

is of great efficacy Angel Raphael told

prayer, the so

Tobias. That

25.

the

the

in

was,

puissant and

Theodosius

mighty Emperor

Church

Primitive

which

most

was

holy

and

godly,excommunicated

by St. Ambrose. Constantine, Bishop of Rome,

That

26.

lo

did

condemn

the Emperor, Philippicus,

not without a cause indeed, but justly. far these Putting altogetheraside the question how under the matter to which tion subscripseparate theses came to be made, it was was quite plain,that (inthe minds who the thus wrote Homilies, and who of) the men incorporatedthem into the Anglican system of doctrine, most

could

have

not

possessedthat

discrimination

exact

between

(the)Protestant faith,or have made that 20 of formal Protestant and tenets, clear recognition principles have Roman or doctrine," accepted that definition of which hence at this day : is received great probability accrued to my presentiment, that the Articles were tolerant, Catholic not teaching,"but of only of what I called the Catholic

and

"

"

"

"

that

much

4. And

the

another was reason againstthe notion that the Roman directlyattacked dogmas as Trent and as promulgated by Pius the Fourth :

here

Articles

declared "

the

at

Council

Footnote

of Trent

at the

mulgated

by

1

12

which

The

1564.

they were are

or

have

22

or

have

23

which

its Decrees

nor

drawn

were

pro-

1865.

dated

1562.)

13

most] very

possessedthat exact] there

that] no such accepted that] no such accurate the present this]as

was

no

such nice

made

.

.

.

30

up(^).

weakness] sins,

have

not

20

over,

became

the] then

1 9 could

not

the Articles

of the (^ The Pope's Confirmation defide,and his Bull super confirmapromulgated to the world, are dated January 26, in

its Canons

Articles

infirmityand

was

when

date

firstinserted

Council,by which tione

Roman."

was

.

.

.

30

Decrees] Canons


that

so

What

those was

the Homilies turn

us

Articles

are

the

to

be

must

aiming

else ?

something

that

183

1839.)

TO

1833

(FROM

the best comment Homilies, and we

else.

something

at

tell

The

Homilies

upon

the Articles.

:

us

Let

first to

shall find from

first only centuries,but neither again are the dogmas of Rome, the objects of the protest of the compilers of the Articles,but the popular corruptions,authorized the dominant errors, of Rome. suffered by the high name (The eloquent or

last

10

of the

declamation

as

shown,

So much

5.

almost

its matter

errors.)As to Catholic

clusively ex-

teaching,

dogma, (ofsuch theology)those Homilies, selves. contained small portion [ofit]themno of the Articles and

for the writers

Homilies

;

witnesses,not authorities,and I used them as ties the actual authorisuch ; but in the next place,who were the I (reasonably)considered imposing them ? of 1571 ; but imponens to be the Convocation (authority) that the very Convocation, be found here again,it would the 39 Articles,also enjoined which received and confirmed that they that by Canon preachers should be careful, "

20

to Roman

I have

as

finds

HomiUes

in the dominant nay

teachingof the

the Catholic

is not

that, not

they were

"

should held

teach

never

in

a

be

to

sermon,

that

people, except

religiously which

is

New

Testament, and ancient Bishops have and the Catholic Fathers which collected from that very doctrine." Here, let it be observed, an imponens to the by the Convocation appeal is made with mentioned had been ancient as authorities, same very such profound veneration by the writers of the Homilies contained and [of]the Articles,and thus, if the Homihes

agreeableto

30

aught by the

believed

and

of doctrine

views

seemed

to

me

of least did not 6. into

to

1571

of the

doctrine

now

be

extreme

also

Roman,

probabilitythat and

countenanced

reject,those

and

be called

would

which an

Old

the

received,

there vocation Conor

at

doctrines.

actuallyto look further,when at length I came in many a patent cases of the Articles,I saw

And

the text

fulfilment and

the

of all that

I had

indecisiveness,and 1

else.]else ?

surmised

that, not 38

as

only

to on

their vagueness

questions which

fulfilment]justification


HISTORY

184

lay

OF

MY

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

Lutherans, Calvinists,and

between

Zuinglians,but

on

questionsalso ; and I have noticed them in my Tract I observe : They In the conclusion of my Tract. the principleof leaving o]3en on are evidentlyframed

Catholic "

large questions on which the controversy hinges. They state broadly extreme truths, and are silent about their adjustment. For instance, they say that all necessary faith must be proved from Scripture; but do not say who has authority is to prove it. They say, that the Church in controversies ; they do not say what authority. They lo but do enforce nothing beyond Scripture, say that it may it does. not They say say where the remedy lies when worthless and that works are beforegrace and justification and that works are aftergrace and justification worse, acceptable,but they do not speak at all of works with aid beforejustification.They say that men God's are lawfullycalled and sent to minister and preach, who are who have publicauthoritygiven chosen and called by men them in the Congregation; but they do not add by whom the authorityis to be given. They say that Councils called 20 by princesmay err ; they do not determine whether Councils called in the

Such

inquiryhow

my

of Christ

name

err."

may

which

the considerations

were

far the Articles

were

with

weighed tolerant

of

a

me

in

Catholic,

the defence interpretation ; and such was Tract for having attempted it. From what I have already said, it will appear that I have no need or intention at this day to maintain particular every which I suggestedin the course of my Tract, interpretation had I then. it was indeed Whether nor prudent or not, 30 I attempted only whether sensible or not, any how it was or

a

a

even

which

Roman

I made

first essay

in my

of

work, an essay which, as I was tion requirerevision and modificaI should gain from the of the fightswhich a

necessary

quite prepared to find,would

by

means

have gladly withdrawn I should of others. any could be proved to me to be erroneous ; in the I considered my work to be faultyand objectionable consider pretations I now in which sense same Anglican intermy criticism

statement, which

of

3

Scriptureto

They] The Articles

be

37

erroneous,

but

objectionable] open

in

to

no

other

objection


I

sense.

surprisedthat

am

to the author

theology,and

10

1839.) do

men

of Tract

appliedit

He

90.

to the

not

hard

Scripturegenerallythe

of

apply

TO

1833

(FROM

185

apply to names

held

Articles

a

the

preters inter-

which

they largesystem of

or Episcopalians,

:

Lutherans, or Presbyterians,or Unitarians, hold a large apply it to Scripture. Every system of theology and theology has its difficulties ; Protestants hold justification by faith only, though there is no text in St. Paul which enunciates it, and though St. James expressly denies it ; call Protestants dishonest do we therefore ? they deny has a divine mission, though St. Paul says that the Church the Pillar and that it is ground of Truth ; they keep the Sabbath, though St. Paul Let no man judge says, drink in meat in respect of the sabbath or or you days." Every creed has texts in its favour, and again which this is generallyconcounter to it : and texts fessed. run I felt keenly : And this is what how had I done in Tract 90 than Anglicans,Wesleyans, and Calvinists worse and ? how did daily in their Sermons their publications had than the Evangelical party in their I done worse, animo tion ex reception of the Services for Baptism and Visitaof the Sick ^ ? Why I to be dishonest and they was "

"

"

.

.

.

"

20

immaculate an

gave own

(*)For

contained

was

which

when

case, ^

There

? answer,

the tumult

on

be

to

broke

instance, let candid in

occasion

an

seemed

Lord

our

Tract

against my

out

consider

men

which

appropriateto the

my : "

of Absolution

form

that

Prayer Book, of which all clergymen, Evangelical and Liberal as well as high Church, and (I think)all persons in University office declare that it containeth nothing contrary to the Word of God." I challenge,in the sight of all England, Evangelical clergymen generally,to put on paper an interpretationof this form of words, "

with

consistent

their sentiments, which

objectionable of the in the

passage

"Our

who

forgive thee

Christ, who

truly repent

thine

offences

;

hath

Son, and of I subjoin the te

noster

absolvo, ab omni

possum Patris

and

et

the most

Roman Jesus

form, Christus

vinculo

authoritycommitted

by His

as

Name

used

of the in

te absolvat

Father, and

England ;

excommunicationis

indiges. Deinde ego te absolvo Filii et SpiritusSancti. Amen."

et tu

than

puts upon

any

left poller to His Church to absolve of His great mercy

from all thy sins, in the the Holy Ghost. Amen."

Dominus

90

believe in Him,

and

I absolve thee

"

Tract

Articles.

Jesus

Lord

all sinners

shall be less forced

interpretationswhich

a

and

to

me,

of the

elsewhere

et ego auctoritate ipsius et interdict!,in quantum

peccatis tuis, in nomine


OF

HISTORY

186 "

He

a

stone

is without

that

at him."

RELIGIOUS

let him first cast you, among have fancied that a sense of their have

would interpretation

great party I have mentioned least moderation, in opposing school.

OPINIONS

sin

I could

difficulties of

own

MY

to

persuaded the prudence, or at of an opposite

some

teacher

a

But

I suppose their alarm their sense of justice.

and

their anger

came over-

*

the of indignationwith which (throughoutthe country)on its appearance, much of lo I recognize much of real religiousfeeling, much honest and true principle, of straightforward ignorant there was In Oxford common sense. genuine feelingtoo ; but there had been a smoulderingstern energeticanimosity, at all unnatural, partly rational, againstits author. not In

the

universal

was

received

Tract

A false I

step had been that, even

made

told

am

exaggeratedform to

hands

;

of the

not

Philistines.

was

I

startled

was

was

the time

publicationof

for action. the

Tract,

in hostile camp lost in ceeding was a moment proactually (fallen) in(to)the into

got

and I

was

the

had

action, when

outbreak, and

now

;

before

of its contents

rumours an

storm

the

quite unprepared

at its violence.

I do

for the

20

think

not

Nay, I will add I am not sure that it was point of view a relief to me. indeed I saw clearlythat my place in the Movement at an end ; my lost ; publicconfidence was was occupation that I could It was an was impossibility simply gone. when I had been to good effect, say any thing henceforth posted up by the marshal on the buttery hatch of every of discommoned after the manner Collegeof my University, in every part of the country 30 pastry-cooks,and when and occaand every class of society,through every organ sion at meetings, in periodicals, of opinion,in newspapers, in pulpits,at dinner- tables, in coffee-rooms, in railway had laid his denounced traitor who I was as a carriages, it against detected in the very act of firing train and was I had not

fear.

one

Establishment.

time-honoured

the

besides

men,

my

Palmer, and 8

There

indeed

were

(immediate)friends, men gallantlytook my part, as

of

own

who position,

and Mr.

any

in

Mr.

universal]sudden

Perceval

:

it must 31

have

been

Dr. a

name

Hook,

grievous

occasion]opportunity


trial for themselves

TO

1833

(FROM

yet what

1839.)

187

after all could

they do for alreadylost full confidence in myself. Thoughts had passed over me and a half before (inrespect to the Anglicanclaims), a year which for the time had profoundlytroubled me. They had Confidence

?

me

I had

:

gone

;

in

lost ;

was

me

less confidence

not

I had

but

"

the

the and power than before ; not

in

prospects of the Apostolicalmovement than

less confidence I called 10

I any

"

the have

was

I to

was

I to be

now

?

saved

have

to

more

"

an

Tract.

the

sake

This

settlement. could 20

I

I would how

a

the

do

not

Tract

I

;

me

whenever

me

obstinate.

much

I

Tract

"

danger sake

owt.i

; but

on

do

sale."

own

So

condemnation

in

a

that

(some) individual own

point was scrap

the

letter to

of

out

get

their

"

of

it. not

as

me

tolerating it

on

they

But defend

it,

myself publishedmy the Bishop of Oxford. ever

most

for

answer

kind what

about

the

conditions.

the Tract.

save

writing was 39

it,

continue

Bishops might perhaps say charges. I agreed to their to

the

defend

condemn

I

to him, he was impute nothing whatever to me. Also, they said they could not

a

for how

;

They pressedon when they saw

point of they let me

I

one

un-

professors to edge, even

not

the

upon

stopped the series,and

I

Not

for

so

of

the

will not

Yes, if you

obstinate.

that

My

do

not

in

way ; they fell back line of action was to

I gave Their

was

in their

had

withdraw

to

me

sale ; and they said they would not condemn that I did said that this was condition on

Tract

how

of interpretation

silence ;

Keep

it to continue

they could

as

"

answered,

will allow

if you

?

thought

?

they said, "

how

Providence

or

for my

so

was

?

the future.

I would

Protestant

mere

I

as

could

sound

Next

the

think

wished

:

unsettled

were

a

do

to

myself

I range myself among theology,of which it put my teeth on

hear

30

who

acquiescein

Articles ? of

right,they

I refused

of those

always

by this event a kind impossiblepositionin

Firstjif I remember the

in

how

but

:

present confidence

in my

I should

what

grievousness of

of Rome

confidence

absolute

that

from

in the

errors

confidence

sure

I felt that me

before

dominant

scrap

given

me,

of] line in

as

a

pledge of

the


HISTORY

188

OF

of

performance

without

being

of

clever

"

six

some

the

In

"

have

I

nothing

to

thing

taken

the me,

standing." under-

an

have

standings "under-

hated

have

I

time I

bear, so

which

that the

keep at

I Lord

am

and

be be

to

them

He

has hand

my

least

will

to

did

others

and

clean to

try

grace

from

and

power

performance]

observance

and

pure.

given

have

with He

sacred

and

sought

and

act,

personal

has

never

not

be

heart any

betraying

charge."

I

not

lo

but

party,

found,

!

my

bear,

have

a

God

May hitherto

been

I

move

been

whom

for,

sorry

for.

able

prized.

preserved of

thankful

except

others be

to

"

him,

to

say

Oxford

of

"

and

has

had,

I

I

nothing

because which

as

or

have

have

I acted

come,

but

can

in

:

anxious,

seeming

quiet

a

to

can

in

Movement

for,"

sorry

I

rejoice

to

sacrificed

be

Bishop

the

to

the

in

Lordship

influence

after.

I

to

against

I

:

letter

my

revere.

pleasure

whatever

to

your

bound

am

of

place

my

made

every

if

words

last

resigned

thus

having I

was

me

before

years

of

read ''

It

warned

had

side

since.

ever

I

were

hands.

my

man

their

on) them

from

letters

into

put

A

OPINIONS.

article

main

(the Parts

engagement.

RELIGIOUS

MY

in

me

be,

will

I

think

tion, humilia-

interests, into

my

20


Y.

PART

HISTORY

[Published

OF

as

MY

a

Pamphlet,

OPINIONS.

RELIGIOUS

Thursday,

May

19,

1864.]


V.

PART

HISTORY

And

that

now

course

leave

my and

strong

I

about

am

to

great which to home, tender ties, I feel in

satisfyingmyself my doing so, till the near be given lines these must of

10

during

than

less

had

he

it would

be

him

upon

which

at

even

of

or

very

weighed

unthankful

most

set

to

the

tude multiwho

and

1

all that

after, by

or

the

the

of

reason

to

seem

his

world, the

him,

upon

to

that,

time

external

his darkness,

light amid

all-sufficient

not

act

himseK

of

dismay

and

which

me

of

life, when

his

before

and

though

of

forces

recoiled on

twenty-five years, thoughts and his deeds, and

his

whether

observation, was

at

portion

a

which

distance

about

knew

once

the

many

difficulty

day,

himseK,

to

me

so

the

of the

know

can

influences

subtle

recollect,

can

he

who

For

task.

by have

world,

the

the

can,

led

of it, and

approach to

I

as

with

overcome

1841).

TO

which

bound

was

account

from

the

I

far

as

mind,

of

own

of

about

trace,

revolution

that

of

1839

(FROM

OPINIONS

RELIGIOITS

MY

OF

plexity per-

when,

"

that

imply yet

a

ness dark-

who And ? can (suddenly) gird emphatically was anxious and undertaking, [suddenly] to a new he full to perform well, had he might be able indeed calm thing leisure (allowed him) to look through every in published works he has written, whether or private it

himself 20

which and that

letters

but,

?

of afford

years,

the

other

past,

in

hand, itself

as so

to

calm

that

desirable,

templation con-

who

can

leisurely and deliberate, while he practises on of old griefs,and cruel operation, the ripping up

a

venturing in

the

be

to

himself the

on

which

again the

upon

stars

the of this

"

infandum

lower

heaven

"

dolorem were

one

6 doing so] the attempt V] Chapter III he to imply that unthankful to seem be most though it would all-suflacient light] in spite of the light given to him according

of

by

Part 16 not

his

need

20

had

he]

were

22

has] had

had to


192

HISTORY

OF

I could

?

one

going out

the

imperiouscall of It is both

to do.

things in madness

examination.

spring of

blood, nor what

heart

this is the

except upon set myself trial,thus

I have extreme

an

boldest in my

:

the

bring out various

and,

bold I not

were

object,it

would

be

it.

1839

I had

troversial status, and

I had

the

positionin

my

height.

at its

was

OPINIONS

gone by, and to I have done

after all succeed

to set about

In the

and

long

so

life :

my

I should

sure

in cool

not

duty, attempt

has

of that

results

RELIGIOUS

to head

analyzewhat

to

MY

Anglican Church

confidence

supreme

in my

great and stillgrowing

a

others.

con-

lo

success,

had

in the foregoing Bishop'sCharge, but shows I have a letter which had passed that all annoyance mind. from my In January, if I recollect aright,in order the popular clamour to meet against myself and others, and to satisfy the Bishop, I had collected into one all the I, had said against strong thingswhich they,and especially in

recommending

the Church

of

I

the world

Roman

said, from

the birth of my I had been in which

the

among

own

but

sources,

mind

and

were,

the

on

20

trary, con-

of the circumstances

of the imputations placed,I had a scorn It was true that I held heaped upon me. ism large bold system of religion, very unlike the Protestantthe concentration and adjustof the day, but it was ment which

a

to their insertion

appended to our publications.Conscious not gained,as were opinionsin religion my

that

was

I

at the

sore

in order

Rome,

advertisements as

it to

somewhat

been

autumn

were

of the I had

had], and hold

to

more

their

and great Anglican authorities,

right to do so, as the Evangelical [party rightthan the Liberal (partycould show),30 own

of Tract

occasion

of

statements

much

as

respective doctrines. 90, I claimed, in behalf

(inthe Anglican Church),that Church

comprecation

a

and

the Mass

with

Hooker

29 31 33

with

all but that

with

that

he

might

the

Transubstantiation

might hold

31 in the

I

on

would

Anglican [with Bramhall],

with

Andre

itself is not to

spoke

of who

hold in the

Saints

Transubstantiation

do so] hold it spoke] declared

Bramhall

he

As

wes, a

or

point

hold] for asserting

Anglican Church] the right of holding


TO

1839

(FROM

1841.)

193

for Churches to part communion upon, or with Hammond shall General Council, truly such, never did, never a in a matter of faith, or with Bull that man err (had in paradiseand) lost inward grace by the fall,or with Thornthat

that

dike

with

or

otherwise

play 10

is

penance

given that,"

at

in the

than

often

was

Catholic

in my

appealed to

sentiments ; in the

Reformers

sin, propitiationfor post-baptismal of Jesus is no all-powerfulname

a

that the

Pearson

that, if they had

sense

"

Church.

Two

can

testant of Promouth, when men the Articles,Homilies, or

rightto speak

a

well as as liberty(to speak or parallel they,) and (had) the means(, by the same appeals,)of giving them tit for tat. I thought that the had been tyrannizedover by a (mere) AiiglicanChurch tained party, and I aimed at bringinginto effect the promise conin the motto to the Lyra, They shall know the

[both] the

had

I

loud,

out

"

I

difference

now." difference.

the What 20

will best

describe

state

my

reason

"

Anglican to Anglicans.

an

parting

address

it ends

things,and

the

at

for the

first time

which

It may

now

It reviews

by I

be

read

to

my

the

I had

asked

came

on

a

me,

good enough

this

spoke

ever

as

as

my

friends.

the actual

by looking towards

since

it for

state

of

It is

future.

; for my goes to this, that memory friend to do the work ; that then, the thought that I would do it myself : and that he was hands what he had with great to put into my

altogethermine

not

early

Critic for that

valediction, made

and

it at the time.

I little knew

of mind British struck

been the last words

it contains

:

have

and

published;

was

them

to show

to be allowed

part of 1839, is an Article in the April. I have looked over it now, it

30

only

asked

"

it in[to]my appositenesswritten, and (that)I embodied the greater part Article. Every one, I think, will recognize of it of

as

It

mine.

Tract

90, and

was was

publishedtwo entitled

"

years

The

before the affair

State

of

Rehgious

Parties."

In this Article,I begin by bringing togethertestimonies of our to the remarkable enemies tions. exersuccess our One writer said : " Opinions and views of a theology

from

inward

4

14

had

APOLOGIA

grace

been]

by the fall]on

the faU,

was

g;

a

supernaturalhabit

of grace


of

a

marked

very

and

adopted ground among the

days."

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

and

well The

:

"

Another

:

'

been

extensively daily gaining

are

influential

ministers

as

the

of

portion

of

Established

has manifested itself of the hot-bed of these evil

Movement

rapid growth

most

have and

and

considerable

a as

Another the

with

MY

peculiarkind strenuouslyupheld,

members,

Church." "

OF

HISTORY

194

The

Via

Media

is crowded

with

to argue, never enthusiasts, who except presume young Were : againstthe proprietyof arguing at all." Another I to give you a full list of the works, which they have pro"

within

duced

You

you.

the

short

would

lo

of five years, I should prise surwhat a task it would be to make of their system, even in its

space see

yourselfcomplete master The writers have state. present probably immature In quietness and confidence shaU be adopted the motto, regard to confidence, they have strength.' With your their adopting it ; but as to quietness,it is not justified very quietto pour forth such a succession of controversial The spread of these doctrines publications."Another : is in fact now having the effect of renderingall other dis- 20 tinctions obsolete,and of severingthe religious community into two portions,fundamentally and vehemently opposed Soon there will be no middle ground left ; to the other. one and especially and clergyman, will be man, every every the Another his choice two." make between to : compelled those unfortunate and deeply The time has gone by, when without be passed over can notice, regrettedpublications fail is now dead." and the hope that their influence would fearful proAnother These doctrines had alreadymade : gress. in Brighton is crowded One of the largestchurches so '

"

"

"

There few at Leeds. them are ; so is the church of note, to which They they have not extended. are They obtain in preached in small towns in Scotland. them north London. I found 600 of miles Elginshire, to

hear

towns

myself in advocated have

even

the heart

of the

They are highlandsof Scotland. They periodicalpress.

and newspaper themselves insinuated

in

the

into

the

House

of Commons." "

is daily Charge : It alarming aspect. Under the

And, lastly,a bishop in

a

"

serious and assuming a more specious pretence of deference to Antiquity and respect 40 of the Protestant for primitivemodels, the foundations


Church

undermined

are

by

her

dwell within

who

men,

195

1841.)

sit in the Reformers'

who

those

and

TO

1839

(FROM

seat

are

walls,

traducing the

Reformation."

10

After thus stating the phenomenon of the time, as it presenteditself to those who did not sympathize in it,the this it does by for it ; and Article proceeds to account the and superficial from re-action it a as dry considering the literature of of the religiousteaching and character the last generation, or century, and as a result of the need felt both by the hearts and the intellects of the which was and for a deeper philosophy,and as the evidence nation which the that of to fulfilment the even need, as partial of the then chief authors generation had borne witness. of Walter the literaryinfluence Scott, First, I mentioned "

ages.

and

considered

be

may

I

direction

said,

what

attractive, than

more

the

to

generalneed,"

The

of

the

middle

something deeper

of

offered

had

have

to

"

led to his

where, itself else-

popularity;

popularityhe re-acted on his readers, thirst,feedingtheir hopes,setting not easily before them visions,which, when once seen, are with nobler forgotten, and silentlyindoctrinatingthem first be appealed to as ideas, which might afterwards principles." While I spoke of Coleridge,thus : Then history in of by means stimulatingtheir

and 20

minds

men's

turned

who

his

mental

"

and

prose

was

verse

thus

made

the

of Church

instrument

opinions,a philosophicalbasis for the same laid in England by a very originalthinker, who, while indulged a libertyof speculation,which no Christian

feelingsand was

he 30

tolerate,and

can

heathen

philosophy into been

advocated

accustomed

his age, and succeeded truth." of Catholic Then one

carried

in

in that

themselves 40

were

often

to

forward

in

its genius in interesting

and

Wordsworth,

the

"

cause

two livingpoets, department of fantastic fiction,the of philosophical meditation, have addressed and feelings, the same and high principles

Southey

come

of whom

other

which

conclusions

Christian,yet after all instilled a higher inquiringminds, than they had hitherto he made trial of to accept. In this way

rather than

the

their readers 15

in the

to] in

same

direction."


HISTORY

196

Then

MY

OF

the

comes

"

had

He "

writing :

from

said

has

the English Church, yet The practicalinfluence. and of God, providence grace

less

by the kind, is and

.

evidence

that

yet

words

of God."

works

of my

intrinsic excellence Church

no

rich

probably

provision,made

.

for habits

of

noble

a

arise,fitted both by nature themselves, and to displayto undiscovered, whether in the

for

others,whatever or

date

shall

men

discover

to ability,

.

Alexander

the

more

than has

by world, and

the

before

years

earth

on

-action hazarded

from

distance,"Mr.

a

twenty

Church

No

re

withdrawn

sagacious surveying its movements Knox.

OPINIONS

this

predictionof

observer

a

RELIGIOUS

remains

Also

I referred

"

to

lo

much

a

clergyman generation,"who said shortly before his death, Depend on it, the day will those when buried, will be come, great doctrines, now the

of

venerated

last

"

to the

brought out fearful." the

blame their a

I

lightof day, and

remarked

upon impetuosityof the

animadversions

majestic river,till it

who

become

of two

three individuals.

or "

as

in hearts

where

rules of in the

it

up

not

was

20

within

the

ment Move-

to refer it to the

much

so

a

ment move-

"

risingup it was least suspected,and working itself, secret, yet so subtly and impalpably, as of precautionor encounter on any ordinary

though not in hardly to admit human

"

spiritafloat

a

turn

dammed

which

absurd

It

now

rather

have

under

being the circumstances it was began and progressed,

*'

who

flood."

a

These act

the effect will be

they

current, should

those

upon had

then

this, that

;

It

opposition.

air,a something one

was

us,

"

is,"I continued, and entire,a whole

sary adver-

an

wherever

incapableof being grasped, as 30 other or deeper than political visible agencies,the spiritual wants." awakening of spiritual this clear,!proceedto refer to the chief preachers To make is, unapproachable

it

being the result of

of the Dr.

Hook

to

aristocracy; Mr. Palmer

5

the

and

of dignitaries

far

doctrines

revived

attention

and

causes

at

that

variety of

their

Mr. the Mr.

from

writing]Article

Churton last

Keble Ireland

to

representedthe high

century

;

Mr.

came

from

; Dr.

Pusey

20

and

moment,

had] has

draw

respective antecedents.

a

Church

Perceval, the tory country parsonage ;

from

the Universities 37

tory] Tory


TO

1839

(FROM

197

1841.)

study of Arabic MSS. ; Mi'. Dodsstudy of Prophecy ; Mr. Oakeley had gained his views, as he himself expressedit, partly by with study, partly by reflection,partly by conversation while I speak two or one friends,inquirerslike himself : much indebted of myself as being to the friendshipof led on to ask, Archbishop Whately." And thus I am march of opinions head of a sect is there ? What What be traced from mind to mind can preacherssuch as among of

and

Germany,

worth

the

the

from

"

"

"

"

10

these

?

They

are

and

one

degree the organs of simultaneouslyin many

all in their

has risen up

Sentiment, which

one

places very mysteriously." train of

My of the that

they

simply laid which 20

to

to draw

extravagances

disciples

then

occurred, whatever they were, are door, or to the charge of the doctrines

as

to my

A

do

cannot

man

than

more

freely

is wrong, not be, that it say that it need ought not to be, and that he is very sorry that it should I am be. Now I said in the Article,which reviewing,that must "

what

great truths

themselves, which

be condemned

not

there

Aberrations A

"

Israelites."

is

multitude

There

of them.

abuse

the doctrine be, whatever and waysensitive,capricious, ward.

ever

heart

mixed

preaching,

were

we

of such

account

on

must

is,while the human

will

of

out

went

be

ever

a

with

Egypt

number

of

the

persons,"

"

professingthe opinionsof a movement party, strangely,do odd or fierce things, and disgustother people ; displaythemselves unnecessarily,

I

continued,

who

talk

young be

to

warm

Such

loudly and

too

persons, too

persons

to be

sober,

will be

particular persons, merely way."

to

others

because

While

40

the

I

I advocated.

confess

the

30

speak of

to

me

freelyacknowledged and lamented be kept in order. It is very much to when such attention to this point now,

and

needed

the purpose

led

thought next

Movement,

I thus

very use

do,

too

and

to

republishwhat occurred

strong conviction

act

in

I then

in these

I have

40

attach

to

years,

that

humble.

themselves

said

say

about

at the

they

to

things party-spirited to

a

they] those extravagances

cautious,

be

to

particular names,

as

very

intellectual

apt

extravagances a

to be

wise, too generous or

same

furnished

such time

quite


198

HISTORY

the

much

as

welcome

of us,

shy

or

"

in

volume

or

three

commenced "

followers

our

:

to

of

the was

the

Series

a

avowed

uppish

this Series I contributed

myself.

Its conductors the

had

were

felt at the time ; good should not be

accordingly,two for the Times

who

we

with Plain Sermons they called whatever and correcting discouraging

extreme

time

see

This too that our

jealous

were

of

purpose a

to

and

of the Tracts

of what

or

;

who

stumbhng-blocks of those

duty

evil-spokenof

for those

doctrines.

our

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

excuse

the

as

well inclined to but it was our writers

MY

OF

say

lo

their Preface

in

:

"If

therefore

who persons, goes on, there shall be found innate beauty and majesty of the fuller

as

admiring system

of

and seeingthe transcendent strength Christianity, shall become loud and voluble advocates in of its principles, their behalf,speaking the more because they do not freely, feelthem deeplyas founded in divine and eternal truth, of such persons it is our duty to declare plainly,that, as we should contemplate their condition with serious misgiving, would they be the last persons from whom should seek 20 we so Primitive

support. "

But

if,on

the other

hand,

there

shall be any,

who,

in

humility of their lives,and in their unaffected that they in truth accept for holy things,show reverence real and substantial,and by habitual these principles as purityof heart and serenityof temper, give proof of their and sacramental ordinances, deep veneration for sacraments those persons, whether our professedadherents or not, best exemplify the kind of character which the writers of the the silent

for the Times

Tracts

have

wished

to form."

30

clergymen had the best of claims to use these beautiful words, for they were themselves, all of them, important writers in the Tracts, the two Mr. Kebles, and These

Mr.

Williams.

Isaac

ushered

And

their Series into the

this passage, with which they world, I quoted in the Article, "

What giving an account, and I added, requiredof the preachersof neglectedtruth, who do not assent than that they should admit that some, than some holier and better men to their preaching,are who do ? They were not answerable for the intemperance4o dishonoured of those who true doctrine,providedthey a of which

I

more

be

can

"

am


TO

1839

(EROM

1841.)

199

as protested, they did, againstsuch intemperance.

moral

great

any

liable

more

the

for

answerable

not

were

dust

and

The

truer

movement.

they

to be

are

secondary

doctrine

10

which

schools

of the succession it is

ever

of

and

one

led

of the

Thus

I

"

I say,

that

system yet harmonizing with, which a

20

and

venture will

apply,

Lastly,I

'

On

upon our

it. minds

"

About

another, while

to

basis of the

to the

doctrine

was

who

make

willingto

are

on

"

fortuna the

which

be

to

was

I

And the

other subjects,the proverb adjuvat.' question of that future of the

this,as

proceeded to

Religion.

the and

"

and

Fortes

AngHcan Church, Ancient

Church,

for the sake of something difficulties,

to face

higherin prospect.

of

a

to itself those

will attract

of

system

a

not impUed a servile reproductionof it as is old. have We good hope," be risingup, superiorto the age, carrying out its higher points,

mil

a

the

discussion

brought on

was

the

such

but

while it is

reallyyoung,

are,

developed,of

or

doctrine

phase of same.

past,

a

which

all be in the One

subject of Antiquity, which was of the Via Media, and by which imitation

They

opinionor temper to

on

of

means

may

one

the

doctrines

faults of

embraced, modified,

be

may

varietyof

by

causes,

"

attends

perverted."

The notice of these incidental in adherents of the Movement, the

which

din

did

not

have

future,we

whatever, good

bad.

or

a

birth

new

venture no

Ever

of

the

to

pronounce prospect before since

that

great

luminary, Augustine,proved to be the last bishop of Hippo, Christians have had a lesson againstattempting to foretell, how Providence will prosper and [or ?] bring to an end, "

"

30

what would

begins." Perhaps prevailin the AngHcan

be lost in

"

predictthat permanent

miserable

some

compromise

to say

the

it

; "

but

there

neither

that in the

schism, or

within

present age, without

II

I went

:)

on

it]that doctrine

13 29

"

As

to

These

are

had

any

[I

in the

Liberalism, be understood

the Author's

venturing to

I meant suppose the aid of Apostolical

would,

implied]to

miserable

more

in

Liberalism

nor

her."

the Anglican Church principles, to exist.]

(Then

some

nothing rash

was

Puritanism

inheritance

-revived lately principles ; perhapsthey would

Church

[]

event, we

15

cease

think

the

young]

new


of the Church

formularies

Providence, keep making the Clergy. Besides, it is too cold But

it had

as

any

to

more

was

its organization ; but upon intellectual basis ; no internal

I observed no

good

a

inroads

serious

upon to prevailwith a principle regardedwhat was called Evangelical

Puritanism, there

Religionor

the aid of

with

will ever,

it from

the multitude."

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

HISTORY

200

alarm.

cause

the

on

hand

other

idea, no principle Its adherents," I said, are

"

"

unity, no theology. alreadyseparatingfrom each of

a

one

point,on

other ; they will melt away view on any lo straightforward professesto teach, and to hide its

It has

snow-drift.

like

which

it

no

We of words. itself out in a maze lead what it fear all of it at we no only may ; It does not stand on intrenched ground, or make to. any the space pretence to a position; it does but occupy ism. between contending powers, Catholic Truth and Rational-

poverty, it has dressed dread

have

indeed

Then

will be

the

stern

encounter, when

two

simple,entire, and consistent, livingprinciples, in the Church, the other out of it,at lengthrush upon one and words, or half -views, 20 each other,contendingnotfornames real and

the ideas

Whether

characters."

and distinctive moral

elementary notions

but for

of the

coming

age

upon *'

religionwere In the present

false,(atleast) they would be real. day," I said, mistiness is the mother of wisdom.

true

or

A

"

who

set down

can

man

which generalpropositions, another only by being diluted the balance between opposites

half-a-dozen

escape from destroyingone hold into truisms, who can to do without as so skilfully

fulcrum

beam, who

or

never

guarding himself againstbeing supposed to exclude the contradictory,^who holds that 30 Scriptureis the only authority,yet that the Church is to be deferred yet that it does to, that faith only justifies, without not justify works, that grace does not depend on the sacraments, yet is not given without them, that bishops enunciates

a

truth

without

"

are

a

in the

divine

your safe the Church

ordinance, yet those condition religious

same man

and is said

the to

hope

as

who

have

those

who

of the

want, not

Church

party

temperate, sober, well-judging persons, the channel of no -meaning,between dis of Aye and No."

the

men,

them

not

have, "

;

are

this is

this is what but

sensible,

guide it through Scyllaand Charyb- 40

to


(FROM This men

of

state

1839

TO

1841.)

things,however, I said,could not last,if and think. will not keep [standThey ing] "

to read

were

201

in that very

attitude

which

you

call sound

Church-of-

Englandism or orthodox Protestantism. They cannot go for ever on standing on one leg,or sittingwithout a chair, or walking with their feet tied, or [grazing]Hke Tityrus's view or stags (grazing)in the air. They Avill take one It may be another, but it will be a consistent view. LiberaHsm, or Erastianism, or Popery, or Catholicity ; 10

but

it will be real."

I concluded the Article by saying,that all who did not wish to be " democratic, or pantheistic, or popish,"must " from which will preserve look out for some Via Media us The what restore the dead. threatens, though it cannot and Loyola are Luther is dead ; but Hildebrand alive. Is it sensible,sober, judicious, to be so very angry with those writers of the day, who pointto the fact,that our divines of the seventeenth century have occupieda ground

spiritof

20

which is the true and intelligible ? between extremes mean it is not Is it wise to quarrel with this ground, because the power of should choose, had we exactly what we choice a

moderation, instead of tryingto fortify doctrine,to flingstones at those who do ?

Is it true

?

middle

Would

.

you

rather

have

your

sons

and

.

.

daughtersmembers

? " of Rome of the Church of England or of the Church thus And thus I left the matter. But, while I was speaking of the future of the Movement, I was in truth with it, little dreaming that it winding up my accounts in some be ; while I was or other, still, way to available Via lledia, I was for an soon to cast out of my receive a shock which was imagination As I have all middle and compromises for ever. courses of the the number in this Article said, April appeared was

30

to

so

"

feelingabout

tell why, there British Critic ; in the July number, I cannot for October; the Article of mine no ; before the number I have alluded. event had happened to which But before I proceed to describe what happened to me detain the reader for a while, of 1839, 1 must in the summer is

in order 40

Rome involve

to describe

and some

the

issue of the controversy between

AngUcan Church, as I viewed it. This will dry discussion ; but it is as necessary for my

the

H3^


^2

HISTORY

OF

RELIGIOUS

MY

OPINIONS

plans of buildingsand proceedingsof our

narrative, as

homesteads

to be in the

found

law

often

are

courts.

the

ment objectof the Moveday, I found and felt this could not be done by mere negatives. It was for us to have a positiveChurch theory erected necessary definite basis. This took me to the great Anglican a on I have

said

divines

alreadythat,though

to withstand

was

and

;

then

of

When the

It

me.

Church

was

neither

found

the other.

on

before

that

it

But

I a

controversy, difficult to master,

more

with

points,not

me,

neatness to

easy

would

was

in

came

and

sum

and

I

lo

found,

soon

began

settle.

It

manifold

put

out

to make

easy was

to

others

as

difficult to was

on

come

numberless

tangled and

precision.It

up

doubt ever

that in this state of mind the one on hand, and was

find

it

cutting

Thus

of Rome.

myself to it,I had suspicionthat doubt

Bellarmine

up

of hand

that

once

I first turned

Anglicanwriters had

at

theory, without

such

controversy.

subject,nor

upon read

I found

course

impossible to form any the teachingof the across the Roman

of the

the Liberalism

not

easy

to

20

dispute,and stillless by a logical process to decide it in favour of Anglicanism.This difficulty, to harass or perplex however, had no tendency whatever of convictions,but of proofs. : it was me a matter, not First I saw, as all see who study the subject, that a broad a

clear issue for the

distinction

had

to

be

the

between

drawn

actual

belief and

which of usage in the countries were with the Roman Church, and her formal

the

latter

did

not

instance, is

not

Purgatory ;

but

the

cover

impHed it

was

in

the

the

Tridentine

tradition

decree

of the

of

munion com-

dogmas ; pain, for

Sensible

former.

state

in

Latin

upon

Church,

and

I had seen the pictures of souls in flames in the streets Naples. Bishop Lloyd had brought this distinction out stronglyin an Article in the British Critic in 1825 ; indeed, it was of the most to the one common objectionsmade of

Church formal

24 on

of

matter,

that

Rome,

decree, not

to

of

convictions,but

she

what

dared

not

nevertheless

commit she

convictions,but of proofs]matter on

proofs

herself

sanctioned

which

by and

bore, not

so


allowed.

Accordingly,in

I contrasted

her creed

quiescent,and the

on

1841.) view

as

in action.

Rome

hand, with her ordinary politicaland social

one

controversial

tone, her

her

beliefs

popular

203

PropheticalOffice,I

my

simply separate ideas,Rome

teaching,her bearing, and

TO

1839

(FROM

and

the

practiceson

other. While

this distinction

I made

the traditions of

10

Rome, I drew

between

the

decrees

and

distinction between parallel

a

and AngHcanism in action. Anglicanismquiescent, creed AngUcanism was not at a great distance

In its

formal

from

viewed in its insular spirit, otherwise,when traditions of its establishment,its historical characteristics, and its controversial its private judgment. rancour,

Rome

far

:

the

I disavowed "

called them I wished

and

to find

a

those excesses, Ultra-Protestantism

condenmed "

"

Protestantism

or

and "

:

the part of Roman on disclaimer, parallel popular system of beliefs and I called own Church, which Popery."

controversialists,of that

20

lay

that

hope the

between

side,and

the

then

AngMcan

Via

And

as

next,

them

took Roman

"

:

have but

not

One

AngHcan

be

You

your

the

upon

CathoKcity.

There

is but

One

true 40

and I

was

have

one ruption cor-

this ;

myself.

the

controversy

popular reHgion of

issue,to which

his stand

the

Roman

get further than

not

to content

the

: "

the

Rome.

controversy between

this

the Anglican disputant : the Antiquityor Apostolicity, was

"

The

Aiiglican said to Faith, the Ancient, and

kept

"

to

the you

"

"

in

Antiquity;

not

communicate

and

its

with

been

Church,

as

"

the Roman one

any

offshoots,and

received defined

Apostohc ; now, as engaged,England

have

you and usages,

doctrines,sacraments, ever

controversy

the Roman it ; retorted : There is Church, the Catholic,and you are out of it." The Your urged : specialbeliefs,practices,modes

do own

the

I called

partiesin

and

brought, it

action,are nowhere

of "

the

were

Media

upon

Roman

that

saw

of what

I could forced

was

to the

to

was

dream, I

a

other.

this result I

These

30

was

book-theologyof Anglicanism on

livingsystem

the

on

with

"

their

in

usages When

objected:

Church

besides

discarded which

ciples, prinand The

in the

East

in the

both CathoHc Creeds, was the controversy in which

I viewed and

Rome

and

had

the

are

West."

divided these notes


204

HISTORY

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

between them : the cause lay thus,Apostoprerogatives v ersus Catholicity. licity I do not However, in thus statingthe matter, of course the note of Catholicity wish it supposed,that I considered really to belong to Rome, to the disparagement of the that the special point Anglican Church ; but (Iconsidered) the in the controversy was as or Catholicity, plea of Rome that I contended Of course was Antiquity. Anglican plea the Roman idea of Catholicity not ancient and apostolic. was It was in my judgment at the utmost only natural, becom- lo should be ing, expedient,that the whole of Christendom united in one visible body ; while such a unity might be, heartless the other hand, (nothing more on than) a mere and combination. For myself, I held with the political AngUcan divines,that,in the Primitive Church, there was real mutual a very independencebetween its separate parts, though, from a dictate of charity,there was in fact a close or

union Diocese

iDetween

might

them. be

I

compared

considered to

a

that

and crystal,

each

See

that each

all similar to the rest,and that the sum total of them only a collection of crystals.The unity of the Church

and was was

20

lay,

in its being a polity, but in its being a family, a race, descent from its first founders coming down by apostolical and bishops. And I considered this truth brought out, of dispute,in the Epistlesof St. beyond the possibility Ignatius,in which the Bishop is representedas the one authorityin the Church, that is,in his own place, supreme with no one tical above him, except as, for the sake of ecclesiasorder and expedience,arrangements had been made another. So much under or 30 by which one was put over for our claim to CathoHcity,which own was so perversely appropriated by our opponents to themselves : on the other hand, as to our specialstrong point,Antiquity, while of course, by means of it,we able to condemn were most to domineer emphaticallythe novel claim of Rome other Churches, which were further in truth her equals, over than that, we her of the intolerable convicted thereby especially This was offence of having added to the Faith. the critical head of accusation urged againsther by the not

"

4

considered]allowed he, on the other hand,] ,on the other hand, he

12-13


TO

1839

(FROM

he

Anglican disputant,and, as proof that he himself was being separated from Rome, in

the

to

to St. Ignatius Catholic,in spite of triumphantly referred

he

so

"

of Lerins

ab

quod ubique,quod semper, of Rome(, in controversialists

205

referred true

a

of Vincentius

Treatise

1841.)

omnibus,"

the Quod upon in proof that the

spite of their possessionof separated in their creed from the name,) were Apostolicaland primitivefaith.

the Catholic Of 10

I

those

course

I

not

am

only concerned

am

had

controversialists

him, with which

to

with

party and

the other

1840, and

1841.

concerned

the issue

their in this

own

answer

place;

between itself,

the

here one

Catholicity. I will proceed to illustrate what I have been saying Now of the status of the controversy, as it presenteditself to my mind, by extracts from my writingsof the dates of 1836, which

Antiquityversus

"

And

I introduce

them

with

remark,

a

I shall paper, from which That in quote first,of the date of 1836. appeared paper and April numbers the March of the British Magazine of

20

that

year, and it will be

Now in the

stated

time

later

Friends

other

Home in

the

Thoughts

Abroad."

discussion

which

writingsof mine,

when

friends

my

!

"

and

enemies

And

is at

"

and

both

Rome

it was

at

How supporters cried out the time, and especiallyat "

have

cried out, How insidious ! foes virtually agreed in their criticism ; I had

date, my the

and

I

which

tage

:

this

cause was

an

9

I

"

combating to the best advanmight be from imprudence, it might be with a traitorous design. It was from neither the other ; but for the following the one nor reasons. First, I had a great impatience,whatever the subject,of not was bringingout the whole of it, as clearlyas I could ; next adversaries I wished to be as fair to my as possible; and thirdlyI thought that there was a great deal of shallowness the our own friends,and that they undervalued among strengthof the argument in behaK of Rome, and that they exact ought to be roused to a more apprehension of the set out

30

found, that,

Anglican Church, the argument in behalf of with considerable perspicuity and force.

imprudent a

"

entitled

was

in various

contains, as

the

the

especially appliesto

was

offence

answer

; it

to] mode

of

answering


OF

HISTORY

208

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

positionof the controversy. At a later date, (1841,)when side of the question reallyfelt the force of the Roman had to be met, I had a fourth which myself,as a difficulty that was, in argument, and frankness for such reason I

because

a

number

of persons

unsettled

were

far

than

more

It Catholicityof the Anglican Church. was perfectlycandid in quite plain,that, unless I was statingwhat could be said againstit,there was no chance which I felt to be in its favour, that any representations, I was,

or

as

the

to

at least to

be

adverse

Rome,

to

would

have

all times

had

I had

their

lo

deep weight duly acknowledged. the lowest ground, that on conviction,to put the matter the best policy." Accordingly,in (July) honesty was I : 1841, expressedmyself thus on the Anglican difficulty which we must This is an objection honestlysay is deeply felt by many people,and not inconsiderable ones ; and the the better ; for it is openly avowed to be a difficulty, more of its being acknowledged, and in there is then the chance the course of time obviated,as far as may be, by those who the power. have Flagrantevils cure themselves by being20 when flagrant; and we are sanguinethat the time is come so great an evil as this is,cannot stand its ground against of religiouspersons. the good feelingand common sense It is the very against us ; and, strength of Romanism At

real

a

"

*'

unless

the

proper

they as

time

lost to

goes our

on,

persons look may of

Church."

take

whom

some

The

measure

their

it into

for certain

to

serious

undergo

they would which

sideration, con-

the

loss,

least like to be I had

especially

the projectof a Jerusalem in this passage, was Bishopric,which the then Archbishop of Canterbury was at that time concocting with M. Bunsen, and of which

in

view

to return to in the sequel. And now speak more Thoughts Abroad of the springof 1836 : in the in this compositionruns The discussion contained You of the disputantssays : of a dialogue. One form then ? is corrupt. What that the Church of Rome say to me the of saving it from is a strange way to cut off a limb constitutional ailment. influence of some Indigestionmay in the extremities ; yet we spare our cause poor feet cramp

I shall

the Home

"

"

10

in

their real

question

weight duly acknowledged] any

success

with the persons

so


TO

1839

(FROM

notwithstanding. Surely there the is

existence

of

Christian

a

separate The

is such

a religious fact as body, union with which duty. Now, we English are

privilegeand

from

207

Catholic

great

a

1841.)

it." "

other

The

present is an unsatisfactory, I can The grant no more. Church is founded a on doctrine, on the gospelof Truth ; it is a means to an end. Perish the Church, (though, blessed be the promise ! this cannot be,) yet let it perish miserable

:

answers

things,yet

of

state

"

10

rather than

the Truth

preciousto

the

erred

grievouslyin

His

fail.

Purity of faith is more has unity itself. If Rome doctrine,then it is a duty to separate than

Rome."

from

even

should

Christian

friend,who

takes the Roman side of the argument, refers to the image of the Vine and its branches, which is found, I think, in St. Cyprian,as if a branch cut from the Catholic Vine must necessarilydie. Also he quotes a passage St.

from the

to 20

body of the heritageof drawn

from of

besides the

has

men

He

one.

"

I

am

of Rome

Catholic,and

in the condition

been

or

Now,

communion

of the Church

it,and

dared

ever

adds,

fact,that the

body

able to appropriate, only contending for constitutes

that

of the Donatists."

replies, by denying the fact that the present communion is like St. Augustine'sCatholic Church,

Roman inasmuch

there

as

Anglican and

to

are

Greek

be

taken

communions.

into

idolatry,the which

are

Rome

the has

viz. the practical Christianity, worship of the Virgin and Saints, of the Latin Church, and the degradation and duty, which follows from these."

virtual

the offence truth

of moral "

so

We again : much, which

us

the

Cup,

large

takes

"

Primitive

departed from

the

account

Presentlyhe

the points,in which offensive,naming distinctly

And

the main

splitoff from

are

we

other

The

30

Augustine in controversy with the Donatists that, as being separatedfrom the Church, they were ipso factocut off from the Christ. And he quotes St. Cyril'sargument the very title Catholic,which no munion body or comeffect ; viz.

same

cannot

does

demands

not our

30

join a Church,

acknowledge

did our

acquiescence in are

to] must

we

wish

it

ever

orders,refuses image -worship,


HISTORY

208

and

OF

excommunicates

other

if

ns,

do

we

of the Tri dentine

decisions

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

not

receive

it and

all

Council."

these objectionsby referringto Besides, developments of gospeltruth." The Anglican system itself is not found complete in those early centuries ; so that the [Anglican] principle[of takes up When a man Antiquity] is self-destructive." he is like those, doctrinaire ; this Via Media, he is a mere His

the

opponent of

doctrine

answers

"

"

"

"

'*

who,

a

in

of

matter

some

little crotchet,and

own

business,start

are

up

suggest their

to

measuring mountains planetarycourses."

ever

pocket ruler,or improving the

has slept in libraries Via Media infancy for manhood." It is plain,then, that at the end

it is

;

a

of 1835

with "

lo

The

substitute

of

beginningof

or

1836, I had the whole state of the question before me, on the Churches mind, the decision between which, to my

depended. It is observable of the Pope, whether as the did not come of jurisdiction,

of

centre into

whether I doubt 20 I may say, to the end. held any of his powers to be dejure divino, distinctly I was ^not that I saw in the Anglican Church ; any

it, I think

did I

questionof the position unity,or as the source thoughts at all ; nor my

that the

ever

while

"

in the doctrine ; not that, together with the difficulty historyof St. Leo, of which I shall speak by and by, the idea of his infallibility did not cross mind, for it did, my "

but

after

all,in

it ; it turned

issue of the

my

my

upon

view

the

the

controversy did

Faith

controversy

and

from

the

the

not

turn

Church.

upon

This

beginningto

was

the end.

the Roman was a contrariety of claims between and the historyof my conversion 3o Anglican religions, of working it out to a solution. In is simply the process 1838 I illustrated it by the contrast presentedto us between and the Madonna Child, and a Calvary. [I said that]the this, that it peculiarityof the Anglican theology was supposed the Truth to be entirelyobjectiveand detached, of the not (as the Roman) lying hid in the bosom Church if one with her, clinging to and as (asit were) lost in her embrace, but as being sole and unapproachable,as There and

"

"

"

"

6, 7 These

23 together]in [ ] Roman] in the theologyof Rome

the Author's

are

36

the

connexion


the Cross

on

by,

Resurrection, with

the

209

1841.) the Church

close

background." the controversy in 1836 and 1838, so I viewed In the British Critic of January 1840, 1841.

As I viewed and

it in 1840

at

or

in the

but

TO

1839

(FROM

lies between gradually investigatinghow the matter of a dialogue,I end thus : "It by means the above each in would discussion, that, disputant seem, has a strong point : our strong point is the argument from from Primitiveness, that of Romanists Universality.It is has it is to be accounted for, that Rome a fact, however added we to the Creed ; and it is a fact, however justify ourselves, that we are estranged from the great body of

after

the

10

Churches

Christians

world.

the

over

each

And

of these

facts is

two

in the first sighta grave difficulty which they belong." Again, While at

respectivesystems to Rome, though not Fathers, recognizes them, and England, the large body of the Church, recognizes "

deferringto the not deferringto Rome

And

still more

"If

the

20

England,

England have a point to in July, 1841 : strongly(,)

and

it,both

the one of schism, on hand, lies against antagonist disgracelies upon Rome, the Note

here idolatry. Let us not be mistaken of idolatry,nor ourselves accusing Rome

practiseswhat

of what

much

;

we

of

is

so

very

like

vidential towards One As

direction the

Church

remark

time

went

more

on,

Anglican argument not

that a

merely the

our

Via

in Home

British

Critic

towards do

the

seriously

have

a

pro-

given them, how to comport themselves she is." of Rome, while she is what the and about Via Media. Antiquity without doubting the strength of the from

Antiquity,I

specialplea, but Media, which was

sort of remodelled

both

we

;

without

schism, that

decidingwha,t is the duty of a Rom.an Catholic Church of England in her present state, we think that members of the English Church 30

neither

are

schism

Church charge tenable ; but still the Roman and the Engfish Church is so like idolatry,

neither

makes

up."

Note an

of

think

clear

and

our

to

felt also that

Also only one. represent it,was

adapted Antiquity. This

it

was

I felt to

be

I observe

Thoughts Abroad, and in the Article of the I have which analyzed above. But this 37

observe] advanced


HISTORY

210

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

circumstance,that

after all we must use privatejudgment created sort of distrust of my a Antiquity, theory upon which in the conclusion of my Volume the altogether, on I express thus : Now that PropheticalOffice ((1836-7)) discussions draw to a close,the thought, with which our "

entered

the

ment subject,is apt to recur, when the excitehas has subsided, and weariness succeeded, that what has been said is but a dream, the wanton exercise,rather than the practicalconclusions of

we

on

the

of

inquiry

the intellect."

And I conclude the paragraph by anticipatlo thought into which I was, in the event, almost After all,"I say, the Church obligedto take refuge: is ever invisible in its day, and faith only apprehends it." line of

ing a

"

What

this,but

was

give up the Notes the Catholic Note

The

Vacation

Long

and

;

attention,more, from put away than

of 1839

visitors

great many

I me

Apostolic?

from

Easter

had to

been memoration Com-

Dr. Pusey and myself had attracted think, than (in)any former year. I had the controversy with Rome for more

In my years. been introduced

Parochial there

:

either in my Tracts polemicalcharacter. I was

years, a

visible Church

a

the

or

began early. There Oxford

to

two

never

of

to

whether altogether,

a

"

Sermons

had

or

subjecthad nothing for two

been

in

the

20

the

British

returning,for

the

Critic,of Vacation,

I had many of reading which years before I have no reason to suppose own, especially my that the thoughts of Rome mind at all. came across my the middle About of June I began to study and master the absorbed in the doctrinal historyof the Monophysites. I was question. This was from about June 13th to August 30 30th. It was of reading that for the during this course

to

the

course

chosen

as

first time

doubt

a

came

Anglicanism. I recollect friend,whom ; but

was

I

have

affected

Dr.

by

the end in

of a

of the fifth century, I

Pusey

and

of

August I

former

My strongholdwas

me.

of the

me

the 30th

tenableness

of

Julymentioningto

acci dentally met, howremarkable

described

the middle 18

I had

upon on

a

the history

alarmed. seriously how the history here, in Antiquity; now was

work,

found, as

myself]Dr. Pusey'sparty

22

it seemed

never] at

to me,

no

time


I

centuries a

saw

of the

Church

physite. The of the

211

1841.)

of the sixteenth and the nineteenth face in that mirror, and I was my

Christendom reflected.

