__MAIN_TEXT__

Page 1


4


Kowloon transport super city 九 龍 超 級 交 通 城

Terry Farrell & Partners

1


Written by: Steven Smith Designed and coordinated by: Jo Farrell Copyedited by: Jane Steer Chinese edited by: Amy Liu, Maggie Ho 作者:史提芬.史密斯 設計及協作:茱.法雷爾 樣本編輯:珍妮.斯蒂爾 中文編輯:廖淑勤、何書敏

KOWLOON, transport super city First published in 1998 by Pace Publishing Ltd.

版權@1998 貝思出版有限公司 Copyright © 1998 PACE Publishing Ltd. 版權所有。未經具思出版有限公司書面許可,不得以任何形式對本書作全部或部分 之翻印、仿製或轉載。 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any manner whatever without prior permission in writing from PACE Publishing Ltd. Pace Publishing Ltd., Rm 607-8, 6/F, Blk B, Ming Pao Ind. Centre, 18 Ka Yip Street, Chai Wan, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2897 1688 Fax: (852) 2897 2888 香港印刷 Printed in Hong Kong ISBN 962-7723-14-2

2


C O N T E N T S

5 簡介 Introduction 6 序 Preface 9 線構城市︰機場核心計劃 Linear City: The Airport Core Project 17 超級交通城之根源 Origins of the transport super city 25 超級交通城 Transport super city 55 首期工程︰巨型車站 Phase one: The Great Station 95 系統支援 System support 110 工程數據及鳴謝 Project data & credits

3


4


INTRODUCTION

九龍站為機場鐵路沿 線面積最大的車站, 連接香港的心臟地帶 及赤鱲角新機場。我 們特編寫此書,以紀 念車站的建成。九龍 站的上蓋及四周,將 開發為一個人口密集 的新市鎮,而車站本 身則是該新市鎮的核 心部分。本書既慶祝

車站竣工,也記錄了 工程的規劃及設計的 整個過程。 如此龐大的工程項目 匯聚不少人的努力和 才智,是工作人員通 力合作、群策群力的 成果。過去六年,曾 為工程作出貢獻的人 士及公司不可勝數,

我們作為建築師及首 席顧問公司,有機會 與他們合作,實在感 到榮幸。本書以建築 飾的角度緝寫,希望 以它作為我們所作努 力的一份歷史記錄, 並給所有曾為工程出 力的人留作紀念。

This book has been produced to mark the completion of Kowloon Station, the largest station on the Airport Railway that links central Hong Kong to the new airport at Chek Lap Kok. The station forms the core of a dense new city district that will be constructed above and around it. This book is, therefore, both a celebration of a completed project and a record of the planning and design of work in progress. A great project like this is the achievement of many hands and minds, of many teams working together. This book is written from the architectsʼ perspective. For the past six years it has been our privilege as architects and lead consultants to collaborate with a vast range of individuals and companies, all of whom have contributed to the success of the project. This book is intended to provide a historical record of our shared endeavour and to be a souvenir for all those who worked on the project.

5


我們現在立足的地方 在四年以前還是維 多 利亞港水域的一部 分,當時,機場鐵路 工程還未正式落實。 今天,我宣布這項工 程經已在預算範圍內 如時竣工,於此我感 到十分驕傲。 鐵路工程按計劃只花 了43個月——考慮到 工程規模龐大,這的

PREFACE

確是很好的成績。鐵 路全長34公里,其中 20公里鋪設在填海而 成的新土地上,8 公 里 穿越隧道包括維 多利亞港一條海底隧 道,另有6 公里建在 高架橋上。 我們一共鋪設了總長 113 公里的路軌、900 公里的高架電纜,興 建了6 個全新的車站, 其中香港站及九龍站

的設計更猶如按場客 運大樓一樣。此外, 我們於中環密集的商 業大廈下面,建造了 一條人行隧道,穿越 該區最擁擠的地段, 也是值得一提的。該 項工程被公認為一項 偉大的建設成就。 當你在中環站內環顧 四周,然後踏上特別 定製的列車,我敢肯 定你會認同地鐵公司

Four years ago, the spot on which we stand now was still part of the water in Victoria Harbour and the Airport Railway had yet to get formal approval.

Today, I am proud to announce the completion of the project, built on time and within budget.

Construction of the railway, as scheduled, took only 43 months - no small accomplishment considering the scale of the project. The 34-kilometre route

length is made up of 20 kilometres on newly reclaimed land, 8 kilometres

through tunnels including a submerged tube in Victoria Harbour, and 6 kilometres on elevated structures.

Altogether, we laid 113 kilometres of tracks, 900 kilometres of overhead power cables, built six brand new stations, two of which, Hong Kong and Kowloon Stations, look more like airport terminals than train stations, and last but not least, a pedestrian subway through the most congested part of Central underneath all the office towers. The project is commonly recognised as a great engineering achievement.

As you look around this station, and later ride on the custom-designed trains, I have no doubt you will agree that the MTR Corporation has done a first-class job which will again demonstrate to the world Hong Kongʼs standard of excellence and efficiency.

The new Railway is a tribute to the efficiency of our SAR Government after the successful handover a year ago. Credit must also go to our excellent

team of engineers, designers and contractors from all over the world. Together, these skilled and dedicated people have incorporated into the

Project the best ideas, technologies and equipment available in the world,

6


完成的是一項頂級的 工程,並再次向世界 證明香港的高水準及 高效率。 一年前香港回歸中 園,香港特別行政區 政府正式成立,新鐵 路的建成實有賴新政 府高度的工作效率。 同時,我們那些來自 世界各地出色的工程 師、設計師和工程承 建商也是值得表揚

的。我們與這群專業 和熱誠的人員,把世 上最好的意念、最高 的技術和最佳的設備 融入工程項目,使之 成為一個頂尖質量的 鐵路系統,為香港這 個國際化城市服務。 機場快線是世界上第 一個具有同類特定功 能的服務設施。乘客 可以在車站內預辦登 機手續,及將行李寄

艙。這樣的服務,在 世上任何地方都是絕 無僅有的。手續辦妥 後,乘客就可以手持 登機證,以每小時135 公里的速度舒適地乘 搭列車前往機場。事 實上,我們等於把新 機場搬返市中心。

支線與機場快線平行 並進,連接東浦新市 鎮、青衣島和西九 龍,快捷方便,為本 地市民及數以千計在 新機場工作的職員服 務。

機場快線將於7月 6日隨著新機場敢用 而正式投入服務。於 明日開放通車的東浦

地鐵公司主席 蘇澤光先生 1998年6月21 日 機場鐵路闊幕典禮

making it a truly top quality railway serving an international community. The Airport Express is the first tailor-made service of its kind in the world.

Nowhere else can passengers arrive at a train station to check-in for flights on any airline and drop off baggage. Then with boarding passes in hand,

they can enjoy a comfortable ride to the airport, travelling at speeds of up to 135 kilometres an hour.

“In effect, we have brought our new airport back to the city.” The Airport Express will start service on 6th July, in line with the opening

of the new airport. The Tung Chung Line which opens for service tomorrow

is a parallel domestic service providing a convenient transport link to the new town of Tung Chung, Tsing Yi Island, West Kowloon and the thousands who work at the new airport.

Mr. Jack So

Chairman, Mass Transit Railway Corporation

June 21, 1998, Airport Railway opening ceremony

7


8


線 構 城 市: 機場核心計劃

一個現代化大都市成 功與否,有賴其基礎 建設設施的質素。在 新城市中,基建設施 是未來發展的基本構 架。 1989年,香港決心興 建新機場,以取代擁 擠不堪的敢德機場。 啟德機場無論在規 模、速度及創新概念 上都打破以往所有記 錄。新機場建在赤鱲

LINEAR CITY:

THE AIRPORT CORE PROJECT

角的人造島嶼上,以 公路和鐵路系統與中 最商業中心相連,香 港即使對大膽的規劃 及龐大的建設工程早 已習以為常,此建設 計劃仍屬一項非常重 大的任務。機場核心 計劃涉及10個相關的 基建項目,除了建設 連繫市中心及機場的 重要交通系統,同時 也為未來城市拓展興 建基礎設施。

在新的填海土地上, 沿九龍西岸及大嶼山 北岸已建成了一條交 通幹線,直接通往赤 鱲角。機場鐵路沿線 的六個車站將成為多 個繁盛區域的核心節 點,通過鐵路線將它 們連接成一座完整的 線構城市。 機場設計方案也是一 個嶄新的概念。其他 城市也有大型機場及

Great modern cities depend for their success on the quality of their infrastructure. In new cities, the infrastructure provides the framework for future growth. When in 1989 Hong Kong resolved to replace its congested airport at Kai Tak, the project that was conceived broke all previous records for scale, speed and conceptual innovation. The new airport was to be built on a manmade island at Chek Lap Kok and linked to the business core in Central by road and rail. Even for Hong Kong - a city accustomed to bold plans and working at the grand scale - this was a remarkable undertaking. It provided the impetus for 10 interconnected infrastructure projects. As well as creating the crucial transport links between the city and airport, the Airport Core Projects also provides the infrastructure to support the future expansion of the city. The transport corridor has been built on newly reclaimed land along the west coast of Kowloon and the north coast of Lantau Island to Chek Lap Kok. The six stations on the Airport Railway will form the nuclei of compact city districts, linked together by the rail line into an integrated linear city.

9


j

k

a

d b c

e f l i h g

a = Chek Lap Kok airport 赤鱲角機場 b = Tung Chung new town 東涌新市鎮 c = Lantau Island 大嶼山 d = North Lantau Expressway and Airport Railway 北大嶼山幹線和機場鐵路 e = Tsing Ma Bridge 青馬大橋 f = West Kowloon reclamation 西九龍填海區 g = Hong Kong Island 香港島 h = Central District terminus of Airport Railway 機場鐵路港島中環總站 i = Old airport site at Kai Tak 啟德機場舊址 j = Shenzhen 深圳 k = New Territories 新界 l = Kowloon九龍 = Kowloon Station 九龍站

10

Satellite image, Hong Kong and the New Territories, November 1997 香港及新界1997年11月衛星圖片


11


Hong Kong skyline 香港空中輪廓線

Kowloon Station in-town check-in 九龍站市區預辦登機大堂

Airport Express Line (AEL) train 機場快線列車

12

Airport Express Line ticket 機場快線車票


各種交通樞紐設施與 機場相連,然而,那 些機場通常都以特定 的方式慢慢建設完 成。另外,其他城 市也在機場大樓以外 設有有限的設施供乘 客辦理登機手續。香 港的新機場將這兩個 概念帶到一個新的層 面。由於機場規劃完 全從草圖開始,因而 有機會讓它發展完整 的鐵路及公路系統,

The airport concept is also entirely new. Other cities have large airports and an assortment of transportation access links, usually built up gradually in an ad hoc way. Other cities also have limited check-in facilities located away from the airport terminal. Hong Kongʼs new airport project takes both these ideas to a new level. Having the opportunity to plan the airport from scratch allowed the development of integrated rail and road access, and full-scale facilities for in-town check-in and baggage handling. The result is a new type of city and a new type of airport. Pre-flight formalities, other than passport control, can be completed at the principal Airport Railway stations, Hong Kong and Kowloon. For passengers, having checked in baggage and obtained boarding passes, the whole city becomes as much a part of the airport as the lounges, shops and concourses

以及市區預辦登機手 續、行李托運的全部 設施。於是,一個新 型的城市和新型的機 場就由此而生。

大樓候機室、商店及 大堂的一部分。香港 的市區已經變成機場 了。

除護照檢查外,所有 登機手續都可以在香 港站及九龍站這兩個 主要的機場鐵路車站 完成。對乘客來說, 可以在市區托運行李 並取得登機證,整個 城市就成為機場客運

Chek Lap Kok airport 赤鱲角機場

Destinations around the globe 地球上各目

13


14


15


Le Plan Voisin, Paris (1925) Le Corbusier 勒.柯布西耶1925年作品 [巴黎鄰里設計圖]

16


超級交通城之根源

概覽 1992年,地鐵公司 獲得有關合同,負責 設計、興建及經營機 場鐵路及東滴地鐵支 線,為機場線構城市 服務。 九龍站為機場鐵路 沿線最大的車站,是 鐵路和其他交通工具 之間的交匯點,其中 還包括將會興建的第

ORIGINS OF THE TRANSPORT SUPER CITY

三 條鐵路線。九龍站 同時提供市區預辦登 機手續服務,還有接 車區,將機場帶返市 區。此外,它將是西 九龍一座1500萬平方 英尺綜合新市鎮的核 心樞紐。地鐵公司將 九龍站視作機場在市 中心的延伸部分,將 九龍站興建成全球領 先的車站之一。九龍 站不僅有大規模的交 通設施,也是整體的

交通規劃及城市建設 的典範。簡而言之, 地鐵公司要創造的是 一座超級交通域。

前例 超級交通城的概念可 以追溯到2 0 世紀早 期,當時人們對城市 充滿幻想。貝迫德作 於1908年的「未來大 都會」,描繪紐約新 浮現的空中輪廓線,

BRIEF In 1992 the Mass Transit Railway Corporation was awarded the contract to design, build and operate the Airport Railway link and the Tung Chung Mass Transit Railway (MTR) Line to serve the airport linear city. Kowloon Station was established as the largest on the line to act as a fully integrated interchange between the railway and other forms of transportation, including a third rail line to be built in the future. The station was also to provide in-town check-in facilities and meeting-and-greeting areas designed to bring the airport into the city. In addition, it would form the core of a new 15 million-square-foot mixed-use city centre in West Kowloon. The MTR Corporationʼs vision of the new station as an extension of the airport built into the fabric of the city establishes Kowloon as one of the worldʼs leading stations, both in its scale as a transport facility and as a model of integration of transportation planning and city making. In short, the MTR Corporationʼs brief called for the creation of a transport super city.

