Bees for Development Journal Edition 46 - March 1998

Page 1

OFFICE COPY Please return to the file




MARCH 1998









Apiculture & Développement (the French version of B&D) is translated by Ms Valérie Petey.

Editor: Dr Nicola Bradbear

Inside Information




Co-ordinator: Ms Helen Jackson

Practical Beekeeping




Women Beekeepers In Calakmul


Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth,

Bees for Development urgently needs more


NP5 4AB, United Kingdom


Finding Funding Update Look & Learn Ahead





Notice Board




News Around the World





SUBSCRIPTION DEPARTMENT The subscription rate for 12 months ~~) is 16 or 35SUS by air mail to any address world-wide. A subscription form is printed in Books to Buy. Past editions are 5 each. Readers in developing countries may pay by Beeswax Barter or Candle Currency (see page 12, B&D44).

between her wings on her thorax. The bee above her, to her left, has a Braula coeca fly just at the space between her thorax and abdomen. Varroa jacobsoni are flat, elliptical, red

and shiny. Varroa jacobsoni have eight legs, but these are barely visible,

protruding just a little. Braula coeca are brown coloured. They are tiny, wingless flies, hairy and with the six legs much more apparent. With a hand lens it is very easy to tell the

difference between Braula and Varroa. (PS: The yellow sphere is pollen carried in the pollen basket formed

by hairs on the back leg of a worker bee.) Thanks


Clive de Bruyn for kindly

providing this interesting picture. Clive's new book is featured on page \4.


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We are grateful to all the beekeeping groups and individuals who assist us.

CONTACT US By post Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom By fax +44 (0)16007 16167

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How many species did you identify in our cover picture? There are three. The honeybees are Apis mellifera. The bee in the centre of the picture has a Varroa jacobsoni mite

pay the cost of a subscription.




financial support to continue producing B&D in 1998. You can help! We are always delighted to receive sponsorship on a small or grand scale. We depend on sponsors to support our many readers working in countries where it is impossible to

dear Prends

This issue of B&D carries the sad news that the honeybee mite, Varroa jacobsoni has been confirmed present in South Africa. How long before the damaging effects of the mite are felt across the African continent? Or will strict legislation be enforced to prevent transportation of infested colonies?

Scientists and beekeepers are joining forces to fight Varroa. In this issue we bring you news of novel ways to fight Varroa without resorting to expensive chemicals: the more, different ways we fight mites, the less chance there is of the mites developing resistance. On pages 4 and 5 are possible treatments using grapefruit leaves and nutmeg oil. But European beekeepers beware! Any of us trying to control Varroa with formic acid, lactic

acid or indeed grapefruit leaves are breaking the law. This is because a European Union

Veterinary Medicines Directive has now ruled that because bees are ‘food producing animals’ it is only legal to treat them with a licensed product.

This means that it is now a criminal offence for European beekeepers to control Varroa with ‘soft remedies’, for example lactic acid that comes from milk, or formic acid, that occurs naturally in some honey! Substances like these are not licensed because they occur naturally, and are therefore not patented. °

At present the only licensed product available here in the United Kingdom is Bayvarol, produced by the pharmaceutical giant Bayer. We now have so much legislation controlling the control of Varroa. If

only we had controlled its arrival in the first


Niibla A Bees for Development publication




VARROA What is it? Varroa is a parasitic mite of honeybees. The tiny mite lives and feeds on larvae and adult bees.

Latin name Varroa jacobsoni

Size The female has a diameter of about one millimetre. Male mites are much smaller.

Appearance Female - shiny, red-brown and elliptical in shape with four pairs of legs. Male mites are white in colour and spend their lives inside capped brood cells. Female Varroa on a honeybee larva

VARROA Where did it from? come Varroa was first named in 1904 by Dr Oudemans in Indonesia. He identified it on one of the

Asian honeybee species, Apis cerana. This cies is the natural host of Varroa: the bees the mites have developed a host-predator relationship which allows the continued survival of both species. In the long term, it would not benefit the mites to completely wipe out their host species. Our current problems with Varroa in Apis mellifera colonies began when humans moved European Apis mellifera into Asia. Varroa mites spread from


infestation is also somehow related to the viruses carried by the mites and honeybees.

VARROA Where is it now? Movement by humans of colonies of Varroa-infested Apis mellifera led to the spread of Varroa around the world. In 1987 Varroa was found in the USA, in 1990 it was found in Canada, in 1992 it was found in the United Kingdom (and in 1997 here in Monmouth!) The only remaining major beekeeping areas without Varroa are now Australia and New Zealand, and most of Africa {as far as we know). In Europe only Ireland remains Varroa-free.

Apis cerana colonies into Apis mellifera colonies.

Unlike Apis cerana, Apis mellifera has not evolved in the presence of the mite. Therefore Apis mellifera has not developed any defence mechanisms against Varroa. Colonies of Apis mellifera can be completed destroyed by the mite, unless the beekeeper takes some action to control mite numbers.

The effect of Varroa on Apis mellifera is not always the same. For example in Central and South America, some populations of Africanized honeybees seem able to survive in the presence of the mite. The effect of Varroa A Bees for Development publication

VARROA win South Africa Varroa jacobsoni has now been confirmed present for the first time in sub-Saharan

Africa. It was identified in the Western Cape, South Africa in August 1997.

References GAUTIER,D (1997) South African

LEAR,E N (1998)

Bee Journal.

Personal communication

69: 2

It may take three or more years before there are sufficient numbers of mites present in a honeybee colony for them to be detected. If one colony in an apiary

becomes infested with Varroa, ajl colonies in the apiary will become infested. THREE





recently started in the Caribbean island of Grenada to validate the efficacy of essential oils as miticides. We are placing special emphasis on locally-produced oils: cinnamon, clove, mace and nutmeg. We are considering the possibility of offering a commercial ‘apimiticide’ made from Grenadian coconut oil, Grenadian beeswax and Grenadian nutmeg oil. It sounds really nice!!

