for beekeepers in tropical & subtropical countries |
florea in Africa Apis in This of
Khartoum, Sudan in Apis florea was photographed colony November 1985. It was discovered when a gardener found the colony in a lemon tree, cut it from its branch and took it to the Beekeeping Unit at the University of Khartoum for identification. On November 2, 1985 Siham Kamil of the University of Khartoum, William Lord (beekeeping specialist working for the Near East Foundation in Sudan) and myself were taken to see a second colony of Apis florea established in another Khartoum garden, and several more colonies have subsequently been o found. The city of Khartoum is surrounded by desert, but in the centre of the city where these Apis florea have been found, gardens are irrigated and there is flowering vegetation—obviously sufficient to sustain colonies of Apis florea. There are no colonies of Apis mellifera present in Khartoum, other than those maintained by the University Bee Unit which have to be provided with continual supplies of food and water to ensure their survival. This is the first record of Apis florea in Africa, and it raises the interesting questions of how long these bees have been present in Khartoum, and how they arrived there. All colonies found so far have been well established and local people confirm that the colonies have been present for at least six months. The nearest place to Khartoum where Apis florea is recorded is Oman, some 2700 km to the East. A clue to their arrival may be the fact that all colonies found so far are near to Khartoum International Airport, which is also a base for aid lorries carrying supplies from Port Sudan. Whether accidental or deliberate, human intervention must have been involved in Apis florea’s arrival in Sudan. Bees moved from one country to another can take with them diseases and pests which, once introduced, can never be eradicated. Introduced bees compete with Native species, which may be adversely affected. Fortunately, since Khartoum is not a beekeeeping area, and the introduced bees appear to be disease-free, no biological harm seems to have been caused by this NB incident. ml Apis florea (sometimes called the Little Honeybee because it is the smallest of the Apis species) is a tropical species with a distribution extending from Indonesia westwards across Asia to Iran and Northern Oman. A. florea builds a single comb, normally about 30 cm wide and 25 cm long. The upper part of the
comb contains deep.cells, and these are used for storing honey; a full-size colony of A. florea can store only about 1 kg of honey. Lower down the comb pollen is stored and brood is reared. A. florea colonies usually build their single comb never nest inside dark cavities as suspended from a branch in the open air and this For do. cerana and Apis Apis mellifera reason, and because it uses only a in bee hives as are A. mellifera and maintained be cannot A. comb. florea single A. cerana.
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A colony of Apis florea in Khartoum.
Apis florea in Africa Beekeeping workshop in Malawi Traditional beekeeping in Malawi 30th International Beekeeping Congress Can you help? News around the world
practical approach to beekeeping extension in Tanzania
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International Bee Research Association
Beekeeping Workshop in Malawi 12-30 October 1985
by Kyauiso M.
Beekeeping Technical Officer, Government of Botswana
The US Peace Corps in Malawi, in conjunction with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources, recently organised the first Beekeeping Workshop in Malawi. The 55 participants included extension staff from Ministries of Wildlife, National Parks and Agriculture, farmers from all regions of Malawi and Peace Corps Volunteers. The Workshop was initiated by Ms Rusty Klinger, a Peace Corps Volunteer, after discussion with other beekeeping development workers at the 3rd International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates held in Nairobi in 1984. The approach to beekeeping used in Botswana (described in the Beekeeping Handbook by Bernhard Clauss) also seems appropriate for rural people in Malawi and therefore I was invited to be a lecturer at the Workshop, along with Mr M. N. Kawa from the Apiculture Programme in Mozambique and Mr J. B. Mweso, the only commercial beekeeper in Malawi. The Workshop was held in Chilinda on the Nyika Plateau. The area is covered with plantations of introduced Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. and also has indigenous miombo woodlands.
Historical Background of Beekeeping in Malawi Beekeeping was first recorded in Malawi in the 1930’s when it was undertaken by colonialists and Malawians who were living in the then Nyika National Park. During that time Malawi was exporting tons of beeswax to Europe. After Independence the country’s beekeeping declined and the situation worsened when the Government wanted to expand the National Park forcing the people living in the area to move out. Farmers who had been moved settled outside the park, where they are now doing traditional beekeeping using log hives. Beekeeping has been neglected since Independence and nobody has received any training. 2
Khaliso Phokedi (centre) talking with farmers. In the foreground is a top-bar hive suspended by wires and covered with plastic for insulation. A farm broadcaster is recording the discussion.
Beekeeping in Malawi at present Mr Mweso, a retired Government Officer, has 450 hives sited in the miombo woodlands and in the acacia stands in the south of the country. Through negotiations he has been allowed to let his bees forage in the Nyika National Park to utilise the indigenous trees and shrubs. Mr
ture all bee equipment and sell to farmers who are interested to start a project. It should be noted that Mr Mweso did not go to a beekeeping Institute to train in beekeeping, but learned his craft through manuals, communication with IBRA etc.
