Bees for Development Journal Edition 47 - June 1998

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dear Friends SPONSORS The winner of our December 1997 competition and lucky recipient of a copy of Bees and beekeeping: science, practice and world resources by Dr Eva Crane is Dr Rajesh Garg from Himachal Pradesh in India. Congratulations to Dr Garg and thanks to Heinemann Publishers for donating this excellent prize. A new competition is featured on the back cover of this edition.


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Helen Jackson

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Apiculture & Développement (the French version of B&D) is

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Inside Information



Conference in Nepal


Practical Beekeeping:

Look & Learn Ahead


News from Njiro

Notice Board


News Around the World




Trees Bees Use


Zoom in on Ecuador

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REPRODUCTION Information in

COVER PICTURE Sushila Dahal with a colony of Apis cerana housed in a hive made from straw. This straw hive has been designed within ICIMOD’s beekeeping programme, Sushila is pictured at Bhaktapur, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

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A Bees for Development publication




Appropriate design of top


bar hives

IN AFRICA BEEKEEPING IS a traditional, economic activity. Honey is valued, not only as a nutritious food, but also as a

product with cultural values. Traditional hives are characterised by fixed combs which do not allow harvesting of honey without damaging the brood combs. Movable-comb frame hives have been introduced in various beekeeping development programmes in Africa with little or no success. In some cases careless importation of this technology has produced disappointing results. To eliminate the expense involved in producing frames for hives, many different designs of top-bar hives have been developed. The problem in using top-bars in place of complete frames is that the bees may attach the combs to the side walls making comb removal difficult. According to Kigatiira (1974), the degree of comb attachment was significantly higher in top-bar hives with vertical side walls than in those with sloping side walls. Similar results were noted by Free and Williams (1981), and Budathoki and Free (1986). However, in Botswana, Kenya and Tanzania it has been reported that there was little or no comb attachment to vertical side walls of top-bar hives (Ntenga, 1972; Ntenga and

by Liana


M Hassan

Director, Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania

Observations Results from the preliminary experiments stimulated detailed experiments using only two designs (0° and 10°), which were considered the best. Twenty colonies were established in hives with sloping side walls of 0° and 10° only. The hives were either hung from wires or placed on wooden hive stands. The length from the bottom of the top-bars to the first point of attachment (A) and length of attachment (B) were measured (see Figure 2). Only data from combs 80-100% of full size were considered in analysis. 1. The five designs of experimental hives showing angles from the vertical side wall.






Building hives with a 20° or 30° wall slope requires a skilled carpenter and the use of electrically powered machines. A hive with 10° wall slope can easily be made by a carpenter using a small hand plane.


Chandler, 1972; Clauss, 1984).

contradicting observations Budathoki and Free (1986) recommended more experiments in the areas where top-bar hives are used. The comb attachment to side walls of top-bar hives has now been investigated in a series of experiments conducted by Njiro Wildlife Research Centre in collaboration with beekeepers in northern Tanzania (1991-1997). In view of these

A .


A Bees for Development publication

2. A comb

built under a top-bar


showing the position and length of comb


distance from the bar to the first point of attachment


length of the attachment


attachment to the side .

Preliminary experiment Five designs of top-bar hives, all the same width at the top (48.6 cm), height (25.7 cm) and length (89.2 cm), were constructed using seasoned timber 1.9 cm thick. The five designs had side walls sloping inwards at 0°, 5°, 10°, 20° and 30° from the vertical (see Figure 1). Each design held 27 top-bars each 3.2 cm wide which fitted tightly to form a closed top for the. hive. In total thirty top-bar hives were stocked with honeybee colonies previously established in frame hives. The stocked hives were placed on bench stands in a well maintained apiary at Njiro Wildlife Research Centre. The number of combs, and the numbers of combs attached to the side walls of the experimental hives were recorded in a series of five inspections.



wall of the hive

side wall of the hive

Hives with sloping walls are preferable for the following additional reasons: @

Less timber is consumed in hive making.

A hive box with sloping slides

is stronger than a rectangular box.

The hive walls are subject to less solar radiation during the day. The sloping hive walls offer better protection against heavy rainfall. The inside corners at the base of the hive are less pronounced. This makes them less accommodating to wax moth larvae and other pests that breed in the debris that collects there. Niiro Wildlife Research Centre and

Bees for Development

are co-operating on the project “Sustainable

Beekeeping for Africa” funded by the United Kingdom DFID. Thanks are also due to Bérje Svensson who assisted with this work.





Number of combs, and number and percentage of combs attached to side walls in top-bar hives with side walls sloping at different angles. Averages over five inspections.



Total number

Number of combs

of combs






















Table 2. Comb attachment to the vertical (0°) and sloping (10°) side walls of top-bar hives

Angle of slope

Number of

Number of combs

combs attached

not attached

30 (13.5%)


Mean length (mm) A* +SE


Mean length

(mm) B*


(20-120) 10°

22 (8.0%)




(15-92) A* B*

The length from bottom of bar to the first point of comb attachment on the side wall of the hive Is the length of the comb attachment


Is the standard error of the mean



+ SE



(10-120) 38



brackets are ranges

Results a) Preliminary experiments using five designs of hives There was a noticeable reduction in the degree of comb attachment from vertical walls (0°) to a slight slope (5° or 10°) and an increase in the degree of attachment for greater slopes (20° and 30°).

b) Detailed observations based on the two designs of hive

References BUDATHOK]I,K; FREE,] B (1986) Comb support and attachment within transitional bee hives. Journal of Apicultural Research 25: 87-99.

CLAUSS,B (1984)

Bees and Beekeeping in

Botswana. Beekeeping Division, Botswana.

CLAUSS,B (1992)

Personal communication.

Port of Spain, Trinidad.

FREE,} B; WILLIAMS,| H (1981}. The attachment of honeybee comb to sloping hive sides and side-bars of frames. Journal of Apicultural Research 20: 239-242, KIGATIIRA,K I (1974) Hive designs for beekeeping in Kenya. Proceedings of Entomological Society of Ontario 105:


NTENGA,G (1972) Hive development in Tanzania. American Bee Journal. 112: 20-21.