We have not yet carried out trials to determine the best time during the bee calendar for these treatments. However we | have made the following assumptions: |.

ingredient, the risk of obnoxious contamination of hive products is negligible. .

Do not accuse us of putting on the saddle before bringing in the horse! I must explain that this essential oil cream treatment has been used by the beekeeper who first reported Varroa present in Grenada. He has found high levels of Varroa casualties, and importantly a lack of any noxious effects of the treatment on the bee colonies. Also the number of worker disabilities resulting from the viruses vectored by the mites has been reduced almost to zero. Quite a relief from the pitiful sight of thousands of crippled, crawling bees of recent times.



450g coconut oil (or any vegetable cooking oil) 15g essential oil (we have tried eucalyptus, nutmeg, peppermint and spearmint)




Stir until the wax melts completely and allow to cool to 42-45°C. If a thermometer is not available, cool until the mixture just starts to harden at the surface, but is still quite fluid.

Trees beekeepers use in Grenada

distributing it evenly.



Push the strip deep into the entrance of the hive undergoing treatment, preferably before 0900 hours on a hot, sunny day. If Varroa is present, the first effects of the treatment (dead or terminally ill mites on the bottom board) can be seen within 2-4 hours. Presumably the hotter and drier the weather, the faster the effects.

The above mixture should be sufficient for 50 hives if applied as follows:

On one side of the strip spread one or two teaspoons of the miticide mixture,




nutmeg and mace growing

Leave a one cm section at each end of the strip clean to avoid getting mixture on yourself.

the mixture until thoroughly blended.

Cut strips from any of the following: bamboo, Bristol board, cardboard, plastic containers, plywood, or tins. The strips should between two and five cm wide by 20 cm long.



At this point stir the essential oil into


Based on these assumptions, and with due regard to the local climatic and floral characteristics of the apiary and foraging area, beekeepers would be well advised if they apply essential oil treatments against Varroa not less than one month before the main nectar flow. This is as a


170g beeswax

Break the beeswax into small pieces and melt in a double boiler (a large pot with water containing a small pot with the wax} with the coconut oil.

Essential oil treatments for parasitic arthropod control in honeybees does not negatively affect colonies or individual bees, in their physiology or exchange of pheromones.

general sanitary practice.



Due to the natural (as opposed to man-made) nature of the active control


After 24 hours (longer for lower temperatures}, the treatment is over and a number of dead Varroa can be seen under the brood chamber. Also, and possibly for the first time, white males can be observed dead on the bottom board or groggily walking about in a totally uncharacteristic behaviour.

This is advisable in cases of extreme infestations, manifested by direct observation of Varroa in capped drone cells, dead mites on the bottom board, proliferation of handicapped workers, and drones crawling in and out of the hives. That is an overall colony ‘demobilisation’, with a consequently sharp decrease in honey production and pollen gathering.

experience that even colonies considered beyond redemption can be saved by these treatments if applied to populations of more than 10,000 bees. So far we have not had any losses of colonies due to severe re-infestation, as the treated hives have been able to achieve self-reliant populations. It has been our

The October-November 1997 rainy season was the driest have seen in 20 years in Grenada. We have concluded that during periods of heavy rain bee colonies in tropical conditions are at their weakest point in terms of resistance to Varroa infestation and proliferation. Therefore, we have seriously considered advising treatment prior to the onset of the rainy season, |

As you can appreciate, our smiles continue to widen when we think about the future of beekeeping in Grenada, as far as Varroa is concerned.

A Bees for Development publication






How to controi it

10-14 August 1998 Cardiff University

During the last 20 years, the Varroa mite has destroyed wild populations of Apis mellifera honeybees and has threatened beekeeping industries. Scientists have undertaken spectacular amounts of research on the mite, and how to control it. In many ways the mite has revitalised honeybee research and stimulated funding and employment. But we still have no final answers on how to control Varroa.

In 1998 Bees for Development is offering this new course, run in

The best answer would have been for beekeepers not to continue moving infested honeybees from one country to another. There is no single method that is totally effective in controlling Varroa.

The standard method of Varroa treatment in the

USA is using fluvalinate Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid which is harmless to bees, but cannot be used whilst bees are producing honey otherwise the honey becomes contaminated. A further problem with fluvalinate is that the



mites can develop resistance to it. Alternative control mechanisms are being


investigated. Frank Eischen has .wdnd that smoke from certain plants either kills Varroa mites or causes

them to fall off the bees.

300-400 mite infested bees are put in a cage and the cage is covered with a plastic container. The smoke from the trial plant is puffed into the container which is then corked to prevent the smoke escaping.

Creosote bush smoke achieves a 90-100% mite knockdown after one minute but excessive exposure to the smoke harms the bees. “It is hard to find chemicals that remove mites without harming bees”, says Dr Eischen. “Grapefruit leaves however fit the description. After 30 seconds smoke from the grapefruit leaves knocked down 90-95% of the mites”.

Few of the mites are actually killed, most simply fall off the bees. “Either the smoke chemicals irritate or confuse the mites”, says Dr Eischen, “no-one is certain”. “But the good thing is that the leaf smoke does not seem to have any detrimental effects on the bees at


After 60 seconds the bees are removed and placed over sticky white card to catch any mites that fall off the bees. So far Dr Eischen has tested smoke from about

Dr Eischen is not recommending that beekeepers try these methods of control yet. “These findings are still preliminary and the active chemicals in the smoke are not yet

40 plants.

identified. What we are trying to do is isolate and identify the chemicals which are acting as miticides” he explains.

The first smoke Dr Eischen tested was from the ‘creosote’ bush, following a recommendation by a Mexican beekeeper, David Cardoso. The creosote bush is native to Mexico and Texas.

A Bees for Development publication

This information is taken from an article written by Sean Adams in Agricultural Research, August 1997, kindly provided by Dr Darrell Cox of Echo Inc.

conjunction with the School of Pure and Applied Biology at Cardiff University. The five days of study will cover many aspects of honey bee pathology including: Varroa (of course), foulbrood, honeybee viruses and other honeybee diseases. The course fee is 1150 inclusive of all course materials, fees and half board accommodation.