The Course programme included the Mweso is the only Malawian following: beekeeper to have had honey (a) Apiary work: opening hives, colthe diffeaccepted by the international mar- ony inspection, identifying rent of bees in the types colony, use ket. His products are graded at the of record bee sheets, space etc. Bureau for Food Standards in Blanmembers of the Bee biology: tyre, and he can then sell his honey (b) and their duties. on the international market if they colony are satisfied of the quality. His honey (c) Honey and beeswax: harvesting, is also sold on the local market and is processing, packaging, grading, uses. much cheaper than that imported (d) Bee management: construction from South Africa. At one time he of the Noah’s hive, Kenya top-bar exported beeswax to Zambia as the hive, Tanzania top-bar hive, apiary local prices were not satisfying. He selection, baiting and siting of a trap uses all types of hives except the hive, making wax strips on top-bars, traditional hives and now uses Kenya identification of important bee and diseases. top-bar hives and Mozambican tran- plants, pests sition hives made during our stay there. He is also ready to manufac-
Recommendations: After the three week Workshop the following re-
commendations were made regarding the future of beekeeping in Malawi and also the whole of the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) Countries.
This seminar was the first of its nature ever held in Malawi, so the 1.
Government must support the project to get it off the ground. In order to ensure that people work hard such workshops should be held annually. The same applies to other SADCC countries who would like to promote the project and need assistance from Malawi, they are welcomed to host such conferences where ideas can be shared in order to meet our goal of self-sufficiency in food production. We should join hands and assist each other in the promotion of the project. 2. The Ministry of Agriculture should play a role in promoting the project in the country. Through the assistance of the Beekeeping Officer who is under the Ministry of National Parks and Wildlife, farmers should be encouraged to do beekeeping in order to improve their living standards in the rural areas. The farmers who have been practising traditional beekeeping should be encouraged to start more modern beekeeping. This can be done giving some equipment at a subsidised price, encouragement to form groups so that they can be given funds for the purchase of equipment and other needs. This will help the farmers to be profitable by producing honey and wax of good quality. 3. Mr Mweso, the commercial beekeeper, should act as an interim between the traditional beekeepers and the international market until such time as a co-operative can be formed for the collection of the products and their disposal to the outside market. 4. Malawi is densely covered with miombo woodland, especially in the north, which if utilised could make her one of the biggest exporters of bee products in the tropics. 5. The Government should take the responsibility of training beekeeping officers so that the project has trained personnel who will help with
Traditional Beekeeping in Malawi by M. N. Kawa, Apicultura Programa, Mozambique Malawians traditionally keep bees in log, bark and pot-hives. They construct their hives from the same plants as used in other countries with miombo woodlands, from May to August. Siting is done after construction, i.e. between August and
ences thereafter are terrible and bees tend to become extremely defensive. Perhaps the reactions the bees show after the use of the roots in smoking them resembles the reactions after use of ‘“‘puff-balls’” as practised in
September. In a good beekeeping year, swarming occurs in March and April and again in July and August. Malawians bait their hives with burnt old combs or by smearing a mixture of propolis and beeswax inside the hive. Aromatic herbs are sometimes used. In exceptional cases, sugar pellets can also be used as a bait. The last method is very questionable as you might attract sugar ants and not exploring bees. Harvesting is done from May to July as a lesser honey flow and mid October to January as the main honey flow. The major honey flow coincides with the blooming period of the greater part of the miombo bee plants. As their hives do not enable the beekeeper to know whether the honey crop is ready or not, the beekeepers traditionally wait until the pods of Brachystegia spp. start coming up, and then they begin honey harvesting. To quieten bees, they use local torches made of dry grass with a wrapping of fresh grass; the dry grass lights up (but not into flames because of the fresh grass) and it usually gives a cool white smoke. Other beekeepers are not so skilled and use burning twigs which often burn bees. In rare cases, it has also been the practice to use the roots of a climber called Adenia gummifera. When the bees are smoked by these roots, they become stupified but the consequ-
Containers used locally in collecting honey from the bush are gourds, barrels made from hollowed-out tree trunks, sown-up bark and sometimes plastic buckets. As the transport infrastructure is still not advanced, a beekeeper cannot carry all he has harvested on his head, so the annual honey turn-over of a beekeeper is not always based on how much he has harvested but rather on how much he has managed to carry home. Lucky ones are those with farm carts.
in the field. This is very extension important as lack of skilled personnel the progress of any always delays project. There were plans for building a beekeeping Institute; we (trainers)
There is a general belief that honey pressed from combs is still raw. That is why traditional beekeepers talk of raw-honey and heated-honey, and by heating honey they believe that they are preserving it. Malawians by tradition then, “boil” the honey combs in a pot. When the mixture of honey, brood, pollen and other foreign particles has melted, the liquid part sinks and the molten beeswax floats. After cooling off, the wax cake is knocked off and the dark-brown liquid, according to them, is then ready. Malawians know how to render beeswax using the local Tanganyika method (Smith 1957), although beeswax is also imported from India. Very little honey is incorporated into their diet, and most honey is sold locally for local brew and for medicinal purposes. There are buying centres in Mbuzi i Nandi, Tete, Nkharanga and Tochi.
suggested that it should be built either inside the Nyika National Park or near where the miombo could be utilised in carrying out research and a school practicals.
30th International Beekeeping Congress The 30th International Beekeeping Congress took place in Nagoya, Japan in October 1985. Apimondia is the International Federation of 65 Beekeeping Associations, and the
Congress which it organises every two years is the largest international gathering of people concerned with beekeeping. The Congress is attended by beekeepers, scientists, manufacturers of equipment and those involved in trade of honey, wax and other hive products. The Congress therefore provides an excellent forum for the exchange of information within and between these groups.