17


及與之並行發展的飛 行器。這幅畫包含了 今天九龍站的所有要 素︰高樓林立的城 市,鐵路及多層交通 系統縱橫交錯、四通 八達,飛行器在空中 呼嘯而過。不同的是 畫中飛行器的比例及 交通系統的佈局與 今 天的並不一樣。 拉哥爾布西亞於1925 年作了「巴黎鄰里設

香港之城市環 境

九龍站工程融會了 密集而複雜的基建 設施、多層的交通系

香港是一個很極端的 城市。土地種缺,使 她成為地球上居住密

度最高的地方;毫無 疑問,這也使她成為 一座真正的「高樓城 市」,包容生活的各 方面,加上大量工程 迅速完成,工程學與 建築學一起締造了一 個設計大膽的城市。

復雜,以配合香港一 體交通設施的概念, 同時,它將亞洲新的 城市規劃理論和歐洲 的城市建設傳統結合 在一起。以上統統都 在西九龍這片土地上 實現了。

超級交通城工程發展 出的設計方案原型, 在香港其他地方亦能 找到。這是全新的設 計,規模龐大,設計

香港是一個逐步趨於 成熟的新城市。超級 交通城為她的演進揭 開了新的一頁。

PRECEDENT

THE CONTEXT OF HONG KONG

The transport super city has a rich tradition in the urban fantasies of visionaries of the early 20th century. The thrill of the newly emerging skyline of New York and the parallel development of flying machines is captured in Harry M. Petitʼs The Cosmopolis of the Future vision of the city, drawn in 1908. The image contains all the elements of the Kowloon project: a dense city of towers, interconnected by railways and multi-level movement systems with flying machines overhead. Only the scale of the flying machines and the arrangement of transit systems is inaccurate in his drawing.

Hong Kong is a city of extremes. Shortage of land has resulted in the highest densities of habitation on Earth and the creation of the definitive “city of towers,” used to house every aspect of life. Projects are quickly completed. Engineering and architecture combine to create a city on a heroic scale.

Le Corbusierʼs 1925 vision for the city of the future Le Plan Voisin, Paris captures the heroic scale of the “city of towers” which has provided the model for modern Hong Kong and the Kowloon project. Intriguingly, the image is of the city as airport, with the plane as the aerial equivalent of the car rather than the global mass transit system it has become. Density and complexity of infrastructure, the layering of movement systems and the concept of urban space as grand air-conditioned interiors, which characterise the new urbanism of Asia, were adapted for the Kowloon project. The origins of these new urban forms can be traced back to past visions of the city of the future.

18

統,以及以城市作為 一個巨型空調空間的 構想,標誌著亞洲最 新的城市規劃法。這 些新的城市造型,可 從過去人們對未來城 市的幻想找到根源。

計圍」,體現了一個 設計大膽的「高樓城 市」,是今天香港站 及九龍站工程的參照 模範。有趣的是,現 今的飛機是一種環球 集體運輸系統,但畫 作卻將城市當作機 場,而飛機則好比空 中的汽車。

The transport super city project has developed prototype solutions which can be seen elsewhere in Hong Kong. It is entirely new, both in the scale and complexity of the integration of transportation infrastructure with the city, and in combining the new urbanism of Asia with the European traditions of place-making, applied here to a large section of the city. Hong Kong is a new city in the process of evolving to maturity. The transport super city provides the next chapter in its evolution. WEST KOWLOON The Kowloon super city project is being built at the southern end of the West Kowloon reclamation, 334 hectares of new land formed by filling in the sea with sand dredged from the shallow waters of the Pearl River estuary by specialist cutter-dredger


西九龍 工程在西九龍填海區 的南端進行。挖沙船 從珠江河口的淺水區 挖沙,堆填這片334 公頃的新土地。填海 用料運到後,傾入或 用高壓水炮噴入堆填 區,新土地就逐漸形 成。機場核心計劃填 海工程的高峰期,香 港集結了世上三分之 二的挖沙船隊。

九 龍 站 南 面 將 有 一 個 香 港 最 大 的 公園,可以俯瞰維 多利亞港及著名的 港島空中輪廓線; 東面是高速鐵路總 站,車站上蓋將興 建一座迷你城市, 與九龍站相連,西 面是西區海底隧道 入口;北邊則是線 構城市的另一個部 分 ——奧 運 站 的 住 宅 建築群。 Cite Contemporaire pour 3 millions d’Habitants (1922) Le Corbusier 勒.柯布西耶1922年作品 [三月百萬人的當代城市]

ships. The fill material was brought to the site and dropped, or fired through water cannons onto the land-fill area. Gradually the new land emerged, a yellow desert of sand rising out of the sea. At the peak of the reclamation process for the Airport Core Projects, two-thirds of the worldʼs dredger fleet was based in Hong Kong. To the south of Kowloon Station will be the largest new park in Hong Kong, overlooking Victoria Harbour and Hong Kong Islandʼs famous skyline. To the east is the location for a high-speed rail terminus and a mini city to be built above the terminal, which will link into Kowloon Station. To the west are the western approaches to the harbour. To the north will be the next section of the linear city, the massed residential towers of Olympic Station.

The Cosmopolis of the Future (1908) Harry M. Petit 貝迪德1908年作品 [未來大都會]

19


a

b

a

b a

a = Hong Kong and Kowloon coastline before 1887 香港及九龍半島1887年前之海岸線 b = Reclamation area. Coastline at September 1994 填海區。 1994年9月的海岸線

20

Hong Kong, 20,000’, 25 October 1994 從20,000尺上空看香港, 攝於1994年10月25日


21


22 West Kowloon reclamation, 1995 西九龍填海區, 攝於1995年


23


Harbour view 俯瞰維港

24


超級交通城

完全城市建設 建設一座城市跟建 造一幢單體建築不 同,因為這並不單是 大型的建築工程。一 座城市在本質上是一 個多樣化和不斷變化 的實體,不斷處於建 造與再造、興建與拆 卸、重建、取代、改 建以及循環往復的過 程中。在此過程中, 真正持久的是基建設

TRANSPORT SUPER CITY

施,而單體建築則 為了適應市民不斷 更新的需求而作相 應變化。城市建設 的精髓在於基建設 施的規章。設計︰ 公路及交通系統、 公共空間、建築佈 局及以備未來發展 的連接系統。 在西九龍,為適應 未來的城市密度及交 通系統規模,設計探

用嶄新的三維立體意 念。基建設施建在集 體交通核心之上,分 層佈局。住宅、寫字 樓、社區服務設施、 酒店以及高級公寓等 由同一樓層的空調購 物街、公共空間,以 及平台上的公園、廣 場、汽車及人行循環 路線等聯繫在一起。 設計的各個部分一起 構成一座平衡整體的 城市。

TOTAL CITY-MAKING Constructing a city is not the same as constructing an individual building. It is not simply big architecture. By its nature, a city is a diverse and ever-changing entity that is constantly being made and remade, built and torn down, repaired, replaced, converted and recycled. In this dynamic process it is the infrastructure that endures, while the individual buildings change to suit the citizensʼ ever evolving needs. The essence of citymaking is the design of the infrastructure: the roads, transit systems, public space and the architecture of organisation and connection that provides a framework for evolution. At West Kowloon, the density of the city and the scale of the transport systems to be incorporated called for an innovative three-dimensional design. The infrastructure is organised in layers above the mass transportation core. The flats, offices, community facilities, hotels and service apartments are linked together by air-conditioned shopping streets and public places at one level, and by gardens, squares and vehicle- and pedestrian-circulation routes on the podium above. All parts of the design work together in the formation of an integrated, balanced city.

25


設計小組

問公司都為最後的設計 作出了貢獻。設計完成 後,負責車站建設的承 建商及分包商加入建設 工程。隨著工程進展, 來自世界各地更多的顧 問公司、發展商及承建 商陸續參與工程項目。

1992年,地鐵公司開 始從可行性研究階段 推向實際設計階段。 由Terry Farrell & Partners 為 首的具體設計小組, 著手進行車站設 計及 城市周邊的總體規劃 設計。

任務書

在地鐵公司指引下,核 心設計小組成為一眾顧 問公司的中心,這些顧

除了大樓建築,地鐵 公司要求設計包含一 個1.7公頃的花園、娛

密度 香港由於建築用地 稀少,所以高密度 的高層建築就成為香 港的建築特色。在九 龍,13.5 公頃土地 上建造了170萬平方 米的建築物,形成土 地和建築物的比率為 12.4比1。

此 現 代 化 的 火 車 站 成 為 一 個 服 務 周全、方便快捷、 價值無比的城市空 間焦點。車站周圍 的建築密度反映了 現代鐵路交通如何 成為開發這個城市 區域的催化劑。這 個城市區域設計妥 善,跟傳統完全相 反,再沒有火車煙 囱冒出滾滾濃煙吞 噬整個城市。

THE TEAM

DENSITY

In 1992 the MTR Corporation began moving the design from the feasibility stage to its realisation with the appointment of the detailed design team, led by Terry Farrell & Partners, to design the station and a master plan for the surrounding city.

In Hong Kong, where land for construction is scarce, high-density, high-rise construction is characteristic. At Kowloon, with 1.7 million m2 of building on 13.5 hectares, results in a site to building area ratio of 12.4:1.

Under the direction of the MTR Corporation, the core design team was at the hub of a diverse network of consultants, all of whom contributed elements to the final design. With the completion of the design phase, the contractors and subcontractors charged with constructing the station were added to the network. And more consultants, developers and contractors from around the world are joining as the construction of each phase of the project proceeds.

The modern railway station creates a focus for highly serviced, convenient, high-value urban space. The density of construction around the station reflects how modern rail provides a catalyst for the creation of the most desirable city areas, a complete reversal of the historic model where the smoke-stack technology of railways blighted the city.

THE BRIEF In addition to the buildings, there was a requirement for the provision of 1.7 hectares of gardens and recreational facilities, and an internal site roadway system.

26

樂設施及基地內部道 路系統。


CLIENT BODY ∑~•Dæ˜∫c MTR Corporation (Property) ¶a≈K§Ω•q(™´∑~)

MTR Corporation (Station) ¶a≈K§Ω•q(®ÆØ∏)

Terry Farrell & Partners

Architects ´ÿøvÆv, Planners ≥Wπ∫Æv, Interiors ´«§∫≥]≠pÆv, Lead Consultant ≠∫Æu≈U∞›

Consultants ≈U∞›: Property ¶a≤£ Parsons Brinckerhoff Asia

Levett & Bailey ßQ§Ò

Quantity Surveyors §uÆ∆¥˙∂qÆv

WT Partnership

Quantity Surveyors §uÆ∆¥˙∂qÆv

Altoon + Porter

Retail Design πs∞‚≥]≠p

SOM Landmark Tower

¨f∏€®»¨w Services ≥]≥∆

John Nelson & Associates

SL & A Hotels

Quantity Surveyors §uÆ∆¥˙∂qÆv

ßıªFæ±≈U∞›∞s©±≥° Hotel Design ∞s©±≥]≠p

Jones Lang Wootton

∂¯∂ÆØ«§uµ{≈U∞› Structure µ≤∫c

ØEµÿ®»¨w§”•≠¨v Hotel Marketing ∞s©±±¿ºs

Arup Acoustics

∂ÆØ«¡næ«≈U∞› Environmental ¿Ùπ“

Chapman Taylor

Retail Marketing πs∞‚±¿ºs

Retail Design πs∞‚≥]≠p

SPB Hong Kong

MVA Asia

Leigh and Orange

ßQ¶w´ÿøv≈U∞› Authorised Person ª{•i§H§h

Tino Kwan

EDAW Earth Asia

√ˆ•√≈vøO•˙≥]≠p Specialist Lighting ±M∑~øO•˙∞t∏m

Ove Arup & Partners

∂¯∂ÆØ«§uµ{≈U∞› Structure µ≤∫c

Parsons Brinckerhoff Asia ¨f∏€®»¨w Services ≥]≥∆

Levett & Bailey ßQ§Ò

Quantity Surveyors §uÆ∆¥˙∂qÆv

Ho & Partners

¶Û≈„º›´ÿøv§uµ{Æv Authorised Person ª{•i§H§h

Arup Acoustics

∂ÆØ«¡næ«≈U∞› Environmental ¿Ùπ“

Arup Traffic

∂ÆØ«•Ê≥q≈U∞› Traffic •Ê≥q

Traffic •Ê≥q

Traffic •Ê≥q

√ˆ•√±d´ÿøvÆv Authorised Person ª{•i§H§h

Consultants ≈U∞›: Station ®ÆØ∏

Sub-Consultants ¶∏Æu≈U∞›: Station ®ÆØ∏

Horwath Asia Pacific

Design International

•Ú∂q¶Ê Retail Marketing πs∞‚±¿ºs

Kwan & Associates

Ove Arup & Partners

Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man

Systemwide Consultants æ„≈È®t≤Œ≈U∞›: Station ®ÆØ∏

ºB∫aºs•ÓÆ∂•¡´ÿøvÆv Authorised Person ª{•i§H§h

Landscaping ∂È¥∫≥]≠p

¿NÆ‘©˙®»¨w Signage ´¸•‹µP

503B Main Contractor •D≠n©”´ÿ∞”

∂ÆØ«´ÿøvÆv Special Rooms ØSßO´«

ACLA

Landscaping ∂È¥∫≥]≠p

Halcrow

Package Developers ©”•]µoÆi∞” USI

Arup Associates

Foster Asia

ERM

Environmental Impact ¿Ùπ“ºv≈T

¶Xº÷ Baggage Handling ¶Êßı≥B≤z

Wharf §E¿s≠‹

FMRS

Lighting øO•˙∞t∏m

ACLA

Landscaping ∂È¥∫≥]≠p

503C Main Contractor •D≠n©”´ÿ∞”

KEC Joint Venture

AMSOC Joint Venture

Systemwide JSSC Sub-Contractors and Suppliers §¿•]∞”§Œ®—¿≥∞”Domestic Sub-Contractors ©”´ÿ∞”§¿•]∞” æ„≈È®t≤Œ Sub-Contractors §¿•]∞” Lik Cheong Engineering §O©˜§uµ{ Concrete ≤VæƧg