DEVELOPMENT 16 August - 15 September


Cardiff University and Niiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania This four-week course provides two weeks in the United Kingdom; followed by two weeks of practical work with our partners at Njiro Wildlife Research Centre. The cost of this course, including return flights to Tanzania and half board accommodation for four weeks is 3938,

If you would like more details details of either course contact: Ms Glynis Hudson, Professional Development Centre, 51 Park Place, Cardiff University of Wales, Cardiff, CF1 3AT, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 1222 874560 Email or

Bees for Development

As you can

see, these courses have

been arranged so that students can

participate in both. Numbers of places on each course are limited. Book early to avoid disappointment.






The Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul is in the south of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, bordering on Belize and Guatemala. The reserve protects an area of 723,184 hectares of tropical forest. Around 25,000 people live in 115 communities within the nucleus and buffer zone of the reserve. The majority of these people are immigrants from other parts of Mexico, coming in search of land, or to escape political and natural troubles.

The typical means of production is slash and burn agriculture. Given the ever growing population, forest resources are diminishing and soils are becoming less productive. This is a nonsustainable system. The region is one of the poorest in Mexico with an average annual income of approximately US$700. Many communities are without water, electricity or paved roads.


by Katherine Pasteur and Roberto Delgadillo Aguiree, Mexico Several organisations, both government and non-government, are working in the area looking for alternative sources of income. The ideal is to improve incomes while avoiding excessive exploitation of the forest resources by cutting and burning for cultivation or timber extraction. Possible income sources have included organic agriculture, agroforestry, small livestock production, ecotourism and apiculture.

The region is ideal for apiculture. The mix of high, medium and low forest, as well as small cultivated areas, provide a great variety of melliferous plant species that flower throughout the year. Although the Yucatan Peninsula is a very important honey producing region the reserve has been little exploited for this purpose because the immigrant population had no beekeeping tradition.

A conservation NGO, Pronatura Peninsula de Yucatan, began supporting beekeepers seven years ago. Now there are over 200 beekeepers wor king in the reserve. All of these were men. In fact, most beekeepers in Mexico are men. “Why cannot women keep bees?” we asked ourselves. See ing no reason why not, we offered support to group s of interested women. In this article we share th > experiences of these women and encourage others to take up the challenge.

Why promote

beekeeping with Dofia Inocenta with a swarm captured in a nylon bag


go into the forest and clear land because it is heavy work, but working with bees is not heavy or tiring. The boxes are not too heavy for us, in fact it is easier than some other jobs we have to do”. Unlike most activities that women have to attend to, beekeeping does not require daily attention, and if the apiary is not too far away or too large, hive inspection does not take long. Inspections are on average made every fortnight, though mo frequently in times of scarcity of nectar and poll when feeding may be necessary.

Starting out The groups of women started with a revolving fund with which they bought all the equipment necessary to start keeping bees: veils and gloves; hives with bees; extra boxes; stands to protect the hives from ants; and embossed wax foundation. The fund has to be paid back in the form of cash, honey or other products derived from this activity within two years so that the money can be reinvested in starting more new groups.

Much of women’s work centres around the home, looking after children, washing, preparing meals and tending home gardens and small livestock. This work rarely earns a cash income and is often not highly valued

Beekeeping offers a challenge to women: they see it as something interesting to learn and feel a sense of achievement and

Candies made from stamped wax

self-respect, as well as earning respect from other members of the community. The sale of honey, wax and other secondary products earns them a cash income over which they have autonomy. Aida from the village La Lucha notes: “At first we were afraid because we knew nothing and thought we would not be able to do it, but we got used to it and found it is quite easy to learn. We did not feel as competent as men because we could not


Hive inspection in La Guadalupe

A Bees for Development publication



The women were given training and support to manage the bees, and to organise themselves into a strong group with a committee. They were also shown how to make maximum use of the products that they harvest: for example making candles from wax; jarring and labelling the honey rather than selling it crude; making sweets and medicines; and making veils to sell to other beekeepers.

The benefits of bees Apiculture has provided a relatively stable and sustainable source of income from the forest. Irma from the village La Guadalupe says: “We wanted to work with bees because it is easy and at

the same time it is valuable for the products of the bees: the honey is very important, we eat the “-ney and we like it a lot”. e have lots of forest here, and it is a fantastic resource that we can exploit with bees,” notes Etelvina who now works for Pronatura as a beekeeping promoter. “It is an activity that does not mean destroying resources, and as we are living in a reserve this is very important. We do not have many resources, but we do have lots of forest, and it gives good harvests, so we have to make the most of it”.

Beekeeping does not require expensive investment and once up and started beekeepers can augment their apiaries “for free” by catching wild swarms and changing the queen. “Before we saw swarms of bees passing and we never caught them because we thought we could not do it,” reflects Maria, “now, if someone tells us they have seen a swarm, we know what to do”.

Positive results the three groups of women that have

-~-ticipated in the beekeeping programme, two groups have succeeded in paying back their initial fund and the third is still in its first year of operation. After completing the training the first two groups divided, some working alone, others in pairs. A local promoter has been trained to provide support to new and established groups

and provide continuity to the programme.

One group of six continue working together and have specialised in the production of veils for beekeepers which they sell both within the region and have also exported to beekeeper societies in other States. Another woman specialises in making medicines from traditional products including honey and wax, whilst others sell sweets, candles, and even painted T-shirts with a bee theme. Juanita says: “We make candles from foundation wax and from pure beeswax decorated with other natural materials such as wood and maize leaves. Some of the honey we sell crude, but to get a

better price we also sell some in pots with labels.”

A Bees for Development publication

Exchange visits between the groups have been


organised, as well as visits to meetings of other beekeeping PACIFIC OCEAN societies to encourage the interchange of ideas and to spread the word about women ‘s new role in beekeeping.

The programme is succeeding in increasing the self-esteem of the women; after the repayment of the fund incomes do increase; nutrition, particularly of children, has at least marginally improved; and awareness of the importance of environmental protection has been heightened.