This was the first time that the Congress had been held in Asia, and
1781 delegates attended the scientific venue of the Congress, 877 of these from countries other than Japan, while many more than this attended the Congress to participate in Apiexpo 85, the exhibition of beekeeping materials and a traditional meeting place for importers and exporters of the products of the honeybee.
The various aspects of apiculture have traditionally been represented at this Congress by six standing Commissions. These are Beekeeping Economy, Bee Biology, Bee Pathology, Melliferous Flora and Pollination, Beekeeping Technology and Equipment, and Apitherapy.
Of particular interest to Newsletter readers is that at the last Congress in 1983, a resolution was passed that a seventh Commission should be created, to deal specifically with apiculture in developing countries. Japan was therefore the first Apimondia Congress at which a session was devoted entirely to beekeeping in developing countries. Papers describing a great range of experience of tropical beekeeping in Africa, Asia, South America and the Pacific were given at this session held on the final day of the Congress. It is hoped that this session will continue to grow in strength in subsequent years. Mr Bambang Sukartiko from Indonesia is the President of the Commission and other members include experts
The scientific programme at the Apimondia Congress was opened by Professor Ichiji Okada, founder of bee research at Tamagawa University. Prof. Okada concluded his paper by showing this colony of Apis cerana japonica in happy coexistence with Buddha: “an emblem of mutual prosperity”. Photograph by Prof. Ichiji Okada
from Australia, Brazil, Ghana, Kenya, Korea, Pakistan, Thailand and Tunisia, a representative from IBRA (myself), and a representative from FAO (Mr Paltrinieri).
Lectures Because of the large number of papers submitted to the Congress, two sessions were run simultaneously throughout. The papers presented underlined many of the difficulties facing beekeeping today. Bee disease is of course one of the major problems, and this was reflected by the fact that the greatest number of papers were presented at the sessions concerned with bee pathology; 21 of these were alone concerned with Varroa disease. Of concern in some tropical countries is the greatly increased destruction of Apis dorsata colonies by honey hunters. Mr Sukartiko from Indonesia stated that this is a particular problem in his country, and described his work in promoting beekeeping with Apis cerana in hives. In the session on Beekeeping Economy, the modernization of methods of beekeeping
for pollination were discussed, and beekeepers agreed that the value of beekeeping as employment-creating work is still underestimated in many countries. However, Japan represents one country in which the economic value of bees as pollinators and as honey producers is certainly well
recognized. Each year over 100 000 colonies of Apis mellifera are used by Japanese farmers for pollination purposes alone. 75% of colonies used for pollination are for strawberry production in greenhouses; the introduction of honeybee colonies to greenhouses allows the strawberry season to commence in March rather than the traditional time of May. Apitherapy is always a popular subject at Apimondia Congresses, and in Japan there was much discussion of treatments combining apitherapy with
Beekeeping in Japan The hive bee native to Japan is Apis cerana, but commercial beekeeping in Japan is with the introduced, western hive bee, Apis mellifera. Because both A. cerana and A. mel-
lifera are present in Japan and because A. cerana is the native host of the mite Varroa jacobsoni, A. mellifera colonies in Japan are also infested with the mite. Japanese
beekeepers routinely use both
fumigation and smoke treatments to
control the level ot Varroa disease in has an intensive agriculture industry, and (as mentioned above) each year, in addition to honey production, many colonies are used for pollination purposes.
A. mellifera. Japan
Hive used in Japan for Apis mellifera. The construction on the front of the hive is to protect honeybees in the autumn from attacks by the giant hornet, Vespa mandarinia (see below). Twenty hornets can seriously damage a colony of honeybees within two or three hours.
CAN YOU HELP? REQUEST FOR PROPOLIS Propolis is the dark, sticky substance which bees collect from the buds, leaves and branches of plants. It is used by some bees to protect their nests from enemies such as ants, and in hives it is used to seal cavities and cover debris which cannot be removed from the hive. Propolis seems to be gathered to a greater extent by bees found in temperate zones, than by honeybees in the tropics and subtropics. Because relatively little is known about propolis compared with other hive products, and in particular propolis of tropical origin has not been studied, Dr Sami Khalid, of the University of Khartoum, has started research on the chemical and medicinal properties of propolis. Dr Khalid wants to compare propolis from as many different tropical origins as possible, and hopes that readers of the Newsletter will help by sending him samples of propolis (any amount from 1 g to 1 kg!). To prevent any possibility of the spread of disease, samples must be weil wrapped and sealed and completely free from wax or any other contaminating material. All samples will be destroyed after analysis and will not come into contact with bees. It can be extremely difficult to identify the source of propolis used by bees, but it would be useful for Dr Khalid to know the type of habitat your bees forage over (e.g. miombo woodland, agricultural land, forest etc.). Send samples to Dr Sami A. Khalid, Dept of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, PO Box 1996, Khartoum, Sudan.
Vespa mandarinia attacking honeybees at a hive entrance.
REQUEST FOR CORRESPONDENCE
Mr Alemayehu Wolde Senbet writes from Ethiopia: “Immense efforts are being undertaken in the whole of Ethiopia to overcome the famine, to prevent its spread and to stop it coming again. Efforts are being made in every field of development. Beekeeping is not something new. A lot of farmers already have their “‘keffo” but
everybody knows that the traditional method of beekeeping is economically wrong since bees are destroyed when the time comes to harvest honey”. Mr Wolde Senbet goes on to describe his efforts in promoting and developing beekeeping in Ethiopia, and he is interested in corresponding with beekeepers in other parts of the world. If you wish to write to Mr Wolde Senbet, his address is Rural Development Service, PO Box 71, Wolayita Soddo, Sidamo, Ethiopia.
on beekeeping. Farmers are each provided with seven hives containing bees. The farmer is asked to pay 40% of the cost of these, and the remaining 60% is paid back over the next three seasons. Payment can be with money, honey or bees.
