Bees for Development Journal Edition 28 - September 1993

Page 1

OFFICE COPY Please return to the file

eekeeping -

















Dar Frends

people have heard of royal jelly and that it can be a lucrative commodity,

Bees for and our this continued of journal. We are production Development

A very big thank you to everyone who has welcomed

encouraged by the positive responses we have received and are grateful to

Although the new organisation Bees for Development is only a few months old, we have already received a number of requests for information on royal jelly. To be honest, we have in the past tended to avoid the subject

of royal jelly in this journal. The reason is because royal jelly is by no means to

produce in marketable quantities, is not simple


store, must be

very carefully packaged, and the market for royal jelly is complex: in recent years there have been dramatic rises and falls in price. However, very many




information on royal jelly.

cannot be denied that whatever the reason, beekeepers do seem

long and healthy lives! in this edition we send congratulations

Adam: celebrations have recently


70th birthday. We are very honoured


feature an interview with him:


Ipradhear, items are written by Nicola Bradbear unless stated otherwise. We also ask you to send us a copy of the reproduced item.

Co-ordinator. Helen Jackson




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us for rates.

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4000 copies of Beekeeping & Development are printed and distributed to individuals, projects, organisations and associations







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REPRODUCTION Items appearing in Beekeeping & Development are intended to help beekeepers. We are happy for these to be reproduced but please give full acknowledgement of Beekeeping & Development and the author of the item you are using. All

World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990

Beekeeping development . FUNDING





woman harvests royal jelly, spooning the valuable commodity out of queen cells. Picture used here with permission from

Sanguan Ruengsiri. € VINCENT MULDER


Beekeeping & Development is produced with support from beekeeping groups and individuals world-wide. Beekeeping & Development's production is assisted by World Vision UK.

Beekeeping & Development has been adopted as the official newsletter of the Asian Apiculturai


from beekeepers everywhere.

in developing countries by: e providing information and advice;


Royal jelly production in Northern Thailand.

This edition of

you need assistance or information on any aspect of beekeeping in developing countnes

Bees for Development assists beekeepers



Beekeepers living in financially poor and remote areas of the world receive Beekeeping & Development without payment through the generosity of sponsors.

Bees for Development depends upon support

then Bees for Development is here to help you.



Details of how to subscribe are given on page sixteen.




Beekeeping & Development reach many readers in many countries. Various sizes of advertisements are available. Write to




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We are building a new and active beekeeping network and you are welcome to join. We are interested to hear about techniques you have found useful, your events and activities, and news of interest or concern to other readers.

US dollars.




mark his 95th birthday. We

Produced and published by Bees for Development. Four editions of Beekeeping & Development are published every year in March, June, September and December.

Finding Funding



read his message to world beekeepers on page seven.

Editor. Dr Nicola Bradbear

Royal jelly

been held to


also hear of the great celebrations held in Brazil to mark Professor Kerr's



Warmick Kerr answers

harvest it.



Inside information


Therefore, in response to your requests, on pages three to five we provide


everyone who has written or called to offer support.


and few publications give information on how






promoting beekeeping as a worthwhile and sustainable rural activity;

stimulating the use of appropriate technology; maintaining an active network between interested people.

Bees for Development is run by Dr Nicola Bradbear and Helen Jackson.

You can help by: e


e e e

subscribing to this journal, and encouraging your friends to do so; sponsoring an additional subscription; sharing your expertise; purchasing books from us;

sending us updates on information we publish.

CONTACT Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, UK. Telephone: 010 44 (0)600 713648 Fax: 010 44 (0)600 716167



ROYAL JELLY What is royal jelly? Royal jelly is the food given to larvae developing into queen honeybees. A larva developing into queen consumes much royal jelly and her weight increases 1300 times over a period of six days. a

How is it made? Royal jelly is secreted from glands in the heads of young worker bees, and some sugars and proteins are also added from the worker bees’ stomachs.

What does it contain? Royal jelly has many different components including proteins, sugars, fats, minerals and vitamins.

What does it look like? A white, thick liquid, a bit like fresh yoghurt or curds. How is royal jelly harvested by beekeepers? Jnder natural conditions a larva destined to become a queen bee develops in an especially large wax cell or cup, and inside this cell worker bees place lavish amounts of royal jelly Honeybee colonies being used to produce royal jelly for harvest are manipulated by the beekeeper to start producing great numbers of queens, perhaps 50 or more. Worker bees therefore

alone is fertile, will mate and will lay eggs, very prolifically. She will live much longer than her sister worker bees. Royal jelly is therefore a potent food as far as developing honeybees are concerned.

Is royal jelly good for humans? Mammals are very different from insects! Substances which have dramatic effects on 2 honeybees may have no effect Typical packaging for royal jelly capsules. The royal jelly has been freeze-dried whatsoever on mammals, and vice versa. Royal jelly does have antibacterial properties: this is probably important in protecting larvae from infection by bacteria within the brood nest

Some people credit royal jelly with remarkable powers for humans and other animals too: however opinions differ and there is no scientific support. Certainly royal jelly is a concentrated source of many nutrients.

What resources are needed for royal jelly harvest?

produce vast amounts of royal jelly (extra feeding of the colony is needed to achieve this) and place it in the queen cells. However instead of the larvae feeding on this and developing into queen bees, the larvae are removed and the royal jelly is harvested by the beekeeper.

Royal jelly production requires a plentiful supply of honeybee colonies, much skilled labour, technical know-how and rigorous time-keeping in the manipulation of colonies Royal jelly must be harvested under hygienic conditions and rapidly refrigerated, frozen or freeze-dried.

Why is it valued so highly by humans?

Which countries harvest royal jelly?

Worker bees and queen bees start life as identical eggs laid by the parent queen. Whether an egg develops into a worker or a queen is determined by the way it is fed. Royal jelly differs from the food given to worker bee larvae. Subsequently adult queen bees differ in many respects from adult worker bees: the queen

Which countries import royal jelly?

The main countries harvesting royal jelly commercially are China, Taiwan and Thailand.

Mainly Japan, with relatively small amounts imported also by other industrialised countries.

