Page 1


4"o

OXFORD

EDITION

NEWMAN'S

APOLOGIA

PRO VERSIONS

TWO

THE

VITA OF

PRECEDED

AN

WITH

"

1865

BY

PAMPHLETS

KINGSLEY'S

AND

NEWMAN'S

1864

SUA

INTRODUCTION

BY

WARD

V^ILFRID

MINA

|lNVSTIO BILLV

FROWDE

HENRY OXFORD

LONDON, NEW

YORK,

MEA

UNIVERSITY

EDINBURGH, TORONTO,

PRESS GLASGOW

MELBOURNE, 1913

BOMBAY


oxford: HORACE HART

PRINTER

TO

THE UNIVERSITY


CONTENTS.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION V

KINGSLE

MR.

AND

Y

DR.

NEWMAN :

Correspondence

A

on

TEACHES

Question

the

TrUTH

THAT

IS

Dr.

whether

ViRTTTE

NO

man New-

1

? .

"

WHAT,

A

THEN,

Reply

DR.

DOES

to

a

By

Pamphlet

MEAN

?

Published

lately

"

Dr.

by

man. New-

Kingsley

Charles

Rev.

the

NEWMAN

.

23 ...

PRO

APOLOGIA

Being

a

does

Reply

D.D.

[The

to

a

Newman

Dr.

SUA.

VITA

"

Pamphlet

mean

entitled,

?

"

John

By

What,

Henry

then,

Newman, 63

1864

of

variations

Matter

APPENDIX :

the

1865

peculiar

edition

given

are

to

the

1865

throughout.']

479

Edition .


INTRODUCTION.

The

public rightly regards and

typical the

first

work.

important

place, it is, in

It

is instinct

the

the

of some

Apologia

writings his

ways,

with

his

of

in

Newman's

published writings

absorption

in

the

of his

gifts which ''

"

regal

his

effective

for

career,

of his fortunes

in later

Newman's

began, lowest

ebb.

hardly

much

to

almost

himself

since

had,

entirely

the

to

Yet

communion.

his

his

the

work

for

inadequately appreciated by most

Irish

University, of the

Catholics

day his

take

wholly

their was

an

was

httle

Kingsley's

He

was

by gave

and to

in

they make

forgotten by Catholics him

the

had

undertaken

enable

the

of

of

the

extremists

done

their itseK

Rome the

English

thought

group had

the

"

his editorship

Bible, and

influential

an

success,

esteemed attack

By

share

suspected,

without

suspicions.

effective

new

Church

should

which

lines

had

of the

translation on

all failed.

orthodoxy

not

he

Rambler

to

had

"

the

devoted his

in

co-religionists.The

his

enterpriseshe

considerable

it is

men country-

had

position

in

and

eye,

He

their

Church

CathoUc

the

three

of

in the

at

were

of his feUow

his

been

his

"

methods

Catholic

existence. of

the

him

turning point

public

bulk

duties

best

curious

Eangsley controversy

the

joining

forgotten

his

of the

prospects

from the

is the

of

denied

critical

the

and

that

say

the

When

entirely hidden

too

had

life.

It

specialimportance

it marks

In

It illustrates

not

mastery

also

reputation

He

been

have

his

It has

controversy.

story of his

1845,

style, and

EngHsh

life.

own

greatest enemies

most

author.

characteristic

most

personality.

exhibition

drama

the

as

its

world

at

best, share

large

;

themselves.

opportunity

for

setting


vi

INTRODUCTION.

himself

right alike with the largerpublic and with the it The but opportunity presented difficulties, offered a great prize. His chance lay in a battle against In a heavy odds. widely popular writer. Kingsley was and accusingthe CathoKc priesthoodof being equivocators indifferent to truth, he had his side the widespread on he added When prejudiceof the English public of 1864. to his original indictment list of a superstitious beliefs which Newman himself could not repudiate, he could count still wider But the encounter, though it on sympathy. offered,as I have said, a great presentedgreat difficulties, opportunity. Kingsley'spopularity and notoriety would smaller.

"

advertise

a

with

combat

and

him,

"

make

; thus

it notorious

of of gaining the attention excellent chance Newman, if he defended the large. Moreover Catholic priesthoodwith conspicuous success, to sure was his win, as their champion, quite a new positionamong co-religionists. One of the most noteworthy features in the campaign Newman's keen appreciationof the situation,and of was the conditions which victorydepended. He had first to on rivet generalattention the contest, and to write without on such a reader tedious the to being average reader ; to make succeeded This he follow the further. to ready dispute in doing in the witty pamphlet, publishedin this volume, in which he summarized his correspondencewith Kingsley, a brief and amusing jew d' espritwhich all could enjoy. That this pamphlet made Kingsley so angry as to forgethimself

it meant

an

the world

at

"

"

and

then,

does

foreseen Then such

random

strike

Dr.

by

Newman

its author

Newman

delay or

attention

blows

had

dullness

he had

won.

and

his retort ?

mean :

to

in

it

was

keep the as might For

"

was,

"

entitled

all in Newman's ball

to rolling,

result

it

favour. avoid

the

lose for him

this purpose

What,

probably, a

was

any

general desirable


INTRODUCTION. that

the

and

the

banter

should

Apologia

first parts had which

be to

vii

pubhshed the

sustain

his

had

in

weekly parts, of humorous

note

This meant pamphlet at highestpressure. Easy reading means very cessfully writingin such a case. Again, he had to find suc-

work

struck.

the

hard

the

which

tone

could

make

the

advocate

of

an

cause mn general sympathy. It was necessary the fact that he was to every one bring vividlyhome deeply wronged, that a serious charge had been brought, that when challenged its bringer had wholly failed to justifyit,and had also failed to make any adequate apology for his slander. When had completelywon Newman once could he that could only be told publicsympathy say things to sympathetic ears. He could then relate the whole story of his life,and could make plain its utter sincerity.The first two parts of the Apologia were brief,brilhant,and full the bulk of the narrative, of indignantpassion. Then came so reallyinterested in touching to those who had become the thirty-nine the man. Lastly, as an Appendix, came

unpopular to

"

blots ",

worst

such

a

as

he

called them,

number

occasion

Newman

rose

carried the

the

well

character. to

a

humorous

suggestion

as

entirelywon.

was

great ; the

was

work

it

had

be

to

exacting ;

had

to

controversy of the hour

be

no

in

befit

but

Apologia classic of

a

its

its form,

permanent

longerthat appropriate which rapierthrusts and

but colloquialismswere weapons, stand could earnest autobiography which with those of St. Augustine and Rousseau. suitable

The

that

re-edited

substance, might

Its form

was

emerged triumphant. It became by storm.

to it and

country its

"

sympathy

language, and

as

a

the

of

after the reader's The

with

"

Anglican articles in which the in of Kingsley'srandom charges were swept away tone of contempt as could only be securelyadopted

their

in

that side

of

by

Its very

an

side title


INTRODUCTION

vili "

changed to

was

his admirers which pro

had

vita

other

been

grown chief

present form

of

its final

in

form

it* bears

fitness of in heat

of the

landmark

old

life.

Apologia The

the title page.

the

the

here

We

evidence

on

his

in

But

book

a

publicfor the first time the Apologia in the its original composition,and we have the In each as shape permanent literature. givesto

of

things. What

and

title of

permanent.

volume

of the work.

forms

dramatic

ReligiousOpinions".

my

fond

eventually reappeared on

sua

work

out

a

changes were

The both

History of

had

Newman's

keen

of the

a

made

retort

to words

moment,

the

of

sense

justified only as

was

spur

have

blurted

drawn. withof anger, was by Kingsley himself in a moment The last chapter was General no longer called The Position of my to Mr. Kingsley ; it became, "

"

answer

mind

since

1845."

"

Such

omissions

the

which

some

the text

generalprincipleon specific changes in The originalversion

interest if

alterations

the book

will be

call to mind

and

read

re-edited.

was

I will

indicate Of

speak shortly.

with

all the

greater

details of its

composition. Newman first sketched the plan of the book. The principal heads of narrative and argument were written up in large letters and pasted on the wall oppositeto the desk at which he wrote. Determined not to fail the publishersin their done at was weekly number, his work extraordinary sometimes rightthrough the night. He pressure, lasting found

was

"

and and

a

child

now

friend

I shall have over

over

some

with

once

his

the sadness

head

of the

in

his

hands,

memories

which

recalled.

I have

intimate

than

more

cryinglike his task

we

again

been on

for five weeks

May 1st,1864,

three from

weeks the

more.

at "

it," he writes

from

morning

I have ...

to

to write

necessityof digestingand

to

an

night, over pressing." com-


INTRODUCTION.

ix

The

followingbrief entries in his diarygive the dates : April10. Beginningof my hard work for the Apologia. April 21st. First part of my Apologia out. April 28th. Second part. May 5th. Third part. May 1 2th. Fourth "

Sometimes

part.

May

19th.

22 hours

No

at

Fifth

work

my

May

part.

for

20th.

26th.

Sixth

the

narrative

allowed

the

running. May

hours

16

At

running. Apologia for

my

June

out.

part

9th.

part published." The

delay meant fortnightwas Appendix.

that

that

a

"

June

The

12th.

Sent

press, led

work

enthusiastic

an

back Mr.

by

and

admiration

which

it in

was

tone

a

then

the

the

printer." Spectator, gave the

in the

reception.The Saturday Review, which the favourable

for Newman

which

publishersfor

proof to

last

my

Hutton

free from notoriously

was

known

by

finished,and

was

bias which

might make

at the zenith of its

Hutton's

peoplesuspect,

received reputation,

fairlyrepresents that

of the bulk

of the

press notices. "

A loose and off-hand,and, we venture to add, an may unjustifiable imputation,cast on Dr. Newman by a popular remarkable for vigorouswritingthan vigorous writer,more

thought, has produced one of present hteraryage."

the

books interesting

most

of the

Such opens,

are

and

the words

"

to Dr. Newman's to

his

giftsas

among

with which in the

it continues

almost

"

one

contemporary

the review

unrivalled

of the writers.

review

and

critical examination

the

writer,naturallyenough, dissents

it treats

his

apparent in which

Saturday

of Newman's

"

logical powers

finest masters The

in the

strain,paying tributes

same

of

and

language

contains

from position,

a

"

close which

strongly. But in the controversy and the great gifts success his writing as beyond question. That a book

frankly defended

its author's A3

most

acceptance of the


INTRODUCTION.

X

doctrine

of ecclesiastical

miracles which credible

as

minds, of

only

should

modern and of specific infallibility, publicof 1864: for the most part regarded

to

superstitious,and

narrow,

such

with

meet

a

be

make

driven

of

out

the

field

his

fail of

a

capital against opponent testimony to Newman's

of

out

man

victory but

in his endeavour

remarkable

a

childish

that

reception; and

Kingsley'spopularitynot only should

should

is

the

such

to

beliefs, of the

conduct

controversy. The

rough handling

of

Kingsley by his opponent was feature in the originalApologia. Frederick a in Rogers (afterwards Lord Blachford)wrote to Newman lest him. it turn great anxiety might publicopinionagainst Newman himself felt he was playing a dangerous game, yet that if his angry succeeded succeed it would tone more It succeeded completely than any other. And it did succeed. in and issued such so an completely acknowledged and crushing defeat for Kingsley that Newman's warmest friends found whose themselves feelingsorry for the man attack they had in the first instance deeply resented. A fine literary critic among Oratorian Newman's entourage Father IgnatiusDudley Ryder ^wrote at the time, as quite a young man, the followingnote of his own sions impresof his on reading Newman's scathing denunciation assailant,and on passing afterwards to the touching and beautiful record of past days, for which this polemical annihilation of the invader had cleared the ground. marked

"

"

"

In

in the

reading his

tremendous

introduction

and

handhng

conclusion

of his

of the

opponent

Apologia,it is sympathies,to

I think, whatever be one's impossible, may avoid of honest a sense pity for the victim as for one condemned rashness to fightwith gods though by his own or one

with

the

hurled

elements. from

It is not

his chariot in

merely an

Homeric

with

him

onset

as

with

with the


INTRODUCTION.

gaping

wound

crushed

and

inflicted

by

dislocated

singlespear,

a

and

;

xi

his form

but

hostile stream

a

is

Simois

"

or

hurries him Scamander peradventure rejoicingin away waters, yet not so far strengthwith the rush of many but that for long,and still beneath the sun of noon away the at night,beneath or moon tempestuous gleams or the keen serenityof the stars, we get ghmpses of the helpless burden it is tossed hither and thither in the eddying as "

its

until the

stream

field of death

darkness

swallows

gives birth

it.

And

the recent

so

of life,and -fruited wonder with and golden trees we heavy gaze upon harvest,and our thought dwells almost tenderly upon the first occasion

this

of aU

useful in his

to

a

one

on

as

generationand

revelation

new

long since

One very interesting feature of Newman's in this connexion remains to be spoken of. the

Apologiaas I have

as

Mr.

said, his

Kingsley.

be

(he felt) to readers

these

home

to

who

had

had

been

deeply the a

the

that

not

he

has

however

he

was

of

attacks

ought not

With

most

beyond question time. They had brought life of religious fact that a man

accusation.

deserved

to

For

"

say

all this.

:

truth,

perhaps

There

This may

With

was

is too have

had

and

moment

a

He

his

sake

conscience'

for

in the balance.

trembled

people might

far, but

the

the

indifference

of

the

mentality editing

contributed

sacrifices

great

generalverdict

Kingsley has

at

public the

accused

to

blood.

cold

in

When

of anger

moment

a

own

had

success

resented

chance

in

repeated

made

retorts

angry

used

retorts

his

largelyto

more

Words

was

his own.'

he omitted, literature,

of permanent

work

a

who

dead but

one's enemy

no

just

strong. gone

too

this Newman

made apology. that the apology had In insisting ought to be contented." was been inadequate and merely conventional, Newman rather fine in a much his on bringing success hazarding this In distinction home to a rough-and-ready public.

reply

aroused

successful. a

generous

The

anger

sympathy

apparent

among

in

his

Englishmen.


INTRODUCTION.

xii

There

who

comi)arativelyfew

were

had

gone

to

he

had

that

indefensible

an

his resentment

All parties by passionateand

extreme.

carried

been

that

held

away agreed irresistible ; one almost which was indignant resentment with the anger of the far larger sympathized party by who had been wronged, the other held with Hort that a man his treatment of Kingsley was horriblyunchristian ". that this was not the Both sides probably remembered had used first time that Newman strong language where In 1862 a rumour was a deeply. charge stung him "

"

"

circulated

Globe

in the

he

that

newspaper

about

was

to

of England. Oratory and rejoin the Church calm the of denial Newman's was no report pubUc with instinct but was indignant lawyer-likedisclaimer, passionand ended with the followingparagraph :

leave

"

the

I do

hereby professex

with

ammo,

internal

absolute

an

is the dreariest of consent, that Protestantism possiblereligions ; that the thought of the Anghcan service assent

and

makes

me

the

shiver, and

Articles

makes

England

!

I should

be

No a

me

!

'

thought

shudder. The

net

broken, and fool (to use

consummate

we a

flowingwith the house

Church

mild

of

delivered.'

are

term), if

in

and

honey bondage."

milk of

Thirty-nine

the

to

is

old age I left ' the land my and for the cityof confusion

the

of

Keturn

'

after the

tion publicastrength Apologia,and of his language in replyingto Kingsley. In 1872 Mr. Capes a letter which virtuallyaccused pubHshed in the Guardian definition outwardly while of acceptingthe Vatican Newman it. Newman's publishedreplywas again inwardlyrejecting marked by all the signsof an anger which had carried him A

similar instance

occurred

some

of the

years

people recall the

made

away. "

I thank

doubtless thank

him

Mr.

has

Capes

often

for the

been odious

for said

having put behind

words

my

which

into back

he has

print what ;

I do made

not

the


INTRODUCTION.

xiii

.

vehicle

of it.

the

but

I will not

the doctrine

contradicted

though

the

by

fancied

would

befall

beheving what

myseK and

did

result had "

I could

After

"

say

much

citations

summed I

up

considerable

his

the

case

truth

of

the

doctrine

of the

all in my

this

heart

I could

operationand of

amount

its

pain. I have

writingsin which Newman Papal alUbility,

he

Inf

change of mind as regardsthe in consequence Pope's Infallibility It is true I was deeply,though stances by the fact and by the circum-

of the

Council.

in it was of the definition ; and, when confidential letter,which was a most

I wrote

"

: no

personally, pained both

not

never,

earUer

own

his belief in

underwent, then,

the

of

Catholic

a

from what quote much this nasty view of me."

upon from

I became

that

And

and

comment

avowed clearly

thus

to Pope's Infallibility history,and that,

unintelligible quibblesto fancy

reallyafter a

me

when

me

some

believe.

not

given

written, in

had

of the

;

all

facts of Church

of this, I have, in consequence Council, forced myself to do a thing that I

viz.,forced myseK by not

by repeating them

convinced

Vatican never

ink

"

along considered be

dirtymy

substance, mildly stated, is this, that I have

contemplation surreptitiously

published,but of which I have not a word to feelingsof surpriseand concern expressedin that letter have nothing to do with a screwing one's conscience does not believe,which is Mr. to professwhat one He ought to know better.' Capes'spleasantaccount of me. gained and

The

retract.

which all readers of the angry passages in supposition and Apologiaand of these letters,friends of Newman ebulhtions that of took for were they alike, granted

The the foes

"

temper

shown

^was

"

eventually to

be

a

When

mistake.

published in private correspondence was the that it clear became language in quite Biography,

Newman's

Globe

letter to the effect of but *'

had No

an

was

not,

as

it seemed

ungovernable feelingwhich calculated. carefully

at

the

carried

his the

time, the

him

away,

been common

denial would

have

put

down

the far

spread


INTRODUCTION.

xiv

"

I took a course which impression,"he writes to a friend. I which would alone would be as think, it,and, destroy able to destroyit. It is little or nothing to me that people should think No rude, insulting,"c., "c. me angry, common language would have done the work ; I had to use and could not language that was unmistakeably my own have

dictated

been

I flatter

as

I may not have been The

myseK,

I have

to

me

at

least for

by the necessary.' be

alive

rationale

done

the work

now

...

time

some

that

years a

new

to

and

come,

denial

might

of Newman's

strong language was vividly brought before his readers on the publication, shortly after the death of Mr. Kingsley, of a letter to Sir William expressly declared in that Cope. Newman whatever towards letter that he had had no angry feeling Mr. Kingsley,but had used the language of anger as the of carryingconviction to the public: only method *'

true

As

first pages of my Apologia,it is very has never with a man A one seen. angry think my reader would language denoted anger, but felt from I have not. ever experiencethat no one I said in the

difficult to casual it did

be

in earnest if I spoke calmly. When believe me again again I denied the repeated report that I was on the point of coming back to the Church of England, I have uniformly found that if I simply denied it,this only made if confidently ; but repeat the report more newspapers for scurrility I said something sharp, they abused me but they believed me. Rightly againstthe Church I had left, or why I felt it would not do wrongly, this was the reason and not to show to be tame indignationat Mr. Kingsley's charges. Within the last few years I have been obligedto those who said I could not towards adopt a similar course I sent a sharp letter to the Decrees. receive the Vatican

would and

Guardian, but

of

and

it believed

correspondentto Newman's close

use

knowledge

course

me,

and

the did

Guardian not

allow

called the

me

be

repeated."

of

then due strong language was effect produced by words

of the

names,

offence

of its

to that on

the


INTRODUCTION.

which

publicmind the

of

whole

there

Doubtless histrionic.

will be

They

that the charm

of

that

in his conduct

real but

not

will resent

Newman

sincerityis absent this appears

But

calculated.

who

some

feature

overmastering passion

was

away

will say

a

The

controversy.

carried his readers

which

marked

so

was

XV

to

this method

as

acting a part, words so carefully

was

from

me

simulated.

a

false estimate.

It

using language which he did not consider to the objectof producing a certain effect. On the contrary, he evidentlythought controversial an indignant denial and angry language the appropriate retort richlydeserved by Kingsley'saccusation, and representing his view own though not any livelypersonal truly tion, feeling.He was using the words appropriate to the situaold man, an as past all livelyfeehng,may express in to some answer exceptionalpublic testimonial overpowering he is physically of which of emotions incapable, gratitude, and which are appropriate to the situation. yet the feelings of

case

no

was

with be, in itseK,justified,

And

the

The

in the

assailant

anonymous

him.

He

crank, with

similar

was

case

other

instances

which

to

referred.

I have

have

may

Exeter

an

or

whom

no

one

in the

been, for Hall

was

all Newman

fanatic

feels angry.

Globe

like the

unknown

knew, late Mr.

a

to mere

Kensit,

the words

Nevertheless

as

fullydeserved the vehemence they stood in the newspaper As to the letter of and indignationconveyed by his letter. that his sympathy it is 1872 to the Guardian, likelyenough trials precludedany angry feeling with Mr. Capes 's religious that Capes had of writing. Yet people knew at the time and intimate less friend been a more or probably anything ; short of open

bound

an

angry

denial

on

Newman's

part would

that, though interpretation disclaim the accusation to formally

to

the

accept the Vatican

decrees

he

have

felt in

that

in his heart,his real

he

been

duty

did not

feelingwas


INTRODUCTION.

xvi

Mr.

what

much

noteworthy

in

not

word

a

Ullathorne

in

definition.