Problems As well as the benefits to be reaped there have also been many challenges to face, and of the total number of women that initially joined the projects only the most determined continue to manage their bees. “In the first place the children are a problem because we cannot take them with us to the apiary, and secondly the housework can be an obstacle because if we spend a long time in the apiary we get behind. However if we are interested we have to leave this to one side to make the most of the training,” says Irma.

“At first we had problems with our husbands,” adds Maria, “because they did not like it if we arrived home late to prepare their food. Some women had to leave the group because of this but in our case our husbands came to understand” Sometimes disappointments have to be suffered, for instance all groups have experienced the loss of colonies due to attacks of ants, disease, swarming and the recent arrival of the mite Varroa jacobsoni. However this is a learning experience and preventative measures are now taken.


perspectives These initial projects have proved that women are well able to manage bees and make the most of the products of the hive. At Pronatura we intend to continue training groups if it is requested by other communities, and also encourage more women to become promoters and to pass on their knowledge to their friends and family.

The women have plans for the future: “To keep on working and progressing, and to teach our children too, because the work that we do, our children will also learn as time goes by,” notes Aurelia, and, Roberta adds, “To have more bees, more honey and more money!”

Filling hive stands with water to protect against ants in La Guadalupe

Given the lack of communications (poor transport, few phone and fax facilities) and lack of experience in this field, it can be hard to sell the bottled honey, veils and candles. Pronatura has acted as an intermediary in the

commercialisation process. However, to ensure the long term sustainability of activities, training is being given in the use of phone and fax, and in making business contacts and sales so that the women themselves can undertake the process. PHOTOGRAPHS




Here at

Bees for Development we receive many requests for

assistance to locate funding. It seems timely to publish more advice on this

important topic.



Whatever you want funding for, you must first of all write an application, usually called a proposal. Perhaps you need funding for a

beekeeping project: a library for your beekeepers’ association; equipment for your co-operative; or funding for yourself to attend a training course, or a beekeeping Congress. Whatever you want to do, you must first write it in a proposal. realistic plans can be your key to success.

The following guidelines provide a good starting point.


Title Provide a clear statement of your aim. Be concise.

Other details For whom is the proposal intended?

Inputs required Detail all the resources you will need. For example: a list of books, number of persons, transport, access to workshop facilities,

telephone, computing requirements.


By whom is the proposal submitted? Include your name, and that of your organisation.

For each resource list the costs involved.

project extends over more than one year, provide an annual total in addition to the total project budget. If your

Date of application.

Summary If your proposal is several pages in length, summarise it here in a few sentences.


introduction Give the background to your proposal and the current situation. For example, are you proposing the continuation of previous work, or will this work address a new problem?


The objectives are the matters which must be achieved to arrive at the aim stated in your title. @


Read the conditions under which the funding was provided. If the donor requires reports, or audited accounts, make sure you provide them in good time.


are applying.

Outputs Here you will state all the important outcomes you expect from the activity. You can mention likely “spin-offs” in addition to your main objectives, and any documentation that will arise from the


At the end of your application you can attach, as an annex: @

Brief additional information about your organisation and its activities.


If you are

Do not present a number of objectives strung together in a long paragraph.

acknowledge this immediately.

Keep the donors informed of the progress of the project, and communicate regularly.

sentence, in

Be specific.

If you do receive funding,


a single

a numbered list.


State each objective in

Methods Accurately and carefully describe the methods you will use to achieve each objective. You must give clear details. For example, the statement “increase numbers of bee colonies” does not provide enough detail about how you will achieve this.

Work plan e@

Show a timetable of events for the project activities.

Your budget can be shown in local currency but provide a current (and dated) exchange rate to a widely-known currency, preferably that used by the organisation to whom you

applying as an individual, provide your CV.

Helpful Hints @

Number the various sections and pages of your proposal.


Do not repeat the same statements in different sections of your proposal.


Make sure that you have clearly separated objectives from methods. Do you know the difference? For example: A Bees for Development publication



Be realistic about how long it will take to achieve the objectives - remember beekeeping is seasonal.

ee ae”

A clear proposal, showing well thought out and




a review

need to emphasise the importance and value of beekeeping. Do not just copy information from a standard text. Try to give local facts, for example: which sector of your community practises beekeeping, or what are the local products of beekeeping? Which local crops require honeybee pollination, or how will your project affect the local community?


Assist with honey marketing.

Too often beekeeping project proposals list all the benefits of beekeeping, some of which may not apply. For example, do not suggest royal jelly production if your beekeeping methods and markets are not appropriate for this


Provide containers for selling honey.



Increase consumer awareness of honey.


Teach honey filtration techniques. (1) and (3) are objectives while (2) and (4) are methods by which the objectives could

be attained. @


Present a typed proposal if you possibly can. However, very neatly presented, hand-written proposals are also acceptable. Be ready to prepare many drafts of your proposal before you reach the final document. It must be free from spelling and

other typographical errors. @




Use A4 paper (the size of a page in this journal) and use one side of the paper only.

proposal in a Ifyou difficult for you, try to which is language have it checked by someone who knows the language well. are preparing a


edited by

Damon A Job

USDA Forest Service, Washington, USA (1995

E-mail: /x=d.requests/ou!]

No grant-providing organisation can be familiar with every activity for which they provide funding. Beekeeping is a subject which is often not fully understood or appreciated. You will

A Bees for Development publication


Are you asking for too much?


Does your proposal appear truly worthwhile? Read the replies you receive from funding organisations very carefully. Often they will help you to see why your proposal did not meet their criteria. Do not be afraid to contact the organisation and ask why your proposal was

rejected. @

fellowships and scholarships in international forestry and natural resources


[s your proposal readily understandable?


A guide to grants,

aD) “> of


Available from Bees for Development price 15.50 including postage.

Keep your proposal as concise as possible. The shorter it is, the more chance it has of being read! If you must give a lot of detail, attach it as a separate annex.

Explaining beekeeping


1996 - 270 pages

A review of this publication was given


your plans unrealistic?