Choi Nam Kee Construction

Ω≤´n∞O´ÿøv

Blockwork, Tiling §j´¨´ÿߘ°A∂Køj

Cheung Fat Engineering ≤ªµo§uµ{

Drainage, Paving ¥ÎπD°A∏Ù≠±

Yau Luen Metal Works

§Õ¡p≈Kæπ§uµ{ Cladding ¬–≠±

Hop Shing Engineering

¶X¶®®æ§Ù§uµ{ Waterproofing ®æ§Ù

Keliston Marine

Intake Culverts πq∆l§J§f∫fiπD

Swire Duro §”•j∞Í•˙

HH Robertson √π´O≤±

Stonework •€Æ∆§uµ{

Cladding ¬–≠±

Josef Gartner Metal Wall Panels ™˜ƒ›¿™O

Harmon ´¢ªX

Glazing ¨¡º˛∏À¥O

Overly

Roof Supplier ´Œ≥ª®—¿≥∞”

GPT

CC Television ≥¨∏Ùπqµ¯

Franki ´ÿ∑s

Chung Shing ©æ∏€

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Grouting ƒÈºfl

Gammon ™˜™˘ Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Road Marking πD∏ÙÏpΩu

Terratest

Leighton Asia ¬ßπy®»¨w

Builders Federal ¨¸∞Í¡p©M

Yearfull Interior Contracting ©…¥I

Simplex

Balfour Beatty ´O¥I

Ajax Bony Cranes ∞_≠´æ˜

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Freyssinet πw¿≥§O

Shui Hing ∑Áø≥

Sunley Mui

Ceilings §—™·™O

Ceilings §—™·™O

Kangotic ¬≤æ˙

Metalwork ™˜ƒ›§uµ{

Zahner ª‡æ˙

Metalwork ™˜ƒ›§uµ{

MBM

Special Roof ØSßO´Œ≥ª

Uplights ¶V§W∑”©˙

Services ≥]≥∆

Pre-stress πw¿≥§O

Ming Lee ©˙ßQ Sewage ¶√§Ù≥B≤z

Ken On ´ÿ¶w Concrete ≤VæƧg

Form Work º“™O

Dyna §jµÿ

Pipe Supply ∫fiµ©®—¿≥

Bun Kee ±l∞O Plumbing ≥Ô∫fi

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Topwide

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Tysan Æı™@ Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Marutai §YÆı

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Man Wah §Âµÿ

China Harbour §§∞Í¥‰∆W

Site Formation ¶aΩL∂}æ¡

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

Goldford ™˜∫÷ Steel Work ø˚Æ∆§uµ{

Salemay

Sum Tat ¥ÀπF

Painting ™o∫£

Civil/Structure §g§Ï°˛µ≤∫c

ºÌÆx

Media §§¨¸•Ê≥q

STAR

Foundations ¶a∞Ú

ASTEL

Roof Waterproofing ´Œ≥ª®æ§Ù§uµ{

GEC Alsthom Signalling ∞T∏π®t≤Œ

Contractors ©”´ÿ∞” CS Transport

Main Control Systems •D±±®Ó®t≤Œ

AMEC

Jardine Steelcraft

Environmental Control ¿Ùπ“±±®Ó

Doors ™˘

Faiveley Transport

Platform Screen Doors

§Î•xπı™˘

GEC

Baggage Handling ¶Êßı≥B≤z

OTIS Elevator ∂¯™∫¥µπq±Ë Lifts §…≠∞æ˜

CNIM

Escalators ¶€∞ªßfl§‚πq±Ë

GPT

Communications ≥q∞T≥]≥∆

©…©Mæ˜æπ

NKI

Signage ´¸•‹µP

York ¨˘ßJ

Chillers ™≈Ω’®t≤Œ

Federal Supreme-Tech Switch Boards ∂}√ˆ™O

Johnson Controls

Fire Detection §ıƒµ∑P¿≥®t≤Œ

Merlin Gerin

Traffic Management •Ê≥q∫fi≤z

RADO Clocks Æ…ƒ¡

Principal participants in the realisation of the project 工程主要參與者

27


28

Layered city plan 多層城市藍圖


29


三維城市 基地的規劃策略是以 三維立體規劃設計的 需要為本,以數個功 能不同的樓層構成一 個平台,一個上建高 樓大廈的平台。這種 以不同功能樓層構成 的地基建築形式,是 從香港以外的地方發 展而來的結構方式,

不過規模較小,建設 手法也不完整。 地面層及所有地下層 均為公共交通設施、 道路系統及停車場。 交通層上架設第一、 二層人行路網絡,使 人行與車行路線分 開。在墓地邊緣, 人行路通過天橋跨

THREE-DIMENSIONAL CITY The strategic solution to planning the site lay in the recognition of the need to plan threedimensionally, with a number of separate functional layers forming a podium - a platform carrying towers. The stratification of the base of the site into separate functional layers is a development of the arrangement seen elsewhere in Hong Kong in a more fragmentary way on smaller projects. Ground level and all basement levels are given over to public transport, roads and car parking. A first- and second-floor pedestrian network is overlaid on the transport layer, allowing pedestrians and traffic to circulate separately. At the edges of the site the pedestrian routes connect to bridges across the main roads, linking into a network of pedestrian routes covering West Kowloon. The concept is a development of the pedestrian-movement pattern that has been gradually developed in the Central District of Hong Kong. A first-floor, air-conditioned network of malls, plazas and bridges provides a comfortable alternative to the street level system. In West Kowloon, the pattern which has developed over time in Central was adopted as a planning principle from the outset, integrated with the mass transit systems.

30

越主幹道路,與覆蓋 西九龍的人行路網絡 相連。這個設計的基 本概念是從香港中區 逐漸形成的人流模式 發展而來的。第二層 的空調購物商場、廣 場及天橋,成為街道 層系統以外的另一舒 適選擇。西九龍從一 開始就採用中環的規 劃模式,並與集體交

通 運輸系統結合在 一起。 在購物層之上是一 個平台,約高出街 面18米,構成了第三 個地面層,包含露天 空間、廣場、花園及 建在平台上的大廈入 口。平台的功能類似 於傳統二維城市的地 面層。

Above the shopping strata is a podium, approximately 18m above the surrounding streets. The podium provides a second ground level, incorporating open spaces, squares and gardens and the entrances to the towers that rise above. It functions in a similar way to ground level in the traditional two-dimensional city.


Station 車站

Bus station 巴士站 Hotel 酒店

Residential 住宅 Office 辦公室 Retail 零售

Towers 樓宇

Podium level 平台層

Level two 第二層

Level one 第一層

Ground level 地面層

Basement one 地下第一層

Basement two 地下第二層

Kowloon Station development isometric 九龍站發展等為圖

31


控制整體規劃 原則 車站大樓 方盒子形的車站大 樓位於墓地中心位 置,四周為車站環線 車道。 軸線 路軌鋪設方向構成了 穿越墓地的南北向軸 線。大型地基及高樓 建築均遠離鐵路線。

人行通道軸線在車 站中心線處以90度 與路軌軸線垂直。高 樓建築遠離該軸線, 以在車站主要空間的 中心騰出一個開放的 大堂。

網格 車站大樓內,規則的 12米結構網格成為車 站佈局的總體原則。 車站上面,結構網格 為建築物的位置提供 了城市結構佈局。

軸線交叉點 車站的入口位於鐵 路軸線與人行通道 軸線的交叉點上,恰 好處於車站與城市的 中心。

分區 迷你城市分為不同的 功能區︰面向車站廣 場的公共及公司團體 區、遠離中心地帶的 私人及住宅區。

CONTROLLING MASTER PLAN PRINCIPLES The station box The station is defined within a rectangular box in the centre of the site surrounded by the station perimeter road. Axes The rail alignment generates a north-south axis through the site. Large foundations and tower structures are kept away from the rail line. The concourse axis is at 90 degrees to the rail axis on the centreline of the station. Towers are kept away from this axis to generate an open hall, free of large structures, at the centre of the principal spaces of the station. Axesʼ crossing point The city gateway to the station is located at the intersection of the rail and concourse axes in the centre of both station and city. Grid Within the station box a regular 12m structural grid provides the controlling discipline for the station layout. Above the station it provides the urban grid for the location of buildings.

32

多層車道 汽車分三個主要公共 樓層行走︰地面層為 環繞基地及車站的公 共交通系統,第一層 是通往車站上蓋大廈 的車道,平台層則為 工程項目本身提供交 通網絡。 人行網絡 人流路線設於兩個主 要樓層︰第一層為購 物層內的空調人行街

Zones The mini city is divided into zones of different uses: public and corporate towards the Station Square; private and residential away from the centre. Layered roads Vehicles circulate at three main public levels. Ground level is the public road system around the perimeter of the site and around the station. Level One is the access roadway to the towers above the station. Podium Level provides local road access network for the development. Pedestrian network Pedestrians circulate at two main levels. Level One contains the air-conditioned pedestrian streets and squares within the shopping layer, which extend from the station throughout West Kowloon. At Podium Level, pedestrians can move through the city of towers via covered outdoor walkways, gardens and squares.

道及廣場,由車站一 直延伸到整個西九龍 地區;在平台層上, 行人可以經由室外有 蓋人行道、花園及廣 場在林立的高樓大廈 間穿梭往來。 車站廣場 車站廣場是本項目 的核心,也是機場 鐵路與城市之間的 大門。規劃的後階 段,該廣場包括


Phases ーーーーーuー{

Breezeways ーーーーーLーD

Station grid ーーーーーー

Station perimeter road ーーーーーPー

Station entrance ーーーーーJーf

Retail ーsー箍ー

Residential ー v

Hotel ーsーー

Public spaces ーーー@ーーーー

Offices ー ーーー

Central concourse ーーーーーsー

Building footprints ーーーvーーーーー

Landscape themes ー魘ーーDーD

Transport infrastructure ー豕qーーーー]ーI

Commercial/residential ーーーーーーー v

33


商用的 Landmark Tower向南延伸, 構成一對互相連接的 公共空間,作為設計 方案主體——機場鐵 路入口及Landmark Tower ——的背景。 Landmark Tower Landmark Tower 是機 場鐵路大門一座具標 誌性的建築。具體來 說,它和對岸香港站 的Landmark Tower恰 成一對,兩座建築猶

如維多利亞港西面的 一道門戶。 北園 北園是基地北面住宅 樓宇的背景。這裡花 木錦簇,環境優美, 設有網球場,與車站 廣場的莊嚴氣氛形成 鮮明對比。 南園 南圓的弧線地形,成 為基地南面住宅區的 背景。

Station Square Station Square forms the core of the project and is the gateway between the Airport Railway and the city. In later schemes, including the Landmark office tower, the square is extended southwards to form a pair of linked public spaces providing the setting for the principal features of the scheme: the Airport Railway gateway and the Landmark Tower. Landmark Tower The tower will mark the Airport Railway gateway on the skyline. On a larger scale, it will act as a partner to the Landmark Tower at Hong Kong Station on the opposite side of the harbour. Together they will form a gateway to Victoria Harbour from the western approaches. North Garden The North Garden forms the setting for the residential towers on the northern edge of the site; a green area of tree grids, planting and tennis courts in contrast to the open paved formality of Station Square. South Garden The curving landscape of South Garden will be the setting for the residential buildings in the southern part of the site.

34

門戶 車站入口成為機場 鐵路與城市之間的 門戶。門戶的角落連 接九龍站及西九龍地 區;西面的兩幢建築 與車站的車遁入口相 鄰。 多層城市 九龍站城市規劃成三 個主要層次︰地區層 為行車道及公共交通 區域,第一層為購物 區及人行動線;平台

層為車站入口、區內 道路及開放空間。 開發階段 本項目分九個階段進 行。首期為車站建設 工程,然後為其餘的 八期工程及基建設施 建設。 功能綜合 機場與城市的結合、 各類交通模式的結 合,及交通系統與城 市的結合。

Gateways The station entrance forms a gateway between the Airport Railway and the city. The corner gateway connects Kowloon Station to the local district of West Kowloon. To the west, twin towers flank the road entrance to the station. City Layers Kowloon Station city is planned in three principal layers: Ground Level is zoned for road and public transport; Level One for shopping and pedestrian circulation; Podium Level for the entrance, local road and open spaces. Phases The project will be constructed in nine phases. The station was constructed first and will be followed by eight development and infrastructure construction phases. Integration Integration of the airport into the city. Integration between transport modes. Integration of the transit systems and the city. Concourse The station concourse is a grand hall at the centre of the station linking it to the city and providing interconnections between transport systems.

中央大堂 車站大堂位於車站的中 心,將車站與城市連接 在一起,並作為各交通 系統的中轉樞紐。 城市車站 現代化的車站,城市 的基礎。 自然採光 車站的所有大堂均有 充足的日光經由車站 入口及車站廣場的天 窗進入。


City master plan ォー・ォチ`ウ]ュpケマ

35


36

Buildings ォリソvェォ

Airport Express セヨスu

Gardens & squares ェ盡鬢ホシsウ

Tung Chung Line ェFッFスu

Pedestrian infrastructure ヲ讀Hセリウ]ャI

Tung Chung Line ェFッFスu

Air-conditioned streets ェナスユオD

Basement level - 10.60mPD ヲa、Uシh - 10.60mPD

Transit layer ツ爲ョシh

Basement level - 14.59mPD ヲa、Uシh - 14.59mPD


Architectural urban grid ォー・ォォリソvコ

Roads ケDク

Urban columns ォー・ォ・゚ャW

Landscape カ魘コ

Stairs & escalators シモア隍

Vents

20,000 doors 20,000 ョーェ

Partitions 、タケjタ

Package boundaries ーtョMウ]ャIテ莅ノ

Car park spaces ーアィョウ

37


甲、乙、丙類土地 超級交通城內的土地 依其類型分為三種發 展工程︰ 甲、用於車站、鐵路及 其上建築的土地。 乙、用於巴士站、車 道及其上建築的土地。 丙、僅用於興建建築物 的土地。

高度 在這個嶄新的多層 高層城市中,結構 上限制鐵路上蓋建 築物的高度最多為 50層,其他地方 的建築物高度,則 根據建築材料、技 衛、結構及財政狀 況而決定。

行人第一 由於工程的大前提為 集體交通系統,因此 設計就可以方便行人 作為優先考慮。西九 龍的規劃基礎是:公 共交通、購物區、人 行動線及平台花園, 此等構成一個完整的 城市系統。

City station The modern station, the foundation of the city. Daylight The great halls of the station are filled with daylight that floods in through the station entrance and lanterns in the Station Square. A, B, C land There are three types of development within the transport super city, governed by the type of land. A. Land for the station and rail lines with buildings above. B. Land for bus stations and roads with buildings above. C. Land for buildings only. Heights In the new multi-layered, high-rise city, structural constraints for stacked structures define a general datum of about 50 storeys for towers built in the airspace above the railway. Elsewhere the limits are set by the science of materials and structure and the courage of finance. Pedestrians first By starting with the public mass transit system, it becomes possible to design a city convenient for pedestrians first. West Kowloon is planned on this basis: the public transport, shopping circulation, pedestrian movement and podium gardens are planned as a complete urban system.