Thus

the

shps in

disclaimer,Newman has

representedit sweeping current

had

Capes

that

clause

the

to

be.

of

his

he

deplored

the letter to the

the

is

It

angry-

he

effect that

of his strong letter to

retract

to

which

a

to

Bishop of

prospect

the

Guardian, while couched

indignationof loyal Catholics, cannot possiblybe charged with misrepresenting attitude in the smallest degree. Newman's own which called for the language The Kingsley case one was which

in rhetorical terms

of anger

yet

satisfied the

obviously than

more

the

other

two.

A

very

and bringing attacking Newman popular which the Catholic priesthood, widespread charges against prejudicemade Englishmen very ready to credit. Newman He had to win had, therefore,to fightagainstgreat odds. it the home to injusticeof over publicopinionby bringing carried he did feel method. If not by away Kingsley's he did not know whom personally, against a man anger and whose reputationmade any such attack on the Catholic writer

Church

from

was

his pen fixe,this was

almost

the mechanical for

exhibition

of

an

refrainingfrom

idee surely no reason in his power, bringinghome to the publicby the only means Theft the indignationsuch charges objectivelymerited. individual theft due in be to kleptomania, must an yet may be reprobatedby all the force of pubHc opinion; we must endorse that opinion on occasions even though we cannot feel any moral animus men againstthe kleptomaniac. Englishin general would not be saying, Kingsley so hates the Church that he cannot of Rome help making unfair On the would take Kingsley's charges." contrary, they words a as damaging expressionof the conviction of an honest man in this,their objective ; and it was aspect,that they had to be answered. One further changes in the text which have two or no "


xvii

INTRODUCTION.

relation

to Mr.

relates

to

students

in the

old, and

followingpages

that

is

also it has

But

me.

wish

to

pass

Oakeley who then

a

does

identified with

was

my

and

was

the

When I had

mention

not

^

me.

my

I tated irri-

name,

displeasurewith for he did not

friendlyreason, me by name.

on

tioned men-

I

not many

277

much

how

of his present

more

criticisms

it was

Page

:

first time He

partlybecause

"

me

some

never

quite a boy

descriptionof

a

at Oxford.

Newman and

mainly

are

I realized for the

them

read

said to

father

my

in

is

name

was

Apologiawhen

readingthe first edition of the years

I

Bremond,

commented

father's

my

When

Apologia.

of them

One

Abbe

Hutton, have

of Newman,

fact that

the

surpriseon

Mr.

father.

own

my

other

and

be noted.

here

Kingsley may

views

He

mentions

Oxford,

at

and

excepts him

The personallyfrom his criticisms." he Newman's to as speciallypointed evidencing passage Oxford that in which he intimates irritation in days, was that the representatives of the avowedly Roman ,

of the

section

Movement

forciblyextorted said

passage.

writes,

again

''

very

It

might

thus

were

not

And or

not

they not ^

assent

"

incessant

which

conclusions.

ment argu-

they My

had

father

typicallogicianreferred to with methods of logic," to me the nature of a provocation."

the

come

in it

of the my

mine

:

to

again

scandalized have

To had

by

happen that I got simply confused administered logicwhich was

so

gave

round then

"

was

own

him

:

clearness

and

came

himseK

his

their

to

"

"

Newman And

he

that

the

in

worried

publicly claimed

and

and

sanction

to

conclusions

which

This

to

the me

really

when

the report of those conclusions through others I had to unsay them. scared perhaps I did not like to see men

me

by unfeelinglogicalinfluences which would had them to the day of their death made And then I felt altogether to eat them.

touched been

by

corresponds

\Yith p. 259

of the

present

edition.


xviii

INTRODUCTION.

the force of the maxim

complacuitDeo

old letter to

An the

attempt of

what

he

"

of St. Ambrose

salvum

Pusey, quoted two unnamed

an

obviouslyreferred

to the

In the later editions

place of A.B., father

A.B.

accept fairly

can

so

"

is

the

in

pages *'

dialectica

^

later,in which "

force

him "

a

beyond

nuisance

",

inserted

in

trial. "

was

longer be

no

the

At

"

Ward

name

it could

that

to

Non

suum."

stigmatizedas

same

unmentioned.

was

:

facerepopulum

time

same

by gettingrid

of

said that the

text

my was

which colloquialism forced to recognizethem of irritation ; savoured was substituted ". The other change for made to eat them clearness of the logic strengthof the logic in placeof does not seem to me an improvement, though its cause doubtless obvious. It was was designed to get rid of the of my father's that the clearness apparent paradox Newman. confusing logic could have the effect of Strength of logic,on the other hand, might, like strong wine, have a confusingeffect. Yet to confuse by its clearness father's in fact,I think, at times just the effect of my was reasoning. His arguments were clear as those of Euclid,and they were most confusingwhen one felt that they apparently demonstrated which a conclusion was obviouslyfalse. One he had left out could not at once the point at which see

changed, in

one

case

a

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

*'

"

*'

''

relevant

yet The

"

"

these

facts which facts

combination

were

should

have

present of

the

modified

his conclusion

subconsciouslyin one's clearest

demonstration

;

mind. from

premissesof which one was conscious,with latent knowledge with the conclusion, was of other premisses inconsistent most confusing. went In later years Newman yet further in avowing the truth of my father's inferences from the text of the Apologia. In a letter to myself of January 1885, he writes : ^

Vide

infra,p.

204.


INTRODUCTION. "

a

a never High Churchman, never What a Newmanite. Puseyite,never is described in the Apologia,pp. 163 seq."

Your

father

was

Tractarian, never

his line

xix

was

a

exactlycorrespondingin the then current edition Apologia to those pointed out to me by my father edition. himself in the original thrown Newman's further lightwas Yet on annoyance of W. G. Ward's at the pressure logic,by a passage in Dean Church's Oxford Movement, publishedin 1890, which pages of the

runs

follows

as

"

Ward

Mr.

:

and

would

so.'

says

.

appealingto Mr. Newman of his principlesand

getting Mr. or

Newman's

sanction

dissatisfied friends ;

more

mth

great glee on objectors to startlingposition,with the reply Newman '

Mr. .

of

timid down

come

and

new

of

soundness

the view

againstmore

he

some

the

on

pronounce inferences with for them

in the habit

was

to

Ward

Mr.

continually forcingon

was

.

'

so-called irresistible'inferences

:

If you

man New-

and

so

say ? '

so,

also say surely you must something more Avowedly and of facts, ignorant depending for them on others, he with logicalconsistency. And ingly accordwas only concerned with whom Mr. sistency Newman, producible logicalconit was indeed was a great thing,but with whom far from being everything,had continuallyto accept very

which

conclusions to

push

to

himself all

was

shrank

his mind

at

Mr.

Ward's

and

at

Mr.

his

time,

this

;

how

ultimatelytook

of

state

mind

but

kept

ideas

his

far

he

wanted

had to

No

Ward's.

things affected

it

the

No

one

can

to

go

take

to

have one

pause of hesitation the view it accelerated

position.

he

But

had

He He

own.

in that

of his

which

extreme.

were

great decision. when

abeyance, fications, quali-

their

time, his libertyto make

of

at Mr.

in

without

extreme

they

not

questions,not own

Newman's

step

sanction

the and

pace

have

used

were

because

slowly on

much

final

and

on

from

Ward's

Mr.

rather

which

with his command

over

up

how

he would

admissions

make

them

can

tell

of

working before

the

which

he

tell,for many


INTRODUCTION.

XX

other

influences

doubt

no

that

mixed Newman

with

up

theories, and

Ward's

in effect,it drove

him

there

a

sea-way,

coincide

with

condition

of

stability.So by

reinforced

onwards

Another

when

the

those

of the

be

and

cut

the

there

which

"

was

of

undulations

in the

text

a

him

one.

has

had

ultra

party

among

to

a

ship's

mind

"

of

waves,

the

relation

some

of

that,

shiprolling ship'sroll

to

by Kingsley'sattack

violent

benefit

of the

Newman

the

and

his time

a

of the

periodictimes

less direct

a

opportunity given *'

short

case

highly dangerous agitationsof Mr. Newman's impulsesof Mr. Ward's."

change

father, though that

the

things arises the

there is

But

one.

little doubt

can

waiting. Engineerstell us that, in in

this

felt the

annoyance of this perpetualquestioningfor the

unfairness Mr.

were

Mr.

were

to

used

my

the

point out Catholics,

at opinionsinto dogmas, and has it principally And heart to destroyevery school of thought but its own." that in this part of his treatment his correspondenceshows he was aiming at what he held to be my father's exaggerations and other cogto the import of Papal Infallibility as nate His words matters.^ applied,I think, in reaUty more in the writings of M. Louis Veuillot of the to passages closely father Univers than to anything my published. Newman pointed out that the Holy See has no magical power of truth but servative infallibly, represents the conteaching new the originaldepositof element which preserves held that, properly understood, the claim to faith. He made even a by the Catholic Church was infalhbility suasive perclaim in view of the tendency of free discussion on truths of religionto issue the fundamental simply in claim beyond Yet to exaggerate the Church's unbehef. The it incredible. to make certain point was appeal a the Catholic and alike to reason by imagination presented the concrete Church as representativeof things invi-

exalts

"

^

Life of Newman,

vol. ii,p. 92.


xxi

INTRODUCTION.

sible

"

bearing

witness

and

to

the

world

unseen

results

uncertain

amid

the

of

speculationwas of Ultramontanism The an exaggerated exponents cogent. thing were turning what was winning and persuasiveinto sometheir In intellectual analysis impossibleand grotesque. of rehgion they were claiminga completeness of truth for the for the unorthodox, which orthodox, a completenessof error facts obviously disproved. patent voices

confused

In

the

of

wave

which

success

had

after

come

the

clearly appeared,he could emphasize more of while he wise some was it, writing thought he writers who his contentions considered, were, against ignoring patent facts of history and making rational departments difficult or impossible. apologeticin some the value and partialtruth of the One on new passage,

Apologia had than

he

had

writings of

who

men

may,

nevertheless, have

fallen into "

viduals, indithesis is that Newman's heresy,is a noteworthy one. and and not the Holy See, have taken the initiative, in lead the Catholic the to ", mind, inquiry theological given is mainly conservative and that the function of Rome Catholic thought,but rather to check prenot to originate mature St. Augustine or false developments. He signalizes Church the best early exponents of and the African as in later adds the followingpassage the Latin ideas, and "

editions

:

Moreover, of the African divines, the first in order of is the strong-mindedand time, and not the least influential, heterodox Nor is the Eastern intellect, TertuUian. such, as "

without The

its share

free

Western

mind commentaries orthodox transmuted truths."

in the

formation

of the

thought of Origen is visible in Doctors, Hilary and Ambrose Jerome

of on

from Scripture,

Eusebius.

by

has

the

Heretical

livingpower

enriched

Latin

the ;

his

the stores

teaching. writingsof the and

of the

questionings of the Church

the

own

have

into

pendent inde-

vigorous scarcely been

salutary


xxii

INTRODUCTION.

further

The

mainly

witness he

that but

They

Development of a

French

form.

And

Apologiain

their

in 1866

the

here.

Apologiawas not UniversitySermons

Christian

and

had

confined

men. English-

to

his Essay

and

had

Doctrine

his French

long

admirers

on

existed

wished

the in

to have

language. A translation appeared showed reprintedin 1868. Newman his the of new meeting requirements

own

to be

interest

same

editions

care

interest in the Newman's

the

remarks

different

in revisingall studying in detail,

extreme

well worth

are

further

no

the

between

Newman's

to

wrote.

call for

The

variations

in

publicand adaptingthe work to their needs as he had done it for English readers. He wrote two Appenre-editing dixes for the French which that are so edition, interesting I here append them, as completing the picturewhich this volume aims at presentingof the historyof the Apologiain its various phases. The first is on the constitution and historyof the Church of England : in

"

There

and

shown

social affairs

Church.

so

the

sects

different and that

the

their love

enemies

one

another.

Erastians,Puritans hostile.

AngHcan

considerable

The

of

in

it is

and no

varieties of of

political national of

Of other Arminians

Rome, tant Protesalso

are

exaggerationto

ecclesiastical Estabhshment

amount

Establishment

But

the

in which

compromise

in the estabhshed as strikingly and ZwingH, all enemies

of all these a

institution of

Luther, Calvin

equallythe

were

other

is, perhaps, no

English have

is

Protestantism,

Catholicism

an

say amalgamation

to which

is superadded. the action which

is the outcome of the ministers of Edward VI, Mary, EHzabeth, of 1688, Cavaliers,the Puritans, the Latitudinarians the Methodists of the EighteenthCentury successively

Henry VIII, the and

brought

bear

on rehgion. It has a hierarchydating Ages, richlyendowed, exalted by its civil lished The Estabinfluence. position,formidable by its political Church has preservedthe rites,the prayers and the

from

the

to

Middle


xxiii

INTRODUCTION.

of the

symbols

Bible

of the had

having

century,

and

proud to make terms the primitiveChurch. doctors, said that

her

should

not

De

and

day

one

destined

play

to

tion translaboast

can

of

to the faith of their fathers

back

come

the

Anglican communion

great part

a

in

and

reconciliation

the

;

being

as

of Christendom.

reunion

dependence

ever

of the people. throughout the course heart

either

it has

In

them.

;

century it

seventeenth

towards

;

the

it

close

never

the

won

itseH consistent

shown

of its existence has

sixteenth

the

with fear,with

it has

this it has

In

closest

always gloriedin

Papal power

in other

concerns

constantlychanged

opinions or

no

of the

first half

Cathohc

had

has

aversion, and

with

and

resentment

and

civil power regardedthe

in the

been

always

the

on

It has

has

Church

remarkable

This this.

She

articles of

her

especiallyin the seventeenth of theologiansof great learning and of and practices with the doctrines The great Bossuet, contemplating it was impossiblethat the English

hailed

Maistre

;

bosom,

succession

a

sources

of Calvinism.

savours

her

in

ZwingHan

her

draws

She

Church.

ancient

Lutheran

faith from

Calvinist ; in the and quasi-

was

Arminian

was

of that

century and

the

at

In the middle beginningof the next it was latitudinarian. of the eighteenth century it was described by Lord Chatham ritual and prayer-book,Calvinist as having a papistical '

articles of faith and

an

clergy '.

Arminian

powerful partiesin which of religionwhich embodied the three principles appear are and the from beginning of its history in one constantly the Protestant another form principle, or ; the Catholic and the sceptical principle.Each of these, it is principle, hardly necessary to say, is violentlyopposed to the other In

our

days

it contains

three

two.

now

Firstly: the apostohc or moving in the direction

Tractarian

party, which

of Catholicism

further

is

than

time, or in any previous manifestation; to its most extent, that, in studyingthis party among advanced adherents, one may say that it differs in nothing from Catholicism except in the doctrine of Papal supremacy. in the seventeenth The party arose century, at the courts

at

any

such

other

an

of James

I and

Charles

I ; it

was

almost

extinguishedby


xxiv

INTRODUCTION.

the doctrines William

of Locke

III and

and

zealous

men

to take

day it has been increasing party in our

started

movement

Times

(and

But

in the

were principles

of

course

taught

and

'

non-jurors',a sect of learned who, preservingthe episcopalsuccession,

separated themselves summoned

its

the throne

to

of Hanover.

of the eighteenthcentury transmitted silently by the and

the ascent

by

the House

from the the oath of seen

Church

of

to fidelity

to revive

and

England

William

form

a

when

III.

In

and

numerous

the Church

by

the

of England, by means of the writingsentitled : Tracts for the

thence

called Tractarian,)of which there is in this book. mention aU maintains Secondly: the Evangelicalparty which the biblical societies and of the associations for most The protestant missions throughout the world. origin of this party may be traced back to the puritans,who began y

such

to

constant

show

themselves

in the

last years

of

Queen

Elizabeth's

reign. It was almost entirelythrown out of the Church of England at the time of the restoration of Charles II in 1660. It took refugeamong and the dissenters from that Church revived was expiringlittle by little when its doctrines were with great vigourby the celebrated preachersWhitfield and Wesley, both pastors of the Anglican Church and founders of the powerful sect c^f the Methodists. These doctrines, while

creating

exercised

the

sect

a

outside

the

established

Church,

important influence in the bosom of that Church and developed there little by itself, little until it formed is to-day the evangelicalparty, which by far the most important of the three schools which we are tryingto describe. in previouscenturies Thirdly: the Liberal party, known It broke of Latitudinarian. by the less honourable name at

off from

the

reignof Arminians

1688, and

I, and

England Locke

This

or

Courjb party, in the

duction by the introof Grotius and of the principles have We already referred to the had influence in the same an having was

fed and

extended

of the

of Holland.

philosophyof direction.

an

quasi-Catholicparty,

Charles into

time

same

as

party took

the

side of the

revolution

of

supportedthe Whigs, William III, and the House of Hanover. The spiritof its principlesis opposed to extension and proseljrtism ; and, althoughit has numbered


INTRODUCTION.

remarkable

in its ranks

when,

it had

had

irritated

by

xxv

the

writers

but the

among votaries

few

of the

success

logians, Anglican theo-

until ten

years

ago,

arians, taking

Tract

of their principal of some advantage of the conversion leaders to the Roman Church, and aided by the importation into England, this party suddenly literature of German and was before the public view propagated among came the

classes with

educated

best

that

and

do not

even

Anglican partiesit

could

these three

that

astonishing coming

in the

and principles

between

the

arguments

at deism. were

not

dissensions.

its internal

by

up

stop

communion

the

If

The

Catholics.

the

of the Liberals

rapidityso

will be divided

world generation the religious Deists

a

to beheve justifiable

it is almost

exist. But

composed solelyof It would

there

be broken

is in its bosom

by far than these three theological created a by the legalpositionof the ones party which, Church, profiting by its riches and by the institutions of its creed, is the counter weight and the chain which secures a

party

numerous

more

"

tives, It is the party of order,the party of ConservaIt is called. hitherto been have as or they of number it has that not not a great rehgious party,

the whole.

Tories

not

a

and its ranks, but because its principles at least ecclesiastical rather or political neither Tractarians,nor Its members than theological. are if Liberals nor they are, it is in a very Evangelicals, ; or, mild and very unaggressiveform ; because, in the eyes of in its

men religious

mots

(Tordre

are

the world

their

advocates

of an

they

are

more

chief characteristic consists in their being and of the Establishment,and zealous for the preservationof a national Establishment

that national beliefs which that the great principle its confidence in the protection of the was its and its docilityin serving it,which of the civil power if on the one hand this respect Now enemies call its Erastianism, of the principle be its great principle, for the civil power

Church

solicitous for the

than

Church

said

professes.We Anghcan Church

above

a party whether word party is

in so numerous the other hand, embodied the the or laity,that the clergy among the mass constitutes It scarcelyadequate.

of the

The

Erastianism '

is,on '

Church.

Chapters,

Rectors

"

clergyin particular Bishops,Deans, always distinguishedby their "

are


INTRODUCTION.

xxvi

Toryism

all

on

In

English questions.

the

seventeenth

century they professedthe divine rightof kings ; they have '

Church

the

of

Church

the doctrine

gloriedin

since

ever

and

and

;

the

King

'

has

maintaining in

for

predominance

their the

'

:

The

been

is the head

King

after-dinner

'

toast

their formula

of

:

The

tion protesta-

retical kingdom of England the theothe temporal. over spiritual

of the

aversion for what They have always testified an extreme usurped by the Pope. Their chief they term the power theological dogma is that the Bible contains all necessary truths,and that every Christian is individually capable of them there for his own use. They preach Christ discovering the only mediator, redemption by His death, the renewal as the necessityfor good works. This of man by His Spirit, of that English great assembly of men, true representatives which is so famous for its good as for its evil common sense regard mostly every kind of theology,every consequences, the three schools which school,and in particular theological

In the seventeenth tried to portray, with mistrust. the Puritans the close of that combated at century they ; the Latitudinarians century they combated ; in the middle have

we

of the

eighteenthcentury they combated of the Evangelicalparty ; have made an they energeticstand

the members

and times

the Tractarians This

great

the

of

intimate

their

Methodists

and at

in

our

first

own

against

Liberals.

Established

Church

has

sarily neces-

The

country clergy,rejoicing the with relations county

lent neighbourhood and always benevomuch respectedand beloved by but not of their position, account

charitable,are

lower

for the

in

ease,

gentlemen and

in the

subdivisions.

many

in

to-day against the

and

party of order

the

classes

influence

who

on

of their doctrine.

enjoy great

revenues

and

But have

amongst not

much

astics ecclesito do

of the Cathedral chapters),many (such as the members have long since deteriorated in the pursuitof their personal advantage. Those who held high positionsin great towns have been led to adopt the habits of a great positionand formal orthodoxy of external display,and have boasted a devoid of interior life. which cold and almost was entirely These pastors have for a long time been self-indulgent nick-named two-bottle orthodox ',as though their greatest '


xxvii

INTRODUCTION.

health

the

to

of

'

drinking of port

itself in the

manifested

zeal religious

and

Church

the

King

'.