Michael Norton

4th edition)

have guidelines, or their own form for applications. They will also tell you what areas they are interested to support.


The world-wide fundraisers’ handbook

State what inputs you, your organisation, or another donor are also providing towards the project: these need not be financial inputs, they could be in terms of labour, or the provision of apiary sites, or administrative assistance.

e If you are planning to request funds from a particular organisation, contact them before you prepare your full proposal. They may

Why was your proposal turned down?







proposal receives a response, you must poor next ask yourself why and be self-critical. Do not be demoralised. If the objectives are worth achieving and are realistic, you will find funding If your


Obtainable from: USDA Forest Service, USAID Program Co-ordinator, International Forestry, PO Box 96090, Washington DC 20090-6090, USA Fax: (+202) 273 4749

A review of this publication was given B&DAL,.









APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress


13-18 September 2001, Sun City

International Conference on Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management

Further details from: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele I] 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax: (+39) 6685 2286

24-28 August 1998, Melbourne


Further information from: Ms Margaret Scarlett, Conference Organisers

Pty Ltd, PO Box 1127, Sandringham, VIC 3191, Australia Fax: (+61) 3 9521 8889

Caribbean Beekeeping Congress 17-20 November 1998

10-13 November 1998, Bahia

Further details from: Caribbean Beekeeping Congress, c/o Technical Support Unit, Level 2, NIB Mall, Scarborough, Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies Fax: + 868 639 4464 Email:

Further information from: Secretaria, INTERLINK, Rua Teixeira Leal,



BRAZIL XII Brazilian Apiculture Congress

107-A, Graga, CEP 40150-050 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Fax: (+71) 336 5633


British Beekeepers’ Spring Convention


25 April 1998, National Agricultural Showground .

Further details from: British Beekeepers’ Association,

APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 12-18 September 1999, Vancouver Further details from: Apimondia 99, c/o Venue West Conference Services, #645 - 375 Water Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 5CB, Canada

National Agricultural Showground, Stoneleigh, Kenilworth, CV8 2LZ, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 1203 690682

Visit the

Bees for Development _

stand here 7


Fax: (+604) 681 2503



Workshop on Sustainable Beekeeping Development

Honeybee Husbandry, Honey Analysis and Bee Product Manufacturing for Developing Countries

25-29 May 1998, Dharwad, Karnataka State Further details from: Department of Industries & Commerce, 14/3A, Nrupthunga Road, Bangalore 560 001, India Fax: (+91) 80 221 1018


Combating Desertification with Plants

4-29 May 1998, North East Netherlands Further details from: Mrs Marieke Mutsaers, Trichilia ABC, Noordermeerweg 65cd, 8313 PX Rutten, Netherlands Fax: (+31) 527 262 598

2-5 November 1998, Beer Sheva


Further information from: The Organizing Committee, International

Training of Trainers on Sustainable Agriculture

Program for Arid Land Crops, c/o Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Fax: (+972) 7 647 2984

6-24 July 1998, Cavite


XIV International Plant Protection Congress

Further details from: Mila Resma, Education and Training, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang 4118, Cavite, Philippines Fax: (+63) 46 414 2420

25-30 July 1999, Jerusalem


XIV International Plant Protection Congress, PO Box 50006, Tel Aviv 61500, Israel Fax: (+972) 3 514 0077

Beekeeping in Rural Development


Further details from: Ms Glynis Hudson, Professional Development Centre, 51 Park Place, Cardiff University of Wales, Cardiff, CF1 3AT, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 1222 874560

Further details from: Congress Secretariat,

Second Conference of Arab Beekeepers’ Union 3-6 August 1998, Amman Further details from: Conference Organizing Committee, PO Box 172, Irbid, Jordan Fax: (+962) 2273 724

Fourth Asian Apicultural Association Conference 22-27 March 1998, Kathmandu Further details from: Mr K K Shrestha, Conference Secretary, AAA Conference, ICIMOD, PO Box 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal 1

524 509

Bee Pathology and Thai Sacbrood Virus 22-24 March 1998, Kathmandu This meeting will take place during the AAA meeting listed above Further details from: Dr W Ritter, Tierhygieisches Institut Freiburg, Abteilung Bienenkunde, Am Moosweiher 27800, Freiburg, Germany Fax: (+49) 761 150 2299


16 August - 15 September 1998, Cardiff University and Niiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania


Honeybee Pathology 10-14 August 1998, Cardiff University


Fax: (+977)


Further details from: Ms Glynis Hudson, Professional Development

Centre, 51 Park Place, Cardiff University of Wales, Cardiff, CF1 3AT, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 1222 874560

Tropical Agroforestry 29 June - 18 September 1998, Edinburgh Further details from: Yvonne Kinnaird, University of Edinburgh,

South College Street, Edinburgh EH8 9AA, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 131 650 9017

If you want your meeting, workshop or other event mentioned in Look Ahead or Learn Ahead send details well in advance.

Our address is on page two

A Bees for Development publication



looking for funding for research then the International Foundation for Science (IFS) may be willing to support you. If you are

The Foundation is based in Stockhom, Sweden. IFS is an NGO with a membership of 92 scientific academies and research councils in 79 countries. The purpose of IFS is to build scientific capacity by supporting developing country scientists of merit at the beginning of their research careers.



NOTICE BOARD APICULTURE SANS FRONTIERES ASF is a non-profit making association promoting beekeeping in developing countries. Courses in general, tropical and subtropical beekeeping are available from July to 8 August 1998 (in French) at the Beekeeping Centre, Mons, Belgium 1

Write to: De Vriendt Philippe, Chemin de la procession,

What does IFS do? e IFS supports researchers enabling them to purchase equipment, supplies and literature. Grants of up to US$12,000 are available and are twice renewable.

31B-7000 Mons, Belgium Fax: (+32) 65 35 47 89 tae



IFS can arrange purchase and delivery of equipment on behalf of those granted funds for research. IFS provides those granted funds with the opportunity to attend regional workshops and training courses.

e IFS awards supplementary travel funds to those granted funds for research.