GHANA The inhabitants of Etsli-Beidu, a Fanti Village on the seacoast in the Central Region’s Ekumfi_ District, have long practiced a type of beekeeping. The bees are housed in
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC The Government of the Central African Republic, the Peace Corps and the US Agency for International Development have been organising an apiculture development project since 1983. The aim of the project is
to increase small farmer production of honey and beeswax, and the project now produces its own Newsletter to further promote beekeeping: Bulletin Apicole de la Republique CentrAfricaine, or BARCA. This is a trimonthly Newsletter for Central
African Beekeeping Extension
Agents and for others involved with CAR beekeeping and rural develop-
ment. BARCA contains technical articles, beekeeping folktales, word games and distractions. The purpose of BARCA is continued training of the readers and exchange of information between beekeeping experts and extension agents.
(Kathleen De Bold)
CENTRAL AMERICA The Inter-American Development Bank has awarded $1-34 million from the Social Progress Trust Fund to help carry out a program to manage and control Africanized honeybees in Central America, Mexico and Panama. The program, which will be carried out by the Regional International Organization of Plant Protection and Animal Health will consist of an interrelated series of training and information activities designed to maintain production and productivity of the apiculture sector, as well as to help prevent any threat to 6
clay pots, which are modelled by the old women of the village. The handhuman health from the bees. The total cost of the project is estimated ling of the bees, however, is a man’s activity. Some villagers have as many at $2 580 000. as fifty “bee-pots”’. (IDB News, Volume 13, Number 1) A small hole is left at the midsection of the pot which the bees use as their EGYPT During the last ten years the Coptic entry and exit point. The villagers do Evangelical Organization for Social not feel it is necessary to bait their Services (CEOSS) has distributed pots as the bees willingly colonize 12 000 hives to the provinces of them without inducement. The pot is Minia and Assiut. The aim of usually installed by turning it upsideCEOSS is to increase the income of down, placing the wide mouth on the village farmers living at subsistence ground. level: CEOSS estimate that a farmer Honey harvesting presents little difreceives as much income from seven ficulty as the villagers utilize a certain modern hives as could be attained vine, known locally as “‘bekyem’’, to from another acre of land. Under the subdue the bees. To prepare the vine CEOSS system, farmers are trained for use, a twelve-inch length of it is to work together with their families cut and then beaten with a club. Next, the spongy material is forced Beekeepers in Egypt fitting sheets of into the pot selected for harvest. The wax foundation into frames for use in is then removed from the pot pulp Langstroth hives. after about seven minutes. The bees Photograph by Amir El-taweel
remain inside quite docilely; some are even temporarily motionless. Without harassment, the combs can be quickly harvested to finish the operation. After a short time, the bees revive and resume their normal duties without ill-effect. The Apiculture Promotion Unit sincerely thanks Mr Oddoye of Accra and Mr Ekem of Winneba who assisted Mr Adjare in documenting this interesting practice. If this plant is indeed as effective in controlling the bees as the villagers’ experience Suggests, then its widespread use could prove revolutionary to beekeeping in Ghana. The Technology Consultancy Centre will take all available measures to investigate further this vine’s promising apicultural potential. (Ghana Bee News, March 1985)
HONDURAS The Africanized bee is moving very rapidly in Honduras. It is likely to be moving into areas from many fronts now as it is all along the border with E] Salvador and much of the Nicaraguan border. It appears to be hugging the valleys and skirting along the mountains according to their different flowering periods. (Mark Coleman, Project Director, Centro de Tecnologia Apicola)
INDIA Nagrota Bagwan Bee Research Station was established in 1936 with the aim of popularizing beekeeping among rural people. Up until this time there was virtually no beekeeping in the states of Punjab and Haryana. A number of attempts were made to introduce and establish Apis mellifera, but there was no success until 1962 when Atwaland Sharma introduced a strain of A. mellifera which was well suited to the climate. Colonies were multiplied and supplied to beekeepers so that now there are over 50 000 colonies of A. mellifera in Northern India. The yield from A. mellifera kept in the hills is about 15-20 kg but in the plains this can increase to 40-45 kg per colony per year. There are about 4000 beekeepers, each managing 10-20 colonies. The Bee Research Station carries out research into bee
A top-bar hive for Apis cerana
in use at Lumle Agricultural Centre, Nepal. This hive is a scaled-down version of a Kenya top-bar hive, and is a useful, easily-constructed alternative to the movable-frame box hive. Photograph by Roger Smith, ODA.
diseases such as Acarapis woodi and Tropilaelaps clareae, and develops standardized management practises. 30-40 people are trained in beekeeping each year, working with the station’s 200 colonies of A. mellifera.
(Dr Rajesh Garg, Nagrota Bagwan Bee Research Station, Himachal Pradesh, India.)