TO

1839

(FROM

Oriental

Media

Via Rome

communion,

in the

was

was,

where

Mono-

position

she

now

is ;

the

Eutychians. Of all passages have thought would since historyhas been, who of history, of going to the sayings and doings of old Eutyches, that delirus senex, as (I think) Petavius calls him, and to the of the unprincipledDioscorus, in order to be enormities the Protestants

and

10

were

!

to Kome

converted

that I am not writing simply understood but with the one objectof relatingthings controversially, of my conversion. as they happened to me in the course let it be

Now

With

this view

which

I gave

*'

It

in

I will

difficult

was

quote

a

passage

because records The

so

there

silent and

of the

shadow

was

past of the

and

not

arguments tell

condemn

; difficult to

of Chalcedon

those of Protestants

then, were

I found

now.

it so,

the feverish chronicle

fifth

almost

"

awful

similitude,more unimpassioned, between

an

the

century

was

on

awful, the

of the

dead

present.

the sixteenth.

It

risingfrom the troubled waters of the old spirit The of the new. world, with the shape and lineaments Church then, as now, might be called peremptory and stern, resolute, overbearing,and relentless ; and heretics were shifting,changeable, reserved, and deceitful,ever agreeing together,except courting civil power, and never prehensions, by its aid ; and the civil power was ever aiming at comtrying to put the invisible out of view, and the use of was substituting expediency for faith. What continuing the controversy, or defending my position,if, after all,I was forgingarguments for Arius or Eutyches, was

40

find

against Popes of the sixteenth condemning the Popes century, without of religion, the combat drama and of of the fifth. The and the same. The principles truth and error, were one ever those of the and were proceedings of the Church now, then ; the principles and Church proceedingsof heretics the Fathers

fearfully;

30

account,

my

Monophysites were heretics also ; difficult to Anglicans were against the Tridentine Fathers, which did

20

the

from

in 1839 : reasoningsand feelings the Eutychians or to make out how Protestants and heretics, unless

1850, of

like

a


212

HISTORY

and

turning devil's

Athanasius Saints

MY

OF

and

RELIGIOUS

advocate

the

OPINIONS

against the much-enduring

majestic Leo

! and

shall I liftup my righthand forgether

Be

?

with

soul

my

the

hand

againstthem ? Sooner cunning,and wither outright, may my his who stretched it out against a prophet of God ! as once anathema tribe of Cranmers, Ridleys,Latimers, to a whole and Jewels ! perishthe names of Bramhall, Ussher, Taylor, and Barrow from the face of the earth, ere Stillingfleet, do aught but fall at their feet in love and I should in before my eyes, and lo worship,whose image was continually whose

when

had

the

into

^^"J^ J

I Kj

,

This

I

brought

Dublin

in it

did

was

known

above.

not

an

and

ears

on

my

I

same

were

reading to a close, August was put favourable

more,

myseK.

was

There

was

to an

"

Anglican Claim by Bishop Wiseman. middle of September. It was the on applicationto Anglicanism. I read it,

much

see

to

The

"

the

Donatists, with and

than

the

on

about

was

of

course my of that

Review

of Rome

cause

Article nfi^*^*"

in my

ever

hands, by friends who

my

the

were

"

Hardly tE'

words

musical

tongue !

The

in it.

for

me

some

Donatist

years, to parallel

controversy 20

I have

as

instanced

that of the

Anglican Augustinein Africa wrote againstthe Donatists in Africa. furious party who made schism a a They were within the African Church, and not beyond its limits. It of Altar againstAltar, of two occupants of the was a case the Non-jurorsin England and same See, as that between Church.

the

case

was

not

St.

Established

Church

;

not

against another, as Rome physites. But my friend,an dear

then, very

as

the

palmary

words

case

the

of

Church

one

Oriental

Mono-

anxiouslyreligious now, man, Protestant to me, a still, pointed out of St. Augustine,which contained were

of the extracts made escaped my observation. in

the

against

one

in the "

Review, and

Securus

judicat

which orbis

30

had terra-

He

repeated these words again and again,and, Securus gone, they kept ringingin my ears. which words went judicat orbis terrarum they were ; beyond the occasion of the Donatists : they appliedto that of the Monophysites. They gave a cogency to the Article,

rum." when

he

"

was

"

17

Bishop]Dr.

21

I have

instanced

above] has appeared already


TO

1839

(FROM

213

1841.)

escaped me at first. They decided ecclesiastical that of Antiquity; nay, a simplerrule than Augustine was one of the prime oracles of Antiquity ; had

which

questions on St.

deciding against itself. What Antiquity was thrown controversy in the hereby light upon every the multitude not Church ! not that,for the moment, may falter in their judgment, ^not that,in the Arian hurricane, here

then

a

was

"

Sees

than

more

fury,and 10

numbered

be

can

St.

fall off from

did

Athanasius,

not not

"

bend

before

that

its

the crowd

Bishops did not need to be sustained during by the voice and the eye of St. Leo ; but that at the dehberate judgment, in which the whole Church infallible and is rests an prescription acquiesces, length and final sentence a against such portionsof it as protest and secede. Who for the impressionswhich account can Oriental

of

the contest

made

are

St.

felt from

For

?

words

any

a

sentence, the words

mere

with

me

which

a

power To take

before.

a

I

familiar

of had

never

instance, "

of the again Whittington like the chime serious one, they were ; or, to take a more Tolle, lege, Tolle, lege,"of the child,which converted

they

20

him

on

Augustine,struck "

the

like

were

Turn

"

"

St.

Augustine himself.

By

those

and

''

great words

summing

the

up

history,)the

judicatorbis

Securus

of the

ancient

long and

varied

theory

of

"

Father, (interpreting of ecclesiastical

course

Media

Via

the

!

terrarum

absolutely

was

pulverized. I became I

30

state

my to

excited

no

of mind

others.

to

After

I had

bearing upon It

clear that

was

the

I had

of the

Churches, and

coming

upon

if he closed The

had

He

me.

never

its

seen

again.

The

Church

of Rome

a

shadow

of

who

has

it.

The

thought

What

away.

far

so

hand

a

learn

as

upon on

this the

was

wall.

the question

lightwas ghost,cannot be as had heavens opened and

for

new

some

a

seen

will be

length the

attempt to describe logicalvalue, and its

good deal to perhaps

that

at

will

duty. Meanwhile,

seen

"

determine

to

my

certain, I had

"

while,I got calm, and imagination faded my

impressionupon thought about it on reflection,I

presently.

40

most

two a

thus opened upon me. of visits ; and I mentioned friends : I think intimate

view

round

a

vivid I

the

at

just startingon

was

the found

moment

had

right after

been, all ;

"


HISTORY

214

and

OPINIONS

remained

old convictions

My

before.

as

this

At I

vanished.

it had

then

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

time, I

published in

thus "

wrote

Sermon

my

volume

my

on

Calls,which

Divine

Plain

of

Sermons.

It

ends

: "

take that simple view of things,as to thing which lies before us is to please God ! What gain is it to please the world, to pleasethe to pleasethose whom we love, compared great,nay even with this ? What gain is it to be applauded, admired, lo courted, followed, compared with this one aim, of not being disobedient to a heavenly vision ? What can this that insightinto spiritual offer comparable with world that that keen faith, heavenly peace, that high things, that hope of glory, righteousness, sanctity,that everlasting which they have, who in sincerity love and follow our Lord Jesus Christ ? Let us beg and pray Him day by day to reveal Himself souls more to our fully,to quicken our to give us sight and hearing,taste and touch of senses, 0 that

feel that

could

we

the

one

'

"

'

the

world

to

sincerely say,

come '

after that receive but

Thee

shalt

me

and

?

there

work

to

so

;

Thou

with is

within

us,

that

we

20

may

guide me with Thy counsel, and have I in heaven glory. Whom

none

upon

comparison of Thee. My flesh and God is the strengthof my heart,and

earth my

that

I desire in

faileth,but portionfor ever.' heart

"

my

succession of thoughts,and the conclusions, on previous consequent innovations my belief,and the generalconduct, to which I was led, upon this sudden And visitation. first,I will say, whatever of sayingit,for I leave inferences to others,that for 30 comes habitual I have had something of an must notion, years led me to distrust my though it was latent,and had never Now

to

own

the

trace

and

the

convictions,that that

rest, and

During

the "

in

same

my

some

passage

mind sense across

had or

not

other

found I

was

the Mediterranean

its ultimate on

journey. in which

kindlylight,"I also wrote the verses, which Providences," Lyra under the head of This was in 1833 ; and, beginning, When I look back." since I have begun this narrative,I have found a memorandum under the date of September 7, 1829, in which I speak 40

I wrote are

found

Lead

in the "

"


of

myself,as advancing "c.

*'

He

whither be

in my

now

and

led

is

worth,

Oriel

in

rooms

was

215

1841.)

College,slowly ing not knowblindly,

by God's hand

on

this presentiment

But, whatever

me."

taking it

TO

1839

(FROM

protectionagainstthe dismay

no

of the dreadful disgust,which I felt,in consequence misgiving,of which I have been relatingthe history. The I to do ? I had to make one up question was, what was mined I detercould not help me. and others mind for myseK, my to be guided, not by my imagination,but by my and over And this I said over again in the years reason. and in privateletters. which followed, both in conversation and

10

Had a

been

it not

Catholic

for this than

sooner

I

severe was.

a positive doubt, suggestion did not come myseK, Time alone can

20

on

resolve,I should have been tion Moreover, I felt on considerathe the other hand, whether said

I

Then

below.

from

to

question. It was my to business to go on as usual, obey those convictions to which I had so myseK, which still had long surrendered thoughts had no possessionof me, and on which my new of direct bearing. That new conception thingsshould only If claim to do so. far influence me, as it had a logical so it came from above, it would come again ; so I trusted, and definite outlines (and greater cogency jand with more he consistencyof proof). I thought of Samuel, before that

solve

"

"

*'

the

knew

lay down

word

matter, and

point a

;

and

my

new

historical fact had

logicalforce.

had

Down

I went, and view of the

therefore

sleepagain. This was my my prima facieconclusion.

to

However,

of the Lord

"

broad

to (already)

come

the

Via

a

certain

Media

as

theory or scheme, under the blows of St. Leo. had come to pieces; not indeed My PropheticalOffice Roman as errors," nor as an against argument against Protestantism,but as in behaK of England. I had no more be distinctive a plea for Anghcanism, unless I would back fall I t o most a upon had, painfully, Monophysite. three original points of belief,which I have spoken so my of dogma, the ^the principle much of in a former passage,

30 a

definite "

"

"

"

sacramental the first two

were

better 33

Of

anti -Romanism.

system, and

secured

in

more] longer

Rome

these than

three, in

the


216

HISTORY

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

The Anglican Church. ApostolicalSuccession, the tAVO prominent sacraments, and the primitiveCreeds,belonged, indeed, to the latter,but there had been and was far less strictness

on

of

matters

and

dogma

ritual in the

Anglican

in consequence, main : system than in the Roman my argument for the Anglican claims lay in the positiveand

I had specialcharges,which I could bring againstRome. no positiveAngUcan theory. I was nearly a pure very Protestant. Lutherans had had sort of theology,so a Calvinists

; I had

However,

lo

none.

this

Protestantism,

pure

which

to

I

was

gradually left,was reallya practicalprinciple.It was a strong, though it was only a negative ground, and it still had great hold on me. As a boy of fifteen, I had so fully imbibed Gradus ad it, that I had actuallyerased in my Chris ti under the word Parnassum, such titles, Papa," as and Vicarius," sacer interpres," sceptra gerens,"and substituted epithetsso vile that I cannot bring myself to down write them here. The effect of this early persuasion remained I have alreadycalled it,a stain upon 20 as, what imagination." As regardsmy reason, I began in 1833 my which tended to form theories on the subject, to obliterate [it. In the first part of Home Thoughts Abroad, written in that year, after speaking of Rome as undeniably the exalted Church in the whole world," and manifesting, most "in aU the truth and beauty of the Spirit, that side of high mental excellence,which Pagan Rome attempted but could not realize, high-mindedness, majesty,and the calm "

"

"

"

"

"

"

between [ ],pp. 216-219, the followingwas substituted I had it; yet by 1838 got no further than to consider of the old pagan Antichrist,as not the Church of Rome, but the spirit of Daniel, which still alive, and which was city, the fourth monster 23 For the matter

in

1865:

corrupted the Church

had

indeed, and I the

nature

before

underwent of the case,

must

such

a

calumny unmake

cannot

my

reason

was

was

the be an

true

directed

the

Vicar

of Christ must

or

one

of the notes

change

convinced, I did

our

throw

not

of the

habits in

"

a

off,for

in 1865, followed the matter afterthe square " " I could not have thrown off, etc.)

{Then, line 2,

Soon

there.

to

after this

Monophysite

troversy, con-

that, from

saw

to the world

ever

resemblance the fact of But Church. we

stigmatizedas such, because and a forgery; and original

almost

ourselves

planted

was was

great change of opinion. I

a

like Antichrist, and exist between ever

seem

which

attention

my

a

thus

moment. time

some

bracket

on

Though after, p. 219, "


of

consciousness the

vision, untamed awaits

the

10

"

of the

the

say,

Alas

! .

of

monster

.

.

Daniel's

judgments, has seized upon of its impieties,and hand. from God's Surely

instrument

new

final

and

second

a

doctrine

"

proceed to

its former

by

217

1841.)

and

revived,

the

as Christianity

I

power,"

spirithas

old

TO

1839

(FROM

woe

Genius

Loci

is not

foundation,

without

attaches blessingor the curse is to cities and countries, not to generations. Michael of Daniel] as opposed to the represented [in the book is still alive. Old Rome Prince of the kingdom of Persia. and

explains to

The

Sorceress

which, spirit, of the

Fourth

tion, Hills,in the book of Revelathe bad itself, Rome, but Rome

the Seven

upon

the

is not

the

how

us

Church

of

shape, was

in its former

Monarchy."

the

I refer

Then

animating spirit to

St. Malachi's

the makes like distinction between a Prophecy which In the last persecution,' City and the Church of Rome. shall it says, of the Holy Roman Church, Peter of Rome "

'

'

be

on

the

throne, who

When 20

these

are

tions. tribulashall feed his flock in many past, the City upon the Seven Hills

destroyed,and the awful Judge shall judge the I append my Then moral. I deny that the distinction is unmeaning ; Is it nothing to be able to look the blessingof Christianity, on our we owe Mother, to whom with affection instead of hatred ? with pity indeed, aye, her and fear,but not with horror ? Is it nothing to rescue have which from the hard names, o f interpreters prophecy shall be

"

"

people.'

put she

her, as an idolatress upon is deceived rather than

able to account 30

her

and a

an

enemy ?

deceiver

ordained

of

of

God, when

Nothing

to

be

God, and anointed

priests instead of spiritualfunctions by the Holy Spirit, This of Satan ? the bond consideringher communion in firstadvance tual intellecwas on an rescuing, intelligible, my Church of Antichrist from the designation basis,the Roman not the Church, but the old dethroned Pagan ; it was Antichrist. monster, still livingin the ruined city,that was In a Tract in 1838, I professto give the opinionsof the Fathers the subject, and the conclusions to which on I come, still less violent against the Roman are Church, I say that the local basis as before. though on the same as

for their

"

9 These

are

the Author's

[]


218

OF

HISTORY

Christian

Church

the pagan due to are

has been

of shielding judgments, which of this,though

means

that, in consequence utterly swept from seemed day. The reason

been

that, when the barbarians city. Babylon was had

the

the fulness of those

received

her

a

as

earth, Rome simply this,

be

to

had

prison of

mere

"

guest.

a

the

down, God

came

ill that Rome

OPINIONS

and

it ;

to this

remains

of Rome

cityfrom

has

Babylon

RELIGIOUS

MY

That

people

a

Church

the

;

has

vengeance be reason

fallen : it is stillsuspended ; nor can given has not fallen under the rule of God's generallo why Rome tian dealingswith His rebellious creatures, except that a ChrisChurch is still in that city,sanctifjdng it,interceding for it,saving it." I add in a note, No opinion,one way the other,is here expressedas to the question,how far, or

never

"

the

as

local Church the

or

mind

be

may

not

to

show

order

in

again

or

consequence,

may

saved ;

or

Rome,

whether

Bishop

; and

how

1840, in which

I contended

England

both

the the "

If

of

name

one,

that

reason

very

I

Rome

they

still upon

was

after feeling

his,and

of

written

some

in

both

October, and

of Rome

Church, for

true

been

stigmatizedby

point

from

of the

20

March, 1839,

in

one

my other

without

not

British Critic of

also the had

rupted cor-

elsewhere, I quote all this

that the Churches and

has

local Church

Churches

Newton was

Antichrist, proving my

have

the

other

interpretationof prophecy instead of hesitation. a good deal However, I have found notes which anticipatemy Article in the were

so

whether

types of Antichrist."

how

in 1838

even

has

local Church

the

text,

House

Beelzebub, how much them of His household," and more quoting 30 largelyfrom Puritans and Independents to show that, in their mouths, the Anglican Church is Antichrist and Antichristian as well as the Roman. I urged in that article that the calumny of being Antichrist of is almost one

they

called the Master

"

the

notes

medium

of the between

true a

Church

Vice-Christ

"

;

and

and

that

"

Anti-Christ

is not the acts that make the difference between the authority This of course for those acts." mode

there "

;

is

for

them, was

a

no *'

it

but new

unmake viewing the question; but we cannot It is quite40 habits in a moment. ourselves or change our clear,that, if I dared not commit myself in 1838, to the of


1839

(FROM belief that

the

Church

TO

of Rome thrown

219

1841.) was

not

christ,] type of Anti-

a

the

unreasoning prejudiceand suspicion,which I cherished about her[,for time after,] at least by fits and starts, in spiteof the some I could

conviction

of my

have

been

it to

Nor

was

there

reason.

the any

Monophysites to 10

thing

"

I cannot this,but I beheve prove I recollect of myself. from what in the historyof St. Leo and the

the firm belief I had in the existence of Rome. abuses and excesses practical

then, to the ambition and intrigue, [of Rome] (as I considered them to be) sophistries in my I (now) had recourse oppositionto her, both public and personal. I did so by way of a relief. I had a great of 1839, to speak and growing dislike,after the summer Church herseK or her formal doctrines. againstthe Roman I was to speak(ing)against doctrines, which very averse might possiblyturn out to be true, though at the time I had for thinking they were, or against the reason no have I to them. which had began Church, preserved own feelings had been misgivings, that, strong as my things which I had said, I had against her, yet in some for granted of Anglican divines the statements taken without weighing them for myself. I said to a friend in 1840, in a letter,which I shall use presently, I am troubled I have it is, I have not, in what as by doubts whether published, spoken too strongly against Rome, though to put I think I did it in a kind of faith,being determined myself into the Englishsystem, and say all that our divines I was sore I had fullyweighed it or not." said,whether taken the great Anglican divines, as if they had about me in, and made me say strong things,which facts did not justify.Yet I did still hold in substance all that I had in my of Rome said against the Church PropheticalOffice. I felt the force of the usual Protestant objectionsagainst succession in had the Apostolical her ; I believed that we the grace of the sacraments the Anglican Church, and ; of its isolation niightnot that the difficulty I was not sure that it could. far from sure be overcome, though I was I did not see any clear proof that it had committed itself To

to

20

case

off(, )

undo

I called the

of what

have

not

the inconsistencies

the

"

30

4

the] this

10

11 the] her three {twice);

times


HISTORY

220

to

I

OF

had

heresy,or

any

that

RELIGIOUS

MY

part against the

taken

it would

OPINIONS

into

revive

truth

;

and

full

Apostolic self herpurity and strength,and grow into union with Rome (Rome explainingher doctrines and guarding against their abuse), that is,if we but patientand hopeful. were the Anglican Church and I wished between for union Rome, if, and when, it was possible; and I did what I could to gainweekly prayers for that object. The ground which I felt (tobe)good againsther was the moral ground : and lo I felt I could not be wrong in strikingat her political The social line of action. alliance of a dogmatic religion with liberals,high or low, seemed to me a providential servative Predirection against moving towards it, and a better againstPopery," than the three volumes of folio, ever, Howin which, I think, that prophylacticis to be found. demanded occasions which on it,I felt it a duty to give out plainlyall that I thought,though I did not like I had do so. One such instance to to occurred, when publish a letter about Tract 90. In that letter,I said, Instead of settingbefore the soul the Holy Trinity,and 20 does seem heaven and hell,the Church of Rome to me, as a popular system, to preach the Blessed Virgin and the I recollect Saints, and purgatory." On this occasion expressingto a friend the distress it gave me thus to speak ; I help saying it,if I think it ? and can but, I said, How I do think it ; my Bishop calls on me to say out what I But think ; and that is the long and the short of it." not

was

sure

not

"

"

"

I recollected

Froude's

Hurrell "

I must d3ang words, cursing and swearing. uncharitable

to

an

words

enter

another

What

good

excess.

to

it do

can

mistaken

How

almost

me,

his

protest againstyour we

?

and

may

I call it

30

ourselves "

pointsthat are onlygraduallyopening on us ! in doctrine, I was then Instead of speaking of errors insist the political of to state mind, driven, by my upon conduct, the controversial bearing,and the social methods be, on

and

many

6 19

hand,

which

wished] began twice

37 most

And

of Rome.

manifestations

close at

affected wish

to

13

me

37

sensiblyfor the

reason

that it

lay at

it our

was

I found

a

matter

sensiblytoo, because 14

it]Rome

letter]Letter

sensibly too, because

here

most

close

of

in folio folio]

at] ready

before my very doors

to my

eyes] the

more


1841.)

221

hardly describe too strongly unspeakable aversion to the of Mr. O'Connell, because, as I thought, with himself of all religionsand he associated men no advanced religion against the Anglican Church, and Catholicism then I found by violence and intrigue. When him taken up by the English Catholics,and, as I supposed, it

before

TO

1839

(FROM was

I eyes. it. I had

my

feelingupon my policy and acts

how 10

the Court Here

I had

what

saw

we

seen

Rome

that

when to

he

after,drew which 20

came

such

upon with the

in

Roman with him

when

I would say

he

for it.

of

being

rude

very

Mr.

Spencer, get Anglicans

man,

January, 1840, to Unity. I myseK then, or soon of the first thoughts one ; it was

prayers after my

to

came

shock, but I

whither

rooms,

my

worse,

The

a

prayers

then

Why these

first

have

he must

news

raises

I

I considered

afterwards

say

could

were

much

too

was

I

with

a

words

Mr.

Palmer

in loco

apostatse

do I not

meet

feelings?

9 fulfilled the

bad

hereby beg pardon view to apologize, but that him

to

you

For

in

this

I made

the

matter

: "

a

manner

that

20

members

of the Roman

time

serious 18

Church

conformable

singlereason,

the points]justified

then], at

in

with

if I may

say

charges

it] their desirableness

England] Catholic body

in these

islands rooms,

"

his

that you are praying for us is most touching, variety of indescribable emotions. (...) May return bosoms ! abundantly into their own

17

23

of

have

laughed for very rude to him, that, (though I did

"

him

and

thought

my

was

and

dinner,

at

Anglican Church,

I wrote

for these

their

him

so,)because

I dare "

simply secular

T^as

excess

me

meet

not

the

from

and

eyes

fulfilled

put down in books against in action, whatever she

Magdalen [brought him], that I joy ; I think I did (laugh); but

30

my

of the politicalaction of the members in England to wish to have any thing to do Church them I to see personally. So glad in my heart was

annoyed

not

before

loose,and

charitable

for

praying

up

and

conduct

the

most

to Oxford

came

about

set

and

zealous

was

Her

might be when quiescent. and political. into This feelingled me to

fulfilment

a

played fast

of Rome

points which

the bad it.

an

I had

I considered

Rome,

at

can

whither]

rooms

with

34

bosoms

!] bosoms

...


it,that your to

us

acts

all you

doing

contrary

are

of hearts, at

union

a

not

can,

to

'

of

This

Esau.'

what

to

reform,

You

not

to

than

enemies.

our

hands

the

are

are

you

further

go

especiallydistresses

is what

invite

that

leaguedwith

are

understand, how

cannot

we

You

time

voice, but the hands

is Jacob's

voice

words.

your same

Church.

require. You principles

The

to

the

restore, not

re-unite, but to destroyour your

OPINIONS

IVIY RELIGIOUS

OF

HISTORY

222

us

;

this is

Christians,like yourselves,

that

is ever a warfare waging good and evil,should, in the present lo the side of evil of England, ally yourselveswith state Of partiesnow in the country, againstthe side of good. but cannot are allow, that next to yourselveswe you maintain truth. We to revealed nearest great and holy So near are professCatholic doctrines. principles ; we in modes of thinking,as even a body to yourselves as we which with the nicknames been taunted to have belong to infidels, you ; and, on the other hand, if there are professed unprincipledmen, rebels,they are found scoffers,sceptics, our opponents. And yet you take part with them 20 among You consent to act hand in hand [with these againstus. presses overthrow. Alas ! all this it is that imand others]for our with the notion that you are a political, us irresistibly not a party ; that, in order to gain an end on religious which set your hearts, an open stage for yourselves you in England, you ally yourselves with those who hold nothing againstthose who hold something. This is what mind so greatly, to speak of myself,that, distresses my own

with

the clear view

in the world

you

have

between

...

...

.

.

.

"

"

with limitations

munion,

and

least

need

not

be mentioned, I cannot Comof the Roman

now

leading persons of all when they

come

on

Mr. 0 'Council in off, I would say, with not to us the liberal party in England, or come for mutual and overtures s ympathy." religious prayer and

Ireland with

here

And

had

which

in another

came

little to

except that, in of the

my

usual

do

the

prejudice,I conduct

These connected

38

usual] traditionary

a

argument connected

of her

the Author's [ ] it with] viewed what

37

21, 22

feeling,of

with

personal nature, against Rome, it with

advocates

my

and

own

instru-

are

happened to myself in

30

religious

a

Break

errand.

ideas

which

familiarlyany

meet

the

lightof


1839

(FROM I

ments.

Oxford

TO

223

1841.)

in any interference upon very stern the part of charitable Catholics,and

was

matters

on

our on

good personally.There was nothing, Why likelyto throw me back. indeed, at the time more alone ? You ? why cannot do you meddle can you let me do me no nothing on earth about me ; good ; you know actuallydo me harm ; I am in better hands than you may I am I know own sincerityof purpose ; and my yours. Since I have been determined taking my time." upon wardness accused of backme a CathoUc, people have sometimes have argued in making converts ; and Protestants to do

attempt

any

me

"

10

it that

from be

I have

against my

besides,it would the

This

my account

is the

ungratefulwords

to do

eagerness

act

It would

so.

than

otherwise

I do ; but I gained in

forgetthe lessons which historyin the past. I have to give of some which own

in the

British

savage

Critic of 1840

against

"

By their fruits ye shall attempting to gain converts us by unreal representations of its doctrines, among nesses plausiblestatements, bold assertions,appealsto the weak-

the

controversialists

know

them.

of Rome

We

.

20

to

be to

experience of

and

great

no

nature

.

see

.

:

it

of human nature, to our fancies,our eccentricities, false philosophies.We see our fears, our frivolities, its agents, smiHng and nodding and ducking to attract attention, as gipseys make boys, holding out up to truant and and giltgingertales for the nursery, bread, pictures, pretty our

and

of 30

can so

Ximenes,

Who

can

Borromeo,

feel sorrow, when its genius and mistake

manliness,

gain

never

them

; and

be

not

to

possess ceases

between 1 25

on

and

she may

jam,

sugar-plums for the religion

and

feel shame

when

Pascal, is

its devout

so

and

overlaid earnest

learns

these

gain us, but by Rome,

?

Who

defenders

Englishmen

? We capabilities consistency,truth.

its

openness, us, till she

then

in

but

but

like

to

physic concealed

children.

good

Rome

virtues, and

it will be

will uses

by ceasing by having a right, have dominion our over faith,'but to gain and affections in the bonds of the gospel. Till she our to be what she practically is,a union is impossible her and England ; but, if she does reform, (and

what

we

now

mean

'

upon] in the case gipseys] gipsies

of

2-3 34

on

may]

any] of any may


224

HISTORY

who

can

never

can

OF

RELIGIOUS

to say that presume ?) then it will be

join in communion at politicians the civil iDOwer we

be

touchingnews

largea part of Christendom Church's to duty at once continental ever Churches, what-

so

our

the

say to it,and whatever steps in consequence. And though we that day, at least we bound to pray are

see

be

OPINIONS

may

take

bound

are

may gospel, and

with home

may

live to

not may for it ; and we

MY

to

led

for

pray

one

as

we

once

brethren

our

the

together into were

pure

It

one.

that

they

light of

the

most

was

to be

that Christians lo told,as we were lately, praying togetherfor the spiritual well-beingof England. May they gain light,while they aim at unity, and grow in faith while they manifest their love ! We duties to them too have of reviling, our ; not of slandering, not not of hating,though political interests still more require it ; but the duty of loving brethren abundantly in spirit,whose faces, for our sins and their the

on

Continent

sins,we No

allowed

not

are

were

to

in the

see

flesh."

ought to indulge in insinuations ; it certainly diminishes rightto complain of slanders uttered against20 my myself,when, as in this passage, I had alreadyspoken in of that class of controversialists condemnation (of that which to I now religiousbody), myself belong. one

I have

thus

of 1839

to

the

and

my

When

I

got

in my

back

to

been

absence,

Oxford

conduct,

October, 1839, after the

in

paying, it of

occurrences

has

the autumn done so, I go

; and, having misgivingsaffected my the Anglican Church.

towards

I had

could, what from

of 1841 new

my

relations

visits which

been,

my

I

as

of mind

generalstate

summer

how

to narrate

on

well

put together,as

said about

to be

happened, there

so an

awkward

had

character,

bringingme into collision both with my Bishop and also with the (authorities of the) University [authorities] ; and attention would this drew the of at state to once [what my be considered] the Movement me party there, and made In the spring of the year, as for the future. very anxious has been seen in the Article analyzed above, I had spoken of

the 22 24

excesses

condemnation

could] can

which

were

to

be

found

among

persons

of that class of] disparagement of the 32

bringingme

into

collision] compromising

me

so


evil,but the

an

the

during

Long Vacation,

effectually meeting to keep men necessary

the

on

other

the

on

it.

A

took I

straight;

it was very time, when hands. With in my had broken of the upshot of the mind on my 10

impossiblefor

almost

was saw

who

day by day,

me came

and

having

how

could

I

to

expect

say

such

to

their

of

persons ? Nay,

own

myself, analyze I did

what 20

not

how

(hold)?

limitations,shades

of

from

their

to

be

I, with say

could

satisfaction

I held

I) say

with

point or that, without whole

the

I had

I had

it

also.

myseff, I

me, As to

in

it

was

was

felt

conclusive.

had

reckoned

of the Church

Notes

; but

had

many

Notes

2 APOLOGIA

had

not

the Note

not

the

of the

place, some

the Roman

wealth, glory,power, great popularity, not at all century. It was we

others

it affected

to

Note

of

Church or

another. the any

prospects,in the (as)yet, even but, if not (this),

23 T

not

certain

CathoHcity ;

thoughts]views

had

of

Church.

Temporal Prosperity among

nineteenth that

and,

the

if it had

of

Church

or

;

on

certaintythat the Taking it at the worst,

kind

no

granting that the Anglican Catholicity; yet there were Some belonged to one age Bellarmine

Review

best,

was

general talk

a

wonderful, that

not

what

I could, and

I found

;

in the Dublin

affected

argument

this

in which

view,

new

openly

assert

or

opinions presenteditself

old

what

to do

circumstances

subjectof the Article 30

what

?

However, under

the

injusticeto

for those

evidence

mind

my

to

and

or difference, degreesof belief,I (still)

that body of (Anglican) opinions which professedand taught ? how could I deny

to

my

what

held

the

"

actual,

soling sustainingor conalready by doubts

haunted and

pumping me, questions,

about

thing

who

men

conversation,

of

purpose no

(how

was

presentiment inquiry,which it

familiar

could

or

of

power my control

a strong wrist, needed, the reins

whole

would

mind,

own

my

me me

anxious

an

my

were

as

on

made

had

most

any

positive,present belief,which

away

conceal

or

come

powerful

to

me

heard

categoricalyes

a

had

hand

never

the express

perhaps for

who

thought little of

one

and

firm

at the

but

I

time

thoughts,which

new

comprehend it,and

225

1841.)

in it ; at that

included

commonly such

TO

1839

(FROM

view] light


OF

HISTORY

226

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

had others. this My first business then, was to examine and see, if a great deal could not be said question carefully, after all for the Anglican Church, in spiteof its acknowledged we

I did in

short-comings.This

"

Article

an

on

the

Catholicity

English Church," which appeared in the British As to my Critic of January, 1840. personaldistress on the point, I think it had gone by February 2Ist in that year, for I wrote about then the important to Mr. Bowden Article in the Dublin, thus : "It made a great impression here [Oxford] ; and, I say what of course I would only lo it for to such made while a fortable uncomas me yourself, say very in my mind. The own great speciousnessof his argument is one of the thingswhich have made me despond so much," that is,as to its effect upon others. But, secondly, the great stumbling-blocklay in the 39 Articles. It was a positiveNote urged that here was that to hold against Anglicanism : Anglicanism claimed of

the

"

the

Church

of

in this

France

Athanasius

be the

must

live and

must

nothing else

was

country, (as the Church

than

tion continua-

a

of Rome

Articles.

Did

; the

same

in

speak

doctrine

be

might

Spain,)of that one Church of which in and members. But, Augustine were

or

doctrine

England

in

old times

20

if so, the

of the Old

Church the

Anglican formularies, in

39

Yes, it did ; that is what I maintained ; it did in substance, in a true sense. had Man his done worst to mutilate, the old Catholic to disfigure, Truth, but there it was, in spite of them, in the Articles still. It was of life matter It was a there,( ) but this must be shown. it ?

"

and

death

be shown which

to

us

to

show

I gave

above, when

Littlemore.

And,

with us, all risks must

that

it could

that those

sufficient for the purpose it at once. This was to

I believed

And

it.

; I considered

I

30 grounds of justification, speaking of Tract 90, were

was

therefore

; and

in

as

it

be

run

a

was

matter

to show

it.

ing show-

I set about

March, 1840, when

I went

of life and

When

up

death

the

attempt prospect of it,and had no apprehensionsas to the experiment ; but in 1840, while my was honest, and my grounds of purpose I did nevertheless reason satisfactory, recognizethat I was was

actuallymade,

2

I had

if]whether

got reconciled

10 14

These

are

to] anticipating

to the

the Author's

[ ]


TO

1839

(FROM

1841.) I have

engaged in an experimentum crucis. I acknowledged to myself that that

held

the Catholic

a

Articles had

their framers

by

be

that

trial of

undergone before,

never

of the

sense

at least suffered

or

it had

which

Anglican Church,

not

"

doubt

no

it would

then the

227

and

been

not

promulgators,

not or was implied in the teaching of Andrewes been publiclyrecognized, Beveridge, but that it had never while the interpretationof the day was Protestant and I observe exclusive. an also,that, though my Tract was the no feeler,'" experiment, it was, as I said at the time, showed it ; for, when event principlewas not granted, my I would I did not draw not hold office back, but gave up.

and

"

10

in

Church

a

My

will,and, the Church

bitterlyon This

though of

way

then

was

when

I

got

all such

Apostohc ; to

of

"

I did not

Our

the

as

I set

all who

teaches

this

:

of the

myself ;

a

to

our

of

Catholic their

which

ing Anglican teachsay in the face

faith."

Ancient

we

owe

own,

to take

sense

they will

framers."

to

holding

90, it is put forward

duty

is

in the

in mind

way

to chose(,)

the Primitive

in Tract

towards

I had

in the

were

right of

in the most duties

no

the better."

which

moment.

character

"

have

30

at the

principleof all, It Catholic Church, and

confessions

to

Catholic

first

much

so

work

Littlemore, other things came

to

Church

conceal

Rome,

second

obstacles

and

assert

day,

the

of

the

accomplishingit

20 remove

the

of the Articles. not allow my sense for us, and have is necessary it we if it tends to bring men to look less

would

This

was,

and

must

which "

tone

the

as

both

to

reformed

our

admit

And

still

:

we

more

pointedlyin my Letter,explanatory of the Tract, addressed Dr. Jelf, I say: "The only peculiarityof the view I advocate, if I must that whereas call it,is this it is so usual at this day to make the particularbeliefof their ivriters their true I would make the belief interpretation, of the Catholic Church such. That is,as it is often said that infants are regenerated in Baptism, not on the faith of their parents, but of the Church, so in like manner I would of their received, not in the sense say that the Articles are or framers, but (as far as the wording will admit any ambiguity requiresit)in the one Catholic sense." to

"

6 18

and came

was

not]

not

in the Avay

that it

was

11

not

of] interfered

to

prevent

my

20

it]this were] lay


third

A

Oxford.)

from

distant

before

years

and

;

between

I had

built

there

I went

the

the

Poor

gave myself up to teachingin practisingthe choir. At the same

ever

the further

October, 1840,

in

a

St.

letter which it

was

and

lo

out.

reallythe

That

step of giving up

from appears the friend whom

to

1840,

Schools, and

little I had

how

early as 1839,

itself as

several of

time, I contemplated

AnglicanChurch.

leavingthe

contemplated even

there Lent

bought ten acres of ground carried great designwas never

began planting; but this I mention it,because it shows idea then of

three miles

I

there.

house

monastic

Church

pass

integral

an

and

two

a

to

and

a

first step I meditated

a

as

(Littlemorewas

Mary's Parish, and

of St.

part

; and

Littlemore.

to

retirement

I distinctlycontemplated,was of the became Mary's, whatever

St.

(39)Articles

the

questionof a

which

measure

resignation of

the

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

HISTORY

228

I

[also]

Mary's I wrote natural

most

point. It ran as follows : that For a year past a feelinghas been growing on me fit judge in the no I ought to give up St. Mary's, but I am ascertain accuratelymy I cannot own matter. impressions20

for

to

me

consult

such

on

a

"

"

convictions, which

and

though help me my "

you

and generally,

perhaps

First, it

is certain

at

not

am

and difficulty,

this for me, yet you may supersedethe necessityof

all.

them I

basis of the

do

course

going by

parishioners ;

the

are

of

cannot

I

that

do

know

not

of

conscious

Oxford

my

influencingthem,

and

I have state. insightinto their spiritual with them. To n o acquaintance no very personal, pastoral word. I any few have opportunity of saying a religious that which is precisely influence I exert on them Whatever In my of out be exerting on I may parish. my persons

certainlyI

I

am

adapted

to

excuse

St.

no

accustomed

get

hand, I

other at

have

Mary's

I do

exert

seems,

the

the

on

neglect of

on

myself

to

a

by

others

considerable that

I

am

duties, for

Schools] Parish School contemplated] had in view

that

I

are.

of my

means

influence

Undergraduates or

whole

its direct

say

that

conscious

am

University,whether then,

to

them, while

with

on

am

not

On

the

position on

Graduates.

16

the friend

1864,

1865]Mr. Keble,

the It

using St. Mary's, to objects not belonging

8 Poor 9

30

13 then] at that time the friend 1873


I

it ;

to

TO

1839

(FROM

229

1841.)

converting a parochialcharge into

am

sort

a

of

University office. I may begun scarcely say truly that I have plan but for the sake of my parish,but every one has of the turned, independently of me, into the direction University. I began Saints'-daysServices,daily Services, "

I think

any

and

I

dropped

the last

naturally led did

have

they

; but

10

de

in Adam

Lectures

to

come,

mentioned,

the

those

who

of

did

believe, I

I

to them.

come

direct it to

instead

Communion,

ioners parishmy In consequence having, while it lasted,been Chapel,for

Brome's

not

did

The

not.

the

for

begin

who

of those

instruction

Weekly

sake

of

the

University. "

Added

to

this the

attendants

on

preaching.

my

20

; and

take

to

the

shown from

men

threatens

Vice -Chancellor from the Church

University, the great part of the

form

Sermons, have dissuades

One

who

those

the

of

authorities

appointed guardians of

dislike of my the late ;

a

coming

his

"

children

own

away

present, having an opportunity parish pulpit,gets up and my

spring of preaching in preachesagainstdoctrine with which I am in good measure be given of the feelingin No plainerproof can identified.

last

time second a quarters, than the absurd myth, now be got to cannot put forward, (')that[']Vice-Chancellors

these

the

take "

But

that of

my

on

the

Heads

of

account

than

preachingis

religionwhich

which 30

office further

has

this, I not

Puseyism.' cannot

calculated

been

of Houses

received are

the

disguisefrom to

for

300

years,

system and

of

legitimatemaintainers far as may be, from the

place. They exclude me, as University Pulpit ; and, though I never so strong doctrine in it,they do so rightly, in this

myself

that

defend

preached

have

far

as

this,that

mine calculated to underthat my sermons are they understand from established. I cannot myself disguise things of my will deny that most No one sermons that they are. are

on

hearers Church the 40

moral

subjects,not doctrinal ; stillI am leading my Primitive Church, if you will,but not to the be to disgusting England. Now, ought one in the with the received religion, of young men without sacred office, a a commission, (and) yet

to the

of

minds

exercise of

against the

wish

of their

guides and

governors

?


"

this is not

But

I will

or

I

no,

MY

OF

HISTORY

230

am

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

I fear I must allow that, whether them towards Rome. First, disposing all.

is the

of the Primitive only representative as they are ; in proportion then from the one, they will go to the other. loosened Next, doctrines which I have held,have far greater, because many their only scope, in the Roman or system. And, moreover, if,as is not unlikely,we have in process of time heretical evil which ipso facto Bishops or teachers among us, an infects the whole community to which they belong, and if,lo again (what there are at this moment symptoms of),there Catholics to break in the English Roman be a movement Rome

because

Church

besides

the alliance

ourselves

imbued

Hall, strong temptations individuals, already of thought congenialto Rome, to join

placed

with

tone

a

of Exeter

and

of O'Connell

will be

in

the

of

way

her Communion. "

by

the other hand, that I am, whether on otherwise, exertingat St. Mary's a beneficial

People tell me, sermons

or

prospectiveclergy ; but what if I take to seeingfurther than they,and of having 20 that what in the course of the last year discovered they ? much is very likelyto end in Romanism so approve ism The arguments which I have publishedagainstRomanto myself as cogent as ever, but men seem go by their sympathies, not by argument ; and if I feel the force of this influence myself,who bow to the arguments, why may who have in the same not others still more never degree influence

our

on

myself the credit of

"

admitted "

the

Nor

arguments I

can

writingagainst Rome. shot

last

my

It must

be

?

the

counteract

I

in the

arrow

danger by preaching or myself almost to have 3o Article on English Catholicity. to

seem

added, that the

very

circumstance

that

I have

has the effect of setting myself against Rome is painfulnow about me, which to sleeppeople suspicious that I begin to have about tioned suspicions myself. I mento A. B. a year since, than general difficulty my committed

whom and St.

I know it

was

no

his

Mary's,if my

one

of

a

fine and

more

spontaneous

idea

continued. feelings 36

A. B.]

accurate

that

Rogers

conscience,

I should

I mentioned

give up it again


(FROM

231

1841.)

TO

1839

his opinion, only him lately,and he did not reverse expressedgreat reluctance to believe it must be so." My friend's judgment was in favour of my retainingmy living; at least for the present ; what weighed with me must his saying, You consider, whether most your was Care Pastoral the either from only, or from writing retiring and printingand editingin the cause, would not be a sort of done scandalous very warily. It would thing,unless it were with the Church he can no be said, You on longer see go or people of England, except in mere ; Lay Communion altogether.Till you might say you repented of the cause this evil] I certainly see [your way to mitigate,if not remove follows : as should advise you to stay." I answered

to

"

'

'

10

"

I may Since you under the circumstances, I

think

"

of

followingconsiderations

have

conclusion. not think

that

to

your

I do

"1. 20

how a

Church

the

hazardous

the

this

at

be

plenty

are

have

yet

The

lawful.

feelings

reconciled my

much

we

There

fair trial

made

it is English Yet we experiment, like proving cannon. will burst in not take it for granted,that the metal operation. It has borne at various times, not to say

much

must

on,

go

that,

follow

to

seems

oughtto do so. it,directlyit is allowed to

for

reasons

it

will bear.

I

know

"

time,

great

a

infusion

of

Catholic

truth

without

this process will damage. As to the result,viz. whether to as a body(,) Church, not approximate the whole English For what know, it may we Rome, that is nothing to us. in Church of uniting the whole be the providential means of judgfresh use without or private schismatizing one, 30

ment." Here

I

observe, that, what

was

the

contemplated was

of the Anglican Church, that is, Catholicity Its bursting would Church. of that idea subjective my be a discovery would but hurt her with the world, not and would and P rotestant, that she was essentially purely be reallythe hoistingof the engineerwith his own petar."

bursting of the

"

And "

same

this 2.

the result.

was

Say, sense

I

that does

3

12

My

move

Hooker,

I continue

: "

: sympathies for Rome Their Taylor, Bull, "c.

Mr. Keble's friend's 1S64, iser)-] the Author's [ ] are

These

1S73

in

the

argu-


OF

HISTORY

232

RELIGIOUS

MY

must

which

Church

our

does

far

if

be,

so

I

am

I

am

further

go

raise

truths

maintains

Thus

enforce.

or

and

divines

our

I may

;

sympathiesthey raise

Rome

as

teach

not

question of degreebetween

a

the

but

be againstRome, may be towards Rome, so

ments

OPINIONS

it is

I may, ; but

me.

sympathies more

direction as they do. urging minds in the same doing just the very thing which all our doctors have been doing. In short,would not Hooker, if Vicar of but

ever

be said, it may ? ""Here difficulty preach against Rome, and I could not ; lo but I doubt whether he could have preached effectively better than I, though neither against Transubstantiation St.

Mary's, be

that

he

I held

nor

"3.

in my

could

Hooker

it.

I consider

St.

at

post

my

great evil of the day. May not Mary's as a place of protest

is the

Rationalism

? I am certain that the Protestant more [spirit], than that which I recomI oppose, leads to infidelity, mend, what the state of the knows Who leads to Rome. Universitymay be, as regardsDivinityProfessors in a few

againstit

which

? Any how, years hence of which is C. D.'s book

be

day may another

our

to

Romanism

?

I may

add

that

Such

into

in

adhesion

perplexity or commotion storm 9

16

of

mind,

state

my

confident

not

consequent

(,as are

Curate

a

at

St.

work.

of my

more

me

far

of

mind.

upon

again as

the Author's

the

on

publicationof

in prudence indeed (I was eventually withdrawing from St.

the

;

about but Nor

I

permanent

my was

in

did) The

publicationof

no

actual

immense the

the

[]

Tract

(fanciedI) had weathered Bishops were concerned): the

; for I

said] objected These

of

1841.

Anglican creed

trouble

[didnot] unsettle the

date.

was

the

I had and

more

effect at that

towards

I

and to

leave

not

question

1840, I made arrangements for Critic,in the followingJuly, which

February,

taking steps

Mary's,

the

settle

20

of

year,

British

about

was

90

this time

from

same

the

carried

Tract

to

"

graduallytook

Also, this were

evil,

own

on,

whole

"

Mary's,who giving up

its

coming

The of earnest. this spirit.May we

sort

a

battle with

a

age

be

great battle may

a

13

it]that doctrine

21

C.

D.'s]Milman's

30


had

Tract

condemned

been

not

much

I made

that

the

was

great point;

of it.

from

this trial,I will make have come friend, which

feelingsduring

illustrate my

To

extracts

:

233

1841.)

TO

1839

(FROM

letters

my

to

a

March 25, possession. [The dates are respectively April 1, and May 9.] The Heads, I believe,have just done (1.March 15. of the act : they have said that my interpretation a violent think that this will pain Do not evasion. Articles is an into my

"

"

shoulders doctrine is censured, and my You see, no to bear the charge. If you knew shall manage all,or were here, you would see that I have asserted a great principle, to be that the Articles are and I ought to suffer for it : of the the writers, to not meaning interpreted, according but (as far as the wording will admit) accordingto the

10 me.

"

of the Catholic Church.") (March 25. ) I do trust I shall make no false step, hope my friends will pray for me to this effect. If,as us, a singlefalse step may say, a destinyhangs over

sense

"

1.

"

and

20

you ruin

I

all.

Tuesday out "

:

made

tillI

am

stop the side how have

instanter.'

of the

Sunday to Monday : Wednesday it

word

me

So I wrote

on

it

on

I

know,

You

will

you

worth.

my it will be received

had

not

the first : but

a

I do not

see

I have

feel,yet

snubbing's

the letter

that I am I suppose, in the Letter, though

managed And

to

take

out

this makes

me

in London.

misgiving

like to

how

i.e. tillI know

wood,

; but

Tracts

on

I

'

in London.

speak quitewhat

"

Bishop sent

The

passedthrough the press : on to-day [Thursday]it is in London. that we that thingsare smoothing now ; and It is not rightto boast, a great step is certain.

I

my anxious

"

it

clear out

is received to

not

are

we

and

I trust

have

30

)

"

letter to him

a

was

; but

comfortable

well and

very

(April1.

2. write on

am

of the wood."

out

yet

for

boast, lest

from

five minutes harm

some

come."

an was letter of this morning Your (4. April 4. is it and confirmed, to me ; exceedinglygreat gratification thankful to say, by the opinionof others. The Bishop I am "

"

1

point; I] point,and

4 to

22

a] addressed

2.]3.

I

and another

several! y to Mr. Bo wden Letter 23, 28 letter]

25 These "

13

are

17 1

.

] 2.

the Author's [ ]


OF

HISTORY

234

sent

that

message

a

me

approbation; and

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

had

Letter

my

that, he has

since

his

sent

unqualified note

a

me

to

the

into detail. It is most pleasant effect,only going more such a testimony to the substantial to have too to my feelings, had truth and importance of No. 90, as I have from of my friends,from those who, from their so many I have of mind, I was least sanguine about. cautious turn had one not misgiving myself about it throughout ; and same

I do

that

trust

the

subserve

9.

(May

3.

what

great

the matter is not

Tract

will be

happened all have

we

overruled

to

heart.")

at

lo

ing Bishops are very desirous of hushand I certainly have done my utmost them, on the understanding that the

)''The

"

:

up

co-operate with

to

has

cause

be withdrawn

to

condemned."

or

[And to my friend,Mr. Bowden, under date of March 15, The Heads, I believe,have just done a violent act : they have said that my interpretationof the Articles is an You Do not think that this will pain me. evasion. see, no shoulders shall manage to doctrine is censured, and my bear the charge. If you knew here, you would 20 all,or were and I ought to that I have asserted a great principle, see "

suffer for it

"

"

to

me

are

[of

Tract

answered

one

90] of

my

to

be

feel

no

You

Tracts

if the

as

would

authorityof

have

cause

no

of the Tracts.

suffer

trust, had

the the

We

of what

cause

we

correspondents

Tracts

has been

Church

Bishop 11

are

not

conceded

has but

3.] 5.

hold

thereby. My letter to of bringing the on

our

side.

can,

The

surprisedat the misgivingsabout

No

to

30

be Catholic

Bishop has, preponderating

my

effect

humanly speaking, stop opinions which they have inculcated.

The

Catholics

several

"

whatever,

"

not interpreted,

to be

:

April 8.-"

truth I

I

;

discontinuance it

Articles

(this)occasion

Upon thus

the

meaning of the writers,but (as far as the of the Catholic admit) accordingto the sense

the

wording will Church."] wrote

that

:

accordingto

stopping

the

spread

of the of

the

ciple suppressed. No doctrine or prinby us, or condemned by authority.

said that

a

28

certain

thus] in

Tract

the

same

is

'

objection-

tone


able,'no of

the

In

without

put aside

10

translation

my

.

returned

trouble

in

on

writing

in

day,

what

was

it

in what

Media, but I

the

upon in

which

Volume

a

I

2. a

writing a argument

not

am

blow

another "

that,

;

had been

said something on publishedfourteen years

misery

to

come

used

to

them) might

of this

which

This I had

The

nought.

I think

were,

me,

was

acted

that

think

it necessary by this time

the "

It

the on

real

the

"

when after

formal,

ing understandof Tract

words, which say

As

enlarge subject,

one a

was

occasion two

Via

ago.

Bishops

perhaps to

not

unsettlement,

new

me.

upon

movement. on

controversy, I need

of

now

the

party."

extreme

charge against me.

to

with

lay, not

the

Rome

that

I have

came

began

determinate

work ;

"

called

was

I

in the

was

second

truth

(then). The

was

a

in the

the Protestants,

were

Anglicans,and

the

were

is called

what

on

clearly,that

subject ; but I saw Arianism, the pure Arians

semi- Arians

Wonderful

line of

metaphysical

the

in the

found

sought it out ; study,far

not

own

my

the

of

menon, pheno-

same

very

my

second

a

come

I had

I had

!

me

me.

when

it in 1832.

observed

upon

controversies

history of

30

the

"

"

20

come

broke

work,

had

shape, which

not

and

reading the

from

Littlemore

at

which my

ghost

I found

History

I had

that this should was

The

me.

bolder

far

a

Monophysite. I

myself

mined I had deteranxiety on my mind. all controversy, and I set myself down of St. Athanasius July ; but, between

the Arian

In

time.

full well."

or

November, I received three blows in I had got but a little way

and 1

harass

; and

conviction

on

know

1841, I found

of

summer

any to

to

of the Church

the authorities

whatever

intention

no

I hold

pointwhich

one

235

1841.)

I have

being stated.

reason

yieldingany

that

TO

1839

(FROM

or

three

something

90, then

had

(of

in their

the but charges ; they had tided over to enforce the of the Tract, and there was no one difficulty in this way, on directing understanding." They went charges at me, for three whole years. I recognizedit as "

"

21

in] with

24

which

I

publishedfourteen

quoted 29

occasion] the

first appearance

years

ago], from

Avhich I have

aheady


HISTORY

236

a

condemnation

it

;

RELIGIOUS

the

was

first I intended

At

power.

MY

OF

OPINIONS

only one protest ;

to

that but

their

in

was

I gave

the

up

thought in despair. October

On

17th, I

thus

wrote

to

a

friend

"I

:

suppose re-assert shape necessary after these Bishops'Charges, 90 ; else,it will seem, Tract if it were silenced,which it has not been, nor do I intend as it will

be

be.

it should

I will

speak in the

remain

fore, since it

I wish

in

some

to

keep quiet ;

If the

too.

other

or

view

but

if

to

Bishops speak,

silenced,I could

were

others Church, nor could many is not silenced,I shall take care

not

there-

; and

to show

lo

that

it isn't."

day or two after,Oct. 22, a stranger wrote to me to friend had made a young the Tracts for the Times that say, I be so good as to would of his a Catholic, and to ask, I made him back ; answer : convert of take place in consequence to Rome If conversions A

"

"

"

the Tracts but

to

to them, not impute blame acknowledging such Anglican ecclesiastical polity as they 20

for the

Times,

I do

who,

instead

of

those

principlesof theology

and

be the Whatever them. to oppose contain, set themselves become the of or influence small, they may Tracts, great just as powerful for Rome, if our Church refuses them, as If our they would be for our Church if she acceptedthem. rulers speak either against the Tracts, or not at all,if any do not of them, not only do not favour, but even number in them, it is plainthat our contained suffer the principles members easilybe persuaded either to give up those may If this state of things to give up the Church. or principles, so or two, but many goes on, I mournfully prophesy,not one secessions

to

the

of Rome."