Who can apply to IFS?

support your event with information materials.


be native to a developing country.


hold an academic degree (at least an MSc or equivalent).


be currently employed at a university or research institute in


be young (normally under 40) and at the beginning of your research career.


developing country.

What are the research requirements? The proposed research must be:

conducted in


developing country.

relevant to the needs of a developing country. @



specific project within the areas stated by IFS. These include: agroforestry; animal production; crop science; food science; natural products and rural technology.


more research-orientated rather than a transfer of technology. Projects with socio-economic aspects are also considered.

IFS looks favourably upon proposals which take into account the management of natural resources and environmental care.

How to apply If you fit the requirements given above then write to IFS for an application form.

IFS Secretariat, Grev Turegatan 19, SE-114 38 Stockholm, Sweden Fax: (+46) 8545 81801 E-mail IFS working languages are English and French, and enquiries are also

A Bees for Development publication

Send us full details of your meeting, and the anticipated number of participants, at least three months ahead of the date.

Bees for Development can

You must:



welcome in Spanish

lam Amir Abdullah, the technical advisor on beekeeping development of the Sambangdiri Foundation that has impact groups in nearly all regions of Indonesia. Sambangdiri is based in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is a private non-profit making organisation committed to generating income at the grass-root level, especially in rural areas.

B&D44 on page four how lupin seeds are used for repelling termites and on page five, how important the tree Hypericum revolutum is for bee colony development. I need the seeds to fight against termites and sustain the beekeeping development of lread


Sambangdiri’s impact groups. If you can help us, kindly provide us with seeds.

Amir Abdullah, Sambangdiri, Ji Usaha 21, Rt 05/12 Cawang II, Jakarta, Timur 13630, Indonesia





PROFESSOR FRIEDRICH RUTTNER AS we go to press we are given the sad news that Professor Friedrich Ruttner died on 3 February 1998. Professor Ruttner established the honeybee breeding station at Lunzam-See in Austria. In 1965 he became Professor of Zoology at the University of Frankfurt in Germany, and Director of the Bee Research Institute at Oberursel. This is where he carried out his remarkable scientific work in the fields of genetics, breeding, instrumental

insemination, taxonomy, mating behaviour and bee botany. With Professor Louveaux in France Professor Ruttner founded the scientific journal Apidologie. Professor Ruttner was always concerned that there was efficient communication between bee research and beekeeping practice. He was a good friend of Bees fer Development and has supported our work for many years.

As President of the Standing Commission for Bee Biology Professor Ruttner played an important role in Apimondia. Professor Octaaf van Laere, the current President of the Standing Commission who sent us this information says “Professor Friedrich Ruttner had a life in the service of bees and beekeepers”.

CAMEROON lam writing

to say thank you to Bees for Development for publishing in B&D38 my request for assistance. As a result of this request we received help from Mr André Romet from France, and Mr Brian Durk from the United Kingdom. The picture shows the first class of the basic beekeeping course with Mr Durk (kneeling right) and students. NGWAINMBI SIMON C

BELGIUM Testing sideeffects of ticid pesticides

ee 7


The Belgian company Biobest in co-operation with the German organisation CRO GAB/IFU (NiefernOschelbronn) is testing the negative effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms used in glasshouses and orchards in Europe. GAB/IFU was the first laboratory in Germany to test the effects of pesticides on honeybees and bumblebees, and Biobest was the first company to develop the commercial mass production of bumblebees for pollination of glasshouse crops.

Tests will be performed on several species, including the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, on all relevant crops throughout Benelux, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. Guido Sterk, Field Development and Registration

Manager, Biobest

BOSNIA Peter Rains, a retired beekeeper from the United Kingdom recently travelled to Bosnia to meet beekeepers, the Agriculture Minister and directors of companies associated with the honey trade. He returned with a kilo of Bosnian honey for Gales who are delighted with its quality. Mr Rains was instrumental in the deal established between the multinational company Gales and their parent company Nestlé and the Bosnian beekeepers. The beekeepers will receive payment for their honey, partly cash and partly greatly needed equipment- hives, tools and treatment for Varroa. It is estimated that a third of Bosnia’s 1500 hives were destroyed in the war. Source: Independent on Sunday,


January 1998

BRAZIL Honey of Cane The use that bees make of the liquid that springs from cut sugar canes allows the collection of a product improperly called ‘can honey’. Although it is not classified as honey, its chemical composition in terms of sugar is similar to some ‘real’ honeys elaborated by bees from the nectar of flowers. Chemical analysis of the ‘cane honey’ showed the following results:

Monosaccharides: the ‘cane honey’ always presents more glucose than floral honeys. Fructose levels are similar to those in floral honeys.

Disaccharides: maltose level is always higher in the ‘cane honey’. Sucrose is present in similar amounts to that found in floral honeys. Minerals: the ‘cane honey’ presents ash contents of 5-10 times more than in floral honeys. The main mineral components are

magnesium, manganese and potassium.

Therefore ‘cane honey’ is a good source of energy and can be used in the manufacture o breads, candies, crackers and any products made with sugar. Roberto Machado de Moraes, Instituto de Tecnologia de


INDIA Easy Way with Apis Dorsata In India Apis dorsata honeybee colonies are seen on tall trees, mountain cliffs in the forest, and high buildings in cities. Every year at the same time colonies come and settle on the same places - the marks from wax comb left by the

bees during the previous season.

One Apis dorsata honeybee colony was transferred by taking the bees and brood comb from a Tamarindus indica tree. A bamboo clip was fixed on the comb below the honey area where the brood starts. The part of the comb filled with pollen was not disturbed. Light smoke was used to calm the bees.


A Bees for Development publication





JAPAN Stamps produced in November 1997 show the



honeybee, Apis cerana japonica foraging on Chinese milk vetch.


