Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects Michael J. Crosbie
Touchstones of Design
Values That Matter
Work 2005 –2012
Interviews with Cesar Pelli, Fred Clarke, and Rafael Pelli
Selected Work in Design and Construction
Acknowledgments 297 Illustration Credits
List of Staff
Touchstones of Design
Since the founding of the practice, Pelli Clarke Pelli has cultivated a set of architectural values that has remained remarkably consistent for more than a generation. The firm’s approach can be most succinctly and simply described as follows: To create architecture possessing an articulate relationship to its particular place, the function it serves, and its social and civic context, expressed in an aesthetic language consistent with contemporary construction technology, without a signature style. By the time Cesar Pelli arrived in Connecticut he was a seasoned and published architect, having practiced with Eero Saarinen; Daniel, Mann, Johnson & Mendenhall in Los Angeles; and Gruen Associates. He moved to New Haven in 1977 to assume the Deanship of the Yale Architecture School, and was selected at nearly the same moment to design an addition to and a residential tower for the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Pelli quickly enlisted Fred Clarke, who had also practiced at Gruen and was teaching at UCLA and Rice University. The firm settled in a loft building on Chapel Street, a block east of the Yale Art & Architecture building, and developed a technique of working with associated architecture firms, which allowed a small but growing firm to accomplish large commissions such as the MoMA expansion. Over the firm’s first quarter-century, several projects emerge as touchstones of design. Touchstones were once used to test the authenticity of precious metals such as gold, and to this day the word connotes a standard of excellence against which other works are measured. Thus, “touchstone” is appropriate to describe each of these PCPA built works, because they collectively reflect the range of architectural concepts that the firm has explored, and each has remained a standard within the firm. 17
Museum of Modern Art Tower, New York City, 1984
Herring Hall, Rice University, Houston, 1984
Values That Matter
As this essay is being written, architects in the U.S. are at a crossroads. After several years of economic distress during which the architectural profession has been particularly hard hit, many practitioners are questioning their future role as architects. Clients are more demanding, project budgets are tighter, schedules are more compressed, and many architects find themselves as part of large teams assembled by construction management companies—a far cry from the lauded role of “master builder.” For Pelli Clarke Pelli, the master builder model is not only still possible, but becoming even more rewarding as it has designed its practice with the same care it designs its buildings. This is a form of design that nearly all architects miss: the design of practice itself. But it is only through the design of practice that a firm’s architectural value system can be nurtured, developed, and preserved. PCPA’s novel approach to practice, and its creativity in designing its own method of work, has resulted in an agile firm responsive to its clients and the demands of practice while preserving architectural values that matter, in projects around the globe. These accomplishments are products of the firm’s fidelity to a set of principles that continue to guide it after three decades, and have been taken up by subsequent generations of its architects that employ their own creativity and ingenuity in the service of a new generation of clients. PCPA is unique among firms because the practice has been designed specifically to nurture and preserve a defined set of architectural values. We might view the firm itself as a collaborative design project, which evolves in response to the changing global architectural scene. In the past decade PCPA has undergone significant developments, many in response to its evolution and work on a global scale. In 2005 the firm changed its name from Cesar Pelli & Associates to Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects to
reflect several realities: Fred Clarke and Rafael Pelli, Senior Principals with Cesar Pelli, assumed greater responsibility in the firm, and greater autonomy. The name change also recognized the growing number of Principals, which had more responsibility over the projects they managed and direct contact with the clients to serve and care for these projects. This reflects another shift in current architectural practice: Clients (particularly outside the U.S.) want a single point of contact for their architectural commissions and are leery of large project teams. They want a well-rounded firm to take singular responsibility. Fred Clarke explains it this way: “We are working less with associate architecture firms than we were years ago. We have moved from being design architect to a more full-service firm. Clients want clean lines of responsibility, which has caused our senior people to be more versed in design, legal, financial, and technical matters—it sounds like a return to the master builder. The impact of engineering—structural and mechanical issues— has become greater. Evidence-based design is becoming much more important.” Cesar notes that as computing power has expanded in architectural practice, clients have demanded more lifecycle cost analysis and performance modeling, showing the economic impact of a project and the return on investment of one design decision over another. Fred adds: “Technology and engineering have a huge impact on how buildings look, how they are designed, and how they function. This is the new context we work in, a context of science as well as art.” Cultivating Design Values We live in an era of what we might call “architectural noise,” in a world marked by design exhibitionism. Competing for global attention, new buildings seem to rely on formal gymnastics, aggressive urban pyrotechnics, and outrageous
structural gesticulations—all with the goal of defining an architect’s “label”: a distinguishable style, a marketable signature. But a label has never been part of PCPA’s architecture value system. The firm simply doesn’t have a style, which, ironically, makes it unique within the realm of globally prominent architects. The design values cultivated at PCPA result in site-specific architecture that responds to the place where it is built—not just the physical site, but also the cultural, social, political, and historical context. These values also make PCPA’s architecture more sustainable, timeless, and seamless, while raising the quality of the built environment. In talking about the work, one longtime Principal draws parallels to the work of Eero Saarinen. What attracted him to the firm decades ago was that Cesar understood (as Saarinen did) that styles come and go, but that making architecture has to be guided by deeper values and fundamentals than style. For the firm, these values and fundamentals continue to be architecture in the service of human purpose, in the service of place, and timeless architectural qualities such as light, materials, and performance. The firm’s architectural values are fused with the design of its architectural practice: They inform and give shape to each other. Fred describes the consistency in the value system this way: “We remain responsive and responsible. We do not try to reconfigure the problem—we listen to our clients. That is a value shared throughout the entire firm. We occasionally re-educate some staff that have worked at other firms so that they are more sensitive to clients. We teach sensitivity and attention from the very beginning: ‘Please listen to what you are being told by the client.’”