@OMMERCIAL ROYAL JELLY PRODUCTION THE BEE ENTERPRISE that we are describing here is based in Chiang Mai. It consists of two directors and 35 apiary workers. They keep about 2700 Apis mellifera colonies, (totalling 24,000 combs) which they move to three different forage areas during the year. From

December to February they make preparations for the main honey production period during March to May. Then follows a short period of colony strengthening, mite control and rearing of new queens until July. In July they start producing royal jelly and this continues until December. During the royal jelly production period, the 2700 colonies are distributed over 36 apiaries in the most suitable places, with minimum distance of 5 km between each apiary. At each apiary there are about 75 colonies. a

THE COMPANY The beekeeping staff are divided into three

groups of 10 persons each, and each group takes care of 12 apiaries. Each group of workers consists of five women and five men and is headed by a group leader who is responsible for the technical beekeeping practice and the productivity of that group.

Vincent Mulder describes a commercial enterprise in northern Thailand which produces royal jelly for export.

The enterprise owns four pick-up vehicles, one used by every group, and one for each director. The groups live in rented houses near wherever the bees are at any time. Every day each group visits four apiaries (Figure 1). This means that every group can visit their 12 apiaries every three days.

COLONY MANAGEMENT The purpose of each visit is to collect royal jelly from each hive, to re-graft new larvae, to check the queen and the strength of the colonies, and to feed sugar and pollen if necessary. Each apiary has some colonies continuously rearing new queens in case they

Figure 1. The beekeepers arrive al an apiary and unload all the equipment they need


a Figure 2. On

Figure 4. A frame of queen

the outside of each hive ts

cups Three rows each with

Figure 5.

The royal jelly harvesting area inside mosquito netting All the queen cup frames are brought here and five people harvest the royal jelly and then graft new larvae into the

30 artificial queen cups.

marked a symbol for the person in charge of it, the age of the queen, and notes on disease status. the bees used are non-native,


introduced Apis mellifera. The apiary is in an orchard of longan trees

are suddenly needed. If heavily diseased colonies are found, they are taken away and put in a separate apiary for treatment.

The men work with the bee colonies: at first all the hives are opened using smoke, then the queen cup frames containing royal jelly are taken out and taken to mosquito netting tent.

The text of this article is adapted from a booklet in


The men then start checking the colonies: each person checks about 15 colonies (Figure 2). The combs always need re-arrangement so that the best conditions for royal jelly production are maintained.

Vietnamese, written by Vincent Mulder and translated by

Nguyen Thu Hang.

It was

produced as a result of co|

operation between the Central Honey Bee Co, Vietnam and

KWT/CIDSE. The information and pictures of beekeeping in Thailand are reproduced here



with the kind permission of |

Mr Sanguan Ruengsiri of Chiangmai S P Bee Products. 1 1







Figure 3. Comb arrangement in a royal jelly-producing |0-frame colony.

Ten-frame Langstroth hives of the Chinese type are used. The queen is confined to six combs, separated from the other combs by means of a vertical queen excluder. In the queenless compartment one frame with queen cups is surrounded by combs with emerging brood and young nurse bees. Good supplies of pollen and honey must be present. In the queen compartment there must always be enough space for the queen to lay eggs. So from time to time empty combs must be added in exchange for brood combs, and there must: always be at least one comb containing plenty of pollen and honey.


This comb arrangement requires adjustment every three days. At the same time queens are checked and if necessary replaced by mated, young ones which are always available. Each royal jelly frame consists of three horizontal bars below each other, that are attached to the outer frame by one nail at each side, so that the bar can be rotated (Figure 4). 30 queen cups are attached to each bar, so each royal jelly frame consists of 90 cups.

ROYAL JELLY HARVEST The actual work of royal jelly extraction and the re-grafting of larvae is done by the five women in each group The work is all done under mosquito netting (Figure 5). In each apiary they have to work on 75 queen cup frames within two hours. Before they start working they wash their hands with soap and water, then they put on mouth and hair caps in order to optimise the hygienic conditions needed for extracting the royal jelly.

Every third day the women harvest royal jelly from the grafted cells. The procedure is as shown in Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9

During all these procedures each bar with cups is rotated 90°, so that the frame is resting horizontally on the table, with all the cells

Frame 1:

containing honey or sugar syrup

Frame 2:

haif pollen, half brood

Frame 3:

empty new comb, on which the queen lays |

eggs Frame 4:

similar to Frame 3

Frame 5:


Frame 6:


Queen excluder Frame 7:

pollen and honey

Frame 8:

royal jelly queen cup frame

Frame 9:

capped brood combs with emerging bees

Frame 10: as for Frame 9


Figure 6. Firstly the wax cappings are cul off using a long, sharp knife

Figure 7.

The larvae are picked out of

the cups. This is done using sterile

Each cup yields about 200 mg of royal jelly. The harvested royal jelly is put into a sterile plastic bag


facing upwards. The royal jelly is spooned into iylon fine-mesh sieve or filter bag, which is 3erted into a good quality transparent plastic bag with a capacity of about one litre.

After re-grafting of the queen cup frames, the men immediately put them back into the hives with the cups in the downward position. Finally they end their apiary work by feeding sugar 2 sugar water solution syrup, usually in a -


(Figure 10). The quantity of sugar fed to each colony varies with the season: from none to about 500g every three days during rain. When necessary pollen cake is fed by putting it on top of some frames: dried pollen or soy flour mixed with a little honey is used. In this way each apiary is dealt with within two hours, so each group of beekeepers can work on four apiaries daily, totalling about 300 colonies. In three days 12 apiaries with a total about 900 colonies can be worked on by

ch group.

STORAGE Once the royal jelly is harvested and the plastic bag is three-quarters full, it is taken out of the container where it was held. Then the filter bag is pulled out of the plastic bag, thus filtering the royal jelly To do so in a hygienic way the plastic bag is closed with one hand while the other hand is gently pulling out the nylon filter until all the royal jelly is filter pressed and remains in the bag. The bag is closed tightly with a piece of string and immediately put into a pre-cooled cooling box. As soon as possible the bags of royal jelly are transferred from the cooling box into a deep freeze with a temperature below -15°C

(Figure 11). During the whole royal jelly-extraction procedure the product is never touched by hand, nor contaminated with dirty materials. The royal jelly is stored in the plastic bags until it is marketed or further processed.

