Atlas of Digital Architecture. Terminology, Concepts, Methods, Tools, Examples, Phenomena

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Atlas of Digital Architecture Terminology, Concepts, Methods, Tools, Examples, Phenomena

Ludger Hovestadt, Urs Hirschberg, Oliver Fritz (Editors)

Birkhäuser Basel


Preface 7 Chapter Gallery 15 Introduction 29

THE DESIGN Creating the Geometries of Architectural Artefacts 3D Modelling Digital Data Acquisition Digital Design Strategies Computer Aided Design (CAD) Generative Methods Graphs & Graphics

THE IMAGE Visualising Architecture

I

57 93 111 129 145 175

II

Image & Colour 229 Rendering 255 Visualisation 285

LANGUAGE III The Abstraction of Architecture Text, Typography & Layout 327 Scripting 351 Writing & Code 369

MATTER & LOGIC The Physical Representation of Architecture Digital Manufacturing Model Making 3D Printing

4

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

IV

405 421 439

Table of Contents


LOGISTICS V The Dynamic Representation of Architecture Virtual & Augmented Reality 463 Simulation 475 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 491 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 507 Digital Cities 529 Big Data & Machine Learning 549

COEXISTENCE VI The Interfaces and Modes of Collaboration Between Information Technology and Architects Being a ‘Brand’ 593 The Internet of Things (IoT) 613 Collaboration 629 Privacy & Security 643

In Conclusion: What Is Information?

693

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, 727 Publications, Institutions Index of People 737 Index of Architectural Objects 741 Sources for Quotations, Citations, and Statistics 743 Sources for Images & Graphics 747 Biographies 753 Colophon 759

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

Table of Contents

5



Chapter Gallery


THE DESIGN Creating the Geometries of Architecture

3D Modelling

57

Digital Data Acquisition

93 Digital Design Strategies

16

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

I

111 Chapter Gallery


Computer 129 Aided Design (CAD)

Generative 145 Methods

Graphs & Graphics ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

175 Chapter Gallery

17


THE IMAGE Visualising Architecture

Image & Colour 18

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

II

229 Chapter Gallery


Rendering 255

Visualisation 285 ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

Chapter Gallery

19


LANGUAGE III The Abstraction of Architecture

Text, Typography & Layout

327

Scripting 351 20

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

Chapter Gallery


Writing & Code

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

369

Chapter Gallery

21


MATTER & LOGIC The Physical Representation of Architecture

Digital Manufacturing 22

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

IV

405 Chapter Gallery


Model Making

421

3D Printing ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

439 Chapter Gallery

23


LOGISTICS The Dynamic Representation of Architecture

V

Virtual & Augmented Reality 463

Simulation 24

Geographic Information 475 Systems (GIS)

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

491

Chapter Gallery


Building Information Modelling (BIM)

507

Digital Cities

Big Data & Machine Learning ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

529

549 Chapter Gallery

25


COEXISTENCE VI The Interfaces and Modes of Collaboration Between Information Technology and Architects

Being a ‘Brand’

593

The Internet of Things (IoT) 26

ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

613 Chapter Gallery


Collaboration 629

Privacy & Security ATLAS OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

Chapter Gallery

643 27



THE DESIGN Creating the Geometries of Architectural Artefacts

I

3D Modelling 57 Digital Data Acquisition 93 Digital Design Strategies 111 Computer Aided Design (CAD) 129 Generative Methods 145 Graphs & Graphics 175



3D Modelling

Marco Hemmerling

● William J Mitchell: Computer Aided Architectural Design, 1977 ● Robin Evans: The Projective Cast – Architecture and Its Three Geometries, 1995 ● Mario Carpo: The Digital Turn in Architecture, 1992–2012 (AD Reader), 2013 ● Helmut Pottmann, Andreas Asperl, Michael Hofer, Alex Kilian: Architectural Geometry, 2007 ● Antoine Picon: Digital Culture in Architecture, 2010 ● Patrik Schumacher: The Autopoiesis of Architecture – A New Framework for Architecture, 2011 ● Frank P Melendez: Drawing from the Model: Fundamentals of Digital Drawing, 3D Modeling, and the Visual Programming in Architectural Design, 2019



Overview CREATING SPACE “I begin,” Swiss-German artist Paul Klee (1879–1940) explained in his Notebooks, “where all pictorial form begins: with the point that sets itself in motion. The point moves off, and the line comes into being – the first dimension. The line shifts to form a plane, we obtain a two-dimensional element. In the movement from planes to space, planes give rise to a body (three-dimensional).” This, as we shall see when we look at the actual processes further along in this chapter on ӏ3D Modellingӏ , not only describes one of the exact methods by which we can add a dimension to what we already have, namely by motion, it also elegantly sums up how we arrive at visual representations of three-dimensional objects generally: we build them from the elements that make up these three dimensions, and as there is no end to the possible ways in which these elements can be configured, there is no limit to the shapes an object may take. And it is really three dimensions we are interested in, because as architects what we do is create space. Whether we create it out of nothing – which, as we discuss in our chapter on ӏVisualisationӏ , is extremely rare – or whether we work with existing context and transform or reshape it, we always do something that creates a new space. The evolution of dimensions, from point, to line, surface, and volume.

0 D

1 D

2 D

3 D

The purpose of 3D modelling, then, is to generate, and in the process describe, represent, and develop the objects that make up our space, as well as their attributes, so that we can understand the space we work with, and perceive as well as evaluate the architectural objects in it. Designing in and working with space means manipulating (adapting, changing, evolving) the objects and their attributes, and, if required, producing, manufacturing, or building them. Which in turn means sharing them, with the people we work with, with the people we work for, with the people who make the objects we design, and within our own teams. Traditionally, with a two-dimensional approach to design, you had to make sure that any element that was changed on a plan, or any detail that was amended in a drawing, was also reflected in every other relevant piece of documentation. So if, for example, you decided to reposition the location of a supporting wall on one floor, because that would

I

THE DESIGN

give you more usable space, then obviously you had to make sure that every plan and drawing, and every spreadsheet or table containing any type of calculation for this and every other floor followed this change through, otherwise you might end up with the type of an architect’s nightmare that sounds great only as the name of a band: Einstürzende Neubauten… This makes keeping 2D design components coherent and intact throughout a big project genuinely vital and, because of its complexity, potentially very taxing. By contrast, with a 3D model as the central reference, we can extract from this all 2D drawings and plans, and whenever we change anything in the model, no matter how big or how small that change, it is automatically and reliably reflected in all the other drawings and plans. And so the 3D model really sits at the core of what we create. From it flow all other relevant representations – every drawing, every plan, section, or detailed visualisation – and that means that the 3D model also becomes the link between what we can think and what we can build: with the 3D model we can simulate our design, test, and develop it; improve and perfect the thing that we create, which, as we have noted, is space. This particular facet to 3D modelling is also central to ӏBuilding Information Modelling (BIM)ӏ , on which we have a separate chapter in this Atlas, as you would expect. There is also another aspect to 3D modelling that distinguishes it from 2D design: in two-dimensional floor plans and drawings, we invariably lack a perspective as experienced from inside the space. We therefore cannot perceptually follow through a spatial and atmospheric evolution of the design. What we essentially do is design in two dimensions and then keep our fingers crossed that the result, when it comes to its execution in three dimensions, will turn out just as desired. With 3D modelling we get an encompassing range of perspectives of the entire geometry: each detail, every feature can be made visible from any angle, because everything is virtually modelled. We are effectively building the object twice: first as a digital 3D model, and then on site for real. This means that while we are still in the design and planning phase, we can understand and manipulate even very complex three-dimensional constellations and relationships. As a result, we can take a categorically more holistic approach to our design with 3D modelling than was possible without.

�  ↖ 57

�  507 ↘

�  285 ↘

Drawing-based (left) vs model-based design approach (right). In the drawing-based approach the geometry of the building is described in 2D plans (floor plans, sections, elevations), while in the model-based approach all planning is done in 3D, and any required 2D plans are extracted from the model.

aspect front aspect back aspect right aspect plan

3D Modelling

59


361 ↘

60

A CORRELATION OF METHOD AND ARCHITECTURE The role that computing plays in all this is not peripheral to the job, but of defining importance. Since the 1980s, when the computer was essentially an electronic drawing tool that simulated the manual techniques which had been passed down the generations from the Renaissance onwards, the computer has matured into a fully-fledged design tool that doesn’t just help us do our designing, but shapes the very way in which we design. It has become an integral development medium that brings with it its own qualities, its own potential, and also, of course, its own challenges. Because of this, it has significantly changed architectural design, and it impacts not only on the appearance, but also on the experience of the architecture and space that is being created. What this means in turn is that if we want to take advantage of the full potential the computer has to offer, we need to acquire the skill and understanding to use it as what it is: an extension of our own creative intelligence. Not a tool, then, merely, but an augmentation of our own capability. This – a skilled and knowledgable professional approach to digital media – is what gives us the competence not just to retain (you might argue reclaim), but to cultivate an architectural quality as we see and imagine it, from design through to realisation. In doing so, it also at the same time allows us to influence the development trajectory of architecture and interior design in a much more emphatic, conscious (and also conscientious) manner. If, as we think is essential, we treat 3D modelling as part of the design process and not merely as a virtual representation tool for geometries, then it naturally becomes constituent to our design strategy and forms part of the answer to the question: ‘how do I arrive at my design?’ This is fundamentally different from saying, ‘I design, and I avail myself of some 3D modelling for the purpose of doing so’. We like to draw a parallel here to the world of art in three dimensions. With 3D modelling, the architect or designer, like a sculptor, makes decisions that are informed by the design process itself: a sculptor shapes an object – either by chipping away at it or by bending, moulding, adding to, or otherwise transforming the material of which the object is made – and at any and every point is able to review the steps just taken and, based on these, consider the next ones. The object grows or emerges gradually through a process of repeating these two stages: generate and revise, generate and revise. 3D modelling allows us as architects to do the same, and that is why we don’t think of 3D modelling as an interesting game of geometry, but as the design process itself. The way in which the influence of digital methods on the conceptualisation, development, and realisation of architectural designs has increased over the last few years is evident wherever we look; and we often hear it said in relation to recently completed, spectacular buildings that they could not have been built without the latest computer technology. And so in this chapter we will not only be looking at the relevant methods and techniques in detail, but we will also be asking ourselves the question: what exactly is the potential of 3D modelling technology for the architect’s work today? As with so many a big, open question of this kind, we don’t expect, in one chapter that forms part of