MAURITIUS A successful beekeepers
has been established, the Organisa-
tion of Mauritian Beekeepers. Recently the Organisation has published a Guide to Apiculture in addition to an annual Newsletter. The Organisation (motto Cooperation, Abundance, Sharing) is very active in organising demonstrations and trying to encourage villagers to take up beekeeping. A campaign has been launched to encourage the propagation of melliferous plants throughout the island. The address of the Organisation is No 156, Clairfonds Road No 1, Vocoas, Mauritius.
PAKISTAN In October 1985 a Beekeeping Society was formed in Karachi with the promise of government help and guidance from apicultural experts of the Agricultural Department. 300 packages of Apis mellifera are to be imported from Australia and distri-
buted amongst local beekeepers.
(Mr Yunus Dada, Karachi.)
THAILAND In January 1986 a two day “Consultation of Beekeeping Development on Apis cerana’” was held in Phuket,
Thailand. The meeting was organized by the Department of Agricultural Extension in Thailand and given backing by the International Development Research Centre of Canada. Attending the meeting were 25 Thai officials and academics who are concerned with the development of beekeeping in Thailand, as well as experts from IDRC beekeeping projects in Malaysia and Sri Lanka. The meeting was most valuable in providing an opportunity for sharing and exchange of information among the Thai research and extension workers. The first day of the meeting was devoted to a presentation by academics of current research activities on A. cerana and A. dorsata. On the second day participants took part in a field trip and discussion on the establishment of Thailand’s National Bee Development Committee. The meeting highlighted the potential of A. cerana in Southern Thailand, and the need for different strategies of research and development for A. cerana and
A Practical Approach to Beekeeping Extension in Tanzania
by G. NTENGA, Principal Beekeeping Officer, Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania
Introduction The presence of honey hunters and simple beekeepers in many areas, particularly in the settled areas bordering the forests and woodlands, is an indication that beekeeping is one of the occupations which contribute substantially to the welfare of rural populations. The collection of honey and beeswax using simple methods has been practised by rural people for several centuries. Over the years since the German occupation of Tanganyika in 1885, beekeeping has been encouraged in many parts of the country, with emphasis on increased production and improved quality of beeswax for export. In the 1950s emphasis was laid on the production of good quality honey. It is in the areas of increased production and improved quality of bee products that some progress has been made through the extension service. Methods of obtaining honey and beeswax from bees have not changed much despite all types of instruction aimed to improve the design of hives and methods of managing the bee colonies. It has been observed that beekeepers are reluctant to change their methods, because they are used to them, and the absence of successful practical examples of improved methods makes the beekeepers suspicious of any change. Modern or improved methods involve expenditure of money which the traditional beekeepers are not prepared to part with for something which they do not know how to use or have not seen in use. It is most probable that extension methods have not been sufficiently penetrating, failing to reach 8
the beekeepers at the right time and right place. It is also probable that extension officials do not know how to approach the beekeepers. This paper seeks to establish some practical methods of approach to beekeeping extension.
Extension Methods Beekeeping extension work consists of providing instructions and demonstrations on the best methods of carrying out beekeeping. It is necessary that a workable approach to extension work is evolved, showing clearly the tasks involved in every aspect. The following are some of the well known methods of extension which are applicable to beekeeping. 1. Articles in the local and national papers Prepare concise articles describing precisely what is required of beekeepers, and submit them to editors of popular newspapers. Arrangements can be made with the publishers to set aside a space in newspapers for regular publications. Articles should describe how to make good hives, how to bait and site them, the importance of carrying out regular inspections of apiaries and bee colonies, the use of bee protectives and smokers, how to harvest honeycomb and how to prepare honey and beeswax for sale. Emphasis should be laid on selection of good apiary sites and provision of water for the bees. 2. Lectures and film shows to the
public These can be very effective as large crowds of people are often attracted to film shows. The films should be
complemented by lectures on the subjects shown, as well as on related subjects. Films should, as far as possible, include local characters and background. 3. Radio reports and features In Tanzania reports are regularly broadcast under the Maliasili radio programme; any such reports must be easy to understand and related to
practical beekeeping. 4, Stands at trade fairs and agricultural shows Displays can be very useful, especially if accompanied by film shows and live bees in observation hives. In Tanzania the annual Saba Saba shows which feature actively in regions and districts should be fully utilized by extension staff. 5. Lectures and demonstrations in schools
Officers should be assigned the work of visiting schools for lectures and demonstrations. It should be made a routine to visit schools. 6. Beekeeping projects in folk development colleges Officers should be permanently posted to the colleges to teach and demonstrate beekeeping to the farmers who attend courses at the col-
leges. 7. Beekeepers’ brigades These should be organised in schools, folk colleges, prisons, national service camps and in villages, to look after the beekeeping projects in these institutions. 8. Beekeepers’ associations Regional and area beekeepers’ associations should be formed, to be affiliated to the central Beekeepers
Personal with contacts beekeepers Extension officers should form a habit of visiting individual beekeepers to encourage and give them advice as required. 10. The focal point approach Districts are the unit areas of extension services in the regions. Most beekeeping officers are posted to the districts. The districts are made up of divisions, wards and villages. In these areas the inhabitants take to beekeeping readily once they realize its importance. The focal point approach is a method whereby extension officers are posted to selected areas where: (a) The vegetation is suitable for beekeeping and the beekeepers 9.
keen to improve their
beekeeping; (b) The local authorities acknowledge beekeeping as an economic venture; (c) It is possible for the senior staff to give close and constant supervision to the junior staff. Focal points are selected from the various divisions in a district, to which most of the extension staff are posted for three years. After this period an evaluation of the work should be carried out to determine the extent of development.