Figure 8. Roual jelly 1s spooned out of each cup with a stenie, fleable spoon

old larvae

and skilled work Notice the lamp attached to the girl's head band to give a strong light The frames containing the newly-grafted larvae will now be


placed back in the fives

In the late afternoon each group returns to their home by car. Then they clean all the materials, store the royal jelly in the freezer, prepare everything for the next day and finally write notes on the major findings of the day, which they discuss with each other in a onehour group meeting By doing so, newcomers get much information and feed-back on their activities. Every worker get four days off each month, which is planned in a group schedule so that at least eight persons work every day. The salary of the workers varies from 36 to 125 S per month, depending on experience and responsibility. Food and lodging is free.

DEFINITIONS Queen cups This is a descriptive term for the cupshaped wax structures built by bees. If the queen lays an egg into one of these structures then, once the egg has hatched and the larva is developing, the worker bees extend the cup into the large queen cell in which the larva can develop into a mature queen bee. For royal jelly production artificial queen cups made of plastic are used.

Figure 9. Finally one-day

are grafted into the cups using a sterile drafting needle This is very delicate

Figure 10.

Sugar feeding 1s necessary at almost every visit


Grafting describes the process of a beekeep: t transferring worker larvae into queen cl ps. One day old larvae are used for grafti ng because at this age no different iation {ie determination as to whether the larva will develop into a worker o t a queen) has taken place.



up frames

Strips of plastic queen cups are nailed to wooden bars placed within standard frames. ‘ ee Figure 4.

Figure 11. in a freezer

Royal jelly


kept below










Warwick Kerr


African bees

ONE BEEKEEPER our world were a village of 1000 people, what would its

Well, in the village there would be: 583 Asians 113 103



83 North Americans

at Uberlandia

to the

Americas. In 1956 he visited

honey crops yielded by African bees and encouraged

My 70th birthday was celebrated by the beekeepers of Rio de Janeiro (a Conference with about 120 people), by my students,


bring back 100 African queen

honeybees, hopefully to improve honey production in

Brazil. He brought 63 live queens (from Southern Africa and Tanzania) back to Sado Paulo and these were used to head colonies. Swarms of 26 of these colonies

escaped in 1957.


the subsequent

36 years

descendants of these bees have spread through all of

South and Central America, arriving in the USA in 1990. In subsequent years Professor Kerr has worked incessantly in assisting Brazilian beekeepers, and in furthering the cause of ecology.

58 from Soviet Republics 55 South Americans 5

from Oceania

and there would be: 333 Christians 16] Muslims 159 Hindus

86 Buddhists 56 Confucists





6 jewish



RESE ARCH This is ala rge compendil mof information about bee research in Brazil up to June 1992. It has been co


without any religion, or atheist.

Of these [000 people: 60 would receive half the

total income 500 would be short of food

600 would live in shanty

towns |

700 would be illiterate


And who is providing honey for this village of 1000


Just |




colleagues, beekeepers at Rio Claro (an “Encounter” with 400 people) and at Ribeirdo Preto (a Meeting of 250 people), by my students and geneticists at Sao Luis (a Congress with 150 persons), a one day Symposium at Jaboticabal (150 persons), a “Happy Birthday to you” in Vitoria, Argentina (Apiculture Week) and a three day seminar by my students of Biology and Agronomy here at Uberlandia. This set of homages was the most touching event in my life. The sight of my old students, now important professors, directors, business people, one protestant pastor, one catholic priest, one nun, beekeepers, farmers, all mixed up with my present young students - this was all very emotional. Brazil needs good and competent professors, and as a plan for my life decided to move to many places, the poorer the better, and this was my life trajectory: Piracicaba (1946-1958): Rio Claro (1959-1962); Sdo Paulo (1962-1964), Ribeirao Preto (1965-1981), Manaus (19751979), Sao Luis (1981-1988) and Uberlandia (1988 to present). Besides this have visited 37 tribes of South American Indians, 98 countries, and all the states of Brazil. As Florence, my daughter, put it on the morning of my birthday, “Congratulations Daddy, for such a life well lived”. |

piled by

Ademilson E E Soares and David De Jong and published in honour of Warwick Kerr's 70th birthday. It is very useful document: it lists the centres of bee research in Brazil, gives the abstracts of research theses, and provides a a


Professor Kerr, Brazilian beekeepers fave organised a scientific meeting in your honour and to celebrate 1.

your 70th birthday. How do you feel looking back at your career?




Africa, intending to study stingless bees. The Minister of Agriculture had heard tell of the good

Warwick Kerr


ethnic and religious composition be?

is Professor of Genetics

University in Brazil. He is the man who introduced

bibliography of all literature published by Brazilian bee researchers and those foreigners who have done extensive work in Brazil. All of the text within this single volume is provided in both Portuguese and English. This publication was a very good idea: the information given will help researchers to contact one another, and to find out quickly what has already been done. The book reveals what a great amount of work has been completed in Brazil: it certainly is a tribute to Professor Kerr and indeed to the whole of the Brazilian bee research community. For copies of this book please contact: Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de

Medicina de Ribeiro Preto, USP 14.049-900, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.


2. How did you first become interested in bees?

At the age of eight, in 1930, when the first swarm of Apis mellifera arrived in the village where lived, 60 km West of Sdo Paulo. My father put the swarm in a box (with no frames in) and for three years we had honey from it. In 1934 became interested |


in stingless bees.