Culture of the Place Since its founding, the office has cultivated a culture of creativity that attracts talented people who often stay for decades. Many of the Principals have been with the firm for more than 25 years. “We see everyone first and foremost as a designer,” one Principal explained. “And that needs to be articulated to make a good team. People come and stay forever, because you can grow on your own as much as being pushed by others. The work is never boring, and we are given a great degree of freedom.” In the studio design team structure of the practice, young people in the office are encouraged to interact with the clients (not just the senior team leaders). Encouraging team members to take part in formulating and communicating the design is part of the firm’s value system. Cesar notes that a founding goal in the practice was to create a work environment that is nurturing. “It begins with the fact that we have been teachers most of our lives,” he points out, adding that the approach to design projects in the office is much like a studio assignment in architecture school; it carries forward the sense of inquiry that was a fundamental part of the studio environment. “Even the most junior person has something to contribute and it is valued.” “Cesar was pushing us in front of clients early in our careers,” says one Principal, “and he has been a great teacher not only in design, but also in professional practice—how to really listen to a client. The standards of service in the architectural profession are now much higher than they were just a few years ago. Clients are more demanding in terms of
Work 2005–2012 National Museum of Art, Osaka Osaka, Japan 731 Lexington Avenue New York, New York, USA Porta Nuova Garibaldi Master Plan Milan, Italy Cira Centre Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Business Instructional Facility University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Champaign, Illinois, USA Chavasse Park Master Plan Liverpool, England One Park West Liverpool, England The Visionaire New York, New York, USA
The Avenue Washington, D.C., USA Tong Shan Jie Master Plan Shanghai, China Ocean Financial Centre Singapore Shanghai IFC Shanghai, China
Malone Engineering Center Yale University New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Torre YPF Buenos Aires, Argentina
Nihonbashi Mitsui Tower Tokyo, Japan
Connecticut Science Center Hartford, Connecticut, USA
Tokyo American Club and Azabudai Parkhouse Tokyo, Japan
Science and Engineering Research and Classroom Complex University of Houston Houston, Texas, USA
Beijing World Financial Centre Beijing, China
Abandoibarra Master Plan Bilbao, Spain
Cooperative Arts and Humanities High School New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Torre Iberdrola Bilbao, Spain
Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts of Miami-Dade County Miami, Florida, USA Minneapolis Central Library Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Overture Center for the Arts Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Torre Libertad Mexico City, Mexico Hillhouse Avenue Pedestrian Bridges Yale University New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Arboleda Master Plan Monterrey, Mexico
Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport Terminal and Parkade Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Town Square Neighborhood Master Plan Miami, Florida, USA
ARIA Resort and Casino Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
St. Katharine Drexel Chapel Xavier University New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Centro Municipal de Distrito Sudoeste Rosario, Argentina
Red Building, Pacific Design Center West Hollywood, California, USA
Joe Rosenfield ’25 Center Grinnell College Grinnell, Iowa, USA
Torre de Cristal Madrid, Spain
ARK Hills Sengokuyama Mori Tower Tokyo, Japan
BOK Center Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
Jingui Li Master Plan Wuxi, China
Petronas Tower 3 Mixed Commercial Development Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Simons Center for Systems Biology Institute for Advanced Studies Princeton, New Jersey, USA
Charles Benson Bear ’39 Recreation and Athletic Center Grinnell College Grinnell, Iowa, USA
Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall and Samueli Theater Costa Mesa, California, USA
1214 Fifth Avenue New York, New York, USA
National Museum of Art, Osaka Osaka, Japan 2005
The National Museum of Art posed an unusual design challenge: to create an iconic image for a museum in which only the entrance lobby was permitted to be built above ground. Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects responded to this requirement by creating an entrance that is an enormous stainless steel and glass sculpture. This web of intertwining stainless steel tubes stands against the sky with greater impact than its size would seem to allow. The entrance structure is designed to resemble reeds along a riverbank or arching stalks of a bamboo grove, a counterpoint to the massive form of the neighboring science museum. The titaniumcoated stainless-steel tubes rise to two peaks, → A sculptural entrance of stainless steel tubes is the only above-ground element of the museum.
52 and 34 meters (170 and 112 feet) above grade. For the steel tubes that penetrate the skylight glass, there is a watertight seal in the form of a plate with a bellows. The bellows allows the steel tubes to move 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) in any direction, whimsically animating the plaza. The museum is distributed on three levels. The first level is a public gathering space, followed by two levels of galleries for temporary and permanent exhibits. The three floors are spacious and receive natural light. Visitors soon forget that they are underground and become absorbed viewing the exhibitions.
Client Ministry of Construction; Kinki Regional Construction Bureau; Ministry of Culture Area 14,000 square meters (145,000 square feet) Architect of Record PCPA Japan Consultants MEP: Mitsubishi Jisho Sekkei Structural: Mitsubishi Jisho Sekkei Landscape: Balmori Associates Lighting design: Cline Bettridge Bernstein
â&#x2020;&#x2018; The first below-grade level is an open public space, with lecture hall and restaurant.
West-east section 1. Entry lobby 2. Public zone 3. Temporary exhibit gallery 4. Permanent exhibit gallery 5. Auditorium 6. Conference 7. Office 8. Light court 9. Temporary exhibit preparation
â&#x2020;&#x2018; A plate with bellows forms a watertight seal around each of the stainless steel tubes that penetrate the glass. â&#x2020;&#x2014; The glass and stainless steel lobby is also a skylight for the levels below. The stainless steel tubes extend from the
first underground level, through the skylight, and above the lobby.
â&#x2020;Ś Though modest in size above ground, the museum has a strong presence in the emerging arts district.
731 Lexington Avenue New York, New York, USA 2005
The design of 731 Lexington Avenue, a 55-story office and residential tower in Midtown Manhattan, started with a modest program. Midway through schematic design, the client doubled the size of the project. This demanded a new approach to the design of the tower, its location on the block, and its entrance. As a result, the tower grew taller and more slender and was moved from the Third Avenue side of the site to Lexington Avenue. The building rises from a block-long commercial base and is visible from across the East River in Queens, its lighted top softly glowing at night. The building’s six-story base is distinguished by Beacon Court—a dramatic, mid-block outdoor public space that contains multiple formal entries and a porte-cochere. Elliptical in plan and conical in form, Beacon Court is clad in a structural glass curtain wall supported by an external stainless steel tube and cable system. Initially created to reconcile conflicting programmatic and traffic concerns, Beacon Court evolved into a formal yet inviting urban “room”—an elliptical cone of glass that envelops the visitor. The upper floors of Beacon Court are the hub of the Bloomberg offices. The mid-block court provides an organizing principle for the new headquarters: The offices surround an energetic atrium—a bustling mixing space for Bloomberg’s 4,000 employees. Workspaces line the perimeter of the building, while television studios, the lobby, and a large snack bar surround the court’s curving glass walls. The space is open and partitions are
→ The curving glass walls of Beacon Court frame the tower of 731 Lexington.
transparent, showing the round-the-clock activity of the financial media company on the building’s exterior. The design team included graphic designers, product designers, and interior designers who worked within the context of the architecture to create a fully integrated information media space. PCPA worked closely with the developer and tenants to include several sustainable design features. A highly efficient cooling system with a low-temperature, low-flow chiller reduces the operation of energy-burning fans and pumps. The use of glass on the exterior cladding of the building allows daylight to penetrate deep into the interior spaces, reducing the need for artificial light sources. High-performance, low-e glass minimizes solar gain and the demand for cooling. Client Vornado Realty Trust Area 130,000 square meters (1.4 million square feet) Architect of Record SLCE Architects Consultants MEP: WSP Flack + Kurtz Structural: Thornton Tomasetti Curtain wall: Israel Berger & Associates Lighting design: Cline Bettridge Bernstein
Beacon Court section 1. Stainless steel rod 2. Stainless steel continuously curved tube 3. Painted steel column 4. Insulated glass 5. Spandrel glass
Beacon Court stack joint detail 1. Stainless steel rod 2. Stainless steel continuously curved tube 3. Stainless steel support system 4. Insulated glass 5. Painted metal 6. Floor register 7. Raised floor 8. Fin tube radiation 9. Concrete slab 10. Shadow box panel
→ Bloomberg offices line the upper floors of Beacon Court, which occasionally becomes a gathering place for special events.