Extension Targets The main activities which require
extension services are: beekeeping development, market development and the distribution of beekeeping equipment. 1. Beekeeping development: (a) Beekeeping in schools Extension officers assigned the work of promoting beekeeping in schools should organise beekeeping clubs or brigades, conduct regular lectures on beekeeping and establish small apiaries using both traditional and transitional hives. Each primary school should maintain about 50 bee colonies. Apiaries at secondary schools should be stocked with transitional and frame hives. The extension officers should actively take part in the management of the colonies, keeping proper records of the development of each colony, and they
should also maintain records of pupils who show aptitude for beekeeping. (b) Beekeeping in folk development colleges
Extension officers posted to these colleges should conduct lectures according to the college curricula in which beekeeping should be included. The extension officers should establish demonstration apiaries using traditional and transitional hives and maintain records of farmers with an aptitude for beekeeping and assist them as necessary. (c) Beekeeping in prisons Extension officers should organise beekeeping, conduct lectures on beekeeping and assist in establishing production apiaries of up to 250 colonies in both transitional and frame hives. They should assist in the management of the apiaries, maintain records on colony development and prisoners with special aptitude for beekeeping.
(d) Beekeeping in villages Extension officers should be posted to villages, each one to look after beekeeping in three carefully selected villages. They should organise beekeepers’ brigades and assist in establishing village production apiaries of up to 250 colonies in both traditional and transitional hives. Where beekeeping is done in forests, these apiaries should be established there and suitable camps constructed. Extension officers should engage themselves actively in relocating and improving the present beekeepers’ camps. They should be conveniently spaced at about 8 km distance from one camp to another, with at least beekeepers to each camp. The camps should be provided with suitable honey houses and well shaded storage facilities. All demonstrations should be done using the village apiaries. 2. Market development It is important that the bee products can be easily marketed. It is also important that the beekeepers receive good payment for their products so that they can develop an interest in continued production. Market development therefore is an activity which seeks to establish 5
means of marketing the bee products to the satisfaction of the beekeepers. (a) Improvement of bee products Honey is a food item and it must be prepared in such a way that it reaches the consumer in its best condition. Extension officers must ensure that the beekeepers understand the following actions when collecting honey and preparing it for the consumer
market: 1. Honey must be harvested only immediately after the main honey flow, when the hives contain a crop of ripe honey of high quality; 2. On removal from the hive, honey must be placed into an airtight container; 3. Honey must be separated from the wax while it is still warm; 4. Honey must be checked for flavour, colour, density and cleanliness, and any honey failing to meet the required standards must be rejected; 5. The use of heat must be avoided and the honey must be stored in as cool conditions as possible; 6. Honey must be kept in hygienic conditions, in clean, wellshaded buildings; 7. Honey must be delivered for filtering as soon as possible, before granulation starts.
Beeswax is traditionally an export commodity and it must be prepared in such a manner that will make it acceptable on the export market.
Extension officers must teach
beekeepers how to prepare beeswax
properly. Until a more efficient method is developed, the Tanganyika method of rendering beeswax should be taught with improvements where necessary. (b) Buying posts The next stage in market development is the setting up of buying posts. These are places where honey and wax can be brought for sale. These may be at beekeepers’ camps or selected villages. (c) Collection centres These are centres at which bee products are stored by buying agencies before delivery to the processing units. Their establishment is justified by the fact that buying posts cannot 9
supply enough crops for full truck loads. Buying agencies will find it economical to use small vehicles to reach the buying posts and delivering the crops to collection centres, from where large trucks can pick full crop loads for delivering to processing units. (d) Filtering centres Extension officers should participate fully in checking the honey and assist in selecting dark honeys for the domestic market and light honeys for the export market. Beeswax should be sorted out according to colour and cleanliness and different colours packed and sold separately. Dirty beeswax should be recleaned and the dark wax set aside for the domestic market. 3. Distribution of beekeeping equipment It is a well known fact that beekeepers are badly in need of equipment, especially bee protectives and smokers. Extension officers must explore the requirements of the beekeepers. Arrangements should be made with local manufacturers who can produce sufficient pieces for sale to beekeepers. Where such equipment cannot be made locally, the Regional or Ministry’s headquarters should be contacted for advice.
General points which beekeeping extension officers must follow: 1. They should stimulate people in the villages to become involved in
beekeeping. 2. They must involve themselves in the training of beekeepers, to help improve their beekeeping and the quality of bee products. 3. They should supply advanced equipment to interested beekeepers and teach them how to use the
equipment properly. They should create contacts with local markets to acquaint themselves with the market situation. 5. They should ensure improved quality of the products through adequate storage and preparation facilities. 6. They should improve the market situation in their respective areas. 4.