Church

had passed, what years afterwards, looking back on till after the to Rome, There converts 1 said, no were Two

"

of No.

condemnation As

3.

if all this

90."

were

enough, there

not

Jerusalem Bishopric; itjI shall conclude. of the

I think with

the

I

am

and, with

rightin saying that

Prussian

Court

to

it had

introduce

a

the

came

affair

brief mention been

long a

desire

Episcopacy into

(new) EvangelicalReligion, which was the Lutheran both country to embrace

intended and

in

of

the that

Calvinistic

40


bodies.

I almost

Rome

at

in

I heard

think

1833,

the

at

TO

1839

(FROM

1841.)

of the

Hotel

of

237

project,when

the

Prussian

I

was

Minister,

M.

most Bunsen, who was hospitableand kind, as to other English visitors,so also to my friends and myself. [I suppose that] the idea of Episcopacy, as the Prussian king understood it,was (,I suppose,)very different from that School ; but still, I suppose also, taught in the Tractarian that the chief authors of that school would have gladly

such

seen 10

done

a

in

out

compromising those the being of a Church.

to

necessary

carried

measure

without

had

Prussia,

it been

principleswhich About

were

the time

of the

publicationof Tract 90, M. Bunsen and the then Archbishop of Canterbury were taking steps for its execution, by appointing and consecrating a Bishop for Jerusalem. considered safe place for a Jerusalem, it would seem, was the experiment ; it was Prussia to awaken too far from the susceptibilities of any party at home ; if the project failed,it failed without 20

in

Nestorian

bodies, formed

to parallel

and

on

that which

in the

France

to

any

a

one

;

in the or

and, if it succeeded, East, which,

Jacobite

and

instrument political

Russia

had

the

for

in the Greek

England, Church,

Latin.

Accordingly,in July 1841, full of the Anglican difficulty I thus spoke of the Jerusalem the questionof Catholicity,

scheme

in

Article

an

in

the

British

Critic

"

:

When

our

to the

thoughts turn

30

harm

it gave Protestantism status a association with the Monophysite

that there East, instead of recollecting Christian Churches are there, we leave it to the Russians to take of the Greeks, and the French care to take care and of the Romans, with ourselves content we erecting Protestant

Church

at Jerusalem, or with helping the Temple there, or with becoming the all august protectors of Nestorians, Monophy sites,and the heretics we hear of, or with forming a league with can the Mussulman against Greeks and Romans together." I do not pretend so long after the time to give a full or a

Jews

exact

in the

40

to rebuild

of this

account

Act

their

measure

in detail.

I will but say

Parliament, under date of October 5, 1841, from I quote, contains which the measure it as

(ifthe copy, passed the Houses,) provisionis made for of British subjects,or the subjectsor "

that

of

the consecration citizens

of

any


foreignstate, to such

country, whether any foreign citizens be or be not subjects or

Bishops in

be

foreignsubjects

or

citizens of the country in which without requiring such of them of any foreignkingdom and allegianceand supremacy,

citizens

of

the

to

such

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

HISTORY

238

they

such

for that

limits,as

time

to

that

exercise,

may

be

by

her

of

British

ministers

the

over spiritualjurisdiction

"

also

time

foreigncountries

in such

purpose

from

may

obedience

of due

Archbishop for the time being "... Bishop or Bishops, so consecrated,

within

the oaths

take

to

the oath

....

subjects or

be

may

state

or

act, and

to

are

as

assigned Majesty, lo gregations con-

England and Ireland, be such other Protestant Congregations,as may and over under his or their authority." desirous of placingthemselves Now here, at the very time that the Anglican Bishops of the

directing their

were

Church

United

censure

to the Catholic

approach the Anglican formularies other with

avowing

for

me

upon

Church

an

I believed the on were

closer than

not

would allow, they fraternizing, by their act or by their sufferance, to put them20 Protestant bodies, and allowingthem hand

selves under

an

of their errors and confirmation the said

that

of

the orthodox of by means blow, which

Church

and

make

to

from

converts

Oriental bodies, the schismatical the third of England. This was

finallyshattered not

was

with

courting an the heresy

actuallywas Prussia

Greeks,

and

to suppose

great reason

was

intended

was

concurrence

or

there

; while

Bishop

the influence

That

Church.

Anglican Bishop,without any renunciation or regard to the due receptionof baptism

the

faith

Church

in

of

it

Protestant

The

Orientals.

but

Rome,

with

intercommunion of the

the

Anglican only forbiddingany sympathy

my

so

AngHcan

might have the Apostolicalsuccession,as had the in progress led me Monophysites ; but such acts as were would to that it soon cease n ot the to gravest suspicion, it had be a Church, but that (, since the 16th century,)

Church

been

never

Church

all

12th

I thus

along. wrote

to

friend

a

singleAnglican in Jerusalem, Bishop to make a communion, not

not a

a

October

On a

22

the

due] their due

37

a

so

to

we

"

: "

are

govern

We

have

sending our

friend]Mr. Bowden

own


the

-people. Next, Anglican Jews there sent

But

he is

for them

out, and

there

for

them

Bishop

a

converted

are

Bishop

require a

half-a-dozen.

not

are

who

239

1841.)

is, that

excuse

there

TO

1839

(FROM

I

;

the

of the

told

am

Bishop

is

circumcision

"

(Ithink he was a converted Jew, who boasted of his Jewish descent), against the Epistle to the Galatians pretty nearly. Thirdly, for the sake of Prussia, he is to take will come under him all the foreignProtestants who ; and the political advantages will be so great,from the influence of England, that there is no doubt they will come. They of Augsburg, and there is nothing to sign the Confession are that they hold the doctrine of Baptismal Regenerato show tion. ''

10

"As

myself, I

to

indeed

unless

but I think been

in

a

be

of which

work,

Canterbury, and the followingletter

cannot

we

Protest,and

solemn

a

also

of

"

do nothing whatever publicly, give my signature to a Protest ; out of place in me to agitate, having but the is reallydoing Archbishop ;

to

silenced

way

grave I did make

shall

were

it would

most

20

it

:

it to

sent

the end."

see

it to the

sent

Archbishop Bishop, with

own

my

"

"

to write to your never Lordship, and that my I know pain, present you subject does not speciallyconcern Lordship ; yet, your after a great deal of anxious thought, I lay before you the

It

if I

as

without

giving

enclosed

Protest.

"

were

Lordship will

Your

notice

30

seems

of

observe

that I

think that I you serious act, in obedience

it,unless

I do this very "If the English Church

asking for

not

am

ought to my

is to enter

on

a

receive

to

sense

new

of

course,

any one.

duty. and

after pleasantto me hereto to think, that I did not suffer so grievous an event happen, without bearingwitness against it. May I be allowed to say, that I augur nothing but evil, of title to be a branch if we in any respect prejudiceour Article of the Creed, I need ? That the ApostolicChurch hardly observe to your Lordship, is of such constraining

assume

a

new

aspect, it will be

more

"

power,

that, if we

others will 40

use

learn,whether from

the

will not

it in their

by

it,and

behaK

of documents

means

statements

claim own

or

the

acts

use

it for

against us. or

measures,

of persons

in

ourselves, Men

who

whether

authority.


HISTORY

240

that that

branch

a

will be grief,

much

with

of the

tempted

Church,

one

to

look

is to

a

me

has

Church

subjectof great dismay, that, as far as latelyspoken out, on the subject of the

I and

opinions which

hold, those

others

opinions are,

merely not sanctioned (forthat I do not ask),but not suffered. "I earnestlyhope that your Lordship will excuse freedom Most

in thus and

Kev.

reverent

for

out

elsewhere.

Church

"It the

is not

communion

our

I foresee

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

speaking

members

some

With

Rev.

Kight

attachment

of

to you

Body. Lordship,

to your

"

I am,

not even

my

of your

lo

feelingof

every "c."

PROTEST. "

the

Whereas

Church

of Catholic allegiance

claim to be considered

own "

"

a

branch

without

formal

Church

to

repugnant

of their errors,

renunciation same

"

"

of her :

the

far towards recognizingthe whereas Lutheranism And and

of the Catholic

the

on

recognitionof heresy, indirect as as direct,goes far to destroysuch claim in the case of body [advancing it]: religious whereas maintainers of heresy to comto admit And munion, And

well any

whereas

England has a claim only on the ground

of

believers

and

Calvinism three

by

East

well

as

as

are

heresies, since,

centuries

West

:

reported that the Most Reverend and other Right Reverend Rulers Church Primate of our consecrated have a Bishop with a view to exercising 3o over Protestant, that is, Lutheran spiritualjurisdiction and Calvinist congregationsin the East (under the provisions And

whereas

goes

:

Scripture, springingup

anathematized

20

of to

his

amend

it is

an

Act

made

in

the

last session

an

Act

made

in

the

26th

Majesty King George

the

year

the

for the

1

'

Third, intituled, An

Archbishop of Canterbury,or time being,to consecrate Bishop persons being subjectsor citizens

empower of York

of Parliament of the

one] One

the to

reign

of

Act

to

Archbishop the

office of

of countries

out


1841.)

TO

1839

(FROM

241

time, '),dispensing at the same Majesty's dominions and cases ciple accidentally,but as if on prinparticular the and on universally, with any abjuration of error to part of such congregations,and with any reconciliation the part of the presiding Bishop ; thereby the Church on of formal sort recognition to the doctrines giving some which such : congregations maintain connected in England the dioceses whereas And are that what is done together by so close an intercommunion, by authority in one, immediately affects the rest : On these grounds, I in my place, being a priest of the and Vicar of St. Mary the Virgin's,Oxford, English Church of relieving my conscience, do hereby solemnly by way disown the aforesaid, and measure it, as protest against her present ground and tending from removing our Church to her disorganization. his

of

in

not

"

10

"

"

"November

back

Looking 20

Henry

John

Newman.

11, 1841."

two

other

and

mentioned

afterwards

years

acts,

on

the

part

authorities, I observe(d) :

"

the

on

of

above-

Anglican

siastical Eccle-

might theory about the Catholic Church, difficult it was which to to adjust the Anglican, might admitted about have a painful doubts suspicion, or even have been impelled onwards, had our the latter, yet never it Rulers preserved the quiescence of former ; but years of a corroboration is the energetic present, living, and makes them realizes and practical ; it heterodoxy, which the recent has been speeches and acts of authorities, who which have had so long been tolerant of Protestant error, and its force its and to to edge." theory inquiry given heard As to the project of a Jerusalem Bishopric,I never it has it has ever of any done, except what good or harm have

held

Many

a

man

abstract

an

"

"

30

done I

one

for

me

;

of the

beginning

which

many

think

greatest of mercies.

of the

end.

a

It

great misfortune,

brought

me

on

to

and

the


VI.

PART ^

HISTORY

Published

MY

OF

as

a

Pamphlet,

RELIGIOUS

Thursday,

OPINIONS.

May

26,

1864.]


PART

HISTORY

OF

VI.

RELIGIOUS

MY

(FROM

OPINIONS

1841

1845).

TO

(" 1-) end

the

of

I

on death-bed, as regards my Church, though at the Anghcan of it only by degrees. I became I introduce aware with I have this remark, of accounting what to say by way of this remaining for the character portion of my narrative. A death-bed has scarcely a history ; it is a tedious decline, of rallying and with of falling back seasons seasons ; and

From

10

end

the

since

kind

a

a

is able

nor

die full

had

in

to

to

deaths]

;

have

I

the

I

malady. had

still

world

those

to

was

allowed

not

was

are

neither

man

public

history

no

have

which

last

negative).

or

to

come

lent

kindly

of

letters,

four

for the

me

and

have

(some)

unluckily

Letters

[since their

me

strictly personal

consult, and

to

valuable

Part

I

though

been

drafts

some

his

as

has

narrative be in great must my I cannot rely on my memory,

(sincedead) have

others

memoranda

occasion

;

of my

notes

continuous

or

mislaid

some

papers. fiist

"

of

sick

time,

he

doors

friends, who

as

and

me,

sort

a

of

far

so

far

so

the

stages

if

when

season

when

except

consequence,

friends

I have

:

and

a

for definite

of mine

And

is

of

matter

a

especially

documentary (, as particulars, positive

measure

own,

it

in upon

given

in

is called

reader,

the

except

"

come

have

But

except

this

the

record

to

peace,

not,

and

what

or

for

circumstances,

right

years.

20

foreseen,

interest

Moreover, curtains drawn,

and

in these to

was

the

heart.

closed cares

is

little

has

it

1841,

with

membership

my time

1.

I

as

to

had

22

VI] Chapter letters] others

25

No

space

was

position given up my my

IV

leftafter this

line

the

view

place

in

in

in

20

to

22

of my

1865.

me]

of

the into

duty

;

it

Movement

my

oami] which

hands I made

was

in


246

OF

HISTORY

my

letter to the

but

2. 1 could

various

by

minds

me

Lay

the

Church

Communion allowed

OPINIONS

of Oxford

in the

;

and

brought into it graduallyto fall back contemplated leaving

intended I

1841

the many

less been

or

more

4.

spring of

duties towards

my

or

;

England

not

were

had

expected

of

RELIGIOUS

Bishop give up

who I

3.

;

into if I

not

MY

never

; 5. I could to hold the

hold

not

Catholic

of"ce sense

in

her,

of

the

Articles ; 6. I could not go to Rome, while she suffered honours to be paid to the Blessed Virgin and the Saints which I thought (in my to be) incompatible lo conscience with

the

Infinite

Incommunicable

Supreme, and

Eternal

Glory

I desired

7.

;

a

union

of

the

with

One Rome

under

conditions, Church with Church ; 8. I called LittleTorres Vedras, and thought that some day we my might advance again within the Anglican Church, as we more

had

been

forced

to retire ;

disposed to go And I kept them

to

were

because

what

back

I could

I

9.

kept

back

all persons

all my might. three or four reasons

who

with

Rome

for

;

1,

myself,I could I thought that in various not suffer them to do ; 2, because cases acting under excitement they were ; 3, [whileI held St. Mary's,]because I had duties to my Bishop and to the I had Anglican Church ; and 4, in some cases, because received from their Anglican parents or superiors direct charge of them. This was view of my duty from the end of 1841, to my And of 1843. resignationof St. Mary's in the autumn my I shall relate my now view, during that time, of the state of the As

in conscience

not

controversy between I

the

the

do

20

Churches.

hitch

in

readingin

the

the

Anglican argument, 30 of 1839, 1 began to look about, as I have said,for some ground which might in supply a controversial basis for my need. The difficulty view both of Antiquity and question had affected my the historyof St. Leo showed me Catholicity ; for, while that the dehberate and eventual of the great body consent of the Church ratified a doctrinal decision (as a part of revealed that the rule of Antiquity truth),it also showed not infringed, was though a doctrine had not been publicly soon

during my

6

as

course

her]its service

saw

of

29 A

space

was

summer

leftafterthis line

in 1865.


recognizedas

the

foundation

dogmatic

of the

of the

Apostles. Thus, whereas is One, Holy, the Creeds tell us that the Church I could not prove that the Anglican Catholic,and Apostolic, communion an was integralpart of the One Church, on the ground of its (teaching) being Apostolicor Catholic,without called the of what are commonly reasoning in favour Roman and could defend I not our corruptions; tion separaRome from (and her faith)without using arguments to those great doctrines concerning our Lord, prejudicial foundation the very which of the Christian are rehgion. The Via Media an was impossibleidea ; it was what I had if and it was called standing on one leg ; necessary, after the

till centuries

Church,

10

portion of

a

247

1845.)

TO

1841

(FROM

time

"

"

old issue of the

my

further

either

one

controversy

be

to

was

retained, to

go

the other.

or

way

took that old ground and Accordingly, I abandoned I dehberately quitted the old Anghcan ground

another.

untenable

as

I became 20

and

not

do

of the

but

once,

of the

state

as

case.

Jerusalem old

"

at least in

made,

or

1 said

boldly,as

intimated

even

the

Church

except

on

Catholic be

in my

in which

condition in

mind

in my Letter

of

as

its

and a

1

portionof

a

18

the

dogmatic

that time

from as

indeed

I had

Bishop of Oxford, myself had no claim on being a portion of the

to the

I found

Communion,

borne

state, and Protest, and

abnormal

an

I did

that

condition

that

practicalmatter,

not distinctlyproved. All this was saying (above) that, at this time,

-

all at

so

convinced

more

condemnation the ultimate Bishopricwas theory of the Via Media ;( if its establishment the sacredness of did nothing else,at least it demolished diocesan rights. If England could be in Palestine, Rome versy, might be in England. But its bearing upon the contromuch I have shown in the foregoingchapter,was as that time serious than this technical ground.)from more the Anghcan Church in my mind, either not a normal was, the promises were to which portion of that One Church The

of the

30

I did

but

;

more

inconsistent

had

I

no

Church]

of the

foundation

must

had

and

that me,

One ever

to

be

with

my thought of

so

revealed

but] though

21-6

Via

30-1 ,

as

Media I did

; .

ground. From from] Via Media :" if its 36 was] is Oxford) Oxford] (as I did .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.


HISTORY

248

OF

RELIGIOUS

MY

OPINIONS

leaving that

Church of (ofEngland) ; because I felt some Rome I had as ever. as objections against strongly my no right,I had no leave, to act against my conscience. That was a higherrule than any argument about the Notes old

of the Church. Under

these

the Note

of

least

at

that

had

it in such

of

entering into comparisons,

or, at

;

we

for protectionto showing that we had Notes, as fullyas the Church

view

a

of the necessary least,without

one

of Rome

I turned

circumstances

Sanctity,with

sufficient

a

to reconcile

as

sense

us

lo

position,and to supply full evidence, and a clear direction,on the point of practicalduty. We had the Note of Life, not any sort of life, of not such only as can come nature, but a supernatural Christian life,which could only to

our

"

directlyfrom

come

British 1840 Church

from

she

has

in doctrine

PresentlyI

speak

could

denounce

resist

not

to

on

go

may

us

us

if the

of

sanctity:

at

present

Much

con-

melted

account

yet as branch,

"

us

not

be

we

when

a

Roman

as

schismatical,they had

by him, by his jealous of

but that

a

content

branch

till we

become

acknowledge us," "c. that sharp attack on

a so

to

like

was

and And

them." to

Catholic

a

branch, then I

of his

Romanists, Church, 30 branch, provided

say

of the

are

like And

meekness

most

almost

are

do

we

the

20

Church."

"

holiness,which I continue, We

to

"

as

Anglican communion

day [4th enemies were fairlyovercome

that

the Ancient

upon it, sanctity. The Church century] could not resist Meletius ;

the

though

with

of the Church

note

one

in the

descent,unbroken

ancient

tinuance, agreement Catholics

Article

my

often

so

"

vigorous;

a

(Thus,)In

I have

referred,in January, of Tract 90), I said of the Anglican she has the note of possession,the note of party titles,the note of life, a tough life

"

that

freedom and

above.

Critic,to which (beforethe time

led

on

consent you in the Article

comings English Catholics for their shortNote, a good portion of which I have already quoted in another place. It is there that I speak of the great scandal which I took at their political, second social,and controversial a bearing; and this was to

as

why

reason

1

regards

this

I fell back

that]the

upon

the Note 26

These

of

are

Sanctity,because the Author's

[]


it took

me

upon a

ground

what

is

I felt I could

which

on

higher guide for

a

reference

Tract

90.

be

party

never

upon

of the

whole

20

calmly change ;

cannot

religion

changes

"

"

of

must be

must

without

togetherto In my

ourselves."

a

God

can

between

30

"

to

more

anxious

the

end.

writer

The

can one

the

be

should

act

a

do for to the

us

love

in mutual

nurtured

"

supernaturalinfluence

Letter

Church

a

projectsof

of

come

what

we

"

Our

we

; "

I have

set

differences

with of

; we must

do for

cannot

Bishop I said, consideringthe

conference, agitation,or the like.) ourselves more ourselves, to make be

of

in connexion

and the foreignChurches ourselves in the way adjustment." (I meant

"

and

"

"

myself against suggestionsfor to their

agents

change which feelingsspringing up freely and of the whole body itseK ; every attended be ance by deep repent-

good

bosom

the

agree

come

No

"

in

the

test

true

religiouschanges

;

body.

within

in

wrong

unscrupulous-

I wrote

what

I say in its Introduction, to forcing the opinions or

development

a

the

as

in

view

in

another

school is not

Holiness

to

steadilykept

was

with

be

not

the

"

Rome.

representativesof This

and

decorous, consistent, made a part of our

fact,

a

was

tice, prac-

is

intriguingspiritof

the

deceit,and

the

ness,

I fancied

in

of truth

wrong,

I felt I could

Therefore

?

originalnature attacking what

upon ; for

me

mistake

a

speculation and

rightand

falsehood, those sentiments of what has Creator and our noble, which 10

brought

make

not

in

us

of

conscience

that

than

Church,

popular beliefs,and

of her

consideration

Roman

of the

doctrines

attack any the from nay,

necessityof making

the

from

away

the

249

1845.)

TO

1841

(FROM

a

view

negotiation, is with

business

self-denying, holy, primitive,more worthy of our high calUng. To for a composition of differences is to begin at Political

reconciliations

more

are

but

outward

and

Catholics renounce hollow, and fallacious. And till Roman the efforts,and manifest in their public measures political is of holiness and our war only truth, perpetual light

prospect." According 40

One

Catholic

and

the

life ; and

creed

to this and

theory, a religiousbody

ApostolicChurch,

of the

Apostles,with

there is much

in such

a

if it has

the note

view

to

is

part

of the

the succession of holiness

approve

of

itself to


250

HISTORY

OF

common

sense

the direct

MY

RELIGIOUS

I sunk

my

said

apology,when not only did

in

Church,

theory

to

primitive Catholic

"

after the Jerusalem

that

was

lower

w^ho felt with

not

I had

the

introduced

not

Pulpit(2);

moment

urgent

was

among

unsettled

coming

was

meat

Tract

90,

been

used

"

those

to on

I

Accordingly,when end

one

by

to be in trouble

man's

one

said

had

"

another

;

for the

had

in the

surpriseto

difficulties of faith

no

publishedthese

of 1843, I introduced them should read them who none

of

become

slander and

more

service

mind, would

of distress

has

and

still

20

of

even

set of persons,

of

had

obvious, which

suspicionand

of

of mind

which

was

I

into

for the

"

what

I wrote

whatever

matter

day

so,

events

same

poison."

of my opponents, and the other hand, who

on

all.

at the

hand

one

mouths

that

was,

addressed

I knew

I did

I did.

specialanxiety, very

that

Sermons

great unsettlement

was

commented

Four

with

did

a

Sermons

recommendaneed

30

them.

tion

that

But

in truth

that

been weathered, seemed to have difficulty an enormous disappointment and trial. My Protest unavoidable an against the Jerusalem Bishopricwas

was

also cause

them

the

virtual

not

of Tract

condemnation

90, after

whole

of excitement

in the

too, for the very

impatience. Sermons, Footnotes

Wisdom

the

and

of

And which

so,

I

of many

case

fact of

a

Protest

was

but

; a

it calmed

relief to their

as regardsthe Four speak, though they acknowledged

in like manner,

Q Matt. Innocence.)

in 1865.

lo

all

Hitherto

the

excitingtopics of

man's

if

as

This

placed myself,and

the purpose of Four of that year.

of those

now,

was

now,

whom

the

on

It and

it true

those

me

another

was

was

on

I

be

not

Samaria."

were

December

; there

One

me.

we

of 1841.

was

the

in consequence

us,

Well, this could could

we

:

which

on

this occasion

on

"

"

;

the end

at

me,

bring out this view preached at St. Mary's in

eject from their Bishops' charges?

(^)?

nothing

Church

To

90,

tried to

after the

it ?

not

level

Tract

level,

abomination

be said ; still we were had been a we never then

the

held

Enghsh-

an

upon

(For)What could be Bishops and the people of my suffer, but actually rejected

lower

a

of

consequent

doctrine, and

all who

communion

at

habits practical

and

However, with (the)events

man.

OPINIONS

xxiv.

15.

'"

Vide Note

0. Sermon

on


1841

(FROM

TO

251

1845.)

in the recent involved freelythe great scandal which was be said time the at same might they episcopaldoings,yet and disorders the shortcomings to bestow multiplied upon sort of place in the Revealed of the Anglican Church a troversy, mtellectual and an positionin the conDispensation, for unsettled and the dignityof a great principle, which minds might teach to take and use,( a principle) and to be reconciled their them to recognize own consistency, which to themselves, and might absorb [into itself] of their grudgings,discontents, and dry up a multitude to humble, and lead the way misgivings,and questionings, the effect thankful, and tranquilthoughts ; and this was which certainlyit produced on myself. The is,that, in spiteof the rigid point of these Sermons "

10

"

of the Jewish law, the formal and literal force than precepts, and the manifest schism, and worse still fact in were of the Ten nized recogthey Tribes, yet schism, as a people by the Divine Mercy ; that the great not sent to them, and prophets Ehas and Eliseus were

character of its

20

preach to them and reclaim be reconciled that they must any and the Aaronic or to the line of David priesthood, go up not in the Church, to worship. They were to Jerusalem of grace and the hope of acceptance yet they had the means The apphcationof all this to the Anghcan with their Maker. the stances,) circumChurch was immediate; whether(, under only

but

so,

to

(were) sent

intimation

them, without

"

30

could

man

a

or

assume

exercise

ministerial

tions func-

[under the circumstances], or not, might not clearly that England had be remembered appear, though it must Israel had no priesthood the ApostoHc Priesthood, whereas all ; but

at

for did

an

so

far

Anglican

to

believe

his

not

clear,that

was

there

his Church

leave

to

own

be

part

was

no

for Rome, of the One

all

call at

he

though Church

:

"

it was because a fact that the kingdom for this reason, the off from cut Temple ; and yet its subjects, was neither in a mass, nor individuals,neither the multitudes as and hold, her housethe Shunammite Mount on Carmel, nor and

of Israel

had

29-31 at

all),

any

appear,

given them, though miracles

command

though

.

.

.

priesthoodat

all

;] appear

were

(though

.

.

.


MY

OF

HISTORY

252

to break

displayedbefore them, and

themselves

submit

to

plain,that

It is

of

marks

divine

a

a

covenant,

only

or

OPINIONS

off from

to Judah

theory

such

and

presence

that

sufficient to prove

were

RELIGIOUS

sufficient

people,

own

this,( )whether the

as

"

Anglican Church actually within the

life in the she

was

that

to prove

enjoying extraordinaryand only lowered her level in

their

^.

she

least

at

was

uncovenanted

mercies,( )not a point of view, but religious her controversial weakened basis. Its very novelty made it suspicious no guarantee that the process lo ; and there was of subsidence might not continue, and that it might not end in a submersion. Indeed^ to many minds, to say that

England and

no

"

right;

to say that Rome was was even wrong ethical (or casuistic) reasoning whatever was

in their

overcome

To

authority.

case

this

the

as objection(,

made

could

prescriptionand

argument from to

my

ing,) teach-

new

that I did not make stances. circumonly answer my I fully acknowledged the force and effectiveness all but of the genuine Anglican theory, and that it was still like 20 but proof against the disputants of Rome ; Achilles,it had a vulnerable point, and that St. Leo had and that I could not help it ; that, it out for me, found of fact, the theory would be great it not for matter were When if it were only true. indeed, it would be irresistible, had in I became of a Magazine who a Catholic, the Editor I could

"

former

days

towards

right,he

now

I here

which

upon, so Nov. "

^

the As

this which which the

I

or

to

me,

wrote

I 1

insert,

to

me

indignation,of tending my of the two was to ask, which

I answered as

it will

him

in as

serve

a

letter,part of

a

sort

of leave-

specious to look 30 difficult to prove, and so hopelessto work. I do not think, at all more than I did, 8, 1845. at the date Anglican principleswhich I advocated

taking of

that

accused

Rome,

am

the

not

great theory, which

is

so

I will only here remark writingcontroversially,

upon

command, a great difference between implies physical(,material, and political)conditions, and one

argument, that is moral.

To

there

go

to

is

a

Jerusalem

was

a

of the

matter

body,

soul.

^]' {and footnote) Observer, a Magazine] the Christian note, line 3 implies]presupposes

2

25

Mr.

Wilkes,

not

of


"

mention, lead

you

TO

1841

(FROM

to the

men

1845.)

Church

253

If I must

of Rome.

'

I should Anglican principles,' specify what I mean by say, e. g. taking Antiquity,not the existingChurch, as the oracle of truth ; and holding that the ApostolicalSuccession is

I

think

Rome

They 10

held

religiousbody. For myself, I "

the

From I ceased of their

sure

I

"

found

I have

that

the

any

facts]).

or

difficult

more

those of any hold

not

other I left

them.

ness, suspect their unsound-

to

forward. to put them unsoundness, I gave up

felt all

along

which

I

When

fairly

was

When

Living.

my

Church

that the

of Rome

the

was

the Bp. Bull's theologywas could stand. English Church

one

the

opposition to theology ; and that

against the Church I English Church.

Rome

of have

be

no

could

Rome not

than

in

the

in

attempted

Enghsh Church,

was

protest

divine

true

said, nor

otherwise

of

Church

he who

was

never

in office in the

incumbent, could

or

began

felt,that

of that

that

could

/

I

time

only theology on part

far

are

Church, I joined her.

true

1 have

([astruths

and

many,

controversy, than

fully confident

was

only

20

by

to refute in the Roman

them.

be held

is, if they can

been

have

throughout the world. firmest, strongest ground against

still the

these

Grace, without

Church

Christian

the

that

"

guarantee of Sacramental

sufficient

a

with

union

to

say,

whether

Bishop hostilityto the

of Rome."

Church

Media then disappeared for ever, and a [new] expressly for the occasion, took its place. Theory, made view. I wrote intimate to an I was pleased with my new

The

30

Via

friend, (Samuel F. Wood,) Dec. 13, 1841, "I think you will give me the credit,Carissime, of not undervaluing the [to Rome], and strength of the feelingswhich draw one I clear about am duty to remain (I trust) quite yet my I was time clearer than I am where some ; indeed, much since. If it is not presumptuous to say, I have a much ...

definite

more

Christ notes with 5

with of it

Moses

us

view in

the

being

are

in the

the

of

Sacraments

^

with

was

leftafterthis

the

that

I

Ehjah

8, 32 space

Presence

inward

now

And

removed.

desert, or

without] without 26

promised

These

am

of

outward

content

to

be

excommunicated are

the Author''s [ ]

line in 1865.


OF

HISTORY

254

I

Temple. strongest." the

from

RELIGIOUS

MY

OPINIONS

this, putting things

say

the

at

of the moderate

Apostohcal party, of my having in in tone been so general Anghcan myself 90 partly from had stood up for Tract times past, who and faith in me, certainlyfrom generous and kind feeling, of and none had thereby shared an obloquy which was naturally surprisedand offended at a line of theirs,were argument, novel, and, as it appeared to them, wanton, lo However,

who

were

the

for

reason

very

controversy into confusion, stultified

substituted,as they would

and principles,

former

my

the whole

threw

which

friends

my

friends my and moderate

sider, con-

self-contemplation, especially and to my both to my nature abhorrent past professions, honest tokens, as they were for the plain and commonly They received, of a divine mission in the Anglican Church. stillfurther I was could not tell whither going ; and were annoyed, when I would view the receptionof Tract 90 by the publicand the Bishops as so grave a matter, and (when I) threw about what they considered mysterious hints of 20 An Anglican eventualities,"and would not simply say, I was born, and an Anglican I will die." One of my familiar friends,(Mr.Church,)who was in the country at Christmas, the feelingthat prevailed about 1841-2, reported to me in the following it will appear how I felt towards me ; and a

of methodistic

sort

"

"

letter "

of mine, written

Oriel, Dec.

sad

your

the

sinfulness

union

account

of

of the

of Churches

tell the

in

answer

24, 1841.

truth, I

as never

:

"

Carissime, you

Moberly decrees

has

made

of Trent

is

against individual have

cannot me. as

much

tell how view

of

against

conversions.

To

decrees

with

those

examined

His

30

object,and have no view ; but that is very different Could not he having a deliberate view againstthem. is one. Transubstantiation ? I suppose say which they are it like to have he would not A. B., though of course mind I have not my does not scrupleat that. repeated (*), recollect that Palmer clear. Moberly must ([ofWorcester]) this

from

18

would

view] persistedin viewing

Footnote have

in 1865, objected to his

37 These

are

35

A.

B.] Charles

"* As thingsstand now, I do not opinionbeing generallyknown.)

the Author's

[]

think

Marriott he

would


255

1845.)

TO

1841

(FROM

they all bear a Catholic interpretation.For myself, in the Fathers more only I see, that there is indefinitely from Christendom than state of alienation against our own

thinks this

Decrees.

Tridentine

againstthe

think of [that I can only thing is this,that there were startlingcharacter,)] herself to heresy,sooner committed Church if our Church that there was no where, would any "

I

The

10

Church

the

be

to

what

they

it would

be

accept

could

there

that

otherwise

not

is

the

I suppose, circumstance

Individuals

danger. ; but

course

the faith

on

acquiesce in.

to insist upon

immediate

no

for of

think

believe

would

therefore

relief to him

no

be answered

never

and

;

think

I should

(of

who,

persons than

a

Roman

said

have

can

can

lightly

all act of the Bishops, should how the Clergy Now, considering is even really are improving, considering that this row all it the not is them read we Tracts, possible making may man,

at

once

leave

be

in

and "

to

be

God

;

it.

The

truth is

when

the

rightto not

we

try

to

meanwhile

them

it in His

leave

thing

any

"

good

our

from

us

about

relieve him

can

what

hands,

the

Fathers, and

sense

say

of the

3. That

there

is

a

grace

case

their

than

more

you

know.

me

read the Fathers

friends do not

common

we,

leads

Barter, which by a letter,let

they are dreadfullyshocked. sense, has "The Bishop of London rejected a holding any Sacrifice in the Eucharist. Presence.

to do

work,

own

has

this work

believe

His

to consider

hence

years leave

not

I cannot

? a

May

this,

to

assent

has

seven we

may

?

content

learn If you that I think

they

30

man

will with

He

and

Providence

will of

of

been

some

of mind

state 1

matters

the

to

for

the Church.

better

a

these 20

who,

of that

:

;

then,

common

1. For

man,

2.

The

in Ordination

2.

Real

quite sure that the Bishops will not be drawing of faith ? is this what some stringent declarations up of Oxford fears ? Would the accept Bishop Moberly be driven If so, I should into the Refuge for the them ? "

^

wrong

Are

we

I cannot to

prove

introduce

this at this distance of time ; but I do here the passage containing it,as I am

the

Bishop nothing Avhich the world

the

contrary, what 5, 6

These

are

a

would

body largereligious

the Author's

[]

think

would

not

think

imputing disgraceful,but,

approve. 32

and

footnote^]^

it to on


HISTORY

256

utmost

my

them

Christmas

Day,

all

never

the

into

friend's

and

begin He

would

and

persons

been

and

clap

dreaming

the

Uke

of

that

see,

have

contemplate surely does not a

from

man

that

to

mean

say, it

that

say,

nothing could g. its avowing in

Socinian

a

rightto contemplate

not

was

20

is

from [diverging]

of the last miserable much

a

in the in ;

coming

now

that

of Ken's.

century, which

level and

lower

Churchman

a

are

;

length

at

them.

the

case

from

than

doctrine

things

are

contemplate

times,

ten

lo

great harm.

there to

English Church, e. holdingthe Holy Eucharist

; its

start

and

done

wish

them

in posse ? another

merely

are

Barter's

as

they

about

to

nothing to

kind

I think

asked

am

things. Again, our

spare

with

has

To

given

much

less to

17th

century, questions of a him, it was question

with

discipline. "

If such

dreadful

events

should

all be

thinking we think

Indeed, is it

now.

have

those, who differ ? What

But

the

realized, I

cannot help agreed than we possible(humanly speaking)that the same heart, should widely 30 were

vastly

more

considered,

be

could

sanction in

much

so

let this

communion

American of

have he

things which

Yet, he would

sense.

"

I

I say, sincerelywhen contemplate, nor

I

Socinianism

of

not

neither

separate

us

"

Should

exceedingly

most

I

but, when

say

1841.

letters were,

speak

which

such

promise Moberly, I

dangerous

there."

about

camp

Natural,

"

night.

OPINIONS

will unwise, unfair,and impatient to ask others.What do under circumstances, which have not, which may ? come Why bring fear, suspicion,and disunion

it is you

I

I

all

catch

to

confinement

into

Moberly

I

RELIGIOUS

[Littlemore]. But

Destitute do

MY

OF

join ?

we

presence without

to

as

Could

of its

alternatives.

the

Scotch

Bishops

and

or gregations con-

incurring the imputation England, (and is that likely?)they denounced

schism, unless indeed

the "

English as Is not

this

heretical time

a

?

of

strange providences? is

without safest course, looking to consequences, simply what we think rightday by day ? shall we our

1, 21

These

are

the Author's

[]

it not to not

do be


(FROM sure

to

the

course

if

wrong,

go

of divine

we

TO

1841

to trace

attempt

Providence

257

1845.)

by anticipation

?

Has not all our misery,as a Church, arisen from people being afraid to look difficulties in the face ? They have them. they should have denounced palliatedacts, when wash whiteis that good fellow, Worcester There Palmer, can "

Ecclesiastical

the

Bishopric. 10

Commission

and

is the consequence

the

? that

Jerusalem Church

our

been sinkinglower and lower, has, through centuries, ever is a mere and professions till good part of its pretensions what make the of best it be to we a duty sham, though the best of received. to make have Yet, though bound The own. other men's shams, let us not incur any of our Church are they, who say boldly and the consequences ; going wrong, they are most likelyto die (to speak catachrestically) friends

truest when

and most

of

rulers

her

our

are

Church, who

in the

are,

under

these

black

circumstances,

leave it.

prepared to

of God's the traces I will add, that, considering rather I surround or am sanguine, us, very grace confident, (ifit is rightso to speak,)that our prayers and before God, and that alms will come our up as a memorial "

20

what

And

And

which

confusion tends to good. differences then be anxious, and anticipate in prospect, when we agree in the present. " friends [i. extreme P.S. I think, when e. the party] all this miserable "

get

Let

over

us

not

their first unsettlement

of mind

and

consequent

attitude of the Bishops, which the new apprehensions, vague have and our about, they will get it, brought feehngs upon 30

that they exagand satisfied. They will see gerated to have been wrong it would Of course things. such be under would a what one's painful feehngs anticipate contingency as the Bishops'chargingas they have done, it seems to me so nobody's fault. Nor is it wonderful that test, others" [moderate men] ''are startled" [i.e.at my Pro"c. "c.] ; yet they should recollect that the more keen one implicitthe reverence pays to a Bishop,the more The cord is will be one's perception of heresy in him. bindingand compelling,till it snaps.

contented

.

.

"

"

26, 35, 36 These APOLOGIA

are

]^

the Author's

[]


*'

to

me

cultivated

have

If others

acted,

became

so

and

forth

so

loyalfeelingtowards

a

loving servants,

the most

are

he

which

under

Canons who

have seen this, if they had a high churchman spring, very way. of resisting Bishop, of asking him for the my Last

that

talked

OPINIONS

would

of reflection

Men

looked

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

HISTORY

258

or

the most

;

zealous

too, if the clergy of Chester

those,

but

their

superiors, protestors. denounced

be doing their heresy of their diocesan, they would which of the share they duty, and relievingthemselves have in any possibledefection of their brethren, lo otherwise I fidget! St. Stephen's [(Day) December 26]. How I wrote fear that the note I now yesterday only makes This is always my matters worse by disclosingtoo much. difficulty. great both of excitement In the present state on sides, reassertion of No. 90 I think of leaving out altogethermy 6 ([ofParochial Preface to Volume in my Sermons]),and in at this time false reports are merely saying, As many circulation about him^ he hopes his well-wishers will take indication of his real thoughts and feel- 20 this Volume an as ings : those who are not, he leaves in God's hand to bring the

"

"

'

them say

to

mind

better

a

to the

His

in

logic,sentiment,

and

What

time.'

own

proprietyof

do

this ?

you

"

distance from Oxford, a Catholic, [afterwards Wilberforce,) have said something to dead some now years, who] must me (at this time),I do not know what, which challenged in frank reply ; for I disclosed to him, I do not know a what suspicion,hitherto only known words, my frightful to two (viz.his brother Henry, and Mr. (now Sir so persons, haps Frederick) Rogers,)that, as regards my Anghcanism, perin the event ,( ^)that I might break down perhaps we both out of the Church. were (Ithink I recollect expressing the Arian and Monophysite derived from as difficulty, my to history,in a form in which it would be most intelhgible of Bishop Bull's ; viz. him, as being in fact an admission of the earlycenturies the Roman that in the controversies of course the right side, which was Church was ever on and against a primd facie argument in favour of Rome There

was

one

very

(ArchdeaconRobert

old

friend,at

a

I.

"

11, 17

These

are

the Author's

[]

24

There

was

one

very]

An


TO

(FROM

1841

He

answered

Anglicanism now.)

1845.)

thus, under

me

29, 1842 : ''I don't think that I by any communication, which was ever Jan.

letter of this

your

I cannot

write

but

I know

begin.

.

to

of

was

date

to

I

at

am

have

we

as"by

me,

me.

of the Church

to

dissevered

Universal. .

The

I

more

study Scripture,the

the resemblance 10

the

and

I

While about

my me,

that

see

20

they felt not only anxiety but pain, graduallysurrenderingmyseK to the

others,who and

men,

younger

.

impressed with principlein the Church am ready to grieve that

thoughts to theology,if

I suppose I was

injfluence of

I .

.

I

am

it is indeed so my doubts to indicate." seem your old and friends were thus in trouble true

uncertain, as

to

of St. John.

directed

ever

the Romish

between

Babylon

more

.

.

loss where

a

of

shocked

so

made

which

by

act

the communion

from

ever

quite unnerved

though

you, no

.

ourselves

It has

morning.

259

of

had A

in

the

of the movement

originalparty

such

claims

own

of mind

uncongenial to my rising,as is usual

own.

their

not

cast

a

school

new

degree) thought was

of

and

movements,

me,

upon

small

(in no

was

aside, and its place. The most prominent person in it,was elegant genius,of classical mind, of rare talent

was

sweeping taking a

man

in

of

literary

composition : Mr. Oakeley. He was not far from my own him, though of late years he had long known ; I had been in residence at Oxford not quite lately,he has ; and been taking several signaloccasions of renewing that kindness, "

age

which in the

that so

he

which

one

had

tone

when

me

of mind

we was

both

were

not

unlike

a

"

entered

late into

its first years

;

resolute

minds time

same

Media, but had 12

A

19

such

23

: "

space

was

Movement

togetherwith had begun

as

he, who

heard

much

leftafterthis

Oakeley

doctrinal The

name

he

;

did

know

not

start, he was that body of eager, acute,

who

movements]

Mr.

the

and, beginningwith

naturallythrown the

towards His

character to the early movement a ; he typicalOxford man, and, as far as I recollect, and ecclesiastical views, would in political have been But he 1833. spiritwith the Oriel party of 1826

both of

Church.

gave

almost

was

showed

ever

Anglican

their

a

new

CathoHc

knew

nothing about

about

Rome.

This

life about

the new

Via

party

line in 1865.

inquiries was

not

given in the originalpamphlet.


OF

HISTORY

260

MY

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

rapidlyformed and increased,in and out it so as happened, contemporaneously when

summer,

I received

views

from

These

men

cut

across

its line

line in its

own

the

with

a

certaintyat

the time have that

had

had

who

that

duty

from

what all

above

to which

remained

needed

to be

to

do

was

clearer the

as

I have

canism, Angli-

to

found

have

some

kept

with

the

as

giving little ultimatelylo

firm

Catholics,and

Nothing

much

so

they would

way

have

become

they

but

for me,

concerning

in order

;

and

on

them, it is equallyclear, just the person, of

making

clearlyincumbent ; and alreadysaid, that I was others, who could not undertake

was

very

tical ecclesias-

for their souls

concern

great zeal

event

Liberalism.

refuge in them, than me

a

as

the

in

a

true

all,with

of

some

that

to my

study of the Monophysite controversy. at an angle,fell originalMovement of thought,and then set about turning that of them direction. most keenly They were into

first matter Some

blow

a

Oxford, and,

the

religious men,

turn.

serious

so

of with

it.

There

are

friends ; but of those old friends,few could were help me, few could understand me, many I was ing breakwere annoyed with me, some angry, because of conscience, as a matter up a compact party, and some,

no

friends

like old

20

listen to me. (When I looked round for those the very I found might consult in my difficulties, hypothesis of those difficulties acting as a bar to their giving me their advice. Then) I said, bitterly, You are Yet still I will or no." throwing me on others, whether I had good and true friends around of the old sort, in me and out of Oxford a too(,who were great help to me). fond ((with3o But on the other hand, though I neither was so of few exceptions)) of the persons, nor of the methods a school, [excepting thought, which belonged to this new three men,] as of the old set, though I could not two or could

not

whom

I

"

trust

in their firmness

they might dissipated, yet

and

come

and

in

the

I had

direction

friends,in spiteof my

ingrainedfears 37

my of

of their

of purpose,

for,like

a

swarm

of

ffies,

length be divided and go, intense an sympathy in their object old of their path, in spite of my old life-longprejudices.In spiteof and

Rome,

at

and

path] in which

the decision their

of my

path lay

reason


(FROM and

and

whose in And

Blessed I served, and

Altar

of

one

it

whose

Immaculate

called, which

Purity made

of this bias

consciousness

the

was

secret

printed Sermons

earliest

my

spiteof my affection longing love of

in a

and I had a true EnglishChristianity, Virgin, in whose CollegeI lived,

of

the

to

261

1845.)

usages, I had

Oriel,yet

the author

Rome

devotion

made

I had

much

of.

myself,if

in

it

preach so earnestly against the danger of being swayed (in religiousinquiry) [in religious by our sympathy rather than (by) our reason

is

10

against her

conscience

Oxford

for

TO

1841

be

to

so

And

inquiry].

when

others

nay,

the

moreover,

many

away, were

me

by

me

stood

and

school

new

nesses, kind-

true

in

trouble,

for all this I

and

was grateful; themselves,and in the

in trouble

me,

between came

did

further cause and that was of syma pathy and when school hence it the new was, ; in force,and into collision with the old, I had not with

boat

same

went

of them

of this

members

said, and

I have as up to me, and reallyloved me,

looked

me

on

us

than the power, to repel them heart, any more ; I was where I stood ; I took in great perplexity, and hardly knew and silence, I wanted their part ; and, when to be in peace the

20

I had from

to

and

men,

the

dealingfrom matter

duly realize it. I have honesty ; and, when men the

grasp 30

accusation

it

I

can

the

;

or

mistake to

over

had any say that I was

never

a

hand under-

a

man

persons

your

set

you

if

a

myself to man

suspicionof

said

to

said

a

prove

said to me,

intending to

party, did not succeed,"

"

me,

cannot

an "

such

white, well

is meant

alibi

or

You

tried to

take

it is

as

On

thing was

what

own

my

dishonest,I

conception,such

distinct

If

black," I understand

was

enough, and me

of weakness

and mysteriousness,shuffling, majority.

as

possibleto encounter. a day and before such when

charge

I will say here frankly,that this sort of charge is which I cannot properlymeet, because I cannot

Now a

of

the

I incurred

and

speak out,

some

me

to

explain

with

gain

you

to

I can but you give him the he, and firm and exact as as as lay down an assertion of my own first unsettled, did his,that not from the time that I was

Rome,

I

ever

to

attempt 3 24

author A

gain any

1864] mother

space

was

1864

one

over

to

myself or

[anothercopy),Mother

leftafterthis

line in 1865.

1865.

to

my


OF

HISTORY

262

RELIGIOUS

MY

OPINIONS

Romanizing opinions, and

that it is only his own combical coxfancy which has bred such a thought in him : but imagination is at a loss in presence of those vague my charges,which have commonly been brought against me,

charges,which I

shall

I should

be

its

While

and understandings, impressions, ingly, Accordhearsay,and surmises. the attempt, for, in doing so,

up of

make

not

in the

dealingblows

what

is to state leave

made

are

inferences,and

and

of

I know

to application

I had

air ; what

than

and

concrete it

was

in

attempt recollect,and lo

in the

Via

that

;

the

Media, and

not

thought layingdown

mind

further

go

that

substantive, it

outline

I

others.

confidence

that nothing could overset it,I did which I saw would large principles, considered I commonly perceived. Media

I shall

what

myself and

to

be

must

than

make

was

the

much

Via more

Anglican Church

must

ceremonial, a ritual,and a fulness of doctrine and to compete devotion, which it had not at present, if it were Church with with the Roman prospect of success. any it from its proper not Such additions would remove basis,20 but would merely strengthen and beautifyit : such, for be confraternities,particulardevotions, instance, would for the dead, for the Blessed reverence Virgin,prayers and in them, beautiful to them churches, rich offerings other observances and institutions, monastic houses, and many have

a

which

to as say belonged to us as much had appropriatedthem, and boasted

I used

to

Rome, though Rome of them, by reason

of

The

principle, on

which

our

having

all this

let them

slipfrom

turned, is brought

out

in

published on occasion of Tract 90. 3o The is moving," I said, towards something ; and age communion most unhappily the one religious us, among been practically in possessionof has of late years which of Rome. She alone, amid this something, is the Church and evils of her practical all the errors system, has given to the free scope feelingsof awe, mystery, tenderness, be devotedness, and other feelingswhich may reverence, The whether Catholic. then called is, question especially Church claim them shall give them or we up to the Roman one

of the

Letters

I

us.

"

"

applicationto others]to

10

its

24

rich]munificent

others

its

application


(FROM for

ourselves.

up

the

to

give

But .

to

We

their

admit

give

must

we

up,

consent

must

either

principles."With

while

I was working Anglican Church, I did not at in myself laying down principles beyond that particular(kind of)

the

of

sake

I found

mind, though defence, which

went

and thought perfection, high-and-drymen (even)though I ended in framing a sort of defence, which tion. they might call a revolution,while I thought it a restorathe Thus, for illustration,I might discourse upon in such a manner, of Saints Communion (though I do towards recollect doing so,) as might lead the way not devotion to the Blessed Virgin and the saints on the one

which

defence

10

give them

them.

or

men,

for the

simply its

do

we

cherish

263

1845.)

feelingsI frankly admit, that,

these all

the

up

if

.

who

men

TO

1841

"

"

hand, and

towards

for the

prayers

dead

the

on

other.

In

speak year ment subject: "If the Church be not defended on establishwhich be upon grounds, it must principles, go far these I Sometimes their immediate saw object. beyond not. further them, results, sometimes Though I saw a

of the

memorandum

1844

1845, I thus

or

on

this

20

did

I sometimes

not

that

say

I

were

truths

insinuate a

To

Church,

our

that

I

I confess said any

ever

but

;

I do

thingwhich

Church

the

not

was

which

I

thought

had

confess, I simply bore against secretly myself,in order that

not

of England, knowing it might unwarily accept it. It

others 30

much

so

into

so long as Church, but unwilling to

;

our

be there."

rightto

deny

them

saw

inconsistent,not with

thought they only with the existing opinions,I I

my

great difficulties and

on,

that

I at

causes

was

of reserve,

indeed as

time

of

one

went

which I had lengthrecognizedin principles favourable if Anglican, conclusions as

honestly preached the Roman

to

this ;

Church.

Of

course

was interrogated, of prime instance

and, when

I did not

like to confess

in consequence

in perplexity.

the

appeal to had in St. Leo own judgment, its overset, Antiquity; my force in the specialargument for Anglicanism ; yet I was committed to Antiquity,togetherwith the whole Anglican minds school ; what acute then was I to say, when urged The

9

33

sort]kind Roman

this

was

14

Church]

cause

of Rome

37

saints]Saints force in] force

as


264

HISTORY

this

OF

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

applicationof it against the Via Media ? it impossiblethat, in such circumstances, any answer be could not was given which unsatisfactory,or any behaviour times adopted which was not mysterious. Again,someI wrote in what I went just as far as I saw, and could that

or

was

little say

as

I could

as

more,

and

I

therefore,when had said, (I)had

when

I

follow

from

asked no

to the to

answer

asked, whether

was

what

see as

is below

difference

between

in the

modified Or the

by to

concrete, and

in fact

it

by might

very and thus

reallywere came

them.

And

round

from

sanction

to

me

when

and

is

great

a

may

clusion con-

be

ciple. oppositepringot simply confused, some

of the my ; and

not

complicated; there

conclusion

a

did

be able to tell lo

abstract

happen that I logicwhich

so

(I)gave mine

not

because

conclusion

a

clearness

me,

in the

conclusion

a

sometimes

conclusions

I might not principle, at the moment, if the matter were especially and for this reason, if for no other, because

;

of what

give. Again,

certain

certain

a

the horizon

consequences

was

administered

to conclusions

which

the

clusions report of those conI had to unsay 20 others, through

then

again, perhaps I did not like to see men scared or scandalized inferences,which by unfeelinglogical touched woiild not have them to the day of their death, had then I felt And to eat them. they not been made of St. Ambrose, Non altogetherthe force of the maxim in facere dialectica Deo salvum populum complacuit I had a great dislike of paper logic. For myself, suum ; it was not logicthat carried me on ; as well might one that the quicksilverin the barometer changes the say weather. It is the concrete being that reasons ; pass 30 of years, and mind in a new number I find my a place; how ? the whole man moves ; paper logicis but the record of it. All the logicin the world would made not have me than I did ; as well might you faster towards Rome move journey, because say that I have arrived at the end of my the villagechurch I see before me, venture to assert as "

"

"

that

got

the to

which soul had to pass before it miles, over my Rome, could be annihilated, even though I had had

23

I] my head touched] troubled

38

had

16

had] had

been

17 24 in

made

possessionof

to

clearness] strength to recognize

eat] forced


ultimate

destination.

is what

Great

I felt in my methods of

with

me

therefore

and

;

in it the

I do

think

not

indifferent

to

my to

come

of

nature

I

how

was

least this

At

time.

logic,had

somewhat

me

265

had, that Rome take

acts

case

own

and, though made

1845.)

I then

than

far clearer view

some

TO

1841

(FROM

a

vocation, pro-

showed it, them, and impatience,to

ever

I

met

of relieving as a means me, my mysterious or irrelevant,or to give in because I could not reply. And a greater trouble still than these logical the introduction of logic into every was subject mazes, at Before I was whatever, so far,that is,as it was done. the Oriel,I recollect an acquaintance saying to me that

perhaps led be

10

'*

Oriel Common

Room

pleased when if

as

saying and

all

this,I

the

is not

Logic." eloquence,or devotion,

or

at

is

all

sidered con-

syllogisms. Now, in sajdng nothing againstthe deep piety

am

which

feed

to

of this second

characteristics

were

I have

in which

Movement,

taken

nent promi-

so

observing is, that this phase had a tendency to bewilder and to upset me, and, that instead of saying so, as I ought to have done, in a sort I know] I gave at random, of easiness [,for what answers which have led to my appearing close or inconsistent. I have

turned

up

I have

two

illustrate what

been

letters of this

I have

been

I said to the Bishop of Oxford *' March No one 20, 1841. but

I

myself.

directions so

One

of

chieflyintended

part. What

a

20

poetry,

earnestness

phase of

stank

ings ; would

and

which period, The

saying. on

can

a

sure mea-

of Tract 90 : situation my

occasion enter

in

first is what

into

minds a great many working in various bearwith multiplied varietyof principles the best. I sincerelythink that matters better for the Church, had I never gone

see a

I act for not have

I have a choice of difficulties. It do not enter into those difficulties to ' He ought to say this and not say that,'but things say, are wonderfullylinked together,and I cannot, or rather And

written. is easy

I would me,

I

seem

I

not am

be

who

dishonest.

obhged

in

to be underhand.