Brazil now has a

3. If you were starting on your scientific career today, what research would you

thriving beekeeping industry based on


the Africanized


have two lines of research: bees (mostly stingless bee species) and horticultural I

crops (selecting them for high vitamin A contents). if were to start my career today would include more than 500 native Brazilian fruit |


trees, that is, those good, but unknown, fruit species that we have here in Brazil. 4. What advice would you give to a young hee researcher?

about 300 species of ngless bees (Meliponini) and more than 2u00 beekeepers. am suggesting that every six beekeepers maintain 50 hives with colonies of one Meliponini species, in order that each group of six would save one of the 300 species. would give the same advice to all beekeepers in order to help save the World’s biodiversity. In Brazil we have



5. Brazil now has a successful beekeeping industry based on Africanized honey bees, descended from those you introduced from

Africa almost 40 years age. Do you think that beekeepers in Africa could benefit from Brazilian beekeepers’ experience of managing these bees?

think that Mexican beekeepers are the ones who could profit more from Brazilian ekeepers’ experience with Africanized bees. It is difficult to transfer this approach I

to Africa. 6. What are the main problems facing

Brazilian beekeepers today? Brazilian beekeepers are facing three main problems: deforestation, pollution (including spraying of insecticides without previously informing beekeepers) and robbing.

Deforestation is making the harvest of the prized honeys from native plant species, such as timborana, assapeche and cambard more and more rare. The general poverty is leading to increased theft of hives.

place would say that in many some years strange diseases cause great losses to our beekeepers. In fourth


7. Do you think it would have been better if honey bees of any race had never been introduced to the Americas?

Definitely yes. If no Apis were here our production of delicious Melipona and Trigona honeys would be our greatest export. And Japanese people, who appreciate exotic and good food, would be our greatest buyers. 8. Stingless bees can provide significant honey crops in tropical countries. Do you

think stingless bees could be managed for honey production on a more commercial


Yes. That is actually one of our main lines of research. There are ten species of bees that are very good honey producers, but they depend even more than Apis on the native forest. 9. Name your favourite honey! Cambardé (Moquinia polimorpha).




10.And finally, what message would you give to the readers of this journal who include beekeepers working in remote areas, and often with little support for their craft? The main message would give to the beekeepers of the World would be: |

Let us be friends. Let us create a climate of solidarity and understanding that Americans and Cubans; Croatians, Serbs and Bosnians; IRA men and Englishmen; South Africans and Angolans would ail finish or understand their differences and could manage a hive of bees together. And then, a uniform wave of good techniques and exchange of knowledge and wealth would pervade all beekeepers, with a

unique example to the World.


is the second

in the series in

which Nicola Bradbear interviews

prominent people from the beekeeping world, in the hope that the ideas expressed will stimulate

thought and debate.








In the last edition of

Beekeeping & Development guidelines were given for preparing a project proposal.

Funding organisations are of many types: e Very large United Nations-backed international organisations such as FAO and UNDP. e

Government aid programmes, such as CIDA (Canadian) and ODA (British).


However a good proposal is only the beginning of the road to

Large charities with programmes in many countries such as ActionAid and Oxfam.


success in finding funding for your project. The next step is

Church organisations such as CAFOD and Christian Aid.


Local non-governmental organisations, charities and trust funds.

submitting your proposal to appropriate funding





{fa funding organisation issues application rules, follow them very carefully. Provide all the information they request. Answer all their questions. Stick to their deadlines.


Do not be secretive. Be straightforward about disclosing the names of other organisations you are approaching, or other funding you have already obtained. It is quite normal, and indeed expected, that you will apply to more than one funding body. If you have selected several funding organisations who you think might be interested in your proposal, then do not send your proposal to all of them




No funding organisation can be expected to grasp immediately the value or relevance of every project. Be prepared to explain what you want to do from first

principles (see Finding Funding |). Make sure that the project you are proposing lies within the remit of the organisation you are approaching. Before you submit your proposal you must do thorough homework: find out from the secretary of the organisation the type of projects they want to assist, their


immediately. Try sending it to one or two first: if your proposal is badly worded or confusing, by the time you find out, your chance to improve it will have gone if you have already sent it to everyone on your list!


Read the replies you receive from funding organisations very carefully. Often they will try to help you to see wiry your proposal did not meet their criteria.


If they do not tell you, do not be afraid to contact the organisation and ask why your proposal was rejected.


your proposal receives a poor response, you must next ask yourself why. Be very self-critical.

objectives and their policies.


e ..


Grant-giving organisations usually have a board of trustees who meet at regular intervals (every six months, or every year) to decide how the organisations’ funds should be dispensed. For this reason you must be prepared to wait for quite long periods before you receive a decision. Also you must start seeking funding a year or eighteen months ahead of your

“Emergency request” (but only if it really is an emergency!). Beselective about the organisations you apply to. Do not send your proposal to every address you can find.


Commercial organisations willing to provide sponsorship.

Philanthropic individuals and families. Which of these you can apply to will depend upon your country of residence, whether you are applying as an individual or are attached to a non-governmental organisation, a government department, an academic institution or another organisation. If you are attached to an academic institution then check out any grants or trust funds you could apply for. Sometimes there are obscure trust funds which receive few requests for funding, because nobody knows about them! The bursar at your college should know what is available.

proposed starting date. If for some reason you need funds quickly to overcome a particularly urgent crisis then mark your application



Are your plans unrealistic? Are you asking for too much? Is your proposal readily understandable? Does your proposal appear truly worthwhile? Do not be demoralised. If the objectives of your proposal are worth achieving and are realistic, you will find funding

eventually. e

If you do receive funding, acknowledge this immediately. Keep the donors informed of the progress of the project, and keep in contact with them.









The Second AAA Conference will take place from the 26 to 29 July 1994, at the University of Gadjah Hada Campus, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta is located in Central Java about 600 km from Jakarta.

Conference topics will include: the biology of Apis cerana; honeybee pathology; Apis mellifera beekeeping; beekeeping and ‘evelopment; pollination evaulation; and _.oney plants in Asia. The First Announcement for this important meeting will be available at the Apimondia Congress in September and further details will be given in this journal as they become

Beekeeping & Development

AAA assists communication and the exchange of information between bee scientists and beekeepers in Asia. The administrative headquarters of AAA are in Japan, and communication between countries is achieved by AAA Chapters throughout Asia.