The

wine

pompous

of great town parisheshave also been surnamed dignitaries the high and dry school or Church. which for us are to explain three words It stillremains will find their place in oppositionto each other and which Church. Church ; Broad in this book : High Church ; Low the offers no : The last of these denominations difficulty '

'

'

word

'

broad

that

to

answers

'

of

latitudinarian

Liberal

the

is understood

Church

Broad

',and

by

But

the

party.

stood be underChurch cannot of High and Low explanation. doctrinal'appellationof The signifies High Church and aims at assertingthe prerogatives the teachingwhich invisible its much but Church the not of so ; authority and giftsas a visible body ; and, its privileges as powers have since in the Anghcan reHgionthese temporalprivileges it the civil accidentally happens power, always depended on Erastian ; is almost an that a partisanof the High Church denies the spiritual who that is to say, a man taining perpower denominations

without

'

'

to

and

Church

the

the branches

Church

the

that

maintains

the

of

is

Thus,

civil

a government. the of was as Church, High partisan may Whitgift,Archbishopof Canterbury in the reignof Elizabeth,

of

one

be

Calvinist and rate

was

also

during

his

as

The

is the

whatsoever

over

formerly Cromwell

with ^

the

Church

the

and

ceased

have

to exist

to

God

Low

;

days in

title a

Templars. "

State it

any

thus

was

and

power that

Independents preferred To-day, however, since the in England, the denomination

represent an

ecclesiasticalidea, synonymous an

analogous

preacher directed to preach on certain given which little church curious formerly belonged to the hy John Henry Newman.

was

very Note

High

doctrine

Erastian the

the

party which Church party

is the

party, becoming designatesa theological the Evangelicalparty. In consequence, This

at any

the

Charles.

has ceased

Church

give of

and

Puritans

the

that

to

Church

the

party

King,

anathematises

King

to

Puritans and

obviously the oppositeto

High

it anti-Christian

considers

of Low

is

the

Church

which

one

Temple,^

youth.

If then

upholds the

of the

Hooker, the Master

Church

Low

Church.

a

to

a


INTRODUCTION,

xxviii

change has

'

the meaning of the name High denotingsolelythe partisansof the Church and the King ', or the Erastians,it has come to have and the semito denote a theologicalsignification Cathohc own party. Thus it often happens in our daj'-s that even the Tractarians called partisansof the High are Church, although they began by denouncing Erastianism, and although, in their early days, they were violently opposed at Oxford by the High Church party or Established Church'.

taken

place in

Instead

of

'

Church." With

the above

for the "

The

centre

be read

should

the

readers,on

same

shorter

note, designed

Universityof Oxford

Oxford

University of

a

has

been

the

:

intellectual

England ever since the Middle Ages. Six centuries alone surpassedit as an ecclesiastical school and the mother of the great theologians, Scotus,Alexander of

Paris

ago

it was

Even in those times it was a Hales, and Occam. representativeof the political partiesof the nation.

of of old

of that

rhymed coupletgivesevidence Chronica Post

In

the

si penses,

the head

party, which

has

ira per

Oxonienses

Angligenenses.

Reformation, Oxford has quarters of the Tory or Conservative

been

described

in the Established Protestant

pugnant

volat

above

Church.

It

the

as

alive in the time

King

Charles

I found

of

Queen Mary

his most

was

siderable con-

that the

Latimer,

; it

steadfast

most

there

was

reformers, Cranmer, Ridley and

burnt

his Parliament.

An

:

followingthe

centuries

always been

cum

menses

paucos

kind

there

were

that

support against

nonjurorsand other sought a refugefor their opinions when the House had taken of Hanover possessionof the kingdom ; and, while remainingeminently conservative in its religious and political teaching,it has nevertheless so completely sustained the intellectual vigour of its first of the last century, it has given in the course ages, that,even birth to each of the three theological partiesthat exist servative to-day in the Established Church, and to which the conso it, is spiritwhich speciallycharacterises naturallyso opposed. The EvangeHcal party of to-dayowes

It

was

there that the

supporters of the Stuarts


INTRODUCTION.

its

originto Whitfield

last century, Oxford students. was

of

the

and

sole mother which

to-day

sprang Let

rather us

Oxford which It of

all the a

has

comparing

its

continental

other

any

it to

source.

There, too, Middle

Ages

have

universities

lost.

of separate societies which and halls,and each of colleges

names

separate

and

the

independent rights and than by

be better described

positioncannot

constitution political

Just

the

of

United

the different States are, or have been, independent within their proper limitations in the nevertheless included dominion of the

States of America.

are

from

proves, the the Liberahsm

intelhgentclasses

Enghsh

than

middle Oxford

certain number

distinctive

privileges.Its

and

the

Oxford

; and

proceed to its academic constitution. of the has preserved this character

which

hitherto

this volume

again, as

inundates

from

nearly the

and Wesley, who, towards the life as began their religious of Tractarianism

nurse

comprehends

bear

xxix

as

collegesis a separate republic,so each of the Oxford corporationlegally and actuallyindependent of all the others, althoughthey are all constituent parts of the same in the beginning inns or university. These collegeswere hostels intended

the sixteenth

afar.

for

the

reception

of

students

who

had

by little they took the form of tant separate societies,and, obtainingthe patronage of imporpeople,whether ecclesiastics or nobles, they acquired and were Other a richlyendowed. legalexistence (status) with which collegeshave their originin the monasteries the universitywas abundantly provided. To-day there exist about and five halls. The difference twenty colleges between a coUege and a hall is that the coUege is a corporation and having its own complete possessingendowments administration, and that the hall is not a corporation. in this work in Mention is made of Oriel CoUege, founded in founded II ; of Trinity College, 1326 by King Edward from

come

Little

century on

the site of

Pembroke Alban

College,whose originis Hall, the antiquityof which

a

house

Benedictine modern

more

goes

back

;

; of

and

of

further than

that of the two first. The corporate rightsof a college rest to with a head and with Fellows, whose answers position that of the Dean is

designatedby

and

Canons

of

a

cathedral.

such different titles,

as

And

Provost

this head of

Oriel,


INTRODUCTION,

XXX

President

of

Trinity,Master

Hall.

of Alban

head

The

of

Pembroke,

and Principal universityitself is the

of the

Chancellor, who is generallya great nobleman, or a considerable statesman, elected to the positionby the members of the

university.The Lord

been

three

Grenville,so

most

recent

celebrated

Chancellors

have

in the

beginning of the historyof this century, the Duke of Wellington,and Lord the head of the Conservative Derby, now party. The acting of the universityis the Vice-Chancellor who is governor the heads of the chosen, accordingto custom, from among collegesin turn and holds his office for four years." It is

to note that when in another interesting classif3dng, the French to Appendix edition,the Anglican writers named in the Apologia,Newman givesRose, Hook, and Perceval, "

all of them

among

members,

as

of

the founders

not

of the

the

High Church separatelyfrom

Palmer,

the other

with

the

The

Church causes

Movement,

of the

or

the

three

"

of

Established

"

the

Church

theological parties".

hand, like Pusey and

Keble,

is classed

Anglo-Catholics.

above

It would

the

on

Oxford

Anglo-Catholicparty, but

considered

party

of the

are, of course,

notes

be instructive of

England, which

as

have

accurate

made

nearly half

student

if some

as one

a

century

of the fortunes

Newman,

to trace

were

of Newman's

old.

of the

statements

ment completely inapplicableto the present day, the statethe that the clergy,and high dignitaries, especially for their Tor3dsm on all English are always distinguished questions". The alliance of Bishops of the Established reminded Church with the democracy is,as we are by this and the statement, a modern important part development, played by the episcopalbench in passing the Parliament Bill would suggested some interesting probably have so

"

"

reflections to Newman

could

he have

foreseen

Wilfrid

it.

Ward,


the

and

1864

following

enclosed

in

Words

or

Words

or

of

of

1864

edition,

this

cancelled

were

book

1865

the

in

the

by

as

the

in

the

1865

in

enclosed

are

in

therefore

(on

to

recognize constructed words

by

in

the

by

264)

p.

the

in

text,

number

version

1864

the

be all

including

( ), by

thus

1865,

untouched

preceded

occurs,

but

deleted,

simply

not

left

are

footnote,

a

forced

eat]

can

book,

1864

difference

the

to

text

in

enclosed

which

in

1865,

in

shown

is

followed made

24

The

the

words

where

first,

given

of

of

sua

far

so

[ ].

inserted

first

passages

line

the

1865,

().

alteration

the

but

square

other

by

replaced

Vita

pro

of

87-477

pp.

book

1864

brackets

passages

brackets

angular

the

of

passages

or

in

shown

Apologia

the

Opinions

Religious

my

are

of

text

:

way

Words

are

of

History

overlap,

books

two

the

between

di"Eerences

The

being

:

all

omitting

[ ], and

words the

ignoring

by

footnotes.

The in

1865

and

book-form)

some

are

Newman

other

in

the

other

shown

Trustees,

interesting

by

and

variations,

the of

footnotes

book the

Messrs.

subsequent

for

revised

;

and

by

1870,

(one

original in

reissue the

Green

Longmans, to

footnotes.

the

1864

the

of

enclosed

words to

representing

pamphlets

the in

reference

copies

two

ascertainably,

not

also

( ),

and

all

omitting

by

constructed

words between

though

pamphlets,

the

all

differences

few

probably,

of

be

can

including

[ ], by A

text

are

courtesy "

given.

Co.,


of the originalTitle-jxige.]

[Reduced Facsimile

MR. KINGSLEY

M.

xm

NEWMAN:

CORRESPONDENCE

"\x

WHETHER

DR.

Question

%

NEWMAN

IS

TRUTH

TEACHES

NO

THAT

VIRTUE?

LONDON:

LONGMAN,

GREEN,

ROBERTS,

LONGMAN, 1864. Price

One

SldlVmg.

AND

GREEN.


ADVERTISEMENT

To

that,

in

in

making

from

which

object

writing,

to

turn

led

my

I

my

in

at

a

Kingsley's

31,

1864.

I

all, different

has

also

have

them.

against

led

me,

direction.

J.

January

from

although

protest

writing

thoughts

Mr.

of

observe,

indeed

far

am

Church,

formal

to

necessary

truth

Cathohc

any

to

it

the

of

the

against

think

published,

admission

any

accusations

abstained

here

Letters

my

implying

The

I

misconception,

prevent

H.

N._


A

CORRESPONDENCE,

I. Extract

from

vols.

"

better

not

but

men,

217.

216,

religion had,

Roman

The

men

History of England, Magaziiie for January,

C. K."

Pages "

Froude^s

viii., in 3Iacmillan's

signed

1864,

of

Review

a

vii. and

for

past, been face,

time

some

We

worse.

must

making must

we

honestly for ourselves, the deep demoralization that which had been by the dogma brought on in Europe and of had the of Rome the creating right Pope power truth and but that not falsehood, morahty only ; wrong his setting his seal to a bit and on immorahty, depended that the time From of indulgences were parchment. which would insure hawked about in his pardon name, conceive

for

'

etsi

man,

any

violavisset,' the

Dei

matrem

world

in

was general began to be of that opinion. But the mischief and older deeper than those indulgences. It lay in the very A deed of the dispensing power. notion might be a crime, the Hke all crime at Eighth's marriage of Henry no or widow his brother's according to the will of the Pope. of Rome the interest If it suited or caprice of the old man "

"

not

to

hand, mentis what

the

say

burned

alive to

say

word,

in

hell

it, the

munitus, eternal

law

to

of

doer

the for

doer

of the

endless

right

of

a

same

bliss.

and

wrong,

deed

certain

If it suited

ever.

him,

deed What

on

would rule

could

would the go,

of remam

be other

sacra-

morality, in

the


MR.

6

hearts

of

hideous "

born

men

the shadow

if the

could

do

could

Pope

under

NEWMAN

the

moment,

that the

her

marriage with

Leicester

Moreover, when there

a

while

seems

shadow

of

wrong,

perhaps he fancied, at

no

of making power of wrong.

canon

of the

was

canon

of

The

Pope's wiU morahty left.

moralityof Elizabeth's reign was not so much capricious,self-mlled,fortuitous ; magnificent one

average as

so

to have

Pope had the right,instead

the moral

for

was

rightand

Elizabeth

weak

gone,

bred

make

likewise.

so

one

''

DR.

did not pass at once, when the Pope's off. Henry VIII. evidentlythought

thrown

authoritywas that

and

AND

deception?

a

And

KINGSLEY

in virtue, terrible the next in vice. It was not than one had and died with generation grown up in their hands, that Englishmen and Germans understand

Frenchmen

(what

that

they

to be

and

Italians

low,

day

till more the Bible

began

did not

to

stand) under-

judged by

the everlasting laws of respecter persons. So, again,of the virtue of truth. Truth, for its own been virtue with the Roman sake, had never a clergy. of

God

a

who

were

was

no

*'

Father

Newman

whole

informs

us

that

it need

not, and

on

the

to be ; that cunning is the weapon which ought Heaven has given to the saints wherewith the to withstand not

brute is

male

given

correct "

him

of the

marriage.

-Ricked

world

Whether

which

his notion

marries be

and

doctrinally

not, it is at least historically so.

or

Ever

since

St. Peter some

force

in

Pope

Stephen forged

Pepin, King

epistlefrom

an

of the

Franks, and sent it with of the saint's holy chains, that he might bribe filings to invade Italy,destroy the Lombards, and confirm

him

to

the

'

'

Patrimony of St. Peter ; ever since the first monk forgedthe first charter of his monastery, or dug the first heathen Anglo-Saxon out of his barrow, to make him

to

a

m.a,YtjTand

did not

'

draw

since

worker

a '

this

as

well

had

of miracles,because the rival minster as

the

heap

of lies been

his ten

own

minster

miles off ; "

accumulating, selves spawning, breedingfresh lies,till men began to ask themwhether truth was a thingworth a troubling practical man's head about, and to suspect that tongues were given claws to cats and to men, horns to bulls, simply for as ever

purposes

of offence

and

defence."


CORRESPONDENCE

A

7

II. Dk.

Newman

to Messrs.

Macmillan The

and

Co.

Oratory, Dec. 30,

1863.

Gentlemen, I do

write to you with any controversial be preposterous ; but I address you of your special interest in a Magazine which

simply because bears

not

would

which

purpose,

name.

your

have

highly respected name you Magazine, of which the January me by this morning's post, with That

a

to

attention

my

to page of

There, apropos Truth, for its "

the

not, and

is the

which

world

which

notion

be

Father

the

marries

with

been

pencil mark

sent

caUing

217.

Newman

brute

and

is

force in

doctrinallycorrect

or

it

cunning

saints wherewith

of

wicked

the

marriage.

Whether least

it is at

not,

"

that

us

that

:

with

virtue

informs

male

given

follows

as a

ought not to be ; has given to the

Heaven

withstand

a

has

Queen EUzabeth, I read been sake, had never

the whole

on

weapon to

his

clergy.

Roman

need

own

associated

number

so." historically There

is

reference

no

at

the

foot

of the

I should such

a

not

passage,

dream nor

of

expostulatingwith

with

the

editor

who

to

page

less any quotation from of mine, much of this statement. in justification words

any

my

writings,

the

writer

could

insert

of it

in proof of its allegations. appending evidence I neither Nor do I want any reparationfrom either of them. them for their should of I thank them if nor act, complain write to you with any desire they reversed it. Nor do I even of troubhng you I do but wish to to send me answer. an of yourselves, the attention draw as gentlemen, to a grave I feel confident and gratuitous slander, with which you without

will be sorry

to find associated I am.

a

name

so

eminent

as

yours.

Gentlemen, Your

(Signed)

obedient

Servant, John

H.

Newman.


AND

KINGSLEY

MR.

8

NEWMAN

DR.

III. The

Charles

Rev.

Kingsley

Dr.

to

Newman.

Eversley Rectory,January 6, 1864.

Sir,

Reverend

I have you article in the That

believed

XX.,

and

Wisdom

in

an

Magazine.

from

many I which

to

passages

expressly Subjects of the

"

on

published

in

Macmillan, mine

in

1844, and

Innocence."

of that Sermon, that I finally in consequence off the strong influence which writingsexerted your and much I still of for which owe ; you a deep debt

It

was

shook of

"

of Macmillan's

document

the

but

to Mr.

expressionsof

Sermons of your the volume

one

was

entitled

letter of yours

a

just,I

were

writings; No.

Day,"

on

words

my

of your referred

seen

complain of some January number

in which

me

gratitude. I

am

happy

most

from

I understand

be most you,

happy,

to retract

on

my

hear

to

from

meaning

showing me that as publiclyas

your

accusation I am,

Reverend Your

I mistook

that

you

letter)your

your

; and

I have I have

(as

I shall

wronged made

it.

Sir,

faithful

Servant, Kingsley.

Charles

(Signed)

IV. Dr.

Newman

to

the Rev.

Charles The

[^Reverend

Macmillan's

Oratory,Birraingham, January 7, 1864.

Sir, I have

informing me

Kingsley.

that

to

acknowledge your are

you

in

Magazine,

referringgenerally to

a

the

writer

which Protestant

I

am sermon

letter of the of

an

6tb,

article

in

mentioned, and of mine, of

Vicar of St. Mary's, as pages, published by me, in 1844, and treating of the bearingof the Christian towards of the of the reaction the world, and character of that seventeen


0

CORRESPONDENCE

A

works passim ; to my bearingupon him ; and also,referring in justification of your statement, categorical and definite, "

that

Father

informs

Newman

sake

need

not, and

with

the Roman

that

us

the whole

on

only to remark, in addition with great sincerityto Messrs. letter of which you speak, and

the

that, when

I wrote

I had

seen

ever

author

for its

be,

to

own

virtue

a

clergy.'

I have said

truth

ought not

to

them, no of, had

of the statement

in

Macmillan

Co., in I refer you, whatever, whom

occurred

question.

to

Reverend

I am.

the

as

your

amazed.

was

Sir,

obedient

Your

me

I received

When

yourseK the authorship,I

letter,taking upon

already

and

which

to

person

heard

or

I have

to what

Servant, John

(Signed)

Newman.

H.

V. Dr.

to X.

Newman

Y., Esq.^

The

Dear

Oratory,January 8, 1864.

Sir, I thank which

frankness

for the

you

just received,and

of the 5th

tone of friendly reptyto

I have heard from

it invites.

letter your it with the

I wish to

Mr.

Kingsley,

avowing himself, to

extreme astonishment,the author my I wrote about which to Messrs. Macmillan.

of the passage one, whose

No

the

as

that must

I five recollect, as

of their name

A

and, had

out

of the world

;

will not think the I remember, I never before

Magazine.

on

the

cover,

I

whatever.

statingwhat ^

:

Macmillan

that, as far his

heard, crossed

ever

Mr.

was

if Messrs.

idea

I had

name

in their

Magazine Kingsley,I should have I saw the initials at the Certainly,

it

face.

writer

was

am

And it not

so

my

any

laughed end

;

and, I saw

must

even :

said in

his

but, you

confession

of the Editor

mind

one

own,

rude, the side outI saw

when

conveyed

to me absolutelyno defendingmyself,but merely

the fact ; and

gentleman who interposedbetween B3

as

Mr.

to the

article,I said

Kingsleyand

Dr. Newman.

to


AND

KINGSLEY

MR.

10

DR.

NEWMAN

"

scribe, who is making himself myself, Here is a young Si cheap reputation by smart hits at safe objects." I live out of All this will make you see, not only how the world, but also how thus partiesconcerned

controversy with as

I have

been

about as

the

to be in

a

go, though God myself in the case of

attacks

of such

sensitive

sense

forbid

that

tions asser-

been

never

rarely taken

ceased

untrue

rule of the game, I should indulge in a

I have

another. ;

I in active

portion of it,

any

consider

certain

in the

been

fly at

I should

now,

times

them

let

AngHcan body, or

before

me

I feel it to have Were me.

wanton to

very of them.

notice

from

controversy, they from the year 1833 incessantly in my to this day. They do not ordinarily come : way times Somewhen they do, I let them pass through indolence. when

Now,

continue

:

I

have

they

friends send such

long

lasted

have

specimens

me

I

they are compromise interests The January number I know not by whom, which

I

as

am

bound which of

the

animadverted,

have

sometimes

if I would

answer,

to

Magazine

not

than

me

sent

was

foe, with

or

and

;

dearer

are

friend

of them

to

the

life.

to

me, on

passage

emphatically,not

to

say better

indignantly,scored against. Nor can there be a proof that there was a call upon me to notice it,than astoundingfact that you can so calmly (excuseme) plainly of yourseK, as you do, that you had

the

"

"

"

did not even think that I passage, would think it unjust." communion and

the

fess con-

wonderful Most phenomenon ! breathing Enghsh air, and walking

or

any

educated

An

the

m

read

of my man,

Ught

of

the

century, thinks that neither I nor any members in allowing that communion feel any of my difficulty Truth for its own sake need not, and on the whole ought " not to be, a virtue with the Roman clergy; nay, that they nineteenth "

are

had

not

at

all

informed

surprisedto "

the

"

be told that

world, that

such

Father

is the

Newman

standard

of

! moralityacknowledged, acquiescedin,by his co-rehgionists in truth, there is nothing at all,however But, I suppose, base, up to the high mark of Titus Gates, which a Cathohc not expect to be believed of him by Protestants, may however

honourable

and

this natural

train

hard-headed. of

thought, I

However, observe

on

missing dis-your


avowal

a

as

of

will

say

I say it. broad difference

or rule, principle

a

conduct.

human

it in

of the

substance

but they carry them instances, and in particular

virtues, agree,

and

is the

in

or

;

that

in itself and

same

Protestant

this

writers, with

or

be referred to that moral of us all. But when whether

I

soon

in itself as

limits

or

shall

what

Protestants, in their view

and

Truth

success.

as

then, that there is a

variouslyin detail ; and of particularactors case CathoUc

think

judgment

virtue, considered

moral

the

I

and

apphcation

the

Catholics of

;

itself to your you will allow

I think between and

follows

as

commend

11

CORRESPONDENCE

A

-

is

so

virtues

are

is the natural

to to

sion posses-

to the questionin detail, to particularis conformable

come

we

act

the

indifferent

in substance

both

purity : which

sense

but

out

in

rule of purity ; then duals, indiviopinion between between and sometimes between sometimes schools, I, on my side, have long thought, rehgious communions. before I was a CathoUc, that the Protestant system, as even of the rule of purity; such, leads to a lax observance think that the CathoHc Protestants system, as such, leads rule

the

sometimes

to

of

truth,

there

is

again

or a

to

difference

the

of

I

of the rule of truth. lax observance think should they so, but I cannot

a

that

am

very

sorry

help it ; I lament If Mr. Kingsley had

mistake, but I bear it as I may. than this,I should not have felt it necessary more such criticize an But, as I should be to ordinaryremark. dirt a crime, heaping committing upon my soul,and storing

there said

up

no

for

and

myself remorse

confusion

of face

at

a

future

day, if I appUed my abstract beHef of the latent sensuaUty of Protestantism, on d priorireasoning,to individuals,to and said (not of name, Uving persons, to authors and men allusion to the Uving) that Bishop to make disrespectful Milner, or the Van Maldert, or the Rev. Dr. Spry, or Dean informs us that chastityfor its own Rev. Charles Simeon sake need not be, and on the whole ought not to be, a virtue with the AngUcan clergy,"and then, when chaUenged for Lectures Mildert's Bampton VideYa^n the proof, said, and Simeon's Skeleton Sermons passim ; and, as I should "

"

*'

stiU worse, matter only make of paradoxicaldivines or instances the

Protestants,

as,

for

instance, to

if I pointed to flagrant of bad clergymen among that

popular

London


MR.