NTENGA,G; CHANDLER,T (1972) The Tanzania bee hive. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

PATERSON, P (1993) Personal communication, Arusha, Tanzania.


The total number of combs built in the 20 hives was 445. The average number of full combs per hive during nectar flow was 16, range: 10-22 combs.

Comb attachment on the side walls was more pronounced in the vertical hive walls (0°) than on slightly sloping side walls (10°) as shown in Table 2. Analysis by Chi-square distribution indicated that there was a significant association between the slope of the side walls of the hives and comb attachment (chi-square = 3.860, df = 1, P<0.05).

This observation was also reported by Ntenga (1972), Ntenga and Chandler (1972), Clauss (1984) and in personal communication with Clauss (1992) and Paterson (1993).

Comb attachment is not a problem with old comb. Once the attached comb has been cut clear, the bees “round it off’ so that attachment does not occur

again. During the subsequent experiments it was therefore important to critically answer the question: “Is a sloping wall necessary”. The results obtained from the 497 combs suggested that a slight slope of the side wall is necessary in reducing the degree of comb attachment.

There was no remarkable comb attachment to the walls of hives which were hung from wires. During inspection the longest comb attachment of 120 mm did not present any difficulty in removing the combs. Our observations and those of beekeepers who used the experimental hives confirm that the degree of comb attachment to pronounced sloping side walls is higher than in hives with slight sloping side walls. But the length of the attachment is too small to present any practical problem during hive inspections. However, the hive designs which have side walls sloping at 20° and above are more difficult to construct than those of vertical or just slight slope (10°). Additionally more timber and space are wasted when constructing the floor boards of the trapezoid hives.

combs were built but the number of combs and mode were 16 average and 15 respectively. Consequently the appropriate volume of top-bar hives (with 10° slope) at higher altitudes in northern Tanzania would be a hive accommodating 20 top-bars only. Such a hive should be big enough in a good honey flow season. In one hive only, 22

In areas where the hives have to be hung from wires instead of sitting on bench stands, care must be taken to ensure that the hives are horizontal. Whether the hives are suspended on wires or placed on bench stands any slight tilting to either side may cause cross combs or side wall attachment.

Discussion and Conclusions In the preliminary experiments the designs having 20° and 30° indicated a high degree of comb attachment and therefore in the subsequent experiments they were left out. These designs were more difficult to construct using manual, hand tools than the vertical one.

Details of courses at Njiro Wildlife Research Centre are shown in Look Ahead page 11

A Bees for Development publication




Soapnut Sapindus emarginatus Lakshmi and G Mohana Rao, Central Bee Research & Training Institute, Pune, India by K

Distribution Native to South India Sapindus emarginatus is found wild or introduced in tropical and sub-tropical regions, particularly the

Indo-Malayan region.

Habitat South India Sapindus emarginatus is common coastal regions and in open forests at low elevations. It is cultivated to line avenues and the boundaries of dry, agricultural fields. In


Description A medium to large size deciduous tree growing up to 18 min height with a 1.5 m girth.

Bark: Grey, shiny, covered with rough deciduous scales.

Leaves: Abruptly pinnate, 12-30 cm long.

Flowers: White, polygamous, male flowers, numerous, a few bisexual, both found in the same rust pubescent panicles. Bisexual flowers reward pollen and nectar to bees.

Flowering: October-December depending on climatic changes. Flowers open at about 0700 hours.

Pollen: Stamens within

a flesh disc produce a large number of pollen grains. Pollen loads are medium to large and cream coloured. Pollen grains are small, oblate, trizonocolporate,

ornamentation psilate.

Fruits: Drupes fleshy, 2-3 drupes partially united, seeds pea-size, enclosed in hard endocarp.



Wood: yellow and hard.

Uses The kernels are eaten by local people and leaves are cut for animal fodder. Dry fruits of soapnut have been exported from India since ancient times. Soapnuts are largely used as detergents for washing hair and clothes, particularly silk, woollen and other delicate fabrics. They are also used as a substitute for



(a. i


/ ®

The soapnut tree in bloom

soap, and by jewellers for restoring the brightness of ornaments. Fruits possess several medicinal properties and are widely used for example in the treatment of asthma, colic and dysentery, and during childbirth.

Practical notes

Apicultural value

Raised by direct sowing of the seeds with or without pericarp. Reproduction is also possible using suckers and offsets. The seedlings, offsets or root-suckers are planted at 10-12 m. Sapindus emarginatus thrives in any kind of soil but prefers loamy, clay or black cotton soil.

Reference KRISHNASWAMY,S N (1970) Soapnut tree: a nectar source. Indian


Bee Journal 32:

ie te

You are welcome to send your contribution to A Bees for Development publication


Leaflets 2-3 pairs, lanceolate, elliptic or oblong, acuminate or emarginate at the tip, dull above.



Sapindus emarginatus is a very valuable honey source. Bees produce a surplus of light coloured honey with a pleasant aroma. All the Apis species present in India collect its nectar and white pollen in large quantities. During flowering periods bee colonies increase rapidly and develop swarming tendencies. One colony division can be easily made. In dense stands two or three honey harvests can be taken during its bloom. Soapnut honey is much valued in South India.

Recommended for planting to increase honey production.


Size Ecuador is one of the smallest countries in South America, with a total area of 270,670km?. Despite its small area, it possesses a great variety of micro-habitats and of ) high diversity animals and plants.


and some agro-industrial products like banana, cacao, coffee and timber trees are also

important export crops.

Beekeeping situation National beekeeping activity is marginal, compared to agricultural activities. There are only a few people with a knowledge of beekeeping traditions, reflected in the low production of honey.


The population of Ecuador iS approximately eleven million people, increasing annually at a rate of 2.19%. The ~ rural population is about 40%. Average demographic density is 43 inhabitants per km? which exerts great pressure on the environment.

In Chimborazo, Imbabura, Pichincha and Tungurahua Provinces there are organisations which try to teach, and improve beekeeping skills, but these are poorly funded.