9 reply]meet had taken 1864 22

if I write

for those

them

to my

When cases

many

Keeping satisfaction

{anothercopy),1865.

easiness]laziness

25, 26

K3

too

persons to

give

an

interrogate opinion, or

silence looks Uke 18 21 is what I

artifice.

taken 1864} in] perhaps from said] was written have


MY

OF

HISTORY

266

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

people to consult or respect me, from them of my opinionsfrom what I know thinkingdifferently And to be. (again to use the proverb)what is one man's man's food is another poison. All these thingsmake my And

I do

situation time

been

I have

exclude

him.

I

which created The to Dr. "

A.

the

Pusey

A. B. says I have has the

this

or

cannot

Of

of

notes

a

to

letter

(which I) sent

say

Yes

the

course

No.

or

fact that

It is the

maintained, adds

developed I cannot plausibility.

plausible,it 20 Church

Roman

great weight that

assert

; but

There

another

was

this time

I

mysteriousness, of Tract

90

the

was

hard

at

certain

that

15 part was

in

doubt

it gave

world

the

not

I should

me

and

credit.

After

not

let

me

alone

; so

Littlemore. "

Imprimis, good purpose

me.

For

no

why." Why, obligedto say to

tell be

which

the

about

at all ?

some

to be

reserve

of the

would

circulated

were

perplexitywith and

public journals to

Littlemore

I dared

that

sure,

it

the Editors

of

be

to

; it prayers up there to say my to tell the world in confidence,that I had

that newspapers hard to have was a

which

Protestant

they pursued me Reports of all kinds why did I go up to certainly;

of the

source

encompassed,

was

to

it is not

I cannot, with that keen perceptionwhich have, people appropriate it. It is a nuisance to me forcedbeyond what I can fairlyaccept." at

lo

being entirelywith

my

antecedent

true

;

(")

necessary,

:

year

As

and

so

to

the limits of my own opinions. If that is a development from what

know

that

said, I

next

1842.

16, not

be true.

may

to

part of the

is

in the

October

mode

mean

Tract."]

second

B., I do

not

your Lordship'sletters to saying in print any thing false impressions remove

of

honestly say

can

by

desirous

most

am

I

some

and

time

I do

;

the Tract

obUged to think Pusey has shown me

[" Dr.

The

aware.

of Providence

I stillfeel

yet

at

opposite

great imperfectionsin bringingit about

own

my

long been

hand

the

in

collision must Church of

of the

members

between

sentiments,

that

But

difficult.

very

ensue

has

like

not

I went about

moment

the

resolve

of]taken from

leftafterthis line

Anglican system,

it,or

say

what

A. 1865, Ward 18, 19 A. B. ISei"] in 1865.

29

it

and

would

could

come

1873

not

of it ; 26 A space

gave] that perplexitygained for


(FROM it

hard

was

up

Living

my

it.

step to I knew, be

a

It

1

considered heart

to

I had

have

to

thought

that this

of

giving

the

to

tender

for what would

newspapers

of the

mercies

first

a

was

plead, that,

vanish, if the

would

dream

my

that

267

and time let me alone. give me of making the world his confidant insidious,sly,dishonest, if I would

to

as

ever

open

hard

was

1845.)

before, and

two

or

year

would was

to confess

doubts

my

good

so

,

to have

TO

1841

Who ?

yet not

world.

But

"

10

What I doing at Littlemore ? was they persisted: Doing there ? have I not retreated from you ? have I not I alone, of place ? am given up my position and my Englishmen, not to have the privilegeto go where I will, I alone to be followed about no questions asked ? am by whether I go in at jealous prying eyes, who note down a

back

door

happen

I advanced

one

that

:

I fear

on

the

afternoon

would

run

men

!

it is not

;

away

who

are

Cowards

?

if

you It is

Di

me terrent, et Jupiter hostis." Bishops stillgo on chargingagainstme, though I have quite given up : it is that secret misgiving of heart tells me which that they do well, for I have neither lot nor I cannot with them : this it is which weighs me down. part

walk

into

creep

Let

or

out

will you into some

Why

alone,

me

of my let

house, but curious

die in peace hole to die in, and no I shall not trouble you

not

that the very words of a great motto, words are

day

when

I entered inside.

walked

my

Heads

their horses

Divinity dived tenement

what

?

me

are

eyes

me.

upon

Wounded

brutes

grudges it them. the long. This was

one

[heavy]feelingwhich

keen

30

the

step, you "

who

front, and in

me

the

because

20

the

at

or

call

to

"

piercedme, and, I think, these to myself. I asked, in the Ubi lapsus ? quid feci ? One graduates house, I found a fhght of Underof Houses, as mounted patrols,

I used "

"

round

those

the

hidden

into

uninvited, and there.

drew

I had

poor

cottages.

recesses

domestic

thought that

Doctors

that

of

of

private from

conclusions

Englishman's house was wise, his castle ; but the newspapers thought otherand before my at last the matter came good Bishop. I insert his letter,and a portion of my reply to him : So many of the chargesagainst yourApril 12, 1842.

they saw

an

"

"

10

there

?] there

!

28

that

I

used]

in which

I

expressedit


268

OF

HISTORY

self and,

MY

which

friends

your

RELIGIOUS

journalshave been, within calumnious, that I am not what "

that

"

'

my

pubhc knowledge, false and

which

it is asserted, as a matter Anglo-Catholic Monastery

so-called

of erection

chapel,the refectory,the cloisters under the eye of advancing to perfection, the Diocese "

Now,

as

that

they devotion, "

about

the of

"

I have

process be

all may Parish

seen

Priest of

a

lo

Littlemore, "

destined

are

and

you

for

suspicionand

much

as

making

that you reallyare possessed believed as it is generally the purposes of study and

understood at

matter, I

I know

last

notoriety,

of Oxford.'

tenements

some

of

is in

Littlemore, and that the cells of dormitories,

at

the

of

the

in

seen

"

a

a

own

attention to apt to pay much respect to you in the newspapers. [newspaper] however, of April9, there appears

paragraph in

a

I have

with

is asserted

In

OPINIONS

an

me

too

anxious

am

be

to

tunity oppor-

subject.

that

aware

an

you

the

explanationon

well not

felt

jealousyare

afford

to

you

are

the

livingto attempt in my Diocese a revival of the Monastic orders (inany thingapproachingto the Komanist 20 with of the term) without sense previous communication indeed that you should take upon or yourselfto me, of importance without authority originateany measure from the heads of the Church, and therefore I at once exonerate brought againstyou by you from the accusation the newspaper I have quoted, but I feel it nevertheless a duty to my Diocese and myself,as well as to you, to ask man

"

"

you

to

put it in would

ecclesiastical

my

power

appear

to

on discipline

contradict

to

imply

a

part,

your

what, if

tradicted, uncon-

glaringinvasion or

of

of all

inexcusable

neglect and indifference to my duties on mine.'^ follows : ) as (I wrote in answer much I am obliged by your April 14, 1842. very Lordship'skindness in allowingme to write to you on the time 1 feel subjectof my house at Littlemore ; at the same it hard both on your Lordship and myself that the restlessness should of the pubhc mind obligeyou to requirean explanation of me. "

"

5 These

are

placedwithin 31

A

space

the Author's the

leftafterthis line given between ( ).

was

short line 32 here

[ ]. In

1865

the

a

beforenewspaper

was

[ ]. in 1864,

filledup

in

1865

by

the

30


*'

It is

whole

a

now

TO

1841

(FROM

that

year

I have

been

year

since

misrepresentation.A

of incessant

269

1845.) the

subject

I submitted

tion entirelyto your Lordship'sauthority; and with the intenact enjoinedupon of followingout the particular me, which I was I not only stopped the series of Tracts, on engaged,but withdrew from all publicdiscussion of Church be called ecclesiastical of the day, or what matters may the preparation for at turned to I once myseK politics.

the 10

of the

Press

intend and

translations

long wished to devote to employ myseK in

1 had

the

in

of my

concerns

of St. Athanasius

to

which

myself,and I intended and the like theological studies, own parish and in practical

works. "

With

led

mind. I have

30

hitherto

and

a

wish

a

a

years, at least life of greater

led ; but

thirteen, I have

I on

was

my

wished

religiousregularitythan unpleasant to confess

it is very

Bishop,because it seems arrogant, to a profession which committing me have I done that I am to to nothing. For what come may be called to account by the world for my private actions, I not else is called ? Why in which in a way no one may all others allowed ? I am that liberty which have are and uncandid in respect often accused of being underhand I have been alluding: but no to which to the intentions likes his own one good resolutions noised about, both from mere common delicacyand from fear lest he should not be I feel it very cruel,though the partiesin able to fulfilthem. what fault do not know they are doing, that very sacred such

20

many myself to

of personalimprovement designwhich had been long

view

same

For

give

to

the

seriouslyto

more

even

because

matters

to

my

it is

between

me

and my I take a

conscience

are

made

a

matter

though different ? parallel he hke in prospect of marriage ; would a suppose person stances, circumin newspapers, and parties, the subject discussed of him, at the penalty "c., "c., publiclydemanded ? of being accused of craft and duplicity with referThe resolution I speak of has been taken ence has been to myself alone, and contemplated quite independent of the co-operationof any other human being,

of

publictalk.

May

case

"

40

and

without

personal,and

reference

without

to

success

regard to the

or

failure

blame

or

other

than

approbation


of

OF

HISTORY

270

And

man.

resolution

being a

and called me, Church more any

has

I feel God rule of the have

RELIGIOUS

MY

to

of years, and in which I am

than did

it, if I

for

answer

a

comfort

great

to

the hearts

of others

the

way,

same

think

it

with.

to

keeping

a

certain

Church

our

;

not

wish

to

have

to

encouragement,

class of minds

still I

I

should

to

has

been

with

similar

a

entered

have

not

whether

hope pursue pathiesof others pursuing a I

done

have

course.

lo

to

conscience

interfered firm

viction con-

necessary

allegiance

that

my

own

personalone, it, and

upon

without

or

in

the

not

or

in their

firm

truly say

as

can

or

be

it into

put

the rightsof on private resolutions were

thing I

for any which without

reason

which

but

am

personaledification

to add Lordship will allow me my such religiousresolutions are most

Your that

for

and

had

God

I

it would

course

great infringement

a

personal and

if such

their

unnatural

presence

of

good

a

then

ecclesiastical

at any

that

know

to pursue

it, as

pursue

time

same

to

me

and

their

of

benefit

the

At

effects.

violatingno

pursuing it

In

thinking of myself alone, not aiming external

to which

one

married, I should

if I

not

openingsfor it.

made

Providence

OPINIONS

["]

the sym-

20

....

to live there myself intentions, I purpose my in Oxford. In have resident curate I a as deal, good doing this, I believe I am consulting for the good of my

"As

to

a

populationat Littlemore my of St. Mary's in Oxford, and the

parish,as that

is double

equal to

of Littlemore

neglected; and very much parsonage-houseat Littlemore, as this will It has

of it.

providinga

is at least

whole

been

in

be, great

I am will be called, I conceive and doing a very time it has appeared to benefit to my people. At the same from St. Mary's that a partialor temporary retirement me ment. Church might be expedient under the prevailingexcite"

not

quotationfrom the [newspaper]which Lordship will perceivefrom what your

I have

As to the seen,

I have '

monastery is in process of erection ; there is no refectory,'hardly a dining-room or chapel ; no shed cloisters The are connecting the my parlour. what cells of dormitories cottages. I do not understand said, that '

'

no

'

'

'

'

'

34

These

are

the Author's

[]

'

3o


(FROM Of

means. *

I

I

course

repeat

can

attempting

not

am

'

271

1845.)

your

Lordship'swords

of the Monastic

revival

a

the Romanist

thingapproachingto

any

TO

1841

that

Orders, of the

sense

in

term,'

of importmyseK to originateany measure ance of the Church.' authority from the Heads I am but something attempting nothing ecclesiastical, personal and private,and which can only be made public, and not letter-writers,in which private,by newspapers or

taking

on

without

the

sense 10

One

of which

It

conscientious

the

there

calumny

beUeve, and

which

was

of

an

the

he had

course

the

and

resolves

objects of

that I was actuallyin been already (forsooth)

was

I had

20

and

sacred

most

certainlybe made unfeelingcuriosity." may

and

did

not

Bishop idea of

no

into

the

enemy.

Catholic

nest of Papists, a Church, and was rearing at Littlemore to take the Anglican oaths which who, like me, were they did not believe,and for which they got dispensationfrom to bring over to that Rome, and thus in due time were of the Anghcan Clergy unprincipledChurch great numbers

and

to Laity. Bishops gave their countenance The case was simply this : against me. for myself,so Littlemore a place of retirement

this

others.

it to

testimonials there

were

unable

from

thrown

up

There

men young been refused

were

for Orders

had

tation impuI made

as

"

so

speaking.

of the

service

received

acts

unmannerly

did

in

Oxford,

by

their

I offer whose

Colleges;

clergymen, who had found themselves young conscience with their duties,and had to go on their

parochialengagements.

Such

men

were

alreadygoing straightto Rome, and I interposed; I interI have given in the beginning of this posed for the reasons I interposedfrom to my fidelity portion of my narrative. clerical engagements, and from duty to my Bishop ; and from

the interest

which

I

from

behef

they

were

friends them

that

besought came

laymen,

or

to

me

to

was

live with

in the

for several years from Church. Even when I had

18

^

me

at

to take or

I

up

my

them, and Their Some

I could.

kept

being received given

in

excited.

They

Littlemore.

place of laymen.

back

11

bound

premature quiet them, if

of were

of them

some

into the Catholic

living,I

was

still

leftafterthis line in 1865.

space was did not believe,and

for which

they got] disbelieved,by

virtue

of

a


272

HISTORY

bound

by

duty to

my

forget still to

The whether

RELIGIOUS

their

parents

what

do

I could

word with my Bishop. followingletters refer,more with me theywere (actually)

word I

said, as Times

does

not

build

if

they

powerfulfor us. (" If people who

called

The

not

immediate

Romanism

the

are

world

Him

imto

void

of the

Church

and

or a

for

men,

not

:

"

powerful nothing,lo

If I have

:

Tracts

for the

destroy parties,

denounced. used, not if they were powerful againstus, as they might

as

have

a

hking

for

CathoHc, they will

Roman

a

doctrines

doctrines

our

up

less,to these

or

at Littlemore

into

sent

the

were

Else, they will be

Church

return

have, that

would

I meant, be

friends,and I did

or

for them.

one

6, 1842. (1. "March not ; they were weapon God's

OPINIONS

the unexpected resigning St. Mary's, was of them. After that, I felt it was possible imkeep my post there, for I had been unable to

of to

my

MY

of my

occasion conversion

keep

OF

such

another, hear '

say,

Then

him

after

all

thing.' All these persons, who are making the cry, are fulfiUingtheir own prophecy.20 If all the world agree in telling he has no business a man, in our Church, he will at length begin to think he has How is it to persuade a man of any none. thing, easy when

is

numbers Did

at

no

you,

know

affirm it ! who

one

every

would

you

bad

think

so

great

met

you

is the

force of

tion. imagina-

in the streets look somehow in fault.

you were

hard I do

so thing so irritating, unsettling, especially in the case of young they are going on as, when persons, ing calmly and unconsciously, obeying their Church and followits divines, (I am speaking from facts,)as suddenly to 30 their surpriseto be conjured not to make a leap,of which and from which they have not a dream they are far

not

any

removed.") 1. 1843

the

state

spoke

or

1844.

of mind

of those

external

to the

to

their

trust

"

I did not

of those

who

were

explainto

who

were

convinced

in

that

you sufficiently danger. I only our

Church

was

Church

own

Catholic,though they felt it unsafe private convictions ; but there are two are unconsciously ; 1 that of those who

other states of mind near Rome, and whose

.

despairabout 34

1.] 2.

our

Church

would

at

40


(FROM

develope

once or

with

can

allowed such

by

portion of

they

were

it in which

approximation, conscious^ 2. those

;

with

remain

behalf

who

feel while

us

they

they

Cathohcism, i.e. as if at least that or Church, putting they were included, in the positionof

in testify

to

acts

go

273

1845.)

over

conscience

safe

a

of

state

a

to quasi-Tesolution

a

are

into

TO

1841

of

our

catechumens." June

have

you 10

"

the very I return 20, 1843. pleasingletter sad thing it is, a permitted me to read. What that it should be a plainduty to restrain one's sympathies, it is from boilingover and to keep them ; but I suppose of common a matter prudence. (" Things are very serious here ; but I should not hke to say so, as it might do no good. The Authorities you than mihtary find,that, by the Statutes, they have more to be, that they ; and the generalimpression seems power

(3.

intend

as

assigningtheir grounds in If him, or imprison him.

Universityshould

the

There I

as

2.

is am "

that

whole

offer

subject

others

beside

advice, when of

in which

banish particular case, nay, of preferment in as quiet an exit as they can. all holders

sides at this moment,

both

should,

you

yourself.Come

all

rejoicein able, as

far

It

It is no

I

to

seems

as

may to Littlemore

good attempting raise

might be, make

by

all

difficulties

quite a

me

up

means.

your We

case,

mind

shall

; and, if quiet and retirement your company they very Hkely will be, to reconcile you to

thingsas they distressed

yourseK. perhaps

as

only

You need not be told you say. of our positionis a subject of

them.

removing

for

are

make

sjnnpathy,what

the

instead

so,

there was.") told, than ever that I feel,with I assure July 16, 1843. you

anxiety to to

the

exasperation on

more

much

too

30

the

by

Preacher,

a 20

that

Cathohcism risk. at any put down pend Statutes, they can pretty nearly susseditiosus or causingdissension,without

it,and

to exert

I believe

poor

are,

you

Henry

shall have Wilberforce

your

fillof them.

must

be !

How

Knowing

you, I feel for him ; but, alas ! he has his the and else has his own, own position,and every one the is of have that two same. us no exactly misery It is very kind of you to be so frank and open with me, how

he

values

"

25

2.]4.


OF

HISTORY

274

as

RELIGIOUS

; but this is a time

are

you

MY

which

May I without "c." affectionately,

feel aUke.

who yours

the

{In 1865

paragraph

"

3.

of

of course (June 17,)1845.

in

me

instead

of

hearing of

I

numbered

concerned

am

If you

from

me

all,you would think thought of my opinions.

5

to

knew

inserted

was

find you

me

ever

who

persons

of differently

at

me

togetherpersons

remaining unaltered.)

of distrust.

tone

a

throws

taking a Hberty sign myself,

p. 275

on

here,the numeral

OPINIONS

me,

do

speak little,

so

know

not

whatever

you

since,I got your son lo intention to tell you of resigning St. Mary's, before my I made it public,thinking you ought to know it. When it,I told him painful feelingupon expressed some you I could not consent to his remaining here, painfulas it be to me would written to part with him, without your And this you did me sanction. the favour to give. I believe you will find that it has been merely a delicacy son's part, which has delayed his speaking to you on your about me for two months lest he should past ; a delicacy, Two

years

"

either too much several times to

say

him "

Nothing him

a

(hishome) is addressed

of coldness

me

April 16,

ministerial

entrusted write

B.

I have

me.

urged 20

you.

after your

followingletter

accused

"

done

to A.

to go

little about

speak to

letter,but at

to

I

once.

mend recom-

am

very

part with him."

sorry to 4. The

who

be

can

too

or

was

a

Catholic

Prelate, "

office in

to me,

otherwise

I

1845.

to

in my him : conduct towards time in charge of at that

and than

a

the English Church, with persons Bishop to obey ; how could I possibly I did without sacred obliga30 violating

be

interests which were betraying momentous upon ? I felt that my immediate, undeniable duty, clear It might to fulfil that trust. clear,was thing was any rightindeed to give it up, that was another thing ; but

it

never

tions and me

if

hold

could

be

rightto If you

it

hold

it,and

knew

to

act

as

if I did not

would

acquit me, me, you felt towards think, of having ever Lordship (in) your on an unfriendlyspirit,or ever having had a shadow my mind (asfar as I dare witness about myself)of what might

I

6 25

25

3.]6. a

Catholic Prelate] Cardinal

Wiseman,

4.]

then Vicar

7.

Apostolic


1841

(FROM called

be

better, worst,

in like manner,

now

it to

I

that

you,

great and I have

from

mercy

guided myself,though men 5. August 30, "

the

to

Church

of

me,

got the

kind

indeed it.

say

And

I cannot

explain so responsibilities,

and

of all

partiesare B.

He

Rome.

whom

to

A.

1843.

say remain

distinctlyto I received

to

encompassed with as utterly to overcome Him, who all through my

I must

I suppose

too

me

the

getting

I had

are

lead

believe,though

pray am

You

words

your

of

think

various,

so

and

10

kind.

irritation of any

or

imply this,and yet

to

desire

should

world

lest the

275

1845.)

rivalry or

controversial fear

or

TO

in my in our

has

was

I

me,

unless

life has

tained sus-

submit

now

can

thinking evil of me." suddenly conformed for

away

three

weeks.

defence, that he promised three

Church

years,

me

before

here."

him

in malam taken however, was fidelity, partem by the high Anglican authorities ; they thought it insidious. I happen still to have a correspondence (which took place of the most the chief place is filled by one in 1843),in which of and reader of the eminent a day, theologian Bishops

Such

20

the

Fathers,

a

moderate

man,

who

at

one

time

was

talked

likelyto have the reversion of the Primacy. A young Catholic ; the papers a clergyman in his diocese became a very at once high quarter," reportedon authority from had been recommending that, after his reception, the Oxford men for his living." I had retain to him reasons ized thinking that the allusion was (made) to me, and I authorthe of a Paper, who had inquiredof me the Editor on give it,as far as I was concerned, an unqualified point,to of dehcacy he from motive when contradiction a ; tion." direct and hesitated, I added indignant contradicmy is the author of it,("I continued to Whoever of any the Editor, ")no correspondence or intercourse to the kind, direct or indirect,has passed[,"I continued Editor, "Jbetween Mr. S. and myself, since his conforming of Rome, to the Church except my formally and merely acknowledging the receiptof his letter,in which he informed of

as

"

"

"

"

30

"

"

"

3 10

worst] worse A

space

was

leftafterthis

line in 1S65, the

paragraph

to precede ivhat ivas paragraph 3 in 1864 being transferred 22 to have the reversion to succeed of] on a vacancy

numbered

(6 in 1865). to

5


HISTORY

276

any opinion upon I have set it down." what

RELIGIOUS

MY

fact,without, as far

of the

me

OF

took

You

it.

"

father

I copy. My he laid it as

denial

it is

showed

recollect, my

in

the letter to the

'

which

Bishop,who,

Oxford '

men

not

are

asked

father. my Mr. B. S. to retain that to be a know

? mean ingenuous.' How you said the advised Why,' Bishop, they Catholic. his Uving after he turned I '

"

expressing broadly as the Bishop ;

letter from

a

do

*

as

told to

was

given

down, said, Ah, those '

this

state

may

My

place upon

I

as

OPINIONS

"

The fact,because A. B. told me so.' is perhaps the most the letter, who reahty on the bench, evidentlybelieves

Bishop,"continues

"

influential

lo

in

man

it to be the truth."

(Upon this)Dr. Pusey [too]wrote for me to the Bishop ; and the Bishop instantlybeat a retreat. I have the I transcribe, honour," he says in the autograph which to acknowledge the receiptof your note, and to say in reply that it has not been stated by me, (though such of the Public a statement has, I beheve, appeared in some "

"

Prints,)that his

had

had

Allow

that

neither

mentioned I so

advised

forsaken

opinions and feelings, yet

communion. "

Newman he

B. S. to retain But it has

Mr.

Church.

our

20

stated to me, that Mr. Newman in close corresponwas dence with Mr. B. S., and, being fullyaware of his state

been of

Mr.

Hving, after

to

Dr.

to

him

to

let the

account

own

my

I

beg

of

the

and fullyaware, correspondence

statement, and

Bishop

which

to

off

trouble

this

evasion,

his Letter your

are

to

Lordship "

"which

was

B. S."

30 [close

allegations

two

have

on

our

Pusey,

Keble,

of Mr.

quoting

"c.]

Dr.

to

of Mr.

that

After

in

to continue

says

that with

myself. "

him

add," he

in connexion

Pusey, I continued,

with

advised

nor

name,

your me

going

not

was

I wrote

to

me

contained

led to your deserve.

speaking 1. Since hope Mr. B. S. has been in your Lordship'sdiocese,I have seen him in common rooms or private partiesin Oxford two or had I never three times, when (as far (as)I can recollect) time I have, with him. During the same any conversation in

your

of

me

to

the

One

in terms

best

was

13

for

which

of my

I

memory,

never

written

in acknowledgment lately,

me]

in my

behalf 35

common]

30, 31

to

to

him

of his

These Common

are

three

letters.

informingme the Author's

[]

of


his

-

this

religion.Another (to no purpose) to

him

subjectof

far

as

I

and

three

letters

recollect,and

joiningthe

his

277

last summer, stay with

was come

of the

earhest

since, as

year

the

on

The

place.

just a

1845.)

of

change

I asked

TO

1841

(FROM

Church

it

was

when in

me

written

certainlywas I wrote

of Rome.

this letter at the earnest wish of a friend of his. I cannot be sure that, on his replying,I did not send him a brief in explanation of points in my misapprehended. I cannot recollect

letter which

note

10

dence

between

"2.

any

other

he

had

correspon-

us.

knowledge of his opinions and feelings, the only point of perplexitywhich I knew, the only point which to this hour I know, as pressing He professed him, was that of the Pope's supremacy. upon the see of Rome had to be searchingAntiquity whether formallythat relation to the whole Church which Roman Cathohcs directed to the now assign to it. My letter was with to perplex himself his duty not point, that it was and to put it altogether arguments on [such]a question, As

far

as

as

to

I

my

remember,

.

20

aside.

It is hard

that

...

I

am

.

.

put

upon

my

memory,

made against knowing the details of the statement consideringthe various correspondence in which I am me, Be assured, from time to time unavoidably engaged. my Lord, that there are very definite hmits, beyond which to retain preferhke me would never ment urge another persons would retain it themselves in the Enghsh Church, nor ; and that the censure which has been directed againstthem has a very grave of its Rulers bearing upon by so many those limits." The Bishop repliedin a civil letter,and letter to his original sent my own informant, who wrote to anxious that an the letter of a gentleman. It seems me preted, misinterhad been other which had said or something lady against her real meaning, into the calumny which without

...

30

circulated,and

was

I closed the "

so

the

report vanished

correspondencewith

the

into

thin

following Letter

Bishop : I hope your

air. to

"

statements

has

the

come

16

Lordship will beheve me when I say, that equally incorrect with that which me, from time to time Lordship's ears, are your

about to

formally]formerly

19

These,

are

the Author's []


OF

HISTORY

278

MY

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

credited and repeated by the highest Church, though it is very seldom that I am I have the opportunity of denying them. obHged by such Lordship'sletter to Dr. Pusey as giving me your Your an opportunity." Then I added, with a purpose,

reported

to

authorities

me

as

in

our

"

Lordship will

that

observe

Letter

in my

I had

no

occasion

a holding question, whether person in our CathoHc Roman opinions can in honesty remain Church. Lest then any misconception should arise from silence,I here take the libertyof adding, that I see lo my nothing wrong in such a person'scontinuing in communion abstains with us, provided he holds no preferment or office, is and of ecclesiastical matters, from the management bound by no subscriptionor oath to our doctrines." written March in anticipaThis was on 7, 1843, and was tion of my This retirement into lay communion. own in lay again leads me to a remark ; for two years I was communion, not indeed being a Catholic in my convictions, but in a state of serious doubt, and with the probable not. 20 day, what as yet I was prospect of becoming some I thought the these best Under circumstances thing I could do was to give up duty and to throw myself into lay communion, remaining an Anglican. I could not go to she Rome, while I thought what I did of the devotions I did not sanctioned to the Blessed Virgin and the Saints. for I could not be sure that my give up my fellowship,

proceed

to

doubts I

for two

an

was

my in

in

quiet reproach to

or

But

event.

before

years

Littlemore

be reduced

not

such

last Sermon

My at

would

thought

the

to

however

overcome,

I gave

up

my

conversion, I took

no

September, 1843 for two

years.

unlikely

living; and, clerical

duty.

I remained ; then made it was But

so

at the time, and is at this day, To me sooner. Anglican Church I been had this seems wonderful a charge ; why, even the true Church, the Anglican was quite sure that Rome have had no Bishops would just subject of complaint against me, provided I took no Anglican oath, no clerical Do they force all duty, no ecclesiastical administration. who to believe in the 39 Articles, men go to their Churches a

subject of

that

I did not

15

March

7] March

me

the

leave

8

28

thought]might consider


it

so

it

a

the

join in

to

or

have

other ; and

much

dealt

ten

as

279

I

However,

?

to

was

ruled ; great authorities controversialist in the North thought

learned

a

I did

that

184.5.)

Creed

Athanasian

measure

shame

TO

1841

(FROM

to

the

leave

not

than

sooner

years

me

I

Church

of

England

as

did.

(He said this 1849.) His nephew,

in

the years 1847 and an print between Anghcan clergyman, kindlywished to undeceive him on this point. So, in 1850, after some correspondence, I wrote the 10

followingletter,which

tive, from "

its

Dec.

under

concealed

of service '

If he

the

French

say,

mistake, and

during

the

narra-

"

says,

entire

an

Romanist

this

to

:

uncle

phrase, as

sans

laboured a

Your

6, 1849.

declare,

will be

chronologicalcharacter

ten

(Mr. N.)

that years

he in

will

I

have

was

not

that

question,'

(I suppose, the last ten years of my membership with the Anglican Church,) or during any part of the time, my controversial antipathy will be at an end, and I will readily to him that I am truly sorry that I have made express '

such

a

"So

20

from

mistake.' candid

a

mind

brought it By a "

one,

'

the

concealed

'

Romanist

and

will intends of the Church

have expected extremely glad he has

I should am

I miderstand

of Rome,

him of

to benefit the Chm^ch of

England.

He

to

mean

England, of

cannot

Rome, mean

who in fact is benefiting person while he is intending to benefit the

expressionmerely

Church

Church

30

I

who, professingto belong to the Church

at the expense

the

your

is what

uncle's.

to this issue.

in his heart

by

avowal

an

hke

a

of

England, for that is no discredit to him morally, and he (your uncle) evidently means to impute blame. In the sense in which I have explained the words, I can concealed not a simply and honestly say that I was Romanist during the whole, or any part of, the years in question. For the first foiu? years of the ten, (up to Michaelmas, of England, 1839,) I honestlywished to benefit the Church "

"

of the Church at the expense " For the second four years of

England 3 in the 8

without

of Rome

I wished

prejudiceto

:

to benefit the Church

the Church

of Rome

North], Mr. Stanley Faber Edition subsequentto 10 character]notes 1850] the latter year

:

1875


OF

HISTORY

280 "

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

the

beginningof the ninth year (Michaelmas, 1843) despairof the Church of England, and gave up all clerical duty ; and I wrote and did was then, what influenced by a mere wish not to injureit,and not by the

I

At

MY

began

wish

to

to benefit

"

At

the

it

:

beginning of leaving it,but

the

tenth

I

year

templated distinctlycon-

I also

told my friends distinctly that it was in my contemplation. Lastly,during the last half of that tenth year I was engaged in writing a book (Essay on Development) in lo favour of the Roman Church, and indirectly against the then, till it was finished,I had not Enghsh ; but even to pubhsh it, wishing to reserve to absolutelyintended the argumyself the chance of changing my mind when mentative ''

which

views

distinctly brought out "

I wish

and

actuating me in writing.

were

before

this statement,

me

I make

which

without

consultingany writingsand doings,as

document,

from

had

been

memory,

severelytested by

I am confident it will,on the my whole, be borne out, whatever real or apparent exceptions20 (Isuspect none) have to be allowed by me in detail. "

Your

uncle is at libertyto make what he pleases use explanation." have now reached an important date in my narrative, which year 1843, but before proceedingto the matters

of this I the it to

contains, I will insert portions of my letters from 1841 to CathoHc 1843, addressed acquaintances. 1. The unity of the Church Catholic April8, 1841 heart, only I do not see any prospect of very near my "

is

it in

our

time

; and

I

despairof

its

being effected without

3o

the Bishop's As to resisting great sacrifices on all hands. will,I observe that no point of doctrine or principle was in dispute,but of action, the publicationof course a certain our

in

works.

position. such

a

case

I do not I suppose ;

now,

think

when

understood sufficiently obey the Holy See were separated from the

you

would

you we

Our Bishop Pope, his authorityreverted to our Diocesans. is our Pope. It is our theory, that each diocese is an integralChurch, intercommunion being a duty, (and the 23 A

space

was

leftafterthis line

in 1865.


breach

an

recovered. in its a

essential

not

being

true

I

could

never

it,the strength of any

Depend

upon to its

Catholicity. To to placemyself

to

been

theory. Consistencyis

have hes

party the

of

Hfe

movement. "

I have

taken for 10

sin,)but

a

281

1845.)

resisted my Bishop, would have utterly false position,which

have in

of it

TO

1841

(FROM

of

for

"

I

than

afraid, that

going under

in

respect

one

individual

have

shall not

we

the

Une

I have

that is,in itself,

:

to

trust, though I must

It is my

that

one

us

its

legitimate

sins.

our

am

that

prosperous refuse may

a

Providence

course

issues

misgivings whatever

no

be other

can

to

over

circumstances, what

other

members

of

one's

duty

What

yours.

be disappointed. may be too sanguine,

you not

duty

our

our

ten

munion com-

be

would

twenty

or

that there is less years ago, I cannot say ; but I do thmk of private judgment in going with one's Church, than in

leaving Church 20

I

it.

and "

April 26,

of the

Church

surely are portion of

1841.

should

necessary.

communion

Rome,

nothing. I think piety and earnestness for

if there

were

not

some

my your

us."

among

It

large a

could

never

should and I

up

shall beheve

never

be

found

grave is most

errors

300

that

so

years

much

Protestants,

among on

the

from

protest for

a

which

so

split off

have

kept

would very

be, that

the side of Rome.

the contrary unreal, and violates suppose of moral one's notions probabiHties. All aberrations founded and

or

on,

and

have

much

in

truth.

their hfe in,

have

Protestantism,

must

so

it, and That

some

widely spread and be

must

I

am

but

an

I

witness

advocate

truth so

or

other

all are "

long enduring,

for, a great truth for Protestantism,

forced into a Via Media, am present." 3. May 5, 1841. While I most sincerelyhold that there is in the Roman Church a traditionary system which is not with her essential formularies, yet, necessarilyconnected I ever mind this point,this much to change my were so on tend from would to bring me not present position. my you

cannot of

short

"

40

between

thought of

branch

To 30

the

to

My only anxiety is lest your not meet us by those reforms

Christendom of

union

a

hsten

I cannot

individuals

being joined by 2.

earnestly desire

can

yours.

suppose

Rome,

as

"

it is at


OF

HISTORY

282

MY

RELIGIOUS

providentiallyappointed communion

your mine

which

in

I receive

Nor

would

not

That that

prove

it at all affect the

Articles ;

our

definite errors,

against certain

Church.

English

unassailable,would

was

indefensible.

was

the

in

OPINIONS

they would though you had

still

sense

speak

reformed

them, "

I say

in the mind me

hkely,by

are

it

this lest any lurking suspicionshould be left of your friends that persons who think with

imperative

Allow

to

me

the

growth

them

on

to

to

over

strongly,that

state

present views, to find

of their

pass

communion,

your

if you

have

lo

such

any

thoughts,and proceed to

act upon them, your friends will We have committing a fatal mistake. (I trust) the principleand temper of obedience too intimatelywrought into of our to allow us our separating ourselves from ecclesiastical superiors because in many points we may sjmipathizewith others. We have too great a horror of the principle of private judgment to trust it in so immense

be

matter

a

that

as

another.

We

of

changing

be

may

may

decree

such

contingencies are

*'

of

causes

I have

written

much

changed

I have in the have

towards grown that my reasons for altered it would or I wish "

with

by

18, 1841.

mine

to

reason,

shall say you but I do not Church

it

or

20

whether other

see

in which

we

be well acquainted with to say whether they venture main opinionsand cardinal views That my sympathies eight years. I do not deny ; religionof Rome must

be

perhaps by feeling."

not

You

urge

have

communion

difficult

commence

the Churches.

between

to

communion,

before

the

June

communion

one our

leaving the

shunning her

to go

of "

likely;

my of the last

course

from

out

truth,

our

baptized. For myself, persons

what

4.

be

heresy to

conceivable were

cast

to

persons whose in behaK

movement

a

Now

lessened

views of

in the letters I have

a

30

And

prove.

agree union

written,

I have

uniformly said that I did not expect that union in our time, and have discouragedthe notion of all sudden proceedingswith a view to it. I must ask your leave to that I cannot be repeat on this occasion most distinctly, party own

to

any

place,and

agitation,but to do all I

can

mean

to

to make

remain

quiet in

others take

the

my

same

40


(FROM This

course.

and

above

I know

grapes. that one

than

gulf between but

10

else.

not

a

Catholics

who

Some

very like an 5. I have

I wrote

and

to

a

to

over

go

aloof

keep

the intention Churches

of the

Bishops for

make

I ventured

ago,

to

with

came

let them

us,

months

union

say that all Roman

to

from

of

:

a

converts,

opening negotiations

when

you

now

urge

a

(faras) I have preservedit (, but I think there various : changes and additions) (")September 12,

1841.

["] It

more

as

"

than

20

your

union, this,I conceive, is act of negotiation." the first sketch draft of a letter,which or zealous Catholic layman : it runs as follows,

petitionour

to

people should

our

painful duty

for the us

of

themselves

I felt it

simple duty ; but, over on edge with sour the range of possibilities teeth

quite within

it is

283

be a greater misfortune however, it would If your friends wish to put grief to us.

;

you

1845.)

be my set my

to

will not

another

or

communion to

I conceive

this,I

TO

1841

would

Catholic

rejoice all

words

minds

among

us,

were

could

of the persuade members Church of Rome which to take the line in politics so you earnestly advopate. Suspicionand distrust are the main say, if you

can

the present of the separation between us, and approaches in doctrine will but increase the hoswhile tiHty,which, alas, our people feel towards yours, these causes continue. Depend upon it,you must not rely at

causes

nearest

our

Church

to

do

we

did

tend

to

the

four

quarters of the

none

to

over

she

Church

them,

do.

can

you

but

spread a

be

am

of

rival Church

world, unless

Sympathies, which

of Rome,

will

I ; but

as

a

matter

developed in

you

would

of course, the consolidation

to be the own system, if she continues I do, suspicionsand fears. I wish, of course Church be built up and extended, but own may at the cost of the Church of Rome, not in opposition it. I am suffer that, while you suffer,we sure, the separation; but we cannot remove the obstacles ;

our

not still, to too from it is with we

the

admit of

Till

but

of mine

personalfeelingsmay

our

raise and

removed.

are

friends

generally. Whatever in

object of that

till they

of any

or

shall but

yours what

flow

40

tendencies

speaking of myseK,

be, 30

Catholic

our

upon not

our

our

you

cease

to do to fear

so.

you,

You we

do not cannot

fear love

us

;

you.

we

fear you.


HISTORY

284 "

While

Cathohc

you

are

unity

in

of

of those

that to

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

present position,the friends of

Church

but fulfilling the predicare tion to them, viz. body who are averse merely strengtheninga rival communion

your

of

Many have

; we

MY

in your our

will be

they

yours.

enemies

OF

you

said

that

say

so

we

ourselves

:

things stand at present. We from by supplying their wants you, We are keeping persons from you : do

be,

as

them

from

for

you

to

determine.

us

; you

or

fear

not

will not

for

ever

are,

so

should

our

Church.

own

you wish ? It rests

to

us

keep

with

you will succeed you among Church in the affections of the

lo

that

;

for its sake, and

communion,

shall

we

keeping people

are

in

greatest

your

we

supplant our only through the English Church the Englishnation. I wish of course our be consolidated, with and through and

upon

of

time

a

I do

English nation act

are

so

sake, and

your

can

you

Church in

for the

your

sake

unity. "

us

Are are

the

In

?

from invest

took

as

vain

the

they as

serious

more

dare

form

an

the characteristic

does

any

clear

one

thinkers

among

opinion,to regard of the destined

the

Church

20

of

the

Rome would in the

far

as

Liberalism

spiritof

Antichrist

that

aware

you

used,

very them

badges of Antichrist,in which Protestants takes up her position her, if she deliberately quarter, whither we have cast them, when we

off from

her.

Antichrist

is described

as

the

exaltinghimself above the yoke of religionand ai/o/xos, The spirit law. of lawlessness in with the Reformation, came and Liberalism is its offspring. And I fear I am now going to pain you by tellingyou, that you consider the approaches in doctrine on our part 30 I cannot towards closer than they really are. help you, times said in print,that your repeating what I have many services and devotions of fact do to St. Mary in matter I it fact. most a am as me. pain deeply only stating said that I can accept the Again, I have nowhere decrees of Trent throughout,nor impliedit. The doctrine of Transubstantiation with is a great difficulty as me, being, as I think, not primitive. Nor have I said that our Articles in all respects admit of a Roman interpretation ; as

"

"

the "

very

Thus,

word you

'

Transubstantiation

see, it is not

'

is disowned

in them.

40

merely on grounds of expedience


that

in the way

Church

not

of it.

divine

no

of

the

for

of the

disguisedthat

Church

make

might

in other

reform

for

necessary

that so itself, country. We

actual

are

which

pain

chance, while

stances circum-

much

me

;

of the

were

do

not

is

allowed

"

Nov.

1842.

22,

that

I

the

the

friend

subjectof

wish

only

that

a

be

in

our

in

own

believingthat a duty." by the present

is

occasioned

was

from on

as

union

would desirable

reform

Rome

towards

look

a

of

that

say

Church

Roman

to make

but infallible,

will be said

more

;

doctrine

them, however

uniting with

our

we

am

(6.)The followingletter (made to me) of a book, Avritten

no

explanation of the not prepared to

I

branches

we

its communion

see

some

Transubstantiation.

your

to

it

whom

it is

presently :

"

Church

were

will not writings. You interest in her, till we us see her, not in poHtics,but in her true functions of exhorting,teaching, and guiding. I wish there were chance of making the leading men a I beheve is no novel thought among you understand, what to yourseK. It is not by learned discussions,or acute arguments, or reports of miracles,that the heart of England can be gained. It is by men approving themselves,' like the Apostle, ministers of Christ.' have "As the Volume to your question, whether you more

30

I

there

Rome,

is necessary, for its health

but

join you one prepared for a union, by one ; but if our Church were her terms she might make ; she might gain the Cup ; she might protest againstthe extreme honours paid to St. Mary ; she

20

of

of these

removal

of Christendom

particularChurch,

a

never

the

in

10

life of

I have

only.

the rest

with

intercommunion not

285

1845.)

There are positive difficulties join you. if there were not, we shall have And, even think that the for doing so, while we warrant England is a branch of the true Church, and that

do

we

TO

1841

(FROM

known

among

us

by

such

'

'

sent

is not

calculated

to

remove

my

another

gospel is substituted practicalinstructions,before I are or

ought

to

such

as

how

know

selected from the

far the

I

apprehensionsthat

for

the

can

answer

Sermons

in your one it in any way, it comprises which true

number, or whether they are the whole, whole, which have been published of the a

21

from] by


HISTORY

286

I

author's.

"

would

to

seem

England

that

is

should

seek

we

vouchsafes

it

change "

is

of

to a

There

embrace

and

23

A down

space on

a

left,

was

the

next

to

we

as

page.

be

In

they

wiser

in 1865

policy

1864

;

"

2

the

man

?

on

all

their

all

they

risks

the

same

to

position,

"

paragraph

next

followed

that

Church

our

doing at

know

or

movement.

of are

men

efforts

will

and

here,

no

there

fancy

general

movement

things

of

state

may

This

unwearied

When

larger

they

leading

your

their

individuals.

off

carry

this

by

frustrate

will

incipient

an

the

be

to

Church.

their

there

and

yours, to

can

indeed,

this

find

promise to

but

us,

is,

towards

low

secession

leave

may

will whatever

come,

large

He

have

call

lo

Why

?

Cathohcs

Roman

which

when

elsewhere, What

?

are

of

among

be.

can

any

presence we

life

disorders,

our

as

did

which Church

divine

a

all

Church,

where

us

of

spite

Lord's

our

to

communion

our

time

in

in

the

from is

you

feeling,

tendency,

person

There

the

of

note

a

of

me.

it,

see

change

a

with

we

is

avowal

time

as

it

wrong

public of

necessary a

Rome.

of

manifested,

great

as

such no

draw

to

expect,

to

clearly

us,

that

if

been

my

Church

our

have

would

place,

have

question

a

that,

trust, I

subject,

be

saw

you

I

that

me

this

only

understand

easily

take

to

on

will

however,

If,

you

said

OPINIONS

least

at

or

home

conviction

that

of

RELIGIOUS

you,

have

I

what

in

it

assure

brought

clearly

ever

MY

OF

commencing page.

20


(FEOM

TO

1841

1845.)

287

""2.) The

last

my

dear

to

I have inserted, is addressed friend, Dr. Russell, the present President of to do with He version conhad, perhaps, more my in passing else. He called upon me, any one

letter, which

Maynooth. than

in the

through Oxford him

over

called

I do

London.

not

either

gave

He

occasion.

He

sent

at

me

always gentle,mild,

was

let

He

alone.

me

Veron's

books.

two

or

I took

his way from Dublin to the recollect that he said a word on

several letters ; he He unobtrusive, uncontroversial. one

I think

University.

on

different times

me

the

buildings of

summer,

religionon

of

subject 10

another

again

1841, and

of

summer

the

of

some

also

of Faith

Rule

and

of the

Wallenburghs was one ; a volume of another ; and St, AKonso was (itis) Liguori'sSermons I have last inserted to (thoseSermons) that the letter which Treatises

some

relates. Now

that the

be observed

it must

I knew

as

them

the

by

writingsof St. Alfonso, from commonly made Church against the Roman

extracts

much as them, prejudicedme thing else, on account any but there was Mariolatry ; "

"

I wrote

book. been

to

ask

in the

left out

Dr.

of Itahan

Authors

part of the Catholic world. in honour 30

of

Catholicism 1 The inserted

our

; I

;

such were

I have

that

there

the Blessed

about book

their

in this

thing had

any

answered

passage of a

Lady had been say frankly,I do

last letter,which

he

case

Such

the kind

whether

Russell

called

was

nothing of

translation

certainlywas an omission of one Virgin. This omission, in the that Catholics,at least showed in the works

what

of

20 as

intended

for

found as are passages to every not acceptable

devotional my not

manifestations

great crux fullyenter

inserted]The

letter which

as

regards

into

them

I have

"

15

the letter which

24

was

an

omission

I have of

one

inserted]my letter omissions passage] were

last

to Dr.

in

one

Russell Sermon

last


288

HISTORY

them.

but

suitable

But,

over a

I, His

above

I had

know

do

not

run

with

are

not

suitable

the

were

then, that

own

led to consider

feelings.Only

own

less,because I cannot enter fully explained and defended ;

be

case

that

special;

was

Maker

my

and

Catholic

full well now, allows

Church

of any

in

about

speculate,however,

this I know

the

logic: they are for England.

beings,certainlysuch,

two

here

I will not

naturd.

OPINIONS

England, my

been

creature,

rerum

RELIGIOUS

Italy,but they

and

boy

may taste

and

for

from

my not

They

sentiment

MY

love her the

I do not

; I trust

now

into

OF

and

did

image lo dogmatic symbol, no

sort, material or immaterial, no the Blessed Saint, not even rite, iio sacrament, no the soul and its Creator. between Virgin herseK, to come It is face to face, solus cum solo," in all matters between no

"

and

man

his God. before

;

of

vision

Him

He

His

alone

awful

creates we

eyes

;

go

He

has

alone death

in

;

in

deemed re-

the

beatitude. (I.)"Solus cum the effect produced indistinctly me by this Volume (ofwhich I have been speaking), upon been but it must have At all 20 (something)considerable. I had got a key to a difficulty events ; in these sermons, to be, taken as (or rather heads of sermons, they seem down by a hearer,)there is much of what would be called of them is plain, legendaryillustration ; but the substance awful preaching upon the great truths of salvation. practical, solo

"

:

What

I

effect upon (For) Here and of

ance,

soul

7 17

of with

greater confidence

littlelater of the Exercises

is the

of St.

Ignatius. (purestand)

"

"

"

sola

solo ; " there was cloud interposed no and the Object of his faith and love.

cum

the creature

command

thy

Me

speak

can a

but

again,in a [pure] matter of the (actsof)religion,()inthe intercourse between the soul,during a season of repent- so of recollection, good resolution,of inquiry into vocation,( )the

was

between The

me

eternal

our

direct

most

God

is

I recollect

"

enforced practically

heart."

The

devotions

then

"

was,

to

My son, give angels and saints

certainly] luminously 1. Solus

cum

the effect

solo

:

This

commenced

produced upon all events] least 20-21 27 later of]later by studying 35 angels and saints]Angels and 18-19

a new paragraph in by this]what I gained

me

27 28

upon] produced matter of]matter

Saints

1865.

from

the

on

in consisting


(FROM little interfered

as

Eternal, as the tender

our

At

10

on

how

different

little there

they

Unseen, which

in the booksellers' I

over,

I had

what

which

to

shops at

quite astonished

was

from

were

them

in

was

with

inconsistent

that

really

what not jealouslydestroy,) exalt(,

found

are

looking them

and,

relations,

later date Dr. Russell sent me a large of devotion, of all half -penny books or

a

of penny

sorts, as they

friends and

our

to the

of the heart

sanctifyand

is of earth.

bear

the

glory of

incommunicable

with the which we

sympathies,are

human

homage

supreme does but bundle

love

289

1845.)

TO

1841

in my of them Dr. Russell sent

I have given an account Development of Doctrine.

;

find

to

fancied, how

could

I

Rome

reallyobject. Essay on the St. Alfonso's

me

still a long time book at the end of 1842 ; however, it was tions the score of the devobefore I got over on difficulty, my paid to the Saints ; perhaps,as I judge,from a letter into 1844, before I could I have turned up, it was some way be said

20

the

have

to (fully)

(2.)I

am

force

got

over

it.

also at this time feel [did not also weigh

that (I did not of) another consideration not

sure

it idea of the Blessed Virgin was as the Church of Rome, as time went on, all the Christian ideas ; as that of the Blessed

with

me

were

magnifiedin

The

then].

but so were Eucharist.

"

The whole scene of pale,faint,distant Apostolic is seen in Rome, as through a telescopeor Christianity magnifier. The harmony of the whole, however, is of course then to take one Roman idea,that of what may be called its context. of development (3.)Thus I am brought to the principle I gave of doctrine in the Christian Church, to which my I had spoken of it in the passage, mind at the end of 1842. back which I quoted many ((videp. 218)),in Home pages what it was. of the Blessed

30

It is unfair

Virgin,out

Thoughts Abroad, publishedin earlier

date

Arians

in 1832

;) but

along.

And

all

me

I had

Treatise 31

spoken]

35-6 I

ever

36-7

made

introduced it had

it is

1836

been

a

of Vincent

of

it had

an

Lerins, which

has

that

brated celeoften

so

mention been

lost

APOLOGIA

at

even

my

certainlyrecognizedin

a favourite subject with sight of it in my speculations that celebrated]the

but

(and

;

History of the favourite subjectwith

it into

j^

me

all

along]

nor

had


290

HISTORY

been I

last

it

which

to

I

friend of the date of

that, now "

kind the

as

to the

that

;

thus in

will ( ^)it "

issue is stillFaith which

of considerations 1. I

following: "

am

far

a

letter to observed

be

Church

versus

weigh(s)with

: "

are

ing (accord-

certain

more

me

Fathers)that we are in a state of culpableseparation, that developments do not exist under the Gospel,lo

than

and

is stated

came

July 14, 1844

before,my

as

The

such

OPINIONS

basis of the

the

as

consider

to

generalview a

RELIGIOUS

MY

Anglican theory. In 1843 steadily; (I made it the subject of on University Sermon February 2 ;) and the

taken

began

my

OF

the

developments

Roman

far

am

certain, that

the

not

are

true

ones.

(modern) doctrines are than that the Roman (modern) doctrines are wrong. wrong, 3. Granting that the Roman (special)doctrines are not drawn found out in the early Church, yet I think there is and in it, to recommend sufficient trace of them prove them, on the hypothesis of the Church having a divine I

2.

more

guidance,though that

So

the

promise of of the in

not

our

sufficient to

question simply

them

prove

turns

the

on

itself.

by

of the

nature

4. The proof20 made to the Church. Spirit, (modern) doctrine is as strong (or stronger)

the

Roman

Antiquity,as

which

that of certain doctrines

both

we

and

in Antiquity of evidence e.g. there is more sion Succesfor the necessityof Unity, than for the Apostolical for the than the the See of of for Rome, Supremacy ;

hold

Romans

Presence than "c.

in the

Eucharist

for certain "c.

the

of

:

5.

The

New,

leads

developments." (4.) And thus I

practiceof Invocation,

to

in the

the

acknowledgment

led

on

of

doctrinal 30

I

was

to

a

further

consideration.

principleof development not only accounted in itself a remarkable facts, but was sophical philowhole character to the a giving phenomenon,

that the

saw

for

; for the

of Scripture, present Canon and Old also the of Testament, analogy

books

certain

the discernible from of Christian thought. It was course first years of the Catholic teachingup to the present day, and gave to that teaching a unity and individuality. It the Anglican could not served sort of test, which as a Rome in truth ancient Antioch, was exhibit, that modern 1 6

2

the

Anglican theory]Anglicanism 7 The kind Faith] Creed

...

attentively steadily] are

So in all editions.


and

Alexandria, has

curve

(5.)

its

And

thus

I

ascends to

came

that 10

one

the

or

other.

of my I believe in

why

a

examine

more

thoughts long

my

by which religiousidea ; no was medium,

the

and

and in

CathoUcity, and

mind, under those circumstances either the below, must embrace

believingin God, I answer

I feel it

myself, for

there

I hold

And

mathematical

argument

Atheism

it finds itself here

virtue

by

of

that

conclusion

in

was

its final

its first to

perfectlyconsistent

a

in which

in

not

concatenation

from

the

doubt

I

philosophy,between

true

291

1845.)

Constantinople, just as a law and expression. led on to again I was

own

attentivelywhat before, viz. the mind

TO

1841

(FROM

this still : God

a

I

and

;

am

Catholic

a

if I

I believe

that it is because believe

impossibleto

asked

am

in

own

my

ing quite sure) without believlives as a Personal, also in the existence of Him, who conscience. Now, All-seeing,All- judging Being in my I dare

that fact I

(and of

existence

say,

I have

not

20

others

what

of

I have

stand

a

have

strong

expressedmyseK

I have

correctness, because

am

not

said

on

in

meaning

true

with

philosophical

given myself the subject ; what

the

to

I say

but

study

I think

which

will

examination.

(6.) Moreover, been

I had

which

doctrine.