I

THE DESIGN

a big Atlas, to find and be able to present all possible answers. But we believe it nevertheless to be conducive to our practice to be acutely aware of the question itself, and its many, and far-reaching, implications. In his book The Projective Cast, English architecture theoretician Robin Evans (1944–1993) shows how the development of architecture historically bears the imprint of centuries of two-dimensional representation. According to Evans, the interrelation between how you can represent and conceptualise an architectural design exists because all activities of a building project occur by means of a projective transaction. This is true for all three of the following, successive steps: • The designer/architect makes a sketch of their vision • A perspective is drawn to explain the project • The project is executed using orthographic drawings The interrelation between concept, design, representation, and realisation of a project through visual projection (after Robin Evans).

Perspective

9

6

10 Imagination

5

Design object

7 Perception observer

8 2

4 3

1

Orthographic projection

Even in analogue design, the broad range of available representation methods (drawings, sketches, plans, elevations, among others) makes it necessary to familiarise yourself with the techniques and particularities of different tools, so you can deploy them appropriately and to their purpose. Digital methods offer a whole range of new possibilities on every one of the levels described by Evans: • Illustration and conceptual design • Presentation and communication within the planning team and with the client and stakeholders • Project realisation, because data models can be directly transferred into physical objects The upshot from which is that if we use the tools that we have available to us well, we can not only generate different shapes, but actually create new kinds of spaces that meet today’s exacting demands for high quality built environments to work, live, and play in.

PARAMETRIC MODELLING In essence, 3D modelling is digital form-finding and form definition, whereby we can differentiate between

3D Modelling




Appendices

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, 727 Publications, Institutions Index of People 737 Index of Architectural Objects 741 Sources for Quotations, 743 Citations, and Statistics Sources for Images & Graphics 747 Biographies 753 Colophon 759



Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions


# 2.5D 63, 65, 134 2-point perspective 265 3D Modelling 470, 478, 479, 480, 509, 510, 512, 521, 524, 557 3D Scanning 102, 103, 409, 445 3D Studio (software) 65 3D Systems (company) 411, 446 4BIM (software) 519 4K 236 6B 113, 135, 139 6LoWPAN 621, 622 95 Theses (book or paper) 372 1984 63 2001: A Space Odyssey (film) 554 2011 Construction Strategy 511 2017 Level of Specification 521 A

A 3D Bioprinting System to Produce Human-Scale Tissue Constructs With Structural Integrity (article) 443 AAA (architects) 601, 606 AA Files (publication) 161 A Computer Animated Hand (work of art) 269 acoustic simulation 480, 482 actor-network theory 43, 712 Ada 376 additive colour model 237 additive manufacturing 407, 412 additive shape grammar 540 address bus 374 adjacency matrix 180, 194 Adobe Acrobat Reader (software) 335 Adobe Acrobat (software) 335, 336, 345 Adobe Illustrator (software) 74, 336, 495 Adobe Premiere Pro (software) 67 Adobe Systems (company) 288, 334 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) (government agency or body) 553, 622, 650 AEC Architectes Rotzer & Kaempfer (architects) 525 Aesthetics and Computation (research group or project) 359 agent-based model 160 agent-based simulation 538 agent-based system 160 AI + Architecture Towards a New Approach (book or paper) 173 AI (Artificial Intelligence) 64, 111, 114, 164, 182 Airbnb (company) 533, 534 Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) 102 air flow simulation 64, 477, 484, 485 Air Force Space Command (AFSC) (government agency or body) 502 AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) (standard) 394 Akzidenz-Grotesk (font) 341 albedo map 268 Aldus (company) 335, 337 Algol (programming/scripting language) 376 algorithmic urban design 539 algorithmic urban planning 536, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542 Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs (book or paper) 156 Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland 469 alpha blending 296, 298 AlphaGo (computer) 553 Altsys (company) 335 ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) 374, 375, 383, 384 Amazon Alexa (software) 553 ambient intelligence 615 ambient occlusion 263, 264, 268, 276 American National Standards Institute (government agency or body) 333 American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) 330, 331, 332, 333 Amiga 1000 (hardware) 617 Amman (company) 412 Amt für Strassen (ASTRA) (government agency or body) 341

728

APPENDICES

Android (software) 551, 618, 624, 635 An Evolutionary Architecture (book or paper) 145, 164 An Improved Illumination Model for Shaded Display (book or paper) 261 An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (book or paper) 655 An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities (book or paper) 70, 375, 549, 551 ANN (Artificial Neural Network) 164, 553 An Outline of the Building Description System (book or paper) 524 Ansys CFD (software) 485 anti-aliasing 237, 248, 304 antiquity 35, 49, 135, 137, 139, 184, 372, 408, 425, 428, 443, 554, 662, 708, 713 Apache OpenOffice (software) 337 API (Applications Programming Interface) 235, 469, 496 Apologia (book or paper) 42 Apple (company) 63, 65, 67, 232, 233, 236, 240, 246, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 341, 358, 359, 400, 470, 479, 494, 496 Apple Mackintosh (hardware) 63, 232 Apple Maps (web service/app/platform) 494 AppleScript (programming/scripting language) 354 application programming 355 Applications Programming Interface (API) 469, 496 ArcGIS (software) 496, 502, 536 ArchDaily (publication) 512, 598, 599, 600, 601, 680, 682 ArchiCAD (software) 65, 134, 289, 470, 479, 519 Archimedean solid 70, 81 ArchiPhysik (software) 586 Architects’ Data (book or paper) 120 Architectural Association (institution) 164 architectural geometry 360, 362 Architectural Geometry (book or paper) 57, 61 Architecture Machine Group (working group / standard body) 536 Architektur beginnt im Kopf (event/exhibition) 113 Architekturzentrum Wien (institution) 113 Arduino (hardware) 425, 619 Arial (font) 341, 342 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) 374, 383, 384 ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) 622, 650 Arrival (film) 717 Ars conjectandi (book or paper) 569 Art+Com (company) 496 Art Forms of Nature (book or paper) 158, 170 Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey (report) 555 Artificial Intelligence (AI) 114, 182, 469, 551 Artificial Neural Network (ANN) 164, 553 Artis Engineering (company) 409 Art Nouveau 158, 170 ARUP (company) 82, 219, 409, 486, 535 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) 238, 330, 331, 333 Assassin’s Creed (film) 717 Assemble (architects) 602 Assemble (association) 637, 640 assembly language 374, 375, 376 assembly modelling 68 assymmetrical encryption 667 ASTRA-Frutiger (font) 341 Asus PC (hardware) 377 asynchronous communication 631, 632 Atelier Bow-Wow (architects) 113 Athens Charter (book or paper) 532 Audi (company) 341 Augmented Parametrics. Simulated and Expert Knowledge in Parametric Design (research group or project) 172 Augmented Reality (AR) 66, 465 Austrian Institute of Technology (institution) 545

Austrian Museum of Architecture (institution) 113 AutoCAD Architecture (ACAD) (software) 65 AutoCAD (software) 65, 137, 139 Autocode (programming/scripting language) 355 Autodesk (company) 358, 409, 411 Autodesk CFD (software) 485 Autodesk Revit (software) 470, 483 Automatically Programmed Tool (APT) 409 Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) (computer) 408. See also Harvard Mark I autopoiesis 64 Avions Marcel Dassault (company) 62, 409 AWK (programming / scripting language) 377 axonometry 63, 135 B