12

preacherat

AND

KINGSLEY

the end of last

NEWMAN

DR.

century who

advocated

polygamy

like manner, for a writer, when he is definite historical facts of the sixteenth century, criticizing in

prmt

which

stand

have

to

and

in

;. so,

fall on

or

flingat

a

then

say to those who know what he tells them, who

of historical facts from

him,

"

of me, Father Newman sake need not he, and with

the

Roman

antithetical

clergy,"and

proceedingof

a

who

the whole

(save the mark so

that Truth be

the

know

for its

to

thus

own

be, a virtue

brilliant and of

cause

very

character

special

down,"

better,who

no

ought not

to

!)in a

"

but

take their tradition do not know to say me,"

informsus on

of his way

out

Uvmg

boldly to

nothing but

is

merits,to go

own

unpopular name,

an

to lead

as

exclaim, after the pattern of the celebrated lies are told in thy name ! Truth, how many

Truth, to

me

saying,

"

0

"

Such

being the state of the case, I think I shall carry I say, that, if there is to be any when you along with me explanationin the Magazine of so grave an inadvertence, it concerns the two gentlemen who are responsible for it, of what complexion that explanationshall be. For me, it is not I who ask for it ; I look on mainly as a spectator, and shall praiseor blame, accordingto my best judgment, what they do. Not that, in so acting, I am as I see implying a

of all that you tell me does." If

doubt

that

handsome

point, or, should they in either

find

of them

handsome

is,

they set proving their that impossible, if they say so,

I shall call them

case

"

; but

about

But,

men.

"

bear

with

me

for

harbouring a suspicionwhich Mr. Kingsley'sletter to has inspired, if they propose the me merely to smooth matter over plained," comby pubHshing to the world that I have that or they yieldto my letters, expostulations, explanations,"or that representations, they are quite of their mistake, if I will convince ready to be convinced them," or that they have profound respect for me, but reallythey are not the only persons who have gathered from writingswhat they have said of me," or that my they are unfeignedlysurprisedthat I should visit in "

*'

"

*'

"

"

their or

but

what

case

that

"

cannot

be the

sum

I have

they have be

passed

ever

had

expected to

total of what

a

be

they

in the

over

true

sense

of

others,"

good points,

to my faults,"if this to say, and they ignore

blind are

case

of my


CORRESPONDENCE

A

the fact that the

13

probandi of

onus

a

better measure

let it all alone, as far settles nothing.

I

as

definite accusation throw the

very

lies upon them, and that they have burden others, then, I say with upon

rightto

no

submission, they had concerned, for a half-

am

January 10. I will add, that any letter addressed public property ; not by Mr. Kingsley,I account

to

"

me

should

favour

you

with

me

fresh

any

so,

communication

yourself. Dear

I am.

Sir,

Yours

faithfully, Newman.

H.

John

(Signed)

VI. "

The

Kingsley

Chaeles

Rev.

Dr.

to

Newman.

Eversley Rectory, January 14,

1864.

Sir,

Reverend

I have

honour

the

acknowledge

to

your

answer

to

neither

of

letter.

my

also

I have

fancy

your

The

attacked

it,

term

"

you

down,"

which

course,

gentleman

a

than

more

their

pleasm-e,that a

X.

because do

On

Y.

that, if you

to say,

save

You

the few

say,

have

that

every

you ;

you

demand

and,

the

as

language)make

my

mistaken

Magazine You

comment,

any

you

were,

as

you

great injustice; also, that the suspicionexpressed in the latter part of letter to Mr. X. Y., is needless.

fit for

was

letter to Mr.

your

I have

that

please to and

seen

shall I make

them

opinion one,

you

meaning at

once

only course letters

(even

very

deep

my

of your words to Macmillan's

I inclose.

will consider do

is the

of your

feel,to

me

I shall send

right to

a

of me, tone

of the

lines which

me

my

letters

as

public.

so.

I remain. Reverend Yours

(Signed)

Sir,

faithfully, 0. Kingsley.


NEWMAN

DR.

AND

KINGSLEY

MR.

14

VII.

[This "

"

To

will apjpear

in the next

Editor

Macmillan's

THE

of

number.'] Magazine.

Sir, "

I made

last number

In your

Dr.

teachingof the Rev.

againstthe

tions allega-

certain

which

Newman, '

Wisdom and his, entitled will be fullydescribed, as to ^ .) Innocence,' (the sermon Dr. Newman has, by letter,expressedin the strongest I have put upon terms, his denial of the meaning which founded

were

on

of

Sermon

a

.

.

"

his words. "

No

no

;

the

knows

man

therefore,has

man,

a

Dr.

man New-

rightto define

what

than

better

of words

use

better

them.

mean by only remains, therefore,for me to express my hearty him ; and my regret at having so seriouslymistaken heartypleasureat findinghim on the side of Truth, in this,

does, or

he

"

or

does not,

It

other, matter,

any

Kingsley."

Charles

(Signed) VIII. Newman

Dr.

The

Since

a

of

perhaps

do

am

are

you

taking But

a

than

more

no

so

good

to

announce

Magazine

Macmillan's as

1864.

your

letter, for me,

remarks

any

to

showing it to do I wish to sincerely

then, the very fact of so

me

the

transcribe

to

libertyin making

to invite criticism ; and

seems

me

I

it.

upon

you

you

insertingin

of which

copy

Oratory,January 17,

Sir,

Reverend intention

Kingsley.

Charles

the Rev.

to

your

settlement, that, bringthis painfulmatter to an immediate I avail myself of your courtesy at the risk of being officious, I have the judgment which to express carefullyformed upon ^

it.

Here

follows

a

word

or

half-word, which

the MS. can shown for Mr. Kingsley what I understood

to

whom

I have

him

to

I

neither

decypher. mean

I have

by

"

nor

any

one

else

at p. 15 filled in

fully." ^J.H. "

N.


CORRESPONDENCE

A

I believe

wish

be your

it to

compatible with

do

to

such

me

for which is necessary quasi-infallibihty pubHcation ; and I am far from expecting any

and

which

you

would I

Moreover,

unfair

be

quite

am

is

justiceas

upholding the consistency

of

duty

your

15

Messrs.

to

that

aware,

periodical

a

thing from

Macmillan

the

and

Co.

reading public,to

little for virtuallyaddressed, cares the wording of an explanation, provided it be made aware of the fact that an explanationhas been given. Nevertheless, after givingyour letter the benefit of both whom

letter is

your

these

considerations,I

withhold

to

from

am

sorry

to

I feel it my duty I fain would

say

approbation which

it the

bestow. fault is,that, quitecontrary to your intention, by the generalreader to intimate,

Its main

understood

it will be that I have

been

works, and

have

of them. have

Such been

not

with

definite extracts

laid before

you my proceedingI have indeed

a so

fortunate

as

to

grounds

my

bring about.

of this dissatisfaction

as

a

whole.

will be best understood

by

you,

if I

columns place in parallel

by

one,

and

what

I conceive

from

interpretations but challenged,

own

besides,I gravelydisapproveof the letter

But The

confronted

its

will be

the

paragraphs,one popular reading

of them. I

This

proceed

to

do.

I have

the honour

Reverend Your

(Signed) Kingsley^sLetter.

Mr. 1.

Sir, In "

made

I Rev.

Dr.

founded entitled

"

St.

in 1844.

ber num-

were

of his, Sermon and cence," InnoWisdom a

preachedby of

which

Newman, on

him

Mary's, and

as

be,

obedient

Servant,

John

H. Newman.

Unjust,hut too probable, popular renderingof it.

allegations teaching of the

the

against

last

your certain

to

Sir,

Vicar

published


AND

KINGSLEY

MR.

16

2. I have

has, by letter,

2. Dr. Newman the

expressedin

NEWMAN

DR.

strongestterms his denial of the meaning which I have put upon his words.

3. No

no

extracts

affixed to them

he has

the

mean

a

to

be

I understood

3. He

;

skill of

legitimate

denial

the

to

which

of that

in

them.

done

has

he

what

their

sense,

of

this with

the

of verbal great master fence,who knows, as well as any

better

does, or

he

define what

not,

use

Dr. Newman

therefore,has

man,

rightto does

knows

man

better than

man, Dr. New-

challengedme to do, from his writings,and

conceives

words

set before

he

as

living,how

man

by them.

a

doctrine

a

insinuate

to

without

committing

himself to it. 4. It for

only remains, therefore, to

me

express

having

at

regret mistaken

my so

and

him,

my

pleasure at findinghim side of

truth,in this

or

have

heartily seriously

so

which

sense

words

were

he

meant

but feel a hearty to bear, I cannot pleasurealso,at having brought

the

on

other

any

I

while

However,

4.

hearty regret that I the seriously mistaken his me hearty assures

him, for once in a way, that after all truth is

matter.

to confess a

Christian

virtue.

IX. Rev.

Kingsley

Charles

to Dr.

Newman.

EversleyRectory,January 18, 1864.

Sir,

Reverend

I do not think it probablethat the good sense British Pubhc will misinterpretmy

of the

and

honesty apology,in the Two

in which way in it, which

passages

good feehng,may, I have

written "

words,

Dr. Newman him

No

"

and

I have

the

those,

on {sic)

Art. your Sermon the to publicly to

2, it on

open

Macmillan

knows

man

;

in the truth

As

however, be

to Messrs.

expect. put in in good faith and

you I

"

of

a

bad

them

words

use,

and

; viz. the

better

than

My hearty pleasureat finding

this

or

seems

which

given,not only you,

use

to such to omit

but

any to

my

other me,

matter."

that, by referring

are founded, allegations

every

one

an

opportunity


CORRESPONDENCE

A

17

of judging of their injustice.Having done this,and having franklyaccepted your assertion that I was mistaken, I have done as much one as English gentleman can expect from

another. the honour

I have

Reverend

be,

to

Sir, obedient

Your

Servant,

Charles

(Signed)

Kingsley.

X. Dr.

to Messrs.

Newman

Macmillan The

Co.

"

Oratory,January 22,

1864.

Gentlemen,

Kingsley,the

Mr. which has a

I called your shown his wish

great affront

priesthood. He

has

he

insert

proposes

Magazine he had

as

to

;

the

on

recall

to

myself,and

to

sent

me

and, when

30th

the

paragraph

of last

to

month,

I considered

insult to the Catholic

worse

draft

of

him

Letter

two

of its

which

of

criticisms

my

withdraw

a

number

February

I gave

good feelmg to

the

words, which

a

the

in

of the

writer

attention

upon

your

it,

paragraphs.

that portion of it,to which, However, he did not remove I told him, lay my main objection. That "

portionran

Dr.

his denial

terms

as

has

Newman

of

follows

by the

:

"

letter

expressed in the strongest meaning which I have put upon

his words."

My of

a

objectionto reference

to

a

this sentence, which Protestant sermon

(with the of

addition

mine, which

he

the ground of his assertion,and of an expression says formed of regret at having mistaken me) constitutes,after the of the two

withdrawal

paragraphs,the

letter,I thus explained to him "

Its

whole

of his

proposed

:

"

with

fault is, that, quite intention, it will be understood by the intimate, that I have been confronted definite extracts from my works, and have laid before

you

my

main [the proposed letter's]

contrary

to

your general reader to own

interpretationof

them.

Such

a

proceeding


MR.

18

I have In me

to this

answer

follows

as "

but challenged,

indeed

It

seems

sermon,

on

not

been

fortunate

so

Mr. Kingsleywrote representation,

to

me,

which

much

as

my

that, by referringpubliclyto the are founded, I have allegations one,

an

ing opportunityof judg-

done

this,and havingfrankly assertion that I was mistaken, I have done Enghsh gentleman can expect from another.'

one

I received

to

:

accepted your

replythe day before yesterday. It disappointed hoped that, with the insertion of him in your Magazine for February, there

this

for I had

me, a

have

"

given,not only you, but every of their injustice.Having as

NEWMAN

DR.

bring about."

to

as

AND

KINGSLEY

letter from

been

would

have

I have

waited

to make

mind. my the passage

end

an

whole

of the

However,

matter.

hours, to givetime for his explanaforty-eight tion its full,and therefore its legitimate impression After this interval,I find my judgment of

on

just what

it

was.

Moreover, since sendingto Mr. Kingsley that judgment, I have received a letter from a friend at a distance,wkom about my Hves out I had consulted, a man own age, who of the world of theological controversy and contemporary Hterature, and whose intellectual habits especially qualify him

for

words.

number, and

I

taking a I

put

clear and

before

writer's

the

and asked

him

whether

him

sufficient for its purpose, him the leaningof my own

of the

impartialview

force of

the

in your January passage proposed letter in February ^ ; I

consider

might

without mind.

He

the

a

word

answers

:

saying

"

to

letter show

Mr. Kingsley' In answer to your s question,whether I have hesitation in no proposed reparationis sufficient, attemptingto quote saying,Most decidedlynot. Without from in any writingswhich justifies your passage any he has used in his review, he the language which manner which he has leaves it to be inferred that the representation, and teachingin the sermon to given of your statements which he refers,is the fair and natural and primary sense that you did of them, and that it is only by your declaring and effect that what in he finds not mean said, really you that he had made a false charge." ^

Viz.

as

it is

given above,

p. 14.

"

J. H. N.


CORRESPONDENCE

A

I repeat^ aHer to opinion thus given came me, of which to Mr. Kingsley the letter of objection, You will see that, though quoted a portion above. judgments are independent of each other, they in

This

I had

sent

I have

the two

substance

coincide.

It in

19

only remains writing to you

for

30th of December.

requiringfrom

then

me

no

bring the

I

you

to write

I do

now,

to

again ; and,

you

I did

than

more

before you,

matter

on

the

without

reply.

any

I am.

Gentlemen, Your

obedient

Servant, H. Newman.

John

(Signed) XI.

of Explanationfrom Mr. Kingsley, as Magazine for February, 1864,

Letter

Macmillan's THE

TO

EDITOR

MACMILLAN's

OF

it stands

in

p. 368.

MAGAZINE.

Sir, In

againstthe I "

thought

letter

and

which

I me

of the

certain

allegations which Henry Newman,

Sermon

a

of

his, entitled

(Sermon 20 of Day "). Dr. Newman

"

Sermons has

by

strongest terms, his denial of the have put upon his words. It only remains, to express hearty regret at having my

expressed,in

meaning

"

Innocence

Subjects

therefore, for so

justifiedby

were

on

I made

John

teaching of Dr.

Wisdom

bearing

last number

your

mistaken seriously

the

him. Yours

Charles

(Signed) Eversley,January

faithfully, Kingsley.

14. 1864.

XII. on Reflections

I shall

attempt ;

adopt

will not

and

a

brief

spondence analysisof the foregoingcorrethe wording which I shall againstthe gravity due both to myself

I trust

offend

the above.

that


20

MR.

and

to the

KINGSLEY

occasion.

of

of

It is

evolved

thought expression.

course

AND

DR.

NEWMAN

impossibleto

do

in it without

some

justiceto

the

familiarity

Mr.

Kingsley begins then by exclaiming, 0 the the chicanery,the wholesale fraud, the vile hjrpocrisy, ! We have far not conscience-killing tyranny of Rome "

"

seek

to

wit

He,

for

evidence

an

There's Father

of it.

livingspecimen is worth a Priest writingof Priests,tells us

one

: a

Newman

hundred that

dead

lyingis

to ones. never

harm."

any

"

I

interpose: Hberty with my and

You

taking

are

If I have

name.

a

extraordinary

most

said

this,tell

me

when

where." "

Mr.

You said it, Reverend Kingsley repUes : Sir, in which you preached,when a Protestant,as Vicar a of St. Mary's, and publishedin 1844 ; and I could read lecture on the effects which that Sermon you a very salutary had at the time on my own opinionof you." Sermon

"

I make

answer

Oh

:

.

speakingof Priests ; but Mr. Kingsley relaxes : From

your

that I as

a

tone I

rejoin:

"

mean

Mean

Protestant

"

Do

Not,

.

it seems,

have

us

you

the

or

as

what you said." it ! I maintain I never a

a

Priest

your tone. be able to believe said

it,whether

Catholic." "

Mr.

as

passage."

know, I hke

to rejoice, greatlyrejoice,

did not

you

.

let

"

I waive that point." : Kingsleyreplies I object: Is it possible the main ! What ? waive question! I either said it or I didn't. You have made monstrous a charge againstme ; direct,distinct,public. You bound it as directly, to prove are as as distinctly, publicly; or to own you can't." Well," says Mr. Kingsley, if you are quite sure you did not say it,I'll take your word for it ; I reallywill." I thought that it dumb. Somehow My word ! I am word The word of be trial. that to was on happened my that he does not lie ! a Professor of lying, both gentle^ But Mr. Kingsley re-assures We are me : as men," he says : "I have done as much one English gentleman can expect from another." I begin to see : he thought me a gentleman at the "

"

"

"

"


CORRESPONDENCE

A

he

is

I,

not

practising

Juvenal

Walter

to

Steenie the

grand

was

"

preaching

satirists

the

down the

on

of it

Geordie,

jingling

laying

and

James

King

says

from

Charles

Baby

Gleordie,

lecturing

Steenie

and

dissimulation,

of

left

Charles

Baby

hear

to

0

:

all, what

mean

this,

to

him,"

before

Dalgarno

reprobate

"I

!

duty

not

theme

common

Scott

his

laying

round

come

the

did

reum."

confitentem

;

After

system.

on

who

Kingsley

confessedly

without

Ijong

taught

Mr.

is

Habemus

have

we

I

said

it

but

"

said. So

he

that

time

very

it

21

guilt

of

of

turpitude

incontinence." I

While

those

to

which

he

has

Accordingly, further

feel

I

criticism

two

of

principles given I

so

have on

Mr.

rude

put

his,

constitutes

historical a

it

tion explanahis

January which

Correspondence,

the

of

acts

for

itself

in

that

also

February

Kingsley's

Mr.

insufficient

these

between

Hes

that

then

still

enormity,

to

feel

miserably

is

and

a

real

literary

faction satis-

justice

shock. into

print,

and

make

no

Kingsley. J.

H.

N.


of the originalTitle-page.]

[Reduced Facsimile

"WHAT,THEN, DOES

MEAN

DE. NEWIAN

?"

EEPLY

A

TO

NEWMAN.

DR.

BY

BY

"

It is not

page

more

approach

THE

KINGSLEY,

CHARLES

EEV.

nearest

PUBLISHED

LATELY

PAMPHLET

A

than

hyperbole

a

to truth."

"

Newman,

that,

to say,

Sermons

on

in certain

343.

THIRD

EDITION.

AND

MACMILLAN

1864.

cases,

the Theory of

CO.

a

lie is the

ReligiousBelief,


NEWMAN

DR.

DOES

THEN,

"WHAT,

MEAN?"

Dr.

"

allowed

to

Before

pass

Roman

"

need

"

cunning saints

"

the

which

world

"

Dr.

Newman

XX. Dr.

Newman

Dr.

to

had

at

informed that

averse

to

having

disturbed

the

they

of

marriage." of

number

and

on

a

preached

and

published

the

Day."

as

to

terms,

courteous

complaining of this language the responsibihty on myself,

(by wished

he

controversy

to

him

and

:

courteous

of

contained,

I

;

him

and

moderate

I addi'essed

but

strong

Co. took

once

of

the

to

especially

and

Subjects

;

as

and

Newman.

been

health,

weak

and

in

it

that

force

male

given

Mary's,

St.

on

in

wrote,

I

slander.