The

I

to

came

reasoning

stating,

on

adopted fact

on

the

the

of the

conclusion

of the

same

which

nature,

I have as

that

subject of development

operation

from

first to

of

last of

principleof development (inthe truths of Revelation,) ancl argument in favour of the identityof Roman Primitive Christianity; but as there is a law which acts the subject-matter of dogmatic theology,so is there upon of religious faith. In the third part of law in the matter a the consequence, this narrative I spoke of certitude as tive divinelyintended and enjoined upon us, of the accumulaforce of certain given reasons which, taken one by one, that I am Let it be recollected were only probabilities. relatingmy state of mind, at the period of my historically hfe which I am survejdng. I am not speakingtheologically, that is

30

an

20

others]metaphysicians

23-4

came

to

the

conclusion

in

a

consideration

....

same

nature, as] found

a

boration corro-

with Catholicism of Theism logicalconnexion 31 third part] first chapter parallelto

of the fact of the


292

HISTORY

OF

I any

intention

have

nor

MY

OPINIONS

of going into controversy, or of of what I held speaking historically I believed in a God a ground of on

defendingmyself; but in 1843-4, I say, that that probability,

RELIGIOUS

I beheved

a probability, on Christianity and a on probability, distinct from each that all three (grounds of probability, in subjectmatter,)were the same about other of course kind of probability, a cumulative, a transcendent ability, probmade but still probability He who as ; inasmuch indeed we (should)lo us, has ^o willed that in mathematics arrive at certitude by rigiddemonstration, but in religious inquiry we (should)arrive at certitude by accumulated I say,) [inasmuch as] He [who] has willed(, probabilities, should so act, (and, as willingit,He) co-operates that we with us in our acting,and thereby (enablesus to do that which He wills us to do, and) bestows on us (ifour will does rises higher but co-operate with His,) a certitude which And thus I came conclusions. than the logical force of our and have in satisfaction to a to see seeing,that, clearly, of Rome, I was in being led on into the Church proceeding,20 not by any secondary (or isolated) grounds of reason, or protectedand by controversial points in detail,but was in the use of those secondary(orparticula^r) even justified, arguments, by a great and broad principle. But, let it be observed, that I am statinga matter of fact,not defending

and

I believed

that

in

in Catholicism

"

and

it ;

Catholic

if any

converted

been

[And

in

a

I have

now

says

wrong

carried

in

way, on

a point, before I became in fixingdates precisely ; great difficulty

last

their

to

been

some

Church

have

it must

but

that

Rome

the

on

30

the was

subject.

all]these the

about

7-8 same

but

to learn

nothing more

I find

Catholic.

thought not only that

certainlywrong,

was

I had

right. Then 6

into 1844, before I

way

Anglican

I have

that

consequence

I cannot help that now. the historyof my opinions

in nature

of

kind of probability] stillall of them one of proof,as being probabilitiesprobabilities

and

same

a

"

the

special

kind 16-17 20-1

bestows

28 f. For

nothing more On

the

on

us

a

certitude]carries us not proceeding on

on,

to

a

certitude

...

proceeding,not by]

one

this passage the followingwas substituted to say on the subject of the change in my

hand

I

came

graduallyto

see

in 1865

:

I have

religious opinions. that the Anglican Church was


(FROM "

How

"

Samaria

tell,but

it

this last

stage

was

faded gone.

of

TO

1841

away

from

Now

to

1845.)

back

go

in

inquiry was assign dates, was

which, if I dare

imagination I

my

my

293

the

to

its

camiot

when

time

commencement,

towards

the

end

of

1842.] In all

of St.

1.

"

The

1.

given

words,

rise to

which

I

my

withdrew,

individual such

much

from

passages

views

could of

a

in which

I made

Retractation, have

my

After

criticism.

quoting

I ended

"

thus

venture, not communion

: "

number

a

Church

writings against the

If you

ask

how

me

of

Rome,

of

an

hold, but to publish ancient, so wide -spreading,

simply so

to

'

myself, I am almost following my Church. of the divines of my a consensus own They have the used the strongest language against Rome, even ever I wish to throw able and learned most of them. myself into their system. While I say what they say, I am safe. Such for our views, too, are position.' Yet necessary I have that such to fear still, reason language is to be to an ascribed, in no small measure, impetuous temper, I respect,and a wish a hope of approving myself to persons to repel the charge of Romanism." These words have been, and are, [cited]again and again in the (cited)against me, as if a confession that, when which I did Anglican Church, I said things against Rome not reallybelieve. fruitful in

so

not

30

In

"

two

20

took

two [important and] significant very formal Retractation of a February, I made the hard things which I had said against the Church Rome. 2. In September, I resigned the Living of I will speak of these inclusive : Mary's, Littlemore ' acts separately.

steps

10

I

1843,

:

Saints, I

speaking

own

words,

the other on formally in the wrong, formally in the right; then, that no for continuing in the AngHcan, and could be taken to joiningthe Roman. learn

;

what

still remained

of

opinion, but to change of intellectual conviction. Now

I

proceed

for my

I said to

that

answer

I

but

am

that

could

that

no

Rome be

vahd

into

10

the

clearness

I committed

was

assigned

objections

Then, I had nothing conversion, was, not further

opinion itself

inquiry.

of

Church

reasons

again

to detail the acts, to which

this last stage of my

the

vahd

and

more

to

change firmness

myself during

inclusive]included


HISTORY

OF

myself, I

camiot

294

For

so

can

man

them

take

RELIGIOUS

MY

OPINIONS

impartial any explained them in by this time they have

understand and

;

how

I have

I trust that print several times. been sufficiently explained by what I have said in former portions of this narrative ; still I have a word or two to (In the them, which I have not said before. say about in the lines in question] in question)I apologize[d passage for saying out (incontroversy)charges against the Church which of Rome (withalI affirm that)I fullybelieved to be lo in such an is wonderful What true. apology ? which There hold, a man are things (surely) may many feel that he has no rightto say time he may at the same him that he has said annoy publicly (,and which it may In our this law The own principle. recognizes publicly). have been imprisoned and fined for saying true time, men has been held, that, things of a bad king. The maxim "

greater the truth, the greater is the libel."

The

And

so

judgment of society,a just indignationwould be who felt against a writer brought forward wantonly the of a great man, weaknesses though the whole world knew 20 No is at libertyto speak ill of that they existed. one without another even a justifiable though he knows reason, Thereit too. he is speaking truth, and the publicknows fore(,though I believed what I said against the Roman speak ill Church, nevertheless)I could not (religiously) what I said, believed I the of Church Rome, though against I said (on what I did believe what without a good reason. a I thought to be good reasons); but had I (also) good for saying it ? I thought I had(,and it was this); reason in the 30 I believed viz. I said what was simply necessary as

to the

explained]their plain meaning has they have been sufficiently satisfactorily brought out about them, which I have not said before] in addition to my

3-4

been 6

them remarks upon commenced 6 In the passage 8 saying out] saying out

former

9-10

believed

to be

a

new

true] believed

paragraph at the time

when

I made

them

paragraph here in 1865. without a good reason] speak it out, unless 25-7 speak ill against not only in believingill,but in speaking ill was reallyjustified, for saying out what for saying it] just cause 28-9 good reason 11

No

new

....

I

in 1865.

I believed

30

I said] that to say

out


(FROM order

in

controversy, that

in most

conflict,one

(in the

one

serious

man

any of abusingher, or

sake

I said ; "I of Rome ; but

Church a

serious

But,

of the

it

I

was

very

religious

own

"

word

call to

all ?

for the

Rome,

testantism," ProThis

?

speak spoke stronglyagainstthe no

doing so." did I think such

out

abuse, for I had

mere

for

reason

only

not

know

a

subject at

of

his justifies

meaning is

the

on

Church

it

because

is what

then

the

there

that

but

speaks

abuse

is the

What

position?

to

was

Roman

who

says,

considered

I

;

defended, without of Rome. (In this,as be

right or the other,not attack.) Is not this controversy)? is it not

was

defence

best

truism

a

every

does

10

the

and

almost what

of

cases

;

ourselves not

Church

bringingchargesagainstthe

295

1845.)

defend

to

AiigUcanpositioncould

the

both

TO

1841

language

for

necessary

position,but (I recollected that)all religious had thought so before me. divines They great Anglican had thought so, and they had acted accordingly. And with much in question), therefore I said (in the passage Church's

my the

20

propriety,that

I had

not

done

of my

it simply out

head,

own

following the track, or rather (in doing so)I was reproducingthe teaching,of those who had preceded me. I was pleadingguilty(to using violent language); but stances extenuating circum(I was) pleadingalso that there were that

but

in the

he

30

We

case.

all know

the

story of the convict,

scaffold bit off his mother's

ear. By doing so crime, for which he deny the fact of his own to hang ; but he said that his mother's was indulgence, when he was a boy, had a good deal to do with it. In like it ex animo I had made I had made a charge,and manner ; but I accused others of having(,by their own example,) led me into beheving it and publishingit.

who

the

on

did

But

not

there

X used

: "

1-2

was

in order

this meant

than

more

first,I

ourselves

to defend

,

It

was

2 3

in the words

freelyconfess, indeed

will

; I considered

impossibleto let it alone : maintained defended] satisfactorily bringingchargesagainstthe Church

it]that abuse 19 said]observe

of

which

I said it

some

that]for self-defence.

the Roman Rome] assailing

9

33-4

But

there

20 was

to bite ofi their ears.

.

.

used

: "

done it]used strong language in a humour, certainly, I was first,]


^"6

OF

HISTORY

back, that I pages I thought they had

MY

was

RELIGIOUS

rehance

made

which

words

or

safe, while exercised did

from

reliance

But

broad their

on

of detail.

in matters

there

myself. (I had

a

was

misstatements

authority,but this of

And far

Fathers

quotations

properly I ought thought myself I said.) I had

on

it

divines.

them, I had

on

faith any

the

their

their warrant for what in the criticism than

I had more

imply

not

statements,

examined

have

rigidlyto

read

trusted

their eyes ; I had sometimes their reasonings; and from

used

Aiighcan

in ; I had

me

with or

the

with

angry

taken

OPINIONS

This

matter.

part, arising

my

impliedcarelessness

course

was

a

lo

fault.

for my saying what hitherto touched ; oppressive thought, in the

deeper reason

I have

I said in this matter, on which this : The and it was most "

not

the clear change of opinion, was my process anticipation,verified by the event, that it would issue in the triumph of Liberalism. Against the Anti-dogmatic mind whole I was principleI had thrown ; yet now my else could than one do, to promote it. doing more any I was of those who for 20 had kept it at bay in Oxford one whole

so

of

many

years

triumph. The distinctlythe attack a

upon

second

But

there

but

are

who

Liberals

this

it

;

was

went not

they who they

was

it on

was

had who

to retire from

all.

As

I have

alternatives,the way

two

Atheism

was very retirement driven me from Oxford

my

had

90, and

Tract

benefit,if I

Church.

thus

and

; men

to

its were

opened the gain the Anglican already said, would

Rome,

and

is the

the

halfway house on is the halfway house the one the side, and Liberalism on How other. men were there, as I knew full well,30 many who would in my advance not follow me from Anglinow canism but would leave Anglicanism to Rome, at once and me for the Liberal camp. It is not at all easy (humanly speaking) to wind up an Englishman to a dogmatic level. I had in the case done in [a] good measure, both of so and of laymen, the Anglican Via Media men being young the The representativeof dogma. dogmatic and the I had were as principle Anglican taught them ; but one, I was breaking the Via Media to pieces,and would not dogmatic faith altogetherbe broken up, in the minds of to

way

5

:

Anglicanism

properly]by right

25

retire

from] abandon


(FROM

TO

1841

2Ql

1845.)

of the ? Via Media by the demolition unhappy this made me ! I heard once from an of a poor sailor whose legs were eye-witnessthe account shattered by a ball,in the action off Algiersin 1816, and for an taken below who was operation. The surgeon and done the chaplainpersuadedhim to have a leg off ; it was and the tourniquetapphed to the wound. Then, they broke a

great number,

Oh

! how

it to

10

have the other he must should have told me

that

him

said,

fellow

"

the

unscrewed deliberately

and

death.

Would

be the I

ever

and

with

case

hope

poor

that, gentlemen,"

instrument many

make cheated

to

I had

theology,when

second

a

that

could

How

?

own

my in

not

The

off too.

You

bled to friends of

them them

believe in the

edition of face could I publish a new with what dogmatic creed, and ask them to receive it as gospel? to be it not be plainto them that no certainty Would was

first ? a

defence I could but make ? Well, in my any where the true one, viz. that lame apology ; however, it was I had not read the Fathers critically enough ; that in such gence the angle of diverdetermine nice points,as those which considerable the two Churches, I h".d made between this about ? Why(,) the miscalculations came ; and how

found a

20

fact

was,

too

much

or

the

upon

Barrow, and had "

reason

all that

^itwas

it

was

I had

that

to avow,

assertions of been deceived

leaned

Ussher, Jeremy Taylor,

by

could be said.

them. This

Valeat

then

was

a

quantum, chief

wording of the Retractation,which has given offence, (becausethe bitterness, with which it written,was not understood : )and the followingletter of that

much

so was 30

unpleasant as

"

will illustrate "

it

: "

1844.

April 3,

I wish

to remark

on

W(ilHam)'schief

changing my opinion seemed to unsettle my one's confidence in truth and falsehood as external things, and led one to be suspiciousof the new opinion as one I shall say, in what distrustful of the old. Now became distress,that

second thoughtsin not going to speak in favour of my am comparison of my first,but against such scepticismand the idea about truth and falsehood generally, unsettlement of which is very painful.

I

19

critically] cautiously

22

miscalculations

;

and] miscalculations. L3

But


298 "

The

with

case

unnatural

one

:

the

and

Church

feelingand I found

had

surelyan duty I threw

not

of

myself

Laud

I

in.

idea theological

a

I read

it up.

I took

OPINIONS

this, and

was

of

matter

a

system which

the

English

such,

as

RELIGIOUS

then,

me,

as

"

myself into that

MY

OF

HISTORY

saw

theory

or

Tradition, and

on

thought it (asI stillthink it)very masterly. The Anglican Theory was very distinctive. I admired it and took it on it ; I saw faith. It did not (I think)occur to me to doubt that it was able, and supported by learning,and I felt it it. a was Further, on looking into lo duty to maintain such portions Antiquity and reading the Fathers, I saw of it

I had

a

been "

more

So

of (e.g.the supremacy question about which

examined, fullyconfirmed

I

as

There

Scripture).

only

was

one

doubt, viz. whether it would than a paper system. .

far

tendency viewed

from

unsettle

to

of

truth

to

as

persons

never

.

fair any falsehood

opinion having should

objective realities,it

as

whether

change

my

work, for it has .

and

considered

be

such

change is not necessary, if truth be a real objectivething,and be made to confront a person who has been brought up in a system short of truth. Surely the wishes in continuance of a person(,)who to go right(,)

20

be that a system, and not his giving it up, would wrong which militated leadagainstthe objectivenessof Truth, ing, it

as

another were "

would,

the

to

suspicion,that

equally pleasingto

were

and men

sincere. Nor

surely is

defended have had instead

the to

of

it

unsay

thing I

a

in

system

with

that form

put before

?

one

which words.

my

beginning

generouslyinto

need For

those

Judaism,

likelyto in

or

be

for, that

I

thus

and

is it not one's duty,30 throw oneself

of religion which is providentially right,or is it wrong, to begin with May we not, on the other hand, look

Is it

who

were

those

who

led

sorry

myseK,

criticism, to

privatejudgment ? a blessingthrough obedience system, and a guidance even by Were

be

I found

for

Yet

thing

one

Maker, where

our

into

strict and were

to

even

lukewarm

an

erroneous

of it ?

of it out

means

conscientious

and

when Christianity,

in

their

more sceptical,

Christ

proportion to their previous zeal, would of inconsistency. Certainly,I have appearance

came

be

?

their

always

40


contended

a

that

the way

was

began,

man

obedience

to

in faith ; and that of Truth method ; that to the and have a self -correcting virtue

though I have is granted to

And this mercy 10

it mattered

began on what thing might any

and

all

pure

and

a

become

a

divine

things are

pure,

of

ing. germinatthat

assume

fact, that yet granted to him, seems

me,

hand,

to

the

in my have it situation may the perplexity which to remove

where

not

came

power all to

right at

no

conscience

erring

an

that

299

he

that

so

1845.)

even

light,and

gain

to

TO

1841

(FROM

a

person to me

change of opinion may

my

occasion. "

It n:iy be said, I have did you 'publish ? had

said it to

"

which

people.' distressing together,as to form I 20

ever, how-

Why,

"

quietly, you would you waited of the misery, changed your opinion without any and in the change, of disappointing is involved now

have

is not

or

'

myself,

a

that

whole, and

a

condition

have

could

I answer,

I do

of what.

the

pubHshed

thingsare not

Tracts,

or

bound

so

tell what

cannot

one

how

see

other

up is

possibly

works

pro-

Church, without accompanying them with a strong protest or argument against Rome. The one obvious objectionagainst the whole Anghcan line is,that defend

fessingto

it is Roman

our

that

so

;

reallythink

I

there

no

was

native alter-

and forming a theory altogether, and attacking the Roman system." 2. And secondly,as to my Resignation of St. Mary's, now, between

which The so 30

silence

the

was

second

the

was

1 alluded

sufficient of the

perseveringattack to it in the

addressed

steps which

of the

ostensible,direct, and

to

of

one

most

of

Bishops on

1843.

doing my Tract 90.

I have

inserted

above,

influential

among

them.

letter which the

in

I took

cause

judgments, lasting through three years, and includinga notice of no httle severityin tion to a condemnaa as near Bishop, came Charge of my own of my Tract, and, so far,to a repudiationof the ancient A

series

CathoHc was

to

of their

ex

doctrine, which

possiblein

the

shield the Tract

at the

26

cathedra

time

of its

from

the

was

Church

such

a

next

place

It

28

so

Tract,

as

in order

was

condemnation,

publication(in1841)

secondly]in the

of the

scope

England.

of

that

I had

simply put myself

cause

of] reason

for


300

OF

HISTORY

all that was

censure, sent

the

of the

end

the

was

"

that

me,

OPINIONS

At that higher powers in London. distinctly contemplated in the way of (containedin) the message which my Bishop it was objectionable." That I thought was

disposalof

at the

time,

RELIGIOUS

MY

I had

matter.

refused

to

they had yielded that point. Sincfe I portions of this narrative, I have found Dr. Pusey on March 24, while the matter "

The

to

Tract

suppress

Bishop it

I think

more

a

the

wishes

act."

severe

letters

of that

or

day,

without

obey

it ;

suppress the wrote

what

former

I wrote

to

in progress.

was

"

of

reluctant I am it,"I said, the more I will do it if the 90, though of course I cannot, however, deny that I shall feel

According to

the

notes

which

which I sent to him messages to say, I went on My first "

a

it,and

word

; I will

obey

still ; but

I took

in the

lo

of

course

to feeUng was judgment my

Then in the since." steadilyrisen against it ever have the I do done If I to Church, Postscript, any good reward for it, that he ask the Bishop this favour, as my would insist on from which I think good not a measure,

has

"

AfterHowever, I will submit to him." get stronger still (and wrote) : "I have almost to the resolution, if the Bishop publiclyintimates come that I must the Tract, or speaks stronglyin his suppress charge againstit,to suppress it indeed, but to resignmy will not

come.

20

I

wards,

I could

livingalso. show

not

in conscience

act

otherwise.

You

this in any quarter you please." then hopes, all my satisfaction at the

may All my fulfilment

apparent It is not at an end in 1843. hopes,were out two wonderful then, that in May of that year(,when of the three years were gone,)I addressed a letter on the so friend, subjectof (my retiringfrom) St. Mary's to the same But I had consulted about retiring from it in 1840. whom I did mind

of those

now

more

the

on

of two

;

of my

him

I told

question of

the

letters

my

great unsettlement

Churches.

of

I will insert portions

: "

At present I fear, as far as I can May 4, 1843 CathoHc analyzemy own convictions,I consider the Roman "

6 14

wrote] published to say] presentlywrote on

28 ,

32

to him

went

were]

about

was

from] upon retiring

30

addressed

a

21 get] got letter]wrote


TO

1841

(FROM

1845.)

301

His

of the Apostles,and that (which,through God's mercy, is Kttle)is extraordinary,and from the overflowingsof that England sure dispensation.I am very far more

is in

schism, than

Communion what not

Creed

Church

the

be

to

is among

grace

us

that the Roman

additions

to the Primitive

be

developments, arisingout of a keen and vivid realizingof the Divine Depositum of Faith. understand what You will now gives edge to the Bishops'Charges, without any undue sensitiveness on my in two : first,as being in part. They distress me ways some sense protests and witnesses to my conscience against uniaithfulness to the EngUsh Church, and own next, my as being samples of her teaching,and tokens how very far she is from even aspiringto Catholicity. Of course being unfaithful to a trust is my great my subject of dread, as it has long been, as you know." he wrote When to make natural objectionsto my purpose, such as the apprehensionthat the removal of clerical obligationsmight have the indirect effect of propelling not

may

"

10

"

"

"

20

towards

me "

May

is not and

assert

of the

of Rome

utmost

of my some

I aimed infuse

"

continual

a

at

into

comes

tried to

power

success

;

though

arguments, 30

:

office

than

any

but

even

keep a

others

great suspicionof

me

out

what

infer that such of trust

I think

on

opinions are in

our

Church.

the

persons and

could

be,

were

am

an

what

I to

act

another I have

the the

to

from a

Rome, and half since, my

with

into the minds I

With am

the of

a

persons nature

to

of lookers-on. offence

and

a

keen

-sighted enough to certain points,and then they tions compatible with holdingsituaA

number

of younger

men

vaHdity of their interpretationof the Articles, "c., from me on faith. Is not my present positiona cruelty, well as a treacherytowards ? the Church as I do not see how I can either preach or pubhsh again, while I hold St. Mary's ; but consider again the following "

40

?

year

efficacious

more

"

take

charge at St. Mary's People assume

energy.

consideration

By retaining St. Mary's, are stumbling-block. Persons make

or

certain thingsof me in consequence. sinceritycan I obey the Bishop ? how or frequent cases, in which one way

Church with

My

...

state, but

mere

a

sort

in

I answered

Rome,

18, 1843.

"


such

in difficulty

MY

OF

HISTORY

302

a

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

I must

resolution,which

state

at

some

length. "

Last

of a

Vacation

Long

the

pubHshing

with

conversation

the

idea

them

she

as

is ; and

further, as

who

the

it

were

doctrine

again, as

"

me

I had

thought

men

from

fact ;

speculation to

I

of

interest in the English soil, and and from seeking keeping them

an

Church, Rome,

from

and

;

it.

[a publisher]upon

be useful,as employing the minds in danger of running wild, bringingthem would

history,and

itself to

suggested

English Saints

of the

Lives

to

giving English

S3rmpathy

seekingto promote

in

lo

the

spread of right views. "

the last month, it has come upon me, that, carrying out goes on, it will be a practical

But, withm

if the

scheme

of No.

90 ; from

the character

ante -reformation

"It

you such

of any poor a

'

to

opinions of

in the

great number

of

lurch.

I

bound

am

had

to

you

leave

a

to do

in Oxford

people both

thing ? why

any

say,

'

fellows

and

.

Why will you do keep quiet ? what business But I cannot plan at all ?

is easy

won't

of the usages

times

my

and

think

number

of

best for

20

elsewhere.

find means If / did not act, others would to do so. Well, the plan has been taken up with great eagerness I set down and interest. are Many men settingto work. "

the

of men,

names

engaged

and

probable,

follow,some thirtynames of Dr. Arnold, others and

friends

of my

knew, while of Movement.

new "

The

has

plan

the

gone

talk,

is it

compatible with ?

am

Such

These A

so

now

my

: "

it would create surprise Yet how suddenly given over. holding St. Mary's, being what

far,that

the

object and English Saints

was

connected, 5

of the school

personal Pusey's,some my I hardly standing,others whom of the party of the 30 majoritywere

"

Series of the

35

it

were

at that time

of them

I continue

and I

some

of Dr.

own

course

engaged, the rest half actually writing." About

of them

most

are

space

as

has

the Author^s was

been

the ;

seen,

as

with

the projected publicationwas

my

resignation of

11

[]

leftafterthis line

the

origin of

and,

in 1865.

37

seeking]tending as the] since the


St.

from

what

In

November,

authors control

of over

he

what to have

them

"I

:

to

a

doctrinal answerable

for

what

any

the

that

the

no

I

should

to

was

his

was

Editor

is

have

in the Preface

writer

was

I

that

be excluded.

but

Lives

an

I

Editor,

to possible,

down of

admit

may

pleases.

which

the

direct

no

firstnumbers.

all. I laid down if

of

one

he

;

he

in

way

continued

over

I also set

to

Editor, I have

It is T.'s work

subjectswere,

then,

even

thus

wrote not

exclude in

will

time

sajring

I did edit the two

Editor.

the

at

"

am

and

control

wrote

a

:

I

the Series.

responsiblefor them, I responsible. Had exercised

others

or

been

1844,

pleases;

been

I

I have

illustrate what

30

I have

what like

digression. As soon then as the first of the Series got into print,the I had aheady anticipated whole projectbroke down. that Series be the would in of written some a style portions with the professionsof a beneficed clergjrman, inconsistent and therefore I had given up my of great Living ; but men further their than when went they (in misgivings weight I), the Life of St. Stephen Harding, and decided that it saw of [such]a character with was even [as to be] inconsistent its being given to the world by an Anglican publisher: After the two first and so the scheme was given up at once. parts, I retired from the Editorship,and those Lives only then were were published in addition, which already finished, or in advanced following preparation. The passages

20

303

1845.)

Mary's, I may be allowed to conclude the subjecthere, though it will read on

say

10

TO

1841

(FROM

But, be

held

When

own.

I gave up the Editorship,I had various engagements with I should friends for separate Lives remaining on my hands. broken from them hked have to have all,but there were some

from

their

course.

have

yours

Proof. with

As

gone time

come

on responsibility

2

13

I could

Some

the Series. should

me

which

will]may

parts]numbers

on.

not

have

break, and to

come

I have

seen

take

I let them

nothing

;

such, either

others m

like

MS.

or

less to do less and goes on, I shall have I think the engagement between you and abundant how I have end. to an any me,

11

and

too

being given 18-19

one

I shall write

much.

to the

world

of the authors

to

T.

by] proceedingfrom

of]the author of

one

of


OF

HISTORY

304

the

that if he wants write

to

OPINIONS

of your

advantage

assistance,he

must

direct."

you

In accordance in

RELIGIOUS

MY

January

with

1844,

this

letter,I had

months

ten

ah?eadyadvertised

before

"

it, that

"

Lives," after St. Stephen Harding, by their respectiveauthors on their

will

other

be

pubhshed responsibihty."

own

repeated in February, in the advertisement entitled The Family of St. Richard," volume to the second reason [also],for some though to this volume (which I initials. In the Life lo I also put my cannot now recoUect), of nearlymy of St. Augustine,the author, a man own age, "No but himself is responsible in like manner, one says This

notice

is

"

for the way have in MS. I cannot I will

another

tell whether

it

was

put

ever

add, since the authors

boys,whom to do

these materials have advertisement to the

in which

I

in

was

of

the

been

charge of and

that,while intemperate things, was

into

have

of the proposed was forty-six ; Mr. Johnson, who forty-three; and) most of the others other of thirty. Three(,I think,)were

caUed

writers

Anglicans,and

free

print. considered

headed hot-

I suffered

whom

the writer of St.

was

Moreover, of these

I

effect,but

tine Augus-

I have stated, (the age which Life of St. Boniface, Mr. Bowden, 20

mature

author

remained

used."

been same

to write

imder

became

some

others

have

St. Aldhelm, one

on

were

side

or

twenty-five.

Catholics, some

professedwhat

are

hberal

opinions (^). The immediate of the resignationof my cause Living is stated in the followingletter, which I wrote to my Bishop : that I much It is with concern August 29, 1843. for inform that Mr. A. who has been B., Lordship, your the last year an inmate of my house here, has justconformed of Rome. As I have ever been desirous,not to the Church or

"

"

only of faithfully dischargingthe trust, which is involved in holding a living in your Lordship's diocese, but of approving myself to your Lordship,I will for your informa5

"

will

be] would

"be

8, 9 volume] number 19

hot-headed of the mature

26

Footnote

26

A

16-17

space

15

boys]

age in 1865.

was

"

was

hot-headed

which

(^ Vide leftafterthis

I have Note

7 is]was put into]ever

ever

fanatic

young stated] in 1844

appeared

in

"

men

past forty

D, Lives of the English Saints.)

line in 1S65.

30


tion

state

one

unfortunate

he

which

his

promising me, remain quietlyin

him

for three

this

condition

on

A

years.

of

he would

did, that distinctly

Church

our

with

connected

I received

event

306

1845.)

circumstances

two

or

TO

1841

(FROM

has

year

passed since that time, and, though I saw nothing in him which promised that he would eventuallybe contented with his present position, yet for the time his mind became could wish, and he frequently expressed settled as one as 10

his satisfaction at of him." exacted I felt it

the in

few

a

when

to

friend

a

promise

longerin

any

such

it,would

to do with

days

the

remain

impossibleto

Anglican Church,

Uttle I had

under

being

I had

which

the service

of

of trust, however I wrote be laid at my door. breach

a

:

"

September 7, 1843. I this day ask the Bishop leave whom to resign St. Mary's. Men you little think, or at I little thought, are in almost a hopeless way. least whom Really we may going to publish expect any thing. I am Volume-

a 20

of

including

Sermons,

those

Four

against

moving." I

the

of

means

Goldsmid

Mr. no

I had living on September (the) 18th. The late doing it legallyat Oxford. I found aided me in resigningit in London.

resignedmy

not

fault with

field.

As

Scott has

the the

to

appUed

in his mother's

I said to "

And

30

to

I

(may

as

far

of the

acts

pubUc

aided] was as

image from

Walter

33

I had

one

"

they had

placuit,sed

in

me

a

fair

Walter the kid

seethed

said

Catoni."

victa

to)have brought [almost] has

(changes of

and rehgious)opinion[s,] I had [only]one

which

they

to

of

them, the

this sketch

treat

involved.

kind enough to aid Scott has applied the

Walter

31 this sketch this is

beaten

"

be almost as

of my

25-6

had

:

diis

causa

historyboth

23

they

Bishops, I thought,as

the text, that

friend

a

now

;

of the

milk."

Victrix

end,

an

Liberals act

text]

to

borrow

a

Scriptural

Scott has

to treat

commenced

a

of

new

them] is necessary

'paragraphin

1865.

for

a

sketch

such

as


OF

HISTORY

306

advance

more

take.)that

MY

mind

of

RELIGIOUS

make

to

(furtheradvance

honestlyto say that I was) concluded, and anticipated, upon

submission

my

only

one

of these

date

lay

communion

and

(one

mind)

final step to be (able

to was, I had certain of what

beheved and

perform,

-to

itself.]But

the

;

of

the Catholic

to

act

more

submission

OPINIONS

two

years

and

this

Church. that

hitherto close

was

I had

[And the

was

yet intervened

of

act

before

in during which I was England, attending its services as usual, and abstaining altogetherfrom inter- lo with Cathohcs, from their places of worship, and course from those reUgiousrites and usages, such as the Invocation

all this a

in

Saints, which

of

man

final events the Church

;

;

of

characteristics

are

of their creed.

could principle ; for I never could be of two religions at once. on

understand

I did

how

have is of a private nature, to add [What then I now being my preparationfor the great event, for which I was of 1843 and the autumns waiting,in the interval between 1845.

And I shall almost confine]what I have to say (about20 I shall almost confuie) myself between these two autumns in as to the best I was to this one point,( ^)thedifficulty friends and mode of revealingthe state of my mind to my others, and how I managed to do it. Up to January, 1842, I had not disclosed my state "

of unsettlement mentioned

to

the) letters which 1

I

more] final

3-5

which

am

persons,

as

has

been

2 that] That ;]accomplish, at submission] the conclusions my further step, imperative when such

make

1

three

(as)is repeated in the (courseof about to give to the reader. now

close upon That already arrived.

what

I had

I had

certitude

than

more

above, and

.

.

.

attained,

was

was

my

submission

paragraph : This ; during which] new place till two full years after the resignation could I have made it at an of my living in September 1843 ; nor doubt and earlier day, without apprehension,that is, with any true 7-8

But

submission

conviction

two

did

years not

of mind

.

.

.

events

take

or

certitude.

In the interval, of which it remains to of 1843 and 1845, with 9 communion in] communion 24

do] reveal

24

Afterthis

line

a

space

was

leftin

speak,viz. between

1865.

the autumns


To

of

two

I

have

May, 1843, friend, by whose indeed

I

10

I

advice it

mention

wished, set

on

be

possible,to

as

to

one,

unless

felt to

be

any

have

I should

thing that

is any

far

as

purpose

asking advice,

was

If there

crime.

in the

companions,

third, an old friend too, (whom I was in great above,) when, I suppose,

the affair of the Jerusalem Bishopric. upon I mentioned it(,as has been seen,)to the

In

To

307

the

to

:

named

distress of mind

guided.

1845.)

familiar

and

intimate

them,

of 1839

Autumn

TO

1841

(FROM

a

[and is]abhorrent

was

scatteringdoubts, and unsettlingconsciences necessity. A strong presentiment that my existing opinions would ultimatelygive way, and that the grounds it is the

to me,

without

them

of

unsound,

were

disclosingthe

not

was

for

sufficient warrant

a

I had

mind.

of my

state

guarantee yet,

no

presentimentwould be realized. Supposing I were rightin my way, which I had good crossingice,which came which I saw numbers for consideringsound, and reasons before me crossing in safety, and supposing a stranger that that

the

from 20

tone,

in

bank,

warned

it

till I

state, I believe,tillthe end

with

suppress

is

doubt

but

Certitude 30

a

is

I

knows.

point of propriety.

the

determine

effective doubt himself

it for

scales in the

a

of

yet. one

upon

my

Again, a practical, can easilyascertain

who

behalf

against it ? consideringthis question

to

point,

that

when

is, that

it

and

opinion begin to turn,

greater probabilitym

a

was

balance

but

determine

can

a

certitude

till close

Church.

my

strong

know

to

on,

my

first to

is

coiu'se near

is

go was

at

too

was

of

that,

not

point too,

a

it

;

is

Who

it

about

again,when hard

not

was

Catholic

?

Then

was

look

such

and

was

Certitude

the

then

should

;

of 1842.

I

earnest

an

that)I [also]should

too

for doubt

action had

I

beheve

reception into

;

progress

reflex

a

dangerous,

greater, it time, when

became

dissatisfaction

in

and

startled,and

anxiously,but (I think better grounds had

me

authority,and

was

be

I should

silent,I think

of

voice

a

that

me

of

a

beHef

the

what

becomes

positivedoubt In

conduct

5

30

in

mentioned T believe

1843, my it]made I had

not

own

in

simple

its

bearing upon

my

to

great

answer

10

it known

that] Of that I believe I

was

it

my

not

is]it was possessed


HISTORY

308

MY

OF

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

difficulty was, Do what your present state of opinionrequires the of duty),and let that doing tell : speak by acts. hght (in This I did ; my first act of the year was in February[,1843]. After three months' dehberation I (had) pubhshed my retractation of the violent chargeswhich I had made against Rome I could not be wrong in doing so much this ; : as but I did no more (at the time) : I did not retract my in September (in Anghcan teaching. My second act was the same and hesitation, year); after much sorrowful lingering I (had) resignedmy Living. I tried indeed(,before lo I did so,)to keep Littlemore for myself,even though it still to remain was an integralpart of St. Mary's. (I had given to it a Church and a sort of Parsonage ;)I had made I loved a Parish, and attempt. I could indeed of another, but I hoped possible, by which, while

it ; but I did not succeed bear to become the curate

it

been

master own my have been made

[still that] (an arrangement was the curacy,)I might have I had there. hoped an exception

might

;

but

asking what it

I did was

in my at will

I had

favour, under

in my

the

stances circum-

gain my request. Indeed, and it is well for me impracticable, not

I

was

20

that

so.

was

These

were

my

two

acts of the year,

and

I said,

"

I cannot

be wrong in making them follow must ; let that follow which in the thoughts of the world about me, when they see what I do." (And, as time went on,)They fullyanswered my a

I felt

What

purpose.

as

generalsuspicionabout would

as

involved

be

the

and of

case

1, 3, 8 was] had 14-15

perhaps

but

I did

I need

need

intimate

not

of

simple duty

me,

in

creating it. Then, when I either did not deny or character

a

without

my

their

succeed

forfeit my

submit

in my

the

me

I

existingrelations towards 18 there]in servingit

23 were] had been Indeed,]Perhaps direct taking the initiative in] initiating any

it]my seemed

state to

have

lieen

in 1843

that

felt as] felt it for the sake of

27 act

leave

it

of mind

leave]should otherwise

in

subject,30

to

3 did] had done attempt] I thought

bear]

31

the

seemed

15

33

initiative

on

20 29

create

responsibility

it,accordingto the letters. in Sometimes,

friends, whom

been not

taking

friends wrote I confessed

do, did

to

such

leaving


(FROM

ignorance of question. I

fighting(in Oxford)

comes

call

I made

broke

away

which

this

to

came as

I ceased

conclusions. soon

of

This

I turned

as

I

myseK

I in any a

direct

How

?

unsettlement

how

could

not

sure

I

put

I

if

them

a

this I

How

brought there

did

not

be

to 1

them

mysterious, and

about

28-9

me]

which

on .

.

every .

was

a

I

was

of

out

already, I

was

only

own

my

works

other

unless

to

case.

I deliberately

seul."

Je mourrai

and

claims,

obhged.

In the great trouble. tions reports about my inten; presentlystrangers or

friends wrote, begging to be allowed to if I stillkept to my resolution and said

thought

I

as

unsettled

were

the

or

way

them,

place of refuge,which for myseK ? My

"

one,

answer

one

keep simply

to

so

them

bringingthem

of

in

I be considered

unsettle

they

could

guided

could to

to

me upon continual

were

be

to

choose

words,

nothing to any

date, as

How

concern.

had

thoughts all

of my

out

in their

at that

I gave

own

word

And,

should

but,

;

was

my

a

say

?

Pascal's

newspapers ;

to

only duty, was

I recollected

But

in any

imsettled

were

up [altogether the thought possible, shape) acting upon others.

myself ?

point to

that

said

ever

I presume I had no means

such

fine,my

as

could

unsettled, when

givings mis-

controversy.

judged, hasty

others, who

matter

a

I

Romeward,

far

simply

position,even

other

and

face

my

was

sense

momentous in

school, as as

till 1843

on

respect and

(in any

Then

went

shape],as

in any

I fell into

as

in the

my

belonged to the new rehgious views, and,

in their

and

to

was

up

who

those

my

place in the Movement, and utmost : proceeding(s) my such especially tranquillize persons,

I gave such any

from

endeavour

soon

as

to be taken

ground

when

(For) Then,

of

rule

alreadyspoken,

seeking them, yet, that special ; way, I have no doubt

a

end, however,

an

to the true

that

from I have

[in

converts,

than

to others in

advances

Church

Anghcan glad to make

very

it,)of

never

the

I invited

me,

the

for

was

rather finding disciples

of

30

I

indeed

about

point for explanation. While

in another

here

was

and, though I mind, (as I may

20

knew

And

Oxford], then

10

others

what

in

309

1845.)

TO

1841

answer

them

prejudicewas

a

side of them

choose] when

.

.

.

choose

it

and,

;

nothing, then

I

was

excited


HISTORY

310

tender,

who

watching do

to

were

consequence

could

they

not

reports about second

a

wishing

what

see

this way felt the

me

and

;

far worse, there whom I knew

was

me,

OPINIONS

think

to

were

I

as

and

coming,

was

that,

or

on

of delayedhope, and did not understand perplexed as themselves, and, being of more of mind

complexion

mysterious and I

was

reaUy

deeply

earnest

unkind

time, has described of such

that

bleak

a

both

herself.

as

In

ill

lo

the

by

thought me pardon as far as a was giftedand

their

There conduct

she

as

of that

felt it, and

singularly graphic,amusing

a

their

making

were

great discomfort, and

in

common

was

sensitive

parabolicalaccount

a

my

pilgrims,who

of

vision

in

on

the

for the time

ask

them.

to

lady,who

heard and

that I

made

myself, were

they too of course inexpUcable. I

And

suspense.

than

matter,

day

sickness as

in

; who a

waiting, and

of

weariness

all,

at

thought,

who

first

a

number

a

nothing

did, if they could but find it out distressed,that, in so solemn

I

as

RELIGIOUS

hearts, of

eager

were

and

MY

But, what

againstme of

OF

across

way

who

were

ever

"

against,yet continuallynearing, the king'shigh-20 AU my fears and disquiets way" on the right,she says, were by seeing the most daring of our speedilyrenewed who had first forced his way through the leaders,(the same and sagacity we all put palisade, and in whose courage warned

"

impHcit trust,)suddenly stop short,

and

that

declare

he

not, however, take the go leap at once, but quietlysat down on the top of the fence to the road, as if he meant with his feet hanging towards down take his time about it, and let himseK easily." would

I do a

wonder

not

lady,who

in trial in I

was

but

further.

no

on

He

did

all that

at

at that time

had

different ways.

our

seen

I

duty

others

seemed

clear.

; but in my soul was

My own absurdity I wished

to

my reason

my

to go

case

to my

10

themselves] they

33

towards

them

and

it was,

''

so

We

unkind were

to

Certainlyto myself my are

whole

can

heal

Physician,heal thyseK."

it seemed and first concern, an in partnership. to be converted

Lord

by myself,and

in my

own

way,

were

towards

so

both

them that

They

me.

far from den3dng that others ; and towards

am

both towards actingselfishly it was selfishness. a religious

own

seemed

I thus never

others]in her

case

and

in that of others


rather

or

thought but

His of

taking

the truth

to

to

me

to

it had

that

say,

head

be the

to

seem

wish,

with

number

a

311

1845.)

neither

I had

way.

TO

1841

(FROM

been

party

a

say, is

(Moreover, it

ever

of

I may

nor,

me.

annoyance

an

and

;

that

even

mind, I could not bear to find a thing done elsewhere, simply or mainly because I did it myself, and that, from distrust of myseK, I shrank from that to me, it was the thought, whenever brought home I was influencingothers.) But nothing of this could be from

10

known had in

others.

to

followingthree

The

claim

every

be

of

fastidiousness

are

to

be

written

proportion as he "

October

of

to

with

frank

that I disclose the real state

seen

1.

letters me

upon

friend, who

a

him

it will

: "

(my) mind

[to him,]

me.

presses

I would

14, 1843.

in

tell you

words

few

a

to wish, were why I have resignedSt. Mary's,as you seem difficult to bring out But it is most it possibleto do so.

in

brief,or

and "

The

20

I

approach

nearest

of them

that

is to say,

feelings

give to

can

it has

the

of the Church.

I could

stand

not

in which

generalaccoimt by the general

the part in No. 90, on againstsuch an unanimous Bishops, supported, as it at least silence,of all or

expression of opinion from the has been, by the conciu'rence, classes in the Church, lay and clerical. case,

a

caused

been

view, contained

repudiation of

a

of my

just view

in extenso, any

even

reasons.

If there has

teacher

individual

an

been

was

ever

put aside

is one. virtuallyput away by a community, mine decency has been observed in the attacks upon me from authority ; no protests have been offered against them. far from It is felt, I am denying, justlyfelt, that I am a foreignmaterial, and cannot assimilate Avith the Church of England.

and No 30

"

"

"

pre

Even

my

ting the

When

I heard

I denied

Bishop

this

to others

and

the words

the

more,

10

own

Articles makes

others]the world

said that

them

that it not I

was

said.

.

be mistaken.

pubHshed

12 him

.

mode

my

of inter-

thingor nothing.

mean

any not beheve

delivered, I did

could

because

has

that

.

my

ears.

the charge, Out came This astonished me Letter

1864, 1865]him, Archdeacon

to

him, (how Manning

1873


OF

HISTORY

312

MY

unwillinglyyou know,) to deliver his judgment

RELIGIOUS

elapses,and a second and I did not bargain for this,

heavier did

judgment

/

that A

was

year

forth.

came

he, but the tide

too

was

for him.

strong "

understanding

90 instead of him.

^nor

"

confess,that, in proportionas I think

I fear that I must

the

the No.

on on

OPINIONS

Church

Enghsh

radicallyaUen difficulties of

It one

claims

of Cathohc

seems

doctrine

formularies

a

by

to

and intrinsically

be

a

to caU

dream

neither

can

herself

appeal to

I feel the

do

so principles,

defending her

Cathohc, when

ambiguous

showing

Cathohc

from

Church.

Cathohc

is

of the

branch

communion

a

lo

clear statement

any

in its formularies,nor interpret the received and hving Cathohc

past or present. Men of Cathohc views are Church. I cannot too truly but a deny party in our it is other independent circumstances, which that many clusion. connot worth while entering into,have led me to the same whether

sense,

"

I do not say aU this to every body, as you may but I do not hke to make a secret of it to you." You have engaged in a 2. Oct. 26, 1843.

20

"

correspondence; give you. "

Church

of Rome

part of the Cathohc with

Rome

;

and

the

because

in it any longer." last summer to me

I mentioned

friends in the autumn.

it to two

in

not

munion com-

I could

I feel that

honestlybe a teacher This thought came "

Church, and

Cathohc

Church,

because

because

but

wrongly, resigned St. Mary's ;

the

not

I shall

me,

rightly or ours

pain

tell you

to

I think

for the

deeply sorry

am

dangerous

then frankly,(but I combat arguments pointment, alas,are shadows,) that it is not from disapor irritation, impatience,that I have, whether

I must

which

I

;

suppose

four

years.

It .

.

arose

not

.

so

.

in

Monophysite and Donatist I was engaged with in the course of theological study to which I had given myself. This was at a time when no Bishop,I beheve, had declared all and when was against us, {^) progress and hope. I do felt disappointmentor impatience, not think I have ever the

from

first instance

controversies,the former

Footnote

done

so

in 1865.

akeady.)

(^

I think

the

of which

Sumner, Bishop of Chester, must

have


do

nor "

I realize it

Since

the

I wrote

myself 10

agam,

You

of the

tillthe end

acts, which

engaged

of

I

which

to

is

"It

I write

a

the

continue "

before

was

the

No.

in

my

friends who "

before

come

of to

I

thinking

;

of

Mary's might with

I could

place as

a

state

my

let St.

a

not

fortably com-

University.

90.

differ from

advice, and to

me

agree

that,

in the way

not

of

of

duty,

with,me, but of

near

me.

nothing to reproachmyself with, as of impatience ; i.e. practically or

I have

while

last-mentioned

think,

latter,though

Finally,I have acted under own choosmg, but what came the advice of those only who

nor

this I

vain

in

public

so

weighty

me,

theologicalreading

account

on

Provost

serve

of my

you.

Littlemore

separated from safe conscience

This

And

quasicourse

cause

and

upon

that

has never,

smce,

years

opinion, I urged be

to

the

not

forced

given myself.

is three

secret

the

in

place

stimulants

of duty, viz.

fact,which

that

till now

keen

conviction

course

a

over

have

They

I told my

ecclesiastical and

half, are

a

are

a

had

circumstance me

but

opinion, in the

1841,

Bishopric

alarms.

taken

have

and

years

confirmations

of

Jerusalem

At that time

the various

that

then

last two of

state

committed

circumstances.

in addition.

person see

ecclesiastical

30

under

course

to this moment.

up

another "

20

safest

90, when that wretched (no personal matter) revived all my

to

licity Catho-

unwillingly I

which

the affair of No. increased

the

on

how

know in

Bishop

speak of quietedme

article I

The

the

as

You

.

.

the

letter to

article

years it quietedme. written little or nothing

I have

controversy.

my

future,

; for two

of 1839

summer

modern

on

that

write

to

was

English Church

of the

to the

forward

now.

first effort

My

313

1845.)

looked

; for I never

then

certainlynot

TO

1841

(FROM

in the matter

far

as

I see,

in conduct.

of He, w^ho has kept me in the slow course from still will o r me hitherto, hasty acts(,) change keep

And

I trust that

resolves "This kind 40

as

It makes me

see

with I it me

their

am

a

doubtful sure

is, only does reahze

conscience.

of, that my

consistency;

what own

such

interpositionas yours, woiild consider harm. you views to myself ; it makes

it assures

me

of my

own

deliberate-


; it

ness

suggests to

it takes "

the

away

heavy

a

MY

OF

HISTORY

314

RELIGIOUS

the traces of a Providential Hand ; of pain of disclosures ; it relieves me me

secret.

You

make

may

(3.)My repUed thus

what

heart

my

than

ache

On

part of myself. "

caused

once

Your

and

more

me

all sides

of

to

me

and

letter has made

deepersighs

long while, though I

a

right."

more,

assure

sighing

cause

you and

"

keenest

distress to friends.

You

present trial,in knowing that I

the

Since

me

sides(: ) I am quite haunted by the lo from so whisper repeated quarters, many

my

tell the

to

to

31, 1843.

all

causingthe

a

had

on

dreadful

and

and

more,

any is much

heart-ache. one

October

I have

there

I

"

;

think

letters you

of my

use

correspondent wrote

I

OPINIONS

this year

beginning of of my

state

think, without

mind

being in

to

a

others

obHged,

way

as

but

unsettled

am

I have

some

know

been

obliged

but

;

from

never,

friends

stood. did, or guessing how matters it or here [Littlemore], but I felt I could not help tellingthe one (near)friend whom other day. But, I suppose, [very]many (more)suspect it." On receivingthese letters, lect correspondent,if I recolmy

writingto No

me

as

at rightly,

Dr.

you

Oxford

in

one

Pusey,

communicated

once

and

"

knows

"

the matter

this will enable

me

to

state

of them

20

to

nearly as of)my

as

aware can(,)the way in which (he first became to him]. changed state of opinion [was made known in making Dr. Pusey I had from the first a great difficulty

I

understand himself end

such

and

When

any

for

of

opinion

there

was

existed

as

between

proposal about

a

the

Memorial, subscriptionfor a Cranmer both to subscribe togetherto it. I could not, he wished us and wished of course, him to subscribe by himself. That he would not do ; he could not bear the thought of our appearing to the world in separate positions,in a niatter of

of 1838

differences

me. a

importance. And, as time hints, which I gave him,

went

When inclination to Rome. I often had not the heart to go from

affection

19

These

to me,

are

he

so

on.

often

the Author's [ ]

he would

on,

not

take

the subject of my growing I found him so determined,

on

And took

then up

24

and

I

knew, that, threw

state]describe,

him-

30

.


TO

1841

(FROM

315

1845.)

I said, that I felt the great responsibiUty incur, if I put things before him just as I might view them (myself).And, not knowing him so well as I did over, afterwards, I feared lest I should unsettle him. And moreI recollected well, how prostrated he had been with illness in 1832, and I used always to think that the start self iiito what I should

had given him a fresh life. I fancied even depended on the presence energies physical of a vigoroushope and brightprospects for his imagination he was to feed upon so unworthily so, that when ; so much treated by the authorities of the place in 1843, I recollect to state anxiety, writing to the late Mr. Dods worth my of the

that

10

Movement

his

lest,if his mind

dejectedin

became

his health

consequence,

suffer

difficulties in my seriouslyalso. These were then again, another that, as we difficulty was, ; and way each not were roof, we only saw togetherunder the same other at set times ; others indeed, who were coming in or out of my rooms freely,and as there might be need at the knew aU my moment, thoughts easily; but for him to would

20

know

them

well, formal

of

broke

friend

ours

had

at that gone conclusions which

committed

but

dream

needs

have

must

far

as

the

other

or

in

he

and

that

he could not

go

affectionate

last ;

at

I had

little while,

I should

But

broken

matters

which a

happy state, and

end.

been

common

as

clearlythe logical

him

that

believe

to

1841,

propositionsto

into its former

himself

A

necessary.

in

somehow

pleasantlytogetherto

on

30

lie in

must

fell back

bring

were

showed

time, and

myself ;

his mind not

efforts

it all to him

and

two

I wrote the letters afterwards, that friend to whom years which I have inserted, set himseK, as I have just now said, to break it. Upon that, I too begged Dr. Pusey to tell in private to any one he would, that I thought in the of England. However, he I should leave the Church event would

do

not

relapsedinto from

so

and

the

at

Anghcan I trust

of

Church, after all

14

would] should

18

as

there

1845,

I think we

shaU

might

end

I have few

a

he

be need

almost

me,

if I may

found.

Nay,

months

said

keep

had

1844

of

thoughts about

letter of his which

a

Commemoration "

;

his former

about

before me

judge at

to

a

friend,

him."

at] according

the

I left the

to the need

of


HISTORY

316

that

In

OF

MY

of

1843,

autumn

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

the

at

that

time

I

spoke

to

Pusey, I asked another friend also to communicate he would,)the prospect to whom [to others]in confidence(, which before me. lay

Dr.

Mr. Hope another To Hope, now friend(,Mr. James Scott,)I gave the opportmiity of knowing it,if he would, in the followingPostscriptto a letter : While about I write, I will add a word myself. You "

"

come

may

near

a

know

exactly my

do, though they would that Your

I had

dear

a

and

not

"

Go

say,

I had

a

nothing to "

to Rome

; I

the

Yet

way.

I wrote

him

to

Michaelmas

on

have

write

to

?

shown

examination.

but, rightly20

;

"

was, '

1843

Day,

nothing

sweet

instead

offer him

I offered

have

I

suppose,

may

told

that

else I should

;

know.

to

never

I unsettle

myself for his One day he led the way to my speaking out I could not or respond. My reason wrongly, no certainty on the matter myself. To say to tease and to distress,not to persuade." him

lo

reason."

his death

should

Why

when tranquillity,

calm

I could

they happen he

friend,near

old

of mind.

state

my

you

I do not like tell you. Now of this, though I see no aware

not be

not

stances, circum-

to

feelingthan

of

state

why you should know what wishing it [otherwise]would

reason

him

should

you

who, owing

two

or

person

more

'

"As

:

to

I have

I think

is

you

about,

you

tell you some painfulthings ; but very anticipatetrouble, which after all can but You be averted. happen, and, for what one knows, may I with when that so sometimes, kind, are part always you,

pleasant.

I could

it is best not

I

at

your

had

ever

The

kindness

such

next

kind

for

me

burdens, which And

time on

or

I

am

very shall be

or

am

other, whether 21

February cold

bad

having (excepttwice a

I

burdens

to add

when

in

;

"

:

the

January)

when

obhged

Pusey

:

himself not

am

to

lay

30

one

has

more

obhged

;

are

him

upon

no."

or

-past

like has in my

I

"

no

conscious, that there

I will

Half

relief to be

a

I think

on

too, particularly some

be

hardness. at my friends as I have." and

January 22, 1 wrote to him him, and generouslytakes on

year,

quite enough than enough,

it would

to tears, and

nearly moved

am

so,

to

ten.

not

memory.