Banburismus 647 Barneyscan (company) 235 Barneyscan XP (software) 235 base model 61 base station 618, 620, 622 Bash (programming/scripting language) 377 Basics of Geo-Information Systems (book or paper) 497 batch processing 355 Bauentwurfslehre (book or paper) 111, 120 Bauhaus 120, 338, 400 Bauwelt (publication) 512 beam tracing 262 Beauty Matters (event/exhibition) 221 Before Siri and Alexa There Was ELIZA (video) 552 Bentley Systems (company) 65, 409, 358 Betamax (format) 330 Bézier curve 73, 74 Bézier surface 74 BFC (BIM Collaboration Format) (format) 511 biased global illumination 264 biased rendering 263 bidirectional path tracing 263 BIG (Bjarke Ingels Group) (architects) 84 Big Brother (TV show) 645 Bilbao effect 64 BIM+ (publication) 519 BIM (Building Information Modelling) 25, 59, 61, 64, 66, 67, 76 BIM Collaboration Format (BCF) (format) 511 BIMFORUM (organisation) 521 BIMServer (software) 519 BIM Vision (software) 519 BIMx (software) 519 Bing Maps (software) 494 bionics 121 Bioprinting Breakthrough: Researchers 3D Print Living Tissue for Functional Implants (article) 443 bit 124, 231, 233, 238, 239 Bitcoin 675 bitmap 232, 234, 238 Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) (architects) 64, 84, 122 black & white photography 292 Blade Runner (film) 551, 574 Blender (software) 65, 222 Bletchley Park (government agency or body) 647, 663 Blickensderfer (company) 329 Blinn-Phong shading 261, 275 blockchain 653, 674, 675 Block research group (research group or project) 222 Bloomberg (publication) 553 Blueprint (software) 412, 470 BMVI (Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur) (government agency or body) 511 bokeh 265, 276, 309, 313 Bollinger + Grohmann (company) 486 Boolean algebra 70 Boolean logic 70, 290 Boolean operation 70, 83, 199, 200 Boolean operator 70

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions


bot 565 botnet 625 boundary element modelling 480 Boundary Representation (BREP) model 68. See also BREP (Boundary Representaion) model; See also B-rep model B-processor (software) 519 Breitbart News (publication) 653 BREP (Boundary Representaion) model 68. See also Boundary Representation (BREP) model; See also B-rep model B-rep model 68. See also Boundary Representation (BREP) model; See also BREP (Boundary Representaion) model Bricks (project or programme) 637 Brief History of BIM (article) 512 British Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) (government agency or body) 555 BRL-CAD (software) 417 B-spline curve 73, 74 B-spline surface 74 Build 2017 (conference) 535 Building a Drawing and Drawing a Building (article) 430 Building Description System (BDS) 512, 524 Building Information Modeling (book or paper) 512 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 466, 478, 495, 496, 501, 507, 566 BuildingSMART (organisation) 501, 510, 511, 514, 521 bump mapping 267, 268 byte 238 Bytemark (institution) 494 C

C++ (programming/scripting language) 377, 470 CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) 62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 75, 168, 172, 177 CAD (Computer Aided Design) 65, 129, 131 CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) 63, 65 Caesar cipher 661, 662, 664 Cambridge Analytica (company) 653, 654, 667 Cambridge University (institution) 180, 206, 720 CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) 63, 65 Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) (system) 493, 496 canal surface 73 Capterra (publication) 519 Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh (institution) 543, 556 Cartesian coordinate system 65, 66, 71, 237 Cartesian doubt 563 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) 345. See also CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) Case (company) 409 CASTING 413, 414 Casting Curved Shadows on Curved Surfaces (book or paper) 261 category theory 47, 561 catenary model 424 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) 231, 232, 235, 236 CATIA (Computer Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application) (software) 62, 159, 245 Catmull-Clark subdivision-surface modelling 269, 280 CATT (Computer Aided Test Tool) (software) 481 caustics 264 CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) camera 246, 262 CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television) 625, 652 cellular automaton 152, 540, 545 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (government agency or body) 496, 648. See also CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) Central Limit Theorem (CLT) 571 central place theory 531

APPENDICES

Central Processing Unit (CPU) 374, 618 CERN (international body or organisation) 619, 620 CesiumJS (software) 496 CGA shape grammar 541 CG (Computer Graphics) 257, 496 CGI (Common Gateway Interface) 356 CGI (Computer Generated Imaging) 356 CGIS (Canada Geographic Information System) (system) 493, 496 Chanel (brand) 718 channel surface 73 Chartered Institute of Building (organisation) 519 Chef’s Table (TV series) 39 China State Construction Design International (CCDI) (architects) 219 Church-Turing thesis 552 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 496, 648. See also Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (government agency or body) Cinema4D (software) 65, 279 citizen participation 433, 516, 517 Citizens as Sensors: The World of Volunteered Geography (article) 494 Citizens Band (CB) radio 621 CityEngine (software) 540, 541 City Form Lab (software) 539 CityGML (standard) 501, 537 CityMapper (web service / app / platform) 104, 187, 502, 534 City of Bits (book or paper) 536 ClearType (software) 237 CLOS (Kee89) (programming/scripting language) 377 CMYK (Cyan Magenta Yellow Key) 237, 239, 304 CNC (Computer Numerical Control) 367, 408, 409, 411, 412, 413, 415 CNC router 637 CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) 623 COBE (architects) 602 COBie (Construction Operations Building Information Exchange) (format) 519 COBOD International (company) 452 Codecademy (web service / app / platform) 353 cognitive design computing 541, 542 cognitive distance 539 colour correction 241, 265, 266, 271 colour depth 292, 297 colour profile 234, 237, 238 combinatorial explosion 379, 555, 556 Comic Sans (font) 77, 449 Comma Separated Values (CSV) (format) 500 Commodore International (company) 617 Common Data Environments (CDEs) 519 Common Desktop Environment (CDE) (software) 519, 520 Common Gateway Interface (CGI) 356 Common Lisp (programming/scripting language) 377 common sense knowledge 557 compiler 354, 375 CompuServe, company 233, 239 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 484 Computer Aided Architectural Design (book or paper) 57, 62, 177 Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) 62, 65, 164, 359 Computer Aided Design (CAD) 55, 65, 129, 131, 177, 231, 259, 512 Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) 65 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 65 Computer Display of Curved Surfaces (book or paper) 260 Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) 263 Computer Graphics (CG) 257 Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (book or paper) 255, 257, 306 Computer Hope (publication) 259 Computer Numerical Control (CNC) 408, 413, 415 Computer Vision Group (research group or project) 101 Computer Vision Lab (institution) 540

Computing Machine Laboratory (institution) 552 Conclusiones philosophicae, cabalisticae et theologicae (book or paper) 41 cone tracing 262 Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) (conference) 532 Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) 623 constrained device 623 Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie) (format) 519 construction tree 161 Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) 68, 80 context sensitive grammar 157 Contiki (software) 618 control polygon 73 control unit 374 CoolType (software) 237 Coop Himmelb(l)au (architects) 119, 168, 409 copyleft 635, 636 core memory 231 Cornell box 262, 308 Cornell University (institution) 262, 308 Cortana (software) 553 Counting Palladian Plans (book or paper) 169 Courier (font) 341, 343, 344 CPS (Cyber Physical System) 415 CPU (Central Processing Unit) 262, 354 crawler 597, 598, 599, 600 creative commons 636, 652 Creative Commons (organisation) 407, 408, 636 cross section 67, 121, 132, 138 crystallography 192 CSG model 68, 80 C shell (programming/scripting language) 377 CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) 345. See also Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) CSV (Comma Separated Values) (format) 500 CupCake CNC (hardware) 451 Curiosity (publication) 263 Cut ‘n’ Paste: From Architectural Assemblage to Collage City (event/exhibition) 316 cybernetics 593, 647, 649 Cybernetics Conferences (event/exhibition) 649 Cyber Physical System (CPS) 415 Cyclopaedia or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (book or paper) 633 D DAAR (architects) 602 daguerrotype 258 Daidalos (publication) 111, 121 DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) (government agency or body) 553 Dartmouth College (institution) 554 Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence (conference) 554 Das Japanische Haus (book or paper) 126 Dassault Aviation (company) 409 Dassault Systèmes (company) 62, 63, 159, 409 data bus 374 data link layer 620 David (work of art) 638 dBase IV (format) 495 DCFL (Deterministic Context-Free Language) 157 DCP (Digital Cinema Projection) 236 DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) 625 Dead Poets’ Society (film) 632 De architectura (book or paper) 95, 120, 166, 698 de Casteljau algorithm 74 Decision Support System (DSS) 496 declarative programming language 375, 650 DecodingSpaces (company) 541, 545 deconstructivism 119 Deep Blue (computer) 553, 558 deep learning 165