38


The multi-level city

39


時間 發展工程規模龐大, 對於任何參與建設的 公司和集團而言,本 項目都不能視作單項 工程。因此,工程分成 七個階段,分期進行。 雖然總體規劃是以水平 分層展開,每個發展階 段必須在獨立的土地上 進行,作為獨立的建築

整體。不同發展項目 共享的部分得到仔細 的協調,以確保各重 要的通道及服務設施 都配合整項工程的各 個階段。 總體規劃結合項目 的三維功能設計及基 地上的空間規劃,並 安排工程分段逐步實 施。

Phase 1 イト1エチ

TIME The development as a whole is too large for any agency or consortium to carry out as a single project. It was, therefore, broken down into seven different phases to be built sequentially. Although the strategy for the master plan is layered horizontally, each phase of development has to exist on separate land parcels owned and operated as self-contained packages of construction.

Building the city ソウォリォー・ォ

The common parts shared by development packages were carefully coordinated to ensure that essential infrastructure for access and servicing is provided in line with the programme for implementation of each phase. The master plan combines the three-dimensional arrangement of functions and spaces across the site and choreographs their gradual implementation.

1998

40

1999


Phase 2 イト2エチ

Phase 3 イト3エチ

Phase 4 イト4エチ

Phase 5 イト5エチ

Phase 6 イト6エチ

Phase 7 イト7エチ

2001

2003

2005

41


城市動感 城市在本質上是一個 不斷演變的地方。在 香港,城市結構的變 化速率與推動它發展 的經濟變化速度保持 一致。西九龍的總體 規劃以靈活而有彈性 的設計策略,使設計 和建設過程中任何時 候都可以作出更改。

在車站設計與施工期 間,四周發展項目的 總體規劃經過了五次 修改,以適應香港地 產市場的變化及建築 條例的更改。雖然每 幅建築圖則的形式都 不同,然而它們都根 據整體規劃設計,同 時具有靈活性,讓工 程達到最高質素及價 值。

THE URBAN DYNAMIC Cities are, by nature, dynamic evolving places. In Hong Kong, the rate of change in the city fabric matches that of the volatile economy which drives it. The West Kowloon master plan embraces a flexible strategy that allows for change at any time during the design and implementation process. During the station design and construction, the master plan for the surrounding development went through five cycles of adjustment to suit changes in the property market and the regulatory framework of Hong Kong. Each plan, though different in form and appearance, retained the underlying master plan order while allowing flexibility to maximise the quality and value of the scheme. The five schemes were: 1 Low-rise airport height constrained scheme. 2 Low-rise, adjusted to suit phasing constraints. 3 High-rise, revised airport height constraints. 4 Revised phasing and detailed analysis. 5 Increasing residential density. The process will not end with the fifth scheme. The strength of the plan lies in its ability to remain coherent and legible and yet respond to the urban dynamic of Hong Kong.

42

這五個方案為: 1. 低層, 機場範圍限 高方案。 2. 低 層 , 經 過 調 整 以適應分期建設限 制。 3. 高層,修訂後機場 範圍高度限制。 4. 修訂後分期發展計 劃及詳細分析。 5. 增加住宅樓字的密 度。

修改過程在第五個方 案後仍然繼續。設計 獲接與否在於它能否 保持規劃的連貫性和 清晰度,並且呼應香 港的城市動感。


Competition entry, 1992 ーーーーーーー@ーー (1992)

Scheme 2 ーーー2

Scheme 3 ーーー3

Scheme 3.5 ーーー3.5

Scheme 4 ーーー4

Scheme 5 ーーー5

Plan evolution ーWーーーtーー

43


建設密集大都 會 隨著機場鐵路的建 成,工程開始進入一 個新的階段:建設車 站上蓋的城市。在這 個階段裡,作為總體 佈局依據並配合車站 設計的總體規劃將發 展成各個部分的建築 設計。 城市建設實際上是很 多人努力的成果,他

們包括業主、技計師 及租戶。將發展項目 劃分為一系列獨立又 互相關聯的部分,使 本地及來自世界各地 的設計師能夠各自為 不同的部分工作,在 總體設計框架內自然 而然地創造多元化的 設計。 工程進度由積極參 與其中的地鐵公司控 制,而原來的總體規 劃小組則負責單項工

程小組的監察工作。 規劃的彈性讓設計師 可以在有需要時作出 修改。 規劃的兩個部分—— Landmark Tower 和車 站廣場——由原來的 總體規劃小組發展出 最後的造型。此兩元 素說明上述總體規劃 原則如何在最後的設 計造型中得以實現。 North elevation ・_ヲV・゚ュア

Building the compact metropolis With the completion of the Airport Railway, the project now moves into its next stage: the building of the city above the station. In this stage, the master planning principles that have informed the overall layout and have been incorporated into the station design will be developed in the architecture of each part.

South elevation

The creation of the city is, by its nature, the work of many hands - many owners, designers and occupiers. The division of the development into a series of discrete but interconnected packages allows groups of local and international designers to work on each part, creating natural diversity within the overall design. The process is controlled by the constant involvement of the MTR Corporation and the monitoring of teams working on individual packages by the original master planning team. The flexibility of the plan allows adjustments to be carried out wherever necessary. Two parts of the plan - the Landmark Tower and Station Square - were developed into final architectural form by the original master planning team. These two elements show how the master plan principles described above will be realised in their final form.

44

West elevation ヲ隕


Podium Level plan ーーーxーhーーーーーー

Ground Level plan ーaーーーhーーーーーー

Level Two plan ーーーGーhーーーーーー

Basement Level One ーaーUー@

Basement Level Two ーaーUーGーhーーーーーー

Level One plan ーーー@ーhーーーーーー

1 & 11. Vehicle drop-off ーーーーーーーーー 2 & 12. in-town check-in ーーーーーwー nーー籠 3 & 13. Interchange concourse ー 豸ーーB 4 & 14. Luxury bus station ーMーQーーーhーー 5 & 15. Car park ーーーーー 6 & 16. Crossborder bus station ーfー荀ーーhーー 7 & 17. Local bus station ーーーaーーーhーー

8. Minibus station ーーー@ーpーーーーーhーー 9. Station perimeter road ーーーーーーーーDー 10. Tung Chung Line concourse ーFーFーuーjー 18. Tung Chung Line platforms ーFーFーuー x 19. Concourse ーjー 20. Shopping mall ー ーーーーー 21. Tower plaza ーjーHーsー 22. South Garden ーnー 23. Station square ーーーーーsー 24. North Garden ー_ー

20

0

20

40

60 80

45


Landmark Tower 1992年,當西九龍的 總體規劃起始之際, 該地區的樓宇高度是 受到啟德機場北向航 線的限制。赤臘角機 場建成後,這裡的建 築限高得以放寬,令 高聳的多層建築首次 可能於九龍出現。 基於這個發展潛力,

設計師重新設計原來 樓高35層的總體規 劃,使空中輪廓線 具有更多的變化,讓 設計可以容納一幢超 高層的商業及酒店大 廈。 修改後的方案保持了 原來的規劃原則。事 實證明這些原則構成 了有力的組織框架, 容許設計師在建築用 途、造型及高度方面

LANDMARK TOWER When the master planning of West Kowloon started in 1992, building heights in the area were controlled by the airport height restrictions covering the approach to the old airport, Kai Tak, which passed to the north of the site. The completion of Chek Lap Kok airport has allowed the building height restrictions to be lifted and super-high-rise buildings have become possible in Kowloon for the first time. The response to this new potential was to rework the mid-rise 35-storey master plan to give greater variety to the schemeʼs skyline profile, and to include a super-high-rise office and hotel tower. The revised plan retained the underlying principles of the original, which proved to be a robust organisational framework allowing for radical alteration to building uses, forms and heights. The Landmark Tower is to be the signature statement of the scheme, marking the importance of Kowloon Station on the Airport Railway and the significance of the site in the development of West Kowloon. The principle that transport nodes should be marked by taller buildings and more dense development is enshrined in the urban design guidelines for West Kowloon first articulated in Metroplan, the strategic plan for Hong Kong. The removal of the height restrictions allowed the principle to be realised in practice. 46

進行基本的修改。 Landmark Tower 將是 本方案中的標誌性元 素,體現九龍站在機 場鐵路上的重要性, 以及西九龍發展計劃 的重要意義。交通節 點必須以高層建築物 及密集的發展項目作 為標誌,這個原則是 西九龍城市設計工程 由香港都市規劃工 程開始的指引。建

築高度限制的廢除, 使這個原則得以實 現。 Landmark Tower 位於 基地西南的角落,這 裡位置突出,面向維 港西面靠岸及西九龍 地區公園。在此,大 廈將標誌出由西區海 底隧道前往西九龍的 公路入口,與中環香 港站的Landmark Tower 一起,構成通向維

The southwest corner of the site was selected for the Landmark Tower owing to its prominent location facing the western harbour approaches and West Kowloon Regional Park. In this location the tower will mark the road entrance to West Kowloon from the Western Harbour Tunnel and, with its counterpart at Hong Kong Station in Central, form a gateway entrance to Victoria Harbour. As the selected site is located away from the rail lines and station buildings, the railway will not be affected by the construction of the massive foundations required for a tower this size. The proposed tower will be 580m tall, one of the tallest buildings in the world. In order to test the viability of this daring proposal, the design team, led by Terry Farrell & Partners, carried out a detailed feasibility study. Site investigations to determine ground conditions revealed that over most of the site solid rock able to carry the foundation loads was available approximately 28m below MPD, well within the normal depths for the foundations of super-highrise buildings in Hong Kong. Across the centre of the site, however, a geological fault, or valley, made foundations in that area impractical. The building frame would need to bridge this fault line with foundations on either side of the gap. Geological conditions far below the surface provided the starting point for the architecture of the tower.

多利亞港的大門由於 選址遠離鐵路及車站 建築,鐵路系統不會 受此大型高廈的龐大 地基工程所影響。 大廈設計高580米,是 世界上最高的建築物 之一。為了測試這個 大膽構想實現的可能 性,由Terry Farrell & Partners 為首的設計小 組進行了詳盡的可行 性研究 。


47


為了確定地質條件 而進行的現場勘察, 發現基地地下約28米 處大部分為能夠支撐 大廈地基的堅固岩石 層,厚度在香港其他 高層建築地基所需的 範圍之內。不過,基 地中央有一條地質斷 層或波谷,今地基不 能建造在此。大廈的 地基必須建於裂縫兩 邊,讓框架跨過斷 層。地面以下的地質

結構於是成為大廈建 築設計的起始點。 大廈的弧形三角造型 是為了提供最大的樓 層面積,以俯瞰壯觀 的中環及海港西面景 致。大廈的第三面朝 向車站廣場的機場鐵 路入口,加強了大廈 與車站的視覺聯繫。 外觀輪廓上,此立面 由基礎部分開始弧線 形向外凸出,然後收

回到面向維港的頂 點,創造一種平和順 暢的動感效果,也成 為車站的空間流程及 活動流向的參照。 大廈的框架結構由一 系列層層疊加的支撐 鋼框架構而成,將建 築物的重量傳送到結 構外部,並直通往地

下地質斷層兩邊的地 基上。建築結構表現 在立面上,垂直結構 線為金屬板包覆,而 透過外部玻璃則可看 到斜角的支撐構架。 隨著新機場落成,樓 宇高度限制放寬,長 遠來說將促成九龍半 島一個巨大的變化。

The towerʼs rounded triangular form is designed to maximise the area of floor plan open to the magnificent views of Central and the western harbour approaches. The third side of the tower faces the Airport Railway gateway in Station Square, reinforcing the visual connection between tower and station. In profile, this elevation curves outward from the base and then back to the apex of the plan facing the harbour, creating an effect of calm, smooth movement; a reference to the flow of space and dynamic of the station. The building frame is made up of a series of multistorey, braced steel frames stacked one above the other carrying the building loads down the outside of the structure and through to the foundations on either side of the geological fault line. The structure of the building is expressed in the elevation, with the main vertical lines of support clad in metal panels and the diagonal bracing visible through the exterior glass skin. The lifting of building height restrictions in the Kowloon peninsula will, over time, be the most significant transformation of Hong Kong arising from the new airport. The flat roof-line of Kowloon with its distant mountain backdrop will gradually develop a rich and varied architectural skyline as buildings are replaced and new developments completed.

48

The Landmark Tower at West Kowloon will be the first of these new skyline features, setting a standard for those to follow.