Azuay, Bolfvar, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Imbabura, Loja, Manabim Pichincha, Tungurahua Provinces: 409 individuals with a total of 1280 hives.


Our thanks


Dr Giovanni Onore,

Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, for providing the information and photographs for this article

References CHIERUZZI,M (1989) Etnomeliponicultura y analisis quimico de las mieles de cinco especies de abejas sin aguijén (Meliponinae}. Tesis previa

a la obtencién del

titulo de Licenciado en Ciencias Biélogicas.


Geography Ecuador is an Andean country, located on the Pacific coast of South America, and crossed by the Equator. It is bordered by Colombia to the north, Peru to the south and east. In Ecuador the Andes has two mountain ranges higher than 4000 m above sea level, which divide the territory into three natural regions:

Quito, Ecuador

The Western or Coastal Region with

COLOMA,L (1986) Contribucién para el conocimiento de las abejas sin aguij6n (Meliponinae, Apidae, Hymenoptera) de

humidity and exuberant forests. It is characterised by the presence of important rivers including Guayas and Esmeraldas.

Ecuador. Tesis previa

a la obtencién del titulo

de licenciado en Ciencia Bioldgicas

The Central Region or the Sierra



ONORE,G (1990) Primer registro en el Ecuador de Varroa jacobsoni, Acaro parasito de Apis mellifera Sanidad Vegetal 5: 104-107.

PONCE, (1988) Estudio

preliminar sobre patologia y fauna asociada a Apis mellifera en el Ecuador. Tesis previa a la obtencién del P

titulo de Licenciado en Crencias Buoldgicas.

is bordered

east and west by the Andes.

The Eastern Region or the Oriente presents two types of landscapes, the first goes up to 300 m altitude and the second from 300-600 m above sea level.

Present situation

Quito, Ecuador.

WINCKELL,A (1997) Los paisajes naturales Ecuador IGM Ecuador

a low


Ecuador has a democratic government. The country depends on the export of petroleum

Statistics Beekeepers registered in organisations (1989)

Beekeepers not registered with organisations (1989) Provinces as above: 540 individuals who have 5600 hives.

1997 honey production estimated at 1000 tonnes. This does not meet the national demand, and Ecuador imports honey from Argentina, Mexico and the USA.

Honey price: Real price is difficult to estimate because honey is presented in many ways: in jars, bottles and cans of unstandardised 1.25 litres. The price is approximately USS$8 per kilogram for consumers, and USS3 per kilogram trade price.

Bee species Before European colonisation of America only Melipona (or stingless bees), and some wasps were used for honey, pollen and wax production. There are still some native bees used for beekeeping, but without significant

production. In Ecuador there are at least 100 species of Melipona.

The first Apis arrived in Ecuador with the Spanish colonists, who

imported Apis Comb of Africanized bees from a feral hive.



in Manabi Province with homemade hives.

mellifera mellifera

A Bees for Development publication

and later Apis mellifera ligustica. The European bees had only modest success in the Sierra above 2300 m. Apis mellifera scutellata (African bees) arrived in Ecuador in 1980. When these bees arrived, the

beekeepers began to adapt to the bees’ defensive behaviour and absconding tendencies, whilst utilising their natural adaptability to severe tropical environments and apparent resistance to Varroa. Today Apis mellifera scutellata is distributed across the entire country from sea level to 3500 m, but the habitat to which they are best suited is in open areas with dry seasons.

Plants for bees In the Sierra where most of the hived colonies of Apis are kept, there is little forest and therefore only a few forage plants. Plants known to be used by honeybees in this region

are: Baccharis floribunda; Bidens humilis; Brassica sp; Citrus sp; Eucalyptus citriodora; Eucalyptus globulus; Eucalyptus viminalis; Eugenia sp; Inga edulis; Medicago sativa; Persea americana; Prunus serotina; and Rubus sp.

The Western Region has different geobotanical forms that are important for exploitation. In this region the plants for bees are: Bursera graveolens; Ceiba pentandra; Citrus sp; Cocos nucifera; Erythrina edulis; Matisia sp; Prosopis juliflora; Spondia purpurea; Tabebuia chrysantha; and

Terminalia amazonea. Plants important for pollen harvest in this region are Attalea colenda and Phytelephas aequatorialis.

The Eastern Region has forests but there is little published information about the development of beekeeping.

Frame hive beekeeping A high percentage of hives are Langstroth type but most beekeepers use rustic (fixed-comb) hives. Frames are not of a standard size.


Harvesting honey from stingless bees in Manabi.

A Bees for Development publication

The high price for specialised beekeeping equipment is a problem for the small-scale producers, and substitute products are of low quality.

Migratory beekeeping Ecuador is a country with a great diversity of climates so flowering continues throughout the year. This condition would make migratory beekeeping possible, but such activity is rare.

Beekeeping problems Adulterating honey with glucose discredits serious beekeepers, and although there are laws that prohibit this practice they are not enforced.


Since 1990 timber industries from Europe and Japan have been exploiting the timber plants, principally Eucalyptus which is not native but it has become one of the main resources for the bees. Ecuador is suffering from 40% deforestation. Consequently potential honey productivity is diminishing.

Diseases European foulbrood was a common problem in the hives of the Sierra. Chalkbrood Ascophaera apis becomes a serious problem during dry seasons for African bees. In 1990 Varroa was reported for the first time. This disease is now distributed over all the country. It appears that Africanized bees can tolerate the serious problems caused by Varroa.

Associations Asociacién de Apicultores de Pichincha (ADAP), Av Eloy Alfaro y Amazonas, Edificio Ministerio de Agricultura, 5° piso, oficina 513 A, Quito, Ecuador. Federacién Nacional de Apicultores del Ecuador (FENADE), founded in 1996, at the same address as ADAP.


Everyday hundreds of lorries loaded with Eucalyptus travel to Esmeraidas Port for exportation. The deforested area is not being replaced and plants for bees are diminishing.







There were abundant opportunities to learn about the state of Asian apiculture: 55 oral papers were presented, and 62 posters submitted. In addition there were impromptu talks, debates, videos and meetings of groups sharing special interests. The Proceedings of the Conference will soon be available, published by ICIMOD.