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions

729


DeepMind Technologies (company) 553 De harmonia mundi totius (book or paper) 118 De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (book or paper) 576 Della pittura (book or paper) 719 Denken in Modellen (event/exhibition) 427 depth buffering 259 depth of field 264, 265, 270, 271 De re aedificatoria (book or paper) 95, 699, 711 Der Spiegel (publication) 646 Der Technokrat (work of art) 125 Der Zauberlehrling (literary work) 137 Descriptio urbi Romae (book or paper) 105 descriptive geometry 132 Design by Numbers (book or paper an also programming/scripting language) 351, 359 Design File (DGN) (format) 137 design plan 132 design space 148, 149, 152, 153, 162, 164 Design Space Exploration (DSE) 162, 362, 541, 638 Design-to-Production (company) 367, 409, 412, 418 Design With Nature (book or paper) 512 Desk Top Publishing (DTP) 335, 338 Destination-Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph (DODAG) 622 Deterministic Context-Free Language (DCFL) 157 Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) (institution) 334 developable surface 75 Dezeen (publication) 598, 599, 600, 601 diagrammatic architecture 293 dialectic barrier 116 DIALux (software) 585 Die vier Elemente der Baukunst (book or paper) 421, 426 Die Zukunft hat schon begonnen (book or paper) 470 differential geometry 185 differential GPS 502 diffuse map 310 diffuse ray tracing 262 Digital Cinema Projection (DCP) 236 digital collage 295, 296, 297, 298, 299 Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) (company) 556 digital fabrication 360, 405, 407, 431 digital modelling 430, 432, 433 Digital Project (software) 63 Digital Terrain Model (book or paper) 496 DIN 66001 376 Direct Ink Writing (DIW) 446, 448 Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency (literary work) 554 discrete mathematics 177 discretisation 195, 200 displacement mapping 268, 280 DISTO (hardware) 97, 292 Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) 625 distributed ray tracing 262 dividing grammar 540 DOAG (Destination-Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph) 622 Do Androids Dream of Sheep? (literary work) 551 DPI (Dots per Inch) 235 drain pipe inspection 102 Drawing (DWG) (format) 137 Drawing Exchange Format (DXF) (format) 137 drawing tablet (hardware) 233 Drohnenland (literary work) 536 Dropbox (web service / app / platform) 633 DSE (Design Space Exploration) 162, 362, 541 DTP (Desk Top Publishing) 335, 336, 337 DUS Architects (architects) 444 duty cycling 621 Dynamo (software) 159, 161 E E2A (architects) EA (Evolutionary Algorithm)

730

602 118, 121

APPENDICES

Earth Moves: the Furnishing of Territories (book or paper) 421, 429 EarthViewer (software) 496 EASE (Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers) (software) 481 Ecosistema Urbano (architects) 602 edge 177, 178, 180, 187, 188, 189, 196, 201 Edge Design Institute (architects) 113 EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) 413 eGovernment 534 Eiffel (programming/scripting language) 377 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) 413 Electrochemical Machining (ECM) 413 Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 449 Elemental (architects) 636, 639 Elements (book or paper) 700. See also The Elements (book or paper) elevation 60, 116, 119, 699 ELIZA (software) 552, 553 Emerdata (company) 654 emergence 145, 154, 531, 561, 632, 651 EMO (Evolutionary Multi-Criteria Optimisations) 541 emotional map 535 Employer’s Information Requirement (EIR) 522 Encapsulated Postscript (EPS) 327, 334, 335 Encyclopédie (book or paper) 633, 639 energy simulation 484, 513, 585 Enigma code 552, 647, 663 eParticipation 542 EPS (Encapsulated Postscript) 327, 334 ESA (European Space Agency) (international body or organisation) 493 Esri (company) 495, 496, 497, 502, 545 Essai sur l’architecture (book or paper) 125 ETH Zürich (institution) 122, 164, 168, 170, 172, 222 ETX (Expected Transmission Count) 622 Euclidean geometry 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 189, 196, 197, 708 Euclidian vector 201 Euler’s formula 69 Eurocode 483 European Space Agency (ESA) (international body or organisation) 493 Evans & Sutherland (company) 258 Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) 118, 121, 164, 541 Excel (software) 61, 519 Exif (Exchangeable Image File Format) (format) 240 Expectation-Maximisation (EM) 122 Expected Transmission Count (ETX) 622 expert system 556, 561 Explorer (software) 240, 496, 634 Exstensible Markup Language (XML) (programming/scripting language) 139, 336, 377, 394 Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) (programming/scripting language) 394 extension language 355, 356, 359 F FabLab (institution) 407, 442 Facebook (company) 467, 469, 500, 535, 553, 565 facsimile 234, 246 Fake Industries AA (architects) 602 feature class 536 Ferranti Mark 1 (computer) 552 Fibonacci sequence 156 Fifth Generation Computer (project or programme) 557 film 554 Final Cut Pro (software) 67 final gather 264 Finder (software) 240, 249 finite difference time domain modelling 480 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) 483 Finite Element Method (FEM) 483 finite element modelling 480 fire and evacuation simulation 485 Firefox (software) 356, 623, 634 First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC (book or paper) 373

First Order Logic (FOL) 558 fitness function 148, 164, 165, 167 floppy disk 334 Flower Matango (Flower Matango) 690 fluid dynamics 268, 270 foam structures 70 FOL (First Order Logic) 558 font 138, 334, 335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 619 foolscap folio 334 Fordism 636 Forensic Architecture (architects) 602 formal language 156, 192, 375, 554 Fortran (programming/scripting language) 375, 390 Foster + Partners (architects) 63, 216 Four Books on Human Proportion (book or paper) 421, 429, 437 Fourth Industrial Revolution 415 fractal 145, 155, 156, 158, 159, 193 frame problem 379, 558, 704 Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (literary work) 554, 559, 563 Frank Gehry and Associates (architects) 159, 362 Freax (software) 635 FreeCAD (software) 519 freeform curve 73, 74 freeform surface 88 Free Software Foundation (organisation) 635 frequency domain 673 full-surface collage 297 Functional City (concept) 532 Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 446, 447, 448 Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 446, 447, 448 Future Cities Laboratory (Singapore ETH Centre / ETH Zürich) (research group or project) 170 fuzzy logic 290 fuzzy set theory 290 G Galileo (system) 39, 493, 705 Game of Life (software) 152, 154, 155 Garamond (font) 342 GC (GenerativeComponents) (software) 358 G-code 410, 411, 446 Gehry Partners (architects) 362, 409, 486, 637 Gehry Technologies (company) 63, 486, 637, 638 Geminoid HI-1 (work of art) 559, 722 General Public Licence 634 general purpose programming language 355 Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) 164, 165 GenerativeComponents (GC) (software) 358 generative model 114, 117, 121 generative network 165 Genetic Algorithm (GA) 122, 145, 164, 165, 166 genotype 162, 164 Geodata Infrastructure North-Rhine Westphalia (GDI NRW) (project or programme) 501 geodesic dome 70, 83 geodesic polyhedra 70 geodesic sphere 70, 83 Geodesign (concept) 497, 529 Geodesign Technologies (company) 497 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 491, 493, 536 Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) (software) 496, 502 Geography Markup Language (GML) (standard) 501, 537 GeoJournal (publication) 494 geometrical room acoustics modelling 480 Geometry (book or paper) 183 Georgia Tech School of Architecture (institution) 512 Geospatial World (publication) 518 Germany Trade & Invest (government agency or body) 511

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions


GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) (format) 233, 239 GI (Graphical Interface) 353, 358, 359 Global Illumination (GI) 262, 263, 264, 271, 287 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNNS) (system) 493, 496, 502 Global Positioning System (GPS) (system) 102, 493, 502 GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System) (system) 493, 496, 502 glue language 355 GML (Geography Markup Language) (standard) 501, 537 GMW Computers Ltd (company) 512 GNNS (Global Navigation Satellite System) 102, 493, 496, 502 GNU/Linux (software) 635 GNU Project 634 golden ratio 119, 120, 155, 333 Gollins Melvin Ward (GMW) (architects) 512 Good Morning America (TV show) 442 Google (company) 469, 494, 496, 500, 502 Google Books (project or programme) 654 Google Cardboard (hardware) 467, 469 Google Earth (software) 496, 500, 502 Google Glass (hardware) 625 Google Maps (software) 104, 187, 494, 502, 536 Google Now (software) 553 Google Street View (software) 536 Gouraud shading 260 Government Code & Cypher School (GCCS) (government agency or body) 647 GP104 (hardware) 395 GPS Exchange (GPX) (format) 500 GPS (Global Positioning System) (system) 102, 493, 494, 500, 502 GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) 262, 263, 271, 272 GPX (GPS Exchange) (format) 500 Grahpics Interchange Format (GIF) (format) 233, 239 graph 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 196, 202 graph distance matrix 194 Graphical Interface (GI) 353, 358, 359 Graphical User Interface (GUI) 232, 519 graphics card 131, 262, 263, 272, 470 Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) 262, 272 graphic tablet 233, 246 Graphisoft (company) 65, 134, 289, 479, 519, 586 Graphisoft EcoDesigner Star (software) 586 Graz University of Technology (institution) 9, 171, 223 Great Exhibition (event/exhibition) 426, 435 Greg Lynn FORM (architects) 63, 78, 409 Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) 101, 103 ground plan 102, 104, 116, 119, 125, 126, 132, 133, 134, 136, 138, 141, 158 Grundlagen der Geo-Informationssysteme (book or paper) 491, 497 GTeam (software) 637 GTX 1080 (hardware) 395 Guerrillero Heroico (work of art) 651, 676 H

Haas’sche Schriftgiesserei (company) 341 hanging chain model 160, 211, 434 Harmonices mundi (book or paper) 155 Harvard Graduate School of Design (institution) 496, 497 Harvard Mark I (computer) 408 Harvard University (institution) 408, 543 hash code 674 HD (High Definition) 231, 236, 269, 298, 447 HDRI (High Dynamic Range Imaging) 258, 271 Head Mounted Display (HMD) 468, 469, 473 Helvetica (font) 341, 342 Her (film) 717 Herzog & de Meuron (architects) 122, 164, 295, 297, 315, 318, 322, 428, 481, 489, 606 heuristic 541, 555 hidden line removal 259