在遠處山景襯托下, 九龍原來平坦的空中 輪廓線將隨著舊樓的 重建和新樓的出現逐 漸變得豐富多樣。 西九龍的Landmark Tower 將是新空中輪廓 線的首個構成元素, 並為後來者樹立一個 基準。


49


車站廣場 車站廣場結合了總 體規劃的兩方面:一 方面為本項目確立身 分,另一方面作為城 市與機場鐵路之間的 門戶。中西匯聚的設 計結合有歐洲概念的 城市設計及高出真正 地面層18米的車站上 蓋廣場,再配合亞洲 現代的三維城市 新 概念。

廣場覆蓋總體規劃中 的兩條主軸線——南 北向的鐵路軸線及東 西向的人行集散通道 軸 線——的交叉點。 車站大堂天花為車 站廣場的中心裝飾構 件,一條東西向排列 的金屬拱架遮蓋了廣 場中心,構成一個避 日晒、防雨淋的公共 空間。兩邊為通往機 場鐵路的入口:西面

STATION SQUARE Station Square brings together two aspects of the master plan. It provides an identity for the project and acts as a gateway between the city and the Airport Railway. East meets West in the design which combines a legible urban place in the European sense with a podium plaza on the roof of the station 18m above “real” ground level, in accordance with the modern Asian innovation of the three-dimensional city. The square covers the crossing points of the two principal axes of the master plan: the rail line running north-south and the east-west concourse. The station concourse roof is the centrepiece of the square, a metal arc aligned east-west covering the centre of the square, forming a public place sheltered from sun and rain. On either side are entrances to the Airport Railway: the departure side is to the west and the arrivals side, and Tung Chung MTR Line to the east. The covered area is marked by four towers housing the mechanical vent plant for the station

50

為離境區,東面為入 境區及地鐵東涌線入 口。 天花覆蓋的範圖以 四座塔樓為標誌, 塔樓內是車站大堂 的通風設備。塔樓向 後倚靠,宛如慶祝外 遊,這正是車站建築 設計的中心概念,而 Landmark Tower 的弧 線造型也呼應了這個 概念。

廣場表面用rosso maronni花崗岩及 bianco sardo 花崗岩建 造,同是選自意大利 一個採石場,那裡可 以找到大量的石料, 同時又能夠保證石料 質量統一。花崗岩以 條狀鋪砌,使支配整 體設計的12米車站網 格結構形成圖案。沿 廣場邊緣有三層石 階,由此而上為人行步 道,構成中心區域包

concourse. The towers lean back in a manner expressive of the celebration of travel, which is the central conceptual theme of the station architecture and echoed in the curves of the Landmark Tower. The surface of the square is rosso maronni granite with bianco sardo granite banding from Italy, selected from a quarry that could harvest such a vast quantity of stone, whilst still ensuring a consistent quality. The granite is aligned in stripes so that the 12m station grid which orders the plan becomes visible as a landscape pattern. Along the edges of the square, three steps rise up to a perimeter pavement to form a frame for the central area which contains the rail gateway. The change of level divides the space into areas of movement and stillness; dynamic at the perimeter and still towards the centre. The pattern of movement of origin and destination is the basis of the layout of covered pathways, with metal and glass canopies, that run through the square to provide sheltered routes between the buildings that will one day surround the square.

括鐵路入口的一個 外框。地面高度的變 化將空間劃分為動態 空間與靜態空間:四 周為動,中央為靜。 起始點及目的地的 行進模式是有蓋步 道設計的基礎。這 些步道有金屬及破 璃製成的頂棚,穿 過廣場,連接將來環 繞廣場的建築群,為 行人提供有蓋走道。


51


原型 在建築用地稀少的 香港,九龍站及其周 圍的高密度城市或許 只被視為一個注重實 際需要的項目,進一 步發展及改善香港其 他地區一些較小規模 的同類開發計劃。然 而,若以這種觀點來 看,就會錯失很多本 項目所能夠提供的設 計發展經驗。

土地匿乏目前已是全 球性的事實;城市發 展最大的壓力往往出 現在最富饒、最具生 產力的土地上,可見 重新檢討城市高密度 的益處是必須的。對 於亞洲新的城市化國 家來說,香港,特別 是超高密度的九龍半 島,為高密度城市生 活包括土地與生態 保護等方面樹立了 仿效的榜樣。

PROTOTYPE In Hong Kong, where available land for building is scarce, Kowloon Station and its integration with the compact city around it can be seen as merely pragmatic; the development and refinement of prototypes pioneered at a smaller scale elsewhere in the city. But this Hong Kong-centred view misses the wider lessons offered by the project. That land is scarce is now a global fact. That the greatest pressure for urban growth is taking place on the most fertile and productive land should lead to a re-examination of the benefits of urban density. For the newly urbanising countries of Asia, Hong Kong, and super-high-density Kowloon in particular, offers an alternative model for the benefits of dense urban living, including land and ecological conservation and convenience.

52


53


54


首期工程:巨型車站

城市中的車站 Terry Farrell & Partners 在首次分 析任務書時就意識到 這項設計遠非只是一 座車站、一座大樓; 車站與西九龍的發展 計劃一起,將構成一 個城市核心,成為未 來建設新區域的催化 劑。此地區須有一中 心焦點,既表明本身 的特徵,又創造一種 地點感。

PHASE ONE : THE GREAT STATION

對Terry Farrell & Partners 來說,將歷史 與現代結合在一起,就 是打開任務書中複雜問 題的一把鑰匙,實現 一個明確的車站及城市 設計。於車站上蓋興建 中央廣場的概念,是來 自將公共空間當作城市 設計界定要素的傳統 理念,經過改進,以配 合香港高密度的城市環 境。廣場不再是建築物 間的一個空間,相反, 它變成建築物間一個平

台層、車站的上蓋,以 及邁向機場鐵路大堂頂 的入口。 入口位於車站正中,而 車站則位於鐵路軸線與車 站人流動線的交叉點上, 入口大樓成為兩條軸線共 用的門戶。軸線上的入口 通向車站上蓋的城市;車 站人流動線上則有兩個 入口:西面為機場鐵路離 境區入口,東面的入口通 往鐵路入境區及地鐵東 桶線。

THE STATION IN THE CITY From the first analysis of the brief, Terry Farrell & Partners realised the design was to be much more than merely a station, in itself a major building. Together, the station and West Kowloon development would form a city core that would be a catalyst for the future development of a whole new district, and it needed a central focus to establish an identity and a sense of place. For Terry Farrell & Partners, bringing together the historic and the radically modern provided the key to unlocking the complexities of the brief to produce a legible station and city design. The concept of a central square above the station took the historic idea of public space as the defining element of urban design and updated it within the dense urban context of Hong Kong. Instead of the square being a space between buildings, it became a podium-level space between buildings, the roof to the station and the entrance into the top of the great halls of the Airport Railway.

55


The entrance is located at the exact centre of the station at the crossing point of the rail and station concourse axes. The entrance building acts as a gateway along both these axes. On the rail axis is the entrance to the city to be built above the station. On the concourse axis are two entrances: the western entrance is to the Airport Railway departures; the eastern entrance leads to the railway arrivals and Tung Chung MTR Line.

56


57


58


59


60


61


機場城市化 機 場 鐵 路 的 概 念 將 機 場 某 些 功 能 放到城市中。在九 龍站,除護照檢查 外,全套的檢票設 施讓乘客可以預辦 所有登機手續,然 後登上機場快線列 車,只須20分鐘就 能夠抵達赤蠟角機 場。 整 個 出 境 的 過

程 ——抵 達 車 站 、 下車、托運行李、 登上列車一一都是 線性的,乘客經過 有序的空間,由一 種活動轉至另一種 活 動 。 而 入 境 過 程 ——從 月 台 到 接 車 區,再到其他交通 工 具 的 中 轉 點 ——同 樣也是線性的。由 於香港土地有限, 是 個 高 密 度 的 城 市,因此各種交通 形式必須盡量緊密

URBANISING THE AIRPORT The Airport Railway concept locates certain airport functions in the city. At Kowloon Station, a fullscale check-in facility allows passengers to carry out all pre-flight formalities, other than passport control, prior to boarding the Airport Express for a 20-minute trip to Chek Lap Kok airport. The sequence of departure activities - arrival, drop-off, baggage check-in, boarding the trains - is linear, with passengers passing from one activity to another through an orderly progression of spaces. The arrivals sequence, from platform to meeting-and-greeting area and connections with other transport modes, is also linear. The limited availability of land, in the density of the city, requires that the various transport functions are closely packed and fitted onto the site by stacking spaces one above the other. The urban setting requires a more complex three-dimensional architectural solution to transport planning than is required in the wide open spaces of an airport terminal. The architectural challenge was to design the spaces and their interconnections so that the route through

62

結合,並採取層層 疊加的方法設置。 要解決交通規劃上 的困難,城市設計 須以比位於開闊空 間的機場客運大樓 更複雜的三維建築 法來處理。建築設 計上的挑戰,在如 何設計空間及其相 連點,使車站的交 通流線更直接,讓 乘客更易理解。在 這座21世紀的三維 車站中,乘客可以

經由自動扶手電梯 及玻璃升降機垂直 穿梭於敞闊的大室 內。 跟維多利亞時代簡 陋的車站不同,這 座現代化的車站建 築是大型的實體結 構,在地基與上蓋 的城市結構間開闢 了車站的各個大堂 空間。

the station is direct and easy for passengers to understand. In the three-dimensional, 21st century station, passengers move vertically through the great halls on banks of escalators and in glass lifts. In contrast with the lightweight Victorian sheds, the architecture of the modern station is one of massive solid structures, with halls carved out between the foundations and structures of the city above.


Station great halls ィョック、jー

63


Drop-off for in-town check-in ・ォーマケwソ nセ籠

64


In-town check-in ・ォーマケwソ nセ籠

In-town check-in hall ・ォーマケwソ nセ籠jー

Tung Chung Line ェFッFスu

65


大小立柱 九龍站是其上蓋城 市的地基層。這個 將建於車站上蓋的 建築群,將以直徑 3米的立性承托,把 荷載轉移到樁基及 100米以下的岩床。 為了城市將來的進 一步發展,結構基 礎及立柱必須能夠 承載樓高40層的建 築物及平台結構。 車站內輕重結構的 設置將操控未來平

台及平台上分期建設 的設計方案,同時確 定露天空間及建築物 的位置。結構的詳細 規劃也決定樓板規模 及建築物的高度。因 此,車站結構的定案 成為車站上蓋城市設 計的定案;車站的建 築網格成為上蓋城市 的網格構架。 建築及工程上小規模 的決定影響城市設計 的佈局,此兩者間的 關係成為本項目的一

BIG COLUMNS / SMALL COLUMNS The station is the foundation layer of the city. The mass of buildings to be built above it will be carried on 3m diameter columns which will take the loads to the foundation piles and into the bedrock 100m below. The key to providing for the future development of the city relied on the decision as to which foundations and columns would be built to carry 40-storey buildings and which would be designed to carry podium structure. The pattern of heavy and lighter structure in the station would control future decisions about the design of the podium and the cycles of construction that will take place upon it. It would determine which areas would be open space and which could developed as buildings. The detail of the structure would also dictate the range of floor-plate sizes and the heights of buildings that could be accommodated. The decision about structure in the station became a decision about the design of the city above. The architectural grid of the station became the urban grid of the city.

個特點。例如,將車 站入口設在鐵路與人 流動線交點的車站廣 場的中央,使車站中 心成為一個沒有大型 建築的開放空間,成 為人流最密集的地 方。這樣,城市規 劃、工程結構以及車 站建築各方面的要求 便會結合在一起,將 車站與城市融合成一 個整體。

Urban column

The relationship between architectural and engineering decisions at a small scale affecting issues at an urban scale became a characteristic of the project. For example, by placing the station entrance in the centre of the Station Square, at the intersection of the railway and concourse axes, an area clear of heavy building structures was opened up in the centre of the station where the most intense pedestrian circulation occurs. In this way, the requirements of urban planning, engineering and station architecture came together as the complete integration of station and city.

The architectural urban grid ィィィィィィィvィィ

66


67


現代化車站概 念 歷史上大型城市火車 站的建築造型都有巨 大的列車棚和壯觀的城 市立面。這些維多利亞 式建築的大跨度及輕巧 結構,成為旅行劇的佈 景,而與車站相連的鐵 路辦公大樓及酒店則有

宏偉的立面設計。清 潔的電器化火車出現 後,雖然蒸汽火車已 被淘汰,但是這種壯 觀的鐵路車棚和建築 立面仍然是火車站的 主導建築樣式。

年代。設計概念的出 發點從列車轉到乘客 身上。吸收了現代機 場及集體交通系統的 經驗,車站設計將焦 點放在乘客的安全‘ 便捷及舒適之上。

九龍站誕生於建築設 計發展揉合現代科技 及新鐵路旅行模式的

九龍站設有與列車車 門平行的一列滑動玻 璃門,分隔列車與空

THE MODERN STATION CONCEPT Historically, the great urban station found its architectural form and expression in grand train sheds and city facades. The long spans and structural lightness of these Victorian marvels provided the setting for the drama of travel, while railway offices and hotels - buildings connected to the station - formed imposing street frontages. The railway shed and grand facade has remained the dominant architectural model for stations long after the arrival of clean, electric trains rendered obsolete the need for a large volume to dissipate engine smoke. At Kowloon, the station comes of age with the development of an architecture in tune with modern technology and a new ethos of train travel. The change is characterised by a conceptual shift to the passenger, rather than the train, as the generator of the architecture. Focusing design on the safety, convenience and comfort of the passenger follows the example set by modern airports and mass transit systems. A screen of sliding doors that aligns with the train doors separates the train from the air-conditioned platforms at Kowloon Station. The train environment, therefore, has little impact on the station as it arrives and departs within its own separate room. Great station halls are no longer for trains and smoke: they are places for people.