CONFERENCE CONCLUSIONS Throughout Asia, great strides are being made in modernising beekeeping with indigenous and exotic honeybee species in different eco-geographic zones. However, due to constraints such as lack of basic infrastructure, research, training and extension facilities, the beekeeping industry in Asia still requires considerable support.

Clation (AAA) Internationa


of beekeeping in Asia, co-ordinated and systematic efforts should be made to establish a training and research centre for Asian bees and beekeeping in the region. Such a centre should have a continuing, internationally-funded programme in beekeeping training and research.

March 25-27,1998 :

AAA resolves that for further development

snvention Centre.Kathmand

The beekeeping project in ICIMOD has made significant progress on various aspects of beekeeping with Apis cerana. These include the comparative advantage of Apis cerana as a pollinator; bee botany and

melissopalynology; genetic diversity research; appropriate technologies such as the straw hive and Jumla top-bar hive; and farmer-participatory extension in beekeeping. @

AAA resolves that



Apis cerana is a vital component of our natural ecosystem. However, natural populations of Apis cerana are suffering precipitous decline and the species is threatened with extinction. Left to right: Professor Mitsuo Matsuka, President of AAA; Mr Egbert Pelinck, Director General of ICIMOD; and Professor Siriwat Wongsiri, Vice-President of AAA. As Professor Wongsiri accepts the AAA plaque, he also accepts responsibility for the next AAA Conference to be in Thailand. PHOTOGRAPH


Keeping this in view, conservation of Apis cerana is essential for the maintenance of biodiversity. e@

AAA resolves that international organisations encourage projects to conserve this genetic resource by promoting Apis cerana beekeeping.

some parts of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, productive sub-species and geographic ecotypes of Apis cerana with commercial potential similar to Apis mellifera have been identified. In


AAA resolves that further research work on Apis cerana: genetic diversity, selection

these significant findings be tested and disseminated widely. recommends to the Member Countries that policies on fair marketing of bee products are formulated and implemented to the benefit of farmers and users.

Considering that beekeeping is an important, income-generating, eco-friendly activity and the important role that honeybees play in boosting the productivity of mountain crops and conserving biodiversity through pollination, beekeeping R&D programmes fit very well into ICIMOD's mandate and assigned functions. e

AAA resolves that ICIMOD should continue the Research, Training and Extension Support Programme in its participating countries at regional level.

Conference delegates discuss participatory methods of extension

and testing based on economic and biological characters be continued under similar environmental conditions on a regional basis.

Design a logo for the





See page 16 *


Beekeeping extension is a process by which skills and knowledge are exchanged. There is a need for greater understanding of how best to carry out this process.

e AAA resolves that an extension network be formed.

A Bees for Development publication





Apis cerana!

AT THE CONFERENCE the Beekeeping Technology Chapter made a proposal to AAA that an ad hoc group for the promotion of Apis cerana beekeeping be recognised.

CONGRATULATIONS The Conference was organised jointly by the Asian Apicultural Association, and the International Centre for integrated Mountain Development, ICIMOD.

AAA warmly acknowledges the valuable financial and logistical support provided by ICIMOD in organising the Fourth Conference. Well done to all concerned for a very smoothly arranged meeting, giving everyone attending the opportunity to share


The next AAA Conference will take place in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in March 2000. B&D will bring you details as soon as they are available.




The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development is a regional organisation focusing specifically on the unique problems and opportunities for development in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya. This mountain range extends from Afghanistan in the West to China in the East. People in this region are often living in remote places and farming under difficult conditions: ICIMOD undertakes research and information sharing within the region. For the past five years ICIMOD has included a beekeeping component within its activities, funded by the Federal] Chancellery of Austria.

Dr Punchihewa was appointed Co-ordinator for the “Promotion of Apis cerana Beekeeping Group”, and was requested to outline a future action


A meeting considered the problems that

Group Members are:

have hindered the development and promotion of Apis cerana beekeeping up to now.

China: Professor Kuang Bangyu,

Immediate Action The immediate action plan is to establish a network for everyone who is interested to work on the promotion of Apis cerana


To be most effective, Members must have apiaries with a minimum of 20 colonies of Apis cerana. This will enable Members to conduct simple observations and experiments within an “Asia wide co-ordinated honeybee management programme”. The colonies should be managed to produce honey, and honey production will be considered the prime objective of the whole exercise. For this purpose it is important to keep accurate records and documentation should be available to all Members at any time.

Mr Tan Ken

India: Dr V K Mattu, Mr P Roy

Japan: Professor T Yoshida Nepal: Dr

N M Saville, Mr

K K Shrestha

Sri Lanka: Dr R W K Punchihewa

Thailand: Dr Sirinun Aemprapa, Professor S Wongsiri

Vietnam: Dr P H Ching, Mr P D Hanh. The following participated as observers at the inaugural meeting: Dr Ernst Huttinger, Dr Hermann

Pechhacker (Austria) Dr Otto Boecking (Germany)

Professor Mitsuo Matsuka,

AAA President Japan


Dr Nicola Bradbear, Ms Nell Holt-Wilson

(United Kingdom)

person please contact Dr RW K Punchihewa 855088 or E-mail punchirw@slit.Ik

Any interested Fax +94


The Conference was weil attended by exactly 150 delegates from 22 countries

Looking at a hive made from straw in ICIMOD’s apiary at Godavari

A Bees for Development publication





ASIAN APICULTURAL Asian Apicultural Association (AAA) was established to encourage friendly exchange of information between beekeepers and bee scientists in Asia. AAA administrative headquarters are in Japan. Many countries have local AAA Representatives or Chapters. In 1992 the

AAA Membership is USS20 per year. If you live in one of the countries listed below you can join AAA by contacting your local Representative. People in other countries send $20 directly to the AAA Office, c/o Honeybee Science Research Center, Tamagawa University, MachidaShi, Tokyo 194-8610, Japan. Fax +81 427 39 8685 e-mail