Nihonbashi Mitsui Tower Tokyo, Japan 2005
Edo Sakura Dori
The Nihonbashi Mitsui Tower adds new office space, a museum, and a luxury hotel to a historic district of Tokyo. By carefully linking the 41-story tower to the landmark Mitsui Main Building and making the 1929 Beaux-Arts landmark central to the design of the new tower, the project advanced the use of historic preservation as an approach to urban redevelopment. The 41-story mixed-use tower contains the corporate headquarters of the Mitsui Fudosan Group and a Mandarin Oriental Hotel. Four basement levels include shops, parking, and subway access. The base is formed by a rhythmic sequence of granite columns that continues the order of the marble-clad Mitsui Main Building. The design extends the cornice and entablature lines of the historic building into the tower’s base. The upper stories are set back in deference to the historic streetscape. As the tower reaches toward the sky in a series of steps, its forms become lighter and more transparent. → A curtain wall of glass, stone, and stainless steel encloses the office floors. The exterior wall of the hotel above is almost all glass.
Each distinct form in the tower’s skyward progression refl ects its use. The base and the adjacent atrium, open and filled with light, hold mostly public functions: a lobby for the offices, shops, restaurants, and an entrance to a new museum. Moving upward, the next form contains the corporate headquarters. This element’s strong, vertical organization and use of stone conveys the company’s solidity and permanence. At the top of the tower is the thinnest, most delicate and transparent form. These ten floors are the 180-room Mandarin Oriental Hotel, offering views of the Imperial Palace gardens from the guestrooms and suites. In the new atrium, a rear elevation of the bank building—an unadorned party wall—is visible through a translucent glass wall. An image of a monumental Corinthian column was screened onto the glass, reproducing a key element of the three principal façades of the historic building.
The project included interior renovations to the Mitsui Main Building, designed by the New York firm of Trowbridge and Livingston and home to Mitsui companies since its opening. On the first floor, a bank hall and atrium were preserved. The fourth floor became a banquet space for the hotel and the top floor contains a museum displaying the Mitsui collection of art and antiques. Client Mitsui-Fudosan Area 130,000 square meters (1.4 million square feet) Architect of Record Nihon Sekkei Consultants MEP: Nihon Sekkei Structural: Nihon Sekkei
Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts of Miami-Dade County Miami, Florida, USA 2006
4. 5. 3.
Ground floor plan 1. Box office pavilion 2. Central pavilion
The Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts of Miami-Dade County is the premier performing arts center in Florida and the second largest in the United States, after Lincoln Center. The Arsht Center consists of two main buildings—the Sanford and Dolores Ziff Ballet Opera House and the John S. and James L. Knight Concert Hall— connected by an outdoor plaza. The Arsht Center is home to the Miami Ballet and the Florida Grand Opera and is host to guest resident orchestras and traveling productions. The Ziff Ballet Opera House and the Knight Concert Hall are each composed of a series of stepped masses clad in light beige Sardinian granite. The buildings are punctuated by large glass and steel curtain walls at their entries, adding to their contemporary, crystalline expression. The forms project a sense of both permanence and excitement. The Parker and Vann Thomson Plaza for the Arts, which is bisected by Biscayne Boulevard, includes colonnades, cascading garden terraces, and a paving pattern based on Afro-Caribbean designs. The tower from a 1929 Sears store, the earliest
3. Foyer 4. Green room
5. Lobby 6. Rehearsal room
example of Art Deco in Miami, was preserved and incorporated into the plaza design. In addition to its 2,480-seat main stage, the Ziff Ballet Opera House includes a 200-seat studio theater for smaller productions. In the main house, a dramatic, 12-meter (40-foot) convex disc, covered with sound-reflective bumps, hangs from the ceiling. Suspended over the stage of the 2,200-seat Knight Concert Hall is a spiraling adjustable acoustic canopy. Rings of custom light fixtures accent this flowing form. In conjunction with the Miami-Dade Art in Public Places program, PCPA collaborated with artists Cundo Bermudez, Jose Bedia, Robert Rahway Zakananitch, Gary Moore, and Anna Valentina Murch to create unique works that were incorporated into the architecture.
7. Stage door 8. Theater
Client Metropolitan Dade County Associate Architect A+S Architects, Planners PA Area 46,000 square meters (500,000 square feet) Consultants MEP: Cosentini Associates Structural: Ysrael A Seinuk, P.C. Theater planning: Fisher Dachs Associates Acoustical: Artec Consultants Landscape: Balmori Associates Lighting design: Brandston Partnership Inc.
→ At the John S. and James L. Knight Concert Hall, gathering areas enclosed in a glass-and-metal curtain wall punctuate the Sardinian granite façade.
Minneapolis Central Library Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 2006
The Minneapolis Central Library is a vital civic and cultural center, a hub for information and community. The building’s highly sustainable design—the result of a collaborative, public process—reinvigorates the idea of the grand urban library for new generations. The library is located between two of the city’s most active thoroughfares: Nicollet Mall, the central shopping and business district, and Hennepin Avenue, the city’s main street for the performing arts. Two street grids meet at the site, inspiring the building’s design: two rectangular volumes, one aligned with each grid. The two volumes come together at the Commons, a six-story atrium that connects the two avenues. This popular enclosed public space is topped by a metal “wing” that appears to hover overhead, extending beyond the building at both ends. Visible from afar, the wing is a landmark for downtown Minneapolis. The Commons both separates and connects the main areas of the building that contain library services. The most accessible elements of the library, such as the reading rooms and open stacks, are contained in the northern volume, where the natural light is conducive to reading. The more private work rooms and storage areas are in the southern volume, whose walls are more opaque. Bridges span
the Commons, linking to stairs and escalators. Architecturally, the two halves of the building are reminiscent of warehouse lofts, with large open floors structured by a grid of concrete columns. A strip of ochre Minnesota limestone outlines the edges of the floor plates on the building’s exterior. Glass walls that vary in width and transparency stretch from floor to ceiling. The windows include surface patterns digitally translated from photographs of four Minnesota landscapes: water ripples, birch trees, snowy branches, and prairie grasses. The result is an active, lively composition that references the city’s natural environment. The library incorporates many sustainable design strategies. The roof is planted with drought-resistant ground cover, creating a 1,700square-meter (18,500-square-foot) roof garden that slows storm-water run-off and reduces the urban heat island effect. An under-floor ventilation system reduces cooling costs, and the combination of generous daylight and energy-efficient light fixtures contributes to a building that exceeds the state’s energy code requirements. Materials with high-recycled content and low volatile organic compounds were specified and 96 percent of demolition and construction waste was recycled.
Client City of Minneapolis, Minneapolis Public Library Area 33,000 square meters (353,000 square feet) Architect of Record Architectural Alliance Consultants MEP: Ericksen Ellison and Associates Structural: Thornton Tomasetti Landscape: Coen + Partners Lighting design: Cline Bettridge Bernstein
9. 1. 9. 5.
Av e n
Ground floor plan 1. Children’s collection 2. Circulation workroom 3. Café 4. Commons 5. Reading tables 6. Plaza 7. Workroom 8. Compact shelving 9. Library stacks 0m
→ A cantilevered metal wing extends over the main entrance of the library, creating a monumental porch.