I

just up,

am

happened You

may

to

me

think

40


(FROM

course

not

to

a

so

see

the full of which

opinions,to

317

in mj^

are

you come

1845.)

thoughts, long before my rising. Of I could continually,as you well know. not worthy of friends. With my you ; I am

been

have

you

TO

1841

with

guiltyperson

I dare

confess,I feel Hke

not

I trust

others, though

I

not

am

so.

to bear People kindly think that I have much externally, disappointment, slander, "c. No, I have nothing to bear, I feel for my friends' anxiety for but the anxiety which is a better Ashand their perplexity. This [letter] me, [his birthday was Wednesday than birthday present ; "

10

the

day

same "

year] ; you,

It

angry." look

to

with

me

Easter

On

upon

Blessed

Season to

Though

we

I

and

and

doubts

wonder

what

more

should

be

he used

:

had

come

so

are

He

it in

was

I

had

ever

do

I wrote

as

be

and

good

(so be

so,

gracious

mfluences it

of

this

!) for what

It is your

of you.

peace

Benjamin(^). So

on

blessing

around, according to the it

is,(my dear

A.,)

be."

mind, made

to

as

a

what

I

ought

which

note,

his cofEn, to

think

thus

that

he

of truth was, and what the way and fulfil His will." to please God

Charles 9

Marriott

10, 12

These

are

in line 9 [letter] 28

Footnote

30

that] of the

in

to

was

1865. same

say,

that

the Author's omitted

(^

at

that

[ ]

in 1865.

Dcut.

do.

to

runs

to what

in order to

the

simple good faith. He died in September that have expected that his last illness would

brought lightto my I brought none. sobbed bitterlyover still dark

is

all,as day passes after day, but a simple all blessing comes ? Him, from whom separated in place, yet this we have in are livinga calm and cheerful time, you

clear heaven, and

a

may

year.

yours it will

that from

serve

blessingpronounced and

All

enjoying the thought

am

have

to

;

that

common,

"

:

and

you

life of you

is the

endeavour

to

speak

you

to have

anxiety, and

Monday

descend

30

best wishes

not

myself, lest

to

that

is uppermost.

me.

over

20

at

and

I must

in his nature

not

was

what

A.,)all kindest

reference

with

Ash-Wednesday

was

friend, whom

oldest

my

;

dear

now(, my

about, and

it

help writing about

I cannot

but

And to

mine

as

xxxiii.

12.)

:

left I

It

"I me

ought

I think

moment,


the

thought

favour

of Rome

with in

hand,

other

remained

a

"

upon

Sept. 16,

I

1844.

that

me,

strong

my

what

it

to

too ^.

view

the

On

was.

was

grace

remained

Church

his death

before

just

behef

firm

my

(with)inthe Anghcan friend

friend

of my

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

MY

OF

HISTORY

318

found

be

I wrote

to

:

"

and

full of wrong

am

miserable

ings, feel-

which it is useless to detail,so grudging and sullen, when Of course, so one sees when I should be thankful. of so blameless blessed an end, and that, the termination a

life,of

reallyfed

who

one

strengthfrom

them, and

see

on

the

and

ordinances

our same

continued

in

a

got

lo

whole

family, the little children finding quite a solace of their pain in the Daily Prayer, it is impossiblenot to feel more in our Church, as at least a sort of Zoar, a place of at ease refuge and temporary rest, because of the steepness of the Only, may we be kept from unlawful security,lest way. we

and

Moab

have

Ammon

for

our

the

progeny,

enemies

of Israel." I could

duty

or

deceived

continue

not

of

My

reason.

in this state, either in the lightof been this : I had was difficulty could

; how

greatlyonce

I be

that

sure

I

was

20

not

[then]thought myself right ? that I was right now I now of what How years had I thought myself sure many in could I ever again have confidence rejected? how myself ? As in 1840 I listened to the risingdoubt in favour in favour of I listened to the waning doubt of Rome, now that one To be certain is to know the English Church. knows (inward)test had I, that I should not change ; what stillso I had Catholic ? a again, after that I had become would time I a of this, come, thought though apprehension limit ought to be it would when depart. However, some put to these vague misgivings ; I must do my best and then it. So, (at the end to prosper it to a higher power leave to write an of 1844,) I determined Essay on Doctrinal deceived

(then);

(*) On

second

a

how

?

time

I to

was

be

this subject, vid.

my

I

certain

Third

Lecture

"

on

Anglican

"(" also Note E, Anglican Church).{This footnotedid pamphlet.) original

in the

5

a

friend

upon

his

28

English]Anghcan

35

determined

to

death] another

write] came

friend

thus 34

to

power] Power writing

the resohition of

culties Diffi-

not appear


Development

and

;

make

up

mind

my

1845.) the

then, if, at seek

to

319

end

Church

of the Roman

in favour to

TO

1841

(FROM

of

victions conit, my not weaker,

were

admission

her

into

fold.

in the beginning of 1845, this resolution upon and worked at my Essay steadilyinto the autumn.] [I told my resolution to various friends at the beginning

acted

[I

known at that time of the year ; indeed, it was generally.] mind of time the this state was generallyknown, (By my and I made no great secret of it. I will illustrate it by lo

letters

which

of mine

(" November is

pain of my

much

so

moving

for

am

trust

the

from There

is

long time

a

intendingit

my

been I

my

taken

exhausted.

be

must

and

through ;

be gone

have

16, 1844.

put into my hands. going through what must only is that every day of

draught which (humanly speaking)

necessary

fear

no

yet. This has got

it is all well.

; but

As

far

out with-

out as

I know

unsettleone great distress is the perplexity, alarm, scepticism,which I am causing to so many ; and the loss of kind feehng and good opinion on the part and known of so many, unknown, who have wished well

myself,my ment, 20

to

And

me.

that

is the

days

a

time

all the

to

literal ache

two

of

sources

pain it

is the

for

heart

time to ; and from my seemed of the Psalmist to belong

all about

complaints

former

I had

urgent, unmitigated one.

me.

(" And

as

for

reason

that

salvation I may

but

I know

as

on

argumenta not

am

myself,

Church

our

depends

use

I

far

is in

to

to

Catholics services

me.

I have

Church

no

; I hardly ever, of none ; I know

in

of

this person

of resentment, I have to me.

conscious

thingthat has happened schemes of hope, no of action, suited

deep, unvarying schism, and that my

joining the

my ad hominem

paramount

one

my is my

contemplatinga change

conviction

30

of these

constant,

no

Rome. that

disgust,at

or

any

or

visions

other

^

;

any

whatever

sphere more

existingsympathies with at one abroad, was even them, I do not like what

Roman of their I hear

of them.

(" And 3 ^0

to

then, how

I

am

givingup

in

so

many

ways

!

mind to seek] of taking the necessary steps for up my in 1865. (^ Videsupr. p. 311,"c. Letter of Oct. 14, 1843, mtb that of Oct. 25.)

make

Footnote

compared

much


320

HISTORY

and

to

when

OF

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

sacrifices

me

only from my age, especiallove of my

not irreparable, but from changing,

people hate

old

MY

and the pleasures of memory. Nor am enthusiastic or heroic,of pleasure of any feeling, sacrifice ; I have nothing to support me here.

associations

I conscious in the

(" What

keeps me under

that

I

firm

under

am

all

this most lead

7nust

is to fall back

I believe

into

thousand

("A

kept

the

all frames

much

as

on

And

viz. that

;

that not

to believe

thanks

for your not

kind

most

and

yet spoken of it,it

and

me

:

"

dear

very

friend,now

letter at the

a

me

which, from

of

love

[" January 15, that

aware,

B.

to

I

casts

whole

have

17 1S65.

a "

striven

ourselves,and

Marriott, year,

from

: "

I shall

the Church and

me,

are

to revive

ever

of

still true

as

of what

I believe I

feel

England

see :

and

that

and

you

feel

were

same

intention

30

your

towards

strivingto seek after others, religionamong

and guidance,has been generous word appropriate,dutiful, to scarcely have conceived possible, than I should have thought nature

authorityand

friend]the

My

next

sentences

at once,

that

not

degree that I could unsparing of self

16

the

some

understood

speak out

doubt

considerate, and, a

a

you

towards

her

Charles

more,

20

You well enough to be know me through any thing at first. Your the future, which gloom over you can

have

for

under

him, I quote

conduct

who

God

and

no

beginning of

I should

thing further

see

I may

But

once,

more

And

1845.

never

understand, if

us,

trial in their prayers. time before any

my

my

[One

at

which

me,

upon

fellowshipsome place."

give up

have.

great

a

siderable foresee,to remain quietly in statu quo for a confriends will kindly remember time, trusting that my

I cannot

letter

more

consoling

was

"

sent

the

system teaches, lo

our

gift." (Shortlyafter)I wrote to a friend thus My intention is, if nothing comes

took

fear

a

remains

of mind.

me

as

and

more,

long ;

me

conviction

scepticism.

I have

though

letter ;

has but

;

feelingis growing

to beHeve

me

is what

circumstances, in

serious for which

reasons

yet

delusion

a

that

friend

These words

did not

commence

a

new

'paragraphin


could have

that you

I have

ought to

according

to

asked

no

1845.)

321

pain every link that you questions,because I felt

the disclosure

measure

the

occasion, and

the

thoughts

of your of

those

capacity

to

haste, in the midst of engagements you spoke. engrossingin themselves, but partly made tasteless, partly embittered by what I have heard ; but I am wiUing I love best on to trust even earth, in God's you, whom Hand, in the earnest prayer that you may be so employed is best for the Holy Catholic Church."] as the subject, There was on a lady,who was very anxious and I wrote to her the followingletters : I say What to your more can October, 1844. [1. I will If will ask ? me questions, specific purpose you any answer them, as far as I am able."] whom

10

felt with

I have

sustain.

severed, and

TO

1841

(FROM

I write

in

"

"

"

2.

one

20

November

still where

am

I

; I

was

Few indeed, who do not think it expects it of me. who do not think it Ukely. However, able,fewer still, not think it either suitable or likely. I have very to

reason

and of

doubt

the how

the

of

course

about

issue of

to

Him, from

thingsand the latent

the

issue

and

come.

habitual

is

going

of duty one must By one's sense support one in doing so." 3. January 8, 1845. (What

go

"

your know

whom,

am

letter ? more

I know

state

I do little

when

I trust, both

mislead external

but

I to say

in

perfectlywell, I ought

feelingsand

of my how

am

;

suit-

The expression feelingabout me, parties,has great a great dread of

all side and among on every I have I insist upon it, because by my own feelings,lest they should

which

the

things,but

the

known

are

opinion,and

force.

30

I

7, 1844.

plain,that every moving. Two things,however, seem one is prepared for such an event, next, that every

not

of mind

answer

to

than words

me.

facts

to

let you do you

? Any will which I can nothing say say to leave not a as needing so much bewilderingfeeling, it and and unlocated, were) isolated, (as explain it, being and not having any thingwith it to show its bearings upon other parts of the subject.) know.

thing I

But

must

16 APOLOGIA

is that

be

possiblein

abrupt

a

few

;

31

2.]1. ]y[

3.]2.


HISTORY

322

if there

letter,that,

indeed know

Roman

Catholics

I

am

sure

a

warrant

be

in

move

a

partners

most

I

to

wish

can

with

Church,

our

whether And

Oxford.

at

The

it.

your few

very

doubt

I

it.

residents

among

whether

I don't

is

is

mil

the

at

two

or

one

OPINIONS

RELIGIOUS

full belief is,in accordance

My (" At present,) persons

MY

OF

of

state

the

unsatisfactory. This of, that nothing but a simple,direct call of duty for any one leaving our Church ; no preference is at

present

so

of another Church, no delightin its services,no hope of in it, no indignation,no greater religiousadvancement

lo

which we things,among may persons of England. The simple quesfind ourselves in the Church whether / (itis personal,not tion is, Can another, but / in safety, can /) be saved in the English Church ? am I to die to-night? Is it a mortal sin in me, not joining were to concur ? P.S. I hardly see my another communion way Catholic in attendance, though occasional, in the Roman has made pretty well to chapel,unless a man up his mind not are requiredin the join it eventually. Invocations

Church

and

the

disgust,at

of Rome

except under "

4.

March

knows

two

whether

know

make

I cannot or

by

a

using

the

me.'

But

this.

it is

of is ;

duty. of the

;

which

a

become

call of

reason

You

can

than

one

any

so

are

clear,

seems

how

understand '

mind, and

and, I trust, I should came

upon

me,

should

for

painful light,and

token

upon

to

be

so

for siderately con-

asking guidance

attend that

as

difficult

of conscience.

or

what

waited, hoping some Psalmist, Show

in

20

Church."

our

only it is

:

them

this makes

convictions

impelledby

am

using

I have no I suppose rightto wait for ever Then I am waiting,because friends are most

bearing me me

of more

I have

so

words

in members

they can

out, if I

sense

doubt

this

them

like

not

Church, and

I will tell you friends. My own

strong, as I suppose to

do

Now

30.

except

I

of the

sanction admit

unwilling to

me

somehow,

;

the

"

for

feelings any new the effect of their

waitingsubserves the purpose of minds. I dread shocking, unsettling preparing men's people. Any how, I can't avoid giving incalculable pain. kindness.

So,

if I had

16

P.S.

And

my

then

this

will,I should

This commenced

a

new

like to wait

paragraph

till the

in 1865.

23

summer

4.]3.


(FROM 1846, which

of

would

be

that my convictions think I shall last so "

TO

1841

full

a

1845.)

seven

Christmas.

I, wish

5. 10

June

plain that till you

1.

it is your

see

tell

you

duty

to

know

between I

why

off that

made

am

vague

him

?

'

"

of

it yourself makes quietlyand patiently,

remain

to

treatise

have

me

clearly where

more

time

I don't

Fellowshipin

my

or

it takes

'

What

up

people

acting,as well as what I am doing ; and distressing can surprise, What "

But

me.

long.

present intention is to give work October, and to publish some and

on

the

from

years

first began to fall

My

that

323

are

you

else

;

you

are

leaping in the dark." In the early part of idea

owing

was

without I

20

that

afloat

the

to

feelingthat I had so been thrust taking my part. Various measures

one's

any

this year, if not before,there was an retirement from the Anglican Church

my

believe,talked

aside, were,

of in consequence

of this surmise. Coinexceedinglykind article about me

an cidentlywith it was in a Quarterly, in its April number. The writer praised in feelingand beautiful language far above me deserts. my

the

In

of his

course

of St.

Vicar

his

Did

he

position?

him

perhaps,he did (There was a censure words ; and) This a

very

to

a "

30

intimate

very

intimate

much

so

up

Not .

about

care

the

was

occasion

has

not

9

even

I remain

5.]4.

as

and

sacrifice to

.

things."

covertly,in these of my writing [to

addressed followingletter(, friend): Accept this apology,my dear C(hurch), "

I say

love.

tears

so,

of this

Just

I

now

B.'s article in the C. D. ; I have for an instant never

could

me

clergy

about,

No .

such

implied,however

of

race

feel tender all.

at

.

A.

repenting my

future

.

the accident

I

the

and

value .

not

As

forgive me.

that arises from

had

friend] the

April3, 1845

and

"He

:

hearing him. clingto

remarks, he said, speaking of

Mary's

at 18

into

St.

my

have

been

by

overset

temptation

the

even

mind.

was] appeared C.

C(hurch), of

feelingof repentance How

27 34 A. B.

"

giving

had

The

34

eyes,

am

dear

could

it ?

how

could

Mary's a hypocrite?

it is alluded to in my writing] Edition subsequentto 1875.

my

I

yet really,my

leavingOxford. come

into

come

time, when

This

was

I be

the occasion

A. 1865^ James 1864:1

D.] Christian

How

of

Mozley

Remembrancer


HISTORY

324

at

or

It is indeed

RELIGIOUS

OPINIONS

souls, (and life so uncertain,)with the I had least persuasions,which upon

for

answerable

MY

OF

to act responsibility heavy on me without

a

I feel His hand and all Wisdom

Love,

that

so

I

as

victions, con-

and

doing ;

am

?

me

intermission,who heart

my

and

is

mind

are

might be from a load on one's aching pain is mine ; but my reallyis nothing to what it would be, to be responsibility for souls, for confidingloving souls, in the answerable My love to Marriott, EnglishChurch, with my convictions. tired out, just as the limbs That back. sort of dull

and

save

In

the

me

July

Bishop thought

a

the world

that

number.

A

how

"

that

and, when will go

few

(I am

will

time

short

with

Church

give

out

to

are

few

in

he is

takes

to prove

preparing for

place,it

will

sion seces-

be

seen

him." the date have

and

;

to

Newman

probably suffice

that

event

close upon

now

Catholic

while

jof Mr.

now

lo

line."

a

it worth

the adherents

It is well known

this fact. ;

sending him

of

pain

of my

reserved

the

reception into for

this

place some the beginning20

at from to me a letter addressed Charles no more, year by a very dear friend, now I bear him, for the love which I quote them Marriott. and the value that I set on his good word.

sentences of the

(" January 15, that

aware,

letter to can

you

and

I

Badeley casts

know

through

see

gloom

a

have

well

me

the

over

understood

have.

I may speak out at once, and doubt not that I shall

whole

conduct

towards

the

as

me,

Church

to

of

you

I beHeve

of what ever

be

first. Your

future, which

if you

But

enough

thing at

any

understand, feel at once,

your

You

1845.

never

feel

I :

England

see

that and

30

have striven and are still strivingto seek us, who after God for ourselves, and to revive true religion among others,under her authorityand guidance,has been generous towards

considerate, and,

and to

a

more

degree that unsparing

scarcelyhave

of self than I have

could

sustain.

have

severed, and

I

dutiful, appropriate, conceived possible, I should have thought nature link that you with pain every

that word

were

I could

felt

have

asked

no

questions, because

the disclosure of your ought to measure the to occasion, and the capacity of thoughts according I write in haste, in the midst those to whom spoke. you I felt that

you

40


325

1845.)

TO

1841

(FROM

partly made

engagements engrossingin themselves, but by what I have tasteless,partly embittered of I

willingto

am

employed

I

time

view

10

"

the

Roman

Before and

I

the

got

my of

heard

; but

earth,

on

be

may

you

so

Church.") Essay on Doctrinal I

1845, and I

As

hard

was

advanced,

October). of of speaking any more CathoHcs. boldly called them

till

year

instead

CathoHcs," I to the end, I resolved

received, then,

be

to

which

in

the state

in

remains

book

at

first months

that

cleared

so

hard

was

Development (inthe at it all through the my

prayer that Holy Catholic

is best for the

as

this

you, earnest

best

I love

whom

even

in the

Hand,

in God's

All

trust

it

was

unfinished.

(One

20

had

friends at Littlemore

of my

Church

the

Michaelmas

on

Day,

been

the

at

received

Passionist

into

House

the Superior. passing through in some I was London to Belgium ; and, as perplexity what steps to take for being received myself,I assented to that the good priestshould the proposition made to me to his doing for with a view in his way, take Littlemore at

Aston,

At

the

the latter

beginning of October

the

me

Dominic,

Stone, by Father

near

service

charitable

same

as

was

he

done

had

to

my

friend.) On

(the)8th

October

following letter "

to

a

number

of friends the

"

this nightexpectI am 1845. ing Littlemore, October 8(th), Father Dominic, the Passionist, who, from his youth,

has

led to have of the

been

the countries 30

I wrote

:

distinct

thoughts,first of England. After thirty

direct

and

North, then

of

his own act sent without was I saw little to do with conversions. St. John Baptist's few minutes day last on withal giftedwith simple, holy man ; and

years' (almost)waiting, he here. him

he has had

But here

for

(He

year.

remarkable but

I

a

is

a

powers.) ask

to

mean

He

does

of him

know

not

into

admission

of my the

intention one

Fold

;

of

Christ. .

"

.

1 have

.

so

6 All this time 6-7

Doctrinal

33

He

35

one] One

is

a

I

was

hard

at] I had

words

must

begun

Development of Doctrine commenced a new paragraph in 1SG5.

Development]

These

write, that this

letters to

many

the

do

for


HISTORY

326

choose

all who ''

This

P.S.

about

ask

to

RELIGIOUS

will not

OPINIONS

With

me.

is

Marriott, who

Charles

dear

MY

QF

best

my

love

your head, "c., "c. till all is over. Of coui'se

go

to

over

it

answer."

,requires

no

For a while after my reception,I proposed to betake thus in answer secular calling.I wrote to myself to some letter of congratulation a very gracious (sentme by Cardinal Acton) : will have I hope you Nov. 25, 1845. anticipated, I received lo which before I express it,the great gratification letter. That gratification, from your Eminence's however, was tempered by the apprehension,that kind and anxious attach more well-wishers at a distance importance to my step than reallybelongsto it. To me indeed personallyit inestimable is of course an gain ; but persons and things "

"

great at a distance,which know and, did your Eminence

look I

was

bad

far will "

he

than

when

so

about

As

I do

I never, to my

into the leader

trust, aimed sense

own

of

such, so now, earnestly as I as

of

party without

a

have

my wish to the

contrary, and is minister in to (as duty) my may to the Catholic Church, yet my will, powers much

as

I may

labour

humble

fear,disappointthe expectationsof both

way

friends, my own pray for the peace of Jerusalem. Eminence If I might ask of your a favour, it is that 30 those anticipations. it would Would kindly moderate of those

who

in my

power

were

to

I present certainly

though

it would

do,

what look

cannot

be

good

a

work

to do

as

I have

to do

in

thinkingof myself."

done, yet

Soon, Dr. Wiseman, me

20

any

I

you

ments move-

the event

thing else than been magnified wishing it or acting

at

right,and

a

"

close ; that

talk for

whose

raised than

been

see

justify.

obedience

and

seen

would you been far more

deserves, and

expectationhas

more

me,

there has

whom

about

one,

and

good

not

are

to

he sent

Oscott me

to

;

and

Rome,

it

seems

in whose

I do

not

forward

aspireto do ! At future, and,

to the

if I could as

persuade others quiteenough

if I had

Vicariate

Oxford

there with others I went and finally placedme in

lay,called

; afterwards

Birmingham.


I wrote

to

friend

a

"

January 20, 1846. Obliviscere populum

in my

think

may

how lonely I am. patristui,'has been

et domum

hours.

leaving Littlemore, and

I realize

it is hke

that

more

going

the

on

sea."

open

good on Monday, February 23, 1846. House in my Sunday before, I was Saturday Littlemore simply by myself, as I had been for the first for

I left Oxford

and

the

On at 10

You tuum

for the last twelve

ears

are

we

327

1845.)

:

"

*

TO

1841

(FROM

day

I had

when

two

or

I

originallytaken possession of it. dear friend's,Mr. Johnson's,

night at my

slept Sunday the last friends came to see the Observatory. Various of me ; Mr. Copeland,Mr. Church, Mr. Buckle, Mr. Pattison, Dr. Pusey too came and Mr. Lewis. up to take leave of oldest of my Dr. Ogle, one I called on me very ; and on

at

he

friends, for

was

Undergraduate. Trinity,which was foundation 20

I

was

boy,

a

growing there, and

rooms

dear

so

to

to on

I had

me,

walls for

when

I

an

was

first College, of my its held on and which

leave

There

me.

the

used

to

taken even

me

hfe. to

opposite

years

perpetual residence

own

my

I took

have been kind who many all through my and Oxford

unkind

been

never

of

so

private Tutor,

my

In him

it unto

be my as

both

when

Trinity had much

dragon snap-

freshman's the death

emblem in

my

University. the

On I have

they

are

morning

never seen

seen

from

23rd I left the Observatory. since, excepting its spires,as the railway.^ of

the

Oxford

19

[^ At had

been

have] had

visited Oxford on length Dr. Newman made Honorary Fellow of Trinity.]

Feb.

26, 1878, after he


PART GENERAL

VII. TO

ANSWER

[Publishedas

a

MR.

KINGSLEY.

Pamphlet, Thursday, June

M

3

2, 1864]


VII.

PART

From

the

that

time

I became

history of sajdng this, I do not further

no

idle,

and

peace I was

1

fervour

more

rough

a

this

and

;

had

trial

to

reception in

the

every

difficulties

and

;

the

difficulties

as

any

one

Part

Vn.

Mind

my 5

changes]

8

to

8

any

9

difierence

myself

already,

but

made

profession

a

not

remains

score

Christian

am

but

them

was

my

upon

the

I have course

from

Creed,

whether

of

far

I

of the

of

ease

same

denying as

Many religion ;

held

I have Answer

to

see

a

connexion

Kingsley] Chapter

V.

Position

been

never

Mr.

sensitive

(of them)

sensitive

as

am

very

are

persons I

able

to

of

1845. variations These

words

1864, 1865] any .

.

.

are

inward

omitted 1864

before] change,

in

another

copy

of

1864.

{another copy) intellectual

or

moral, wrought

mind 11

to

of them

one

any

and

ease,

now.

of

General

since

not

after

the

in

difficulties.

of

;

port

by Protestants, is beset with intellectual it is simple fact, that, for myself, I cannot

or

those

answer

I had

;

receiving those additional Some Anglican Creed.

about

found

greatest

article

CathoHcs

by

I

them

believing

that

any

before.

fundamental

into

that

on

doubt. of

I had

the

in

coming

happiness

not

me.

with

like

was

have

perfect

one

self-command

more

trouble

are

I beUeved

of them

20

it

had

what

faith

firmer of

and in

been

interruption.

I any

articles, which a

of or

been

jects theological sub-

conversion,

my from

on

has

record,

have

never

In

narrate.

mind

I have

of temper

my

without

to

myself,

or

but

;

sea

day

Nor

I

conscious

of revelation,

on

changes

I have

course

to

my

thinking

no

whatever.

to

thought

of

that

say

up

had

contentment.

not

was

truths

given

conscious

not

difference 10

to

mean

of heart

anxiety

no

Catholic, of

a

religious opinions

my

I have

that

; but

had

I have

that

or

KINGSLEY.

MR.

TO

ANSWER

GENERAL

revelation] Revelation

25

religion]Religion

in

my


GENERAL

332

TO

ANSWER

KINGSLEY.

MR.

however apprehending those difficulties, and them to (on multiplying any extent, hand) doubting the doctrines to which they are

keenly,

between and

difficulties do

thousand

Ten

make

not

and subject; difficulty

the

I understand

There

of

course

be

may

other

the

attached.

doubt,

one

doubt

as

mensurate. incom-

are

difficulties in

the

speaking of difficulties intrinsic to the with each doctrines (themselves), to their compatibility or out work he that other. A man cannot be annoyed may is or is not lo mathematical a problem, of which the answer given to him, without doubting that it admits of an answer, Of is the true one. that a (certain) or particularanswer all pointsof faith,the being of a God is,to my own hension, appreand (yet)borne encompassed with most difficulty, ; but

evidence

in upon

am

minds

our

People

I

with

that

say

most

the

power.

is

of Transubstantiation

doctrine

the doctrine tillI was difficult to believe ; I did not beUeve Catholic. I had no difficulty in believingit(,) soon as a as the oracle Church I beheved that the Cathohc Roman was of

and

God,

that

she had

to be

this doctrine

declared

part

20

to It is difficult, impossible(,) originalrevelation. imagine, I grant(;) but how is it difficult to believe ? Yet Macaulay thought it so difficult to believe,that he had

of the

"

need

of

CathoHcs

of

he

force

kind

Sir Thomas

as

"

"

he says, virtue ; and

and

eminent

as

bring himself to conceive that the the overwhelming enlightenedage could resist Sir Thomas of the argument againstit." of the choice specimens of wisdom is one could

"

an

More," a

in it of talents

believer

a

before

More,

of

the

doctrine

proof charge.

A

is

transubstantiation

of

faith which

that

stands

test, 30

indeed test." But for myself, I cannot any should I tell how it is but I cannot Why ; say, prove it, of do I know it ? What What's to hinder not it be ?

will stand

"

substance

or

and

is

that there is

case,

considers in alone.

8

the greatestphiloas sophers, just as much much is this the all at so nothing ; risingschool of philosophynow, which ?

matter

that

a

phenomena physics. The It does

not

"

"

to constitute

the whole

Catholic doctrine say

relations compatibility]

that

the

of

leaves

phenomena 33

not

our

ledge know-

phenomena go

;

it]it

on

not

the


contrary, the with

what

What

"

I

idea

abstract

my

10

there

is not

a

in which

sense

of

the

Essence

idea of one ; my question of concrete fact,I have

of

but and

as

in

Divine

is

simply I

that

come

of

of the

Unity. Being ? patible incomto

the

of

means

predicatedof the Incommunicable But I am going to take upon

three

proving that can equally be

God.

myself the responsibiUty more ; as the parties determined I shall do. are They say, that accusing me have in that I am not a CathoKc, though I may now, offences of my for, yet, at own againsthonesty to answer for the offences of others,of my answerable least, I am herself. brother priests, of the Church of my co-religionists, 1 am quite willingto accept the responsibility ; and, as of a few words, to I have been able, as I trust, by means do not begin with of all those who in the minds dissipate, testants Prodisbelievingme, the suspicion with which so many start, in forming their judgment of Catholics,viz. Creed is actuallyset up in inevitable superstition that our sin of Catholicism and hypocrisy,as the original ; so now I will go on, as before, identifyingmyself with the Church and vindicatingit, ^not of course denying the enormous exists of necessityin that of sin and ignorance which mass multiform ^but going to the proof world-wide Communion, of this one dishonest, point,that its system is in no sense teachers of that that therefore the upholders and and be in their have to claim a own as such, acquitted system, that odious of imputation. persons than

of

20

Trinity the

when

no

manner,

well

as

of three

one

it say

in like

And,

Anglican

with

does

nor

:

333

1845.)

It deals placesat once. thing about, the any

knows

of the

of the

know

that

I know

earth

^the doctrine

Creed,

do

remain

in several

themselves.

Article

majestic

Catholic

SINCE

MIND

they are

on

one

no

substances

material that

that

it says

phenomena

same

MY

OF

(POSITION

the

Creed

mere

of the Church

"

30

"

I have a God, (which, as ence, existcertaintyof my own though when I try to put the grounds of that certainty in doing so in mood logicalshape I find a difficulty I look out of myself into figureto my satisfaction,)

Startingthen said, is into

and

27

as

go

with

certain

to

on] proceed

the

me

being

as

of

the

29

ignorance]error


the world with

distress.

that

lie to

there

and

of men,

unspeakable

give the

TO

ANSWER

GENERAL

334

I

KINGSLEY.

MR.

a

see

The

sightwhich

world

seems

great truth, of which

my

fills me

simply to whole being

as me full ; and the effect upon is,in consequence, of necessity, as matter a confusing as if it denied that I am in existence myself. If I looked into a mirror, and did not see face,I should have the sort of feelingwhich actually

is

so

my

comes

upon

me,

I look

when

into this

livingbusy world,

This is^ to me, one of its Creator. of the great difficulties of this absolute primary truth, to lo it not for this voice, Were I referred just now. which speaking so clearlyin my conscience and my heart, I should I looked a polytheist when or be an atheist,or a pantheist, reflexion

and

see

into

the world.

no

of

a

I

speakingfor myself only ;

am

real force of the

den5dng the

far from

God, drawn

(and the course enlightenme

arguments

and in

I

am

proof

the generalfacts of human society but these do not warm me or history), they do not take away the winter of my from

of

;

desolation, or

make

buds

the

unfold

and

the

leaves

grow

being rejoice.The sight of the 20 the prophet's scroll,full of world is nothing else than lamentations, and mourning, and woe." in its length and the world breadth, its To consider their starts, their of man, the many various history, races within

me,

and

my

moral

"

fortunes,their mutual alienation, their conflicts ; and then their ways, habits, governments, forms of worship ; their their random their aimless courses, enterprises, and acquirements,the impotent conclusion

ments achieveof

standing long-

and faint broken[,] of a so facts, the tokens turn 30 of what the blind evolution superintendingdesign, truths, the progress of things,as out to be great powers or the final causes, if from unreasoning elements, not towards his his and of littleness aims, far-reaching man, greatness his futurity,the short duration, the curtain hung over of disappointmentsof life,the defeat of good, the success and the mental prevalence anguish, evil, physical pain, intensityof sin, the pervading idolatries,the corruptions, of the whole that condition the dreary hopeless irreligion, in the described Apostle's exactly so fearfullyyet race, words, having no hope and without God in the world," 40 "

10

the] those


OF

(POSITION "

all this is mind

the

vision

a

the

human

beyond What

I

His

10

335

dizzy and appal ; and inflicts upon lutely profound mystery, which is absoing reason-bewilderheart-piercing, that either there

can

presence.

world

1845.)

solution.

is in

Did

I

on

him

mind, with the tokens the

SINCE

MIND

only answer, livingsociety of men

this

from

a

shall be said to this

fact ? or

to

of

sense

MY

of

true

boy

a

see

a

of

refined

a

is no

Creator, discarded

sense

make

good

nature,

and

cast

upon

without

he provision, unable to say whence his birth-placeor his family connexions, I should came, conclude that there was with his some mystery connected from of whom, one cause history,and that he was or one, ashamed. Thus other, his parents were only should I be able to account for the contrast between the promise and

(the)condition of his being. And so I argue about the world ; ifthere be a God, since there is a God, the human is implicated in some terrible aboriginal race calamity. It "

20

of joint with fact,a fact as true

is out

the

a

as

the

doctrine

becomes and

as

And

of the

to the

be

to

are

is

called theologically

as

certain

it

interfere

we

that

as

the

the

were

blessed

and

in this anarchical

to suppose

would

the world

is in

so

loving will condition

be the methods

necessarilyor naturallyinvolved Since

originalsin exists,

world

of God.

supposing

Creator

? mercy it would

what

almost

existence

now,

things,what might

of me

of its Creator. This is purposes the fact of its existence ; and thus

in His

abnormal

of

which

objectof

state, surely

a

be no surpriseto me, if the interposition of were necessityequallyextraordinary or what is called miracuBut that subject does not lous. into the directlycome Miracles as evidence, involve present remarks. scope of my I am (a process of reason, or) an argument ; and of course does not immediately run which means thinking of some into be the I am rather must asking what argument. and face-to-face baffle antagonist,by which to withstand allof passion and the fierce energy the all-corroding, scepticismof the intellect in religiousinquiries? dissolving "

30

I have

26

no

intention

at

object] purpose 38

to

all to

deny,

that

truth

33 means] mode deny] of denying

is the

real

of interference


GENERAL

336

object of

our

I

and

in fact

it acts

premiss

the

or

it does

process

fallen

concretelyin

attain

not

of

but

reason

I know

man.

to

fault; but

is in

speaking(here)of right reason,

not

am

that, if

and

reason,

the

truth, either

KINGSLEY.

MR.

TO

ANSWER

as

that

when correctlyexercised, leads immortality of the soul, and in future retribution ; but I am a consideringit actuallyand and in this point of view, I do not think historically ; in saying that its tendency is towards I am a simple wrong unbeUef in matters of religion. No truth, however sacred,lo hence and it is that stand against it,in the long run can ; the last traces Lord in the pagan our world, when came, all but times were of the religiousknowledge of former the in which world of the from those portions disappearing to

unaided

the

even

belief in

a

had

intellect

And

in

reason,

been

these

a

in

one

the

from

time

shape

of the

concerns

us,

in

taken

mind

European

how

its most

!

What

and

us

by

Germany

!

a

scene, 20

human

the educated

course,

subjection. The necessity of some interests of humanity, has been but

:

where

toughnessnecessary

to

Three

the

centuries

legal,and

ago

the

was

social,was

would

to

concrete

have

is

intellect of

of their

Lovers

for the

things invisible,which

religion,even attenuated form,

expedientsto

in its onward

nature

it most

of

view

external

of their race, religiousmen, Church, have attempted various and

wiKul

for Especially,

sorrowful, in the elementary, most

spectaclepresented to

England, France,

from

of

circumstance

other.

or

prospect, does the whole of Europe present at this not only Europe, but every government and the is under civilization through the world, which

influence

into

career.

and

!

every

the

a

"

old

"

day

had

outside the days, in like manner, far greater are )with tending, ( things

rapiditythan in that the age,( ^)to atheism what

had

and

active

latter

Church

Catholic

in the

God,

the

country Catholic

arrest

and

to

form

of

fierce

bring it 30 religion

ledged generallyacknowrepresentativeof the

force

and

the

againstthe deluge ? of religion, establishment material, pedient generallyadopted as the best ex-

be

a

breakwater

for the purpose, in those countries which separated it was for a long time Catholic Church ; and

the

7

it]the facultyof

reason


(POSITION successful

;

but

relied upon would cease

the

now

ten

:

for

enterpriseand will

one

any

where

SINCE

there

ago

under

the

reign of

venture

to

the the

say

1845.)

of those

crevices

Thirty years

years ever,

MIND

hope

a

influence

that

establishments

ago, education

was

useful

337

and

there

of

was

that

wars

commercial

fine arts ; but

is any

thing any

for us, earth, which will afford a fulcrum whereby to keep the earth from moving onwards ? The judgment, which experience passes (whether) on establishments of maintainor ing (on)education, as a means be world, must religioustruth in this anarchical extended to Scripture,though Scripturebe divine. even Experience proves surely that the Bible does not answer It may a intended. be never purpose[,]for which it was

this

on

the accidentally

but

20

MY

admittingthe enemy.

are

10

OF

of the

means

conversion

of individuals

;

make a stand book, after all,cannot againstthe wild livingintellect of man, and in this day it begins to testify, and structure as of regards its own contents, to the power that universal solvent, which is so successfully acting upon religiousestablishments. a

Supposing then in human

it to be the Will

and affairs,

of the Creator

fere to inter-

to make

provisionsfor retaining in the world a tinct knowledge of Himself, so definite and disof human as to be proof againstthe energy scepticism, in such a case, I am far from no saying that there was other way, but there is nothing to surprisethe mind, if He should think fit to introduce into the world, a power the invested with in religious prerogative of infallibility Such matters. a provision would be a direct,immediate, of withstandingthe difficulty active,and prompt means ; it would be an instrument suited to the need ; and, when I find that this is the very claim of the Catholic Church, not only do I feel no in admitting the idea, but difficulty there is a fitness in it,which recommends it to my mind. And thus I am bility, brought to speak of the Church's infallia provision, as adapted hj the mercy of the Creator, to preserve religionin the world, and to restrain that "

"

30

freedom

of

greatest of 40

suicidal nor

thought,which our

natural

excesses.

And

in what

of

course

gifts,and

to

in itself is rescue

let it be observed

follows,shall

I have

occasion

one

it from

of the

its

own

that, neither here to speak directly


revealed

of the

which

sanction

TO

ANSWER

GENERAL

338

MR.

KINGSLEY.

of truths, but (in reference be gives to truths which may

the

body

to

it

known

independentlyof it, ) only as they bear "

the defence

upon

possessed of rehgion. I say, that a power, in reUgious teaching,is happily adapted to infallibility of human be a working instrument, in the course affairs, for smiting hard and throwing back the immense energy natural

of

untrustworthy)intellect capricious, aggressive(,

of the

and

in

saying this, as

say, it must in mind my

I

in the

stillbe recollected that main

purpose,

defending myself

am

other

:

"

things that I have to I am all along bearinglo

which

is

here

from

a

defence

of

myseK.

plausiblecharge

a

ceed. brought against Catholics,as will be seen better as I proThe charge is this : ^that I, as a Catholic, not only I cannot make to hold doctrines which possibly profession "

believe in my heart, but that I also believe in the existence will imposes upon of a power earth, which at its own on it pleases,by a claim set of credenda, when new men any to

that my own thoughts are consequence, tell that to-morrow ; that I cannot I hold to-day,and that what to give up

infallibility ; in

not

property

own

my

I may not have effect of such a condition the necessary a degradingbondage, or a bitter inward

of mind rebellion

20

be

must

relieving

the necessity of ignoring the or infidelity, and of mechanically i n of disgust, sort a religion saying every thing that the Church says, and leaving others the defence of it. As then I have above spoken of

itself in secret whole to

subjectof

the Catholic Creed, so now the relation of my mind towards it takes up in the view I shall speak of the attitude which of the Church's infallibility. And first,the initial doctrine of the infallible teacher be

must

an

mankind.

emphatic protest againstthe existingstate had

Man

rebelled

against his

It

Maker.

30

of

was

: and this that caused the divine interposition (toproclaim be)the first act of the divinelyaccredited messenger denounce must [must be to proclaim it]. The Church

it must

rebellion have

no

as

terms

of all

35

the

greatest. be true

body of truths] Revelation only as they bear] as it bears accredited divinelyaccredited]divinely-

1 the revealed 3

possibleevils

with it ; if she would

in its

to

She

must

her Master,

subject-matter


OF

(POSITION she

ban

must

of

of those

one

regard

far

it.

which

is the I

fault at

no

nothing

at

am

it better

holds

the

heaven, for

for the

earth

to

and

sun

fail,and

it to die of starvation

on

that

farthing without

here

enunciated

credentials

be

to

of the

the "

might begin with intensityof

20

Church, Whereas.'^

a

agony, will

one

single steal

in

Act

an

as

to

the

should the

preamble

mere

Catholic

The

soul, I

one

I think

excuse."

"

moon

in extremest

than

in

sequence con-

for aU

be lost, but commit should should say, venial wiKul untruth, or sin, should tell one poor

for

present

confess

all to

not

one

meaning

matter

to

temporal affliction goes,

as

This

has furnished to

339

1845.)

withdraw, and in deliberatelyrepeat it. I said,

here

millions

many as

I have

Church

from

drop

anathematize

have, however,

I Catholic

SINCE

(ofmine), which

it ;

to

MIND

specialaccusations

I

replying:

10

and

statement

a

MY

principle

the

formal

of Parliament

It is because

of the

has

the evil which

possessionof mankind, that suitable antagonisthas been provided againstit ; and a the initial act of that divinely-commissioned power is of Such to deliver her challengeand to defy the enemy. course a preamble then gives a meaning to her position in the world, and

and

an

to interpretation

her whole

of

course

teaching

action.

In like manner she has ever put forth,with most energetic those other great elementary truths, which distinctness, either are an explanation of her mission or give a character her

to

work.

does

She

not

teach

irreclaimable, else wherefore that 30

restored

evil, but (hopeless) great things,and even and excess,)has a But such

and

it is to be shattered

purified,and

in

the

that

it has

now(, in she

be

the

nature

sent

to be

it is

a

a

knows

?

is

not(,)

extricated,

mere

of

mass

promise (upon it)of

its present state

and

virtue

human

she

reversed, but

not(,)that

;

place

next

that

should

of disorder

praise proper to itself. and she preaches that

in it, must restoration, as she aims at effecting be brought about, not simply through any outward proa

of preaching vision(s) own,

but

from

a

from imparted directly 36

any] certain

39

which

is in her

and

teaching,even though spiritual power

inward

certain

above, 37

keeping] of

and

it]they which

which

is in her 38

she is the channel

a

it be her or

grace

keeping.

certain]an


340

GENERAL

TO

ANSWER

KINGSLEY.

MR.

human has it in charge to rescue nature misery, but not simply by raising it [up]on level, but by liftingit up to a higher level She recognizes in it real moral excellence own. She

she

degraded, but a

renovatinggrace

from that

of

the nature

It

put

was

of the

well

gift,as

thought, and

"while

he

visible

between

own

to

person

is also

and

nature

further

her divine

truths

these

as

pertinaciouslyinflicts observes

"

Divine

direct Master

form

of

"

;

your

must

of

God,

build

up

distinctions and

inward

I have

called

commission. she

vigorously reiterates, and mankind

upon

delicacyor prudence.

the

outward

between

that

man

which

articles in what

half -measures,

no

simple,

and

grace,

two

except

therefore

perfecttemple

of the

one

its

though

the reasonableness

living stones And thus community. religious

become religion, the preamble of Such

and

than

point,to insist, the first springslo

individual

each

whole

one

from

as

begin with

that

teach

hands, and

further

a

as

own

for this end

was

her

into

its

its

earth

it free from

set

heaven.

of the case, she goes on, all true conversion must

be in his

a

cannot

towards

by exalting it

from

Ye

must

words whole

be

which nature

born she

such

to

as

;

economical

no

no

again," is

the

after

uses

must

she

reserve,

20

her

be

re-born, aims, and

passions, and your affections,and your all be bathed in conscience, and your will, must to your a new element, and reconsecrated Maker,( )and, the last not the least,your intellect." It was for repeating that certain these points of her teaching in my own way, your your

"

of

passages

one

of my

Volumes

have

been

brought

into

general accusation which has been made against my religious opinions. The writer has said that 1 was demented if I believed, and unprincipledif I did not believe,in my the

(own)

statement

that

a

30

story-telling lazy,ragged, filthy,

chaste, sober, cheerful, and religious, of heaven, which was absolutelyclosed to an accomplishedstatesman, or lawyer,or noble, be he ever honourable, and conscientious, so just,upright,generous, unless he had also some portion of the divine Christian

beggar-woman, had a prospect

if

grace(s) ;( )yet I "

2

should

raising]restoring

have

thought myself 35

which]

such

defended

as


from

criticism

to the to

that

say

under

10

lie viewed any its consequences

of these

the limitation

outward

almost

an

an

than

motives, and

its

Lord

our

to

woman

the

to

go

the

apart from

its causes,

though

lie,viewed

:

conditions,is

a

"

that

whoso

committed

her, hath

a

random

directlyfrom

act, not

doctrine

after

lust

the

to

into

subjectedagain

was

however disgraceful (and despicable)it may social contract, however to the prejudicial the have we public reprobation ;)whereas of

used

imputations,for having ventured unchaste wish was indefinitely

of

to

Lord

harlots I

341

1845.)

our

pubUcans you." And

consent

heinous

more

which

before

alternative

same

SINCE

and

The

priests, kingdom of God

MIND

words

the

by "

chief

MY

OF

(POSITION

ance, utter-

the

heart,

be, (however

deserving of words

express looketh

a

on

with

adultery

On the strengthof these texts(,) already in his heart." much as surely rightto believe in these doctrines to believe in [the as surprise,) (which have caused so much doctrine of] originalsin, or that there is a supernatural her

I have

revelation,or that 20

grant power the on

with

of power,

the Church

is

preamble

that is a of that power, because and practical ; (2.)nor,

seat

power,

giant

and

viewed

into

otherwise

of

has

fulness, is

called

it is but

itself. tremendous

as

to

guidance into the very meaning of Message in detail,which was Lord His Apostles. It claims to to

our

Divine

22

with

to decide

which

what

the Church

make] premise 33-4 dormant, to have

is

it

determine

can

for

legitimatemanner,

dormant,

sure

limits,and

as

claims, when

It

for it.

the

(but) in

exercise course

its

the power

to

as

now

in

evil which

brought

the

on

extendingthe direct subject-matter,over has jurisdiction, beyond (of Infallibility)

I

"

This

question

historical

that power

of the

of that

invested,to that "

religious opinion:

a

called the

I have

which

I make brief remarks two itself, Infalhbility, :( 1.) hand, I am not here determiningany thing about

doctrinal, not other hand, am

the

suffered,or that punish-

Person

one

the essential

which

what

from

Passing now

30

Divine

a

is eternal.

ment

invested] which

have every

for itself

portion by

committed know

its

own

absolutelyand

is made

to

the Church

23 know

for certain

for itself

a

sure

guidance into] quiescent, to 35

the

Divine] that Divine


GENERAL

342

what

ANSWER It

it cannot.

TO

MR.

KINGSLEY. to have

claims,moreover,

a

hold

upon

far as so directlyreligious, this,(^)to whether relate to religion, determine and, they indirectly definitive judgment, to pronounce according to its own whether or not, in a particularcase, they are (simply) not

statements

"

with

consistent

revealed

whether statements

are

or

their

depositumof faith,in and

allow

to

truth.

It claims

them,

such the

terially, magis-

and

such

[Apostolic]

in their consequences,

spiritor and

condemn

or

decide

to

or not, that infallibly to not are prejudicial

forbid

them,

accord-

lo

silence at will on any matters, controversies,of doctrine, which on its own ipse dixit, It claims

ingly. or

to be

it pronounces

It claims CathoUcs them

with

impose

to

or dangerous,or inexpedient, tune. inopporwhatever be the judgment of that(,) may such acts, these acts should be received by

upon those

outward

marks

of reverence,

submission,

loyalty,which

Englishmen, for instance, pay to the their without of sovereign, public criticism on presence them, as being in their matter (they are)inexpedient,or it claims to 20 violent or harsh. And in their manner lastly, have the rightof inflicting punishment,of cutting spiritual the ordinary channels off from of the divine life,and of refuse submit to simply excommunicating, those who and

themselves

to its formal

Such

declarations.

is the

infalH-

crete, Church, viewed in the conclothed surrounded and as by the appendages of its high sovereignty : it is, to repeat what I said above,

bilitylodged in

a

the

Catholic

earth to sent supereminent prodigious power upon and master a giant evil. And having thus described it, I professmy own now,

encounter

absolute

submission

to

its

claim.

I

believe

the

3o

whole

dogma as taught by the Apostles,as committed by Apostles to the Church, and as declared by the Church I receive it,as it is infallibly to me. interpreted it is thus committed, and plicitly) (imby the authorityto whom further interpreted it shall be, in like manner, as I submit, by that same authoritytill the end of time. revealed the

to

moreover,

Church, 7

18

in

the

which

universallyreceived lies the

within its as infallibly] public]expressingany

own

province 19

traditions

of those

matter

,

as

new

of

the

dogmatic

9 deposituni] Depositum being]on the ground that


definitions

are

Catholic

dogma

to those

other

thi'oughthe

are

from

clothingand

I consider

10

and

phraseologyof

a

of

myself

claim

of

as

I feel

St. no

has

shapes, and

science, with

a

method

a

ling the intellectual hand-

under

its own,

; and

definite

certain

form

great minds, such

St. Thomas

and in

I submit

And

their

taken

the

itself into

thrown

of the

illustration

the lowest on infaUibility, to be acceptedand obeyed. of ages, that, graduallyand in the course

inquiry has

Catholic

the

already defined.

as

which

made, and

time

to

343

decisions of the Holy See, theological or not, it has itself appointed,which, which organs

waiving the question of with a to me ground come Also,

time

1845.)

SINCE

MIND

the

which

all times

in

MY

OF

(POSITION

Athanasius, St. Augustine,

temptation at

piecesthe great legacyof thought thus

all to break

committed

to

us

for these latter this

All I

make)

of the

20

days. being considered

animo,

ex

CathoHc

on

as

body,

my

as

far

the

as own as

profession(which

part, so I know

also

the

on

it,it will

at

part first

sight be said that the restless intellect of our common of aU humanity is utterlyweighed down(,)to the repression this is if action and effort so that, whatever, independent of bringingit into order, it is brought into to be the mode order only to be destroyed. But this is far from the result, of that high I conceive what far from to be the intention who has provided a great remedy for a great Providence evil, ^far from borne out by the historyof the conflict in the past, and the probetween and Reason Infallibility spect "

of it in the future. "

30

from

does

The

opposition grow

of the human energy " it thrives and ;

intellect is

tough elastic strength,under the terrible is never the and divinely-fashioned weapon, it has latelybeen overthrown. itself as when with

a

custom

with

Protestant

wTiters

to

consider

joyous,

blows so

It

of

much is the

that, whereas

in action in the historyof there are two great principles religion,Authority and Private Judgment, they have aU

Judgment to themselves, and we have the full superincumbentoppressionof Authority. and it is not so ; it is the vast Catholic body itself,

the Private inheritance But

this

and the

only, which

affords

an

16

as

the 1864,

17

on

my

own

arena

for both

to be a 1S64 lees'] part] for myself

combatants {anothercopy)

in that


GENERAL

344

TO

ANSWER

awful, never-dyingduel.

KINGSLEY.

MR.

for the

It is necessary

very

life

large operations and its history, should be incessantlycarried on. that the warfare Every is brought out into act by an intense exercise of Inf alhbility and varied operation of the Reason, from within and without, and provokes again(,when it has done its work,) of Reason a re-action against it ; and, as in a civil polity of the rivalryand the State exists and endures by means and defeats of its constituent colhsion,the encroachments Cathohc Christendom is no simplelo parts, so in like manner exhibition of religious tinuous absolutism, but [it]presents a conof

viewed religion,

in its

nately pictureof Authority and Private Judgment alterthe ebb and flow of the as advancing and retreating tide ; ^itis a vast assemblage of human beings with wiKul intellects and wild passions,brought togetherinto one by into the beauty and the majesty of a Superhuman Power be called a largereformatory or training-school, what may not (inorder)to (not as if into a hospitalor into a prison,) I may be sent to bed, not to be buried alive,but ((if change moral 20 into if some as metaphor) brought together my and moulding, [as in factory,)for the melting, refining, moral some factory,]by an incessant noisy process, [(if I may proceed to another metaphor,)]of the raw material of human nature, so excellent,so dangerous,so capable of "

"

divine

purposes. St. Paul place that his says in one given him to edification,and not to can

be

It is

a

need.

better

no

the Church.

need, and it does not go beyond that Its object is,and its effect also,not to enfeeble the

supply for

freedom

a

vigour

or

but have

There

destruction.

of InfallibiKty

of the

account

is

Apostolical power

resist and

to

been

of human

its

great

thought

control

works

?

its

so

speculation, religious

in

extravagance.

All of them

the

in

What distinct

Arianism, Eutytheology: to put down senism. chianism, Pelagianism, Manichseism, Lutheranism, Janof

province

"

Such

past ;

and

that

it

"

so

5-6

now

ever

from

is the as

broad

result

the

securities

will act in time

within and

16

majesty] Majesty

23

of the

raw

to

to

without] both

the 1864, '1865}

raw

as

1864

of

its

which

action are

in

the

given

us

come.

its

allyand

as

{anothercopy)

its

opponent


MY

(POSITION .OP

cannot First,Infallibility of

thought, and

SINCE

MIND

outside

act

in all its

it must

345

1845.) of

definite circle

a

definitions^

decisions,or

called,professto be keeping within it. The and of great truths of the moral law, of natural religion, foundation. its and its both faith,are boundary Apostolical It must it must not ever appeal to go beyond them, and

they

as

are

that

subject-matter,and its articles in subject-matter,are fixed. [Thus, in illustration,it them.

extend

not 10

Both

which

its

to

are

ApostoKc Depositum about

the

persons

evident,

the Articles of the

from

it

again,

;

of

and

sound

however

statements,

conclusions logical

mere

does

nothing pronounce fall within its works

can

heretics,whose

ever profess to be legitimateprovince.] (And) It must guided by Scriptureand by tradition. It must refer to the particularApostolic truth which it is enforcing,or (what is called)defining.Nothing, then, can be presentedto me,

in

time

to

come,

have

alreadyto

it has

received, (ifnot) merely because 20

Nothing

be

can

what

I hold

truth

which

already, "

least it will be

to

30

is that

I

henceforth

am

take

me

to

is

decided

now

it.

in my

it, behalf,

I have

only been

Apostles held

before

me.

the doctrine

which the

Protestants Immaculate

of

Here

to recollect my

the reader

I hear

believed

that beheve(,)

the

that greatest difficulty, I entreat

new

must

relatively guessed,

as

always

actuallyhave

holding(aU along)what Let

a

only question which

The new,

have

character, that coalesce with it,as soon

of such

in it or readilyconcur Perhaps I and others

even

me.

from

Apostolicrevelation ; and thoughts my

in the

be included

wished,

at

I may

told kind

it.

to

contrary

be what

It must

or

the

in

ought

actually

been

is

to the old truth.

and

me upon less much

not

different

imposed

promulgated,if it is to be called viewed homogeneous, cognate, implicit,

be at least

I

as part of the faith,but what have not received, and (hitherto)

main

consider

our

Conception. drift,which

in receivingit : (and that, difficulty that circle of because it so with intimatelyharmonizes which it has been recently into recognizeddogmatic truths, is this.

18-19 19

I

not

have

no

(ifso,) actuallyreceived,(ifnot)] been kept from receiving,

received, (ifnot) 1864] received

19 told] brought home to the satisfaction of having

; if

30

1864 (anothercopy). henceforth]have henceforth 35 it :]the doctrine ;

not, am


received

but)

; "

another a

have

have

You

tell

but

they

do

other

all

at difficulty

and

on

that

have

Priests

From

my

general

the

subject

there no

?

in

is

no

difficulty. difficulty ; "

to

believe,

rehgion,except that there them, very distinct from testimony then about myself, if of

forms

various

?