Mr Linton Briggs, The Federal Council of Australian Apiarists Association, PMB 1030, Glen Rowan, Victoria 3675


Dr Alamgir Mati, Bangladesh Apicultural Association,


Dr Kun-Suk Woo, Institute of Korea Beekeeping Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Suwon 440 744


Dr M Hj Muid, Plant Protection Department, Agricultural University of Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor


Mr K

Shrestha, Co-ordinator, Beekeeping Project, ICIMOD, PO Box 3226, Kathmandu

Bangladesh Institute of Apiculture, 23/12 Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohammadpur, Dhaka 1207



Brunei Darrussalam, Gadong 3186


College of Agriculture, UP Los Banos, College, Laguna


11541, Ministry of Agriculture Training Department, Riyadh




Dr R W K Punchihewa, Honeybee Research Facility,

Dr Vinod K Mattu, Department of Bio-Sciences,



Dr M Chandra Widjaja, National Beekeeping Center, Perum Perhutani, |] Gatot Subroto-Senayan, PO Box 19/KT WB, Jakarta 10270

Prof Yaacov Lensky, The Triwaks Bee Research Centre, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel




® -




Mr Somnuk Boongird, Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Science, Ram Kham Kaeng University, Ram Kham Kaeng, Bangkok 10240


Dr Osman Kaftanoglu, Department of Animal Science, Cukurova University, Adana 01330


Mr Dinh Quyet Tam, Director, VINAPI, Phuong mai, Dongda, Hanoi


is proud to have been adopted as the magazine of the

Asian Apicultural Association

1,000’s of reasons for being at the 67th National Honey Show



Horticulture Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Kananwila, Horana


University, Jnaha Bharati, Bangalore 560 056


Mr Jassim M Al Mughrabi, PO Box 42332, Riyadh

TAIWAN (China) Dr Chun-Yen Lin, Taiwan Apicultural & Sericultural Experiment Station, 261 Kuan-nan, Kung-Kuan, Miaoli

Dr C C Reddy, Department of Zoology, Bangalore


Dr Cleofas R Cervancia, Department of Entomology,

Professor Zhang Fu-Xing, Apicultural Science Association of China, Xiangshan, Beijing Central! Bee Research Institute, Khadi & Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 016 Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla


Mr Keith E Ferguson, PO Box 2037, SEEB III Dr Nasreen Muzaffar, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, PO NIH, Islamabad

Dr Kassim Hajidaud, Department of Biology, Universiti



NEW ZEALAND Mr Cliff van Eaton, National Apiculture Business Unit, MAF Quality Management, Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries, Private Bag, Tauranga


30/1 Shantinagar, Dhaka 1217



® @®


Trophies and Cash Prizes Ingenious Inventions Stunning Displays Lots of Lectures Famous Faces Top Traders The Best of Friends

Show your Best Honey to the World at the Best Honey Show in the World 26th, 27th & 28th November 1998 at Kensington Town Hall, London Full details from:


Reverend F Capener 1 Baldric Road, Folkestone CT20 2NR, United Kingdom tel & fax: +44 (0) 1303 254 579 e-mail: Registered Charity 233656

A Bees for Development publication



8th Apimondia International Symposium on



International Union for the Study of Social Insects

17-19 September 1998, Portoroz Further details from: MEDEX International d.d., Linhartova, 49a, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

29 December 1998 - 4 January 1999, Adelaide Further information from: Dr M P Schwarz, Flinders

We are seeking a partner to implement a joint commercial project: “Project for the production of propolis in the Peruvian Forest”.

Fax (+386) 61 175 7522 E-mail

University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, Australia


SOUTH AFRICA Apimondia International Apicultural Congress

XII Brazilian Apiculture Congress 10-13 November 1998, Bahia Further information from. Secretaria, INTERLINK, Rua Tiexeira Leal, 107-A, Graga, CEP 401 50-050

13-18 September 2001, Sun City Further details from: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 101, I-00186 Rome, Italy

Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Fax (+71) 336 5633

Fax (+39) 6685 2286 E-mail apimondia@mclink it

CANADA Apimondia International Apicultural Congress 12-18 September 1999, Vancouver Further details from: Apimondia 99, c/o Venue West Conference Services, #645 ~ 375 Water Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 5CB, Canada Fax (+604) 681 2503 E-mail

CHILE Sustainable Management of Forest Resources: Challenge of the 21st Century 22-28 November 1998, Valdivia Further details from: Secretaria de CONAF, Avenida Bulnes 286 6e piso, Valdivia, Chile Tel/Fax (+56) 2 697 22 73


Bees for


25-28 November 1998, London Baldric Close, Further details from: Rev F Capener, Folkestone, Kent CT20 2NR, United Kingdom E-mail |

November 1998, Havana


July to 8 August 1998, Mons

Mariano, Havana, Cuba


Fax (+32) 65 35 47 89

Workshop on Sustainable Beekeeping Development and All India Honey Festival (Apiexi'98)

PHILIPPINES Training of Trainers on Sustainable Agriculture


6-24 July 1998, Cavite

Secretary, WSBD & Apiexi’98, Directorate of Industries & Commerce, 14/3A, Nrupthunga Road, ‘Fives for Devel ~z"BvaHid Bangalore 560 001, India Fax (+91) 80 2211018 E-mail




15-27 June 1998, Arusha



UNITED KINGDOM and TANZANIA Beekeeping in Rural Development

25-30 July 1999, Jerusalem Further details from: Congress Secretariat, XIV International Plant Protection Congress, PO Box 50006, Te! Aviv 61500, Israel Fax (+972) 3 514 0077

JORDAN Second International Arab Apicultural Conference 3-6 August, 1998, Amman Further details from: Conference Organizing Committee, PO Box 172, irbid, Jordan Fax (+962) 2 273 724 E-mail

A Bees fer Development publication

Correspondent in Tanzania has retired after many years working with the Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society. Bees for Development wishes Justin a long and happy retirement and thanks him for his support and encouragement of our work.