BOOKSHELF IBRA Publications: Proceedings of the
THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APICULTURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES Nairobi 1984
270 pages, paperback,
London, International Bee Research Association, 1985 price 17.50 or US$27.00 (plus postage 2.00 or US$3.00) The Proceedings of this important Conference provide a wealth of information not available elsewhere. The 25 Resolutions passed by the Conference provide useful guidelines for a number of future actions. The 61 papers, reports and addresses cover a wide variety of topical subjects related to
beekeeping in tropical and subtropical regions, and also to the bees used and the hive products obtained. The book will be invaluable to everyone concerned with beekeeping and its problems in developing countries: government departments and aid agencies, extension officers, research workers, and beekeepers. Contributions relate to all levels of operation—for example, when to harvest honey from traditional hives, management of colonies of African and Africanized bees, bee forage and honey sources, pollination of fruit and nut crops, and multivariate analysis of characters of tropical African honeybees. It is apparent from this book that many problems are common to beekeeping in most regions of the tropics and subtropics. At the same time, the different contributions show special concerns of individual areas: for instance, how best to exploit the beekeeping potential of a subtropical island; mite infestation in southern Afghanistan; nectar and pollen sources in a tropical forest; and pollination of lucerne on newly reclaimed land in Egypt. The book includes names of Conference Officers and of organizations providing financial support, and also the names and addresses of Conference Participants. In addition there are indexes of countries and authors.
PEST CONTROL SAFE FOR BEES: A MANUAL AND DIRECTORY FOR THE TROPICS AND SUBTROPICS by Margaret Adey, Penelope Walker and Peter T. Walker 224 pages, 120 line drawings, paperback ISBN 0-66098-184-3 London, International Bee Research Association, 1986 price 12.50 or US$19.00 (plus postage 1.50 or US$3.00) Bees and other insects pollinate many crop plants that are important in the tropics and subtropics. However, insecticides and acaricides are commonly used to control the various pests which attack these plants . If these chemicals are applied to crops at flowering time, pollinating bees and other pollinating insects will be killed, and crop yields are likely to be poor. Crop growers must know how to control the pests without killing bees, and beekeepers need to know how to protect their bees. Pest control safe for bees provides a practical guide. The text of the book is divided into two parts, Manual and Directory. The Manual explains why and how crop growers should try to control pests without killing pollinators, steps beekeepers can take to prevent their bees from being killed by pesticides, recommendations to pesticide manufacturers and traders, general safety rules for handling and applying pesticides and ways in which governments can ensure that bees are not carelessly killed by pesticides. The text of the Manual is easy to follow, and there are 120 explanatory drawings. The Directory contains detailed information on methods for controlling the most common pre-harvest pests on crops pollinated by bees and other insects. The crop entries cover 85 crop plants that are important in the tropics and subtropics, and give advice on control methods for a total of 150 major pests. The crop and pest indexes will help users of the Directory to find the information they need. Lists of pesticides, grouped according to their toxicity to bees, are printed on coloured pages, together with a pesticide index for easy reference. continued on next page
continued from previous page This publication is intended for crop
growers, beekeepers, and all those manufacturing, selling or supplying pesticides. It will be an invaluable reference book for extension officers who need to tell crop growers about the importance of bees as pollinators and about controlling pests without killing bees. The book will also be useful to government departments and others concerned with bees, pollination or pesticides, including farmer training colleges, development aid agencies, and rural development pro-
PEST CONTROL SAFE FOR BEES: A MANUAL AND DIRECTORY FOR THE TROPICS AND SUBTROPICS is published with financial jects.
support from the Tropical Development and Research Institute, London, UK.
Other publications: FUNDAMENTALS OF
Fundamentals of Beekeeping by F.
60 pages, paperback, India, 1983 Shah
Beekeepers a valuable book since it provides one of the few guides available in English on beekeeping with Apis cerana. The object of the book is to provide all the fundamental information required for successful beekeeping. Mr Shah comes
CRIACAO de ABELHAS
corer MINISTARIO DA AGRICULTORA
Development of World Apicultural Trade 96 pages, paperback Bucharest, Apimondia, 1978 Newly available from IBRA price 7.50 or US$11.50 (plus postage 1.50 or US$3.00) The proceedings of a Conference held in Geneva in June 1977, sponsored by Apimondia and the UNCTAD/GATT International Trade Centre. The texts of 22 papers are given, each one dealing with some aspect of honey or beeswax trade. The resolutions of the two-day Conference are also given, and include motions concerned with: Export opportunities in world markets for honey and beeswax from developing countries, Generic promotion of honey: development of “honey awareness’, The influence of tariff and non-tariff barriers on access to’ markets, Price stabilization in honey trade, Practical problems encountered in importing honey from developing countries as seen by a European importer/ packer, Preparation of honey for export in a developing country, and Quality of honey and consumer protection. Although it is now nine years since the Conference took place, most of the information contained in these Proceedings is still useful and valid. The book is of great interest to anyone concerned with the export and sale of bee products.
from a family of beekeepers who together form one of the most experienced beekeeping enterprises in India. Shah beekeepers are based in Kashmir and the book contains information on how to over-winter Apis cerana, and a useful calendar showing the sources of pollen and nectar available throughout the year, fluctuations in bee numbers with the seasons and appropriate management techniques. The book can be obtained from Shah Beekeepers (Kursu, Rajbagh, Srinagar 190008, Kashmir, India) price Rs30, US$3, including postage, or from IBRA price 4.50, US$7.65 including postage.
Criagao de Abelhas (apicultura)
J. J. F. Alcobia, 80 pages, paperback Maputo, Mozambique; Ministerio da Agricultura (Programa Apicola, Caixa Postal 1011, Maputo)
In Portuguese textbook giving practical information for beekeepers in Mozambique. This book is prepared from hand-out materials originally used by the Apiculture Programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, and gives all the practical details a beginner beekeeper requires. The book contains useful annexes giving hive designs of a greek clay hive, a top-bar hive and a movable-frame hive. A map of Mozambique showing the potential for beekeeping in different zones is also given.