68

調月台。這樣,列車 到站或離站都在分隔 的空間內,不會對車 站產生太大影響。 寬敞的車站大堂再 不是為列車和濃煙而 設,而是為乘客服務 的地方。


Urban disruption around the traditional ground station ウカカヌイホヲaュアィョックイVカテェコ・ォーマ

City and station integrated ァ }

69


車站大樓 機場鐵路計劃的擬 定階段及委派具體設 計顧問小組期間,地 鐵公司進行了初步的 可行性研究及概念設 計方案。發展項目的 選址及規劃任務書得 到港府認可,一些意 念方案亦準備妥當。 在確定基本的鐵路路

線,及完成一些車站 設計意念的可行性研 究後,車站設施及車 站規劃某些方面的任 務書就有了雛型。 在具體設計過程之 初,任務書中很多 複雜的問題其實需 要採用較原先考慮為 簡潔、有力的解決辦 法。此方法必須容許 設計作具體發展,同

時具有如此大規模城 市的建設靈活性。隨 著設計方案進一步發 展,車站以簡單的長 方形盒子造型設計, 採用標準的12平方米 網格。在這簡單的造 型中,車站的設計可 以在其中形成建築個 體,而城市設計也能 在網格結構中發展。

Preliminary feasibility studies ェ チ・iヲ讖 ャ罟s

THE STATION BOX During the time between the initiation of the Airport Railway project and the appointment of the detailed design consultant team, the MTR Corporation carried out preliminary feasibility and concept design work. The site and planning brief for the property development was agreed with the Government, and some concept layouts were prepared. The basic railway alignment was in place and some feasibility work had been completed on options for the layout of the station, establishing an approximate brief for station facilities and some aspects of station planning. At the outset of the detailed design process it became evident that the resolution of many complex aspects of the brief required a simpler, more robust solution than had previously been considered. This solution had to be capable of enduring the detailed development of the design and be able to cater for the inherent flexibility required in city-making at this scale. As the concept developed, the station was defined as a simple rectangular box with a standard 12m2 grid. Within this simple form, the station design could develop as volumes formed within the box, and the city design could progress within the grid.

Public hall 、スイウ、jー Train platforms ヲCィョ、 x Tung Chung Line ェFッFスu AEL tracks セKクy Roadways ケDク Car parking ーアィョウ Bus station 、レ、hック Baggage handling ヲ讒ォケB Taxi station ェコ、hック Station back of house ィョックセミ

Podium Level plan ・ュ・xシh・ュュアケマ

Level One plan イト、@シh・ュュアケマ

Ground Level plan ヲaュアシh・ュュアケマ

Basement Level One ヲa、Uイト、@シh

Basement Level Two ヲa、Uイト、Gシh

Kowloon Station isometric 、Eタsックオ・ィ、ケマ 70


2520

120

2700

GROUNG FLOOR

CHECK IN DROP OFF

2024

TCL UNPAID AREA

TOWN CHECK IN HALL

BASEMENT 1

DEPARTURE DROP OFF

2024 AIRPORT

EXPRESS DEPARTURE HALL

17696

15660

FIRST FLOOR

ARRIVAL HALL

AEL

5280 11815

TCL PLATFORM

1680 1260 1680

TCL PAID AREA

4469

MINI BUS CROSS BORDER BUS

11640

16637 UPPER LEVEL 1260

TICKET CONTROL

AEL

12900 LOCAL BUS

14160

RETAIL ENTRANCE

RETAIL ENTRANCE

LUXURY FRANCHISE BUS CAR PARKING

2136

中央大堂能引入自然光 線,照明車站的中心地 帶,一方面減低人們位 於地下空間的感覺,另 一方面也加強他們的方 向感。

KOWLOON DEVELOPMENT GATEWAY

PODIUM DECK

1200

在九龍站,與車站 大樓中心線平行的 是一個中央大堂, 解決了鐵路交通與 其他交通工具間複 雜的 連接問題。大 堂是一個引人注目 的空間,裡面安排 了可以穿梭車站各 處的垂直動線,並 且可以由此到達上 蓋的城市。

將垂直動線集中在一個 獨立的中央空間內,車 站裡的乘客能夠 很方便 地找到去路。他 們所經 過的地方,在每個連接 點都有清晰可見、簡明 易懂的指示。

3240

車站大堂

3756

MEETING & GREETING HALL

1620

TAXI PICKUP STATION

4824 13351

BASEMENT 2

TO AIRPORT

THE CONCOURSE At Kowloon Station, a central concourse aligned with the centreline of the station box resolved the problem of providing complex interconnections between the rail lines and other modes of transport. The concourse provides a single dramatic volume within which all the vertical circulation through the station takes place, as well as leading upwards to the city that will surround it.

EKL PLATFORM

TO AIRPORT

Kowloon Station transportation network 、Eタsック・豕qコク final phase peak hour passenger flows ォ盒チチcヲ」ョノカ。、Hャyケマ

By concentrating vertical movement within a single, central volume, passengers can easily find their way through the station. Each link in the sequence of spaces they move through is laid out so that it is clearly visible and simple to understand. The central concourse allows daylight to illuminate the centre of the station, relieving the sense of being in a subterranean space and reinforcing the passengersʼ sense of orientation.

Intermodal interchange ヲhコリケBソ鬢

71


寬敞大堂概念 在這個簡單的長15 形 盒子造型及1 2 平方 米網格結構中,車站 被設計成一系列互相 聯繫的大堂空間,每 個大堂都有不同的功 能。車站天花的折合

造型及有角平面為每 個空間創造不同的形 象,並將這些大堂割 分為不同的功能區。 強調空間不同的特點 及明確標示轉線處, 有助乘客在這個復雜 寬敞的建築物內找到 自己的去路。

THE GREAT HALLS CONCEPT Within the simple, rectangular station box and 12m2 grid, the station is designed as a series of interlinked great halls, each containing one of the principal functions of the station. The folded profiles and angled planes of the ceilings create a separate identity for each space and divide the halls into zones for different functions. Accentuating the difference between spaces and clarifying their interconnections helps passengers find their way through a large and complex building.

72


AEL meeting-and-greeting area セヨスuアオィョーマ

AEL passenger interchange セヨスuュシォネ・豸ラウB

Airport Express Line (AEL) arrivals hall from the Tung Chung Line arrivals concourse アqェFッFスuィ ク、jーンセヨスu、Jケメ、jー

73

AEL arrivals hall セヨスu、Jケメ、jー

74


1 = City gateway q 2 = In-town check-in w n 3 = Airport Express Line u 4 = Vehicle drop-off T 5 = Meeting-and-greeting  6 = Transport interchange level  quh 7 = Tung Chung Line FFu 8 = Shopping high street h 9 = Main vehicle entrance


Tung Chung Line concourse ェFッFスu、jー

AEL platform セヨスu、 x

Tung Chung Line platform ェFッFスu、 x

79

Tung Chung Line platforms ェFッFスu、 x

80


愉快旅程的開 始 九龍站將是乘客不少 旅程的起點,是機場 經驗的起點及終點。 對數以百萬計的人來 說,這將是他們與香 港作首次接觸的地 點。 車站的設計有如向乘 客祝賀旅程。車站垂 直的動線集中在圍繞 中央大堂及鐵路線的

地方。中央廣場內設 有自動扶手電梯﹒升 降機及樓梯,將不 同的交通工具連接 在一起,是位於車站 核心人流密集的單一 空間,讓人們接送親 友。 沿著鐵路軸線,有 一座下降14米的自動 扶手電梯及樓梯,通 過寬敞的電梯大堂, 從地面層直達車站最 低層的地鐵東泊線月

A CELEBRATION OF TRAVELLING Kowloon Station will be the starting and finishing point of many journeys; the beginning and end of the airport experience. It will be the first experience of Hong Kong proper for millions of people. The station design is a celebration of this drama of travel. Vertical movement in the station is concentrated around the concourse and rail lines. The concourse, containing escalators, lifts and stairs connecting the various modes of transport, is a single space filled with movement, meeting and greeting at the core of the station.

台。這裡將是車站使 用率最高的空筒,在 繁忙時間可載送的 43,500位乘客到達或 離開月台。透過電梯 大堂的窗戶,乘客可 以看到列車進出機場 快線月台的情況。透 過相同的窗戶,月台 上的乘客也可以看到 電梯大堂內的人流活 動。從機場快線離境 區,乘客可以透過市 區預辦登機大堂的玻 璃隔牆看到入境區的

情況,由此,整個 車站範圍內離境、 入境區乘客的活動 情況都一目了然。

the stationʼs lowest level. This will be the most intensively used space, with 43,500 passengers arriving and departing from the platforms at peak hours. Windows on either side of the escalator hall reveal trains arriving and departing from the Airport Express platforms. The same windows provide views from the platforms of the flow of passengers in the escalator hall. From the Airport Express departure area, openings through the walls of the in-town check-in hall allow views through to the arrival side, so that movement of departing and arriving passengers is visible across the full expanse of the station.

Along the rail axis, escalators and stairs descend 14m, through a grand escalator hall, from ground level to the Tung Chung MTR Line platforms at

81


綜合交通轉線 站 九龍站提供了其他 各種交通工具。不 同交通系統間的人 流動線,對提供乘客 清晰的方向指示十分 重要。經過仔緬分析 每種交通工具預計的 使用量後,設計小組 在車站進行了相應設 計,使車站為最大量 的乘客提供最方便的

服務。多數乘客在車 站內無須換層;其他乘 客則乘搭自動扶手電 梯上下不同樓屑。所 有樓層及區域均有升 降機及自動扶手電梯 到達,還有為攜帶行 李的乘客而設的手推 車。 機場鐵路車站分為離 境區和入境區,分別 位於鐵路雨過。

INTEGRATED TRANSPORT INTERCHANGE The station provides a comprehensive range of other modes of transport. Pedestrian circulation between these transport systems is essential to providing a user-friendly experience for passengers. After careful analysis of the predicted use of each transport mode, the design team laid out the station to provide the maximum

82

convenience for the maximum number of passengers. Most passengers pass through the station without changing level; the others move between levels by escalator. All levels and areas can be accessed by lift and escalator, and trolleys are available for passengers with bags. The Airport Railway station is divided into departures and arrivals areas located on either side of the railway tracks.

Right ・kケマ: Station concourse


83


84

離境區

DEPARTURE

希望托運行李的離境 乘客可以在市區預辦 登機大堂西面的上層 車道下車。然後,他 們來到排列在大堂東 側的檢票櫃台,辦理 有關手續後,來到就 在樓下的離境大堂。 不欲在市區預辦登機 手續的乘客則在離境 大堂西側的下層車道 下車,穿過大堂,到 達機場快線月台,登 上列車。

Departing passengers wishing to check-in baggage are dropped off at the upper-level kerb that runs along the western side of the in-town check-in hall. They then move to the check-in desks aligned along the eastern side of the hall. After check-in, they go to the departures hall located directly below. Passengers who do not wish to use the in-town check-in facility are dropped off at the lower-level kerb on the west side of the departures hall. They move across the hall to the Airport Express platform to board the train.


入境區

ARRIVAL

抵港下機後登上列車 離開機場的乘客,從 月台中央區到達接車 區。對乘客來說,車 站是旅程的終點,因 為親友到車站迎接他 們來港,跟在機場客 運大樓所做的一樣。 月台和接車區間的分 隔線南邊設有高架平 台,方便前來迎接親 友的人處於更佳的位 置看到抵港的乘客。

Passengers arriving from the airport disembark from the train and leave by moving through the centre zone of the platform into the meeting-andgreeting area. For many passengers, the station will be the end of their journey as people meeting airline passengers are more likely to do so at the station than at the airport terminal. A raised platform is located on each side of the barrier line between the platform and meeting-and-greeting area to provide a vantage point for “greeters” to observe arriving passengers.

85


的土站 大約一半的抵港乘 客,或每小時1,620位 乘客,都會乘搭的士 離開車站。當車站全 力運作時,需要20輛 的士同時運送乘客及 行李。為了做到這一 點,設計小組必須設 計一個新型的高容量 的士站。

當的士在離境區讓 乘客下車後,駛經 一條站內的通道進入 入境區的候車區位 於接車大堂南面。 在此,的士從這裡通 過一條穿過大堂下方 的隧道,向上客點前 進。接車區南面有兩 個空調的候車凸堤向 外延伸,凸堤兩邊可 同時容納五輛的士。

TAXI STATION Approximately half of the arriving passengers, or 1,620 passengers an hour, will leave the station by taxi. The passenger flows when the station is operating at full capacity require that 20 taxis can load passengers and their bags simultaneously. To achieve this the design team had to develop a new form of high-capacity taxi station. After dropping off on the departures side, taxis are fed through an internal roadway into a waiting

86

乘客向前走到凸堤的 中央位置,經過分隔 空調凸堤和自動通風 車道的自動門,在上 客點 坐上的士。

上層中央有一個圓形的 大空間將上下兩層在視 覺上聯繫在一起,讓乘 客可以清楚知道在何處 轉車。

轉線站

上層大堂的北面設有停 車場,可以讓作短時間 停留的汽車停泊;南邊 則是豪華專利巴士站, 大堂西面為地鐵東涌線 的入口。

需要轉乘其他交通工 具的乘客,可以通過 一組中央自動扶手電梯 到達接車大堂的上層。

area on the arrivals side, to the south of the meeting-and-greeting hall. From here, they are automatically called forward to pick-up points via a tunnel that passes beneath the hall. Two air-conditioned piers, or fingers, extend from the north side of the meeting-and-greeting area. Taxi pick-up kerbs for up to five taxis are located on either side of the piers. Passengers move down the centre of the fingers and board taxis at each of the pick-up points by passing through a set of automatic doors that separates the air-conditioned fingers from the mechanically ventilated roadway.