I

Sermons

Macmillan

Messrs.

wrote

"

of

Vicar

as

of his

be

given

Innocence,"

and

that

us

considerable

a

with

virtue

to

not

is

and

to

the

In

deliberately

a

brute

writings,

Wisdom

I

has

the

upon

Newman's

entitled

No.

based

I

Dr.

in

ought

marries

account seem

informs

Heaven

withstand

to

be

"

been

never

which

weapon

accusation

sermon

a

on

the

:

Newman

whole,

the

wherewith

passages

by

and, is

wicked

This

Father

plain

a

quarters.

words

had

sake,

own

with

cannot

which

Magazine,

these

of

use

its

several

in

clergy.

not,

*'

made

give

I must

controversy,

Macmillan's

of

for

Truth,

the

the

of

misunderstood

been

have

pub-

me,

which

title-page,

a

either,

on

circumstances

and

himself

rejoinder.

a

commenting

the

"

and

without

number January and advisedly

"

"

Reflexions

has

He

mistake.

great

a

between

correspondence

a

certain

of

made

has

Newman

hshed

course,

the

a

that

Protestant) for

peace

this tone

regret of

his

following letter,

increased

letters,

which of

which,

in

was

and

regret

some was

from

he

quiet,

felt

therefore

much

and

was

at

by

though differed.

I as

I trust


DOES

THEN,

"WHAT,

26

English gentleman

every

ashamed

will feel,I have

which

to be

reason

Sir, seen

letter of yours to Mr. Macmillan, in of some expressionsof mine in an

a

complain

you

of Macmillan'

article in the January number That

words

my

was

XX.

but

sermons

s

from

Magazine. passages

many

to which "

of your in the volume

I

Subjects of

on

expressly the Day," entitled

1844, and

in

pubUshed

Innocence." of that

in consequence

was

behoved

document

the

one

and

Wisdom

just,I

were

writings;

of your referred

It

no

"

I have

"

MEAN?"

:

Reverend

No.

NEWMAN

DR.

shook that I finally writingsexerted on me, a deep debt of you

sermon

the strong influence which your I still owe of which and for much o3

gratitude. I

happy

most

am

I understand

happy,

be most you,

from

to retract

on

my

hear

to

from

that

you

letter)your

your

I mistook

meaning

I am,

Your

I received

a

moderate

very

it.

Sir,

from

answer

correspondenceensued, of in the February number followingapology : short

made

faithful servant, Charles

a

wronged

that I have your showing me accusation as pubUcly as I have Rev.

(as

I shall

; and

which

Kingsley.

Dr. Newman,

ended

Macmillan'

s

and

ing insert-

in my

Magazine

the

"

the Editor

To

of

"

Magazine."

Macmillan's

Sir, In

your

last

number

made

I

againstthe teaching of Dr. John I thought were justifiedby a "

and

Wisdom

Innocence

"

certain allegations which Henry Newman, of

sermon

XX.

(Sermon Day "). Dr.

his, entitled of

"

Sermons

Newman

has, by bearing his denial of the letter,expressed in the strongest terms It only remains, meaning which I have put upon his words. to for me hearty regret at having therefore, express my on

so

Subjects of

seriouslymistaken

the

him. Yours

faithfully, Charles

Kingsley.


REPLY

A

object had

My I

Dr.

thought

TO

PAMPHLET.

A

27

avoid

throughout to

been

wished

Newman

for

because

war,

I

peace.

therefore

"

questionof the meaning of many passages of his writings," and confined myself to the sermon entitled Wisdom and Innocence," simply to give him an tunity opporthe disputeon that one of settling ground. the

dropped "

But he

whether

whether

Dr. Newman

that

thought

had

he

wanted

he

lost his

whether

or

advantage over complete apology than

more

a

temper,

gained an

or

me,

I chose

have been his reasons, he give, whatever, I say, may suddenly changed his tone of courtesy and dignityfor one of which I shall only say that it shows sadly how the atmosphere of the Romish priesthoodhas degraded his

to

of what

notions

(as I

is due

he he

attempted There

far

as

I am,

of course,

Wisdom

and

I

points there

is

to have

that

my

what

him

thereby

most

welcome

withdraw

also

a

precluded, by

the

I

formed

word

my

more.

such "

and

of my

other of Dr. Newman's any I have declared assertion. Dr.

my

honest

an

I shall

him

man

he

has

fresh

up

to

be

He

1st of

anything else.

whether so

Dr. harsh

he in

needs, it

Newman's an

February,

It

shall

this seems

writings,as opinion of them

fault

depends

sustain

recently acquired.

advantage

it.

to the

past man New-

show, only Dr. Newman's

Newman

to

of so

thought

terms

If I

to

me,

as

the

give he

argument,

advantagesas possible. But I have a right,in of that to put before the pubHc so much rest

I have

I

using

as

entirely on Dr. reputation which

of the

entitled

sermon

words.

means

forbid that I should

thought

ever

prove

denial that it

am

been

It was, I

to

"

explanation,from writingsto prove 1864.

"

disadvantageto myself. But from those whose by judgment on no appeal,that, en hault courage

honour, I

strict

the

justifymy

to

whatever

informed

am

precludedfrom usingthe

Innocence

Heaven

given,at

once

spondence, corre-

believed

having

not

pubhshed

whole

can.

Newman's

accepted Dr. it did ; and

I

he

reflexions,in which

certain of

me

when

doing)the

then, nothing but

for me, as

; and

for

made.

I had

remains

mistake, "

convict

to

which

accusation

to himself

obligedto him appended to it

much

am

is

niany

self-justification, sermon,

and

will show

why

and

him,

and


"

28

still consider

I

why

meaning) full

a

sermon

writings

to the

Romish

a

attitude

"

Church."

the world

the Protestant

"

doubt

for peace. Innocence."

it is not

Protestant,

a

"

Christians

the "

and

the

especially, signified,

to be

appears

What

realms.

Dr. Newman

Church, he has not left in the precedingsermon (XIX. p. 328) he says :

by Christians,and

means

"

to

of these

pubHc

of

passages

fu-st, simply

at

occupied entirelywith

It is world

the

By

I have

and

Wisdom

always that

sermon.

of

"

entitled

its

be

may

many

wished

Dr. Newman

sermon

"

?

"

those

I left alone

which

be remembered

It must

MEAN

(whatever

by

same "

thought that

I

First,as but

that

the

do

rightto

Dr. Newman's because

DR.

dangerous and misleading. And

most

as

NEWMAN

DOES

THEN,

WHAT,

; for in

the

the humble be spoken, what are But, if the truth must as monk, and the holy nun, and other regulars, they are

world

Saviour

they

would

He

the

see

His

but

these

Bible will

He

them, but

in

us

continue

"

Did

?

our

day visit,

one

He

of the Christian^

features

apostlesleft behind

and

this

but

the

Christianityof earth suddenly, as

on

pattern given

very

done

the

come

in whom

have

What

Scripture? in the

after the

Christians

called,but

in them

?

Who

and friends, wealth and ease, give up home ? and hberty of will,for the kingdom of heaven find the image of St. Paul, or St. Peter, shall we John, or of Mary the mother of Mark, or of Philip's

good name Where or

St.

daughters,but

in those

seclusion,or

sent

are

who, whether they remain in the earth, have cahn faces,and

over

plaintive voices,

sweet

and

manners,

subdued

hearts

and

frames,

spare from

the

for their meekness

and

;

and

weaned

meet

gentle

world, and wills with insult,and

purity with slander, and for their gravity with This with cruelty..." and for their courage suspicion, for their

is his definition

of Christians. what

defines sufficiently two own "

"

notes

words

though

"

of her

(Sermon

XX.

"

celibacy of

"

in the relation politic

"

words,

to

Church

be

the

And

in the

by

means

character, which p.

grant that

we

"

he

346) :

"

sacramental

clergy do

tend

to

of rulers and

"

he "

itseK he

sermon

"

in

give in

his

Church

the

shall

for instance, and the

What,

confession

the

consolidate

aggrandize the priesthood? for one body without such relation

how ?

can

" .

body

in other

subjects,or, .

.

the


REPLY

A

Monks

and

Church

the

;

the

A

PAMPHLET.

29

only perfectChristians

the

nuns

and

confession

TO

of

ceHbacy

; sacramental

clergy notes of the clergyof subjectsto

to the

relation

laitym

the

I, like others, on the strength of Dr. Newman's to his advice to own definitions,gave Christians concerning wisdom," prudence," silence," What

rulers.

If

?

more

"

the

teacher

whom

Dr.

can

himseK

?

But

to

St.

"

the

would

they

which

meaning

Romish

"

itself ;

in the

mouth

Liguori, for

blame

Newman

sermon

have da

Alfonso

"

for

the

the

mistake,

of which

text

of

instance

a "

save

is from

beginsby statingthat the Church has been always helplessand persecuted,in proportion to its then Christians to asks, how are purity. Dr. Newman if they might not fight? and answers, defend themselves Matthew

"

They

It

16.

x.

allowed

were

defenceless." enabled

he

which

in the "

of of

show

to

defence

"

human

"

the He

are "

are

to on

He

goes

species,

"

"

*'

as

"

fit for Christians. to defend

forbidden '

foresight, beware secute

themselves

other

allowed, but others

"

are

of

means

by :

servants

violence

direct

'

:

'

they

are

For

avoidance,

of Christ ; but

means

commanded.

even

men

The

when

not

instance,

they per-

'

: prudence and city,flee into another 3^ou in one in the text, Be ye wise as serpents.' as skill, The mention him of the serpent in of the serpent reminds '

Paradise "

same

methods

"

"

cunning, which destroytheir enemies." holds good in our own

they best may ; only,since unscrupulous,guilt or innocence is all them, if it works their purpose." these facts to point out the analogy between

forbidden not

natural

to

are

among enables

is

the conduct

"

means,

"

"

nature

goes

animals

various

by

arts, of the

weaker

slaves captive,effeminate race ; of ; oppressed children subjects ; of the They exercise the inahenable right of self-

in such

same

is, the

the

"

a

ill-used and

"

"

the

"

of

case

how

"

even

how

despot."

a

and

or

that

arms,

themselves

enumerates

to elude

them on

defend

to

the

shows

He

chosen

"

his

"

Christ

; and

by

he says,

the

enemy

should

"

Consideringthat of mankind

as

the

the

serpent

instrument

was

of

that Paradise, it is very remarkable choose it as the pattern of wisdom for His

temptations

/' followers.

"

It is

in

as

if He

appealed to

the whole

world

of


"

"

"

"

"

DR.

DOES

THEN,

"WHAT,

30

NEWMAN

MEAN

"

?

sin,and to the bad arts by which the feeble gain advanthe strong. It is as if He set before us the tages over craft and treachery,the perfidyof the slave, and bade from so great an evil. It is as lesson even extract a us forbidden if the more violence, the more are we are we

"

exhorted

"

to rival the

"

them

prudence ;

to

if it

as

were

in endowments

wicked

bounden

our

of mind, and

duty to excel

in their exercise." then

Dr. Newman

than

reproach

more

goes on another

to

"

assert,that

which

has been

if there be "

cast upon

one

the

"

it is that of fraud and cunning." He quotes the imputations of craftiness and deceitfulness thrown upon

Church,

He of " deceit " upon our Lord himself. St. Paul, and even " Priestcraft has ever been considered the then says that badge, and its imputationis a kind of note, of the Church." He

that

asserts

the

has

accusation

been,

*

*'

'

"

in the language of the world." lessness able,however, that not only is harmlessness

"

hypocrisy

are

'

'

"

of wisdom,

"

and

'

stated

deceit, as

in the

impHcit obedience plicity,

"

contentment,

these and

"

as

wisdom,

to

because

"

charge of craft at the

hands

"

yet pretendto so little, admits dwellingon."

effect

for themselves

then

harm-

the corrective

goes

on

to mention

craft

but

:

virtues

God works ; and thus

work

He

'

and

and

It is remark*

in themselves

are

they produce the

*'

"

'

innocence, simof mind, God, tranquillity

text

the hke

; I mean,

sort of wisdom

a

'

"

few

a

craft

securingit against the corruption of

"

"

in

save

" the words ; and that ' but the version of wisdom

imfounded exceptions,

for those

do

incur they especially

world, because

of the so

results

same

who

much.

seven

not

the

they

This circumstance

heads

: "

control and of word First, sobriety, self-restraint, which religious exercise,have about them an men feeling, because of being artificial, they are not appearance artificial ; and natural ; and of being artful,because be would those who adds holy shortly after, that in the world of God, find so much and blameless, the sons and defile them, that they are to unsettle necessarily lest they should receive forced upon a strict self-restraint, "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

with it as is unavoidable such intercourse ; makes this self-restraint is the first thing which holy

"

injury from

"

and


A "

"

"

"

TO

A

PAMPHLET.

31

Next wanting in openness and manliness." are a rehgious men mystery to the world ; and selfbeing a mystery, they will in mere defence be called by the world mysterious,dark, subtle, designing." Next, that "it is very difficult to make seem

persons

he

REPLY

points out

"

the world

"

obedience

that

"

understand and

the difference between outward an assent." He then instances the earlyChristians and the heathen

inward

an

the relations between

"

when outrehgious men magistrates; and adds, that wardly conform, on the score of duty, to the powers that "be, the world is easilyled into the mistake that they have renounced their opinions, as well as submitted their actions ; and it feels or affects surprise, to find that their opinionsremain ; and it considers,or calls this,an inconto the same : with or a duphcity more sistency, purpose. Next, the silent resignationof Christians is set forth as of the world's suspicion; and "so is their cona cause fidence,in spiteof their apparent weakness, their cause will triumph." Another of the world's suspicion cause is,the unexpected of religious men. success Another, that the truth has in itself the power of spreading, without to instruments, making the world impute that uniformity,which secret management is nothing but the echo of the One Living and True Word. Another, that when Christians prosper, contrary to their and own expectations, it looks Hke deceit to show surprise, "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

And are "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

work

successful,when what

themselves."

lastly,because

God

works

they only mean

duplicitydoes

the

world

for

Christians,and to be

think

dutiful.

it,

they "

But

speak of to give or deUcacy,or propriety, other tokens of personal motives, when the event seems to show that a calculation of results has been the actuating It is God who principleat bottom. designs,but His servants seem designing...." Dr. Newman then to point out how "Jacob on goes is thought worldly wise in his dealings with Laban, whereas he was a plain man,' simply obedient to the "Moses is sometimes called sagacious and angel." shrewd in his measures his law, as if wise acts might or conscience,or honour,

'

.

'"

the

disclaim

to

.

.

or

to


"

32 "

not

WHAT,

been

"

themselves

"

if

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

called

a

"

"

NEWMAN

of wisdom."

som^ce

to the

MEAN

..."

civil power,

in the

was

a

and

matter

?

"

Bishops have yet opposing of plainduty,

consequence

;

and

then

again, if they did their best to repress it. hypocritical doctrines or ecclesiastical And, in hke manner, theological styledpoHtic if they are but salutary; as if usages are has willed her sovereignty, the Lord of the Church, who effect it not causes. What, for by secondary might confession instance, though we grant that sacramental the and the ceUbacy of the clergydo tend to consoHdate body pohtic in the relation of rulers and subjects,or, in other words, to aggrandisethe priesthood? For how be one the Church can body without such relation ; and why should not He, who has decreed that there should unity, take

be

to

measures

of these

reason

it ?

secure

"

"

part of the world is do not like to hear of the interin the affairs of the world ; and

suspicions

on

be, that

then stated to "

DR.

in submitting hypocritical

popular movement

The

"

the

from

come

"

DOES

THEN,

the

men

positionof Providence ascribe abihty and skillto His agents,to they invidiously and an Almighty the thought of an Infinite Wisdom escape "

Power The

then

sermon

in that

closes with

stylewhich

has

a

few

lines of

deservedly for

won

great beauty, Dr.

Newman

perfectorator of this generation reference have but to the questionin hand, no they ; We will gloryin what they disown." the words, save I have tried conscientiously to give a fair and complete digest of this, to me, very objectionableand dangerous being the

of

the honour

most

"

I have

sermon.

guards

himself

it ; and

none,

understandingof all comment minds

of

my

ask, whether me

to

have

omitted

no

passage

in which

Newman

Dr.

against the conclusions which I drew from I verilybelieve,which is requiredfor the full its

generaldrift.

I went as readers. the

mistake

fallen

was

on,

in order

But

I must

into which not

a

very

abstained

I have not now

Dr.

to

from

prejudicethe

turn

round

Newman

reasonable

and

asserts one

;

and

the average whether reading EngHshmen, ? would not be too likely to fall into the same that sermon, I put on it, as I thought, the plain and straightforward I find I am ; and nothing is left for signification. wrong of educated

in


REPLY

A

me

but

the

sermon

that

a

it

was

had

which

Church

PAMPHLET.

A

33

astonishment, What,

some

Why

?

mean

preached ?

then, did

To

insinuate confession and a

sacramental

clergywas the only true Church ? Or to insinuate admiring young gentlemen who listened to him their fellow-countrymenin the relation of the early

cehbate that

ask, with

to

TO

the

stood to

Romans ? that the heathen Or to Christians Queen to the Church of England what Victoria's Government was of Rome to the Church ? It Nero's or Diocletian's was

have

may Dr.

been

Newman

"

whole

writing a

I

so.

that

know

do

to

for the

not

sermon,

used

men

inclined

been

I have

to

of the

sake

suspect

myseK

so

of

"

text

or

but for the sake of one singlepassinghint little barbed one arrow which, as phrase,one epithet, of his calm he swept magnificently past on the stream of all presences, save eloquence, seemingly unconscious he delivered unheeded, as with his finger-tip, those unseen, of the matter,

"

one

heart

the very

to

of

initiated hearer, never him for that. blame

an

again. I do not highest triumphs

the

of

oratorio

"

entitle his

then, could

What, I found

"

point,the and

of men,

that

I think

even

arts

"

Dr.

himself.

"

"

?

Newman

imitate,

of the basest

Devil

of the

then

Innocence

and

be may has the Why did he

who

person

preacher bidding Christians

a

undefined

a

Wisdom

sermon

and

power,

by any employed honestlyand fairly, skill to do it honestly and fairly. But

drawn to be withIt is one of

meant to

of animals

I found

?

some

and

him, by

that St. Paul's of Scripture, insinuating strange perversion and

conduct him

on

him One

"

the

manner

such

were

as

naturallyto bring down

being a craftydeceiver.

reputationof

I found

of horrible to have to say it even hintingthe same ing greater than St. Paul. I found him denying or explainof that priestcraftwhich is a the existence away

notorious

"

fact

to

justifying(as far deahng by which

every I

as

honest can

student

understand

of history; and him) that double-

often in the middle prelates, age, too the sovereignagainstthe peopleand played off alternately in the the peopleagainstthe sovereign,careless which was gained by the move. right,as long as their own power I found him actuallyusing of such (and, as I thought, of himself and his party likewise)the words, They yield "

AFOLOaiA

"

O


"

34

WHAT,

DOES

THEN,

DR.

NEWMAN

MEAN

?

"

"

to betray the faith. outwardly ; to assent inwardly were because they are called deceitful and double-dealing, than they as they can, and not more they do as much may." I found him tellmg Christians that they will and in openness and artificial," \j^anting always seem that they will always be manliness to a mystery ; the world, and that the world will always think them rogues ; the rest of and biddingthem gloryin what the world {i.e. their fellow-countrymen) disown, and say with Mawworm, I like to be despised." that the preacher,who Now had the how I to know was of his generation, reputationof being the most acute man and of having a specially intimate acquaintancewith the of the human weaknesses heart, was utterlyblind to the broad result of a sermon meaning and the plainpractical "

Yet

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

this,deHvered

like

before

fanatic

and

hot-headed

young

his every word That he did not ? hung over think that they obeyed him, by foresee that they would becoming affected,artificial, sly,shifty, ready for Goncealand ments equivocations? That he did not foresee that and doublethey,hearinghis words concerningpriestcraft dealing,and being engaged in the study of the Mediaeval Church, would consider the same chicaneryallowed to them which they found practisedbut too often by the Mediaeval who

men,

Church what

?

or

even

go

of

amount

the

to

cunning

Romish

did

or

casuists,to discover

did

not

under

come

Dr.

Newman's one passingwarning againstcraft and deceit ? In a word, that he did not foresee that the natural result of the

them but and

sermon

on

suspect

the minds

that

truth

of his not

was

only for the

the sake of the salvation of their

"

would disciples a

spread of

"

be, to make own sake,

for its

virtue

catholic "

and

souls ; had allowed

own

opinions," cunning

that

which Heaven the weapon to them to defend was Protestant themselves the against public? persecuting All would

England

I to know And

stood

round

be the outcome

as

that a

he did not

see

In

days,and saw that teaching. How

it himself

fact,his teaching had

else it did,it did this. it into

in those

of Dr. Newman's

?

Whatever

this outcome.

proportion

as

this was

young

men

absorbed

and themselves, it injuredtheir straightforwardness

truthfulness.

The

fact

is notorious

to

all

England.