CIES aka


Apis mellifera (European honeybee) is now established and found almost everywhere in the


country. Although we do not have a regular survey, a reliable estimate is that there are more than 50,000 colonies of Apis mellifera managed by private beekeepers and government institutes Almost 1000 tonnes of good quality honey, worth Rs50 million are produced annually. Mrs Suman Mahindre observing the working bees. 0 B MAHINDRE

The colony was brought to the apiary at about 1800 hours, and its clip was tied to wooden plank. The side of this plank facing the ground had been smeared with beeswax Bees started clinging to the surface of the plank 200 ml of sugar syrup (1 3) was given on alternate days during night time for one week 100g of pollen, previously collected from another Apis dorsata colony, was placed on the right side of the clip. During the first two days the bees were busy repairing the damaged part of the comb and ioving dead larvae and bees On the third uay about 1000 hours bees started bringing in pollen During the second week the quantity of sugar syrup feeding was reduced to 100 ml a

After two weeks, the bees had joined the upper part of the comb to the wax-smeared plank The bees were feeding from the pot feeder and from flowers and extending the upper cells to store nectar and to provide a broader base to support the weight of hanging comb.




Bee farmers are being organised through a network This is known as BEE-NET, an NGO based in Islamabad for the promotion of bee farming through environmentally-friendly and

sustainable agriculture in the barami areas Mohammad M K Chaudry, President,


GHANA Friends of Bee Enterprise (FOBE) were selected to represent Ashanti Region in a national exhibition in Accra for entrepreneurs and small-scale business people

1997 FOBE has held three separate training sessions attracting a total of 68 participants. Information provided by Bees for Development for use during the training courses was of immense help, reports Mr T A Quaye, Director of FOBE (pHoroararx «) In

The colony has now been with us for 45 days kept on the stand in our back yard. It 1s facing north-south in direction, one metre above the ground, and in the shade of a tree The comb is full of developing brood. The bees are consuming pollen nicely The clip will be removed when the base cells of the comb on each side of the mid-rib are all 75 mm long

The bees are no longer giving alarm signals whenever someone approaches the colony, as they did for two days after they were moved. Jyoti Bhakta, Pune, India

A Bees for Development publication



Practical beekeeping y

Clive de Bruyn

1997 - 288 pages. Hardback. Available

Low productivity in East African beekeeping



A fresh new text

including postage In May 1997

Nijiro Wildlife




organised a workshop to address the problems facing beekeepers in East Africa. The Resolutions from this workshop were presented in B&D44. The Proceedings from this workshop are now published. They provide a realistic assessment of current concerns for beekeepers. Informative papers discuss problems with the use of

inappropriate equipment and ese recat?


inst rca

management of





honeybees, training, and extension. Market potential, and

problems in marketing are assessed. Reports from other projects are presented.

The workshop discussed all relevant factors and came out with firm conclusions and recommendations. These are required reading for anyone involved with promoting beekeeping in East Africa and

beyond. Njtro Wildlife Research Centre and


for Development are co-operating on a three-year project “Sustainable Beekeeping for Africa” funded by the

United Kingdom DFID.


analysis of pollens found in honey in Italy and world-wide are described. Following this are dozens of photographs of pollen grains found in honeys world-wide.



Bees for Development price 23.00

Available from

telling everything that the new beekeeper needs to know, and plenty of good advice and sound facts for established beekeepers too.

As well as being a highly experienced beekeeper, Clive de Bruyn is also a skilled teacher and explainer of beekeeping. In this text he makes his wide knowledge easily accessible and understandable for all. The 22 chapters are concise, and written to engage the reader’s interest. Essential facts are put together in boxes. There are plenty of clear illustrations, black and white, and colour pictures.


welcome new addition to the Bee Book


Textbook of melissopalynology by

Giancarlo Ricciardelli D’Albore

1997 - 308 pages. Paperback. Available from Bees

for Development price 30.00 postage



study pollen. In Chapters Two and Three

well translated into English, and nicely presented by the Apimondia Publishing House: good quality, glossy paper has been used on

which the photographs of pollen grains are reproduced.


New information of value for palynologists in every country.


Managing bees for crop pollination Canadian Association of




1995 - 34 pages. Paperback. Available from



Bees for Development price 8.00




A comprehensive guide for crop growers and beekeepers, concerning the biology and commercial management of bees for pollination. The bees being considered

here are honeybees (Apis mellifera) kept in fran hives, although leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata), orchard bees (Osmia lignania propinqua} and bumblebees (Bombus sp) are also

discussed briefly. The crops whose pollination requirements are described are those grown in Canada, but some are commonly grown world-wide. Appendix shows how to assess the cost/benefit ratio of pollination services, and how to estimate the economic value of honeybees as crop pollinators. Appendix 2 gives the pollination requirement and honeybee colony stocking rates for about 40 crops grown in Canada. |

This new textbook will be required on the bookshelf of everyone with scientific interest in the pollen content aL of honeys. Professor Ricciardelli D’Albore provides a huge amount of information. In Chapter One the author describes in detail how to

A great amount of technical information, and black and white photographs are provided. Parts of the book relate specifically to Italy. It is

Professional Apiculturalists

This book primarily, but not exclusively, describes British beekeeping and is written for everyone keeping European races of Apis mellifera in frame hives. There are some nice touches not found in other texts: dealing with telephone calls, photographic explanation of how to mix pollen supplement, and good advice for neighbourly relations.




Bees for Development price

1997 - 80 pages. Paperback.

Research Centre . . in Tanzania



Interestingly, the estimated total! value of honeybee pollination to Canadian agriculture is about Canadian $443million. This is approximately ten times greater than the annual farm value for honey and beeswax: about $49.6 million. The value of honeybee pollination represents 28% of the total farm value of 25 selected crops.

A Bees for Development publication







Prices include Postage

titled “Queens’ Land” describe the running of a huge company. In this new book Norman Rice describes his beekeeping travels, with Heather his wife and business partner, to many countries.