Beekeeping & Development 27,

there a bee scientist interested to work with

me in studying this species?




postal system.

page eight.




sent to you by air mail. If you are receiving your copy long after the cover date then please let us know so_| that we can revise our


AAA Members will meet this month during the 33rd International Apicultural Congress in Beijing. Please come and see us and discuss AAA activities.

am sending pictures of the Trigona stingless 2es found in a village in East Java, Indonesia.


For details of membership of AAA and addresses of Chapters please see






Erliana Maria shows

a colony of Trigona nesting in the cavity Honey storage pots are present at each end of the nest, the paler area to the left of centre ts brood comb

ofa bamboo cane

Many aspects of this species should be studied very carefully, and the chemical composition of each part of the nest should be carefully

analysed. wonder whether you can help me to do research in this field? |

This picture shows you the whole nest of this species. !n this nest there is sour comb, larvae comb, honeycomb mixed with pollen and propolis (usually black but sometimes white). The taste of the pollen in this species is always sour and sometimes very sour! The taste of the honey varies, sometimes it is sweet, sometimes it is sour: it depends on the pollen content dissolved in the honey.

Erliana Maria NING





WAVING Bees for Development is

BELIZE Following the invasion of Belize by Africanized honeybees in 1987, honey production and export has significantly declined:


Production (kg)

Export (kg)




building a new and active network of people interested in development














Make sure you and your colleagues are involved.

Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, UK.

(source: Belize Honey Producers’ Federation)

Africanized bees can be more productive in the tropics than Italian or European bees, if properly managed. The potential to revive the honey industry still exists in Belize. As in most Central and South American countries many beekeepers abandoned their apiaries.

Some however, particularly in Orange Walk, Corozal, Cayo and Toledo Districts, remain active and are willing to reinvest their resources, and learn how to manage Africanized bees. The Honeybee Rehabilitation Programme, financed by USAID, has been initiated. The Programme provides funds for an Awareness Campaign, procurement of materials and equipment to be made available to beekeepers under loans, procurement of motorcyles for apiaries’ inspectors, the establishment of a queen rearing and mating centre, the employment of a statistics clerk, short-term training, queen-bee acquisition, and the reactivation of the National Beekeeping Council. Under the auspices of FAO, technical assistance, equipment and materials are being provided to co-operatives. Source: Ubaldo Miranda


foraging insects were taken every 30 minutes between 0700 hours and 1930 hours on bright days. The species of bees visiting most frequently were Apis cerana (the Asian hive bee}, Apis florea (the little bee) and Melipona iridipennis (the dammer bee). In coconut varieties bees visited in the proportions of Melipona iridipennis 1.5 Apis florea 2.5 Apis cerana. In hybrid coconuts these 1.7: 2.5. Apis cerana proportions were therefore visited the plants 2.5 times more than Melipona iridipennis. The number of honeybees visiting the inflorescences of hybrid plants was 36% more than visited the varieties. This contributes to the increased button setting and nut yield in hybrid coconut |

Bees in coconut plantations Coconut Cocos nucifera is a perennial crop, providing plenty of nectar and pollen for bees throughout the year. We believe that honeybees play a major role in crosspollination of this crop. Our studies were conducted during 1992 at the Coconut Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India. We studied the bees visiting inflorescences of 47 coconut genotypes comprising 28 varieties and 19 hybrids with the ages of palms ranging between eight and 30 years. Records of





plantations. Source: S Sadakathulla

PHILIPPINES Bee Programme The Bee Programme at the University of the Philippines, Los Bafios was established to promote and achieve more effective coordination of all bee projects and related research and extension activities The objectives include:

demonstration apiary.




Designing an apicultural management scheme which can be used in income-






generating projects for small-scale farmers. e

Offering training courses on all aspects of beekeeping.


Promoting beekeeping as a productive business and important component of agriculture and forest ecosystems.


Maintaining honey.


Acting as a service centre for commercial operators dealing with management, production and marketing of wax and honey, as well as a supply of high quality, mated queens and nucleus colonies.



quality control laboratory for

participants including farmers,


BEESWAX We have pure, refined beeswax for export.

Kanjanga, Albatross Import and Export, Box 340, Masvingo, Zimbabwe. Fax: 010 263 39 64484.

Persons interested please contact: \



lama single, 28 year old agricultural engineer, graduated from Tabriz University in Iran. have since worked for three years in bee breeding. am interested in further employment in this area. |



professional beekeepers, students, and trainers from NGOs have already attended a training course. Disease diagnosis, advice on crop pollination and other aspects of management are also planned. urce.


Esmaeil Emadipour, Nol/10 Mohamadi, Saffarzadeh, Deilami Str, Sabalan Avenue, 16376, Tehran, Iran. Fax 010 98 21 672275.

CONGRATULATIONS To Brother Adam who, joined by bee experts from many countries celebrated his 95th birthday in August Brother Adam is a Benedictine monk who has been beekeeping at Buckfast Abbey for 80 years. Brother Adam has spent his life working on bee genetics: the race of honeybees found in Crete, Apis mellifera adami, is named after him.

Dr Cleo Cervancia

ZIMBABWE See the picture below. Renganaden Soobrayen, a UNV field worker from Mauritius, works with a project entitled “Strengthening of NGOs and Governmental Organisations for Community Level Activities” in Zimbabwe. Here he is showing trainees a simple top-bar hive.

Brother Adam


United Nations Volunteers (UNV) was established in 1970 as a volunteer arm of the UN. Today there are 2500 UNV specialists and fieldworkers working in 119 countries world wide. Around 78% come from developing

The Inades Foundation offers correspondence courses in agriculture, development and management. Working at home allows you to work at your own pace. Workshops are used to follow up the training given in the courses. The courses are aimed at small-scale farmers and rural extension workers. Contact: Inades-Foundation Kenya, PO Box 14022, Nairobi, Kenya.

countries. UNVs span 115 professions. Most have graduate/postgraduate qualifications and about 10 years’ work experience. The majority rve two-year assignments.

SOMETHING TO ADVERTISE Why not do it here?. Use Notice Booard to let everyone know about your journal, items for sale, job vacancies or special announcements. Very reasonable rates.