APPENDICES

High Definition (HD) 231, 236, 269, 298, 447 high-level language 354, 375, 377, 390, 391, 392 high-level programming 354, 355 High Performance Computing Centre Stuttgart (institution) 485 Hochtief ViCon (company) 521 HoloLens (hardware) 469 Houdini (software) 159, 166, 221 HP (Hyperbolic Paraboloid) surface 72 HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) (programming/scripting language) 344, 345, 356, 378, 623, 672 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) (protocol) 344, 599, 621, 623 Hundegger K2i (hardware) 417 HWKN (architects) 602 Hylozoic Soil (work of art) 458 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) (programming/scripting language) 344, 345, 356, 378 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) (protocol) 344, 623 I IBM (International Business Machines) (company) 238, 341, 355, 356, 408, 552, 553, 554 IBM 701 (computer) 552 IBM Journal (publication) 552 ichnographia 699, 704, 705, 711 I-Dea (software) 65 IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) (international body or organisation) 239 IEEE 802.15.4 (standard) 620, 621 IFC (Industry Foundation Class) (standard) 379, 501, 510, 511, 519, 520 If This Then That 624 IFTTT (If This Then That) (software) 623, 624 IJP Architects (architects) 362, 400 illumination 259, 261, 262, 263, 264, 271, 484 illumination engineering 484 Illustrator (software) 74, 336, 495 image stitching 101 imperative programming language 375 Imperial College (institution) 494, 543 incompleteness theorems 556, 700 InDesign (software) 337 induction design 157, 221, 545 Industrie 4.0 (project or programme) 511 Industry 4.0 415 Industry Foundation Class (IFC) (standard) 379, 510, 511, 519, 520 Inertial Navigation System (INS) 102 infinite image theorem 116 infinite monkey theorem 116 Inkjet head 3-Dimensional Printing (3DP) 446, 449, 452 INS (Inertial Navigation System) 102 INSPIRE (Initiative Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) (project or programme) 501 Instagram (web service / app / platform) 294, 535, 626 Institute ISMES (institution) 211 Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (institution) 497 integrated processes 407, 414, 416 intelligent contact lens 625 Interaction Design Studio Ivrea (IDII) (project or programme) 619 interactive modelling 484 International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) (international body or organisation) 501, 511 International Committee for Information Technology Standards (international body or organisation) 333 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) (international body or organisation) 239 International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (international body or organisation) 239

International Style 512 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (working group / standard body) 621, 622 Internet Explorer (software) 356, 634 Internet of Humans 625 Internet of Things (IoT) 26, 378, 516, 534, 591, 613, 615 Internet Protocol (IP) (protocol) 621 interpolation 73, 74, 184, 197, 260, 409, 670 interpreter 354, 375, 384, 386, 387 iOS (software) 618, 624 IP address 622, 623, 624 IP (Internet Protocol) (protocol) 621, 622, 624 IPV6 621, 622, 624 I quattro libri dell’architettura (book or paper) 119 IrisVR (software) 470 irradiance map 264 I sette libri dell’architettura (book or paper) 711 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) (international body or organisation) 239, 334, 411, 501 isometric projection 66 isovist 539 isovist theory 539 Italy Liberated From the Goths (literary work) 119 J Jacquard loom 407, 417 Japan Electronic Industries Development Association (JEIDA) (organisation) 240 JavaScript (programming / scripting language) 345, 354, 355, 356, 357, 375, 377, 380, 381, 391, 394 JCL (Job Control Language) (programming / scripting language) 355 JDS (architects) 602, 603 JEIDA (Japan Electronic Industries Development Association) (organisation) 240 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) (organisation) 240 Jeopardy (TV show) 553 Job Control Language (JCL) (programming / scripting language) 355 Johnston Marklee (architects) 602 Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) (working group / standard body) 105, 239, 249 Josiah Macy Jr Foundation (organisation) 649 Jugendstil 158, 170 K

Kaisersrot (research group or project) 122, 164, 168, 172 Kalkbreite Zürich (association) 637 Kepler (software) 494 kernel 635 Kew Gardens (institution) 426, 435 Keyhole Inc (company) 496 Keyhole Markup Language (KML) (programming/scripting language) 500, 501 K-means clustering 560 KML (Keyhole Markup Language) (programming/scripting language) 500, 501 Koch curve 155 Koch snowflake 155, 156, 193 Kritios Boy (work of art) 576 Kuehn Malvezz (architects) 602 Kunstformen der Natur (book or paper) 145, 158, 170 L Laboratory for Visionary Architecture (LAVA) (architects) 121, 359, 362, 365, 366

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions

731


Labours of Love (article) 431 Lacaton & Vassal (architects) 113, 602 Lagrange polynomial 184, 186 Lambda calculus (programming/scripting language) 375, 376, 380, 388 Lambertian reflectance 259 Lambert’s cosine law 260 Lambert shading 259, 260 laminating 413 LAN (architects) 602 Land Information System (LIS) 496 Landscape with Pilgrim (work of art) 562, 577 LAN (Local Area Network) 620 Laplace’s demon 558 Large Hadron Collider (international body or organisation) 340, 619 Large Scale Urban Modelling (LSUM) 537, 538 Laser-DISTO (hardware) 292 laser rangefinder 97, 98, 100 laser scanning 102, 103, 107, 108, 516 LaserWriter (hardware) 334 Latin square 555, 556, 567 LAVA (Laboratory fo Visionary Architecture) (architects) 121, 359, 362, 365, 366 Lavazza (brand) 718 Law of Large Numbers (LLN) 568, 669 Lawrence Berkeley National Labs (LBNL) (institution) 271 layered texturing 270 LCD (Liquid-Crystal Display) 232, 233, 237, 238 Le carceri d’invenzione (book or paper) 468 Lego 67, 113, 134, 358, 470, 513, 524, 542 Lego Mindstorms (software) 358, 365 Leica Geosystems (company) 97 Leica M2 651 Le Monde (publication) 646 Les Misérables (play or musical) 655 Letraset 337, 449 Level of Development (LOD) 521, 522, 526 Level of Geometry (LOG) 521, 523 Level of Information (LOI) 521, 522, 523 Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil (book or paper) 655 library 66, 104, 134, 356, 385, 496, 512, 596 lidar 102 Life Magazine (publication) 555 light-cache 264 Lightscape (software) 308, 585 light simulation 483, 484, 486, 585 Lightwave (software) 171 Lincoln Laboratory (institution) 231 Lincoln TX-2 (computer) 231, 244 line of beauty 119 Linux (software) 430, 635 Lippincott’s Magazine (publication) 179 Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) 232, 233, 237, 238 Lisp (programming/scripting language) 375, 377 L’Italia liberata dai Goti (literary work) 119 LIVE Singapore! (project or programme) 491, 494 LLN (Law of Large Numbers) 568, 669 load shifting 625 Lobster Phone (work of art) 443 Local Area Network (LAN) 620 Locational Models, Geographic Information and Planning Support Systems (book or paper) 496 Location and Land Use (book or paper) 532 loft function 73 loft surface 73, 87 LOG (Level of Geometry) 521, 523 Logic Theorist (software) 554 Logitec (hardware) 377 Logo (programming/scripting language) 358, 365 LOI (Level of Information) 521, 522, 523 Lord of the Rings (literary work) 102 low-level programming 354 LSD-SLAM (Large Scale Direct Monocular Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping) 101 L-systems 156, 157, 159, 166

732

APPENDICES

M

Mac-OS (software) 334 MacBook Pro (hardware) 236 machine code 354, 375, 410 machine learning 414, 461, 469, 470, 486, 517, 518, 535, 536, 542, 549, 551, 552, 553, 554, 556, 558, 560, 561, 564, 565, 567, 568, 571, 573, 575 machine level programming 354 MAC (Media Access Control) layer 620 macro 131, 264, 355, 444, 538 macroscope 625 MacUser (publication) 341 Macy Foundation (organisation) 649 MAD (architects) 602 Made In (architects) 602 Made in China 2025 (project or programme) 511 Magic Cube 75, 90 MAGNETOMETER 102 Mail.Ru (company) 502 mainframe 231, 355, 376, 377, 378, 379, 396, 555, 556, 561 Maio (architects) 602, 603 Maison de la publicité (work of art) 300 MakerBot Industries (company) 442 maker culture 430, 442 makerspace 430, 433 Making Sense of the New Urban Science (institution) 529, 531 Manchester Mark 1 (computer) 355, 552 manifold 36, 166, 185, 294, 486, 511, 653 MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) 620 Maperitive (software) 494, 495, 502 Maps (software) 494, 502, 536 Maps.Me (software) 502 Markov chain 188, 205, 564, 571 markup language 139, 336, 344, 377, 378, 394, 500, 501, 511, 537 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (institution) 153, 231, 358, 407, 442, 494, 536, 552, 634 mass customisation 80, 407 MASS Design Group (architects) 602, 603 materiability (concept) 430, 437 Mathematica (software) 424, 483, 549, 551, 552, 555, 562, 563, 567, 570 Mathlab (programming/scripting language) 381 MathWorks (company) 162 MATLAB (software) 162 MATSim (software) 538 Mattel (company) 443 Maxwell Render (software) 288 Maxwell’s demon 563, 564, 578 Maya (software) 65, 409 Maya/Alias (software) 65 MayBim (software) 638 McDonald’s (brand) 718, 720 Media Access Control (MAC) 620, 621 mesh routing 622 metaball 160, 171, 222 meta-materiality 430 Metro (architects) 602 metropolis light transport 263 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 620 Michell truss 223 Microscribe (software) 106 Microsoft (company) 138, 237, 240, 334, 335, 336, 341, 348, 356, 469, 470, 494, 519, 535, 634 Microsoft MS-DOS (software) 356 MicroStation (software) 65, 137, 358 MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) 356 Mindstorms Robotics Kits (software) 358 Minecraft (software) 67, 470, 540 mipmapping 261 Mirai (malware) 625 Mixed Reality (MR) 66, 103, 431, 465, 681, 682, 683, 684, 685, 686, 687, 688, 689, 690 MKUltra (project or programme) 648 mocárabe 99 Modelica (programming/scripting language) 486 modelling 477, 481, 485, 486, 501, 502, 513, 514, 515, 516, 518, 522, 523, 537, 538, 540, 571