Further details from: Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, PO Box 661, Arusha, Tanzania Fax (+254) 57 8240

Combating Desertification with Plants

XIV International Plant Protection Congress

Write to. Tobias O Otieno, Director, FEMI, PO Box 74506, Nairobi, Kenya Fax (+254) 2 604934

on completing their 5000th advisory

Management of African Bees (Swahili language)

ISRAEL 2-5 November 1998, Beer Sheva Further information from: The Organizing Committee, International Program for Arid Land Crops, c/o Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Fax (+972) 7 647 2984 E-mail

objective is to expand rural employment by providing credit to small-scale agricultural producers and developing marketing channels for their products. We are interested to hear from potential buyers of honey and beeswax.

To BESO (British Executive Service Overseas, a UK charity)



Kenya Enterprise Microfund Foundation (FEMI) is an NGO whose


Further details from: Mila Resma, Education and Training, international Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang 4118, Cavite, Philippines Fax (+63) 46 414 2420

1-5 August 1998, Dharwad, Karnataka State Further details from: Dr MS Reddy, Organising


Mr Justin Madaha, B&D’s

Further details from: Apiculture sans Frontieres, Chemin de la procession, 31B-7000 Mons, Belgium

Further details from:



LEARN AHEAD BELGIUM Courses in French in Beekeeping

CUBA Eco-Materials for a Sustainable Habitat

111 Tarapoto, Peru E-mail


17-20 November 1998 Further details from: Caribbean Beekeeping Congress, c/o Technical Support Unit, Level 2, N1B Mall, Scarborough, Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies Fax (+868) 639 4464

UNITED KINGDOM National Honey Show


Professor Dalin Encomenderos Cavalos, Nationa! University of San Martin


TOBAGO Caribbean Beekeeping Congress







16 August - 13 September 1998, Cardiff University and Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania

UNITED KINGDOM Honeybee Pathology

The lucky 5000th volunteer? Alan Morley assisting beekeepers in India!

BEEKEEPING WORKSHOPS AND COURSES Send us full details of your meeting, and the anticipated number of participants, at least three months ahead of the date.

10-14 August 1998, Cardiff University Further details for the two courses above from: Ms Glynis

Bees for Development can support your event with information materials.

Hudson, Professional Development Centre, 51 Park Place, Cardiff University of Wales, Cardiff, CF1 3AT, United Kingdom Fax.(+44} 1222 874560


or from Bees for Development

If you would like us to mention your meeting or workshop in Look Ahead or Learn Ahead send

details well in advance to

Bees for Development, address

on page two

As a result of the EU directive we described in B&D46, the book Microscopy Certificate Notes (Yates & Yates) now requires an addendum! If you have a copy of this book write to the publishers: Bee Books New and Old, 10 Quay Road, Charlestown, Cornwall PL25 3NX, United Kingdom for your free addendum.





NEWS AROUND «_ AFGHANISTAN Fifty colonies of bees were purchased and transported from Pakistan to Badakhshan in the north-east of Afghanistan in 1992 and 1993. The areas most suited to beekeeping are those at lower altitudes, for example in the Jurm District. Thirty hives were initially distributed to ten families in five villages. Now 30 families in nine villages have 168 hives, with no further input from Afghanaid other than training. On average 19.3 kg of honey is harvested annually from each of the colonies in Jurm, and beekeeping is locally recognised as an




Obaidullah from Hesarak

Obaidullah from Jurm with some of his hives

make from selling honey I have been able to buy ghee, rice, wheat, clothes and oil for my family. Without this money, it would be very difficult, maybe even impossible for us to make ends meet”.

Afghanaid introduced beekeeping into their work in 1992 (see B&D29): this has proved a very successful initiative.

village in Jurm District was given four hives by Afghanaid. By his second year he was keeping ten hives with a total yield of 130 kg of honey, 90 kg of which he sold. A kilogram of honey sells for 250,000 Afghanis {about USS$4). When asked how the bees had affected his life he replied “First of all we use the honey within our family for food. It is also good for our health. With the money I

Fazil was given three hives in 1994. By the end of 1997 he had 40 hives and explained, “I am 18 years old and am one of a family of ten. My brother and | look after the hives together. We sell the honey and surplus hives locally which means our family now has a much higher income. We get 20-30 ke of honey from each hive”

Fazil lives in Baharak (a town of about 800 families) where there are now over 1000 hives. Baharak is home to Afghanaid’s “mother” stock which is used to supply bees to families in the Argu and Warduj areas of Badakhsan.

Yvonne Lane, Afghanaid

CAMEROON In May 1998 APICA (Association for the Promotion of Community Initiatives) organised a workshop, attended by local farmers, beekeepers, and representatives of NGOs, on the beekeeping potential in Adamaoua Province, Ngaoundéré.

The main objectives of the workshop were to analyse beekeeping practices, potential and problems in the Province, and to encourage the different groups concerned to find new

perspectives concerning honey production and consumption. TWELVE

Adolphe Libong,


Correspondent in Cameroon


Afghanaid provides training and regular support to everyone who receives hives from them. There is an agreement that for each colony given one colony will be returned to Afghanaid the following year. In this way the programme is extended to other villages.

Beekeeping training in Jurm, Badakhshan

During the workshop, Sucré-Villages (a networking organisation offering aid to beekeeping initiatives) discussed bee products in terms of social, economic and environmental worth, in addition to their use. The links between beekeeping and the environment were also explained.

CUBA Apimondia is the World Federation of Beekeeping Associations. In February 1998 Apimondia’s Commission for Apitherapy organised a working meeting in Cuba. Cuba was selected as the meeting site because of the apitherapy research, and the determination to use natural medicines that exists there. The first three days were devoted to the presentation of papers, the fourth day was for field visits, and the last day was a working meeting. One objective of the meeting was to establish for Cuba a pharmacopoeia of the products of the hive: an “api-pharmacopoeia”. Dr Theodore Cherbuliez, President of the Commission of Apitherapy of Apimondia

GHANA Two Melipona stingless bee species found Two economically important stingless bee species have been identified in Ghana by Brother Anthony Addai of St Anthony of Padua Friary, Sunyani. The two species, Meliponula bocandei and Meliponula nebulata were among six other stingless bee species collected from the tropical forests of Ghana. Five Hypotrigona species including Hypotrigona braunsi were also found. One other interesting stingless bee species that builds vertical combs made up of cells similar to that of Apis mellifera was found to exist in many parts of Ghana. It was identified as Dactylurina staudingeri. All the stingless bee species were scientifically identified with the assistance of Dr David Roubik of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, USA.