城市聯繫 通過一組自動扶手電 梯,乘客可以從上 層 大堂到達一樓,那裡 為購物中心,與車站 中央大堂相連。購物 商場構成一樓人行路 線網絡的一部分,並 從車站一直延伸到西 九龍其他地區。購物 商場還有人行通道, 可以直達中港互通巴

士總站,乘坐巴士進入 中國境內,也可以通往 設在地鐵站東面的本地 巴士站和小巴站。填海 工程完成後,這個一樓 的人行網絡會連接九廣 鐵路公司的西九龍站, 此車站將與地鐵公司的 九龍站相鄰。九廣鐵路 公司的選址將會興建一 座本地鐵路車站及一座 前往中國大陸的高速鐵 路車站。

INTERCHANGE

City linking

Passengers interchanging with other modes of transport move to the upper-level of the meeting hall via a central bank of escalators. A large circular void in the centre of the upper hall provides a visual connection between the two levels so that passengers can clearly see where to go to connect to other transport modes. Car parking is located to the north of the upper-level hall for short-stay vehicles. Luxury franchise buses are available immediately to the south. Access to the Tung Chung MTR Line is located on the west side of the hall. CITY LINKS A bank of escalators leads from the upper-level hall to the first floor where the shopping centre connects with the station concourse. The malls form part of a first-floor network of pedestrian routes that extend out from the station to the rest of West Kowloon. The shopping malls provide pedestrian links to the cross-border bus station for services to China, and to local bus and minibus stations located to the east of the MTR station. When the reclamation is complete, this first-floor pedestrian network will connect to the Kowloon Canton Railway Corporationʼs West Kowloon Station, to be constructed adjacent to the MTR Corporationʼs Kowloon Station. The KCRC site

Upper level hall 、Wシh、jー

Level One plan イト、@

Ground Level plan

will include a local rail station and a high-speed rail terminus for trains to China.

Left ・ェケマ: Taxi finger

87


Pedestrian links ィョックヲUウBェコチpテエ

88


89


工程的挑戰 一如機場核心計劃大部 分工程,九龍站工程規 模龐大,時間緊迫。 九龍站佔地75,000平 方米,總建築面積 220,000 平方米,須 在44個月內竣工,其 中包括建造能承載 5,000噸重量的巨型地 基,以承受將來車站 上蓋的建築群。單是 地基合約一項,已是

世界上最大的建築合 同之一。車站下面有 約1,020個連續牆基礎 及2.5米直徑的現場灌 注混凝土樁打入地下 岩床。樁基由25米到 105米不等,打破世 界紀錄。16個月內, 共打下40公里的地基 柱樁,耗用20,000 噸 鋼筋及140,000立方米 的混凝土,並在有足 夠承重力的岩床上鑽 了3公里孔洞以固定 柱樁。 October 1995 10、 (1995)

THE CONSTRUCTION CHALLENGE Like almost everything associated with the Airport Core Projects, the construction of Kowloon Station was an enterprise on a vast scale and carried out in record time. The station, which has a footprint of 75,000m2 and a gross floor area of 220,000m2, had to be constructed in just 44 months. That timeframe included the construction of the massive foundations, capable of supporting 5,000 tonnes, that will carry the towers to be built above the station. The foundation contract alone was one of the largest in the world. Some 1,020 barrettes and cast-in-situ bored piles up to 2.5m in diameter were sunk below the station and socketed into

September 1997 9、 1997)

90

June 1996 6、 1996)

June 1997 6、 1997)


工程的挑戰

市規劃格局。

由於地基深坑低於海 平面15米,為防止海 水進入,承建商KEC 在挖出的基坑泥牆內 設置深井排水系統, 每小時可抽水1,800立 方米,並將地下水平 面從海平面以下2.5 米 降至15米。

至於車站其他部分, 需要1,200位工人每天 工作24小時,每周灌 注8,000立方米混凝 土,在18個月內共耗 275,000立方米混凝土 及50,000噸鋼筋。

這個隱藏在填海區下 面的巨型地基,決定 了車站上蓋將來的城

裝備結構框架的工 程有賴世界各地的 分包商及建造商共同 努力。花崗岩地板在 意大利製造,牆面飾

the bedrock. The piles varied in depth from 25m to a world-beating 105m. In 16 months, 40km of piles were constructed using 20,000 tonnes of reinforcement bars and 140,000 m3 of concrete. Three kilometres of bedrock was drilled to form sockets to anchor the piles into the load-bearing strata. In order to prevent water entering excavations as deep as 15m below sea level, the contractor, KEC, installed a deep well de-watering system within a slurry cut-off wall. This was capable of pumping 1,800 m3 of water an hour, and lowered the groundwater level from 2.5m to 15m below sea level.

February 1996 2、 1996)

July 1997 7、 1997)

September 1997 9、 1997)

May 1996 5、 1996)

91


板在德國製造;天花 來自奧地利,專門的 金屬製品來自中國大 陸,玻璃窗牆來自法 國及美國。 作為超級交通城首期 工程的九龍站現在經 已竣工。當乘客在車 站大堂內辦理登機手

績,或乘坐自動扶手 電梯上落時,很少會 留意到所處的環境是 模仿世界各地不同地 方組合而成,同時, 很少人會意識到腳下 躺著的是一個巨型地 基結構,其上將聳立 一座新的城市。

Hidden from view beneath the reclamation, this massive foundation structure defines the plan for the city that will rise above the station. For the rest of the station, the requirement to cast 275,000 m3 of concrete and install 50,000 tonnes of steel reinforcement in 18 months demanded a labour force of 1,200, working 24 hours a day, pouring 8,000 m3 of concrete a week. The fitting out of the engineering shell took the combined efforts of subcontractors and manufacturers from around the world. The granite floors were made in Italy, the wall panelling in Germany. The ceilings came from Austria, specialist metalwork from China, and glazing from France and the United States. The station, which forms the first phase of the Transport Super City, is now complete. As passengers check-in or ride an escalator through its great halls, few will realise their environment was assembled from parts made around the globe, or that beneath their feet lies the massive foundation of a city about to rise above them.

92


93


94


系統支援

九龍遁風大樓簡 稱KVB是配合九 龍站及隧道出口的技 術支援系統大樓。經 過策略性的研究,它 位處海底鐵路隧道橫 貫九龍海岸一點的鐵 路上方。 大樓僅有三分之一外 露,其餘部分隱藏在 一個向下通往鐵路隧 道的20米深坑中。

SYSTEM SUPPORT

散熱 地鐵面對的問題之 一,是如何驅散由列 車、機器設備及乘客 產生的熱量。解決的 方法是將海水從維多 利亞港抽到九龍站, 經過熱交換系統,收 集廢棄的熱能,最後 送回海港,變為熱 水。每天通過兩條 直徑1.5米的管道將 650立方米的海水往

返抽送於海港和車 站間,同時將海水 進行過濾及電解氯化 處理,以保護機器設 備,使免遭污染及避 免廢物積聚。整個過 程都在通風大樓的機 房內進行。 通風 通風大縷的另一個 主要功能是為地鐵 道風,同時減低列

The Kowloon Ventilation Building, or KVB, is the technical support systems building serving Kowloon Station and the approach tunnels. It is strategically located above the railway at the point where the cross-harbour rail tunnel traverses the Kowloon shoreline. Only one-third of the building is visible. The rest is housed in a massive, 20m excavation that extends down to the rail tunnels. Heat One of the problems faced by underground railways is to find ways to dissipate the build-up of heat from trains, plant and passengers. Sea water is pumped up from the harbour to Kowloon Station, where it is passed through a heat-exchange system to collect waste heat energy before being returned to the harbour as warmed water for disposal. The processes of pumping 650 m3 of water a day to and from the harbour, through two 1.5m diameter pipes and filtering and electro-chlorinating the water to protect the plant from contamination and waste build-up, all take place within the cavernous rooms of the KVB. Ventilation The other main function of the KVB is to ventilate the underground rail lines and release pressure buildup caused by the piston effect of trains passing along the tunnels. Huge shafts extend downwards from the building to the railway tracks. Above

95


96


97


車穿過隧道時因活塞 效應而產生的壓力。 巨型的并槽由大樓向 下通往路軌,在地面 上,這些井槽看似從 大樓主體向上伸出的 高塔。這樣的設計一 方面便於疏導氣流, 一方面則通過嵌入的 百頁窗將空氣引入或 送出鐵路隧道。 防洪閑 適風大樓還設有一對

防洪閘,可以在發生 洪災時關閉,保護海 底隧道及鐵路隧道。 支援角色 通 風 大 樓 其 餘 額 外的功能於維持九 龍站及過海鐵路隧 道的正常運作同樣 重要。這些功能包 括列車隧道的逃生 槽、鐵路線修入口 通道、電力供應及 後備供電系統。

Track level yh

Level 0 0h

ground, the shafts appear as towers attached to the main body of the building, sculpted to allow for the flow of air and to accommodate louvres that suck in and vent air to and from the rail lines. Floodgates The KVB also contains a pair of flood-protection gates that can be locked in position to protect either the cross-harbour tunnel or the approach tunnels in the event of flooding. Supporting roles The KVBʼs additional functions are equally important in maintaining the performance of Kowloon Station and the cross-harbour rail tunnels. These include escape shafts from the train tunnels, line maintenance access, and power generation supply and backup.

Level 1A and level 1 plan  1Ah1h 1Ah1h

Ground level plan ah

Level 3 3h

Roof level h

98

0

10

20m


B

C

A

G

F

D H E

I A = B C D

J

K

M

E F G H I

L

J

K

N O

L M N O

R

Q R

Main tunnel vents DGDqf = Service yardtm = Entrance to floodgate room xhJf = Two rectifiers/transformers y™ = Floodgates motor room xho  = Siding tunnels uGD = Seawater filter screen LojO = Seawater intake cells  = Seawater intake culvert   = Seawater filter screen motor room LojOo  = Tunnel vent plenum GDqW = Floodgatesxh = Tracky = Train = Retaining wallg P = Tunnel escape stairs GDk Q = UptrackWhy = DowntrackUhy

P 99


建築造型 通風大樓位於將來的 西九龍地區公園內。 建築設計除了顧及大 樓的功能規劃佈局, 還要設法將這座大型 的實用性建築配合公 園的環境。 最後的定案,是將大 樓當作一件景物雕塑 來處理,以豐富公園 景觀。經過仔細分析 大樓的運作功能,並 以簡單的三維立體模 型及草圖進行研究,

最後得出大樓弧形、 不規則的龐大造型設 計。設計師構思出一 個能夠容納大樓所有 部分的單一弧形設 計,可以 興建一座 低造價、以綱筋混 凝土及簡單建材建成 的通風大樓,作為將 來公園的一座輔助建 築。在設計過程中, 為了使大樓與景觀設 計統一,設計師致力 將建築的弧線延伸至 四周的公園景觀。

Building Form The KVB sits within the future West Kowloon Regional Park. The architectural issue, apart from resolving the planning arrangement of the building functions, was to find a way to integrate this large utilitarian building into the park environment. It was decided to treat the building as a sculpted landscape which would enhance the park. Its giant, curved organic form was developed after careful analysis of the functional profile of its operations, which were examined in three-dimensions using simple models and sketches. By finding a single curved form that enveloped all the parts of the building, it was possible to create a low-cost, reinforced concrete building finished in simple materials that would complement the future park. During the design development, the potential to extend the soft curve of the architecture into the surrounding landscape was explored in order to create a unified building and landscape design. From some viewpoints, the KVB appears animallike, from others it is reminiscent of a landscaped hill. It has begun to acquire pet names: the whale, the wave, the dragon, grasshopper, sail boat. It is intended to have all these associations.

100

從某些角度看,九龍 通風大樓看上去像一 隻動物;從另一些角 度看,它又使人聯想 到一座美麗的小山。 有人經巳給它起了各 種外號:鯨魚、波 浪、巨龍、蚱蜢和帆 船,因為它的設計本 來就和這些東西聯繫 在一起。 香港這座現代化的城 市是由各種服務、實 用設施及交通運輸系 統維繫的。這一切都

有賴各種大型機房及 系統支援大樓配合。 對於此類大樓,一般 做法是選擇一處偏僻 隱閉的位置,將它們 藏匿於無名的建築物 中,被人們永遠遺 忘。這座建築物,由 於位處世上最壯觀的 市區海濱,地鐵公司 決定採用一種不同的 手法,結果完成了這 個值得紀念的建築作 品,促成香港第一個 大型市區海演公園的 誕生。

The modern city is powered by services, utilities and transit systems all of which require large functional machine rooms and system support buildings. The usual strategy for such buildings is to find a back lot location and hide them away in anonymous architecture which, at best, we forget. Faced with a huge building on the worldʼs most imposing urban waterfront, the MTR Corporation directed that an alternative approach should be found. The result is a work of memorable organic architecture that will provide a creative catalyst for Hong Kongʼs first major harbour-side urban park.