Write to Bees for Development, Troy Monmouth, NP5 4AB, UK.

BUSINESS ADVICE FOR MALAWI BEEKEEPERS Adrienne Hughes has just started a two-year spell with the GTZ-funded beekeeping project in Malawi Adrienne will be assisting the Beekeepers’ Association of


Malawi in developing training programmes in financial and Adrienite Huattes administrative management for field staff and beekeeping clubs. New training materials will be developed and tested. Adrienne will give advice in marketing and financial management, assisting field staff to make yearly forecasts of honey production, and in the marketing of honey between villages, collection points and processing centres.





Adrienne is well qualified for the job, having many years of experience training others in management and administrative skills. Adrienne, who comes from the UK, is sponsored by VSO. She will be based in Mzuzu.







Resources and Environmental Monitoring

Agroforestry Training Materials Workshop

3-7 October 1994, Rio de Janeiro.

2-5 November 1993, Nairobi.

Further details from: Roberto Pereira da 12201 Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil.

Cunha, INPE. PO Box 515,

Further details from: The Training Materials Co-ordinator, ICRAF Training Programme, PO Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya.

Fax: 010 254 2 521 001. Telex: 22048.


The XXXIII International Apicultural Congress APIMONDIA


20-26 September 993. Beijing International Convention Centre.

Arusha Beekeepers’ Association Workshop and Annual Conference

Apimondia, General Secretariat, PO Box 69, I-00124 Rome, Casal Palocco, Italy. Telex: 612533. Fax: 010 39 6 685 2286.

27 September -



Further details from:

Information regarding Apiexpo 93, pre- and post-Conference tours, accommodation and travel arrangements contact: Mr Li Wei or Ms Xu Youjing, The XXXill International

Apicultural Congress, No 33 Nonfengli, Dongdaqiao, Chao Yang District, 100020, Beijing, China. Telex: 22233 MAGR CN. Fax: 010 86 500 5670. 1


October 1993. Arusha International Conference Centre.

Further details from: Mr AY Kimishua, Co-ordinator, Arusha Beekeepers’ Association, PO Box 2005, Arusha, Tanzania.

UK Natio




18-20 November 1993, Kensington and Chelsea Town Hall.

XII International Congress on Social Insects

Further details from: Rev F Capener, Honorary Secretary, National Honey Show, |

21-27 August 1994, Paris. Further details from: Professor Pierre Jaisson, Laboratoire d’Ethologie,

Baldric Road, Folkestone, CT20 2NR.

Bees for Development Official Launch 18-20 November 1993, National Honey Show, London.

Universite Paris-Nord, 93430, Villetaneus, France. Telephone: 010 33 49 403218. Fax: 010 33 49 403975.


Further details from: Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, UK. Telephone: 010 44 600 713648. Fax: 010 44 600 716167.

Second West Africa Beekeeping Research Seminar

Seventh Lnird world Fair




28 November 4 December 1993, Aburi Botanical Gardens.

10-11 D ccember 1993,

Further details from:

Mr Ralph A Hoyte-Williams, General Secretary, Ghana Beekeepers’ Association, PO Box 9581, Airport-Accra, Ghana.

Furtherd tails from: TWIN, Fourth Floor, 5-11 Worship Street, London, EC2A 2 H, UK.



Global Environmental Movement Initiative 1993: the 3rd Green Step

IX Inte tational Congress of Acarology

8-12 November 1993, Jakarta.


17-22 Jul y 1994, Ramada University Hotel and Conference Center, Ohio.

Organising Committee, POCE’93, Environment Building, jalan Kramat iV NO 8, Jakarta Pusat 10420, indonesia. Further details from:

Second Asian Apicultural Associa! ion Conference

Furtherd tails from: \X International Congress of Acarology, Acarolo} ry Laboratory, Museum of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State Universi y, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA.

26-29 July

Fax: 010

Yogyakarta. Further etails


to be



614 292 7744.


International Course on the Design of Commun ty Forestry

International Short Course on Land Use Management for Tropical



September -


December 1993, Wageningen.

Further details from:

Internationa! Agricultural Centr :, PO Box 88, 6700 AB, Wageningen, Netherlands. Telephone: 010 31 83 090 111. Fax: O10 31 837 018 552.

Fax: O10 61 72 213896.

Courses in Tropical Forest Management and Tropical Agroforestry

Further details from:

2-10 June 1994.

Director General, Attn C Searle, international Consultancies, Department of Primary Industries, Queensland, GPO Box 46, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia. Telephone: 010 6] 72 393302.




International Training Course on Rural Development in Tropical and Subtropical Zones 4 November - 14 December 1993. Further details from: Food and Agriculture Development Centre of the German Foundation for International Development, Wielinger Str 52, W-8133, Feldafing, Germany. Fax: 010 49 081



NETHERLANDS Postgraduate Diploma Course in Forestry and Rural Development New Approaches and Survey Techniques August 1993 - May 1994, Enschede. Scheggetman, ITC Student Registration Office, PO Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, Netherlands. Telephone: 010 31 53 874 444. Fax: 010 31 53 874 400. Further details from: Mrs


July-24 September

1993, Edinburgh.

Edith Field, Tropag Course, UnivEd Technologies Ltd, Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh, EG8 9LN, UK. Telephone: 010 44 316 503473.

Further details from: 16

Fax: 010 44 316 503474.

Diploma in Apiculture |

October 1993 - 30 September 1994, University of Wales College of Cardiff.

Further details from: Diploma in Apicu ture Co-ordinator, University of Wales College of Cardiff, PO Box 915, Car liff CF1 3TL, UK. Telephone: 010 44 222 874147. Fax O10 44 222 874305.

Post-Harvest Fruit, Vegetable an Root Crop Technology |

20 September - 17 December 1993, Chatham. Further details from: Training Contract 3 Officer, Natural Resources Institute, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritim Kent, ME4 4TB, UK. ,

13th International Course for Development-orientated Research in


January- 28 July

1994 (in English), 28 February - 15 September 1994 (in French), Wageningen. 10

Further details from: Jon Daane, International Agricultural Centre, PO Box 88, 6700 AB, Wagenin gen, Netherlands. Telephone: 010 31 837090 111.