modelling for acoustical materials 480 modelling for active noise control 480 modelling for outdoor sound propagation 480 Modelling Multiple Views on Buildings – Automation in Construction (book or paper) 512 modernity 77, 100, 121, 197, 204, 292, 426, 444, 636, 703, 709 module 120, 125, 172, 356, 407, 414 modulo operator 179 modulor function 119, 120, 155, 357, 664 Mojang Specifications (company) 470 Mona Lisa (work of art) 116, 117 Monadology (book or paper) 702 monoalphabetic substitution 663 Monotype Grotesque (font) 341 Monotype Typography (company) 341 Moore’s law 558, 619 morphogenesis 145, 155, 158, 159, 164, 166 MOS (architects) 602 mote 623 motion capture 101, 102, 471 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (organisation) 634 Moves (software) 500 MS-DOS (software) 336, 348, 356 Mufuti (Multifunktionstisch) 120 multi-image photogrammetry 97, 100, 101, 217, 270, 310 Multi-Jet Printing (MJP) 446, 447 multiple access protocol 621 Museo Nazionale (institution) 425 Museum of Estonian Architecture (institution) 221 Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) 356 My Fair Lady (film and stage musical) 552 N Nagata Acoustics (company) 428, 481, 489 Nameless (architects) 602 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) (government agency or body) 231, 443, 496, 502, 635 NASA WorldWind (software) 496, 502 National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (organisation) 497 National Institute of Building Sciences in the United States (organisation) 509 National Security Agency (NSA) (government agency or body) 646, 653 National Technical University of Greece (institution) 532 National Theatre (institution) 424, 517 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) (international body or organisation) 652 naturalised form 195 Natural Language Processing (NLP) 551, 552, 556 Natura morta (Still Life) (work of art) 309 Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte (book or paper) 158 Navigator (software) 356, 634 NavVis (hardware ) 102, 108 Nemetschek Allplan (software) 65 network layer 621 network solidarity 625 Neue Haas Grotesk (font) 341 Neufert (book or paper) 111, 120 Neural Networks (NN) 165 New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) (institution) 261 New York University (NYU) (institution) 531, 543 Niantic (company) 497 Nike (brand) 718 Nineteen Eighty-Four (literary work) 470, 645 Ninsight (company) 486 Nintendo (company) 467, 497 NLP (Natural Language Processing) 551, 552, 556 node 603, 615, 618, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, 624, 625

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions


nonce 674, 675 non-Euclidian geometry 185, 186 non-standard architecture 430 Normenausschuss der Deutschen Industrie (working group / standard body) 334 Norwegian Computing Centre (institution) 377 Notes on the Synthesis of Form (book or paper) 111, 162 Numerical Control (NC) 408, 412, 446 NURBS curve 73 NURBS (Non-Univorm Rational B-Spline) 74, 134, 185, 197, 363, 489 NURBS surface 74 Nymphéas (work of art) 564, 579 O Objectile (company) 430 objective probability 665 Oculus Rift (hardware) 467, 469, 470 Odeon (software) 481 Office KGDVS (architects) 602, 603 OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) (working group / standard body) 501, 537 Ola (company) 493 Olivetti (company) 329, 347 Omniclass (standard) 522 On Growth and Form (book or paper) 145, 158, 170 On the Art of Building (book or paper) 95, 699, 711 On the Fabric of the Human Body in Seven Books (book or paper) 576 On the Gradual Formation of Thought Through Conversation (book or paper) 131 On the Harmony of the Whole World (book or paper) 118 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (book or paper) 145, 147 One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (film & book) 647 One to One (company) 482, 489 OOPEAA (architects) 602 Opendesk (project or programme) 637 OpenFOAM (software) 485 Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) (working group / standard body) 501, 537 OpenOffice (software) 231, 337, 519 OpenOffice Calc (software) 519 open-source model 272, 634 open source software 356, 636 open-source-software movement 634 OpenStreetMap (software) 491, 494, 495, 499, 502, 505, 536 Open Street Map Foundation (OSMF) (organisation) 494 operating system 330, 334, 335, 336, 341, 355, 356, 430, 470, 496, 617, 618, 621, 624, 635 optimisation 122, 147, 148, 152, 162, 163, 164, 167, 201, 219, 483, 487, 511, 541, 542 optimisation algorithm 162, 164 Oration on the Dignity of Man (book or paper) 29, 42 orthogonal projection 132 orthographia 379, 380, 699, 704, 705, 711, 716 orthographic projection 60, 267 orthoimaging 101 oscilloscope 231, 287 OS X (software) 336, 618 Out of Control (book or paper) 535 Oxford Dictionaries (publication) 257, 695 Oxford University (institution) 618 P page description language PageMaker (software) PageRank (software) Pages (software)

APPENDICES

334 335, 337 188, 565, 624 231, 337

Palladian (architecture, design) 111, 119, 126, 145, 169 Palladis Tamia (literary work) 659 Paperhouses 637 parallax mapping 267 parametric design 181, 202, 203, 204, 351, 359, 363, 401, 428, 480, 489, 637 parametric grammar 157 parametricism 64, 139, 165, 166 parametric modeller 362 parametric modelling 60, 61, 64, 361, 362, 424, 428, 480, 513 parametric object 137 parametrisation 61, 359, 361, 362 PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) (institution) 246 Pareto efficiency 163 Pareto frontier 163 Pareto optimality 163 Pareto set 163 Parsons Corporation (company) 408, 417 particle-spring systems 145, 160 particle system 159, 160, 171 Pascal (programming/ scripting language) 375, 376, 390, 395 path tracing 263 PCA (Principal Component Analysis) 560 PDF (Portable Document Format) (format) 335, 336, 338, 345, 356, 359, 570 PDP-11/70 (hardware) 417 Peano curve 193 PEARL (Process and Experiment Automation Realtime Language) (programming/scripting language) 356 Penn State College of Arts and Architecture (institution) 64 perfect diffusion 259 performance capture 102 performance simulation 163, 475, 478, 480, 484 performance space 117, 118 Perl (programming/scripting language) 351, 354, 356, 358, 360 perspective projection 185, 186, 203, 292, 672 pervasive computing 615 Petri net 376 phenotype 178, 202, 203 Phong E shading 261 Phong shading 260, 261, 274, 275 photogrammetry 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 105, 217, 270, 310, 496, 516 Photometria (book or paper) 255, 260 photometry 260 photon mapping 263, 264 Photoshop (software) 235, 241, 288, 292, 297, 300, 336, 495, 502, 519 PHP (programming/scripting language) 354, 356, 377 physical (PHY) layer 621 Piers Plowman (literary work) 646 pipe surface 73, 87 Pixar Studios (company) 269 pixel 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 243, 245, 259, 260, 261, 262, 267, 275, 292, 295, 296, 298, 305 PixelSense (software) 138 plain text file (TXT) 231 Plan B (architects) 602, 606 Planning Support System (PSS) 496 Plastic Jet Printing (PJP) 446, 447, 448 Platonic solid 69, 70, 80 plotter display 231 point cloud 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 108, 217, 270, 310, 516 PointSense Heritage (software) 217 Pokémon Go (software) 497 pole-vertice 269 polyalphabetic substitution 663, 677 polygon mesh 445 polygon net 74 polygons (PLY) (format) 189 polynomial 184, 186, 197, 669 Portable Document Format (PDF) (format) 335, 336, 338, 345, 356, 359, 570 postmodern architecture 379 post processor 411 PostScript (software) 74, 327, 334, 335

Power of Ten (film) 155 PowerPoint (software) 336 PPI (Pixels per Inch) 235 Preston Scott Cohen (architects) 409 primitive solid 68 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) 560 print driver 334, 335 Problem Solving as Information Processing (book or paper) 116 procedural disturbances 267 procedural geometric transformation 270 Procedural Inc (company) 158 procedural modelling 157, 159, 160, 221, 361, 539, 540, 541 procedural textures 267, 279 Processing 478, 479, 482, 484, 516, 551, 553, 556, 558, 572 process map 522 Procter & Gamble (P&G) (company) 615 production system 64, 512 Pro/Engineer (software) 65 profilograph 429, 437 Programming Language Pragmatics (book or paper) 351, 381 projective geometry 132, 204 Project Ocean (project or programme) 654 project plan 132 ProtoGeo (company) 500 pseudo-3D 63 PTW Architects (architects) 82, 219 Pygmalion (play or musical) 552 Pythagorean theorem 184 Python (programming/ scripting language) 354, 358, 359, 375, 377, 380, 381 Q