CathoKcs

not

may

hundred

from yourfeel very differently selves when left to themselves, lo [fall],

men

types of mind

various

difficulty, why why may not a that

sure

and

reason

is it that

such

into (fall)

?

KINGSLEY.

a they ought to have Be large-mindedenough

not.

m^y

; how

am

should.

that

me

no

MR.

Conception;

they

have

men

each

I

intellectual

any

why

that

have

Immaculate

reason

are

Now

?

not

the

of

if I

TO

also difficulty

no

thousand

you

ANSWER

GENERAL

346

among

Catholics : we believe it,judge of others also who are do in the doctrines not find the difficulties which you

which

hold

we

;

have

we

in difficulty

intellectual

no

that

in particular, which you call a novelty of this (doctrine) day. We priestsneed not be hypocrites,though we be in the Immaculate called upon to beheve Conception. To after 20 that largeclass of minds, who believe in Christianity, ^in the particular our temper, spirit,and light, manner, "

(whatever

word

there is

burden

was

no

is

used,) in at all in

without

conceived

sin original

to say, that Catholics have it was is defined, but (that)

So

far from

the

which

not

indeed, it is a to believe

come

in

infliction

on

the

where

its

promulgation with

on

;

believe

it, "

the Blessed

Virgin simplefact

it because

it

they believed it. being a tyrannical

defined because

definition

Catholic

Catholics

holdingthat

1854

world, it the

was

received

every

greatest enthusiasm.

of the unanimous petition, pre- 30 (ofthe Church) to the Holy See, in that the doctrine behaK of a {ex cathedrd)declaration heard that it was declared so to be. I never was Apostolic, Catholic of one having difficulties in receiving it, whose other grounds was faith on not already suspicious. Of made there were and course good men, who were grave it could be (formally) whether anxious by the doubt proved (tobe) Apostolicaleither by Scriptureor tradition, and who though believingit themselves, did accordingly, It

in

was

sented

consequence all parts

from

32

a]

an

35

34 receivingit]receivingthe doctrine already 1864, ises} really1864 {anothercopy).


OF

(POSITION not

how

see

it could

all Catholics

upon matter. a

but this is another

faith);

of

matter be

it to

I believe

347

1845.)

by authority(and imposed

defined

be a

as

SINCE

MIND

the

point in question is,whether

The

burden.

MY

So

none.

is

doctrine it

far from

being

and St. Thomas, sincerelythink that St. Bernard scrupledat it in their day, had they lived into this, Their sake. would have rejoiced to accept it for its own in of consisted I view matters ideas, words, it, as difficulty, and They thought the doctrine inconsistent arguments. I

so,

who

10

with age

doctrines

other had

been

given

it

to

by

the

opinion,and the

Now doctrines

of the

means

long

And

it in that

defended

has of it, which controversy of the

view

the

hence

of

difference

controversy. which

instance

remark

another

who

those

followed.

which

centuries

and

;

precisionin their

that

not

I have

number

the

;

been

taking suggests (so called) new

those

of

oppress us, if it takes eightcenturies to the lengthof Such is about of them. the preparationhas been carried on

will not

one promulgate even time through which 20

for the what

is

which

on

solemnly lifted look,

we

have

there

were

with of Trent

but

certainly;

in that so

writing; "

the Athanasian of

one

tine

and

the

Decrees

I should

apply to

University Sermon I there Creed same are

are

to

of

one,

been

Council

InfaUibihty: century,

a

"

and

now

tianity Chris-

since

Councils

and

of

at

all,

decree

doctrinal

of them

many

hence]

in this want

of

a

remark

mine, which

Pamphlet

which various

the

tained con-

been

has has

led to

verses

of

various shapes the Tridenin like manner,

in only repetitions

idea ; and isolated

given to it]attained

its Canons

said that

not

13

led to my

in the

have

12

34-5

one

the

are

only elementary points of the Creed. embraced a large field of doctrine

ignorantlycriticized

my

of

average

few

say formal

in Ecumenical

seat

passed no employed on only

Council

The

normal

some

concerned

were

the

Pope

of

it is difficult to

Infallibihtyhas

of

voice

This

Conception.

only eighteensuch

Councils

others 30

to

an

"

the

It is to the

up. as

been

was,

these

Immaculate

extraordinarycase ; but ordinary,consideringhow an

occasions that

of the

definition is

course

of

from

each

other,

but

12 controversy]disputes precisionlay

writing]been

the occasion

of this Volume

are


348

GENERAL

TO

ANSWER

MR.

KINGSLEY.

occupiedin bringingout in detail,by if into bodilyform, a

a

as declarations,

I should

make

the

remark

same

condenmed

number

on

that

from

greater burden

individuals believe and

I

than this

a

on

the Canons

are

(that)in

for it

Theses

dogmatic decisions first sightthey seem

at

to

of Councils

of fact

matter

truths.

the

faith of

; stillI do

[that]they

are

that

^it is not

at

so

not

all,

Catholic, layman or priest,is indifferent to the subject,or, fromio sort of recklessness,will accept any thing that is placed a before him, or is willing, like a lawyer,to speak according the Holy See to his brief,but that in such condemnations is

give

be

to

separate

their

by Popes, and generally. I acknowledge their number

of

few necessary the various

engaged, for

great lines of

reason

the

two or part, in repudiatingone Lutheranism as or Jansenism, doctrinal,which are foreignto the

that fair

it is

I will go on trial to the

(but) expressing what

any

abilities, though unlearned, would and

say himself,from common could be put before him. Now

a

such

not

mind, and

good Catholic,of

"

most

error,

ethical principally Catholic

:

sound

sense,

if the

matter 20

in fairness to say

what

is the

I think

with that confronted Reason, when great august prerogativeof the Catholic Church, of which I have been

the concrete speaking. I enlarged just now upon infallible shape and circumstances, under which pure That authoritypresents itself to the Catholic. authority has the prerogativeof an indirect jurisdiction on subjectwhich lie beyond its own matters limits, and it proper most reasonablyhas such a jurisdiction.It could not act in its own province,unless it had a rightto act out of it. so It could not properlydefend religious ing truth,without claimfor it what another in

but

claimingas what

claims, not but

to

be

may

called

without illustration, are

our

own,

called

only

animadvert

to

not

British

its

pomoeria ;

acting only the land as

waters.

we

The

act, on

to

or, as

which

Catholic

a

take

nation, we live, Church

on judge infallibly religious questions, on opinionsin secular matters which

condemned 3"4 Theses by Popes] theologicalcensures, promulgated by Popes, which the Church has received 5 they] those decisions 5 acknowledge] own 16 foreign from 6 to the] on the 32 it]that truth to] divergent


bear

of

matters on religion, literature,of history,and it

her

upon

claim.

and a

It claims

a

from

its

at

not

in

come

for all

is true

to

is

the

cases

of faith

is matter

unsaid.

be

Nor

does

it

in the infallibiUty

giftof

a

tacitlyrecede question of

it will

for what can

obeyed without

be

course

such

never

there

submission

our

of time

(atall);

times, and

follow, because

all

of

must

process

injunctions. In

own

faith does 10

does

perhaps in

and

word,

philosophy,of science, of

books, to silence authors, [all]this (province,taken as enforce as speak doctrinally,

censure

discipline.It

of

measures

349

1845.)

demands

In discussions. not so much

forbid

to

whole,)it

to

SINCE

MIND

MY

OF

(POSITION

of in possession the power 0, it is excellent," proceedingsinfalhble. to have a giant's strength,but tyrannous, says the poet, with it like a giant." I think history suppliesus to use

Church, that therefore

Catholic

"

it is in all its

"

20

Church, where

in the

instances

harshly used.

To

saying that

divine

the

is "in

earthen

stance

of

"

Such

high

know

how

its

because

authorities such

does

nor

is

no

manner

have

the

sub-

right and

been

faulty.

of instruments

means

claim

instruments

Apostle,

that

is not

may

by

act

been than

more

of the

it follow

ruling power

acts

has

legitimatepower admission

treasure, in the words

vessels ; of the

the

expedient,

such

make

;

the

for themselves

we

name

thus get the credit of faults which who of their principals, reallyare not theirs. But grantingall this to an extent be imputed to greater than can with any show of reason is there in in the Church, what the rulingpower (difficulty)

(the fact of) this want be urged, with ca-n

than 30

make

it to

thing,but have

and

institutions

be

moderation

or

more

greater justice,against Pro-

called

are

submit

it has

that

not

upon,

silent(, as

is there

What

? not

to

profess any men Church-

Protestant

now

supposed,

laid

are

merely

our

upon

actions, not

thoughts. How, for instance, does it tend to a man a hypocrite,to be forbidden to publish a free as before : authoritative his thoughts are as

our

upon make libel ?

in

effect upon

to abstain obeyed the royal command as theological questions).Such injunctions[,]

before

certain

I have

We

? to

prudence

far

hypocrites,if

us

Protestants

from

and

communities

testant

of

12"13 36

power

.

.

.

is

supposed] been

its]partieswho contemplating

.

.

.

are

.

.

.

are

their .

.

.


GENERAL

350

prohibitionsmay much

So

at

upon

the

all that

shown

right,and mainly in Origen : I

of

they

have

no

reason.

or

those

most

of their power,

use

all,that

after

that

I will go on to say further, hostile critic may say severities of high ecclesiastics,

the

encroachments

has

event

irritate,but

first sight; but

past, in the

in times

KINGSLEY.

MR.

the exercise

upon

spite of

in

and

tease

bearing whatever that,

TO

ANSWER

whom

they

they

I think hard

were

that

the

in the

mainly

were

(were)

upon

of love, for instance, the name will not listen to the notion that so great a soul lost ; but I am was quite sure that, in the contest between and his doctrine [his] followers and (the) ecclesiastical Yet his opponents were right,and he was wrong. power, his with of and the who can speak patience enemy enemy

St.

of

the

John

Alexandria And

that

Chrysostom, who

?

admire

can

another

here

I

wrong.

or

Theophilus, bishop of ? revere Pope Vigilius presents itself

consideration

thoughts. In reading ecclesiastical history,when an Anglican,it used to be forciblybrought home how

the

was

initial

the

of what

error

urging forward

afterwards truth

some

a

many fuller

There

desires

man

to

to

was

me,

heresy-jo prohibition

is

time

a

reformation

a

my

I

became

againstthe

time.

unseasonable

authorityat an thing,and every of

lo

for

of

an

abuse, or the development of a doctrine, or the policy,but forgetsto ask himself adoption of a particular the

whether there

is

no

for it is

righttime one

in

who his

come

;,

and, knowing that

any thing towards lifetime unless he does

wiil do own

plishment) it(saccom-

it

himself,

listen to the voice of authority,and (he)spoils in his own work century, (inorder)that another 30

he will not a

good

man,

as

yet unborn,

it happily bring(ing) seem

to

the world

not (have the may in the to perfection

to be

for the truth and a of those persons one

than

next.

bold

a

He

may

champion

martjn: to free opinion,when he is just the competent authorityought whom

silence,and, though subject-matterin which to

nothing else

opportunity of)

the

case

may

not

fall within

that

the formal conditions or infallible, be wanting, it is of the exercise of that giftmay clearlythe duty of authorityto act vigorouslyin the case. 4-5

say

it is

upon] urge about 37 which it] which

27 that

do] be doing

authority


OF

(POSITION

MY

1845.)

SINCE

MIND

351

instance of that act will go down to posterityas an of with private judgment, and tyrannical interference the silencingof a reformer, and of a base love of corruption

Yet a

or

the

error

it will show

and

;

in

happens prudence or

ruling power defect

any

of

still less to

advantage, if proceedingsto act with

its

consideration.

And

all those

part of that ruling authority will be as time-servers, or indifferent to the cause uprightnessand truth ; while, on the other hand, the who

10

the

take

authority

of said

(accidentally) supported by a violent opinions into dogmas, and has it school of thought but to destroy every

exalts

heart

at principally

its

be

may

party, which

ultra

sidered con-

own.

Such at

of

state

a

the

moderate

who

men

of two

case

wish

provoking and

be

thingsmay

in the

time,

make

to

ing discourag-

classes of persons ; of differences in religious

of such opinion as little as they fairlycan be made ; and and to are as keenly perceive, honestly eager remedy, in this or divines that existing evils, evils, of which at foreign country know nothing at all,and which even "

20

home(, where of

means

time

it they exist,)

estimating. of the

and

This

is not

is

live in

present. We

of the

of

who

one

every

state

a

thingsboth wonderful

a

has

the

of

past

age

; the

circle of secular

is enlargement knowledge just now it has simply a bewilderment, and the more so, because the promise of continuing,and that with greater rapidity, these discoveries, and certain more signalresults. Now or

upon 30

the to

probable,have in matter religiousopinions,and

respectiveclaims be adjusted. Few

without

belief ; to reconcile When of the mind.

Catholic

in or

prospect, not,

are

themselves, both for those 1

that]its

a

all

souls

5

act

remain

their

for

fact is almost

an

are

science at

ease

religious instinct

of

facts,ascertained

upon

us,

with

in

revelation, be

to consider

for the honour

many

can

bearing how

flood

beHevers

roused

arises

of natural

grounds

theory and then

and

in earnest

pouring in

suspected,comes others

minds

indirect

an

question

of revelation

of rational

sort

some

of fact the

who,

with] evince

of

a

their

God, and

in consequence 36

multitude

or

of

they

bearingupon from

ness tender-

of the

con-

revelation]Revelation


352

GENERAL

fident

ANSWER

of

tone

the

schools

danger of being led thought. I am not going to in the in

mass,

religion ; certain

age,

the future. is very the name

now,

bore

[now]

and

who

they

the word

Lord

that

body

vast

professto the

in

liberalism

of

of men,

be

liberals

discoveries

of the their informants, direct or shall think about the unseen and as

which

gives a

that character

and

colour of

lay world.

givingname

others.

society

as

w^hich

lo

It is scarcely When

to

Now,

to

thought

(Now)

ago.

educated first as

Byron

with

knowledge, are

bottomless

towards

Liberalism

; it is the

KINGSLEY.

would

thirtyor fortyyears

I knew

by

look

different from

party

a

young, set up

this time

in progress,

The

a

criticize here

at

or

MR.

of secular into

away

who

to what

indirect,as

TO

a

I

was

periodical,

then, I have

the

philosophyof B3n:on. Afterwards, the badge of a theological Liberalism was school, of a dry and repulsive character,not very dangerousin itself, though dangerous as opening the door to evils which it did not it is nothing itself either anticipateor comprehend. Now else than that deep,plausible scepticism,of which I spoke 20 as above, as being the development of human reason, exercised by the natural man. practically The Liberal religionists of this day are a very mixed therefore I and not to am speak against intending body, sympathy

no

There

them. some

or

truth, which

revealed in

of them of

men

many

of

real

a

it is

science

is, in the hearts

doubtless

and

be,

may

many

antipathy or anger against to think of. Again ; distressing there

literature

or

may

be

an

animosity arisingfrom almost a personalfeeling; it being of 30 of party, a point of honour, the excitement matter a a

or

game,

a

of

consequence

soreness

or

annoyance

sioned occa-

for of apologists by the acrimony or narrowness that that to o r Scriptureis Christianity religion, prove untrustworthy. Many scientific and literarymen, on the other hand, go on, I am confident,in a straightforward fine in their own province and on their own impartialway, of

thought,without

in

themselves,

by

the

or

any any

result of their

J 9 Now]

At

disturbance

31

present 37

from

opinion religious

give pain to others investigations.It would ill become wish

at

all to

consequence

of] satisfaction

opinion]difficulties

to the


(POSITION

MY

OF

35^

1845.)

SINCE

MIND

kind, to blame those which of the reason facts,by means God. has given them, to their logicalconclusions : or to if I

as

me,

who

afraid of truth of any

were

secular

pursue

is because religion science(,) its teaching. But

with

be angry take

on

minds, who

desperate,as

confusion

into

feel for such

not

of

them

I

?

case

? who

"

utter

have speculations religion.Who does unkind have one thought St. Augustine's behalf)

can

or

of

(in their up Illi in vos sseviant," "c.

Let

beautiful words, " fierce with jou who

20

the

by

be,

may

late discoveries

men

take

most

"

the

elementary ideas

their most

thrown

does

simply perplexed, frightenedor

are

rendered

which

he

feelingsof a fourth and large class and portionsof society,of religious

in the educated

of men, sincere

these

specialcall

no

men

the

into

deeply enter

(induty)

putting

aside, as having the sympathy of the Catholic,of course of

classes particular

10

bound

cognizance of

to

be

them

have no experience of the difficulty from is discriminated with which error truth, and the way How of life is found amid the illusions of the world. many Catholics have in their thoughtsfollowed such men, many of them so good, so true, so noble ! how often has the wish that

risen in their hearts

should

forward

come

against

its

the

!

opponents asked

Protestant, have

champion

Various to

me

and

I had

but

One of the way. difficult to say

it is so this,that at the moment what it is that is to be encountered

is

myself;

so

and

Catholic

persons.

do

strong difficulties in the

several

themselves among truth of revealed

from

one

some

as

greatest

precisely

overthrown.

I

am

denying that scientific knowledge is reallygrowing, but it is by fits and starts ; hypothesesrise and fall ; it is difficult to anticipatewhich (of them) will keep their far from

30

what

ground, and them

will be from seemed

it has

turn

out

to

be

objections,to

to

be very work and

of

of

some

their]a Catholic has in his

Catholics have

22

their hearts]his heart from among 1864, 1865] among themselves] his o-\\ti people

22

iq-

to

might special theory,which, what

chasing

in behaK

ingenious in devising a in

relation

in

of things, for a Catholic undignified

the

phantoms, be

knowledge

In this condition

20 22

APOLOGIA

to

me

of

state to year.

year

to

himself

commit

to

the

1864

{anothercopy).


ANSWER

GENERAL

354

before

it

theory

had

already come

that

than

other

no

of

and fortitude,

"

to

giveplaceto those

former

some

tions objec-

nought under the uprisingof a time [of all others], (specially) call to be patient,in which a alarmed, helpingthose who were

had of

way

exhorting them to

have

to

be

to

Christians

they had

KINGSLEY.

MR.

fact that

the

still,from

It seemed

which

in

completed,might

was

newer

others.

TO

beware,"

have

to

the

as

a

faith

Httle

poet says,

"

of

and

dangerous I thought attempted lo

steps." This seemed so clear to me, the more as to make me surmise, that, if I (ofthe matter), find that the what had so little promise in it, I should highestCatholic authoritywas againstthe attempt, and that I should have spent my time and my thought, in doing either it would what be imprudent to bring before the publicat all,or what, did I do so, would only comphcate further which matters were alreadycompHcated(,without than I interpret more enough. And interference,) my recent acts of that authorityas fulfilling expectation; my them I interpret as tying the hands of a controversiaUst, such as I should be, and teachingus that true wisdom, 20 which the Egyptians Moses inculcated on his people,when were pursuing them, Fear ye not, stand still; the Lord shall fightfor you, and ye shall hold your peace." And so in obeying in this case, I have far from findinga dif"culty tion and to rejoice to be thankful to have so clear a direccause in a matter of difficulty. "

But

if

would

we

with

ascertain

the

correctness

real

tance, look at it at a certain dismust we principle, carried and as historyrepresentsit to us. Nothing and ao on instruments, but has its irregularities, by human affords ground for criticism,when minutely scrutinized in of detail. I have been speaking of that aspect of matters the action of an which infallible authority, is most open of

course

a

to invidious

I have its

Church,

the

witnessed

and

equallyfair in their

now

(at a I

judgment

I

12

thought 1864, 1865] Authority authority]

16

further 1864,

9

more

view

as

1865}more

1864

wish upon I

it from

without

;

said to particular time)in the

fair,in estimatingwhat

disadvantage,as

Catholic

those who

criticism from

tried to be

can

be

to be its adversaries its historical character.

thoughtmore

{amlJiercopy).

1864

{anothercopy)


MY

OF

(POSITION

355

1845.)

SINCE

MIND

with any show of reason, Can, then, the infallible authority, be said in fact to have destroyed the energy of the (Cathohc) intellect [in the Catholic Church] ? Let it be observed, I have not (here) to speak of any conflict which ecclesiastical

authorityhas had with science,for (thissimplereason, that there has been none [such],(and that,)because conflict) the

and

world,

it is the

my of

stock

one

and

yet

these

new

may

be

novelty

a

for

methods said

in

history

a

of have

to

proved by the constantly cited for exceptio probat regulam : Again, I have not to speak argument. is

"

"

relations of the Church

of any

time

no

Church

the

Here

of Galileo.

exist, are

now

been

theology

knowledge, and indeed kept clear of them, as case

to

the

new

sciences,because

simple question (allalong)is whether the assumption infallibility by the proper authorityis adapted to make a

me

pure 20

has

there

between

of relations 10

they

sciences,as

secular

the

hypocrite,and till that authoritypasses decrees on physicalsubjectsand calls on me to subscribe them, will

do,

(which

it

has

tendency [by

no

never

it has

because

its

not

the

acts] to interfere (by

power,) any

it

of its

acts) with my private judgment on those points. The authority has so acted upon simple question is whether have no opinionof that they can the reason of individuals, and

their own, or

30

secret

have

but

rebellion

alternative

an

of heart

; and

of slavish I think

stition superthe whole

historyof theology puts an absolute negative upon such to out so a argue supposition. It is hardly necessary plain a point. It is individuals, and not the Holy See, the initiative, and given the lead to (the) have taken who Cathohc inquiry. Indeed, it is one mind[s], in theological of Rome, that of the reproachesurged againstthe Church it has originated nothing,and has only served as a sort of

remora

it is

or

break

in the

which objection[,]

an

for such

I conceive

to

be

development I the

main

purpose

as

a

Church

29 31

Church

is

It is

of

Rome]

Roman

Church

of

period of

whether] has been whether a new paragraph in I860. hardly commenced Avho have 1864] which has 1864 {anothercopy),that have

15 27

truth ;

of its extraordinary

gift. It is said, and truly,that the possessedno great mind in the whole

Rome

And

of doctrine.

embrace (really)

1865.


GENERAL

356

TO

ANSWER

KINGSLEY.

MR.

for a long while, it has not a persecution. Afterwards is the teacher of show St. doctor to Leo, its first, ; single one point of doctrine ; St. Gregory, who stands at the very first age of the Church, has no place in the western of The philosophy. great luminary know, St. Augustine ; he, no infalHble is, as we

extremity

dogma

of the

or

world

formed

teacher, has indeed

to

for the

the

Church

generallywe

earlyexpositionof

best

Europe (Christian)

intellect of

the

African

ideas.

Latin

must

;

look

(Moreover,

divines,the first in order of time, and not heterodox is the strong-minded and the least influential, TertuUian. Nor is the Eastern intellect,as such, -without of the

African

its share

lo

of the Latin teaching. The free in the writingsof the Western visible is Origen Hilary and Ambrose ; and the independent mind in the

formation

of

thought Doctors,

enriched

has

of Jerome

his

from the stores of Scripture, have Heretical questionings

on vigorous commentaries scarcelyorthodox Eusebius. been transmuted by the living

own

the

is into salutarytruths.) The of the Church case power Councils. Ecumenical the the same as Authority20 regards in its most imposing exhibition,grave bishops,laden with

the

and

traditions

have

been

genius

of

rank.

Not

rivalries of

guided

in

their

nations or places, particular by the commanding

decisions

individuals, sometimes that

young

gift which

was

committed

and

overruled

uninspiredintellect to

the

of the

inferior human super-

Council, which

be a self-contradictory assertion,but that in that ended in an of inquiry and deliberation,which process infallible enunciation, individual was reason paramount. the instrument of Thus presbyter,was (Malchion,a mere would

the

30

ing great Council of Antioch in the third century in meetand refuting,for the assembled Fathers, the heretical

Patriarch Parallel of that see. againstthe Greeks.) (At Trent,)the writings of St. Bonaventura, and, what is of a Priest and theologian, to the point,the address more .

Salmeron, [at Trent,] had definitions

of

dogma[s].

a

33

(Parallel .

placed later and

Salmeron,

in

.

the

.

critical effect

Parallel

influence,so well known, of

a

.

.

young

to

this

on

some

of the the

is (instance)

deacon, St. Athanasius,

againstthe Greeks.) /" 1S64 this 'passage had been paragraph^ to follow the remark on St. Bonaventura


OF

(POSITION with

the 318

Fathers

[the influence of] St.

MY

MIND

SINCE

1845.)

357

at Nicsea.

In

Ansebn

Bari, (as the champion of

at

like

manner

we

hear

of

there held,againstthe Greeks) [and St. Thomas the influence might be Lyons]. In the latter cases partly moral, but in the former it was that of a discursive knowledge of ecclesiastical writers,a scientific acquaintance with theology,and a force of thought in the treatment of the Council at

doctrine. There 10

20

does

of

are

tend

not

intellectual

course

form,

to

habits

for instance

as

which

theology experimental,

the

and that is because it is again the philosophical ; but But, as theology,not because of the giftof infallibility. far as this goes, I think it could be shown that physical science on the other hand, or (again)mathematical, affords but an imperfect trainingfor the intellect. I do not see then how of theology objectionabout the narrowness any into whether the comes our question, which is, simply Infallible authoritydestroys the independence belief in an of the mind I consider that the whole ; and historyof the Church, and especiallythe historyof the theological There schools, gives a negative to the accusation. never was

time

a

when

active, or

more

And

ages.

the

then

more

educated

restless,than

in

class

the

was

middle

again all through Church history from is authorityin interfering ! Perhaps

first,how slow local teacher, or

the a

intellect of the

rather

a

doctor

in

local

some

school, hazards

It smoulders or proposition,and a controversy ensues. burns in one place,no one interposing; Rome simply lets it comes Then before a Bishop ; or some it alone. priest, in some other seat of learningtakes it up ; or some professor a

30

and

then

there is

a

second

stage of it. Then

it

comes

before

University,and it may be condemned by the theological faculty. So the controversy proceeds year after year, and is still silent. An Rome appeal perhaps is next made to then at last seat of authority inferior to Rome a ; and after a long while it comes before the supreme power. Meanwhile, the question has been ventilated and turned and over over again,and viewed on every side of it,and a

1

like

4

the

18

manner

we

latter]some

hear] mediaeval times of these

infallible Infallible]

5

we

read

the

former] others


ANSWER

GENERAL

858

TO

MR.

authorityis called upon to pronounce alreadybeen arrived at by reason. the supreme authorityhesitates to determined

mode

a

to the

but liberty,

controversialist.

or

decision,which has even then, perhaps so, and

do

nothing is

point for years ; or so generallyand the whole controversy has to be gone through It is manifest it is ultimately determined. such as this,tends not only to of proceeding,

vaguely,that how

a

But

the

on

again, before the

KINGSLEY.

of the individual

courage,

Many

a

ideas,which

has

man

theologian he hopes

useful for his day, but he (isnot confident lo He is them, and) wishes to have them discussed. willingor rather would be thankful to give them up, if or dangerous,and by they can be proved to be erroneous of controversy he obtains his end. He is answered, means

true, and

are

about

he

and

jdelds;

considered

He

authority,which

an

word

every

each

be

as fighting,

sentence,

freedom out

would was

as

he

finds that

and

assent

Then

might truly be

this has

been

not

is

this,if he knew final,was watching

signs-of it.

he

to do

so

or

indeed

soldiers,under

the Persian But

dare

uttered

of his intellect

of him.

contrary)he not

supreme made

said, and

he

to

the

(on

or

safe.

the

dissent

he would

lash, and the

said to be

beaten

I do

mean

: "

not

20

high,in schools or even in small portionsof the Church, an not interposition may rightlytake place; and again,questionsmay be of that of duty, urgent nature, that an appeal must, as a matter at once be made to the highestauthorityin the Church ; but, if we look into the historyof controversy, we shall find,I think,the generalrun of thingsto be such as I have treated representedit. Zosimus Pelagius and Coelestius so with extreme forbearance equally ; St. Gregory VII. was of the very indulgent with Berengarius;( )by reason of the Popes they have commonly been slow and power to say

that,when

controversies

run

"

moderate And exercise nations to have

in their

"

who

are

acted

if so, in the 25

of it.

use

again is a further shelter reason : of) the [individual]

here

in the for its

various

if so] on

(the legitimate

the

Church

multitude will be

protection, against any

authorities at Rome, 37

rightly]advisably 39

fold of the

for

the

who

suppositionof

are

with

in] which

narrowness

of

found

narrowness,

whom are

lies

within


practicaldecision

the

SINCE

MIND

controverted

of

359

1845.)

questions. How

respectedand provided for Councils, in spiteof the countries

the Greek

have

MY

OP

(POSITION

been

traditions

in the later Ecumenical held them being in

! There state of schism are a which doctrine have been of (humanlyimportant points speaking)exempted from the infallible sentence, by the with which its instruments, in framing it,have tenderness

that

such 10

opinionsof particularplaces. Then, again, have influences a providentialeffect in

the

treated

national

the

moderating exert

may

bias

which

upon

the

Rome

is

ourselves

submit

only

not

the

to

would 20

to me,

seems

be

the

very

range

been of

notes

of

of

Italyreason

France, and

which

with

devotion

it we

this plainly. to admit saying,that Catholicityis the Church, but, according See

serious

evil,which

should

be

Divine

contracted

I think

Mercy Europe

in

It is

nationalities. particular

of

to

Italy;

of its securities.

one

purposes,

Church

the

that

a

Holy

I have

of the

one

divine

zeal and

the

to as

element

an

element

(init)an the

prejudiceto

no

It

have

must

of

It stands

has in it

that, as the Galilean Church so

influences

local

of St. Peter.

the See

a

it

!

avert

within

great idea

to

civilization into America, and to improve of French there by the energy Religion; will have all European ever that races

Latin

introduce the

CathoHcs

but

I

trust

placein the Church, and assuredlyI think that the loss of the English,not to say the German element, in its compositionhas been a most serious evil. And certainly, a

if there

30

is

one

make

should

us

consideration

that, by givingus the

for

way

our

Pius

English gratefulto a

own

Church habits

of

our

of

mind,

tastes, and

OAvn,

reasoning, in a placeand therebya sanctification, our

There

is

own

other

only one

our

which

another

than

more

the he

our

own

Ninth,

it is

prepared

has

of

manner

virtues, finding

own

the Catholic I think

subject,which

Church. it

sary neces-

here, as bearing upon the vague suspicions hood. in this country to the Catholic Priestattached

to introduce

which

are

It is 12

an

one

element

of

of which

my

France]

French

23

Religion]devotedness

27

evil]misfortune

37

my

accuser

says]my

a

accuser

24

accusers

says

much,( )the "

element

have

have

before

ever] ever now

said

have


charge of degree on

reserve

and

what

I have

Arians, and

of the

TO

ANSWER

GENERAL

360

He

economy''.

in

said

founds

the

on

note

a

KINC4SLEY.

MR.

it in

subject in of my

one

upon

Times(,and

of these

I

slight History

Sermons

of Reserve I refer to it. The principle in numbers admirable writer two an bj^

which

no

my

in

is also advocated

of the Tracts

the

Editor). Now, as to the Economy itseK(^), [I leave the greater part of what I have to say to an Appendix. Here I will of our the words but say that] it is founded Lord, upon and it was observed Cast not your pearlsbefore swine ; lo less in their intercourse or by the early Christians more whom with the heathen populationsamong they lived. In idolatries and impuritiesof the midst of the abominable that fearful time, they could not do otherwise. But the rule [of the Economy], at least as I have explained and recommended it, (in anything that I have written,)did could not go beyond (1)the concealingthe truth when we do so without deceit, (2) stating it only partially,and the nearest form possible to (3) representing it under he could not possibly under- 20 learner or inquirer,when a it exactly. I conceive that to draw stand angels with wings is an instance of the third of these economical modes ; the question, Do Christians and believe in a to avoid Trinity ? by answering, They believe in only one God," for the

was

"

"

"

"

"

would

be

an

of the

instance

but

an Economy, hardljTDisciplinaArcani." "

modes

Clement

is in

calls

second.

The

As

under

comes

and

second

a sense lie,and so also is a this, I think, is about the long

some

And

ground of the accusation which against me, as being a patron I have late years writers do, that Clement

Of

I used

but

I

1

He

to think now

he used

believe that

founds] They

the

he,

as

other

short

I believe

as

lie

I have

21

said.

hyperbole, earlyFathers, thought as

an

found

Footnote

angels] Angels

29

and

30

most

"

in 1S65. (^ Vide Note F, The Economy.) 14 they could of the Economy not do otherwise] the Rule the rule]that rule 14-15 imperative duty 7

of the

so

than

more "

the

and

think,

word

economical

a

urged violently Economy.

of the

meant

is

the

partialtruth representativetruth.

has been to

come

first,it

is called

third

that

lying; meaning

the

to

what

so

also

is]as is also

was

an


OF

(POSITION

MY

MIND

SINCE

1845.)

361

lawful to tell certain circumstances, it was I doctrine never maintained, a though I used that the theory of the subject is I do now, to thmk, as it is not considerable with surrounded difficulty ; and that should that I great English say so, considering strange that in certain declare (without writers [simply] hesitation)

that, under lie.

extreme a

10

This

cases,

as

to

lie is allowable.

save

And

life,honour, thus

I

am

or

even

brought to

property, the

direct

(of)the truthfuhiess of Catholic dealmgs with the world, as bearing the generalquestionof their honesty, and (of)their on internal behef in their religious professions. question of truth, and in their generally priests

It would answer no purpose, and it would be departing I have been observingall the line of writing which along, if I entered into any formal discussion on the going subject; what I shall do here, as I have done in the forethe matter is on to own testimony give my pages, first I will say, and there to leave it. Now in question, from

more I became a Catholic,nothing struck me of the Priests. the Enghsh out-spokenmanner the same It was at Oscott, at Old Hall Green, at Ushaw ; there was nothing of that smoothness, or mannerism, which natural more is commonly imputed to them, and they were

that, when 20

at

once

than

than many an AngUcan clergyman. The have which passed since,have only confirmed many years, it in the priests found have I first ever impression. my of this Diocese ; did I wish to pointout a straightforward Englishman, I should instance the Bishop, who has, to it. our great benefit,for so many years presidedover

and

30

unaffected

And opportunity struck, when I had more next, I was of judgingof the Priests,by the simplefaith in the Catholic Creed and system of which they always gave evidence, and at all,to be seemed to feel,in any sense which they never teen nineChurch in the been have that I burden. And a now recollect hearing of a singleinstance years, I cannot there are men of an infidel priest. Of course Church for leave the Catholic time from to time, who but I am another religion, speakingof cases, when a man in

England

15-16

the

this question Ksubject] N

3


keeps

fair outside

a

TO

MR.

KINGSLEY.

the world

and

is

ANSWER

GENERAL

362

to

hollow

a

hypocrite

in his heart.

the

that

I wonder

this

point

gain by professinga Creed, reward

for

after all to

a

to

not

do

What

they is to

assailant

if my ?

is their

What

believe

not

themselves

committing

toil,and

and

priestsdoes

our

of view.

which,

in

believed, they reallydo

be

of

self-devotion

in

Protestants

strike

life of self-restraint miserable death ?

a

and

premature

Irish fever cut off between Liverpooland Leeds thirty in the flower of their days,lo men priestsand more, young entitled to some seemed old men who quiet time after their long toil. There was a bishop cut off in the North ; The

had

but what

the

danger of sick calls, except that Christian charityconstrained him ? Priests volunteered

drudgery and

faith

to do with

of his ecclesiastical rank

man

a

and

the same It was (with them) dangerous service. coming of the cholera, that mysterious aweinspiringinfliction. If priestsdid not heartilybelieve in for the the

on

the

first

Creed

of the

only

of the have

we

miserable." the

then I will say its fullest illustration

of

of all men most are Christ, we support a set of hypocritesin deadly disorder, one of them following

a

long

another

perishing?

fact

his fault

has

a

not

deep

free service

it ; but

the

is terrible

absolute not

notion

of

;

they 5-6 8

could

my after

they

that

in that

have

assailant

to

him

as

a

the

sick call.

Sacraments

why terrible,if

;

he

acts

this, when

he

30

with

upon

they

see

it excludes

that clearly,

reflect upon

it, it leads them

of discipline

the

Church

no

has

so

Catholic

well ordered

their own surpasses exact discipline among

respect it such is .

all]perhaps

sacrifice

well himself,

or

of

news

without

admire see

sick

hypocrisy.

wonderful

they say

that

and

the

on

to

seem

Sometimes, when remark

the

substance,

ready to

ever

day,

faith, which

Protestants

?

they do

very

and

parishionerdying

a

through a

may life. He is

after

one

say, in its

such, I

Aveathers,off he is, on

of

hope, and

forlorn

the

up

And

people. Night

for his

in all

The

order

Mission-Priest's

himself

remark

If in this life 20

"

could

another

is every

'

:

in

hope What

presence in

the

that

Church;

Apostle had

.

.

believed] their enemies 18

are

;

a

to

priesthood clergy,

they wish

themselves. credited .

.

.

priests]they


(POSITION But

is it

is it

or

land

at

of

The

have

known

infuses

under find

the

us,

unless

our

books the

these

which

in

act

to

rule, as

all in

it

if

How

the obvious

will allow

of

none

wonderful one

way,

they

were

difficult to one,

that

they profess! in

be,

can

a

Uke

day

this Protestant

this,which

country against

charges which are drawn from vague Theology ; and with a (short)notice accuser particularwhich my especially teeth, I shall [in a very few words] bring

in

to

close.

a

be denied, lays cannot words, equivocation,that is, a play upon is taken sense by the speaker,and another by him for the hearer, is allowable, if there

Liguori,(then,)it

AKonso that

an

one

intended

sense

is that

of Moral

observations

down

then

Theman.

Meran,

the

it be

in(to)our

St.

20

What

of in the

in

seen

of

men

prejudiceof

work

throws

it been

merchants

buy

cannot

heard

thousand

you

what

think

I cannot

keeps up

You

?

been

obedience

intenselywhat

believe

purchased ? is it nothing else than itself,

never

hath

363

be

cause

a

1845.)

militarycompulsion ? unless

answer,

an

a

prompt

stem

some

they

makes a

has

on

It hath

Agar, the its way."

of

which

charm, and

"

neither

Chanaan,

children

these

of

price.

a

SINCE

can

depends

effect which

an

devotion

10

which

MIND

which

excellence

an

phenomenon

a

MY

OF

be just cause, that is,in a specialcase, and may even I shall give my by an oath. opinion on this point as plainlyas any Protestant can wish ; and therefore is

a

confirmed

I

the

English character better ; but, in saying so, I am not, to be seen, saying any thing disrespectful (shortly)

will

as

St.

who

AKonso,

I trust

was

a

I shall

whose of truth, and lose, though, on the

lover not

cession intermatter

consideration,I follow other guidance in preference

under to

in this department of morality,much high points of the Italian character, I like

that

once

I admire

the 30

at

avow

as

his. Now 17-18 21-3

I make

this remark

first : "

great English authors,

thrown is throws] by our accusers hearer,) hearer,](that is 1864 {another 1865 special1864]an extreme copy),an extraordinary my accuser that is .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

24

a

29

English character]English rule of conduct

.

.


GENERAL

364

TO

ANSWER

MR.

KINGSLEY.

of very tinct disJeremy Taylor,Milton, Paley, Johnson, men that certain under schools of thought,distinctlj?^ say, it is allowable to tell a lie. Taylor specialcircumstances To tell a lie for charity, to save a man's life,the says : life of a friend,of a husband, of a prince,of a useful and a publicperson, hath not only been done at all times, but would Who commended by great and wise and good men. his father's life,at the charge of a harmless not save lie,from persecutors or tyrants ? Again, Milton says : would in his senses What man deny, that there are those lo that we have the best grounds for considering whom we cated, ought to deceive, as boys, madmen, the sick,the intoxiin error, thieves ? I would ask, by enemies, men '*

"

"

"

of the commandments

which

is

lie forbidden

a

You

?

will

lie does not injure my If then my say, by the ninth. neighbour,certainlyit is not forbidden by this command There ment." are falsehoods,which are Paley says : ''

"

The Johnson : lies,that is,which are not criminal." be violated ; there generalrule is,that truth should never must, however, be some exceptions. If, for instance,20 not

a

should

murderer I

Now,

hominem

ad

ask you

way instances

[thisis]the

but

;

which

using these

not

am

to

use

a

is

man as

gone."

argumentum I put them

an

which

(isthis) : "

First, I have

1.

down

set

the

distinct

statements

of

Taylor,Milton, Paley,and Johnson ; now, would any one give ever so little weight to these statements, in forming of the veracityof the writers,if they now a real estimate alive ?

were

to

meet

Paley

or

him

as

look upon ?

deal

not

Were

I out

am

the

a

who

man,

Johnson a

is

liar,a knave,

sure same

fierce with

so

in

to-morrow

he

would measure

St.

Alfonso, society,would he 30

dishonest and

as

not.

Why

to

Catholic

then

worthy untrust-

does

priests?

he If

Scavini,which speaks of equivocationas being copy in a just cause allowable,be found in a student's room Scavini himself, but (even) the unhappy at Oscott, not in calls a bad book student, who has what a Protestant of

a

his

is judged (tobe) for possession, 1-2 3 23

life unworthy of credit.

distinct]difierent

special1864] extreme use] purpose

1864

{anothercopy),extraordinary1865.


Are

which text-books(,

all Protestant

Umversity(,)immaculate of

Hey

the hands

for

in ?

of a student, or the case not But, again, let us suppose, of a professor,but of Scavini himseK, or of St. Alfonso ; not here again I ask, if you would scruplein holding now Paley for an honest man, in spite of his defence of lying, St. Alfonso (honest)I why do you scruple at (holding) I am perfectlysure that you would not scrupleat Paley personally; you might not agree with him, but you would

(notgo

further than

should

St. AKonso's

his doctrine

to)call him

to tell you

because, you would cases. taking siiecial

say,

who

shot

not

because the

you

think

a

bold

odious

thinker to

why

then

:

you,

would

are you Paley had a

the

of

case

lesser evil to

tell

suspicionof

a

specialcases

in which

a

Catholic

you are not he advocated have

burglar dead

a

know

that in

why when

You

had

knew

you

because

be

person

well

as

as

?

I wish

Now

20

the

authority,or (rather)are they (not)manuals of a lecturer,and the groundwork of his remarks

ultimate

10

Burnett

or

to

every assertion the text-books

of Aristotle's Ethics, or the Articles 1 Are on

word

gospel every

at

take

used)

are

it necessary

Is

?

365

[SINCE 1845.)

MIND

MY

OF

(POSITION

not

a

habit

cruel

a

in his so

alternative

he

do

you

equivocationin

an

fear of

no

a

man

would

you

society,

thought show

it

such

speaks of certain penitentcannot

a

sin ? for this is a by his confessor as if it were of the point question. But again, why does Paley, why does Jeremy Taylor, before him, lay when is (actually) no practicalmatter will of lying,which down maxim about the lawfulness a readers ? The reason is plain. He is forming startle most a theory of morals, and he must treat every questionin St. Alfonso or it comes. And turn this is just what as is doing. You Scavini yourselfat only try your hand will see how treatise on the rules of morality, and you a be visited the exact

.

30

;

was

house,

own

tellinglies in

Then

Paley

lying,he

burglar: of

why theologian,who

lie.

afraid of

difficult the work you 9

give a

better

is \hQ

is. What than

that

it is

of a lie ? Can definition as sin againstjustice,

a

if]since

19

special18G4]

extreme

1864

26

extreme 186i'] special

iSei

(anothercopy),extreme

or

1865. special

{anothercopy), extraordinary

18(^5.


TO

ANSWER

GENERAL

366

KINGSLEY.

MR.

Paley consider it ? but, if so, how can it be all,if your neighbour is not injured? If you do take another ; and then, by means not like this definition, of that, perhaps you will be defendingSt. Alfonso's equivocation. I insist upon However, this is what ; that the different portions St. Alfonso, as Paley,is considering Taylor

and

sin at

a

largesubject,and he must, on the subject of lying, his judgment, though on that subject it is difhcult to form any judgment which is satisfactory. that a philo-lo But further still: you must not suppose which in his the licence moralist or uses own case sopher his theory itself would allow him. A man in his own is guided by his own conscience ; but in drawing person and follow out a system of rules he is obligedto go by logic, of

a

give

the

deduction

exact

(must) be You

hear

by

of

that

David

picture of would

be

might

come

as

the

and has

A

the

is

own

from

not

are

all the

at

treatise which

a

Holy See, demned, (already)been con-

person be St. Alfonso's

a

rigorist.And, in Life,that he, who of the

repute of being so lax a moralist, had one scrupulousand anxious of consciences himself.

further

than

this, he

originallyin

was

the

Law,

Nay, and

on

of what betrayed into the commission seemed like a deceit,though it was accident ; and that an the very occasion of his leaving the professionand was the life. embracing religious occasion

one

The

account

his Life "

he

was

of this remarkable

is told

occurrence

us

in

: "

Notwithstandinghe

had

carefullyexamined

over

and

the details of the process, he was completelymistaken of one document, which constituted regardingthe sense over

the Duke

rightof the adverse party. perceived the mistake, 20

20

the

of

the

most

who

late writer

a

write

have

score

one.

being written

subject of lying,which

the

on

condemnation

that

on

yet in his

is notorious

books irreligious

priestmay

and

is coherent

works sceptical

reallylax

under

conclusion, and

from

system

character ; there

man.

treatises

fact, it

or

Hume's

called

some

the whole

immoral

even

of decent

men

says

of conclusion

that

sure

may] might

The but

of the Grand

advocate he

21

allowed

would

be

Alfonso

called]was

to

30


OF

(POSITION continue

his

MY

MIND

address

eloquent

SINCE

the

to

1845.)

end

however, as he had ; soon, said with cuttingcoolness, Sir,the '

what

you and

there '

this

preciselythe depends

if you

;

Law.'

this

on

being paper advocate Duke's

Grand

Alfonso, holding the I have

been

the fear

of

that

so,

the

President

Caravita,

integrity,tried the

at

said

not

were

bar.

it had

this is the

of

of

who trickery,) lying.

But, which

in

in

know

all his

a

might

and, in order he tries,to the full 40

him

to

go,

to

him,

that

And

shut

that his such

his I

;

of

courts

law,

turning his back on house, incessantly

own

know

and

without

month, could

not

What

now.'

you

having studied

whole

a

now

you '

re-studied

having

covered dishow

understand

compass of multitude

by sin, full to to

extent his

them that to

eyes

in character sins,yet lighter

;

of

patron

or

he

view

thinking

is not

souls, sick souls, sinful evil, and he is trying

them

rescue

save

shadow a

theologianhas objectsin

general little

;

much

so

in vain

was

observation."

himself, but of sOuls, carried away with

confusion, It

man(, so easilyscared at the very is so flippantly pronounced to be

of

state

wrong,

the first men even among listen to nothing, but, overwhelmed sunk his head his breast, he on

truth, a Catholic

men

am

that

important flaw, he

escaped his

And

30

I

him, by tellinghim

again !

was,

during

this

the said

knew

'

process

that

Yes,'

and

to assembly, he withdrew World, repeating to himscK,

the

'

would

me

see

most

'

the

were

the French

found

hand,

loved

the

him

under

right.

with

who

'

annoyed

'

fief

uncommon,

Alfonso

shall you

never

him

with confusion, himself, World, I

to

advanced.' the

was

emotion.

console

to

have

unexpected, and dealing,filled him with

of unfair

his

saw

process, find

discoveryso

covered

one

his

in

A

the will

hesitating ;

or

it

the

in

was

paper

accused

being

every

mistakes

Lombardy,

rose,

exactly

review

whether

examined,

mistaken.'

consternation, and

of all you without

question

of

The

will

"

ruption inter-

is not

case

attentively,you

paper

contrary

the law

under

granted

20

be

it to

suppose examine

Willingly,'replied Alfonso,

decision

10

without

finished,he

as

and

367

from from

their

his conscience such

sins, as

degree. He

miserable

heinous

more

will

though perfectly

are,

knows

sins, allow


368

well

that,if he

TO

ANSWER

GENERAL

is

as

strict

as

MR.

KINGSLEY.

he would

wish

to

be, he shall

the 'run of men nothing ; so he he can be. Let it not is as indulgentwith them ever as of instant be for an supposed,that I allow of the maxim ; but, keeping clear of this, doing evil that good may come from greatersins by winking there is a way of winning men faults ; for the time at the less,or at mere or improprieties Catholic books which and this is the key to the difficulty to the Protestant. of moral theologyso often cause They intended for the Confessor,and Protestants view them lo are be

as

able

do

to

at

all with

for the Preacher.

intended

Taylor,Milton, and Paley thus : clergyman say to me, if I accused allowable ; and if,when him of teaching that a lie was he asked for my proof,I said in reply that (such was the doctrine of) Taylor and Milton [so taught]? Why, he bound would not sharply retort, / am by Taylor or and if I went Milton ; on Taylor was one urging that that Taylor was would of his authorities,"he answer 2. And

What

I observe

would

upon Protestant

a

"

"

"

a

great writer, but great

lible.

This

is

pretty much

writers

the

were

answer

not

which

therefore I

infal-

20

make, when

in this matter of St. Alfonso. considered a disciple state, and without reserve, plainlyand positively any in that I do not at all follow this holy and charitable man various schools of this portion of his teaching. There are opinionallowed in the Church : and on this point I follow others. I follow Cardinal Gerdil,and Natalis Alexander, nay, St. Augustine. I will quote one passage from Natalis Alexander : They certainlylie,who utter the words bind them- 30 the will to swear of an or oath, without reservations and equimake of mental selves : or who use vocations what in swearing,since they signifyby words they have not in mind, contrary to the end for which instituted,viz. as signs of ideas. Or they language was mean something else than the words signifyin themselves and the common of speech." And, to take an custom instance : I do not believe any priestin England would dream of saying, My friend is not here ; meaning, He shoe." Nor under should any is not in my or pocket my think 40 I do make not consideration so me myself. say

I

am

I

"

"

"

St. Alfonso

would

"

"

in his

own

case

have

said

so

;

and

he


would

have

been

Protestants

as

And

and, the

express

for

their

at

not

on

the form

and

wish

the

the

of the

know

to

harmony

body,

Council

of

purpose sermons

Taylor

and

Paley,

what

real

our

of the human is it

of Trent

with

frame

the

drawn

was

as

whole

my

work

;

mind. up

providingpreacherswith

and,

;

myself,I

so

for

subjects has

been

say that I rarely preach and completeCatechism a Sermon, but I go to this beautiful and doctrine. There find to get both matter we my my a

defence

at

369

subjects,so on that of lying, books of casuistry,but at our our sight pathologydo not give the best in-

Works

Catechism

The 10

shocked

1845.)

other

it is with

as

SINCE

bim(2).

at

on

look,

catechisms. into

MIND

if Protestants

now,

teaching is, as let them

much

as

are

MY

OF

(POSITION

the "

of

followingnotices '

Thou

shalt not

be drawn the

20

laws

to two

removing

all

words

deeds

and

the

about

bear

pretence

false

duty

and

of

veracity: "

witness,'"c.

contained

forbiddingfalse

one,

here

may

let attention

:

in this commandment

witness

; the

deceits,we

other

: "

bidding,that

should

measure

our

Apostleadmonished the Ephesians of that duty in these words : Doing truth in Him in charity,let us grow through all things.' To deceive by a He in joke or for the sake of compliment, there accrues loss or though to no one gain in nevertheless is altogetherunworthy : for consequence, thus the Apostle admonishes, Putting aside Ij^ng,speak by simpletruth,as

the

'

"

'

truth.'

ye

For

frequentand 30

therein

is

great danger

of

lapsing into

lying,and from lies in joke men gain the habit of lying,whence they gain the character of not being truthful. And thence again, in order to gain credit to their words, they find it necessary to make a

serious

more

practiceof swearing.

"Nothing

is

testimony, in nor

there 2

([forus]) than truth of necessarj^ selves, ourthings,which we neither know allowably be ignorant of, on which point of St. Augustine's that maxim ; Whoso more

those

can

is extant

11

Footnote in 1S65. sermons] Sermons

31

credit]credence

(^ Vide

Note

G, Lying and

Equivocation.}

15

veracity]Veracity

33

These

[ ] are

in the 1S65

edition.


GENERAL

370

is lawful

of

out

at

he to

puts forth a lie,each is willingto do a service, do

to

a

mischief.

silent about

be

the

court, when

for in

;

KINGSLEY.

is not

wish

a

times

of law

court

a

MR.

whoso

guilty; the one because he has the other because "It

TO

truth, and

the

conceals

ANSWER

interrogatedby the judge according to law, wholly to be brought out. "

Witnesses, however,

confidence

they "

have

In

that

order

is

truth

is

they

lo

faithful

the

witness

the

overbeware, lest, from affirm for certain,what

must

in their memory, not verified.

truth, but

a

with

may

good

more

will

lying,the Parish Priest shall set before misery and turpitudeof this wickedness. in For, holy writ, the devil is called the father of a lie ; in Truth, he is a liar,and for, in that he did not remain the father of a lie. He will add, with the view of ridding of so great a crime, the evils which follow upon men lying; and, whereas they are innumerable, he will point out [at and the generalheads of these mischiefs least]the sources and calamities,viz. 1. How and 20 great is God's displeasure who how is insincere and a liar. great His hatred of a man who is specially 2. What securitythere is that a man (httle) hated by God be visited by the heaviest punishnot ments. may unclean and foul,as St. James 3. What more says, than that a fountain jet should send by the same and that tongue, which 4. For bitter ? out water sweet in far it lies,dishonours as as now God, next, praised just avoid

them

the

sin

of

the extreme

....

Him

the

by lying,

5. In

liars

consequence,

evil of

worst

Ipng, that

are

shut

6. That

possessionof heavenly beatitude.

that disease of the mind

out

is

from is the

too

30 generally

Incurable. "

Moreover, there

is this

extent, and touching men truth and lying faith and bonds

of human follows

confusion differ from "

excuse

harm

too, and

generally,that

one

of

vast

by insincerity

are lost,which are the firmest society,and, when they are lost,supreme in nothing to in life,so that men seem

devils.

Lastly, the

Parish

Priest

their insincerityand 18, 19 These [ ] are

will

set

allegethe

in the 1S64

and

1865

those

right who example of wise

editions.


OF

(POSITION who, they say, them, what

men,

when

they

"

who

have

that

and

lie for

1845.) occasion.

an

his hearers

to

He

of the

God,

in

trust

straits,nor

have

to

lie.

a

of their

blame

lie

own

them, are themselves, nor

revenge

371

the wisdom

lie deceived

a

those

on

be

to

taught

make

for

up

another."

by

....

is much

in the Catechism

more

it is of universal

particularauthor

a

in

need

morals

to

the

effect,

same

the decision

whereas

obligation ;

of

accepted by

be

not

one.

any To

other

one

commands work

words

to

"St.

Life,

attention

me

of

a

Father.

of

a

conclusion.

a

Philip,"says

"

this subject,which specialkind, for they to bring my They will serve

authorityI appeal on

from

the

are

20

not

must

men

There

10

the

throw

alreadyby

evil

one

expedientof

who

They

to

true, that

is most

difficulties and

in

the

to

recourse

SINCE

will exhort

He

are

MIND

used

are

will tell

flesh is death.

IMY

had

the Roman

who

Oratorian

self and

wrote

both

particulardislike of affectation others,in speaking,in dressing,or a

in

his

in him-

thing

any

else. "

He

avoided

which

all ceremony

of worldly great stickler that, when he

savoured

himself

compliment,

and

for Christian

in every thing ; so simplicity of worldlyprudence,he men

had

always

showed

a

deal with

to

to himseK readilyaccommodate And he avoided, as much

did

not

very

them.