It


REPLY

A

TO

spreadmisery and shame result of Dr. practical

net

"

"

and

"

by

thus

382, says

is rather

Candour no

than "

his

either

saintlymind."

ought

to

have

those words, that he was of Hes ; and he ought to have wrote

told

his

when he disciple, highroadto the father

the

on

told the world, too, that such it to fall into the mistake

^namely,that he had wisdom enough to r esult and therefore of his meant words, practical I fell "

know

the

what

they

seemed

Dr. Newman

to say.

has

method.

nothing to

his

own

of

England) persist(as

If he would

blame

for that mistake, save member of the Church

(whilea

in this sermon) in dealing with offensive, doubtful, sometimes actually least according to the notions of the great

dark,

matters

forbidden, at majority of Enghsh

Churchmen

if he

;

would

tentative, palteringway, seldom how much he beUeved, how the world know in

or

a

to go ; if, in

what

one,

virtue,

distinctively

unless he wished

opinion ;

into which

so

own

Christian

a

moral

a

universallyor

of the

his

of

"

Dr.

was

of his

one

:

characteristic Newman

by

Ideal

intellectual than

an

means

The Englishhome. ness teachingson truthful-

up

in

35

an

Newman's

who,

Ward,

Church," page

into many

summed

be better

cannot

Mr. disciples,

PAMPHLET.

A

word,

a

wonder

his method if the

of

minds wonder

men

if

suspicious

a

filled with

were

said of him

suspicionsof

him

he

his fear that of his letters,expresses has the skiU of a great again),"Dr. Newman

so

"

"

"

?

naively,in

they will master

himself

to

they

(as

one

say of verbal

living,how

What

letting

far he intended

teachingwas of

do

always

never

fence, who

insinuate

to

"

it ?

If he

a

knows,

told

the

well

as

as

without

doctrine

world,

any

man

committing he virtually

as

"

looks hke that my conduct I know in this sermon, cmming ; but it is only the arts of the defenceless : No. It is what what wonder if the world it answered,

does

'

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

seems.

That

of mind

which,

bad

to

worse,

the mediaeval

is

just

what

we

call

indulged,is

once

till the

clergywho

man

cunning

certain

becomes

indulgedm

to

it

worthy." Dr. Newman, I say, has no himself. The world is not so blind but an

henest

man

a

habit

on

from

like too

"

"

of many utterlyuntrust-

"

find out

;

go

one

to blame

but

that it will soon if he will take the trouble of talking


"

36

acting like

and be a

a

honest

*'

MEAN

"

?

would

one

if he had

have suspectedhim perverselychosen to assume

not

himself

(as he

with

NEWMAN

DR.

world

confesses)the

to

always

dishonesty.

When, therefore,Dr. Newman says (p.10 of his pamphlet) he supposes, in truth, there is nothingat all,however base, up to the high mark of Titus Gates, which a Catholic of him not expect to be behoved by Protestants, may

that *'

No

one.

man,

stylewhich

associates

DOES

THEN,

WHAT,

"

*'

however

a

mere

of his

believe

it

brain.

own

In

so.

was

ever

he

hard-headed,"

and

honourable

phantom

the

It is not days when

is

stating

I do not

so.

Jesuits

were

incitingfanatics to assassinate Queen Elizabeth, and again in the days of the Gunpowder Plot, there was deservedly and against priests, strong feelingagainstRomish the recollection their dupes ; and it was lajrmenwho were caused the Titus Gates of that which tragedy, which Dr. Newman so ghbly flingsin our teeth,omitting possible Gates' that villanywould have been im(or forgetting) the precedingvillanies of Popish^fana'tics, without and that he was unmasked, condemned, and punished by a

very

a

few

"

"

But there was of British law. strong and great arm the in I worst even times, believe, any generalbelief never, be villains. that Catholics,simply as such, must the

The Catholic laityof these realms are now. respectedand trusted as the Protestants,when that respect and trust, as it does conduct justifies

There

justas their

is none

much

in the

case

of all

save

who

honest

men,

flock.

If there

is

them have

;

and

(as there

said their mother-country) And I confess,also,that this his advisers I go on now (asI told him unfavourable I shall be

reasons

the

which

to find out to other

are

good

the and

of their

care

distrust

of certain

priestsamong proselytizing

those with

for increasing,

to

who, like Dr.

contumely

publicdislike

Newman,

(Ihad

their mother-Church

upon

so

themselves

is)a strong

to the

especiallyto

turned round

show

themselves

confine

Catholics,it is restricted

Irish; and

wild

few

a

as long as they priests,

Romish

and

is very

I shall leave Dr. Newman

almost slander.

rapidly and

for themselves. works

of Dr.

I had in my first letter) to his honesty.

expected to adduce,

from

Newman, conceived

first and

an

which

opinion

foremost, the


REPLY

A

too -notorious

do

No.

that

reading in the opinion questionable as it was, dishonest that

PAMPHLET.

A

for the Times."

Tracts tract

it

again, I

over

which

I formed not

was

37

I shall not been confirmed

have

of it at to be

first,that, consciously just and true ;

meant

sayings in it were extravagances were pardonable, as the of a revulsion against the popular cry of those called on clergymen to interpretthe 'Articles

; that

few

some

of its

many

natural

"

90 of

On

so.

TO

fruit

days, which only in their Calvinistic sense, instead of includingunder them istic, (as their wise framers intended) not only the Calvinbut the Anghcan form of thought. There were pages in it which

shocked

which

and

me,

commentaries

the

instance

shock

the

on

5th,

still. I will

me

the

on

7th,

on

the

the 12th Articles ; because in them Dr. Newman the Articles say the very seemed to me trying to make meant not to say. thing which (I believe)the Articles were

9th, and

on

I attributed

But

to

him

mtentional

no

dishonesty.

The

interpretationshould be given to every The animus who is bound man by the letter of a document. should heard of Uttle be because as as possible, imponentium

fullest licence

merely the

certain to become

it is almost tium.

of

And

more

Every

:

excuse

animus

interpretan-

be made

to

was

for

a

man

strugglingdesperatelyto keep himself in what was, in fact, of the Church his right place, to remain member of a had placed him, while he felt England, where Providence attracted irresistibly

himself that

tract

a

fearful

probable, that if brain of his, such in

continued

"

the

de

tours

performing, when

against the

he

danger

he

sacrifice of

he would itself,"

mass

misfortunes.

honesty "

would

He

towards

i.e. conscious

Rome.

for the

tried

demand

to

he had

forceas

show

to "

"

I

of that that

in

saw

but

was

all but

did not

masses

But It

writer.

too

subtle

succeeded the

Article

speak against

surelyend in one or other of sense destroy his own

two

either

truthfulness

"

and

become

a

of honest dis-

he would sense destroy his common the slave and truthfulness, and become reallyof his own logic, fancy, puppet seeminglyof his own ready to believe anything, however preposterous,into which he could, for the moment, himself. I thought, for argue the former ; I now see past, that he had become years person

;

or

"

i.e. unconscious

that he has become

the latter.


"

38

DOES

THEN,

WHAT,

NEWMAN

DR.

MEAN

?

"

beg pardon for sayingso much about myseK. But this and me, and I say personalmatter between Dr. Newman but my fellowwhat I say simplyto show, not Dr. Newman, not an Protestants, that my opinion of him was sive impulI know his writings one." of old, or hastily-formed I

is a

"

"

"

I

But

far

justto him,

and

now.

made

all the rest of England believe effect on me. not the same

had

But

so

was

that No.

him

a

90, which

dishonest

man,

could

now

again "

I found

Dr.

Saints,"

of which

I must

truth, and

yet (as far

while

Newman,

of the discovered)a member abetting the publicationof

Church

of

certain

say,

that

"

no

as

be

England,aidingand Lives of the English such pubhc outrage

has been plain common sense, generation. I do not mtend to impute these lives and more of the gentlemen who wrote to any than one of whom, I believe,I knew personally ^the least intention deliberate to deceive. They said what they believed ; at least,what they had been taughf to believe And who had taught them that they ought to believe. ? Dr. Newman best answer that question.He had, at can that power over them, and in those days over hundreds least, He might have which genius can always command. more, those Lives of Saints," used it well. He might have made what they ought to have been, books to turn the hearts historic

on

on

this

perpetratedin

"

"

"

of the

children

to

the

the present Fathers, and to make and respect the true sanctity in spite of all mistakes, in those great

generation acknowledge which

there

was,

true virtue and true on sanctityfounded of no required tawdry super-structure lying He might have said to the author and ridiculous wonders. he found him, in the of the Life of St. Augustine,"when heat and haste of youthful fanaticism, outraginghistoric

of old

men

"

:a

piety,which ''

truth *'

"

and

of evidence

the law

for its own

sake is a

more

"

:

This

must

not

be.

Truth

preciousthingthan

any purpose, have in hand."

pious and useful,which we may him I found allowingthe world to accept, as sanctioned as are by him, such statements notoriously found in that life, mistake a hasty,or far-fetched, was my however

But

or

when

unfounded

for truth

one,

for its

own

when

I concluded

sake, or

teach

that

his

he

did not

care

to regard disciples


A

it

virtue

a

as

saying, that "

been

received

as

learn from

we "

historic

(who

wrote

PAMPHLET. "

that

the

though

A

TO

I found

?

wanted

England "

REPLY

"

yet

large,as

at

the

"

argument, though it ought to be kept quite distinct

"

documentary

"

of the and

for such

"

like

legalaccuracy

"

without

"

in the

"

Church."

the

winds

witnesses

"

bauble

;

be exhibited

exploded acts.

"

would

I

members,

it

after

But these

On

the

of

existence

record the

of

of

pageants and

empty

side

of

scepticism might suspiciouslegendsand is there

Cathohc

profanenessto question the

but

existence

"

Dr.

allowing his disciples

Newman

"

"

is not

of historic

him

in

is

question :

then, of the Protestant Church of England of page, in Life after Life, to talk nonsense

kind, which

foundation

a

found

even

put faith

the

by

England ? Upon such, assuredly, skiKul pleadermight easilyscatter credulous belief of prejudiced or

Yet, 'after all,what

George ?

When

we

tone, which

same

up

of

powerful array

a

count

of St.

in the

more

the unwritten

decorations.

"

in page

or

the

;

"

this

do

critic

acute

an

"

"

much

consistentlysummed

evidence

what

to

those who

.

George,the patron

"as "

from

proof,and will form no substistipulatefor something inquiriesof this nature, will not be

in

And .

.

On

of

this sort

its effect upon devout to rest minds, accustomed of God's watchful His guardianshipover thought

worthily,and "St.

generally.And

in

historic

proofwith

tute

"

West

I.

instrumental

"

conversion

to

of St. Innocent

was

"

undoubtedly

the Church

416), that St. Peter

a.d.

it has

often-quotedwords

some

Augustine

visit of St. Peter

pretended

pious opinion by

a

of St.

Life

evidence,

39

only sheer Popery, but it

truth, was

so

the very

saps

wonderful

that I

ceived con-

to have

more.

Saints'

taught and thought hke them ? of I found, that although the responsibihty Lives was carefullydivided and guarded by

and by Dr. Newman's anonymousness, be No. 1, that the different Uves would

"

advertisement

in

pubhshed by

their

their own on responsibihty," yet that consider now had, in what I must merely of amiable weakness, connected himseK formally offensive of these Lives, and with its of the most

respectiveauthors Dr. a

Newman

moment

with most

one

ridiculous

St. Walburga."

statements.

There

I

speak

of

is,in allthe Lives,the

the same

"

Life

of

tendency


"

40

WHAT,

DOES

THEN,

DR.

repeat childish miracles, to

to

NEWMAN

waive

MEAN

the

?

"

laws of

common

"

to the

believe all or reader, You must of them, the writers, for instance, nothing." But some of Vol. IV., which contains, among others, a charming Hfe

evidence,

to

say

the stories openly as legendsand myths, they stand, without asking the reader, or is themselves, to believe them altogether. The method the harmless if had stood alone but enough, legends ; dangerous enough, when they stand side by side with stories told in earnest, like that of St. Walburga. In that, of the most not only has the writer expatiatedupon some of the middle nauseous superstitions age, but Dr. Newman has, in a prefacesigned with his initials, solemnly set his of St. Neot and

treat

"

tell them

as

seal to the same. The writer "

then

Oxford

an

scholar, and,

professedmember

a

to tell

of such

us

of the Church

miracles

these

as

stick

her

know, dares

as

"

ball

near

for

the

monastery,

play, by findingthe

hand, and, running

to St. Walburga's immediately taken off. who would in spin on festival-days found her distaff cling to her hand, and manner to beg of St. Walburga's bone, before she could to

shrine to pray, had How woman a like

had

get

far

"

a little girl, playingwith a punished for her over-fondness

ball

I

England

:

How was

as

of

the ball

rid of it.

How

who

man

a

into the church

came

to pray,

"

ently irrever-

kept his rough gauntlets,or gloves,on his hands, in the posture of prayer." How he joinedthem as they were miraculouslytorn off,and then, when he repented, restored by a miracle." All these," says the writer, '

"

'

have

'

idleness

'

with "

'

the

the most the

among '

'

and

remarkable

correctingthe

thoughtlesschildren

and

saints

who

are

called

guentiferous,' becoming, almost trees

bones

'

mercy '

mother

gentle

a

lastingmiracle, attesting holy Walburga's sanctity,is that which reckons her

'

'

of

faults of careless

tenderness."

But

the

character and

in the a

courts

holy

which

of God.

oil distils.

graced them

the flame of universal

in

These

That

'

or Elaeophori,'

literal sense, are they from

a

oil of

while

charityand

alive,and

'

un-

olivewhose

gentle

fed in them

love at their death, stillpermeates


A '

their

REPLY

A

TO

PAMPHLET.

41

After quotingthe names of male bodilyremains." have possessedthis property, the author goes detail how this holy oil fell,in drops, sometimes

saints who to

on

the size of bowl

a

hazel-nut,sometimes

beneath

the

of

a

into

pea,

the silver

slab.

the state of How, when Aichstadt laid under an interdict, the holy oil ceased, was until the Church regained its rights,"and so forth, and forth ; and so then, returning to his original image, else it may be metaphor, illustration, proof,or whatever called by reasoners such as he and Dr. Newman, he says stone

"

that

the

that

"

with

human

recollect that

must

nineteenth

I

can

quote

readers

my

of this female of

and

no

I

Walburga,

bosom, hke the

more. are

milk I

hving

of

really in the

century.

to all this stuff and

And

is related

souls,Hke that

compassion ; whose filled with love, was

true

hers, melted by divine kindness," "c.

"

dew

or

whose

^women

"

touched

were "

flow of oil

same

saint and

materiahst

more

nonsense,

than

of any bone-worshipping Buddhist, Dr. Newman preface,in which he says of the question whether

the dreams

puts the

a

"miracles

recorded

'

'

'

'

'

'

{i.e.in the II.),especiallythose "

in the life of St. "

'

narratives"

Walburga, are to be received under of fact ; in this day, and matter our that there is we can only reply, present circumstances, no reason why they should not be. They are the kind of facts proper to ecclesiastical history, just as instances of sagacityor daring,personalprowess, or crime, are the facts proper to secular history." Verily,his idea of secular history is almost as degraded as his idea of

contained as

in these

series,this being only No.

whole

"

that

"

ecclesiastical." "

in nothing, then, prima facie, to question repela properlymind : only, it has the taught or rehgiously-disposed according to the right of rejectingor accepting them evidence. No doubt ; for (ashe himself confesses) Mabillon, He

'

continues

the miraculous

:

There

is

in

accounts

'

"

hke

sensible

many

miracles

too

of these Romanists, has found some fore, acute nostril,"and has, there-

strong for his

"

reprovedby Basnage for warning the reader." been

and

But

what

evidence

Dr.

Newman 03

"

not

fearingfor himself,

requires,he

makes


"

42

WHAT,

THEN,

DOES

evident

at

once.

He,

at

swallow

the whole

as

it

"As *'

the

to

NEWMAN

that

"

least,will

she is

fear for St.

to

?

"

himself,"and

Walbnrga, it must principalsaints of

of the

one

"

her age and comitry ; " and authorities for these miracles.

then

after her

hard,

death, with

MEAN

comes.

ascribed

miracles

be remembered

DR.

he goes

quote the

to

on

They begin nearly 100

Wolf

monk.

years

Then

follows, than 400 j'^ears after,Philip, more Bishop of Aichstadt, the disinterested who tells the story of the holy oil witness ceasing during the interdict,who tells the world how, From her virgin limbs, maxime pectoralibusflows this sacred and the inter oil,which, by the grace of God one

a

"

,

"

-

"

cession

"

bhnd, makes

that

of the

forthwith.

has

England,

the

in 1615

whole

a

not

Lectures

and

he

was

the says

cured

place,equally of printing;

same

invention

Gretser, in 1620.

one

oil for the

last 240

But years,

say.

on

addressed

and

holy

illuminates

of which

cup,

of this

nuns

;

of the

does

"

drank

come

become

Dr. Newman In his

hear," "c., and

witnesses, after the

Rader,

one

Virgin Walburga,

deaf

once

Then

disinterested what

the

himself

he

then

blessed

the

to

present positionof Cathohcs

the

brothers

1851, he has again used the same I cannot call it,while such

of the

line of a

in

Oratory," in

sophism. Argument

sentence

as

this is to be

"

found

shut against (p. 295) Is the tower of London because the coats of mail or pikesthere may sight-seers, have half legendarytales connected with them ? Why, the country people come not in joyous then, may up companies, singingand piping,to see the holy coat at Treves ? To see, forsooth ! To worship,Dr. Newman would have said, had he known (as I take for granted he :

"

"

''

"

*'

*'

"

does

not) the seems

He

coat.

what

it

facts of that

hardly

sure

"

(p.298) does not professesto be."

is doubt, but it certainly and

material

Dr.

Newman

*'

Cross

"

hem

*'

are

is at

He

imposture. of the see

himself, meanwhile,

authenticityof the holy why it may not have been

It may

"

have

been

"

so,

no

; for the very texture of the thingprove it to be spurious. However, " firmly believes that portions of the true

at Kome

Home,"

impossibleto

and "c.

withstand

not

so

now

elsewhere,that And the

more

than

evidence

the crib of Bethleall ; he thinks it is brought

which


A "

"

REPLY

A

TO

for

the liquefaction of the Naples, and for the motion

"

of the Madonna

How But he is

of the

fallen from

43

of St. Jauuarius, at eyes of the pictures

States."

heaven, 0 Lucifer, son

of the

!

when

I read these outrages upon myself, This man

I

what

sense,

beheve

cannot

what

"

saying ?

I beheve

common

"

if I said to

wonder

blood

in the Roman

art thou

Morning

PAMPHLET.

was

I have

wrong.

tried,as far

as

I can,

to

state of mind imagine to myself Dr. Newman's ; and I see of a man's the possibility now working himself into that pitch of confusion, that he can persuade himself, by what of anything whatsoever to him logic, which he wishes seems of his carrying self-deceptionto such to believe ; and sort of frantic honesty, in a perfectionthat it becomes which he is utterlyunconscious, not only that he is deceiving

others, but that he is deceivinghimself. I must say, historic falsehood 1

"

If this be

But

historic

honesty,what is folly?

If this be wisdom, what I may be told,But this is Roman have

I

of the

has

believed

them

would

seem,

mind,

it would

of his

to show

his

in order

be

to

unjust to him, That of

he

more.

burga, Dr.

Cathohc,

things. Dr.

free will. that

morbid it

to

reason

he had

He He

Virgin, I shall

matters

far

as

as

Newman

is anxious, it his

has worked

state, in which Like the

hungers.

I had

destroy reason.

preservedhis

own

reason,

But I was able to destroy that of others. he says. While he tried to destroy others'

least fair

at

was

to insincerity

But

You

as

is all that

to be of that

these

for which

has used

thought that, hke them,

two

creduhty.

into

only food

sophistsof old, he

which

Roman

own

own

seem,

is the

nonsense

No

to beheve

is bound

aware,

reason,

doctrine.

of the Blessed

appearances

stigmata,on

hereafter.

something

am

Cathohc

is

dishonesty?

be angry with Dr. Newman for believing CathoHc this is not Roman doctrine,any more

the miracle

say

is

rightto

no

it. I answer, than behef in miraculous or

truth," what

If this be

I

can

that of

enough Too

say.

many

insipience "

to

destroy his own. prefer the charge

Dr. Newman

seems

not

number. In connexion

Newman

has

with

done

a

this said life of St. Wal-

deed,

over

which

I

might


"

44

WHAT,

DOES

THEN,

merry, if that like Dr. Newman.

make

"

In page 77, we Illuminated men

*'

is

power "

"

were

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

not

am

wonderful

wit,

a

passage of Satanic

:

and the only way to it is to say, that they see of the slaves of sin,the marks, and .

.

.

perceptionof

the countenances lineaments,and stamp with

I

?

the evil influence

horriblydiscernible

upon "

MEAN

But

followmg

to them

...

NEWMAN

wish.

my

find the

their keen

express

DR.

of the

their nostrils the

evil

horrible

one

;

fumes

and

which

they

smell

arise from

their vices and uncleansed

hearts,drivinggood angelsfrom dismay, and attractingand delightingdevils. It is said of the holy Sturme, a disciple and companion of Winfred, that in passinga horde of unconverted Germans, as they were bathing and gamboUing in a stream, he was so overpowered by the intolerable scent which arose from And doubt such them, that he nearly fainted away. no them

in

"

preternatural

"

saints

I

"

and

shall

not

sacred

discernments

are

religiousreason quote. I should

"

name

in

the

no

doubt

same

sometimes is

a

be

page

given

given

ashamed with

to

for it which

such

to

the

use

materialist

nonsense.