QGIS (software) 496, 502, 536 quadrivium 379 qualification problem 558 Quantum GIS (software) 496, 536 Quark Software (company) 337 QuarkXPress (software) 337 Queen’s College Cork (institution) 551 QWERTY keyboard 133, 330, 347 R

R1 (software) 556, 557 RAAAF (architects) 602 Radar CH (software) 289 Radiance (software) 271 radiance approximation 263 Radio Echo Sounding (RES) 103 Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) 616, 618 radiosity 262, 263, 275, 287, 308 RAM (Random Access Memory) 552 rapid manufacturing 407 rapid prototyping 377, 514 Raspberry Pi 3 Model B (hardware) 565 raster graphics 232, 235, 237, 248, 441 raw format 238 ray casting 261 ray tracing 261, 262, 287, 288, 481 RCR (architects) 602 Really Universal Computer Aided Production System (RUCAPS) (software) 512 recursion 155, 156, 157, 159, 168, 390 regular solid 69, 71 regular surface 72, 74, 75, 281 reinforcement learning 553 Remington (company) 329, 330 Renaissance 34, 35, 39, 42, 45, 49, 60, 95, 100, 119, 120, 121, 123, 137, 139, 184, 185, 187, 203, 204, 340, 372, 373, 379, 408, 421, 423, 425, 428, 429, 432, 443, 467, 559, 560, 565, 576, 653, 660, 662, 672, 699, 701, 705, 709, 711, 714, 715 Renaissance Man 34, 35, 95, 372 rendering 19, 71, 100, 122, 134, 135, 156, 160, 169, 185, 186, 190, 195, 203, 221, 222, 387, 390, 466, 478, 481, 567, 600 RepRap Research Foundation (institution) 442

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions

733


Retina Display 236 Revit (software) 139, 358, 523, 638 rewriting system 156, 157 REX (architects) 602 RFID Journal (publication) 615 RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) 616, 618 RGB (Red Green Blue) 237, 239, 304 Rhinoceros 3D (software) 61, 65, 159, 181, 209, 353, 358, 359, 637 Rhinoceros Grasshopper (software) 61, 65, 159, 161, 166, 181, 209, 351, 353, 358, 359, 362, 366, 380, 480, 488, 541, 637, 638 Rhinoscript (programming /  scripting language) 359 Rhino (software) RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) (institution) 177 Rich Text Format (RTF) (format) 336 Riemannian geometry 185 rigid body dynamics 268 Robocasting 448 Robofold (company) 429 Rodin Centre for Transportation & Policy Management (institution) 531 Rojkind (architects) 602 RoomScan (software) 109 Rotis (font) 342 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) 622, 623 Royal Academy of Arts (institution) 524 Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (institution) 426 Royal Horticultural Society (institution) 426 Royal Institute of British Architects (institution) 177 RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) (protocol) 622 R&Sie(n) (architects) 113 RTF (Rich Text Format) (format) 336 Ruby (programming /  scripting language) 354, 377 ruled surface 72, 86 R.U.R (play or musical) 414 S saddle surface 72, 86 Salford University (institution) 480 SANAA (Sejima and Nishizawa and Associates) (architects) 88, 360, 367, 602 scaenographia 379, 380, 699, 700, 704, 712, 716 scanner 97, 102, 134, 234, 235, 238, 247, 345, 445, 553 School of the Art Institute of Chicago (institution) 429 Science, Industry and Art (book or paper) 421, 426 SCL Group (company) 653 Scott and Linton Shipbuilders (company) 409 screw surface 72, 73, 87 script 61, 67, 77, 118, 161, 354, 356, 357, 359, 360, 361, 371, 372, 373, 411, 541 scripting language 149, 354, 355, 356, 358, 377, 637 SeArch (architects) 602 Selective Laser Melting (SLM) 447, 448 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 446, 448 Self-Organising Map (SOM) 572 self-organising system 154 Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (work of art) 722 self-similarity 155 SelgasCano (architects) 602, 603 Sentiment Cocoon (installation) 535, 544 sequential analysis 647 Serie Architects (architects) 602 servomechanism 409 SETP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data) (standard) 510 set theory 114, 116, 117 Seven Books on Architecture (book or paper) 709, 711, 720, 721 Seven Liberal Arts 379 Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 69

734

APPENDICES

shading 131, 242, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 266, 269, 270, 271, 274, 275 shadow mapping 261 Shannon number 553 shapefile format 495, 496 shape grammar 64, 65, 80, 119, 145, 157, 158, 159, 540, 541, 557, 575 shell 72, 75, 222, 355, 377 Side Effects Software (company) 166 SimCity (software) 67, 537 Simula 67 (programming /  scripting language) 377 Simulacra and Simulation (book or paper) 469 Simula I (programming /  scripting language) 377 Simulationstechnik (event/exhibition) 223 singularity 713 sintering 414, 446, 447, 448 Siri (software) 553 Sketchpad (software) 62, 231, 244, 258, 468, 512 SketchUp (software) 65, 142, 470, 502, 522, 637 Skizoid (work of art) 173 Skype (web service / app / platform) 631, 633 slicer 446, 458 Smalltalk (programming /  scripting language) 375, 377 smart city 534, 616 Smart City Wien (project or programme) 534 smart environment 616 smart eyes 625 smart home 616 SMART (Shimizu Manufacturing System by Advanced Robotics Technology) 414 Snøhetta (architects) 602, 603, 636 Snow Crash (literary work) 496 So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright 122 social sustainability 517 Soft Architecture Machines (book or paper) 229, 536 soft body dynamics 268, 270 Softimage (software) 409 Software Development Kit (SDK) 496 solar analysis 539 solid CAD model 445 solid model 68, 75 solid modeller 198, 362 solid modelling 65, 68, 159 solid transformation 70 solution space 117, 118 Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence (book or paper) 558 Some Studies in Machine Learning Using the Game Checkers (book or paper) 552 SOM (Self-Organising Map) 572 SOM (Skidmore Owings Merrill) (architects) 64, 113, 409 Sonnets (literary work) 659 Sony (company) 625 sound pixel rendering 481 source code 337, 407, 496, 634, 635 space syntax 188, 209 Space Syntax (software) 188, 539 Spartan Air Services (company) 493 Spatial Concepts in GIS and Design (event/exhibition) 497 spatial configuration 76, 540, 541 spatial economy 531 Special Interest Group 3D (SIG 3D) (working group / standard body) 501 specular highlights 260, 261, 275 spherical geometry 185 spline 65, 73, 74, 185, 186, 197, 198 Sputnik 1 650 SRI International (company) 62 Standard (architects) 602 Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) (standard) 510 Standard Positioning Service (SPS) 502 Stanford bunny 189, 196, 201, 210 Stanford Research Institute (SRI) (company) 62 Stanford University (institution) 189, 514, 539, 553, 647 StarOffice (software) 337

stereolithographic 3D printing 442 stereolithography 442, 443, 446, 447, 449, 459 stereophotogrammetry 96, 97, 98, 100 stereoscopic motion tracking 102 STL file (format) 446 stochastic 562, 568, 569 stochastic grammar 157 Stratasys Inc (company) 447 Strava (web service / app / platform) 494, 495, 500 Strava’s Cycling App Is Helping Cities Build Better Bike Lanes (article) 500 structural simulation 482, 483 Structure From Motion (SFM) 101 structure sensor 103, 104, 109 STUDENT (software) 555 Stuttgart University (institution) 455 subdivision tree 540 subpixel rendering 237 sub-surface scattering 268, 280 subtractive colour model 237 Summer Exhibition (event/exhibition) 524 Sun Microsystems (company) 337 Sunroof (project or programme) 539 Supermachine Studio (architects) 602 superstatistics 560 Superstudio (architects) 707 surface model 71, 75, 445 surface modelling 68, 269 surface normal 71, 75, 85, 260, 267, 275 surface transformation 75, 84 Sustainable Development Goals (book or paper) 533 Swedish Institute of Computer Science (institution) 618 Swift (software) 359, 400 Sword of Damocles (hardware) 467, 468 symbol library 134, 137 symmetrical encryption 667 synchronous communication 632 synergetics 427 Synesthesia Pharma-Huasca (work of art) 577 synthesis barrier 116 systems programming 355 systems theory 47, 649 T tacheometer 98 tacheometry 98, 100, 218 tachymeter 98, 102 Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) (format) 239 tame problem 115, 162, 163, 542 Tango (software) 536 tatami mat 120, 126 Tcl (programming/scripting language) 377 Team Mazzanti (architects) 602 Technical University Munich (institution) 101, 542 Tekla 637 teleprinter 231 teletype 331 Ten Books on Architecture (book or paper) 166, 425 Terravision (software) 496 tessellation map 268 Tetris (software) 244 TextArt (software) 449 texture mapping 190, 261, 266, 267, 269, 279 TFT LCD (Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display) 232 Tham & Videgård (architects) 602 The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants (book or paper) 145 The Analysis of Beauty (book or paper) 118 The Apprentice (TV show) 137 The Architecture Machine (book or paper) 145, 536, 540 The Ballad of East and West (literary work) 235 The Big Bang Theory (TV sitcom) 163 The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design (book or paper) 145, 147