↦ In the Library Commons, the atrium that connects the two halves of the building, an open stair, escalator, and pedestrian bridges add movement to the space.
Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall and Samueli Theater Costa Mesa, California, USA 2006
Avenue of the Arts
Town Center Drive
Park Center Drive
The Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall and the Samueli Theater expand the Segerstrom Center for the Arts, one of Southern California’s premier cultural destinations. Defining a large plaza, the building is an elegant and vibrant urban gesture and sculptural form. The main entrance to the concert hall is an undulating glass wall, while the other three sides of the building are a cubic composition in limestone. In the lobby, a silver-leafed ceiling soars 24 meters (80 feet) above. Along the staircase, 300 sparkling lamps are suspended as a spiral of graduated lengths. Inside the 2,000-seat concert hall, a silverleafed canopy reflects the color and movement of the performers on the stage below. The ribbons of the canopy relate to the curving forms of the concert hall balconies, the lobby ceiling, and the glass façade. The canopy appears to be almost an extension of the organ itself, reinforcing the fluid movement of the design. The outer shell of the concert hall, chamber doors, orchestra platform, rear wall, and organ base are finished in light maple wood with battens that emphasize the horizontal lines of the hall. Balconies, which double as acoustical reflectors, are cantilevered from the walls in graceful curves. Other features include acoustic reverberating chambers and acoustic absorbing velvet draperies that are hidden in the recesses of the walls until needed. The Samueli Theater has its own architectural identity suited to the less formal events it hosts. Above the entrance, large frosted glass panels, illuminated from behind, accent the white limestone façade. As in the concert hall, the theater lobby
→ At the main entrance to the concert hall, a gently curving ramp follows the wave-like form of the glass curtain wall. The ground floor contains a restaurant and a grand stair leading to the second level.
includes a ceiling that glows with recessed edge lighting. The room is articulated with horizontal wood battens, culminating in an end wall faced with richly colored veneers. The space accommodates end-stage, theater in the round, meeting, and banquet configurations. Client Segerstrom Center for the Arts Area 27,000 square meters (290,000 square feet) Architect of Record Gruen Associates Consultants MEP: Arup Structural: John A. Martin & Associates Theater planning: Artec Consultants Acoustical: Artec Consultants Landscape: PWP Landscape Architecture Lighting design: Cline Bettridge Bernstein
BOK Center Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA 2008
The BOK Center is an 18,000-seat sports and entertainment venue that gives Tulsa its desired architectural icon. The design is contemporary while alluding to local culture, creating a world-class design that is truly Oklahoman. As a central element of Tulsa’s regional development plan, the arena draws people to the city’s revitalized downtown. The design of the BOK Center reflects the city’s wish for an arena with a bold architectural image. The BOK Center’s modern design is a sweeping spiral of stainless steel and glass walls that tilt inward as they swirl around the arena. Drawing from the natural and built surroundings, the architectural language evokes the bend of the Arkansas River and the arc of Tulsa’s highways. The building’s curving form also recalls Tulsa’s Native American heritage by alluding to the round tribal dwellings once built in some Midwestern states. Wrapping the southern façade of the BOK Center is a curving glass wall 180 meters (600 feet) in length. The icon wall, as this distinctive outer wall is known, contains 1,600 glass panels and reaches more than 30 meters (100 feet) above grade. By enabling views, the glass wall gives the BOK Center an unusually strong connection to the city for an arena. Visitors can look out to Tulsa from many places in the building, including some of the arena seats. Though the large expanse of glass appears transparent, about half of the icon wall glass is covered in a subtle ceramic frit pattern to prevent glare. The glass wall fills the building with light during the day. Awash in color at night, the icon wall reveals one of its most exciting features: a system of 66 integrated metal halide lamps that can glow in 1,000 different hues.
→ A sweeping glass wall wraps around the BOK Center and extends above the main entrance.
Exceeding local building code requirements in a tornado-prone region, the glass wall can withstand winds of over 160 kilometers (100 miles) per hour. To survive such severe gusts, the wall’s support structure is reinforced and has room for movement. For added strength, the glass panels have multiple layers that include laminated glass. The BOK Center incorporates several sitespecific artworks commissioned for the building: Dreamland, a multi-story painting of horses by celebrated Tulsa and New York City painter Joe Andoe; Stratum, a cloud-like installation by sculptors Kendall Buster and Siemon Allen; Realms, four 7-meter (22-foot) diameter medallions embedded in the terrazzo floors by Cherokee Nation father and son Bill and Demos Glass; and The Tallgrass Prairies, 25 scenes of the Tulsa prairie by local painter Mark Lewis. Client City of Tulsa Area 55,000 square meters (587,000 square feet) Architect of Record Odell Associates; Matrix A/E/P Inc. Consultants MEP: Matrix A/E/P Inc. Structural: Thornton Tomasetti Lighting design: Brandston Partnership Inc.
14. 3. 5.
5. 6. 7.
Section diagram at brace
Curtain wall section detail at column 1. Metal closure, painted 2. GWB fascia, curved 3. Roof truss 4. Curtain wall system 5. Radiused pipe girt, painted 6. Tension rod 7. Vertical truss, painted 8. Stainless steel panel 9. Box beam 10. Marquee fascia 11. Exterior plaster soffit 12. Exposed concrete structure 13. Stone base 14. Linear wood ceiling 15. Terrazzo ramp
Section diagram at column
→ Visitors enter the building via a long ramp or a stairway. Stratum, a sculpture by Kendall Buster and Siemon Allen, is suspended above the main concourse. ↦ The arena can accommodate concerts, sporting events, or a circus.
Beijing World Financial Centre Beijing, China 2009
Third Ring Road
Guan Dong Dian Street
Gui Hua Road
Positioned as Beijing’s premier business and financial hub, Beijing WFC is a state-of-the-art office complex in the Chao Yang Central Business District. This mixed-use development consists of a pair of 22-story towers joined by a glass atrium, all set within an expanse of parkland. With retail on three levels, the complex is also a significant shopping destination. Conceived as two jewel boxes, the towers have a faceted exterior. The folded surfaces are arranged using rotational symmetry folds on alternating façades. The faceted design of the glass atrium, the main canopy, and the landscape structures echo the façade. Inside the lobbies, Crystal Wall, a 400-square-meter (4,300-square-foot) three-dimensional art glass wall by artist Michael Hammers, continues the crystalline character. The towers’ interiors provide flexible, completely column-free space with a large, efficient floor plate that can be easily reconfigured. As the first office development in Beijing equipped with trading floors, WFC is designed for the demands → Two simple but faceted volumes are connected by a glass atrium.
of financial firms. The offices are also designed to attract major banks and multinational companies. Each of the towers has its own two-story lobby. The curtain wall is composed of high-performance glass with thin aluminum mullions set in a simple grid. The ground floor has clear glass with shadowboxes at back-of-house areas. The roof was treated as another elevation when viewed from the taller surrounding buildings. Extending beyond the parapet with a fritted glass pattern, the wall folds back to complete the faceted form above the roof. A frit pattern further screens rooftop mechanical equipment and creates the illusion of dematerialization toward the sky. Designed as the first environmentally sustainable Grade A office building in Beijing, the project meets high standards for environmental sustainability. Beijing WFC is certified Platinum, the highest rating under both LEED and HK-BEAM (Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method). Sustainable design strategies include a fully computerized Building Management System to monitor
and control energy usage, insulated curtain wall system, gray-water recycling system, and maximum use of natural light throughout. Client Henderson Land Holdings Ltd. (China) Area 242,000 square meters (2.6 million square feet) Associate Architect P&T Group Local Design Institute Beijing Institute of Architectural Design Consultants MEP: P&T Group Structural: Ove Arup & Partners
ARIA Resort and Casino Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 2010
5. 12. 8.