101


102


103


104


105


106


107


108


109


Kowloon Station data Es Decision to build new Airport and Airport Railway MwsK 1989 MTRC appointed to build & operate Airport Railway aKqegK 1992 Terry Farrell & Partners Appointment e design ]p . tender   . action  05 October 1992 Main Contractors Award u{PDn Topping Out Ceremony 

19 September 1997

Opening Ceremony Kowloon Station Airport Railway Completion Es} Ku 21 June 1998 Airport Opening }

110

06 July 1998

November 1994

Location/Address  m/a} : West Kowloon Reclamation Es Longitude/Latitude gn : 818 400 N _ / 834 700 E F Design period ]pP : 26+ months 26 HW Design dates ]p : September 1992 - November 1994 Reclamation dates  : 1991 - 1993 Area of Kowloon Reclamation Es`n : 334 hectares  Bulk excavation gq : 900,000m3 Ground conditions gap : Reclaimed, hydraulically placed marine sand fill 25m thick; alluvium (up to 12m); moderately/slightly decomposed granite bedrock wFhp25m; Rnh (pF12m);  ^ Construction period IuP : 44 months 44 Construction dates Iu : November 1994 - June 1998 Topping out date  : September 17, 1997 Peak work force huH : 2,000 persons 2,000H Opening date  : June 21, 1998 Gross floor area vn : 220,000m2 Station box size jo : 180m x 300m Check-in counters n zdx : 34 (first phase u{ ) / 80 (final phase u{ ) No. of pieces of luggage/hr CpBz : 2,000 Levels below ground aUh : 3 Levels above ground aWh : 4 AEL/TCL tunnel dimensions u/FFuGDW : 5.4m diameter | Piles  : 939 cast-in-situ bored piles; 939{`Vg; 25-105m deep `; 1.2-2.5m diameter | World sdeepest pile @ 105m; 1.8m diameter @` C`105m; |1.8m Barrettes s : 81 Structure materials c : Reinforced concrete Vg Formwork Ou{ : 450,000m2 Tonnage of rebar ` : 70,000 tonnes  Concrete used Vgq : 415,000m3 Area of blockwork  u{n : 75,000m2 Number of rooms  : 1,100 Area of stone/granite /^n : 41,280m2 (from Italy/Spain NjQ/Z Area of ceilings n : 51,310m2 (from Australia Dw) Area of glass ™n : 11,620m2 (from France k Tonnage of metalwork s˜` : 700 tonnes  (from China  Area of stainless steel roofing n : 3,280m2 (from Germany/USA w  Area of metal wall panels On : 14,550m2 (from Germany w Length of platform screen doors  x` : 770m (from France k Length of handrailing ` : 3,800m Length of safety railing w™@` : 1,300m Sheet metal for air ducts qDO : 46,000m2 Length of piping D : 39,000m Length of wiring tu : 25,000m Staircases ` : 71 Escalators  q : 34 (from France k Lifts  : 10 in shafts 10q; 7 glass 7™[q (from USA  Doors  : 832 (from UK ^ Signs P : 1,444 (from The Netherlands  Length of drop-off ` : 404m Taxi pick-up points hWI : 20 PEAK PASSENGER FLOWS jyq Airport Express Line u : 7,439 (am W); 8,362 (pm U) first phase  Tung Chung Line FFu : 42,231 (am W); 44,356 (pm U) final phase  TOTAL `p : 49,670 (am W); 52,718 (pm U) Trains per hour/day - AEL uCp/ : 7.5 hour/112 day (first phase) 7.5p/112 (); 15 hour/224 day (final phase) 15p/224 () Trains per hour/day - TCL FFuCp/ : 15 hour/220 day (first phase) 15p/220 (); 30 hour/440 day (final phase) 30p/440 () Passengers per annum C˜q : 73 million (AEL) 7,300UH (u); 237 million (TCL) 2 ,700UH (FFu) Passengers @ peak hour Cpq : 52,718 Total retail area s`n : 2,230m2 Minutes from HK via AEL qqgu : 3 minutes  Minutes from CLK via AEL q gu : 20 minutes 


Kowloon Development data 、Eタsカ}オoーマヲウテニセレ

Kowloon Ventilation Building data 、Eタsウqュキ、jシモヲウテニセレ

Construction start date カ}ゥlャI、u、魘チ : May 1996 Construction period ャI、uゥPエチ : 13 years (approx.) ャ 3ヲ˜ Design period ウ]ュpゥPエチ : 1992 - ongoing カiヲ讀、 Gross floor area チ`ォリソvュアソn : 1.09 million m2 109クUm2 Total circumference チ`ゥPェ : 1,465.8m Total construction area チ`ャI、uュアソn : 1,679,552m2 Site area ヲaスLュアソn : 135,417m2 Dimensions 、リ、o : 369m x 503m (N-S ・_ヲワォn) Car parking spaces ーアィョヲ : 6,590 : 14,945 Bus station area 、レ、hックュアソn Landmark Tower height シモーェ : 580m Number of towers 、jキHシニ・リ : 22 Total height of towers 、jキHチ`ーェォラ : 2.726 miles ュ^ィス (4,389.8m) Number of storeys シhシニ : range 、カ・G 35-110 Residential towers ヲ v、jキH : 18 Residential units/size ヲ vウ讎 ュアソn : 5,225 units ュモ/average ・ュァ。 115.4m2 (total area チ`ュアソn = 606,425m2) Service apartments ーェッナ、スエJ : 68,098m2 (approx. 600 units ・ュァ。ャ 00ュモウ讎 Private residents。ヲ club facilities ィp、Hキ|ゥメウ]ャI : 18,192m2 COMMERCIAL AREA ーモキ˜ュアソn 3 office towers 、Tョyーモキ˜、jキH : 231,578m2 2 hotels ィ筝。ーsゥア : 93,548m2 hotel rooms ーsゥアゥミカ。 : 972 retail ケsー箍マ : 89,550m2 TOTAL チ`ュp : 414,676m2 Lifts 、ノューセ : 249 Cinemas ケqシvー| : 10 Badminton courts ヲミ、yウ : 2 Squash courts セタイyウ : 2 Table tennis courts ・筵羇yウ : 4 Tennis courts コyウ : 2 Basketball courts トxイyウ : 1 Volleyball courts アニイyウ : 1 Children。ヲ s play area ィ犒」ケCシヨウ : 1,200m2 Children/Youth centre ォC、ヨヲ˜ャ。ー 、、、゚ : 505.5m2 Day nursery 、鮓。ヲォィ爻メ : 355m2 Home help centre ョaョxェAーネ、、、゚ : 159.5m2 Social centre for elderly ヲム、Hェターマ、、、゚ : 132m2 Public open space ナS、ム、スヲ@ェナカ。 : min. 1.7 hectares ウフ、ヨ1.7、スウシ Official title ・ソヲ。ヲWコル : Kowloon Ventilation Building 、Eタsウqュキ、jシモ Location/Address ヲ m/ヲaァ} : West Kowloon Reclamation ヲ隍Eタsカマ Longitude/Latitude クgスnォラ : 817 800 N ・_/ 834 300 E ェF Design period ウ]ュpゥPエチ : 3 years 3ヲ˜ Design dates ウ]ュp、魘チ : 1993 - 1996 Construction period ャI、uゥPエチ : 39 months 39ュモ、 Construction dates ャI、u、魘チ : March 1995 - June 1998 Gross floor area チ`ォリソvュアソn : 8,350m2 Basic dimensions ーサ、リ、o : 90m length ェ X 27m width チ Levels below ground ヲa、Uシhシニ : 4 Levels above ground ヲa、Wシhシニ : 2 Foundations ヲaー : Diaphragm wall セ jタ Structure materials オイコcァニ : Reinforced concrete & steel ソャイVセョ、g、ホソ Tonnage of concrete イVセョ、gセキカq : 52,000m3 Tonnage of rebar ソャセキカq : 17,500 tonnes セキ Area of metal cladding ェンケ「ェOュアソn : 2,700m2 (from UK ィモヲロュ^ー ) Area of louvres ヲ クュオ。ュアソn : 632m2 (from USA ィモヲロャ ) Area of tiles イ。ソjュアソn : 1,942m2 (from Japan ィモヲロ、鬣サ ) Sheet metal for air ducts ェナスユゴケDェンェO : 2,700m2 Length of piping ゴケDェラ : 3,250m Length of wiring ーtスuェラ : 1,850m Floodgates ィセャxケh : 2 Size of floodgates ィセャxケh、リ、o : 4.3m height ーェ X 6.2m width チ Total power consumption チ`ッモケqカq : 11.5MW per day ィC、 1.5・ヒ Electric transformers capacity ナワケqョeカq : 33kV 、d・ m3 processed sea water per day ィC、魄Bイzカq : 650m3 max. amount of water tanks hold 、cウフ、jョeカq : 360m3 46,000m3 m3 air circulated per day ィC、魘`タナョ : based on data available July 1998 コKヲロ1998ヲ˜7、 ウテニセレ

111


サツ Credits

Client Mass Transit Railway Corporation Architects, Planners, Lead Consultant Terry Farrell & Partners Consultants : Station   Civil & Structural Engineers Ove Arup & Partners   Quantity Surveyors Levett & Bailey   Mechanical & Electrical Engineers Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia)   Authorised Person & Collaborating Architects Ho & Partners Main Contractor (Kowloon Station) KEC Main Contractor (KVB) AMSOC JSSC Sub-Contractors   Stonework Swire Duro   Cladding HH Robertson   Metal Wall Panels Josef Gartner   Glazing Harmon   Ceilings Builders Federal   Uplights Yearfull Interior Contracting   Services Balfour Beatty   Metalwork Kangotic   Special Roof MBM Systemwide Consultants   Signage Foster Asia   Special Rooms Arup Associates   Lighting FMRS   Baggage Handling Halcrow   Environmental Impact ERM Consultants : Property   Civil & Structural Engineers Ove Arup & Partners   Quantity Surveyors Levett & Bailey WT Partnership John Nelson & Associates   Mechanical & Electrical Engineers Parsons Brinckerhoff (Asia)   Retail Design Altoon + Porter Chapman Taylor   Landmark Tower SOM   Traffic consultants SPB Hong Kong MVA Asia   Authorised Person & Collaborating Architects Kwan & Associates Leigh and Orange Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man   Landscaping EDAW Earth Asia ACLA

サツ Photographic and Drawing Credits

112

、uオ{、pイユ Terry Farrell & Partners Project Team 、」、ヨォリソvョv、ホュuエソャー、uオ{ァ@・ Xー^トm。A・Lュフ・]ャA。G There have been many architects and staff who have contributed valuable work, including: Chris Barber, John Barber, Chuck Barguirdjian, Keith Barrell, Michael Barry, Duncan Berntsen, Stuart Berriman, David Beynon, Tony Blazquez, Derek Boon, Toby Bridge, Steve

Brown, John Campbell, Darren Cartlidge, Brian Chantler, Christopher Chesterton, Alan Chim, Don Conning, Max Connop, Silvano Cranchi, Simon Davis, Jaya Daswani, Bertil De

Kleynen, Toby Denham, Mike Drake, Kate Edwards, Gavin

Erasmus, Graham Fairley, Jo Farrell, Sue Farrell, Terry Farrell, Murdo Fraser, Angus Goble, Felicity Good, Michelle Graham, Ivan Green, Maggie Jones, Raminder Kaur, Gillian Kearney, Cheong Kei-Lu, Nicky Kelleher, Najeem Khan, Tom Kimbell, Stefan Krummeck, Rita Kwoh, Molly Law, Raymond Lee, Frederic Lo, Robert Malcolm, Sue Martin, Brian Meeke,

Doris Mok, Peter Morley, Alex Peaker, Richard Portchmouth, Stephen Power, Rabbi Rehman, James Richardson, John Riel, Martin Sagar, Lee Schmidtchen, Mark Shirburne-Davis, Benny Siu, Steven Smith, Mike Stowell, Doug Streeter, Ashok Tendle, Tim Thompson, Mimi Tse, Markus Vilsmaier, Jacinta Vines, Adrian Watson, Nick Willars, Enid Wong, Gary Young,

10-11 Satellite image provided by Geocarto International Centre, Hong Kong © 1998 Geocarto/ERIM; 12 (top 、W) Courtesy of Architech Audio Visual Ltd.; 12 (middle left ・ェ、、) Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 12 (middle right ・k、、); 12 (bottom 、U) Courtesy of MTR Corporation; 13 (top 、W) Colin Wade; 14-15 Tom Kimbell; 16, 19 (top 、W) Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris, 1998; 19 (bottom 、U) published by Moses King, rendered by Harry M. Petit; 20-21 Aerial photo reproduced with permission of The Director of Lands © Government of Hong Kong, SAR Licence No. 15/1998; 22-23 Pacific Century Publishers Ltd.; 35 (bottom 、U) Joan Boivin Photography / Goldphoto Ltd.; 47, 49 Andrew Putler; 51 (model shots シメォャケマ、 ) Joan Boivin Photography / Goldphoto Ltd.; 56 (top row left 、WヲC・ェ) Tom Kimbell; 56 (top row right 、WヲC・k) Courtesy of MTR Corporation; 56 (second row イト、GヲC) Guy Nowell; 56 (third row left イト、TヲC・ェ) Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 56 (third row centre & right イト、TヲC、、、ホ・k), (bottom row 、UヲC) Stephen Power; 57 (top row 、WヲC), (bottom row left & right 、UヲC・ェ、ホ・k) Tom Kimbell; 57 (middle row 、、ヲC), (bottom row centre 、UヲC、、) Stephen Power; 58-59, 60, 61 Tom Kimbell; 64, 65 (right centre ・k、、) Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 65 (right top & bottom ・k、W、ホ、U) Tom Kimbell; 66 (top 、W) Courtesy of MTR Corporation; 68-69 Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 69 (top left ・ェ、W) TFP; 69 (top right ・k、W) Nigel Young; 73-74, 79-80 Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 82 Nigel Young; 83 Tom Kimbell; 86, 87 (right row top & centre ・kヲC、W、ホ、、) Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 88, 89 (top row、WヲC) Tom Kimbell; 89 (middle row left 、、ヲC・ェ) Guy Nowell; 89 (middle row centre & bottom row left 、、ヲC、、、ホ、UヲC・ェ) Stephen Power; 89 (bottom right ・k、U) Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 90 (right row top & centre ・kヲC、W、ホ、、) Courtesy of MTR Corporation; 90 (bottom row 、UヲC); 91 (top & centre 、W、ホ、、) Chuck Barguirdjian; 91 (bottom 、U), 92-93 Colin Wade; 96-97 Tom Kimbell; 102 (left column top, third row & bottom ・ェト讀W。Bイト、TヲC、ホ、U) Courtesy of MTR Corporation; 102 (left column second row ・ェト豐ト、GヲC) Colin Wade;102 (right column・kト ), 103 (all except bottom left ー」・ェ、U・˜・™ウ。) Tom Kimbell; 103 (bottom left ・ェ、U) Colin Wade; 105 Pacific Century Publishers Ltd.; 106-107, 108-109, Tom Kimbell; 110 Ian Lambot / Arcaid; 111 Kerun Ip. Presentation drawings: Lee Schmidtchen. Additional drawings: Derek Boon, Shawn Bruins, Canton Digital Media, Eric Chan, Toby Denham, Jo Farrell, Terry Farrell, Tom Kimbell, PACE, Richard Portchmouth, Paul Rodgers, Arezoo Sadain, Steven Smith, Doug Streeter, Julian Tollast, and WAVE.

Profile for George Lam

Kowloon Transport Super City  

The book celebrates Kowloon Station - a demanding project which integrates architecture, transportation and urban development with the ultim...

Kowloon Transport Super City  

The book celebrates Kowloon Station - a demanding project which integrates architecture, transportation and urban development with the ultim...

Advertisement