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions


The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis (book or paper) 145, 159 The Daily Telegraph (publication) 615 The Dark Knight (film) 717 The Delineation of Rome (book or paper) 105 The Digital Earth: Understanding Our Planet in the 21st Century (talk) 493 The Draughtsman’s Contract (film) 465, 472 The Elements (book or paper) 700 The Figthing Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berth to Be Broken Up (work of art) 257, 306 The Flying Dutchmen (book or paper) 64 The Four Books on Architecture (book or paper) 119 The Four Elements of Architecture (book or paper) 421, 426 The Geometry of Bubbles and Foams (book or paper) 70 The Great Western Railway (work of art) 563, 578 The Guardian (publication) 431, 494, 646 The Harmony of the World (book or paper) 155 The History of Creation (book or paper) 158 The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (literary work) 554 The Imaginary Prisons (book or paper) 468 The Incandescent (book or paper) 705 The Isolated State (book or paper) 531 The Laws of Simplicity (book or paper) 359 The Laws of Thought (book or paper) 375, 549, 551, 554 The Making of Architecture (event/exhibition) 113 The Mathematical Analysis of Logic (book or paper) 70 The Matrix (film) 469, 563, 579 The Music Lesson or Lady at the Virginals With a Gentleman (work of art) 306 The Net – The Unabomber, LSD and the Internet (film) 648 The New York Times (publication) 646 theodolite 97, 98, 99, 100, 217 Theoria musica 125 Theory of Semiotics (book or paper) 293 The Oxyrhynchus Papyrus (object) 718 The Palladian Grammar (book or paper) 111, 169 The Prisons (publication) 468 The Radiant City (book or paper) 532 The Republic (book or paper) 667 thermal imaging 101 thermography 101, 218 The Rocky Horror Show (play or musical) 559 The Shock of the New (TV series) 532 The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (literary work) 137 The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered (book or paper) 179 The Technocrat (work of art) 125 The Third Man (film & book) 340 The Very Many (company) 64, 217 The Washington Post (publication) 646 Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display 232 ThingMaker (hardware) 443 Thinking by Modeling (event/exhibition) 427 This Is Your Digital Life (software) 653 Thread (protocol) 622 three-quarter perspective 63 Thünen rings (concept) 531, 532 TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) (format) 239 tilt shift 241, 264, 265, 308 time domain boundary element modelling 480 Time of Flight (TOF) 103 time-sharing system 355 Times New Roman (font) 341, 342 time trace 481, 583 tipi tent 140 tone mapping 307 topological space 185 topology 159, 160, 161, 166, 168, 269, 280, 281, 283, 310, 496, 498, 499, 501, 540, 541 topology optimisation 160, 161, 166 Total City (concept) 427

APPENDICES

Towards a New Architecture (book or paper) 68 Toy Story (film) 263 Track Me if You Plan! (project or programme) 500, 588 transformation process 413, 532, 533 translation surfaces 72 triangulation 70, 74, 97, 200, 217, 500 trilateration 500 Trimble (company) 63, 502 Trimble Connect (software) 637 trivium 379 true colour 233, 238 Trust Network Analysis (TNA) 222 truth value 70 Turing machine 205, 329, 373, 374, 382, 384, 385, 387, 551, 552, 647 Turing test 551, 553, 559 TWAIN (working group /  standard body) 235, 247 Twitter (company) 535, 619, 624 txtBomber (hardware) 619 typology 120 U U3D (Universal 3D) 336 UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) 102, 108 Uber (company) 493, 494, 499, 504, 533, 534, 549 Über die allmähliche Verfertigung der Gedanken beim Reden (book or paper) 131 ubiquitous computing 479, 536, 561, 615, 617, 625, 629 Udacity (company) 553 UHD (Ultra High Definition) 236 Ultimate Display (hardware) 468, 469 Ultra High Definition (UHD) 236 UML (Unified Modelling Language) 376 unbiased global illumination 263, 264 unbiased rendering 263 Underweysung der Messung, mit dem Zirckel und Richtscheyt, in Linien, Ebenen und gantzen corporen (book or paper) 212 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (international body or organisation) 415, 426, 532, 616 Uniclass 522 Unicode 330, 333 Unicode Transformation Format (UTF) 333 Unified Modelling Language (UML) (programming/scripting language) 376 Uniform Resource Locator (URL) 623 Unigraphics (software) 65 United States Ballistics Research Laboratory (government agency or body) 374 Unity (software) 470 Universal 3D (U3D) 336 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 654 Universal Transmercator (UTM) 502 Univers (font) 342 University College Cork (institution) 551 University College London (UCL) (institution) 494, 539, 543 University of California (institution) 497, 648 University of Cincinnati (institution) 121 University of Helsinki (institution) 635 University of Kaiserslautern (institution) 500 University of Karlsruhe (institution) 157 University of Liverpool (institution) 512 University of Michigan (institution) 288, 488 University of Oxford (institution) 147 University of Paris-Diderot (institution) 219 University of Rostock (institution) 497 University of Southern California (institution) 427 University of Utah (institution) 258, 260, 263, 269 University of Washington (institution) 101 Unix (software) 65, 356, 635 Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) 108 Unreal Engine (software) 470 UNStudio (architects) 64, 78, 79, 409, 485

up-vector 264 urban 3D model 536, 537 Urban 5: A Machine That Discusses Urban Design (book or paper) 536 urban heat island 539 urban morphological analysis 538 urban morphology 538 UrbanSim (software) 537, 538 urban simulation 537, 538, 540 Urban Think Thank (architects) 602 URL (Uniform Resource Locator) 623 US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USA-CERL) (government agency or body) 496 Utah teapot 263, 275 UTF (Unicode Transformation Format) 333 Uto Collective (company) 486 UV coordinates 267 UV mapping 71, 190 UV-unwrap 267, 269 V

VAX (hardware) 556 VCR (Videocassette Recording) 652 VDU (Visual Display Unit) 232, 355 vector algebra 65 vector displacement maps 268 vector graphics 232, 237, 248 vector monitor 232, 237, 245 Vectorworks (software) 65, 143, 470 Vers une architecture (book or paper) 68 vertex 69, 70, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 188, 189, 196, 198, 202, 539 VGA (Video Graphics Array) 233 VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) 493 VHS (Video Home System) 330 Vico (software) 638 Victoria University of Manchester (institution) 552 Video Indexer (web service / app / platform) 535 Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion (book or paper) 421, 429 viewing frustum 264 Vigenère cipher 663 Virtual Boy (hardware) 467 virtual photography 264, 293, 294 Virtual Reality (VR) 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471 Virtual Reality (VR) photography 293 Virtual Singapore (project or programme) 537, 544 Visual Display Unit (VDU) 232, 355 Visual Programming Language (VPL) (programming/scripting language) 366 Vitruvian Man (work of art) 120 Vive (hardware) 469, 470 Voigt-Kampff test 551 volumetric path tracing 263 Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) 493 von Neumann architecture 373, 374, 649, 650, 711 Voronoi diagram 161 Voronoi tessellation 161 VPL (Visual Programming Language) (programming/scripting language) 366 VR photography 293 W W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) (working group / standard body) 345 Wang (hardware) 336 Watson (software) 553 Waymo (company) 553 WBS 70 120 Weaire-Phelan structure 70 Web 2.0 638 WebOCR (web service / app / platform) 345 Web of Things 623, 624 Web VR (software) 469 Weebly (web service / app / platform) 345 WeTransfer (web service / app / platform) 633

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions

735


WGS 84 502 white space 339, 340 Whither Design Space (book or paper) 541 Whole Earth Catalogue (publication) 648 wicked problem 114, 115, 118, 162, 164, 542 WikiHouse 408, 637, 640 WikiLeaks (publication) 646, 676 Wikipedia (web service / app / platform) 12, 47, 156, 260, 353, 494, 534, 553, 560, 634, 636, 652, 695 Willobie His Avisa (literary work) 659 Windows (software) 240, 249, 334, 335, 336, 337, 341, 348, 396, 496, 510, 618, 634 Wired magazine (publication) 113, 493, 500, 535 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) 620 Wissenschaft, Industrie und Kunst (book or paper) 421, 426 Wix (web service / app / platform) 345 WOHA (architects) 602 Wohnungsbauserie 70 120 Wolfram Language (programming / scripting language) 363 Wolfram Research (company) 363 Wolkenbügel (work of art) 302 Woman’s Own (publication) 651 WordPerfect (software) 336, 348 WordPress (web service / app / platform) 345 Word (software) 336 World Geodetic System (WGS) 502 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (working group / standard body) 345, 377, 501 WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) 620, 622 Writer (software) 337 WYSIWYG 136, 137, 337, 344 X

xBIM (eXtensible Building Information Modelling) (software) 519 XCON (eXpert CONfigurer) (software) 556 xerography 234 Xerox Alto (hardware) 246 Xerox (company) 234, 333 XFrog (software) 157, 220 XML (Extensible Markup Language) (programming/scripting language) 139, 336, 377, 394, 537 XML Paper Specification (XPS) 336 XML standard (standard) 377 XPS (XML Paper Specification) 336 XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) (programming/scripting language) 394 Z Z-buffering 259 zero-player game 152 ZigBee (protocol) 620, 622, 623 ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medien) Karlsruhe (institution) 427 Z resolution 446 ZUS (Zones Urbaines Sensibles) (architects) 637, 640 Z-Wave (protocol) 259, 622

736

APPENDICES

Index of Terms, Companies, Software, Publications, Institutions