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Mono Material Monolithic Homogeneous and  Circular Construction

Till Boettger and Ulrike Knauer (Eds.)

Birkhäuser Basel
Contents Complex Thinking, Simple Design Preface Nils Nolting Materials Mono-Materiality and Homogeneity Concepts for a New Form of Expression The History of Mono-Materials Architectures with Homogeneous Construction Techniques Monochrome Diagrams Tools for Architectural Analysis Locations Map of Projects Earth Casa de Tapia Tipu Sultan Merkez School 8 12 16 20 22 26 32
38 44 50 56 62 70 76 82 88 94 100 106 A School for Korase Library of Muyinga Zenkonyu x Tamping Earth Education Center Nyanza Monolithic Architectures Interview Pepe Marquez Timber Tannau Forestry and Hunting Service Building Origen Tower Kindergarten Lugano Olpererhütte Mountain Refuge Timber house House b – burnt Universal Design Quarter: Woodie
Brick Kolumba Ravensburg Art Gallery Casa de Ladrillos Casa Norberto Alorda Termitary House Support and Insulation Interview Arno Richter Concrete Gartmann House 114 120 126 132 138 144 152
Recycled Materials Hiža Cottage The Resource Rows Apartment No. 1 Casa 1413 The Parchment Works Hirzenbach School Complex Cork House Representations 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204

Monochrome Diagrams Tools for Architectural Analysis Till Boettger

The following graphic analyses are a continuation of various treatments of space and architecture and are designed to highlight particularities of architectural concepts and to make them accessible for new considerations. The publications Architecture and Space1 and Threshold Spaces2 exemplify this condensed approach. The method of analysis was further developed in the context of architecture courses in presentation and design3 at the Faculty for Building and Preservation of the HAWK, Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst (University of Applied Sciences and Arts) Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen. Fine-tuning the terminology and hierarchies for a complex perspective on architecture unfolded a matrix. Through deduction and abstraction, diagrammatic drawings are developed at various levels (scales) for individual complementary aspects (parameters). The scales city and country, building and form and space and detail form the levels of analysis for any architecture and at the same time clarify our position as humans in relation to the architecture. When we consider architecture from above or, more precisely, from a distance, then we plan or evaluate along the scale of city and country. Along the axis building and form, the building is viewed as a cohesive structure and presents its inner dependencies along with its associated external presence in context. For our perception of and physical connection to architecture, our inner and direct position is paramount. This level touches on the aspects of space and detail.

On each of the scales, the parameters location, delimitation, sequence, geometry, function and materiality provide for a systematic analysis. Abstract monochromatic diagrams can highlight the definitive aspects of the selected architectures. The architectures, with their complex logic, become legible through the focused perspective of the parameters in abstract diagrams. The location reveals connections and contiguities and asks about the place. Delimitation shows how space is created, that is, how the inside is separated from the outside and, for example, how walls are opened. The one-after-another of perceptible spaces becomes transparent in the sequence, the chronology of relationships between moving on and lingering. An analysis of the geometry demonstrates the form and its associated organization. The representations of the parameter function show the organized activities and their spatial implementation through to the level of furnishings. Addressing materiality elucidates a perception and a comprehension of the structure and creates a notion of haptic experiences to come. The terms listed here become search criteria for analytic processes

1Egon Schirmbeck, Till Boettger, and Christian Hanke, Architecture and Space: Design Concepts in the Twentieth Century (Berlin: DOM, 2011).

2Till Boettger, Threshold Spaces: Transitions in Architecture: Analysis and Design Tools (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2014).

3Till Boettger, professor of presentation and design, Faculty of Architecture, Engineering and Conservation at the HAWK (University of Applied Sciences and Arts) Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen.

20 Materials

and, in this context, ultimately labels for a comparative analysis. The contemporary architectural works chosen for this book have a solid, monolithic and mono-material focus. For the use of earth, timber, brick and recycled materials, sketches sorted according to the parameters present their inherent concepts. For concrete and insulating concrete, the analysis is deliberately based on models and photos of models. The Gartmann house in Chur is shown, which can be considered representative of this construction technique. The presentations attempt to establish the great material thickness of the exterior walls through the effect of light and shadows in order to highlight the changed expression of structures with insulating concrete as opposed to concrete construction without insulating properties. Furthermore, numerous and very comprehensive publications that deal with this topic in constructive terms already exist. These make graphic representations superfluous.

For the examination of the topic of mono-materials, particular attention is paid to the parameters of materiality, delimitation and geometry in order to better understand the new conceptual designs. In support of this search, master’s seminars in architecture were held from the summer semester of 2017 to the summer semester of 2022 at the Faculty of Architecture, Engineering and Conservation. Various innovative mono-material building techniques were investigated. The individual parameters helped on various levels to reveal the specific aspects of contemporary mono-material creation of space and building techniques. The goal is to analyze whether the new approach to homogeneous materials in the architectural context has led to changes in building culture in various locations, with exemplary, typical construction techniques and characteristic features. In addition, cross-comparison will be possible if the parameters guide the investigation as it moves from one architectural example to the next. Particularities and slight distinctions become apparent. The hope is that the graphic analyses will provide the traditional understanding of the terms solid, monolithic and mono-material in the context of construction materials with a new foundation for discourse. Ultimately, the reflections based on analytic representations should make the specific use of materials visible and the transfer of conceptual approaches possible.