9. Harmon Avenue 5.
Las Vegas Freeway
7. 3. 3.
Ground floor plan 1. Casino 2. Casino Circle drop-off 3. Convention center
The ARIA Resort and Casino is the centerpiece of CityCenter, an urban development on a 27-hectare (66-acre) site fronting the Las Vegas Strip. The 4,000-room hotel and casino is the tallest structure in CityCenter. Constructed of steel and glass, the shimmering towers reflect the changing sky and the lights of Las Vegas. The 353,000-square-meter (3.8-million-squarefoot) hotel-casino complex comprises two counterpoising, curvilinear towers joining to form an open center. The curved plan creates gently arched corridors, filled with natural light, which give the appearance of a shorter distance from the elevators to the guest rooms. Visitors enter the building under a textured and faceted grand glass canopy. East of the hotel tower is a casino, retail area, and dining, bar, and lounge space. West of the towers is an 1,800-seat theater with a layered, three-dimensional façade. → A glass curtain wall of reflective high-performance glass with painted aluminum mullions and perforated aluminum sunshades.
4. Pool 5. Registration 6. Spa
Just past the theater is a three-level conference center. With its glass façade, the conference center is filled with natural light and has views of the landscaped pool area. Opposite the convention center is a two-level spa building clad in Las Vegas red metaquartzite stone. ARIA is the world's largest hotel to achieve a LEED Gold rating. The building's primary energysaving feature is its curtain wall, which uses a new generation of glass coatings that allow maximum daylight while blocking internal heat gain. Sunshades also reduce glare, while the exterior envelope minimizes demand for cooling. Water efficiency is also a key achievement. More than 117,000 cubic meters (31 million gallons) of water are saved throughout the resort each year. This includes savings of 40 percent in the hotel and 60 percent for landscape irrigation by U.S. standards.
7. Theater 8. Hotel lobby 9. Hotel tower north
10. Hotel tower south 11. Hotel tower west 12. Hotel tower east
In addition to LEED, ARIA received the highest rating from the Green Key Eco-Rating Program for sustainable hotel operations. Client MGM Mirage and Infinity World Development Corp. Area 567,000 square meters (6.1 million square feet) Architect of Record HKS Architects Consultants MEP: WSP Flack + Kurtz Structural: Thornton Tomasetti Curtain wall: Israel Berger & Associates Lighting design: Brandston Partnership Inc.
Jingui Li Master Plan Wuxi, China 2010
Jingui Li is a green mixed-use development in Wuxi, China, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) west of Shanghai and close to Taihu Lake, one of the country’s largest freshwater lakes. Envisioned as a model for sustainable, livable cities, Jingui Li emphasizes outdoor public spaces, links to public transit, and passive strategies for reducing energy consumption. Jingui Li occupies a prime location, adjacent to Jingui Park and accessible from two subway stations. The development is a key component of Taihu New City, which is rapidly becoming a new center for Wuxi. The plan divides the 27-hectare (67-acre) site into six distinct neighborhoods: Park View, the Heights, the Ellipse, the Canal District, the Boulevard, and the Galleria. Park View will have high-rise buildings with views to Wuxi’s government center and Taihu Lake. The Heights will have high-rise buildings with elevated views of Jingui Park. The Ellipse will be a six-building residential and clubhouse complex arranged around a landscaped courtyard. The Canal District will encompass low-rise residential buildings along canals. The Boulevard will have towers with amenities such as spas, pools, and fine dining. The Galleria will include a high-end shopping mall and the development’s signature tower. In addition to the master plan, PCPA is designing the buildings of Ellipse and the Galleria neighborhoods, including the signature tower (see page 264). Sustainability is a priority for the development. About 90 percent of the development is open green space, and the development’s extensively landscaped design is a central element in its stormwater management system.
Shopping mall with roof garden
Master plan rendering
↗ A shopping mall with roof garden anchors the development’s signature tower.
Client SPG Land (Holdings) Ltd. Area 27 hectares (67 acres) Local Design Institute Wuxi LDI Consultants Structural: Guy Nordenson and Associates Landscape: Office of James Burnett
Ellipse rendering, aerial view
Retail and residential program
Tong Shan Jie Master Plan Shanghai, China 2011
Tong Shan Jie is a mixed-use development near the Huangpu River in Pudong, Shanghai’s economic development zone. Located one block south of the river, the main component of the development is a group of slender residential towers (see page 271) around a sunken garden. They create a distinctive profile on the city’s skyline and give the apartments unobstructed views, a rare feature in Shanghai. Tong Shan Jie’s largest public functions—an office tower and a shopping mall—are on the eastern edges of the site, closest to the future subway and ferry. Additional retail is to the north in the townhouse shops, a two-story building that stretches along the street like a series of sails. At the center of the development is a large sunken garden, the focal point around which all of the residential buildings are arranged. The towers are along the northern and southern edge of the elliptical central green. Rather than being aligned to a grid, the buildings are staggered so that no tower is ever completely in the shadow of another. In addition to ensuring that each tower receives sunlight, this composition enables long-distance views from all points within the development and outside of the site. Between the residential area to the west and the commercial buildings to the east is the clubhouse. This building is adjacent to a roundabout that serves as a drop-off for the shopping mall and the office tower, the development’s signature building. The mall’s green roof provides outdoor dining and a separate patio for the tower, to which it is connected. The fan-shaped mall and the 34-story office tower are set back from the street, creating pedestrian plazas at the northeast and southeast corners of the site.
The development will include a number of advanced measures to conserve energy and water. A power plant will use co-generation technology and gray-water will be recycled.
→ Tong Shan Jie has eight residential buildings. The tallest tower, which rises from the shopping mall base, is an office building.
Client Shanghai Vanke Real Estate Co., Ltd. Area 5.8 hectares (14 acres) Local Design Institute China Construction Design International (CCDI) Associate Architect PCPA Japan Consultant Landscape: Balmori Associates
Ocean Financial Centre Singapore 2011
Ocean Financial Centre occupies one of the most prominent sites in downtown Singapore, marking the gateway between Raffles Place, the city’s historic business center, and Marina Bay, the fastgrowing area to the east. Consisting of a 43-story tower and an open podium that links to the surrounding city blocks, Ocean Financial Centre is a dynamic new business hub for downtown Singapore. As part of the skyline along Collyer Quay, one of the city’s historic commercial thoroughfares, the tower’s design celebrates Singapore’s maritime heritage. Rising above the neighboring buildings, the architecture is reminiscent of a ship’s sail, recalling the time when clippers crowded Singapore Harbor, making it one of the world’s great commercial centers. The tower’s elegant curtain wall has alternating bands of glass and metal panels, creating a horizontal pattern that enhances the building’s gently curving form. Each metal panel is equipped with LED lights, which at night lines the façades with glowing points of light. At the top of the tower is a 25-meter-tall (82-foot) sky garden. This great open space increases the sense of transparency at the tower’s top, lightening it as it reaches into the sky. At street level, the building connects directly to the Raffles Place MRT Station, one of the city’s busiest, and provides convenient pedestrian access to the surrounding blocks. A monumental canopy, 42 meters (138 feet) high, covering the entire public plaza, serves to mark the entrance to the building from Raffles Place. This “urban umbrella,” placed directly on axis with Robinson Road, serves as an eye-catching place marker.