A Bees for Development publication




The project is the joint responsibility of the Department of Promotion and Development of Apiculture within the Ministry of Agriculture.


THE WORLD Brother Addai’s stingless bee study was supported by an International Foundation for Science research grant. According to Brother Addai the two Melipona species abound in the rainforest zones of the country and are capable of producing annually up to 9.5 litres of highly medicinal honey that is used in the treatment of many diseases.

Brother Addai plans to continue his research investigating methods for honey production by beekeepers.


Correspondent in Ghana

Jorge Murakami Uchida

SOUTH AFRICA President Nelson Mandela was stung by honeybees in his bathroom at his vacation home in Qunu. President Mandela reported that although he knows it is better to stand still when bees are nearby, his boxing combative training got the better of him. “I feared getting stung so I quickly moved. The bees launched a counter attack and I had to flee”. Mr Mandela was stung four or five times on the abdomen. Source: The Times of India, 14 April 1998

TOBAGO First Caribbean Beekeeping


Cc ongress

Propolis Researchers’ Association

In contrast to its image as one of the world’s most popular tourism destinations, the Caribbean is relatively unknown for its beekeeping. Yet the region is regarded as

The Propolis Researchers’ Association was established in November 1997. At the first meeting, two Brazilian and two Japanese professors gave talks on the production, nature and application of propolis in the past and in the future. The current lack of communication between researchers, producers, and consumers was discussed and one of the future activities of the Association is to improve communication.

Consumption of propolis in Japan has increased rapidly over the last ten years in parallel with the advances of research into propolis. The Japan Propolis Association (with more than 240 member companies) celebrated its tenth anniversary in 1997.



area of the country to benefit more than 500 families of rural people who live in the dry forest areas of this region.


Kwame Aidoo,


Collaboration is needed throughout the world, especially among propolis researchers themselves and organisations such as Apimondia and other national associations. It is hoped that the PRA will soon be acting on an international basis. Professor Mitsuo Matsuka, Chief Representative,

Propolis Researchers’ Association

PERU The National Apicultural Programme is operating to promote beekeeping at the national level. The Programme has established 10,000 honeybee colonies in the north coast

A Bees for Development publication

having significant potential particularly in queen rearing and the production of high quality, multifloral and chemicalresidue-free honey. Beekeepers from Tobago have won, for example, 13 awards over the last two years at the United Kingdom National Honey Show.

Beekeeping in the Caribbean is being increasingly threatened by: the spread of pests and diseases (Varroa has been found in Grenada and Trinidad); reduction of foraging areas; honey importation; and the influx of Africanized bees. The support of regional governments for beekeeping has in general been poor.

The First Caribbean

Beekeeping Congress offers a unique opportunity for the Caribbean beekeeping community to meet and discuss the challenges and opportunities they fac


The Congress dates are 17-20 November 1998, it is being and convened under the auspices of the Apimondia Standing Commission for

Beekeeping for Rural Development. The theme of the Congress is Securing The Future of Caribbean Beekeeping. The Congress will feature presentations on the status of beekeeping within the wider Caribbean region Belize, Bermuda to Surinam, by representatives from the respective countries. Also wellknown guest speakers will deliver presentations on apitherapy, value added hive products, stingless bees, Africanized bees, beekeeping extension services and beekeeping legislation in the Caribbean. Several funding agencies and NGOs have been invited to deliver brief presentations. There will be a pane! discussion on “Beekeeping Profitability”, an “open forum” on the Congress theme, a one-day field trip and a post-congress field trip to Trinidad.

An output from the Congress will be an ntification of strategies to ensure the growth and development of

beekeeping. Gladstone Solomon,


Correspondent in Tobago

he contact addresses for the Con gress are in Look Ahead, page




Honey bee pests, predators and diseases Roger Morse and Kim Flottum edited by



1997 3rd edition - 718 pages. Hardback. Available from

Bees for Development

price 30.00 The brand-new, updated tion of the most imprehensive book on neybee diseases and edators available. he experts, including 8 new authors,

haring their expertise in the original chapter subjects, with a new, additional chapter on “the genetic basis of disease resistance”. Required reading and a practical quide for everyone involved in beekeeping, entomology or honeybee science world-wide.

The Varroosis in the Mediterranean Region CIHEAM (International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies) Published by

1997 - 103 pages. Paperback. Available from

Bees for Development price 16.00 The Proceedings of the Seminar organised by CIHEAM and the Direccién General de Investigaci6n y Formacién Agraria-Junta de Andulucia in Spain in September 1996. More than 50 researchers, technicians and beekeepers from 17 countries attended this two day meeting and heard the latest information on the scientific aspects of Varroa, including parasitic development and multiplication in bee colonies. Tolerance of Varroa by certain bee strains were discussed. Means of controlling the disease and the Cahiers problems of mite resistance and posttreatment residues were considered. The efficiency of fe Varroosis in the alternative therapies ranean Region (organic acids and aromatic plant


mE 6


extracts) were explained, although it seems that these methods of treatment are not very efficient in the Mediterranean region. Economic implications of the disease were presented by Professor Raymond Borneck in his opening address. There is

a large gap between the knowledge gained in the north and south of the Mediterranean, and the need for networking the work done on parasite population dynamics was stressed.

Queen rearing and bee

breeding by Harry


Laidlaw Jr and

economy. The book is divided into three parts: references relevant to 1) The African continent and

1997 - 224 pages. Paperback. Available from

supranational regions, 2) specific countries, and 3) the subject in

Bees for Development price 18.00


Robert E Page Jr

A book written for beekeepers who know only a little about genetics, and for geneticists who knowa little about beekeeping. An intense

explanation abou the subjects including information on the development of the queen and her care, the production of queen cells,

ion-Timber: rest Products m the Tropi rests of Afrieg, ~ siege


Designing conservation projects: people and biodiversity in endangered tropical environments by Julian


1996 - 312 pages. Hardback. Available from

Bees for Development price 50.00

mating techniques and record keeping, Robert € selective breeding and the genetic basis of disease resistance.