Fax: 010

31 8 37

018 552.

If you want details of your event included here send details to th

Editor at

Bees for Development, Troy, Monmotath, NP5 4AB, UK. Fax: 010 14 600 716167.






equivalent of) 1.5 and 6S per litre Beeswax is much in demand for use in the lost-wax method of casting bronze ornaments.


Population 13,704,000

Honeybee diseases


Ghana is in the very fortunate position of no bee diseases having so far been found,

Ghana is in West Africa. The South and West are covered by dense rainforest, while a narrow grassy plain stretches inland from the coast. In the North are forested hills beyond which are dry savannah and open woodland. In the far North is a plateau of 500m. The Black and White Volta rivers enter Ghana from Burkina Faso and merge into the world’s largest manmade lake, Lake Volta


Ghana Beekeepers’ Association, PO Box 9581, Airport-Accra.


Lake Volta



Ashanti Plateau

The Apiculture Promotion Unit of the Technology Consultancy Centre has provided beekeeping training to several thousand Ghanaians and many from outside Ghana. It also encourages equipment manufacture and supply, and generally has done much to promote beekeeping by seminars, workshops and exhibitions.

Tropical. Rainy season April-July.


Cocoa is the main cash crop: in recent years Ghana has suffered from the low world price for cocoa. Other widely grown crops include Citrus spp, coffee, cotton and oil palm.




Research on honeybees and carpenter bees is carried out at the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, and by other individual researchers.

Apis mellifera adansonii. Beekeepers in Ghana find

this bee highly defensive, and colonies abscond readily.

Beekeeping Honey hunting resulting in the destruction of wild colonies is still practised. Traditional beekeeping methods are also used widely. In the Volta region log hives are made from old Royal Palm trunks. In the North clay pots and gourds are used as containers for bees, and in the Central region clay pots of a different design are used. The crushed stalks of the “hakyem” vine (Adenia cissampeloides) are used to

The golden insect- a handbook on




recent years beekeeping has been assisted and promoted by a number of projects including: The GRATIS Project, National In

by S Adjare (1984) 112 pages. Beekeeping in Africa


by S Adjare (1990) 130 pages.


Both these publications are available for purchase from

Bees for Development.



Number of beekeepers There are many beekeepers, most with less than 20 hives.

Ghana Bee News, The Editor, Technology

Consultancy Centre, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. GRATIS News (often carries beekeeping information): David Clare, Ministry of Industries, Science & Technology, PO Box 151, Tema.

Beekeepers read ther notice board at a

meeling held ut Accra

Zoom into Ghana this November for the Second West Africa Beekeeping Research Seminar.

Beeswax processing

Melliferous vegetation Major flowering periods occur at the beginning and end of the rainy season Species of acacia, albizia, cassia, citrus, eucalyptus, gmelina, hibiscus, neem, palm, and sunflower, are important for bees along with many other




beekeeping for beginners



Service Secretariat, Presbyterian Church, and Salvation Army. Funding for these has been provided by CIDA (Canada), GTZ (Germany), Oxfam and several other organisations. FAO and VSO have provided techinical assistance, and IFS has sponsored individuals’ research projects.

also been tested.

Honey: price varies between (the local

Atlantic Ocean


Support for projects

Frame hives (modified Langstroth and Dadant) have been in use since at least the 1960s. Topbar hives were first introduced to Ghana in the late 1970s, and promoted by a number of projects during the 1980s, There is much debate between Ghanaian bee experts as to which design of hive is most appropriate. The Bielby hive (a low-technology frame hive) has




due bees.

Native species.



Beekeeping Association

Climate ain




238,537 km (92,100







This meeting is organised by Ghana Beekeepers’ Association and will be held in Aburi Botanical Gardens For further details see

Look Ahead on page








The social organization of honeybees by


B Free

Northern Bee Books, Hebden Bridge,


(1993 2nd edition) 67 pages. Paperback.



This book is 67 pages long. It can therefore be read in one or two evenings and provides a clear summary of the enormous literature which is available on the honeybee’s social organisation. There are seven chapters and they address: the organisation and structure of the colony; the regulation of colony activities; colony defence, collection of forage, queen and worker production; colony reproduction; and conclusions.

of village men and women - on what sustainable forestry must entail if it is to succeed. This book represents a “customer's view” of development assistance.

“If we are not given other ways of meeting our |

basic needs, encroachment will persist. After all, who are they protecting the trees for?” -

Tanzanian villager.

This book has already been found useful by many students (for this is not the first edition), and beekeepers find that it gives them insight and understanding of what their bees are up to. A very compact, readable and interesting

“We are blamed for destroying the forest. How could we? We are so dependent on forests that we

would die without them But we also need land to

grow food”





Nepalese villager.



“Vhose trees?

people's view of forestry aid



A Hisham, J Sharma,

A Ngaiza with N Atampugre. Panos Publications, London, UK (1992) 192 pages.



part of its programme of encouraging greater participation in the development debate by people of the South, and of giving a stronger voice to those whose lives are directly affected.

How proyects fall and how

hey could uel eed

How do you protect forests when local people are desperate for fuelwood, fodder and cultivatable land? How do you balance governments’ need for revenue from timber, with international demands for nature conservation? When people are surviving one day at a time, how can you ask them to undertake the long-term investment of growing trees?

After decades of forestry aid, denuded hillsides continue to lose their topsoil and rural women still spend hours gathering the fuel to cook a daily meal. Where have forestry projects gone wrong? Panos commissioned independent teams in Nepal, Tanzania and Sudan to explore how far three different projects are succeeding in involving local people and in meeting their real needs Their reports examine past mistakes and provide a fresh perspective - that



Panos is an independent organisation working for sustainable development. Whose trees? is




Unless a project finds ways of reconciling forest protection with the needs of local people for fuel, fodder and land, the battle wi

encroachment will continue

When aid is no help: how projects fail and how they

succeed by



IT Publications, London, UK (1991) 132 pages. Paperback.