The tall steel structure is clad in stained glass panels, casting a spectacular collage of colored light on the ground. Ocean Financial Centre has the distinction of being the first commercial office development in Asia to achieve a LEED Platinum rating. The project’s sustainable features include an exterior cladding of energy-efficient glass with a highper formance coating and photovoltaic panels that generate energy to light the building’s common areas. Client Keppel Land Area 95,000 square meters (1 million square feet) Architect of Record Architects 61 PTE LTD Consultants MEP: Parsons Brinckerhoff PTE LTD Structural: TY Lin International PTE LTD Curtain wall: ALT Consulting Landscape: TIERRA Lighting design: Lighting Planners Associates
3. Celil Street
→ Seen from Singapore Harbor, Ocean Financial Centre lights up the skyline over Collyer Quay.
Ground floor plan 1. Lobby 2. Plaza 3. Taxi drop-off
5. 5. 11. 10.
7. 9. 6.
1. Insulated vision glass 2. Insulated spandrel glass 3. LED lighting feature 4. LED cover 5. Shade track
6. Insulation 7. Aluminum panel, painted 8. Lighting connection point 9. Leveling bolt 10. Finished floor
Curtain wall with lighting feature
↑ The tower’s curtain wall has alternating bands of glass and metal panels, creating a horizontal pattern across the building’s gently curving façades. Each metal panel is equipped with LEDs, making it possible to change the color of lighting in the façade.
11. Vertical trim 12. Horizontal pressure band 13. Silicone sealant with backer rod 14. Shadow box aluminum panel 15. Thermal insulation
Curtain wall axonometric
↑ The sky garden includes planted beds and elevated plantings. ↖ An undulating red canopy will lead to a retail pavilion. ↗ A high canopy with stained glass panels will cover the entire plaza next to the building and cast a collage of colored light on the ground.
↦ Ocean Financial Centre has 400 square meters (4,300 square feet) of photovoltaic panels on the walls of its sky garden. This installation, the largest of any office tower in Singapore, helps light common areas.
Shanghai IFC Shanghai, China 2011
Shanghai IFC (International Finance Centre) is one of the most significant new developments in the Pudong New Area, China’s most important financial and commercial center. The project—three towers, a shopping mall, and a public plaza—is a central element of Pudong’s skyline. Viewed from the Bund, Shanghai’s historic riverfront promenade, the development assumes a distinctive presence among the city’s landmarks. The project includes two mixed-use towers, 48 and 50 stories, each with approximately 140,000 square meters (1.5 million square feet) of floor area for office and hotel use. The China headquarters of HSBC occupies more than half of the south tower, which also includes a 290-room Ritz Carlton Hotel with commanding views of the central city. A third tower, 23 stories tall, contains service apartments, complete banquet and conference facilities, a fitness center, and a swimming pool. The towers share a common architectural language. Starting with elegant, rectilinear forms clad in a vertically grained glass-and-stainless-steel curtain wall, the towers are sculpted by shearing off corners and edges, creating crystal-like shafts that gesture toward one another, creating a single composition from two buildings. Where the edges are sliced away, a horizontally grained interior is revealed. In height and arrangement, the two angled towers also respond to their varied urban surroundings. The podium faces the low-rise residential buildings to the south, while the plaza faces the major roadway to the north. The towers are similar in height to the new hotels and retail developments to the west, mediating the height of taller towers to the east. A four-level podium houses approximately 55,000 square meters (592,000 square feet) of
Lujiazui Ring Road
→ To give them character and create a cohesive pair, the two tallest towers are chamfered and angled.
retail, restaurants, and support spaces for the hotels. Below grade are a cinema complex, retail, a 1,800-space car park, and connections to the subway. Pedestrian connections to the adjoining sites are conveniently provided by tunnels and sky bridges. The project’s ground plane is an urban park, extensively landscaped and punctuated with fountains, gardens, sitting areas, and open courts that integrate with the below-grade retail level. Rated LEED Gold, the buildings use low-e glass curtain walls for energy efficiency and include materials low in volatile organic compounds for high indoor air quality. Almost 80 percent of the office space receives natural light, reducing energy consumption and contributing to a high-quality work environment. Nearly 75 percent of the construction waste was recycled. Client Sun Hung Kai Properties Co. Ltd. (Shanghai) Area 310,000 square meters (3.3 million square feet) Associate Architect P&T Group Local Design Institute ECADI Consultants MEP: Parsons Brinkerhoff (Asia) Ltd. Structural: Maunsell Structural Consultants Landscape: Design Land Collaborative, DLQ Design (HK) Ltd. Lighting design: Lighting Planners Associates Retail: Benoy
↑ Glass and metal create a lively pattern on the exterior of IFC Mall. Inside the shopping mall, the pattern is repeated in the intricate skylight. → Daylighting and light-colored stone finishes give the mall a bright interior. ↦ Illuminated at night, the faceted volume is an inviting entrance to Shanghai IFC’s shops.
Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport Terminal and Parkade Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada 2011 Inspired by the sweeping Manitoba prairie and designed for ease of use, the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport terminal provides expansive views and effortless navigation for travelers. The building’s transparency establishes a rare sense of place while helping to orient passengers. The boundless prairie horizon is central to the design of the building, which is long and low with a floating silvery roof. Skylights, an atrium, and clerestory windows fill the terminal with light and bring the big sky inside. There are views through the building to the airfield, across the prairie, and to downtown Winnipeg. Glass boarding bridges orient arriving passengers, giving them an immediate glimpse into the terminal. Billowing slatted wood ceilings and wood-paneled walls, similar in color to Manitoba wheat fields, create a warm and welcoming environment. The first freestanding airport building in Canada to become LEED certified, the terminal is a benchmark in environmental sustainability. Highly efficient mechanical systems and the use of natural light reduce the building’s energy consumption. The exterior envelope incorporates low-emissivity glass coating, the use of ceramic frit, and automated interior and exterior sunshades to minimize energy consumption. More than 15 percent of the
→ A silvery roof soars above the terminal.