Now

"

this

Newman

seemed

the author.

to

as

"

The

as convincing to Dr. had flywhich his disciple

cast heedlessly

the turbid waters of his brain was too over fine to be resisted; and he rose at it,heavilybut surely, and has hooked himself past remedy. For into his lectures,

given before in "

the

Cathohc

Universityof Ireland, pubHshed the authorityof

1859, he has inserted,at page 96, on Oxford an writer," the whole passage

St.

Sturme,

I Dr. this who care

word

thought,

when

Newman, fable,in had

that

a

mind former to as my his of tell out to gone way intimate to the young gentlemen

to

"

truth

miracle,but

take

I

wrong, St. Sturme

my

old

word) on

I

was

friend

had

thus

National

his

instructions,that they need own sake," in the investigation

for its

it made

that

to

in

was

provided only saw

relates

had

blessingof

nothing for of

I he

order

the

which

for word.

it

on

for the I

any anonymous Cathohc faith.

authority, And

when

sorelypuzzled as to why I do not say a (againstwhom been dragged imceremoniouslyinto a passage which had nothing whatsoever Literature, was


REPLY

A fco do

him.

with

But

45

bomid

not

am

find motives

to

part of the

the worst

comes

now

taken

has been

I

But

PAMPHLET.

A

for

eccentricities.

Newman's

Dr.

TO

There

in.

is

any

in the

document. original

who

quotes

it.

Dr. Newman

matter.

miracle.

no

There

There

is

never

was

in Mabillon of the ardent Oxford

It is a sheer invention

none

writer.

first in the Life of St. Sturme, by his story appears be found St. Eigils. It may friend and in contemporary The

"

"

and most a charming so missionarylife it is ; all the more because one can comfortablybeHeve every word of it,from from signsand its complete freedom (asfar as I recollect) Pertz's sketch

Critica ;

Monumenta

of mediaeval

wonders.

origmal passage sets forth how St. Sturme rides on donkey, and wishing for a place where to found Fulda the Sclavonians to a ford where (not Germans, Abbey, came the Oxford writer calls them) were as bathing,on the way The

his

to "

"

"

bodies the animal whose naked fair at Mentz, he rode fearing,began to tremble, and the man which the

himselfshuddered

God

him, and

mocked

about

went

is all. There

is not

had

smelt

very

strong, and

not,

that

"

is

horde

A for

had

St. Sturme

nearly faintingaway,"

safety.

miracle.

a

a

As

nose.

a

of

month, twelve-

devout

a

of

They Divine

but

;

in

on

probably,washed

who

"

him

went

hint of

a

dirtysavages, for his

their evil smell. ^^

hurt

to

back, and he

providencekept them That

at (exhorruit)

on

ination." imag-

.

Newman

Really,if Dr. monks

of

than

more

man's

but

in Oxford

and

it is too -wj^ter,

Oxford Catholic

gentlemen,

accustomed

"

writer

to

been

had

nation, one

might

miraculous

at his fellow-creatures'

being shocked

any

"

seeing something quite

their

excused

have

the

or

Roman

one

the

in

evil smell ; of soap use

bad.

to put Besides, to impute a miracle in this case, is clearly donkey ; for while the saint,in virtue, below his own saint was only shocked at the odour, the donkey did what

the the

saint

saints

should

before

impropriety of we

are

to

have

and the

done

since),and

(in imitation

deshabille of the

understand

a

of many horror

expressedhis

miracle

"

"

why

not

the

Unless

miscreants."

and

other at

?

"

in the


"

46

of

matter

a

NEWMAN

DR.

indeed

likewise ; not

donkey's case as

DOES

THEN,

WHAT,

stood expressed,but underproperly-taughtand piously hold that the

"

minds and religiously-disposed ; virtue of the saint (which seems, saddle

Sturme, with if

Which not

monkish

writings,

kind

some

imbued St.

from

of gas or oil)diffused itself through the of the donkey's frame, and into the inmost recesses for the him moment, through the merits of

be

to

''

?

"

by

course

MEAN

whit

a

and angehc modesty ? preternatural shall believe something believe, we

a

shall

we

than

ridiculous

more

many

story told in these

a

haplessvolumes. again,of Dr. Newman's Difficulties," pubhshed in 1850, save Anglican said already? That if I, like hundreds more, What

his

intent,he

and

meaning

If he

"

I say,

can

indulgein

will

subtle

if, whenever

;

blame

must

not

touches

have

mistaken

rhetorical the

on

on

I have

but himself.

me,

paradoxes,in

he

Lectures what

gerations exag-

question of pleasurein

and honesty, he will take a perverse saying something shocking to plain Enghsh notions,

truth

tells us, Church

He

"

it better for

heaven, for the earth

from

"

millions

"

far not

"

venial

to

VIII. and

sun

fpil,and

should

say

be

sin,should

lost, but

should

wilful

tell one

excuse." And poor farthingwithout those permissionsto deception,which and

formahzed

and

detailed in the works

in especially

have

the

received In

see.

agony,

only

one

those

of the

pubhc

and

way

single steal

be

may of the Romish

seen

casuists, books

of the Romish

sanction

Dr. Newman

can

one

should

great Liguori,whose

solemn

as

this in the face

one

of

or

many

soul, I will

commit

untruth,

the

drop

to

for all the

it to die of starvation in extremest goes, than that one

on

that

moon

temporal affliction

as

**

"

holds

he

eccentricities.

own

instance, in Lecture

for

Catholic "

of his

take the consequences

must

reconcile

this passage

teachingof his Church ; namely, by saying that the licence given to equivocation, even on oath, is so lie the tell is that most to a downright superfluous complete, the

with

and

therefore

most

how

will he

But which

we

meet

a

few

reconcile pages

*'

consent, though quick

'*

wish

as

of all sins.

wanton

more indefinitely

as

it with

the

statement

on, that the Church

thought, to heinous

than

a

"

with

considers

singleunchaste any

lie that

can


REPLY

A

TO

"

possiblybe

fancied

"

itself,and

apart from

"

sin

such

former

Heaven

how

crime

that

reconcile the

say mortal

great and

a

this statement that it is

with

paradox,

animal, than

an

should

man

any

any1;hing save

we

by

sin hke

to

Father

can save

one,

47

viewed, of course, in motives, and conse-

its causes,

forbid

is

consent

but

:

"

?

quences

that

is when

that

;

PAMPHLET.

A

like

the

the

greater

a

Devil

the

of Lies ?

Indeed, the whole teaching of this lecture and the one followingit concerning such matters is,I confess,so utterly

beyond

comprehension,

my

does

astonishment. What

believingwhat he says, honour and humanity, to he

"

"

"

"

"

"

believe him

he is ; but

He

?

mean

in return

we

a

assures

honest

an

man,

bound, in

are

still

What

"

beggar woman,

mere

over-scrupulousof

not

has arrived

does

truth

lazy,ragged,and (Ido

"

not

say

she

perfection)but if she is chaste,sober, and not cheerful,and goes to her reUgiousduties (and I am supposing at all an impossiblecase),she will,in the eyes of the Church, have a prospect of heaven, quite closed and refused to the State's pattern-man, the just,the upright, the

"

all

at

"

the

generous,

this,not

"

honourable, the conscientious,if he be

from

whether

mme

"

Take

:

says

and filthy,

"

"

that

ask, in blank

must

?

mean

He "

I

indignantlythat

earnestlyand

so

us

that

Dr. Newman

a

and

contrasting views natm-al

(Lecture viii. p. 207.) I must ask again.What astounding passage ? What I firstread

it,some

twelve

deter-

not

likelyto be the fact, but prmciples) not from a

but

power,

(I do

supernaturalpower

this is

"

from

does

mere

natural

Dr. Newman

mean

I

am

supervirtue."

by

this

I

thought that he meant, when be guessed easily years ago, may

has no real care for truth. Truth man sake is no virtue in his eyes, and he teaches that I do not say that now this I say, that it need not be. : but for the sake of exaltingthe magical powers Dr. Newman, of

enough. for its

his

I

said.This

own

Church, has committed

himself

to unconsciously

a

ment state-

strikes at the root of all morality. If he answer, " that such is the doctrine of his Church concerning natural " from good works performed by virtues,"as distinguished which

God's

grace,"I

can

only answer,

So much

the

worse

for his


"

48

WHAT, The

Church.

if this be its his

NEWMAN

DR.

it is civiHzed

sooner

teaching,the

that

theory

DOES

THEN,

it may

"

a

?

"

off the face of the

better

be

MEAN

for mankhid.

natural

earth,

For

as

virtue," I value

for it

as

Enghshman will do. I hold it to be utterly antiscriptural closely(in ; to border very theologicallanguage)on the Pelagian heresy. Every good down from God above. gift and every perfect giftcomes does a rightdeed, or thinks a right Without Him man no Dr. Newman otherwise, he is thought ; and when says I trust

little as

honest

every

"

whole

State's the (as in this passage) to make well to the as as atheist, an keep beggarDr. Newman What have a lying barbarian. may to teach by these words, I cannot say ; but what is patent. He has taught the taught practically Celtic Irish population,that as long as they are

chaste

(which they

almost

before

doing his pattern -man woman

meant

he

has

best "

they

cannot

well

men

and

are

help being,being married women)

and

they cannot well help being,being too poor whisky to make them drunk), and "go to duties

they

" "

may

an

expression

look

down

on

which

I make

the Protestant

upon

sober to

(which get enough

their no

religious

comment

gentry who

"

send

in famine found hospitals ; who they are admitted freely; who try them capital, to introduce and, industry,civilization, among above of all,that habit of speaking the truth, for want which they are what they are, and are Hkely to remain such, for their teacher that as long as they have Dr. Newman the Protestant look down, I say, on they may gentry as cut off from God, and without hope of heaven, because natural virtue." they do their duty by mere Dr. Newman And has taught them, too, in the very same to the priestthefts which page,^ that they may confess would the penitent to transportationif brought sentence into a court of justice; but which the priestknows too that the priest is bound to (and it is to be remembered conceal his knowledge of the crime), in the judgment of the Church, might be pardoned on the man's private over

and

millions

to feed them

charities to which

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

contrition,without If I said

that Dr.

at all." any confession Newman has, in this page, '

P. 207.

justified,


TO

REPLY

A

PAMPHLET.

A

49

of the strongest accusations party againstthe Irish priests,

some formallyand deliberately,

brought by

Hall

the Exeter

be answered (and possiblywith temporary success) of those ingeniousspecial pleadingswith which, in by some spite of plain fact and universal pubUc opinion, black is if not white, yet still grey enough to do made to appear, I should

this I will say,

But

instead.

if the

that

CathoHc

Roman

of their own hierarchy in these realms had had any sense is interests (as far as standingwell with the British nation the who of instead man sending concerned), they would, Irish CathoUc to teach in an words university, the savages Jiim to their furthest mission among Seas. of the South Uable matter more The next lecture,the ninth, contains mistaken and or stillto be mistaken not, certain, equally ; The It is caUed, sense. to shock common Rehgious those

wrote

have

-sent

"

"

Sanctity of the Church." find,is meant what we should the

Prejudice to the reUgiouscharacter,we

Countries

CathoHc

of

Character

"

no

the

By

call the irreligious character tendency to profanity,blasphemy, imposture, steahn^, These

lying.

not

are

He

details them

we

shall

gives (as apposite instances. picturesque "is no prejudice to the sanctityof the

this,he holds the Church," because

Church

separable,"and

are

that considers all these poor

*'

faith "

at least from

and

wretches,

that

though they have not works, have by a supernaturalinfluence directly

faith, caused above," and are,

utterlythe clue to the intent better off ifsofactoinfinitely sophistries, lost

therefore,unless I have of Dr. Newman's Protestants. works

than

naivete, and

charming

and

But

works

accusations, but Dr. Newman's.

my

all with most

see)

"

of faith and

giftedwith

he means by the separablenesa enough. A man, he says, may simple,undoubting,cloudless,belief that What

"

is clear

"

be

"

Christ

*'

of sacrilege

"

ofi the consecrated

*'

vessel containing them." readers will be inclined to cry : of my most At which in arguing use Newman Let Dr. alone,after that. What

"

"

with

"

He

a

the Sacrament, and yet commit and the tabernacle, carrying breaking open

is in the

a

had

who

man a

human

Blessed

particlesfor

has

the

argued himself

reason

once,

no

sake

into

doubt

of the

precious

believingthat :

but

he

?

has


"

50 "

gambled

"

he and True Dr.

not

no

because

I

it

how

Newman,

would

the

profanitywhich

he confesses

to be

"

which

on

written

show

the

these

world, if

of his not caring for lecture fostered

this very using the

arose

that

have to

mistake

how specially ; and mistake. For in it, after

truth

ground

duty

my

?

him."

meet

never

was

MEAN

common

either,can

we

true, that

so

save

pages,

or

NEWMAN

DR.

left

and

it away,

you, :

DOES

THEN,

WHAT,

so

and

blasphemy

in Catholic

common

as an for, and not against, the argument Faith," he takes a seeming pleasurein detaiUng of dishonestyon the part of Catholics,as if that

countries, "

CathoHc

instances

the

were

form

very

which

antinomianism

of

most

was

perpetuallypresent to his mind, and which The feeble old needed to be palUated and excused. most who first genuflectsbefore the Blessed Sacrawoman, or ment, and then steals her neighbour'shandkerchief she is prayer-book,who is intent on his devotions doubt but she worships,and she sins : : no very wrong, stronglyand

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

she

"

does

"

forbid

Heaven

least,is

tant

:

that

doctrine

a

while

but

"

Church,"

Catholic

be

she

;

out

sight." deny

grace

those

to Romanist

with

Newman,

forth

he must

a

not

as

;

words. and

kind

scandals

such

she

steals because

of God's

should

we common

Dr.

audacity, will dig

believes

may

of His

altogetherout

not

at

She

love.

not

she

because

kneels

of

she

That,

to Protest

desperate

notes

of

at his motive

wonder

is

the for

doing being mistaken.

so

His and

instance

next

so

curious

is

even

that I must

more

quote

and

wanton it at

offensive,

length:

"

"

*'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

You out again and mix in the idle and dissipated come in a palmer'sdress, throng,and you fall in with a man sellingfalse rehcs, and a credulous circle of customers the supposed as though they were bujdng them as greedily, One French laces and India silks of a pedlar'sbasket. or simplesoul has bought of him a cure for the rheumatism It is said to of conscience. ague, which might form a case be a relic of St. Cuthbert, but only has virtue at sunrise, to the head, arms, and when appliedwith three crosses

"

and

"

Church,

"

to

feet. the

more

You

to encounter pass on than a like a showman

gaping

multitude

some

a

rude

son

of the

recounting religious,

tale of

a

vision

of the


A

invisible

Minors, odour

REPLY

TO

PAMPHLET.

A

51

by Brother Augustine of the Friar holy Jesuit preacher who died in the sanctity,and sending round his bag to collect

world,

by

or

of

seen

a

for the souls in pence of Our Lady (thehke

some

appearance

reallybeen before and since),but on no authorityexcept popular report, and in no shape but that which popular caprice has given it. You find preparations proceeding go forward, and you for a great pageant or mystery ; it is a high festival, and the

of which

of

; and

purgatory

incorporated trades

has

each

have

undertaken

their

The plumbers and glaziers specialreligiouscelebration. to play the Creation ; the barbers the call of Abraham are ; and at night is to be the grandest performance of all,the Resurrection and Last penters, Judgment, played by the carand

masons,

Heaven

blacksmiths.

hell

and

are

the represented, ^saints,devils, and living men ; and chefd'oBuvre of the exhibition is the displayof fireworks to be let off as the finale. 'How unutterably profane!'again "

Yes, profane to you, my dear you cry. to a populationwhich only half beheves those

who

within

beheve

resolves

"

all have

they

vision

a

which

see,

into, or rather takes up into itself,the of be the moral condition pageant, whatever

individual

the

mass. They gaze, and in their eyes they are making act of faith (Lecture IX.

composing

drinkingin the exhibition and

continuous

one

and what

profane profane to

; not

itself

external each

wholly,who one corresponds with

which

brother

with

"

intense

236, 237). The

of which

sum

and "

"

is allowed

lyingmonk,

interruption; that be

though a

and

of the

son

religious

a

^in

"

"

Church,

"

of the

wliich

crowd

like

more

tinuous con-

one

the

a

is

man show-

plain EngUsh, the brutal and his impostures without

the moral the

"

to continue

his miraculous

lie, yet

faith

of

act

the rude

performing, than

is,that for the sake

intense

which

Dr. Newman of

appearance

like

thereof

has

our

been

draws

Lady before

is, may

and

since," After

which

follows

a

passage

say, that I trust that it will

father, and

brother, who

which feelings

it roused

may in me

in every

read ;

I shall boldly Englishhusband,

of which

"

arouse

and

these

words, the

express

my

same

opinion,


"

52

that it is

better

a

"

it

You

"

Dr. Newman

he said, than

?

"

to think

to think

that

that

he did

:

"

to go home, and in your way you pass through quarter of the city. Look up at those sacred

turn

retired

a

MEAN

NEWMAN

DR.

compliment to

believe what

he did not beUeve

DOES

THEN,

WHAT,

of the

"

windows

"

of the poor Clares, or to the CarmeUtes of the Visitaof St. Theresa, or to the Nuns the Reform tion. Seclusion,silence,watching,adoration, is their life

"

"

"

day

"

before

"

"

"

Convent

Immaculate

The

night.

the

of the

eyes

heaven

realized

a "

"

and

the

otherwise

acted

Perpetual

to

or

on

upon the

of God

Lamb

worshippers; stand

invisible mysteriesof faith ever shape,before their mental gaze.

"

"

they belong to

;

Adoration,

out,

Yet

earth

? of

as

is

ever

least, the

at

if in

will you that very

Where

mind

or,

bodily

find such

sighthas

sister ; and the wild desire of approaching weak

a

of her faith and very keenness the object of it has led her to fancy or to feignthat she vouchsafed that singularfavour received has only to

"

points to God's wounds, feet, and side,though

elect souls ; and she her hand, and

few

a "

imprinted on

"

herself

instrumental

been

has

their

in

as

she "

formation

(LectureIX. 237, 238) There

occasions

are

on

which

courtesy or

reticence

is

a

A poor girl, cajoled,flattered, crime, and this one of them. and starved, maddened, by such as Dr. Newman imprisoned, his peers, into that degrading and demoralisingdisease, imitates on her own body, from that strange vanity hysteria, deceit which

and

wounds

of

about

the matter

portent is

"

a

often

too

; and

Lord

our

the complaint,the accompany has to say all that Dr. Newman

is,to inform

singularfavour

that

us

vouchsafed

the gross and useless only to a few elect

accused of counthis is the man tenancing who, when falsehood, puts on first a tone of plaintiveand of smug self-satisfaction startled innocence, and then one I have I said ? What have What should who ask, as souls."

And

"

"

done be

on

words

?

Why

am

I upon

his trial for ; and

know

my

to their

informing that

"

nothing else,he is

he will remain how

trial ?

upon

guard the charge. If the to

Dr.

Newman

On

his trial

his trial ?

If he

his trial for those

on

as

men long as Englishhas

God

women

whom

British

publicshall

wrote

that

ever

passage,

mitted com-

need I trust


REPLY

A

there will be of the

TO

always one

PAMPHLET.

A

left in

man

53

England

to inform

them

fact,for the sake of the ladies of this land.

Perhaps the most astoundingspecimens of Dr. Newman's which teachingare to be fomid, after all,in the two sermons addressed end his Discom^ses to Mixed Congregations," The Glories of Mary for the sake of publishedin 1849 ; On the fitness of the Glories of Mary." her Son ; and Of the mis -quotationsof Scripture,of the sophisms piledon I have no room wherein to sophisms,of these two sermons, should be read All that I ask is, they give specimens. ; who thinks it any credit to himself to be read by every man of these rational being. But two a culminatingwonders I must two sermons point out. The first is the assertion that the Blessed Virgin had been inspired,the first of As if there womankind, to dedicate her virginityto God." had not been Buddhist nuns (ifnot others)centuries before Christianity.As if (allowingthe argument that they the dedicated their virginity to a false God) there were shghtesthistoric proofthat the Blessed Virgindedicated hers "

"

"

"

"

before

the

second

The

Incarnation.

is in

"

a

which

sermon

"

of the Immaculate the fitness to prove logically professes filled of and is (instead logic)with traditions Conception, which are utterlybaseless. I allude to the assertion that do not belong to the Romish "the world" i.e. all who Church comment. no Mary. I make blasphemes readers All I ask, again, of my is, to read these two "

"

"

"

sermons.

he

?