21 Materials Monochrome Diagrams

Locations Map of Projects

22 01 07 13 14 12 15 19 16 17 09 08 10 20 22 25 21 24 26 23 11 03 06 04


01Casa de Tapia

02Tipu Sultan Merkez School

03A School for Korase

04Library of Muyinga

05Zenkonyu x Tamping Earth

06Education Center Nyanza


07Tannau Forestry and Hunting Service Building

08Origen Tower

09Kindergarten Lugano

10Olpererhütte Mountain Refuge

11Timber house

12House b – burnt

13Universal Design Quarter: Woodie



15Ravensburg Art Gallery

16Casa de Ladrillos

17Casa Norberto Alorda

18Termitary House


19Gartmann House

Recycling Massiv

20Hiža Cottage

21The Resource Rows

22Apartment No. 1

23Casa 1413

24The Parchment Works

25Hirzenbach School Complex

26Cork House

23 02 05 18
Locations Materials
24 Scale Parameter Casa de Tapia Tipu Sultan Merkez School City and Country Location 26 32 Building and Form Delimitation 27, 29 33 Sequence Geometry 27 34, 35 Materiality 28 Space and Detail Materiality 30, 31 36, 37 Delimitation


A School for Korase Library of MuyingaZenkonyu x Tamping EarthEducation Center Nyanza 38 44 50 56 39 45 57, 58 46 52 58 39 51, 53 59 40, 41 46, 47 54 42, 43 49 55 60, 61 48

Casa de Tapia, 2014


Ayerbe, Spain

Location Figure-ground diagram

1:5000 City and Country
Krumbein & Baris Bakir Standort Schwarzplan mit Höhenlinien M
km0 Function Residential Climate Tropical, Mediterranean
Topographic placement
Edra Arquitectura

Raumproportionen und -gliederung Das Gebäude ohne Schnitt dargestellt.

Raumproportionen und -gliederung Das Gebäude ohne Schnitt dargestellt.

Raumproportionen und -gliederung

Raumproportionen und -gliederung

Delimitation Axonometric Built structures

Geometry Sectional axonometric Spatial structure

Lehm monolithisch Sonderform der Darstellung

Lehm monolithisch Sonderform der Darstellung

Building and Form Earth


Für die Deckenkonstruktionen sind Kappendecke, Holzbalkendecke und Sparren genutzt.

Materiality Section

Spatial profile

28 Katinka Krumbein & Baris Bakir
Building and
Rafter roof Wooden beam ceiling Vaulted ceiling Casa de Tapia

Delimitation Exploded axonometric Solid creation of space

29 Lehm monolithisch Sonderform der Darstellung Building and Form Earth
30 Lehm monolithisch Sonderform der Darstellung Fassadenschnitt durch Ö nungen 01 02 03 04 05 07 06 08 09 10 09 11 12 13 06 14 15 16 15 17 18 19 Space and Detail Casa de Tapia 01 Concrete foundation 02 Concrete base slab 03 Concrete surface 04 Solid concrete wall 05 Reinforced concrete beam between basement and ground floor, natural cork insulation 06 Sawn pine 07 Beams of sawn pine 08 Pine flooring 09 Lime mortar 10 Mixture of straw and earth 11 Window sill of burnt clay 12 Wooden shutters 13 Wooden window frames with double glazing 14Gutter 15 Wooden plank 16 20 cm lamb’s wool insulation 17 Air-permeable metal sheet 18 Ceramic tiles 19 Sawn timber – pine Materiality Facade section Construction elements

Materiality Sectional axonometric Wall/roof junction

31 Materialität, Masse und Poren Isometrie Bauweise Detail als Ecke Space and Detail Earth

Education Center Nyanza, 2010

Nyanza, Rwanda

Architecture Dominikus Stark Architekten Function Educational Climate Tropical, equatorial City and Country
Location Figure-ground diagram Topographic placement
57 Building and Form Earth Delimitation Axonometric Creation of space


Sinha Witzke & Kaja Lamping

Begrenzung: Wegeführung

Sequence Floor plan

Circulation patterns

Lehm monolithisch

Sonderform der Darstellung MAV 05

Delimitation Floor plan

Creation of space

Education Center Nyanza
and Form





Witzke & Kaja Lamping

Witzke & Kaja Lamping

Witzke & Kaja Lamping

Geometry Elevations




Mass/opening on interior

Geometry Elevations

Mass/opening on exterior

Lehm monolithisch

Lehm monolithisch

Lehm monolithisch

Lehm monolithisch

Sonderform der Darstellung MAV 05

Sonderform der Darstellung MAV 05

Sonderform der Darstellung MAV 05

Sonderform der Darstellung MAV 05

Geometrie: Building and Form Earth
Northeast Southeast Southwest Northwest Southwest Northeast Southeast Northwest
60 Lehm monolithisch Sonderform der Darstellung MAV 05 Lehm monolithisch Sonderform der Darstellung MAV 05 Space and Detail Education Center Nyanza Materiality Detail elevation Brickwork
61 Materialität 3: Perspektive Raumgestalt Materiality Interior perspective Threshold space Space and Detail Earth