construction materials contain recycled content. Water efficiency is an important strategy in the environmental approach of the airport. The use of low-demand and infrared fixtures, coupled with drought-resistant planting, reduce the airport’s potable water use by 30 percent. Along with the terminal, the project includes a four-level, 1,600-space parking garage. PCPA also designed the master plan for the airport’s redevelopment, for which the terminal was a major component. Client Winnipeg Airports Authority Area 60,000 square meters (646,000 square feet) Architect of Record Stantec Consultants MEP: SMS Engineering, Stantec Structural: Crosier Kilgour & Partners Landscape: Scatliff + Miller + Murray Lighting design: Auerbach + Glasow
Red Building, Pacific Design Center West Hollywood, California, USA 2012
The Red Building completes the Pacific Design Center, a West Hollywood landmark that spans over 40 years of design and construction. The first building (nicknamed the “Blue Whale”) was designed by Cesar Pelli when he was Partner for Design at Gruen Associates, and was completed in 1975. The Green Building, along with a smaller freestanding outpost of the Museum of Contemporary Art, followed in 1988. With the addition of the Red Building, the horizontal Blue Building and the chamfered Green Building are reinvented as elements in a new composition around the 5.6-hectare (14-acre) site’s plaza. The most dynamic of the three, the Red Building is composed of two curved, sloping towers atop seven levels of parking. The five-story West Tower slopes inward against the Hollywood Hills to the north. The eight-story East Tower continues the gesture, curving upward and culminating in a high point to the east.
3. 4. 2.
Site plan 1. Blue Building 2. Green Building 3. Red Building 4. MOCA Gallery
→ The east tower of the Red Building curves toward the Hollywood Hills.
Between the two towers is an eight-floor courtyard verdant with palm trees. The walls facing the Palm Court are of the same technology as the red walls, but use white glass to give the courtyard a light, ethereal quality. This outdoor space offers views of the Hollywood Hills to the north, and the Green and Blue Buildings and public plaza to the south. The West Tower is raised above grade to provide vehicular entrance to a covered motor court below the Palm Court. The walls of the Motor Court are illuminated channel glass. Each tower has separate lobbies at both the Motor Court and Palm Court levels. In keeping with the previous two Pacific Design Center buildings, the Red Building is clad in transparent and fritted glass. To create a taut, allglass appearance, the glass is held in its aluminum frames with silicone.
Client Cohen Brothers Realty Corporation Area 74,000 square meters (800,000 square feet) Architect of Record Gruen Associates Consultants MEP: Tsuchiyama Kaino Sun & Carter Structural: Englekirk Partners Curtain wall: Israel Berger & Associates Lighting design: Penumbra Architectural Illumination
Longitudinal section 1. Executive office 2. Palm court 3. Lobby 4. Motor court 5. Office 6. Sky lobby 7. Parking 8. Roof terrace
â&#x2020;&#x2018; The Red Building completes the three-part composition seen from San Vicente Boulevard.
â&#x2020;&#x2013; The Red Building is raised on columns to create a new car entrance. â&#x2020;&#x2018; Detail views show the three colors of the Pacific Design Center buildings and the distinct forms of each.
ARK Hills Sengokuyama Mori Tower Tokyo, Japan 2012
The ARK Hills Sengokuyama Mori Tower is a 46-story office and residential tower in the heart of Tokyo. The tower is located in the leafy Minato ward, home to foreign embassies and international businesses. Mori has been redeveloping the neighborhood with mixed-use towers for more than 20 years. To distinguish its two primary uses, the tower changes in materials and form as it rises. The base of the building is stone and glass. Square corners at the first two levels, which contain the building’s retail and commercial uses, recall the low-rise buildings to the south. Apartments are on floors 3 through 24. Those with the largest balconies are on the lower floors. The corners of the building begin to round on the third floor and the form starts to taper. At the office levels, the wall is glass and the corners are subtly stepped, creating a tilted conic silhouette. Between the residential and office levels, the 25th floor contains a sky lobby, also used as a common meeting space for the offices, and amenities. Two lounges for residents, one with a kitchen for entertaining, offer views of Tokyo Tower, Rainbow Bridge and other city landmarks. Additional amenities are on the first two floors and include a members-only spa and fitness center with a pool. Commercial space on the four lower levels includes restaurants and services. The tower received the highest rating under CASBEE, Japan’s sustainable design rating system. Sustainable design strategies include solar power generation, interior LED lighting and an
St re et 8
→ The form of the ARK Hills Sengokuyama Mori Tower reflects its multiple uses. The lower half of the building, with square corners, contains the residential levels. The upper floors, where the tower begins to curve, contain offices.
HVAC system with fresh air intake. To reduce heat absorption, the tower has low-e double-glazed windows and exterior screens to block sunlight. Extensive landscaping with trees and greenery tie the development to the surrounding area. The landscape received the highest ranking from the Ecosystem Conservation Society Japan for its efforts to preserve and restore biodiversity to the site. Thirty percent of the tower’s roof deck is also planted. In addition to the tower, the project includes three low-rise residential buildings. To relate to the tower, the buildings are clad in limestone and have translucent glass balcony fronts. Client Toranomon-Roppongi Redevelopment Association Area 140,000 square meters (1.5 million square feet) Associate Architect PCPA Japan; Irie Miyake Architects & Engineers Consultants MEP: Kenchiku Setsubi Sekkei Kenkyusho Structural: Yamashita Sekkei, Inc.; Obayashi Corporation
Selected Work in Design and Construction 62 Buckingham Gate London, England
Riverview Plaza Wuhan, China
Unicredit Milan, Italy
Abeno Harukas Osaka, Japan
Sidra Medical and Research Center Doha, Qatar
Vietcombank Tower Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Ambulatory Care Center Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Sofia Monterrey, Mexico
World Financial Center East Pavilion and Reconfiguration New York, New York, USA
Bill & Melinda Gates Computer Science Complex University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas, USA Chemical Biomolecular Engineering and Chemistry Building The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio, USA Godrej One Vikhroli, India Jingui Li Wuxi, China One City Shenzhen, China
The Landmark Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Theatre School DePaul University Chicago, Illinois, USA Tong Shan Jie Shanghai, China
Xuzhou Central Plaza Xuzhou, China Yale-NUS College Singapore â&#x20AC;&#x192;
Torre Costanera Santiago, Chile Torre Sevilla Seville, Spain Transbay Transit Center San Francisco, California, USA
Jingui Li Wuxi, China The Galleria and Ellipse are neighborhoods of Jingui Li, a mixed-use development emphasizing sustainable design. Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects is designing these two components of the development, along with the master plan (see page 184). The Galleria takes its name from a high-end shopping mall whose green roof is a notable outdoor space. Sculptural in form, the mall includes leaf-shaped skylights and a lushly planted rooftop garden. Planned for a variety of activities, the garden will contain walking paths, cafĂŠs, restaurants, a band shell, a swimming pool, and an events lawn. The mall will extend to form a bridge to Jingui Park, and connections to the metro and to below-grade parking. Anchoring the swirling form of the Galleria will be Jingui Liâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s signature tower, a 60-story hotel.