Solar Power—A Sweet Boost Solar energy is being used to process honey in Western Australia. A unique high-temperature system has been installed on the roof of the Western Australia Honey Pool’s factory at Bayswater to harness the sun’s power. The industry is a big user of hot air to warm up honey to change it to the liquid form necessary for processing. At the Honey Pool (a co-operative processing plant representing about 100 honey producers) a diesel-fired boiler is the main energy source. Mr Stan Luce, the pool manager, said that the solar system could save the pool about $5000 a year, or a third of its bill. The new system is tuned to cut in and replace the boiler system when there is favourable sunlight. The system is the result of a project carried out by the University of Western Australia’s department of mechanical engineering with funding by the Department of Resources and Energy. (Govt of Western Australia Newsletter)
One of the illustrations from PEST CONTROL SAFE FOR BEES (see left). 11
Leaflets available from IBRA:
(Diploma in Apiculture
An international course taught with-
Source Materials for Apiculture The 1984 editions of the Source Materials for Apiculture leaflets are now available in English. Individual leaflets are available free of charge to beekeepers in developing countries, and the leaflets may also be purchased from IBRA (1 or US$1.80 each, 8 or US$12.75 for a set of ten in one language, please add a further 10% to cover packing and postage). The 1984 editions published in Spanish and French are also still available. The titles of the leaflets are:
SAM SAM SAM SAM SAM SAM SAM SAM SAM SAM
Suppliers of equipment for tropical and subtropical beekeeping 6 pages 2 Marketing bee products: addresses of importers and agents 10 pages 1
Planting for bees in developing countries 4 Opportunities for training in apiculture world wide 5 Sources of voluntary workers for apicultural development 3
Writing about apiculture: guidelines for authors
information Leaflet 1:
Information Leaflet 2:
Information obtainable from the International Bee Research Association.
The management of Africanized honeybees by Dr Nicola Bradbear and Dr David De Jong. 4 pp. This illustrated leaflet is intended for beekeepers in South and Central America who must adapt their methods of beekeeping to successfully manage Africanized bees. The leaflet gives practical guidance on clothing and equipment, apiary siting, colony management and changing queens. Information Leaflet 2 is available in English and Spanish.
tion on beekeeping available free of charge to individuals and Institutes in developing countries, and also gives details of publications on tropical beekeeping which can be purchased from IBRA. The above leaflets have been prepared under grant aid from the Overseas Development Administration, UK, and are available free of charge to beekeepers in developing countries. Write to the Information Officer for Tropical Apiculture, International Bee Research Association, Hill House, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, SL9 ONR, UK.
FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APICULTURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES
INTERNATIONAL BEE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION is pleased to announce that the GOVERNMENT OF EGYPT has agreed to host the 4th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APICULTURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. DR YOUSSEF A. WALLI, MINISTER OF STATE FOR AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY has invited IBRA to convene this Conference in CAIRO in MARCH The
The President of the Conference will be
DR ABDEL RAHIM SHEHATA, Director of the Agricultural Research Centre Cairo, and the Conference Chairmen will be DR AHMED AWADALLAH, Head of the Plant Protection Research Institute, Cairo, and MR TECWYN JONES, Deputy Director, Tropical Development and Research Institute, London. DR M. M. MAZEED of the Bee Section of the Plant Protection Research Institute, Cairo, will be Conference Secretary.
This Newsletter is edited by Dr Nicola Bradbear, Information Officer for Tropical Apiculture at the International Bee Research Association (IBRA), and is produced under funding from the Overseas Development Administration, UK. There are two editions of the Newsletter each year and these are sent, free of charge, to those in developing countries who are involved with beekeeping. Views expressed in the Newsletter are not necessarily those of the International Bee Research Association. Contributions, letters and news of forthcoming events are welcomed; these may be edited for reasons of space and clarity. Many thanks to everyone who has sent information and articles; some items have had to be held over for the next edition. If you have any enquiries about beekeeping and the information you need is not available locally, then write to me here at IBRA and | will try to help you.
The Conference will be organised by a local committee of representatives from the Ministry and a number of University Departments in Egypt, and by a Steering Committee of international specialists including, from IBRA, DR MARGARET ADEY, Director, and
Information Officer for Tropical Apiculture.
International Bee Research Association, Hill House, Gerrards Cross, . Bucks SL9 ONR, UK.
Educational aids on apiculture
This leaflets lists published informa-
Sources of grant-aid for apicultural development 12 pages in information for use countries 6 pages 7 Obtaining apicultural developing 8 Apicultural reference books for developing countries 8 pages 10
Department of Zoology, at University College, Cardiff. A one-year course starting each October intended for those who already have science degrees or appropriate posts in government research or the agricultural industry. Write to Dr R. S. Pickard, Bee Research Unit, Dept of Zoology, University College, CarCF1 1XL, Wales, UK. L diff,
in the Bee Research Unit at the
Printed by the Cambrian News (Aberystwyth) Ltd—Ref. 3396
DR NICOLA BRADBEAR,
Further information on dates, programmes and organisational matters will be issued as soon as this is available.