"

30

as possible,having any did not go simply thing to do with tivo-faced persons, who and straightforwardly in their transactions. to work "As for liars,he could not endure them, and he was children, to avoid them continuallyreminding his spiritual

they ivould

as

These I

was

are

I have to

acted before I have which I trust, the these w hich, are principles ; stay and guidance to the end. on principles

Catholic

a

will be my

name

pestilence.''

a

the

closed St.

upon

whom 15-16

can

I

they are

historyof myself with St. Philip's Philip'sfeast-day; and, having done so, this

more

suitably offer it, as

the words

.

.

.

They]

it is the

a

memorial

teaching

...

It

of


372

GENERAL

affection dearest

and

ANSWER

TO

gratitude,than

brothers

EINGSLEY.

MR.

St.

to

Philip'ssons,

my

House, the Priests of the Birming^ ham St. John, Henry Austin Oratory, Ambrose Mills, Henry Paine Bittleston, Edward Caswall, William

Neville, have

been

and

of this

Henry

Ignatius

Dudley

Ryder

?

who

have been so sensitive faithful to me ; who of my needs ; who have been so indulgentto my failings ; who have carried me have trials ; who through so many so

grudged

no

cheerful

under

done

so

many

them

; "

if I asked sacrifice,

with

for it ; who

have

been

so

discouragementsof my causing ; who have good works, and let me have the credit of whom I have lived so long,with whom I hope

lo

die.

to

And

dear Ambrose St. John to you especially, ; whom when He took every one else away ; who gave me, the link between old life and my have new my ; who for twenty-one years been so devoted to me, so patient, zealous, so tender ; who have let me lean so hard upon

God are now so

have watched me so narrowly ; who have never ; who if I was in question. thought of yourself, And in you I gather up and those bear in memory familiar affectionate companions and counsellors,who in Oxford were given to me, one after another, to be my dailysolace and relief ; and all those others,of great name and high example, who were thorough friends, and my showed in times long past ; and also true attachment me you

those who

many younger have never been

and

of all

those

more

men,

whether

to disloyal

these, thus various who have especially

I knew

by

me

in

word

their

since

them or

or

not,

[by] deed

relations

joined the

to

And

Catholic

I earnestlypray with for this whole company, so were hope against hope, that all of us, who once be now united, and so happy in our even union, may brought at length,by the Power of the Divine Will, into One Fold and under One Shepherd.

May 26, 1864. Corp.Christ.

In Festo

27 younger

1864, 1865]young

1864

{anothercopy).

;

me,

Church.

a

20

30


APPENDIX.

(1864.)

ANSWER

IN

DETAIL

ACCUSATIONS.

TO

MR.

KINGSLEY'S


APPENDIX. [answer In

detail

to

proceeding now,

which

am

entered

I

detail I

in

the

random

accusations.

engagement

undertaking,

my

which

has

been

to

written

show

its method

of

disputation. any delay ; and

this without

And

1.

My My

Sermon

on

the

Sermon

on

Wisdom

3. The

Anglican

4. The

Lives

English Saints.

Miracles.

6.

Popular Religion.

7

The .

8.

Innocence.

Church.

of the

5. Ecclesiastical

Economy. Lying and Equivocation.

Appendix. 1864] Notes. The

matter

1S65

between [ ],pp.

375-7,

was

not

it

is

I ceed proshall consider in now

ApostolicalChristian. and

in

against me, is as slovenly

order,

2.

with

examine

sorry to be obligedto say, that it and futile in its definite charges, as

iniquitousin to

the

according to

upon

Pamphlet

very

and

kingsley's

MR.

reprintedin

1865.


APPENDIX.

376

1. in 1865.) {Not reprinted

My

"

Sermon

of This

The

on "

Sermons

Christian" Apostolical beingthe on Subjectsof the Day."

"

What Dr. Newman says, has not left in doubt ;

writer ...

from this Sermon passage and the holy nun monk

which

a

the

imphed

nor

or

now

in

1843-4,

definition

he

monks

nuns

or

or

at

any

ascribes

to

me.

one

;

given a definition, I, either

could

nor

time, allow As

the This

of the

particular

if all Christians

must

be

lo

!

I have

What

p. 28. neither

"

intended

nor

one,

the humble "

I have

case.

"

Christians

after being Scripture,"he observes,

pattern given us in of Christians." is his definition is not

"

then, quoting

of

speaks

"

very

This

and

tians Chris-

by

means

"

he

\Wi

said

is,that monks and

and

patterns

are

nuns

Scriptureitself suppHes with this pattern. Who us can deny this ? Who is bold enough to say that St. John Baptist,who, I suppose, is a ScriptureCharacter, is not a pattern-monk ; and that Lord's feet," was sat at our not a patternMary, who Anna ? and nun too, who served God with fastingsand but this Again, what is meant prayers night and day ? not to touch 20 by St. Paul's saying, It is good for a man ? a woman and, when speakingof the father or guardian of a young girl, He that giveth her in marriage doeth well ; but he that givethher not in marriagedoeth better ? when And what does St. John mean but to praisevirginity, Mount he says of the hundred on fortyand four thousand not defiled with women, Sion, These are they which were Lord And what else did for they are our virgins? of Christian

perfection ;

that

''

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

mean,

when

themselves He

He

said,

eunuchs

"

There

for

that is able to receive He his ought to know

the

be

eunuchs

it,let him

who of

kingdom

receive

logicbetter

:

have

heaven's it ?

I have

made sake.

"

so

said

that


377

APPENDIX.

"

and

monks

is

Now

then

''

nuns.

Blot

for

two.

only

the

nuns

what

Christians

perfect

.

.

?

more

and "

10

""p.

and

monks

thought

P.

or

so

57.

the

said

perfect

the

the

as

case.

Christians Bible Blot

only

I

What "

:

Christians

three.']

it

said

does are

.

he

is, not

monks

monks

Therefore

adds,

Christians."

Monks

Christians other

and

I

;

never

time.

spoken

are

nuns

.

This,

Christians."

Bible

true

any

monks

Sermon .

of

at

or

now

that

than

more

:

perfect

only

only

so,

the

"In

the

are

not

no

Christians

perfect nuns

are

nuns

said

I

logic.

in

fault

were

nuns

and

.

29.

second

A

he

:

and

monks

are

"

Scripture

in

pattern

Christians

one.

and

Monks

all

hold

I

Blot

This

their

find

nuns

Therefore

adds,

"

that

follow, and

and

monks nor

nuns."

did

I

again, nuns

mean,

Bad

are

that

logic

is

not

Bible "

all

again.


378

APPENDIX

2.

[my]

sermon

"wisdom

on

"[, BEING

innocence

and

"

20th

of

on

sermons

subjects

of

the

THE

"].

day

(The professedbasis of the charge of lying and equivocation made against me, and, in my person, against the Catholic clergy,was, as I have already noticed in the of mine

Preface, a certain Sermon

"

Wisdom

on

and

cence," Inno-

'*

being the 20th in a series of Sermons on Subjects of the Day," written, preached,and publishedwhile I was accuser an spoke thus in Anglican. Of this Sermon my his Pamphlet : "

'

(" It is occupied entirelywith the attitude of the world ' to ' the Church.') [This writer says, p. 28, about lo Christians ' and Sermon 20,] By the world appears to be signified, especially, my the Protestant means public of these realms(; what Dr. Newman '

by Christians,and

Church, he has

the

he says

precedingSermon

monk

and

'

:

the

are

the humble

are

called,but Christians after

"c.'

This

....

But

left in

not

if the truth

doubt;

for in the

be

spoken, what holy nun, and other regulars,as they the very pattern given us in Scripture, must

is his definition of Christians.

And

in the

Sermon

'

he means defines what itself,he sufficiently by the Church,' in he shall give in his own of her character,which words : notes two What, for instance,though we grant that sacramental confession '

20

celibacyof the clergydo tend to consolidate the body politic in the relation of rulers and subjects, or, in other words, to aggrandize the priesthood? for how can the Church be one body without such and

the

relation ?

'

""P.

28.

it at on (He then proceeded to analyze and comment the method and and criticize tone to severely great length, Sermons of my generally.Among other things,he said : "

also asks, p. 33] Why Church which had sacramental the only true Church ? 30 confession and a cehbate clergywas Or) to insinuate,that the admiring young gentlemen,who Ustened to him, stood to their fellow-countrymen in the relation of the early

(" What, then, did

was

the Sermon

it preached ?[...]

2.

?) [He

mean

(To insinuate

{inheading)}Note

that

C.

On

a

page

250,


APPENDIX.

Christians

the

to

clesian's was

to the Church

[May

or

"

the

puts

'

have

been

Dio-

or

so.["]

of the "

notes

Church." in inverted

is,he garbles. It

'

notes

I

"

in question, celibacy of the And, just before, he the

and

definewhat

I

of her character."

as

commas,

is not

mine.

mean

I do

not

Blot

if it

was

five.

by the Church in define,or dream

defining.

of

1.

says that I teach that the celibacyof the the definition of the Church. I do no

He

clergy

into

enters

thing ; that celibacy of

is the blunt

truth.

Define

the

Church

such the

by

clergy! why, let him read 1 Tim. iii. ; there he will find that bishops and deacons are spoken of married. as How, then, could I be the dolt to say or a imply that the celibacyof the clergy was part of the definition Ajid made Blot 2. "

30

''

that

says '

'

notes

word

That

mine. He

Confession

Sacramental

clergy are

20

Nero's

It may

?

Victoria's

Queen

what

He insinuates,what not even Blot four. attempt to prove.

he

fingerdoes

that

England,

of Rome

not, it wasn't.

may

Or

?

of

asserts, p. 29, that I said in the Sermon

He that

two

the

to

Romans

Church

was

with his little

10

heathen

Government

379

the

of the Church

again in a

p.

57,

Blot

? "

In the

of the Church."

note

six. Sermon

Thus

celibate

a

the untruth

is

clergyis repeated.

seven.

And

for

now

Nor

is it.

this

as

the

Church

an

Blot

Neither

eight

confession Nor

could

"

"

was

I with

any

of Absolution

of

No

fair

man

brought England, for Confession, nay, of

read

can

in the

Anghcan Prayer in the seeing that that Church

the

that

say

Church."

have

cogency

against the Church England has retained

Confession.

I

of the

note

a

argument

Sacramental

did

.

Sacramental

the

form

Visitation

of

does sanction Sick, without and Absolution. and provide for Confession If that form does not contain the professionof a grave Sacramental have no act, words meaning. The form is almost in the words of the Roman form ; and, by the time that this in explainingit away, he will Clergyman has succeeded 4 The matter

between

[],pages

379 to 380 line 12, was

not

reprintedin

1865.


APPENDIX.

380

have

got skill enough

also

with

the

in his

of thinkers.

reading of

at

and

(I

know

inclined

do

It

and superstitious frantic, and the most preachers would be charity in him,

to

use

to

of

"

suspect Dr.

writing a

the

Sermon

had

the

of power in his master

a

he has

Yet

which

clergy was

used

myseK,

such the

was

of that

some

Book.

'"

Church

a

men so

formularies, he would

own

himself

Prayer Why

ask,

celibate

a

that to

shows

own

to

that

insinuate

to

he

his 33

p.

words,

my

evasion, of which

dealingwith

Roman

that latitude

with

of my being of Protestant

most

latitudinarian

words

my

that, instead

prove I was

the

explain away

to

; and if he did but handle which he interpretshis

form

ance assur-

preached ?

sacramental

only true

Church

Newman,

I have

whole

"

Sermon,

not

lo

fession con-

?

"]

been

for the

of the matter, but for the sake of one single little barbed phrase, one epithet,one arrow, of his calm which, as he swept magnificentlypast on the stream eloquence,seemingly unconscious of all presences, save those unseen, he delivered unheeded, as with his finger-tip, to the very heart of an initiated hearer,never to be withdrawn again. I do not blame him 20 for that. It is one of the highesttriumphs of oratorio power, and be employed honestly and fairlyby any person who has the may did he entitle his skill to do it honestly and fairly ; but then. Why sake

of the

passing

hint

'

Sermon

text

or

one

"

and

Wisdom

I think

'

?

that

Dr.

preacher bidding Christians imitate, to

a '

Innocence

could

("What, then, arts

'

him, by

a

St. Paul's conduct him the down on "

horrible

St. Paul. that

some

I found

meant? undefined

point,the

animals, and of men, and of the devil himself. strange perversionof Scripture,insinuatingthat

of the basest of

I found

him

Newman

to

I found

such and manner were as naturallyto bring I found 30 reputation of being a crafty deceiver. of one hintingthe same greater than say it even the existence of him denying or explainingaway

Priestcraft,which

"

is

a

notorious

fact to every

honest

student

him) that history,and justifying(as far as I can understand in the middle age, too often played double- deaHng by which prelates, the people off alternatelythe sovereign against the people, and in the right,so long as against the sovereign,careless which was I found him actuallyusing their own gained by the move. power of such (and, as I thought, of himself and his party hkewise) the to betray 40 words They yieldoutwardly ; to assent inwardly were because the faith. Yet they are called deceitful and double-dealing, than they may.' I found they do as much as they can, and not more of

'

12 13

in 1865. The matter between [ ],'p'p.379, line 4 to 380, was not reprinted that men In 1865 this followedwhat is here page 379 line 3. I know


APPENDIX. him

that

they

'

and

manliness

*

tellingChristians wanting in openness '

mystery

a

them rest

world, and

the

to

will

always '

the

that

'

and artificial,'

seem

that

;

they

world

will

will

always be always think

glory in what the world rogues ; and bidding them of their countrymen), disown, and say with Maw^vorm,

to be

(i.e. the '

I hke

despised.'

(" Now,

how

I to

was

reputation of being the 10

381

know

most

that acute

the

preacher, who had generation,and

the of

of his

man

of the intimate acquaintance with the weaknesses having a specially human heart, was utterlybhnd to the broad meaning and the plain before fanatic and practicalresult of a Sermon hke this, dehvered hot-headed who hung upon his every word ? that he men, young did not think that they obeyed him foresee that they would by becoming affected, artificial,sly, shifty,ready for concealments and equivocations? "c. "c. Pp. 33, 34. "

"

(My

in this passage

asked

accuser

and

it

why was mean, question;) ["Why?" with 20

this

Sermon, then 1. It

when I

I

was

of its

preached in

the

year is Sermon

too

bears

me

what

speak, first of subject,then of the

last

six

Anglican. It was St. Mary's between

did the Sermon

I will here

I will tell the

of

one an

was

1843, the

this

answer

reader, why;]

the

of

contents

and

the

its circumstances.

Sermons

which

of the

one

Christmas

I wrote

five Sermons

and

Easter,

I gave Living. The MS. of up my destroyed ; but I believe, and my memory in out, as far as it goes, that the sentence when

this of which Confession(, much,) was not preachedat all. The is found, was Volume, in which this Sermon publishedafter I had no that I had given up St. Mary's,when call on me I might hold : to restrain the expressionof any thing which ment and I state(d) an important fact about it in the AdvertiseBlot this truth -lovingwriter suppresses. [, which

question

writer

30

will

view

preached.

Celibacy and

about

would

make

so

nine.

My words, which stared him in the face, are as follows] for In preparing [these Sermons] (in these words) : in several have publication,a few words and sentences places been added, which will be found to express more expedient to of private or personalopinion,than it was "

"

19

contents] matter circumstances] sichject circumstances subject 36 [These Sermons] The [ ] are the Author's. 20

.

.

.

.

.

.


APPENDIX.

382

introdtice

the

into

delivered

instruction

Church

in

to

Such

introduction,however, parochialCongregation. seems unobjectionablein the case of compositions,which the sacred place and service to which detached from are and judgonce they belonged,and submitted to the reason ment of the generalreader." a

This

Volume

of Sermons

then

be criticized at all

cannot

who, preachments ; they essays ; essays of a man time of pubUshing them, was not a preacher. Such which passages, as that in question,are just the very ones I added publishingthem, (and,as) I always was my upon on my guard in the pulpitof sayingany thingwhich looked as

are

at the

towards "

Rome

and

;

therefore

all his

"

disciples," admiring young "

me,"

and

fanatic

hot-headed

rhetoric

gentlemen young

men,

about

who

my

listened

who

hung

lo

to

upon

simple rubbish. of time I cannot conceive why the mention same Sacramental Confession,or of Clerical Celibacy,had I made it,was inconsistent with the positionof an AnglicanClergyman. and Absolution For Sacramental Confession actually20 form a portionof the AngHcan Visitation of the Sick ; and and Bishops,priests, though the 32nd Article says that deacons, are not commanded by God's law either to vow the state of singlelife or to abstain from marriage," and therefore it i^ lawfulfor them to marry," this proposition with I did not dream is it inconsistent of denying, nor I held, that it is St. Paul's doctrine,which good to abide he," i.e. in cehbacy.) even as this point. This writer to say on (But) I have more that used so I know to suspect Dr. Newmen says, [p.33,] I have been inclined to do so myself, of writing man," a whole Sermon, not for the sake of the text or of the matter, but for the sake of one simple passing hint, one phrase, one epithet." (Now observe ;) Can there be a plainer testimony borne to the practicalcharacter of my Sermons this gratuitousinsinuation ? at St. Mary's than Many doctrine has been accused of not a preacher of Tractarian my

every (At the

word,"

becomes

''

"

"

"

"

"

11

them.] them

13-16

Rome;

preach the heard

it

12

; .

.

obnoxious

.

rubbish] Rome, sentence

till some

of] against

I shall believe that I did not that he is found to testify one


(NOTE

383

C.)

lettinghis parishionersalone, and of teasingthem with notions. his privatetheological [You would gather from that that was of this Writer the general tone my way. Every one who was in the habit of hearingme, knows that This Writer either knows it wasn't. nothing about it,and then he ought to be silent ; or he does know, and then he report ought to speak the truth. Others spread] the same (was spread about me) twenty years ago as he does now, Sermons at St. Mary's were and the world believed that my 10

full of red-hot me

Then strangers came to hear Tract arianism. astonished at their own were ment. disappoint-

preach, and

great prelatefrom a distance expressingher surpriseto find Sermon. that I preached nothing but a plain humdrum the Sunday before CommemoraI recollect how, when tion on I recollect the wife of

coming

one

I

to hear

year,

preached in position,were

my

30

of

usual

loud

a

to

strangers came

way, their

in

made

a

then

number

a

occasion, I had 20

and

me,

residents satisfaction

in

hear

me,

and

Oxford, of high that on a great

simple failure,for

after all there

to hear. Well, but they were nothing in the Sermon view of not going to let me off,for all my common-sense duty. Accordingly,they got up the charitable theory revives. which this Writer They said that there was in those double a plain addresses of mine, and purpose that my Sermons artful as when were never so they seemed that there which redeemed sentences were common-place ; their apparent simphcity and quietness.So they watched too during the deliveryof a Sermon, which to them was to be useful,for the concealed practical point of it,which they could at least imagine, if they could not discover. Men used to suspect Dr. Newman," he says, of writing whole a Sermon, not for the sake of the text or of the matter, but for the sake of (one singlepassinghint,) one phrase,one epithet,one little barbed arrow, which, as he swept magnificently of his calm past on the stream of all presences, save eloquence, seemingly unconscious those unseen, he delivered unheeded," "c. [p.33.] To all he says, I was of all presences "[; unconscious appearance, this kind Writer suppliesthe true interpretation of this so was

"

"

.

"

8 he

does] this writer spreads

.

.


APPENDIX.

384

unconsciousness.] He "

Sermon

able to

deny

"

that

the whole

of being "/or the sake of the the appearance therefore he suggests that perhaps it matter ; "

and

text

is not

had

"

[And then he emptily talks of the magnificent oratoric power." Did eloquence," and my sweep of which he forgetthat the Sermon he thus speaks can be wasn't.

"

of my

read

by

short is

others

well

as

written

almost

Eloquence there

more

are,

as

the

subject

Tract

Blot

as

the

of

consists

of

the

subjectswhich Mary's. They are not for the

the Church not

are

most

one

to the

in its relation

simply those

on

It

ten.l

lo

The

[Sermons] I ordinarily

I introduced

into

purely ethical or stances part caused by circumthey belong to various

of the

engaged

as

90.

Sermon. such

are

time, and One was written in 1832, two in 1836, two 1840, five in 1841, four in 1842, seven

of them

meant,

style

put this down

Volume

to

pulpitof St. doctrinal. They were of the day or

Many

the sentences are Butler's.

Bishop

as

less,exceptions to the rule which

or

observed,

years. five in

I

the

to

the

Now,

grave

condensed

none.

as

?

as

the

in

is

2. And now series of which as

him

as

Aristotle's,and

as

subject,viz. world. By the

multitudes

which

were

in

1838,

in

in

1843.

viewing 20

world not

was

in the

Church, but the existingbody of human society,whether the Church Catholics, Protestants, or not, whether Greeks, or Mahometans, theists or idolaters,as being ruled maxims, and instincts of their own, that is, by principles, their supernatural of an unregenerate nature, whatever might be, greater or less,accordingto their form privileges in

of

religion.This

of the relation

view

of the

Church

to

the

30 apart from questionsof ecclesiastical politics, as they may be called,is often brought out in my Sermons. Plain 3 of my Two at once to me Sermons, occur ; No. which was written in 1829, and No. 15 of my Third Volume (ofParochial),written in 1835. [Then,] on the other hand,

world

by

as

taken

Church with

of

I

meant, the

opinion,and

except 12

those

"

Tract with

of the

series]Sermons

in

with

common

Movement, the

whole

Puritan

or

all writers

whatever

their

nected con-

shades

body of English divines, EvangelicalSchool, the "

17

time] moment


(NOTE whole

385

C.)

of Christendom, from the Apostles'time till now, their later divisions into Latin, Greek, and

whatever

explainedthis view of the subjectabove When then I speak, in 171 of this Volume. the particularSermon before us, of the members, or the " the Church," I mean neither the rulers,or the action of but the Latin, nor Greek, nor the English,taken by itself, Anglican.

at

168

pp.

I have

"

Church with as one body : of Italy as one with the Caroline Norman of the Saxon or as one Church. This Church, and the was speciallythe one branch or one period differed from points in which one of the

whole

England,

10

another because Church to

Notes

be

not

necessarilybelong[ed]to and where always. doctrine

being my

the

could

not

every

This

and

were

Notes

world,

I laid down

to

as

of the Church, the whole of the

the relation of the Church three principles Sermon

in the

concerning it,and

there left the matter. The first is,that framed for its action, laws which man, have antecedentlypronounced to if left to himself, would be the worst possiblefor its success, and which in all ages Wisdom

Divine

20

have

had

been called by the world, as " foolishness ; " that man

days,

they were ever

in the

relies

on

Apostles' physical

and material carnal on force, and inducements, as Mahomet with his sword and his houris, or indeed almost that theory of religion, called,since the Sermon as was "

"

"

that our but written, muscular Lord, Christianity ; the contrary, has substituted meekness for haughtiness, on passivenessfor violence,and innocence for craft : and that 30

the event has shown the high wisdom of such an economy, for it has brought to lighta set of natural laws, unknown

before,by which

the

seeming paradox that weakness should might,and simplicitythan worldlypolicy, is readilyexplained. of the world, judging by the Secondly,I said that men of the success, event, and not recognizingthe secret causes viz. a higherorder of natural laws, natural, though their and action were source supernatural,(for the meek inherit the earth," by means which from of a meekness comes I say, concluded, that the success above,) these men, which arise from evil secret some they witnessed must which the world had of magic, not mastered, by means be stronger than

"

"

"

10

"

APOLOGIA

Q


APPENDIX.

386

as

And

they said in the first ages, by cunning as they say now. accordingly they thought that the humility and Christians,or of Churchmen,

of

inoffensiveness

was

a

pretence and

of that

which

not

the real causes blind to cover Christians could explainand would

simply hypocrites. they were Thirdly,I suggestedthat shrewd that

well

very

and, from

matter,

actuallywent real

the

there

that

who ecclesiastics,

knew

magic nor craft in the intimate acquaintance with what what the Church, discerned were

their

of its success,

causes

and

;

neither

was

within

on

mere

success,

of

were

lo

the

under

course

for conscience, and, of substituting reason led to do simply obepng the command, were in order to their that to act is, might come, good

temptation instead

good

of

that

and

success,

yield to

of faith.

motive

a

temptation more

mixed

became

from

not

the

;

this

in

and

or

Some,

the

way

said, did

I

their

less, and

world

motives

in

a

more

got into the Church ; and hence it has first to last, to pass, that, looking at its historyfrom come cannot good and evil 20 we possiblydraw the line between that every thing is to be defended, there, and say eitJber I expressedthe difficulty, or some thingsto be condemned. ing which I supposed to be inherent in the Church, in the followbeen considered has ever I said, words. Priestcraft of Note of the its imputation is a kind the badge, and of the because indeed and in Church truly, presence part ; of their own weakness, powerful enemies, and the sense has sometimes tempted Christians to the abuse, instead of the Christian wisdom, to be wise without being harmless ; use of but partly,nay, for the most part, not truly, but slan-33 derously,and merely because the world called their wisdom

subtle

shape

has

"

craft,when

it

found

was

to be

power." [This passage Blot eleven.'] omitted.

and

Such

is the

drift of

main

of

substance

it,it

14

if

18

their]secure 21

has

the

for its

own

Sermon

has

is]was

historical it

was

numbers

partlygarbled,partly :

and

there this ; that I was, of the Church as course

was

scrutinizingthe an as philosophically, observing the laws on which as

match

a

he

as

a

the

to

where, else-

and

whole,

phenomenon,

conducted.

Hence

20 cannot] could (twice)]had 22 some] certain

and the not


(NOTE tSermon, and

Essay

or

it

as

warmth keen

not, it

If I mistake

3.

shows

written

in

little of

as

a

dry

human

of Bishop repeat,] as a Sermon a Yet, under that calm exterior there was deep sensitiveness,as I shall now proceed to show.

of

Butler's. and

it

:

way feeling[,I

387

truly is,is

more

unimpassioned

0.)

wiitten

was

with

thought

secret

a

about

myself. Every one preaches according to his frame of mind, at the time of preaching. One heaviness especially which this Writer, twenty at that season, oppressed me ) years afterwards, has set himself with a good will to renew

:

it

thrown

that

this

the

from

arose

were

upon

of the base

sense

all sides.

on

me

calumnies

(Itis worth

which

observing

exactly contemporaneous with the report spread by a Bishop {vid.supr. p. 275), that I had advised to Catholicism to retain a clergyman converted in circulation in February his Living. This report was Sermon

is

1843, and

Sermon was my of mind (intowhich

trouble

I gained,while this,)

as )

preached on

Church, argument

I

was

the

thrown

I reviewed

19th.) In by

the

such

this

nies calum-

historyof

the

My argument and a consolation. this : if I, who knew was own innocence, my blackened was so by party prejudice,perhaps those high rulers and those servants of the Church, in the many ages which intervened the early Nicene times and the between laden with such grievous accusations, present, who were at

once

innocent

were

tender

towards

an

also ; and this reflection served to make me those great names of the past, to whom

weaknesses

imputed, and reconciled me to proceedings,which there were properly explaining. And the sympathy

crimes were or difficulties in ecclesiastical

D no

means

thus

now

excited

comfort those

in

who

of for

being had

them, able

suffered

-acted on myself, and I found of put myself under the shadow and seemed I was who suffering,

re

to as

their recompense, since I had a fellowship in their trial. In a letter to my Bishop at the time of Tract 90, part of which I have quoted, I said that I had tried to " keep innocency ; " and now two ever years had to

promise

passed 12

me

since

then,

thrown] heaped

and

men

were

louder

and

louder

17

this]the

in


APPENDIX.

388

the very charges,which this Writer repeats me fraud and cunning," craftiness Sermon, of of and deceitfuhiess," double-deahng," priestcraft," mysterious, dark, subtle, designing,"when I was being

heaping on

"

"

of my

out

"

"

"

when

how,

surpriseagain it

as

my

"

in

my

faithfulness

to

my

destrojdng

jarred upon been

have

large

colonial

a

correspondence with of

to

silence

and

an

how

these

about

justice,and

"

lo

"

secret

a

found

I

my

called, mystic

hypocrisy;

engagements And

enemy.

of

sense

and

"

called

was

clerical

the

"

deceit ;

authority had been Bishop's charge,

a

way

things which

otherwise

would

for me, by the contemplation of a Divine Dispensation,and found myself

much

too

of the

law

"

sensitiveness

my

my

"

to

how

humility ; and

submission

called

was

imputed

was

heartfelt

honest

after

"

had

success

degree,and

my

sobriety,seK-restraint,and control of feeling." I had 'had experience how my past and been imputed to secret management ; that shown I had surprise at that success,

and

word

myself,in

to

"

of

measure,

my

conscious

time

all the

able to bear in my a own present 20 person in my trial,of which past writings I had expressed an anticipation. has the For thus feelingand thus speaking this Writer and

more

more

the

and

charitableness

decency

"

call

to

me

Mawworm."

"

that they will tellingChristians,"he says, and and artificial,' wanting in openness always seem to the that they will always be manliness a mystery ; world ; and that the world will always think them ; rogues and biddingthem glory in what the world (thatis,the rest with Mawof their fellow-countrymen) disown, and 30 say be I like was to .] (Now) How despised.'[. worm, "

I found

him

'

'

'

'

'

'

.

I to know broad

the

that

meaning

preacher

and

the

.

.

.

utterlyblind

was

result plain practical

before fanatic and like this delivered who hung upon his every word men,

where extent 12

!

men

young

You

think

the

you of

may

scene

why,

let your

inveracity.

It

and

the

you

decency

are or

the

young

"

headed Hot[p. 34. writinga Romance. the Spanish main,

found] felt me] compares

to call

to

Sermon

a

hot-headed ?

"

imagination play is good luck for 19

colonial]foreign

charitableness

man,

is Alexandria

of

to

the

that

the

revel me

23-24 me

to

has

the


(NOTE of

scene

I

Then

labours

my

I sometimes say,

might ascribe and lying ; with

to

in

Damascus.

or

deadly craft

more

a

me

ecclesiastical

of your

one

have

should

I

Spain

in the

rack

my

Moscow

at

Saints,of which I am hear in conversation, but with whom, I have no personalacquaintance. Then you be

might

glad to

not

was

389

C.)

background

mere

quibbling

an

Inquisitor,

I should

the

been I

Prophet.

veiled

cealed con-

Sheik-el-Islam

should

have

"

Fanatic

a

brewed

have

! men yoimg Personae ; " writingout the list of a Dramatis populace,"and the like. He thinks

a

had

have

; I should

dagger in Sicily; at Venice poison ; in Turkey I should have ) with bowstring ; in Khorassan my "

than

been

been

Why he is spirators, guards,conI

was

ever

heels.] Capulets at my moving fanatics,who hung on my every word ! ["] ["]Hot-headed not a play, If he had (under)takento write a history,and that have easilyfound out, as I have said (above), he would from 1841 1 had severed myself from the younger generation theoof Oxford, that Dr. Pusey and I had then closed our had that I his at ) logical house, brought my own meetings I that to an end, only by preached parties weekly evening of that the attendance fits and starts at St. Mary's, so with

about

was

men

young

Christmas

till

preached, I have

would I

that

I

broken

that

up,

but

rather

five times that

it

in those

was

in

the

I

was

weeks

very

this Sermon

pulpitthere.

written

sought,when

than

when anticipation, was

of

train

Easter, during which

over

known,

shunned

was

in

3

was

a

at

I had

thinking much

ruthlesslytearing myself

time

a

was

He when

fices great sacriof myself ;

from

away

from

my

own

that, in the musings of that Sermon, I was utmost at the only delivering a testimony in my very cast not behalf for time to come, sowing my rhetoric broadfor the chance of present sympathy. [Blot twelve.] him I found 1 proceed : he says [at p. 33], actually I such of as thought, of himself (and, using [prelates], the words and his party likewise,) They yieldoutwardly ; Yet they are to betray the faith. to assent inwardly were called deceitful and they do as double-dealing,because followers, and

"

'

and

hot-headed

15

Hot-headed

Fanatic fanatics]

16

play] romance

26

known] found

34

I

35

These [prelates]

proceed :]Agam,

young are

men

Dr. Newman's

[ ]


APPENDIX.

390

"

much

than they may.' This too as they can, not more ! Let this writer [go] (,in his proof of my duplicity with some one else,(go) just a little further than dealings) is

a

he has

with

gone

then

he

without whether and

will not

than

more

supply a real Bishops in

;

in

"

he

he

a

case

did

us

wardly," yieldoutthen again "

deceitful

much

as

But

let

he

as

Tract

lo

will

90

I yieldedto defendingthe Tract, and in closingthe Series ; but, not only did I not assent of it,but I opposed myself inwardly to any condemnation the condemnation of to the a on part of proposition deceitful authority. Yet I was then by the publiccalled and double-dealing," this Writer calls me because as now, the

illustration of what

still

true, and

to do."

ought

him

let "

such

of law

court

a

and

libel,was

a

because double-dealing,"

could, not

get into

convicted

assenting internally; and pleasehim, if we called him

should

we

let him

be

libel,though

whether

see

; and

me

let him

for libel ; and fancy that his

outward

I meant.

act, viz. in not

"

"

I did

much

as

I felt I could

as

do, and

not

than

more

I felt

of the 20 publications day and the private letters which accused me of shuffling, because I closed the Series of Tracts, yet kept the Tracts on sale, as if I ought to comply not only with what my Bishop asked, but with what he did not ask, and perhaps did not wish. However, such teaching,accordingto this Writer, was men likelyto make (")suspect, that j^oung I could

honestlydo."

truth

was

sake

of

"

not

virtue

a

of their which

weapon

of

the

were

for its

["]the spread

salvation

the

Many

sake, but only for the

own

"

and that ["]cunning was souls ; heaven had allowed to them to defend own

themselves

against the persecutingProtestant [Blotthirteen.]

p. 34. And

I draw

now

the

opinions,"and

Catholic

attention

to

another

30

public." "

point.

He

says

"

I to know that the preacher was [at p. 34], How did not foresee,that [fanaticand hot-headed men] young think that they obeyed him, by becoming affected, would and artificial, sly,shifty, tions equivocaready for concealments .

.^"

"

How

should

he

know

!

"

What

Catholic opinions"]'Catholic opinions' 29 souls souls "] 'salvation 33 another]a further men] These are Dr. Newman's [ ] 28

'

.

.

.

.

.

.

!

.

.

I suppose

"Salvation 35

.".

.

[fanatic


C.)

(NOTE that

be

to

think

to

are

we

not

every Know !

such. "

whether

I

he not

have

affected

a

he

"

till he

knave

man

had

"

391

friend

no

artificial

is

to

proved

tell him

"

myself ? Could to me, impute equivocations I was in no answerable at a time when for the amphisense casuists ? he Has a bologia of the Roman single fact which belongsto me personallyor by professionto couple with equivocation in 1843 ? How should he name my know that I was non-natural ! not sly,smooth, artificial, he should know by that common manly frankness, [ifhe had it,]by which we put confidence in others,till they are proved to have forfeited it ; he should know it by my own was

done

or

than

better

"

"

10

words

in that

natural,

and

very

Sermon,

that

reserve

in which is at

I say

best

but

it is best

"

necessity. (For) I say (thereexpressly), I that there is something., engaging in very have some unpretending manner ; persons others be 20

some

it is

persons I am

that

a

of

times

and

frank

a

it

than

more

But

great grace.

speaking

be

it must

of 2^ersecution

oppressionto Christians, such as the text foretells ; will become nothing else than surely frankness and vehement speech, if it indignationat the oppressor, have is permitted. Accordingly, so as feelings, deep persons lest they should they will find the necessityof self-control, I call, they ought not." [He omits these words. say what that I taught equivocation, then, this base insinuation Blot the fourteenth.]

and

and

then

:( )" If [Dr. Newman] would Sermon) in dealing with matters dark, offensive,doubtful, sometimes actuallyforbidden, at least according to the notions of the great majority of Enghsh Churchmen always do so in a tentative, ; if he would or never paltering way, seldom lettingthe world know .

.

30

; in

recollected

to

unpleasant do not deny

an

[Lastly,]he sums persist(as in

thus

up

"

this

.

much far he intended to go ; if,in he believed, how of teaching was a word, his method suspiciousone, what

how a

6

Has] Had

paragraph in

15

These

words commenced

These

are

Dr.

"I

do

Newman's

not

23

1S65. a

new

[

]

deny

These

words

feelings feelings] paragraph in 1S65.

commenced 28 28

He

a sums

neiv

up

[Dr. Newman]


APPENDIX.

392

him

""p. 35. [first] (,in

?

Now

that

admitted

I

of the

allowed

of

minds

if the

wonder

the

men

introduction

I have

Narrative,

of my

course

them

into

frankly

works of my as fairly of religious inquiry ;

in such

tentative

was

suspicions of

filled with

were

Sermons but) he is speaking of my ; where, then, is his sive, I dealt in matters dark, offenproof that in my Sermons said nothing ? [he has doubtful, actually forbidden been able flatlyto deny. in proof that I have not of the great [" Forbidden according to the notions like to know I should majority of English Churchmen." what opinions, beyond those which relate to the Creed, are his held by the are : majority of English Churchmen the ? is it not great own perfectly well known, that think and his views with a feelingwhich of him majority

lo

"

"

"

"

"

I

will

not ?

argument with

for my it is not describe, because necessary So far is certain, that he has not the majority

him.

["In "

a

I

reject, as

that

show

I

vague tentative

was

of)eight volumes

range

(in them)

; but

not

the

know

how

world "

to

and

of

a

had

believed, and

a

man

of

I

I would

believed,

seldom or

philosopher who

more

as

;

attempts

office of

far

to

I

as

and

ninth,

["] let

never

or

far I intended

how

do

He

must

22

look

which upon

;

go to

man

long

am

which

assertions

supported by former assertions, in helping Tom, and the elephant stands This is Blot fifteen.] he must]

no

[How

more.

merely negativing

could

I

saw

I account

but

20

the

to

["] tentative

was

the

about do

camiot

the

much

I

20

(the

are commonly, (University Sermons of disquisitions, nature as preached learned body; and because) in deep subjects, been not as fullyinvestigated,I said as much

I

have

"

because

As

through.

course

must

he has

and

;

ing palter-

he

because

allowably,

before which

but

;

go

look

to

"

tentative,"]

Sermons

in my

University Sermons,

my

to

as

;

"

word

The

tentative, paltering way."

John the

through] gather

is

and be

I to are ever

tortoise

evidence

3o a

in

?


(NOTE

E.)

393

3.

The

''

[This Writer distrust

of

Anglican If there

:

says

"

them

contumely and slander." [No one has a right to make attempt

what

to prove

himseK.

selytizing pro-

their

upon

country,)

the

charge,without ; but

that

time

at least

this Writer he

is

sistent con-

first

spoke in the Magazine,when of me has he ever even professedto give evidence of any sort for any one of his charges,from and without being challenged his own of propriety, sense on the point ? After the sentence which I have been quoting, and another like it,he coollypasses on to Tract 90 ! Blot sixteen ; but I shall dwell on it awhile,for its own sake.] I have

[Now] on

every I am

since in

a

I

was

in this Volume mind been bringingout my before me fore theresubject which has come ; and I feel and have felt, bound to state plainlywhat I said, a Catholic,about the Anglican Church.

former

matters

change in

of doctrine

regards some give offence that

I felt

England. very

that, on

page,

of any

soon,

imagined

;

matters to

an

it to

myself say) saw myself to see in

conversion, I

it

in my

tell how

bound

am

there

soon

came

on

as

it any

Church me,

astonishment that I had the Catholic Church. Forthwith

was.

thing else,than E.

3. {illheading)^Note O

3

"

of

but ever

For

(as I should could not get

without, and

at it from

it

as

to

confess

to

of the

view

portion of

a

scious con-

the case not this,however, was of fact, and, unwilling as I am

extreme

be

not

was

as thought or feeling, regards

Anglicans,I religious

I cannot "

my of

me

great change

a

the first time, I looked 30

a

he says

From

the

especiallyto those,

p. 36.

"

with

20

and

;

to

Dr. have turned round Newman, Church, (I had almost said their mother

with

10

is, a strong

is restricted

like

mother

an

there

is, as

Catholics, it

certain

priestsamong who,

Church.

On

I

what

page

318.

I had

so

long


APPENDIX

394

fearfullysuspected,from I

so

it

saw

reason

As

institution.

national

the main

I suppose,

with

Then

me.

myseK make

act

an

myself into

a

lay in

effort of

an

and

in

peace,

seen

the contrast Church.

quite a

was

sensible that

was

I

mere

definite act of it ever since.

any

which

Catholic

realitywhich

a

by

from

was

not

Then

thing making for new

thought ; I needed not to had not painfully to force

of faith in her ; I but my mind position,

relaxation

in

I

Church

a

the

by

me

a

"

suddenly opened,

I have

so

of this

cause

presented to recognizedat once

was

I

; and

argument

any

1836,

as

were

eyes

spontaneously,apart

"

or

back

far

as

if my

and

fell back

I

gazed

her

at

lo

itself

upon

almost

great objectivefact. I looked at her ; at her rites,her ceremonial, and her precepts ; and I said,

passivelyas "

This

a

"

"

and then, when I looked back upon religion ; which for I had laboured Church, so Anglican poor hard, and upon all that appertainedto it,and thought of various attempts to dress it up doctrinally and esthetiour to me to be the veriest of nonentities. cally,it seemed I make a 20 can Vanity of vanities, all is vanity ! How record of what within without passed me, seeming to be satirical ? But I speak plain,serious words. As people credulous for acknowledging Catholic call me claims, so they call me satirical for disowning Anglican pretensions; it is credulity, it is satire ; but it is not to them to them in me. What so they think exaggeration,I think truth. in any disdain, I am not speaking of the Anglican Church To them of course though to them I seem contemptuous. is

a

the

a

I

"

Aut Caesar aut nullus," but not to me. great creation,though it be not divine, and

it is

judge of

would

be

considered Church

a

memories, arm

of

It may

be

this is how

30

abjure the divine rightof kings, that account they were very indignant,if on disloyal.And so I recognizein the Anglican it.

Men,

who

time-honoured a

monument

historical

institution,of noble of ancient

political strength,a great

wisdom, national

a

momentous

organ,

a

source

of vast popularadvantage,and, to a certain point,a witness and teacher of religioustruth. I do not think that, if what I have written about it since I have been a Catholic, 20

Vanity This

27

in] with

commenced

a

new

paragraph in

1865.


E.)

(NOTE be

equitablyconsidered

have

taken

other

any sacred, that

claim

can

the

take

can

the

of

10

and

be

lo ! it

where

was

And,

See

Holy

ever

decision

of

myself,I

doctrine,that

character

it

St.

it

call

can

view

conversion,

my

"

itself

of it which

the

simply

and

which

"

; I

to

nothing can

bring it

back

to

me

from

episcopal succession

an

have it,and, if the may will beheve it,as being the

decide[d],I

higher judgment than my have St. Philip's gift,who

a

to

thing some-

Apostles,well, it so

must

found it is

I went reproduce. by, sought it, but its place could no

and

;

on

miracle

possessionof

of the

the time

20

"

its

to

as

mind

gone

be found

the

this is the

a

be

that

Cyprian, that it teaching,and stop the path

Peter, that

my

almost

this ; but

Ignatius or

contest

Lamb,"

disappearedfrom it would

St.

St.

of

the

of

than

oracle of revealed

an

in

rank,

Church

Bride

it is

share

a

I shall

whole,

a

as

view

395

the forehead

of

own saw

but, for

;

the

dotal sacer-

gaily-attired youngster, wit acquiescein it,for antiquarian before I can by my own unequal to the urgency of visible arguments are altogether facts. Why is it that I must pain dear friends by saying and

so,

kindest a

on

kindle

griefto

though

it be not

the moment. to have

impoliticat

this is my mind ; and, if to have before now, involuntarilyby my

to do

it,if words

or

the

in

against me

resentment

I must,

? but

but most

me,

of

sort

a

of hearts

a

my

only Any how,

betrayed it, deeds,

if

on

occasion, as now, to have avowed it, if all this fitting be a proof of the justice of the charge brought against round me (by my accuser)of having "turned my upon Mother-Church with contumely and slander," in this sense, in no but other sense, do I plead guilty to it without a

30

a

word In

been

in

no

the

benefits

extenuation.

other

surely ;

sense

instrument on

of

;( ^)hadI

me

the

Church

Providence

"

been

born

in in

of

England

has

conferring great Dissent, perhaps

I should

have been never baptized; had I been born an have known Enghsh Presbyterian, perhaps I should never Lord's divinity I not come to Oxford, perhaps our ; had I

never

should

Tradition, or 40

received

itself, can

so

have other

much I have

heard CathoUc

good the

from

of the

visible

doctrines. the

Church,

And

as

I

or

of

have

Anglican Establishment of charity, want

heart, or rather the


396

APPENDIX.

consideringthat done such a

it does

Not

body.

for its

work

doing our at

Catholics

at another

be

for

faith, or

at

are

and, though

;

present the balance

would

so

see

it is,and while we small are so sake, but for the sake of the many it ministers, I will do nothing

own

which

congregations to against it. While

others,what it has many it overthrown ? I have no

for

for me, to to wish wish while it is what

is in

in

harm

us

in other

England, it in

a

What

favour.

our

and

time

weak

so

it does

is

measure,

duty

our

circumstances, supposing,

lost its dogmatic lo instance, the Establishment least did not preach it, is another matter

altogether.In secular historywe read of hostile nations having long truces, and renewing them from time to time, and that seems to be the position (which) the Catholic Church

fairlytake

may

Doubtless

the

serviceable

than

down

National Nation

in

present

Church that the

towards

own.

it is

us,

a

has

Church

relation

How long impossibleto its

to

the

to

own

sort

the

National

Church

a

been

a

more

errors,

this will last in the for the Nation

say,

the

upon

idea of

hitherto

level ; but of influence

own

same

periodicalhas my

has

doctrinal

against

its Church

represents,and that

its

before

now

drags

National

breakwater

fundamental years

at

up

Establishment.

Anghcan

party

Catholic's

20

still the the

over

which

it

attitude fitting

in this its supreme

hour,

is

of

and sustaining it,if it be in our power, in assisting the interest of dogmatic truth. I should wish to avoid under the direct call of duty, thing,except (indeed) every which to weaken went (^andthis is a material exception,)) the publicmind, or to unsettle its estabhsh- 30 its hold upon

ment,

embarrass

to

or

great Christian it has

and

and

Catholic

lessen its maintenance and principles

of those

doctrines

which

to this time

preached. successfully the call of duty ; and this [I say, except under exception,I am obligedto admit, is not a slightone ; it which is one necessarilyplacesa bar to any closer relation up

"

between

it and

For, in the 28 ,

34

"

ourselves, than

first

that

place,it stands

of

an

to

reason

was

not

armed that

truce. even

except] (except

The matter

between

[ ],pp. 396-400,

reprintedin

I860.

a


APPENDIX.

397

volume, such as this has been, exerts an influence adverse minds Establishment, at least in the case of many ; and this I cannot avoid, though I have sincerely attempted of controversy in the course to keep as wide of it,as ever to the

"

I

could.

a

very

And

to

comes

10

deny, what must Anglicans, that, if any careful thought and prayer,

be

with

after

me

deliberate

I cannot

next

point

sore

"

and

purpose,

I

says,

believe

ever

Anglican and

with

the

in

Holy

and Catholic Church, and that your Church alone is yours into it," it would admittance be the it, and I demand such sins in of a to tinct me as reject being a disman, greatest Lord's maxim, contravention of our Freely ye have received, freelygive." ''

I have

in

time

and

; to

go

will suffice for

some

object and

tone

my

have

1847

nothing to

the

on

And

Lectures

;

works

with

do

of

has

been

my

severally. "

the

on

present Position

of what

generalaccount in these

on

the Catholic

though I have neither minutely,a few words

the matter

into

three,the Lectures

Of these

be considered

may

in

Lectures in 1851.

England

need

nor

Gain

by Anglicans in submittingto

in 1850

Catholics

20

felt

which

volumes and

Loss

;

Difficulties

Church

three

written

controversial

the Church

Position of

of Catholics"

England, as

such

;

testant Ultra-Proor against the Protestant the subjectof Catholicism Tradition since the on time of Queen Elizabeth, in which parties indeed in the Church of England have largelyparticipated,but which with Anglican teaching itself. Much be confused cannot

they

less 30

the to an

I

directed

are

that

can

Laudian

of the

Anglican, as spoke in them

called 40

took

basis

I had

never

as

"

evidence,

as

these

in

;

Church

violent

"

him,

"

so

for

even

doctrine owe

of

nothing

when

I

Lectures.

was

If

part againstthe Catholic

Froude's and

I

Established, it was they were delivered,

Protestant

Anglican been

an

Hurrell

incubus for

a

of the

the

Catholic

far as, at the time when

so

the

an

with

School.

spoke against it

as

against the

on

Establishment

I

well

the Establishment

Church,

confused

Tractarian

; and

Protestantism

because, and

be

Tradition or

Tradition. a

over, More-

lover of the actual

Remains, in which it is Tree," will stand in

Upas me

;

for

I

was

one

of

the


APPENDIX.

398

my

I said when

I

thoughts of

the

Catholic

a

when

I

than

Then

They of

as

these

were

with

addressed to

"

the

to

impress

Children

upon

the

was

"There to

is but

speak.

reason

; "

been

proceeding onwards

was

to

do

the

with

the

that

of

"that

say,

thing for bringing removing your

no

no

in

more."

p. 5.

"

reasoningdirected further than this,20

such

on

Catholics,

issue

instrumental

able

lo

the

miserable

co-operated in

whatever

claims

no

Movement

and

a

being the drift of the Volume, against the Church of England goes it had

of the

thing," I

one

Neither Church.

whatever

to become

was

scope

It will be

...

if I have

for me,

real

Such

were

in

been

as

them, that,

you but half-way,if I have invincible ignorance,but am

that

milder

repressinga higher view it as keeping out

I

now

obvious

an

it

others,their duty at least

me

and

you

and

;

for

I viewed

been

since I have

ever

dangerous. Lectures on AnglicanDifficulties. to my formallydirected against the National

Movement. forces

I have

Establishment

own

Catholicism

since

Indeed

more

were

1833,"

case

its

Anglican,it is not strange

an

as

not.

Anghcan,

an

and

lower

even

was

before, and

than

was

doctrine a

I said

What

Editors. that

of its members

Movement

as

into

the

Catholic Church.

Lastly, as

and

Loss

to

ideal,of the conversion show

how

retain

little there

a

young characters are tarians

proper Advertisement

"

much

influence be such

which

Church-of

in

in the

No

:

it is the

Oxford

man.

Anglicanism

heart.

introduced

are :

Gain an

is in

earnest

sober

Tale, of the

this not

and

of

In this

story, simply Its drift is to satisfy and

to

Tale, all the best

-England people. :

and

No

this is noted

Tracin

the

representativeis intended in religious opinions,which had latelyso the Universityof Oxford." There could projper

Tale, without

the introduction

of

30

friends,

But, since the impossiblein its very notion. to be laid during the very at the scene was years, and of Tractarianism, some sary head-quarters, expedientwas neceswhat in order to meet was a My great difficulty. the introduction of what be called expedient was may Tractarians improper ; and I took them the more readily, that such there were, I knew 40 because, though I knew of them personally. I mean such men I used to none as was


APPENDIX.

consider

"

of

399

the

school," from whom gilt-gingerbread whose good, persons religion lay in ritualism architectm-e,and who or ''played at Popery" such men, at Anglicanism. I repeat I knew because or no it is one thing to desire fine churches and ceremonies, (which of course I did myseK,) and quite another thing to desire these and nothing else ; but at that day there was in some I had influence, quarters, though not in those where I

expected

1 went for

of the

one

I

Priests

direction. such

devoted

most

directed I

and,

the

who

:

and

hard-working Hutchison, of the

the late Father

was

Doubtless movement

a

architecture Oratory, and I believe it was his thoughts towards the Catholic Church. had in my mind external an religionwhich

London

that ever, Howwas

inordinate

;

of

to me, even personallyunknown by name, them, under imaginary representatives,in Gain, and that, in order to get clear of Trac-

it, were

as

men

considered

were

instances

introduced

I

and

Loss 20

and

best, knew

ever

esthetic

apprehensionof

far in my

too

the

in

movement

strong

a

10

little

tarians

proper

and

;

of

the

three

introduced, the Anglican is the introduced

whom

men,

best.

In

have

I

like

I

manner

ladies,who were "gilt-gingerbread" young of concrete shred a ideal, absolutely,utterly, without two

that

remark and

"by

"

and

they

and

;

I introduced

"really kind

were

put forth

means

no

such

among

them

about

existence

persons

were

to

as

a

them

with

charitable

type of

be found

the

a

the

persons,"

class," that

gentlestspirits

"

the

tenderest these sisters had hearts," and that hands, if they had not wise heads," but that they know much of matters and not ecclesiastical, they "

open 30

did

less of themselves."

knew

It has that

said, indeed, I know

been

I introduced

this is

my

friends

or

not

to

what

partisansinto

extent,

the

Tale

;

of this misconcepOnly two cases tion have denied to my come knowledge, and I at once each of them outright; and I take this opportunity of denying generally the truth of all other similar charges. No

utterlyuntrue.

friend

Movement, 40

the

of

mine,

characters.

which

have

been

no

one

connected the

in any

way

with

the

of composition of any one Indeed, putting aside the two instances distinctly brought before me, I have not

entered

into


APPENDIX,

400

even

I

Next, of

take

accused

this

up

I this

again

suspicion of

writer

which of

passage

of

sort

any

thus

am

on

goes

have

the

persons

at

and,

of

speak

to

treated

narrative, now.]

who

whom

are,

introducing.

great in

Tract

length

consequence,

90 in

; a

need

a

ject sub-

former not


401

APPENDIX.

4.

of Lives of

Series have

[I

302

pp.

It

Lives, and an end,

I

were frightenedat the Stephen Harding. Thus

for

the

a

bit

I

the

and

;

300

brought

was

of friends

act

Life

of

responsibleexcept

not

was

It

at

almost

printed,the

first Life

Advertisements

just the

Lives, that my However, it answers

more.

of

the

begun, by

I had

this.

pubhcation above

consisted

tinctly dis-

responsibihty

same

had,

assailant

other

the

about

numbers

first two

declared

Saints.

the Editor.

been

well

was

St.

who

10

it

this

have

to

was

to have

was

before

to

English

history of

the

given 304.

"

the

his purpose

and

not

consider

to

responsible.

me

"

fanatic

his delusion

observe, that

I

Next,

continues

men

young

"

about

here

:

hot-headed

I

again

figurewith

"

"

They said," he observes, what strolling company. they believed ; at least, what they had been taught to And who had taught believe that they ought to believe. best that them Dr. Newman ? can answer question," my

20

p. 38.

Well,

Now

to

One of

as was

46

was

let

:

a

who

in

1843

him

from

was

series. man

a

St. Boniface.

written

the author

about

mystery.

proposed

of 42 ; he

man

was

something

to

was

of St.

have

tine Augus-

this writer

: "

"

he

Newman,"

Author the

historic

30

the

might have said to the he found of the Life of St. Augustine,when him, haste of youthfulfanaticism, outraging heat and

"Dr.

be.'

hear

us

in

have

to

Another

St. Aldelm.

written

in

old ; he was Mr. Johnson,

the

solve

to

can

Bowden,

Mr.

friend

my

I

juvenile writers

the

years

Another

what

I will do

truth

""p.

Good.

and

says,

law