I

see)teaches

a

can

volume

What

taught "

sermon

I

ReligiousDoctrine."

question to read

lately) ; when

and

to

that

sermon

judge for

concerning

1843, and what he be seen in his last

Chieflyon "

a

in

still, may

entitled

BeHef," called in

teach

what, after all,does Dr. Newman

But truth

On

beg

the

(as far

as

in

sermon

Theory of Rehgious Theory of Developments

the

aU who

are

(which

interested

I had whether

themselves

in this

overlooked I

tiU

exaggerate

the grounds of aU I say that it tries to undermine of substitutingbhnd behef for the purpose stition. superAs examples : speaking of certain narratives of

rational

"

"

*'

martyrdoms," and allegedmiracles," he says (p. 345) : If the allegedfacts did not occur, they ought to have 3 truth is thus Historic I so "occurred, speak." may "


"

54

WHAT,

sapped "

THEN,

and

;

DOES

DR.

physicaltruth

(p.350) that the sun stationary; and science

fares

says "

"

is

sun "

which

''

what

"

of

motion

true

are

certain

"

tivelyfound ; meaning when

our

and

earth

How

Scripture

the

earth

can

determine

we

be but

know

accident

an

propositionis true, and

that

the

will have

earth

is the

and

moves,

truth, tillwe

physical science

it says

"

that

"

?

both philosophically, in which they are system

true

in the

purposes

the

rest.

neither

neither

;

"

"

If

is ?

and

is the very idea of motion

statements

present senses

our

"

that

MEAN

better.

no

moves,

comparatively at of these

NEWMAN

for

respec-

-better

no

than

moves,

both

true

plain

"

astronomy when it says that the earth is still." hsec ? What is the intent of this seemingly Quorsum scepticmethod, pursued through page after page ? To tell that

us

take For

we

know

can

the

and nothing certainly, '

blindlywhat

The

Church, it would

indeed

cannot

treated

hke

'

Church

tell us,

therefore

shall choose

is not bound whole truth. We

to

seem,

the

must

to teach

are

us.

tell us, to be

children,to whom (atleast to those with whom Dr. Newman has come in contact) it is necessary to (p.343) divide the word of truth, if we would not dispenseand have it changed,as far as they are concerned, into a word "

'

'

"

*'

of falsehood."

"

the

"

"

"

ignorant, or

And

so,

This method

of

"

and

; economy the instances

forth,

so

"

occurred." "

"

of

"

"

Many

a

(p.345) on which an held together,is of the

by

zealous

and

same

kind.

earnest

men,

in the (for they continue refuted),yet, in a certain of a proximate description

"

"

Dr. Newman

calls

the

very

of

foimded,

Many

ground

their

"

has

same

sense,

ought to things," he

occur,

view

institution is

character, being not

"

not

theory or

"

used

half-truths

which, if they did

"

"

or

it (ifI understand his drift), justifies by mythical representations," legends,and

"

"

regards savages,

or

teachingby

"

on

again, as

narrow-minded, our representations take a certain form, if we must to gain are admission into their minds at all,and to reach them."

"

weak,

on

course, a

an

have goes

party argument, or

a

this economical which

they though it

act

be

representationof it,

which

in feelings

the

shape of they can rest, they can when recur perplexed,and appeal when they are questioned." After which startling words, Dr. Newman says argument,

on

to

which


A

and

"

"

"

it is

"

TO

or

economy

'

accom-

meddle

not

of such

which

imiocent, or where

it may be called,are be drawn.'

to

affairs,I do

viz. questionof casuistry,

the

55

In this reference

"

in human

as "

PAMPHLET.

A "

reallyhigh time

modation with

REPLY

artifices, '

the

line is to

"

A

hasty reader might say, of equivocationand

would

mistaken.

be

tentative that

discoveryof

and

note, he

in

"

a

it would

intends

Dr. Newman

that the Hence

an

cation justifi-

open

But

is written

sermon

be rash

and

he

in to

wrong

so

say

P. 342.

than

more

is

reticence.

to convey any lesson by it, save is an impossibihty.Only once,

truth

speaks out.

it is not

herein

dishonest

whole

The

style,that

a

that

an

to hjrperbole

that, in

say

This certain cases, a He is the nearest approach to truth. the meaning, for instance,of St. Clement, when he seems '

'

unless

'

when,

at

'

sick

'

sophistsspeak.'

he

wih

be

and

time, in the

any

his

physiciantoward

a

thinks

(theChristian)both

He

says

so patients,

will tell

false,or

a

from

great and good man. his Bible that no He was

the stealing Be

that

as

the

I

now

see

Dr.

how

must

wiU

be

so

be wise

might

work

Newman

deeply I have

for its

lucky as to get in economizing "

giving away

waste

That no

so

have

He

learned

truth, and that it is ill withal. is clear

teaches

wronged

him.

So

own

Hes no-more-than-a-hjrperbole-to-caU should

for him.

worse

sake to be no virtue,he it a virtue so lofty, to be unattainable as by man, therefore,in certain cases, take up with what-it-is-

considers who

he

of the

What

it may.

thinkingtruth

far from

the

But

devil's tools to do God's

as

last,and

at

much

said that, so

If St. Clement

be

falsehood,

a

"

was

so

speaks the truth,

of treatment, as way for the weKare of the

a

bit here

any

;

truth

and

who,

into his

if he

possession,

"

"

and the same, dividingit," and a bit there, lest he should

preciousa possession.

opinionat present, there can he has persuaded himself Walburga's oil, St. Sturme's nose,

this is Dr. Newman's manner

of doubt.

What

believe about St. St. Januarius' blood, and

to

the winking Madonna's eyes, that he stiU finds,in certain cases, whatsufficiently proves Hes, the nearest apit-is-no-more-than-a-hyperbole-to-ca]l proach which

he

can

make

to truth

;

while, as

to

the

right


"

56

of

WHAT,

THEN,

DOES

economizing and

forward

NEWMAN

DR.

MEAN

?

"

dividingtruth, I shall shortlybring of his having done to such an so

instances

two

extent, that

Httle

very

of poor

truth

remains

after

the

dismemberment .

And

yet I do

call this conscious

dishonesty. The alreadypast the possibiHty of such a sin. It is simplecreduHty,the child of scepticism. Creduhty, frightenedat itself, tryingto hide its absurdity from itself and from the world ahke by quibbles and it thinks prudent and clever ; and, like reticences which the hunted ostrich,fancyingthat because it thrusts its head into the sand, its whole body is invisible. And I have tried to lead my readers along a path now, of them, I fear,have objected. to which some They have fallen,perhaps,into the prevailing superstition that cleverness is synonymous with wisdom. They cannot beUeve that (as is too certain)great Hterary,and even barristerial abiUty, may almost boundless co -exist with silliness : but I can find no other explanationof the phenomena who

man

wrote

than thinks

not

that

sermon

that which that

was

I have

justgiven.

is

harm

there

That

Dr. Newman

"

economy," and the for he has is evident truth," dividing employed it ; has the correspondence. He on again in his comments employed twice, as the most natural and innocent thing those which arts of the defenceless possible, requireso much hberal the lest in deUcacy handhng, shepherdsgive and call them worse. a grosser name," cunning,or even no

in

"

"

"

"

I am, as

on

of course, all other

free to make my own of Dr. Newman's

comments

them,

on

printed since the lished. apology was pubthe British pubUc

words

1st of

February, 1864, on which day my I shall certainly of take the sense the matter. be on a mystery Though Dr. Newman may to them, as he says men religious always are to the world, sense enough to see what his yet they possess quitecommon words are, even his intention be, as it is wont to be, though "

"

"

"

obscure.

They "

a

recollect

on Christians,"

Romish Dr.

called

sermon

Newman

the the

definitions

of

ground of which

the

"

Church

I called Sermon

"

and XX.

?

does

it,in his letter

not to

me

apply

to

epithet. He January (published

it that

of the 7th of


REPLY

A "

by him), considered

it

nothing to

say

that letter.

to

20 which

page

of the

are

dehberatelyrepeats the epithet

in

"

mouth,

you

called him

sooner

a

to teaching his disciples

was

of

Protestant, under

it into

world

does

and

for

to take

not, the famous

then

Protestant At

scorn

which,

finds it convenient

now

a

Buddhist.

that

some

article in

object of the party to be none testantising the EnglishChurch.

I should

?

he

time

very

reason

name

other, he

or

If he

forgets,the the British Critic (the before July, 1841

party),of three years organ of which, after denouncing the name

the

my I call

repudiatethat

shelter.

of his

only he,

:

Protestant."

a

in

In them

"

Protestant

preached when preached that sermon

who

man

have

which

"

Reflexions

utterly imaginary conversation, puts

an

the

"

that I refer.

me, "

he

that, but Besides, I have now

pen. It is to his

gromid to

open

57

remarked

I

one.

shp

mere

a

PAMPHLET.

"

Protestant

a

A

TO

"

"

Protestant, declared

other

than

"

the

Unpro-

"

But

Dr. Newman

true

clergyis made goes

that

"priests."Whether to the

those whom

was

words

on

ones,

he

is very

difficult to

a

were

when

walk

Dr. Newman

still

greater mistake. his

will consider

a

that

the

truth

is

a

of my

virtue."

me

harm."

any

He

accusation, which " "

For

its own

of Dr.

Newman's. it one

another. in my

has

opinion,another

committed,

"

"

economy

an

has

offence.

which has

He

Dr. Newman

and

the very

on

some

there

men

stated

teaches

that

repeatedthis misrepresentation

at page

saying

as

yet Dr. Newman

"a

statement

He

He

then

peoplein the world whom soon as they are got out of

serious

very

And

only

celibate

a

are

made,

pamphlet,

stillstronger form

namely

"

question is, "Whether no

represent never

has

itself

sermon

the

as

priest,speakingof Httle priesthimself matters not speaking of priests, and were he spoke of a celibate clergy,of But there is no in wasting use

help. As straightinto

But

of

a

that there

say

of title-page

in

he

not

economical

only they

was

speaking? "

this

I shall

scrape,

he

but if he

question ; Romish

in the

before,

sermon

spoken

are

nuns

of the Church.

note

a

to say

on

In the

himself.

convicts

and shown, monks Bible Christians,and

I have

as

"Dr.

has economised make sake."

he has ventured

20, where Newman

tells

us

that

to

lyingis

the very four words a reasonable one ;

it at least


"

58

I I

WHAT,

said what

be stillmore Dr.

MEAN

he makes

incHned

was

But

NEWMAN

DR.

me say, I to say it. Had inclined to say it now.

never

never

DOES

THEN,

Newman

has

"

shown

"

it.

anything Hke

or

been, I should

ever

"

wisdom

?

of that

enough

serpentinetype which is his professedideal in what he has of truth, and divided done, and has been so economic "

"

the truth

thoroughly,that reallythere

so

little of it

is very

left. while

For

no

knew

one

the omission, none knew so ; that they would

better than

he the

better that the

importance

publicwould

of do

not

it ; that, if I called of me smile, and accuse and raising metaphysical subtleties. Yes, word-splitting is a very economical Dr. Newman So, when I had person.

their attention

accused

him

and

no

teachingthat

"

own

said that I accused

truth he

enormity," as

No

one

one

has, sometimes

better

of them.

use

careful of

is no

Dr. prove Therein

the

them

and

of

virtue."

the subtle dialectician, is,indeed, an of him. accusation to call my value

the

of such

sometimes fairly, he has

No

Umitations.

made unfairly,

more

have

more

therefore,ought

man,

doing what

Newman

him

chooses

knows No

truth

clergyof teachingthat sake," he simply economised

This, in Dr. Newman, "

"

the Romish

virtue, for its last four words, and is

observe

never

it,they would

to

to

been

done.

tries,by cunning sleight-of-hand logic,to

that I did not

believe the accusation

he is mistaken.

I made

when

it.

I did beheve

it,and I believed,also, But when his indignant denial. he goes on to ask, with I should beheve his I did if not consider denial, Why sneers,

trustworthyin the reallydo not know.

him

first instance

I

There

that

view,

needs

Dr.

that

now

suppose) suddenly, and

1864,

convert

a

the

to

Dr.

Newman

not

be

the

the

three

St. Alfonso with

an

dupe kinds da

of

I

"

man

^I can

has the

views

become 1st

can

said for

(one of

laid down

Liguoriand "

as

his

then

we

must

February,

of St. Alfonso

henceforth How

only answer, to be

in doubt

da and

be, concerning every can

I tell that

of cunning equivocation,

some

oath, because

am

write.

may

?

great deal

since

economic

his compeers. much honest as an

fear, as

a

Newman

Liguori and word

is

permissibleby when pupilseven do not

deceive

the

I shall one

of

blessed

confirmed our

neigh-


REPLY

A

bour, but

allow

him

'

'

'

'

'

'

*I

not

go

Christ,

inconvenience to

use

he

it !

mean

"

I

whole

answered,

no

restrictions of

means

without

open less

be

no

lie itself."

It is

sentences

which

con-

loss

or

perniciousto

fore, admissible,therehave

a

double

haplesshearer to take which of What proof have I, then, that by

choose.

may

"

The

"

who

leave the

and signification, them

a

and

words

^

such

no

be

not

this would

societythan

human

could

one

but

;

? "

"

" For," say the casuists, if there were the of telling truth),there would (on

coalingsecrets, which

"

feast,'subintelligendo, 'openly.'

this

to

up

of

example

59

himself

deceive

to

the

being justified by

PAMPHLET.

A

TO

never

I did not

signify, Or again,how

can

"

said

it

it

but

Dr.

!

I did

: say I tell that

I may

does

Newman it

mean

"

in this

not

not

?

pamphlet

accusation,of the truth of which Dr. Newman conscious ; but that as I, a heretic Protestant, is perfectly have no business to make it,he has a full rightto deny it ? have

made

an

da what says Neyraguet, after the blessed St. Alfonso or a criminal witness, being interrogated Liguori ? That that he knows not by a judge contrary to law, may swear not of a crime of the crime ; meaning, that he knows be lawfullyquestioned." of which he may shaU complain of If Dr. Newman These are hard words. them, I can only remind him of the fate which befel the the cranes, stork caught among even though the stork had

For

"

"

"

"

done

not

all he

Dr. Newman

could

has, by

himself

make

to

"

economising

"

like

a

the very

on

crane,

as

title-page

of his

pamphlet. well know perfectly

I

it

" "

^isa

virtue

with

"

veracity,as they call ; that

morahsts

it is

one

hke benevolence, virtues,the daughtersof justice,

of the cardinal

and courtesy, gratitude, be such

"

that truth

the Romish

because

there

is

a

forth ; and is proved to honestas in it,and also

so

naturalis

Lying, on the other one seven hand, though capital sins,which are gluttony,anger, avarice, (unchastity), luxury pride, held to be always is acedia and (lukewarmness), yet envy,

that without

it

societycould

^

I quote from

not

Scavini,torn.

ii.page

Neyraguet,p. 141, two compendiums used,

so

I have

Maynooth.

every

go

reason

to

on. "

of the

not

"

232, of the Paris edition,and from of

Liguoriwhich

believe

"

one

at

are (or were lately) Oscott, the other at


"

60

DOES

THEN,

WHAT,

DR.

NEWMAN

MEAN

"

?

sin,when direct. It is proved to be such from Scripture, the fathers,and from natural reason, because truth

a

"

from is

essential

an

well.

But

lie is

a

God

neighbour or lie told

no

though

perfectionof the venial

a

wise

one

causes

of the

Pope

a

So

neither faith

that it

our

"

as

;

well

can

was

far

hurts

scandal

grave

Catholic

laid it down

nature."

"

sin, if it

gravely,or

in behalf

Divine

do,

sin to tell

a

for the sake of saving a soul. But though it were lie,even to have gained a sin,the fact of its being a venial one seems for it, as Meanwhile, as a yet, a very slightpenance. a

thousand

venial sins can make mortal one, a man never one be a habitual liar all his hfe long,without faUinginto may mortal sin. Moreover, though " formal simulation," when "

signifies by

one

outward

act

he has in his

something different

mind," is illicit, as stratagem, is not so.

or

a "

lie,yet For

"

when

thing,not intendingthe deceptionof another,

'

end

'

'

'

tion," simula-

does

one

'

'

to what

material

some-

but

some

of his own, then it is allowable on cause ; although, from other circumstances, men might conjecturethat the act

done

was

for another

meaning fear, but

not

further

the

from

gather,that

end. that

city of

Romish

So

Joshua

he

might

Hai."

From

casuists allow

the

fled

draw which

same

lawfully,

the

enemy one

can

stratagems

to

against his neighbours,in peaceable society,which Protestant publicopinion allows (and that with a growing compunction) only to officers in war, against the enemies of their country. Considering this fact,and the permission of equivocation,even difficult to on oath, it is somewhat man

moralists,at least,hold truth to be expect that the Romish for its own a virtue sake, or to deny that they teach cunning of the weak againstthe strong. to be the weapons Yes not

"

^Iam

afraid that I must say it once these men for its own among

honoured

doubtless,

through class their

:

but

and

]3ure

the

grace

of

noble

God,

souls to

in their official

the

more

Truth

"

There

sake.

is

are,

them, superior, among official morahty of their

writings,and

in too

much

of

official

for conduct, the great majority seem never, centuries past, to have perceivedthat truth is the capital virtue, the virtue of all virtues,without which all others are a

hollow man's

and

rotten

repentance and

;

and

with

which

there

is

hope

conversion, in spiteof every

for

vice,


REPLY

A

if

only he

TO

honest.

remains

PAMPHLET.

A

61

have

They

not

that

seen

"

facts

"

economized as man property not of man, to be ordereth all things in heaven thinks fit,but of God, who and earth ; and that therefore not only every lie,but every equivocation, every attempt at deception,is a sin, not the

are

but

againstman, outward

in

the first and

therefore

;

they have-not

absolute

most

and

speak

is to

being

againstGod

that

seen

no

truth, and that God requirestruth, not merely words, but in the inward parts ; and that

lie is of the

the

act

of every

duty truth

exact

human

if he

or

;

wish

silent,to be silent,courageously and simply, and take the risk,trustingin God to protect him, as long as he God's side in the universe, by scorningto suUy remains on his soul by stratagem or equivocation.Had they seen this ; be

to

had

they not regardedtruth as a mere not was binding in

doubtful

dared

God

would the

have

never

truth

He

requiredof

he,educated

scholar,is at variance the

popular

most

Church.

But

his notions "

X.

"

allow

V.

that

that

"

in their view

"

but

as

another

of

reasonably

he

formally allowed Doctor

modern

shght difference

some

he has confessed has

printed in

or rule,and principle

conduct.

"

his

in "

by

of his between

a

letter to

dence." Correspon-

out

differ from

variouslyin

that in these

great mistake. 'X.

Y.', so

He

words has

as

to

case "

He

;

then

to truth

as

whether

this

; or

to the rule of truth."

has

Dr. Newman

calumniated,

in first and

Protestants,

virtues, agree

detail."

is the

Protestants

is conformable particular say,

appHcationsand and

of the moral

of the substance them

the

Cathohcs

understand, that this

to

['X. V.' for pamphlet.] 1

a

carry

that CathoHcs to

be

(to

that

there

considered

act in

is

ours

which

limits of it in human

beg

the notions

influential

there

"

I

honour, and may

Httle

define

view of truth ? I hope not. Enghsh gentleman and Oxford

an

with

and

"

that

and

there he says (p.11) : "I think that you will is a broad difference between a virtue,

For

gives us

deceptionHe

as

of truth and

Esqie,"1

they

of

sense

Newman's

Is this last Dr. that

own

to how

as

to examine

allow.

supposed to hope

; and

much

hearers)how

bargain with

to

men

of their

injuryahke

their

I

arbitrarycommand they cases,

God, which

of

as

far

third editions of

made as

my

Kingsley's


experience proud of

detail

of

gentry

his

then

we

wide

very

a

of

notions I and

And

so

he

I

continues

danger

of

a

CathoUc

Dr.

is

"

as

forfeiting

his

"

he once

more

"

mine, his

enough by

is, facts

in

who

one

any

And

himself

expressing

and

done

has

their

difference

if his

in

mine.

only

economize

between

includes

not

act,

rule, There

correct.

Theologians.

priest,

Newman,

hood, priest-

they

that

large

at

Moral

are

will

Romish whom

notorious

is

beloved,

they

Newman

details

what

seen

Romish

that leave to

adversaries

be

may

as

It

the

perfectly

as

and

;

out.

the

statement,

own

his

It read

to

Newman,

Dr.

if

pointed

practice.

chooses

ours

and

Dr.

over

practical

in

and

already

have

it

accept

difference

truth

Celts

tant Protes-

because if

of

majority Irish

hapless

willingly

will

the

to

those

to

and

the

respected

But

ever, whatso-

of

simply

ladies.

noble

statement

and

is

and

gentlemen

honest

am

truthfulness

honour

Hve,

they

I

pleasure

and

difference

no

their

differences,

religious

honom'

is

and

whom

among

all

of

spite

there

realms.

these

the

between

truthfuhiess

the

of

had

that

other,

or

and

honour,

limit

as

MEAN?"

NEWMAN

gentry

have

I

acquaintance,

their

in

far

as

say,

DR.

Catholic

the

goes,

to

DOES

THEN,

"WHAT,

62

divide he

reputation

CHARLES

my "

fear,

will for

KINGSLEY.

that

words

the run

of

great

honesty.

Apologia pro Vita Sua - J. H. Newman - Two versions, ed. W. Ward (1864 and 1865) - PART 1  
Apologia pro Vita Sua - J. H. Newman - Two versions, ed. W. Ward (1864 and 1865) - PART 1  

Apologia pro Vita Sua Being a Reply to a Pamphlet entitled 'What, then, does Dr. Newman mean?' By John Henry Newman, D.D. London, 1864. Appe...

Advertisement