12.00 500 million people lack basic necessities and are regarded as the world’s poorest people. Within this huge group there are still great differences in income, with the bottom half much poorer than the top The challenge facing official aid programmes is to assist the poorest

people. This book considers some of the aid projects that have attempted, but have failed, to do this. Case studies from around the world are considered, where well-intentioned projects have totally failed to help the neediest



‘SHELF people. Examples of projects which have succeeded are also given: it seems that the poorest people often lose out by not knowing what possibilities are open to them.

There are very good colour and black and white illustrations which add much interest. It will be a useful guide for anyone who wants to quickly know more about (sub}iropical beekeeping as it is today practised, and who wants understanding of the sort of assistance traditional beekeepers need. The theme of the book can be summarised by the closing lines of Joop Beetsma’s introduction: “We are convinced that traditional beekeeping systems can be improved. However changes to be introduced must be within the reach of local conditions”.


oe. %




The $50 billion spent every year on official aid could be used to great effect in helping the poorest, if programmes could become more ---ropriate to their needs. This book suggests changes that are needed. The closing pages give guidelines for policy-makers to ensure that the poorest people are reached.

produced quarterly and sent free of charge to readers of this journal.

Traditional bee management as a basis for beekeeping development in the tropics

or no longer available.

Kaal, H W Velthius, F Jongeleen, ] Beetsma.

To have your order sent by airmail, please add 20% to the total order cost. We cannot be held responsible for books lost in transit: to have your order sent with insurance please enquire and

edited by



Kaal Boek, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1992) 87 pages. Paperback.

13.00 or available from: NECTAR, PO Box 141, 6720 Bennekom, Netherlands.

NECTAR is the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Tropical Apicultural Resources. It is a nongovernmental, non-profit making association of (sub}tropical beekeeping experts in The herlands, formed in 1990. In May 1990 a posium was held, and this book is a record of the Proceedings of that day's meeting. The book provides a wonderful insight into traditional beekeeping practices and why they are still important. Eva Crane writes the first article, defining traditional bee management as practices handed down from ancestors, especially by oral instruction and practice, ranging from the simplest form of management, looking after bees nesting in the wild, to the use of various hives with other

equipment. Readers of the book will quickly realise that traditional bee management methods are widely practised today, and the following chapters are written by people with experience in different countries.

Present-day examples are described from Africa, Asia and Meso-America, and some interesting historical background is also given. This book is quite short and is easy to read.


list of the books available fram Bees for


It is

To order books use the form included with Books to Buy or simply write to us listing your requirements. We are also able to obtain other publications not mentioned on this list.

Just ask us! Books will be dispatched to you immediately. You will be advised if any items are out of stock

Please send payment with your order. Prices include packing and post to any address, by surface mail world-wide, or in the UK.

we will send you a quote.

We can also issue pro forma invoices but

we must receive payment

before books are dispatched.

Publications will as far as possible be supplied at the prices quoted, however these are subject



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visual aids on tropical beekeeping.


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sales is used to provide the free advisory service to beekeepers in developing countries.









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Beekeepers’ Association and will be held in Aburi Botanical Gardens, between 28 November and 4 December 1993. .




The Seminar will continue debate started in The Gambia in 1991 on the problems facing beekeepers in West Africa, and will discuss solutions towards these problems. Approaches

Expiry date on card.

Mr Ralph A Hoyte-Williams,



Bees for Development to charge future subscriptions to

Beekeeping &

Development (announced in advance) to my credit card on each anniversary of the first payment until such time as instruct in writing that wish to cancel my subscription. This spares me the trouble of renewing each year and saves Bees for Development vital funds by not having to remind me to renew. understand may cancel this instruction at any time. |



General Secretary, Ghana Beekeepers’ Association, PO Box 9581, Airport-Accra, Ghana.


Volunteers working for a better world.

Good skilis go far with VSO. ome

bility, persistence and sensitivity in difficult situations. VSO selects for volunteers all

Every year VSO sends over 800 men and women to an enormous




Beekeepers in developing countries are welcome to pay their subscription by Beeswax Barter

These are the conditions: Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of good quality. It must be presented in solid form and not as scraps of wax or pieces of comb. 2. Beeswax from any species of Apis will be accepted as long as the name of the species from which it is collected is stated. 3. Inside the parcel state your name and address, the weight and origin of the beeswax, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. On the outside of the parcel state "BEESWAX RAW FOR BEES FOR DEVELOPMENT” and the weight of the beeswax in kilograms. 4. Any parcel containing comb, very dirty wax or otherwise unusable wax will be destroyed on arrival at Bees for Development. It will not be 1.

returned and will not be accepted for barter. Payment in beeswax is only available for subscriptions for Beekeeping & Develapment to developing countries. 6. Arrangements for costs of carriage of beeswax to Bees for Development are the responsibility of the sender and Bees for Development will not be responsible for any postage or other costs whatsoever. 5.

variety of jobs in developing countries. Volunteers range from fresh graduates to people with a lifetime’s experience. The average age is 33. All volunteers will have the appropriate skill (degree/

the year round;

there are two

principal departure periods, January and September; you should expect to go overseas 4-10 months after

submitting your application. For more details, return the

diploma) and experience for the job they go to.

coupon below to Moyna Wooding,

Most significantly they will be selected for their personal qualities notably their adapta-

VSO, 317 Putney Bridge Road, London SW15 2PN. Or telephone 081-780 1331 (24hr ansaphone).

contributions, returt air fares and vanous grants and allowances, A local rate of pay and accommedatian are provided by the Country concerned

VSO provides medical insurance,








Addres: Postcode.

Va ehables

men wid women to work alungside people in pooree countries ucorder to share shally burld «apalnlities and promote international understanding and actin, nthe pussail et a equitatle world

Chany no 4757

NP5 4AB, UK. published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, Telephone: 010 44 (0)600 713648 Fax: 010 44 (0)600 716167. Beekeeping & Development is

Environmentally friendly paper.







Further details from:


Card number




Name on card


oraied by Ghana

This meeting is

to beekeeping projects and the implementation of appropriate technology will be discussed.




Bees for Development

ISSN 0256 4424