SHELF Spence

Bees for Development price 24.00

by J

including postage The chapters of this new book sparkle like the finest mead, full of the author’s good humour and love for her subject. All sorts of recipes are 2ad out for our eiertainment like a MWfad eet street bazaar - a feast of experience, wisdom and interest. The author provides an eclectic range of recipes from the fool-proof to the extremely exotic,





2 Yh Sjornee aN

Mead making is another way for beekeepers to diversify their craft, adding interest and income. Pamela Spence is the founder of the American Mead Association, and is a skilled and certainly spirited mead maker. As she says, “Mead, with its sacred associations for many different “sous and ethnic groups, has potential to ome an economic backbone for many spiritual and co-operative communities”.

Bees for Development!

Stinging tales of adventure





Norman Rice is a

commercial beekeeper in Queensland, Australia. Over fifty years or so he has built up a huge enterprise, eventually focused o n




producing 30,000 queens a year. His first book aptly


7K LS oe ra z

A Bees for Development publication


anne ines

Mastercard or Visa accepted. We need to know your card number, card expiry date, name on card

Cheque, Eurocheque or Bank draft in UK

including postage This new book describes Koos Biesmeijer’s research on stingless bees carried out with colleagues at Utrecht University, Netherlands and in Costa Rica. The introduction includes a description of the research sites. The book includes studies on colony

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Account number: 10167967 Sortcode: 20-00-85 Barclays Bank plc, PO Box 29, Monmouth, NP53YG, United Kingdom

Post Office Giro transfer Account number: 4222067 7%

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organisation, foraging behaviour, and the life history of stingless bee colonies.

This publication is certainly welcome as many people are interested in stingless bees but there has been relatively little information published in book format. Dr Biesmeijer’s work was funded by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement


Bank charges At Bees for Development we receive payments from all over the world. For people paying subscriptions (16 or US$35), bank charges sometimes cost us half of

the money being paid! Please ensure that we do not have to pay bank charges on your payment. If you think we will have to pay bank charges, then add at least 7 to cover.

of Tropical Research.

FAX +44 (0)16007

POST Bees for Development, tiaan vaunier de a colmens,,


The biology of stingless bees and the organisation of the colony. Dr Biesmeijer hopes to publish this in an English edition.

Watch this space!!!


PHONE +44 (0)16007 13648

Paperback. In Bee Spanish. Available from Se. de Bees for Development price ; “2” 15.00 including postage

Bees for Development price

Credit cards Access, JCB,

Development price 25.00

1997 - 77 pages.

1996 - 184 pages. Paperback. Available from

Alternatively you can order through our World-Wide-Web site.

1997 - 263 pages. Paperback. In English with Dutch annexes. Available from Bees for

by J C Biesmeijer

Norman V Rice


beekeeping library. There is an order form printed in our book list, Books te Buy. Or just send us a note of what you want.

C Biesmeijer

Abejas sin aguijon: su biologia y la organizacion de la colmena

An encouraging, excellent and original new book, 3% of profits from the book go to support the work of


For large orders we will provide a pro forma invoice for payment in sterling or USS. We can help you select books to provide an excellent

The organisation of foraging in stingless bees of the genus Melipona: an individualoriented approach

1997 - 208 pages. Paperback. Available from

accompanied by stories, expert tips, and excellent illustrations.

We will deal with your order as soon as we receive it.

Queens’ Land is also available from Bees for Development price 12.00

Mad about mead! nectar of the gods by Pamela

Orders are sent by surface mail. If you want your order sent airmail, add 25% to the total order value.

Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom


EXPLANATION PLEASE! Leafcutter bees cut oval pieces out of leaves and use them to line their nests. The nests are made in any suitable, ready-made space, for example in hollow stems, spaces in old wood, cracks in walls. There are over 1000 species of leafcutter bees all belonging to the genus Megachile.


& Development WHEN



under the auspices of the Apimondia Standing Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development

co-hosted by Tobago Apicuitural Society Tobago House of Assembly

17-20 NOVEMBER 1998 Mount Irvine, Tobago of Republic Trinidad & Tobago, West Indles Further information from:

Caribbean Beekeeping Congress, c/o Technical Support Unit, Level 2, N1B Mall, Scarborough, Tobago, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies Fax: + 868 639 4464 Email:


BEEKEEPING FOR HEALTH AND BEAUTY Following ancient Gaelic and Egyptian formulas we combine the purest Caribbean coconut oil, Grenadian beeswax cappings, honey, cocoa butter and aloe vera gel with floral fragrances, spices and essential oils from Grenada, the Isle of Spice. Home-made and hand-crafted beauty soaps, and skin moisturising creams.

Produced by Sweet Maria Apiary PO Box 612, St George’s, GRENADA, West Indies Special introductory offer - three soaps of different fragrance for including airmail postage. Order from Bees fer Development,


Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom Proceeds from sales support the work of

Bees for Development

OFFICIAL SPONSORS US National Honey Board Apistan Dadant & Sons Bee Maid Honey and

Western Wax Works Medivet Pharmaceuticals

Simon Fraser University

Congress Theme: Beekeeping in the New Millennium Venue: The Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre Congress sessions will be highlighted by presentations from invited guests world renowned for their knowledge of apiculture

Canadian Farm Business

Information from

Management Council/ Conseil Canadien de la gestion d’enterprise agricole

Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada/ Agriculture and Agrifood Canada

Apimondia '99 c/o Venue West Conference Services #645-375

Water Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 5C6 CANADA Fax: (+1) 604 681 2503

Apimondia '99 Website:

Arataki Honey Ltd



Chunbo International: importers and distributors of bee products want to import a total of 100 tonnes of crude propolis annually from beekeepers world-wide. Specifications are:

Purity - over 50% Total flavonoid content - over 5% Heavy metal content - below 10ppm; Colour - red, brown or green (grey may be accepted on inspection) Prices negotiable in accordance with purity and quality.

Contact: Chi Soon Kim, President, Chunbo International Co Ltd,

3rd Floor Kangnam-Jeil Bldg, 822-4 Yoksham-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul, Korea Fax: (+82) 2 555 8439



2 555


Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom Telephone +44 (0}16007 13648 Fax +44 (0)16007 16167 E-mail World Wide Web http:/ Bees for Development 1998 Environmentally friendly paper ISSN 1369 9555