The Ellipse is a group of residential towers that provides a backdrop for the development. Stepping up in height from building to building, the arrangement echoes the curving shape of the Galleria. Client SPG Land (Holdings) Ltd. Area 55,000 square meters (592,000 square feet)
One City Shenzhen, China Yantian is a district of Shenzhen, a fast growing port city across the harbor from Hong Kong. The One City project is a mixed-use development for the area between the Government Center and the waterfront. A linear park will connect Wutong Mountain and the sea. This central garden is designed to become one of Shenzhen’s great destinations and will link to the development’s commercial, recreational, and residential areas. To create a development that is both pedestrianfriendly and convenient for driving, the master plan separates pedestrians and cars. Pedestrian paths are woven through the development, and roads and other traffic is kept to the perimeter of the site. Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects will design a group of seven towers including townhouses, the development’s business apartments, and a
51-story hotel/office tower. The project’s signature tower will offer views of the harbor. Client Shenzhen Vanke Real Estate Co., Ltd. Area 345,000 square meters (3.7 million square feet)
Riverview Plaza Wuhan, China The design of Riverview Plaza celebrates Wuhanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location at the convergence of the Yangtze and Hanshu Rivers. The mixed-use development consists of the three towers and a four-level retail podium. At 450 meters (1,500 feet), the signature tower will be the tallest in the city, as well as one of the tallest in the world. With curving sail-like faĂ§ades, the architecture of the three towers is inspired by the boats once found along the Yangtze River. Patterns on the curtain wall glass evoke the decorative window screens that are found throughout the region. While the references are traditional, the performance is modern: the curtain walls will be made from energy-efficient double glazing units.
At the base of the development is a four-level retail podium. A colorful composition of glass and metal boxes, the retail center will house a convention center, movie theaters, restaurants, a shopping mall, and an outdoor rooftop garden with views of the Yangtze. The public plaza at the base of the signature tower is intended to become a festive outdoor gathering place for celebrations. To promote urban connectivity, the rooftop garden terrace links to the streetlevel plaza with a people mover. Client Shui On Land Area 407,000 square meters (4.4 million square feet)
Xuzhou Central Plaza Xuzhou, China Xuzhou Central Plaza is a mixed-used development whose twin towers will be landmark buildings for the city. The development consists of a 66-story office-and-hotel east tower and a 58-story residential west tower, each standing 259 meters (850 feet) tall. A retail podium, designed by Callison, provides a grand entrance to the complex. Taking full advantage of the site, the towers are triangular in plan to optimize daylight and offer spectacular views of Yunlong Mountain, Yunlong Lake, and the city. The indented corners accentuate the towers' slender profiles and their perceptual height while creating opportunities for balconies. A circular lantern at the top of each tower will glow at night.
The east tower will contain 27 floors of state-ofthe-art office space and a 250-room, six-star hotel on 17 floors. At the top level, an observation deck and a restaurantâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the highest private dining room in Xuzhouâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;each offer panoramic views of the city. The hotel also includes a grand ballroom for 600 guests, a six-star Chinese restaurant, and a roof garden at level nine, a spa and an outdoor swimming pool on level ten. The west tower will contain 49 floors of luxury apartments. Client Jiangsu Yurun Dihua Industrial Group Ltd. Area 210,000 square meters (2.3 million square feet)
Yaleâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;NUS College Singapore Jointly created by Yale University and the National University of Singapore, Yale-NUS College is the first liberal arts college in Singapore. Balancing the traditions of Yale with the cultural and climatic influences of Southeast Asia, Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects developed a contemporary architectural language of clear and inviting processional entrances, sun- and rain-screened colonnades, and roof forms with generous eaves. Set in a lush landscape, the 62,000-squaremeter (667,000-square-foot) campus comprises courtyards punctuated by residential towers and a community of learning and social spaces. At its heart is a campus green flanked by academic and administrative buildings, including the learning commons, auditorium, sports hall, and an open-air, sheltered gathering placeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Agora.
Three residential colleges will accommodate 1,000 students in all. The residential colleges, home to both students and faculty, form nested academic communities. Tower floors are grouped into neighborhoods around sky gardens. The tower designs and those of the courtyards, dining halls, and common rooms will differ in each residential college. Client National University of Singapore Area 62,000 square meters (667,000 square feet)
Work 2013 – 15 Penn Plaza New York, New York, USA
Maral Explanada Mar del Plata, Argentina
223 23rd Street Arlington, Virginia, USA
McKinney & Olive Tower Dallas, Texas, USA
Baosteel Guangzhou Headquarters Guangzhou, China
Medical and Research Translation Building Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York, USA
Transbay Tower San Francisco, California, USA
Nanjing Yurun City Headquarters Nanjing, China
Torre Banco Macro Buenos Aires, Argentina
Biology Laboratories Yale University New Haven, Connecticut, USA
National Children’s Museum National Harbor, Maryland, USA
Torre Mítikah Mexico City, Mexico
Cira South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Ningbo East New Town Ningbo, China
Wolf Point Chicago, Illinois, USA
Ciudad Agrícola Master Plan Buenos Aires, Argentina
Payne Whitney Gym Natatorium Yale University New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Wood Wharf London, England
Baosteel Shanghai Headquarters Shanghai, China
Expo Master Plan Shanghai, China Foshan Zu Miao Towers Foshan, China Guiyang Huaguoyuan Master Plan Guiyang, China Hancher Theater University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa, USA
Performing Arts Center Western Illinois University Macomb, Illinois, USA
St. John Hall Choate Rosemary Hall Wallingford, Connecticut, USA St. Regis Jakarta Jakarta, Indonesia
Xiao Bai Lo Master Plan Tianjin, China Yedioth Ahronoth Tower Conceptual Study Tel Aviv, Israel
Raffles Hotel and Residence Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Raycom Infotech Office Park, Building B Beijing, China Raycom Infotech Office Park, Building D Beijing, China
15 Penn Plaza New York, New York, USA Located in midtown Manhattan, this signature financial building is 65 stories tall. The tower includes Class A office space with five 6,967-square-meter (75,000-square-foot) trading floors, and amenities such as a conference center and auditorium, a cafeteria and food services, a roof garden and green terraces, a broadcast studio, and a fitness center. The 15 Penn Plaza development also includes extensive transit improvements. Client Vornado Realty Trust
223 23rd Street Arlington, Virginia, USA Part of the redevelopment of an entire plaza block of the Washington, D.C.area neighborhood of Crystal City, the 140,000-square-meter (1.5 million-squarefoot) project includes a 26-story office building with a curving glass façade and a 30-story residential building with an aluminum and terra cotta exterior. The podium will contain additional office and residential space as well as shops and parking. Client Vornado Realty Trust
Baosteel Guangzhou Headquarters Guangzhou, China This 29-story multi-tenant office near the Pearl River will include offices for Baosteel and corporate tenants. To highlight the company’s primary industry, the building uses steel for the framework and as the main façade finish. Sited for views of the river, the development is surrounded by a large landscaped green area. Retail buildings form the edge of the site. Client Baosteel Group Corporation
Baosteel Shanghai Headquarters Shanghai, China Located on a portion of the former Expo Shanghai 2010 site, this corporate headquarters complex will include a tower with a retail podium and two low-rise buildings. The façades of the three buildings will be clad in stainless steel and granite. The tower will contain an executive club at the uppermost levels which will have curved floor-to-ceiling windows and will offer grand views of the city. Client Baosteel Group Corporation