Page Jr,

This is a serious text explaining what goes into the planning and implementation of large conservation projects. During the first half of the book the author describes the work of projects in: Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo), Nigeria, Western and Central Indonesia, China, Luzon (The Philippines), Costa Rica, and Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea).

Non-timber forest products from the tropical forests of Africa

In the second half, the underlying conservation problems are reviewed, arriving at some general guidelines to be used in project planning. Options for

compiled by Harry van der

achieving conservation of

Linde and

Esther van Adrichem 1997 - 60 pages. Spiral bound. Available from Bees for Development price 9.00

This comprehensive bibliography is the outcome of a project supported by WWF-Netherlands and provides an overview of literature available on nontimber forest products in the tropical forests of Africa, published up to January

species are summarised as are options for

achieving development, and ways to change peoples’ minds. This is a unique book


interestingly documenting and

Entries have been collected from the fields of anthropology, ecology, (ethno)botany, Management, pharmacology and socio-

case studies.

analysing the chosen

A Bees for Development publication






hig the high mountain home of the Mountain home Nepal: honeybee of the

Documenting, evaluating and learning from our development projects

4000 m above sea level.

Honey hunting in Nepal is a 12,000 year old activity and the film follows honey hunters on their twice-yearly visit to magnificent cliffs to harvest comb from the rock bee, Apis laboriosa. An interview with the hunters answers questions on why they enjoy honey hunting, how the honey and wax they harvest is prepared and used, and why the numbers of colonies returning to the cliffs each season is declining. In some areas honey hunting cliffs have been completely deserted by the bees.

— a



1S igetiwaen


10% of proceeds of video sales are donated to extension and development of



evaluation activities to


improve project processes and results.

This polished video explores the world of the honeybee species

for each species and explains where the bees build their nests. Apis florea is found in altitudes of up to 1000 m, Apis dorsata up to 1350 m, and Apis laboriosa nests as high as

A workbook for the practical



in Nepal that build single combs: Apis dorsata, Apis florea and Apis laboriosa. The film includes a brief, well-described, life history

Development price 15.00


Available from Bees for Development price 18.00 airmail postage and packing


1996 - 107 pages. Spiral bound. English and Spanish editions. Available from Bees for


1997 VHS/PAL and NTSC Running time 33 minutes


Daniel Selner with Christopher Purdy and Gabriela Zapata

systematisation. Guidelines for

written and produced by Claire Waring



understanding of the concept of







This is the companion video


“Nepal: its bees and beekeepers” reviewed in Bees from for Development price 18.





Also available


oy Daniel Selene Gubels Za 874

a coratoper



Bees for Development prices include postage

Racal Reet onsiractien

We deal with your order as soon as we receive it. Book orders are usually sent by surface mail. To receive your order by airmail please add 25% to the total order value.

EXPLANATION PLEASE! is a continuous process of participatory reflection on a project's progress and results by both project staff and


All videos and visual aids are always sent air mail at no extra cost. For large orders we will issue a pro forma invoice for payment in sterling or USS. We can help you select books to provide an excellent beekeeping library.


There is an order form printed in Books te Buy. Or just send us a note of what you want. Alternatively you can order through our World-Wide-Web site.

Natural housekeeping: rediscovered recipes for housecare




A book of recipes for home care. How to make polishes, cleansers and

perfumes using safe and natural ingredients. Beeswax

Sort code: 20-00-85 Barclays Bank plc, PO 29, M h, NP5 3YG , Unted kin 8 ponmout Box




Cheque, Eurocheque or Bank draft in UK Bank transfer Account number: 10167967

1997 - 144 pages. 4 Paperback. Available from

Bees for Development price



features inalarge number of recipes!



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Access, JCB, Mastercard or Visa accepted. We need to know your card number, card expiry date, name on card - Payments to Bees for Development please.




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Bank charges At Bees for Development we receive payments from all over the world. For people paying subscriptions (16 or US$35), bank charges sometimes cost us half of the money being paid!

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“Promote Apis cerana beekeeping group” Dr Otto Boecking has

initiated the challenge with his entry shown here

Income generation from beekeeping and


honey hunting


The competition is to design a logo for the new




- 5 August 1998

TSBV disease


and control

sponsored by the

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Worthwhile beekeeping with Apis cerana


Directorate of Industries & Commerce to be held at the Centre for Entrepreneurship


Queen rearing with

Apis cerana

Development of Karnataka, Dharwad, INDIA running concurrently with

Further details from:

All India Honey Festival (Apiexi‘98)

Dr M S Reddy,

Organising Secretary,

WSBD & Apiexi’98, Directorate of Industries

Please send your design to Bees for Development at the address below

The winner will be announced in the December edition of

& Commerce,

14/3A, Nrupthunga Road, Bangalore 560 001,

Beekeeping & Development


All entries to be received by 30 September 1998



(+91) 80 2211018

i i


OFFICIAL SPONSORS US National Honey Board Apistan Dadant & Sons Bee Maid Honey and

Western Wax Works Medivet Pharmaceuticals

Simon Fraser University Canadian Farm Business

Management Council/ Conseil Canadien de la gestion d’enterprise agricole Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada/ Agriculture and Agrifood Canada Arataki Honey Ltd

Congress Theme: Beekeeping in the New Millennium Venue: The Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre Congress sessions will be highlighted by presentations from invited guests world renowned for their knowledge of apiculture Information from: Apimondia '99 c/o Venue West Conference Services #645-375

Water Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 5C6 CANADA Fax: (+1) 604 681 2508

Apimondia ‘99 Website: http:/

Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom Telephone +44 (0)16007 13648 Fax +44 (0}16007 16167 E-mail World Wide Web Bees for Development 1998 Environmentally friendly paper ISSN 1369 9555