Earth Baris Bakir and Misha Krumbein Niklas Hartmann and Lea Mägerle Franziska Dressler and Lea Telkämper Dennis Szabo and Lennart Wulf Jana Banse and Bircan Kurt Kaja Lamping and Sinah Witzke Timber Lea Steiner and Theresa Szentmiklossy von Primocz Georg Flotho and Amelie Traupe Nils Keck and Johannes Reuter Cathleen Berg and Cedic Krüger Patricia Huperz and Tom Janus Gerrit Baumhauer and Jawid Hassani Sabrina Kakol and Rahel Winnefeld 26 32 38 44 50 56 70 76 82 88 94 100 106


205 Brick Jana Scholz and Julian Sump Jan Philipp Holletzek and Kian Mozafari Gisa Gathmann and Lara Wiekenberg Daniel Moris and Xinyue Wei Marie Beyer and Nick Napiwotzki Concrete Anna-Lena Jakob and Nils Keck
Materials Paul Nicklaus and Emelie Schmidt Nadine Ernst and Jule Gilde Zeinab Baniowda and Johann Griem Sebastiano Dettori and Maurice Stolze Phil Grobe and Julian Holletzek M. Rashed Aseel and Birte Holtmann Maurice Rene Krenz and Max Schuckel 114 120 126 132 138 152 162 168 174 180 186 192 198


Editor, Contents and Authors

Dr. Till Boettger

Professor of Presentation and Design

Faculty of Architecture, Engineering and Conservation

HAWK University Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen

Co-founder of the architectural firm at11 – architecture and design

Ulrike Knauer M.Sc.

Teaching Assistant

Department of Presentation and Design

Faculty of Architecture, Engineering and Conservation

HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen


Prof. José Mario Gutiérrez Marquez

Co-founder of the architectural firm Bruno Fioretti Marquez

Professor for Design and Spatial Design

Bauhaus-University in Weimar

Arno Richter M.Sc.

Research Associate

Department of Conceptual and Structural Design

TU Berlin


First versions

Results of the master’s seminar Special Forms of Presentation and Design

Faculty of Architecture, Engineering and Conservation at HAWK in Hildesheim, led by Dr. Till Boettger and Ulrike Knauer M.Sc. with graduate students (see pp. 204–205)

All representations are the original work of these students. The students applied the scales and parameters introduced in the seminar to the associated architectural works in order to develop their own analytic examinations.

Editorial Assistance

Julia Robben B.A.

Lea Steiner B.A.

Theresa Szentmiklossy von Primocz B.A.

Project Management

Alexander Felix, Katharina Kulke


Keonaona Peterson


Heike Strempel-Bevacqua, Anja Haering


Helen Labies-Volz

Layout Supervision

Art Direction

Dominika Hasse

Professor of Corporate Design/Editorial Design

Faculty of Design

HAWK University Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen

Layout Concept

Lydia Jasmin Hempel B.A.

Results of the Editorial Design Seminar

Faculty of Design at HAWK in Hildesheim, led by Dominika Hasse with Emilia Amthor, Aydan Arinc, Marlene Lorena Arps, Jurek Behre, Malin Berga-Raschke, Lukas Gerbaulet B.A., Mara Harjes, Lydia Jasmin Hempel B.A., Anastasia Lapina, Kelly Meineke B.A., Anna-Lena Mengel, Johanna Schäfers B.A., Celine Schaffarczyk and Wiebke Sophie Warnecke


Sophie Stillig B.A., Lydia Jasmin Hempel B.A.

Final Artwork in the HAWK Project Laboratory

Tatjana Rabe with Jurek Behre, Lydia Jasmin Hempel B.A., Celine Schaffarczyk and Sophie Stillig B.A.

A special thank-you goes to Jurek Behre, Lydia Jasmin Hempel B.A., Julia Robben B.A. and Celine Schaffarczyk for their assistance in the production phase and to Tatjana Rabe for fine-tuning in the final phase.

Image Editing

Bildpunkt GmbH, Berlin


Vivus 100, 120 g/m²

Printed on recycled paper certified with the German ecolabel BLUE ANGEL.

Printing Beltz Grafische Betriebe, Bad Langensalza

Bibliographic information published by the German National Library

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ISBN 978-3-0356-2606-3

E-ISBN (PDF) 978-3-0356-2610-0

German Print-ISBN 978-3-0356-2605-6

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