Bees for Development Journal Edition 26 - March 1993

Page 1



Beeke eping development MARCH









INSIDE INFORMATION LEAR NING BEEKEEPING On returning home these select and well-qualified beekeepers, now with overseas experience, find themselves in demand from other sectors, and beekeeping as a small specialised branch of agriculture suffers from this ‘brain drain’.

to know IT WOULD BE INTERESTIN where most of us learn our t eekeeping skills. Is it possible to beco ea competent beekeeper just b reading the literature? suspect not: m ost of us need guidance from an expe rienced |

beekeeper, supplement this by reading, and learn from our own adve ntures and mistakes. This path to beco ming a truly skilled and confident beekee per is enjoyable but it takes time < nd practice, World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990

Unless stated otherwise to

refers to pounds

US dollars.

IBRA - International

Bee Research


Beekeepi d

This leads to frustrated beekeepers who cannot apply their skills on return home: bees in different climates show different behaviour, the equipment used during training does not work, is not available or is prohibitively expensive.

Sometimes people need to. earn heekeening skills more auic kly, and this is where good training courses are needed. Most of the available beekeeping courses are in industrialised countries and focus on beekeeping with sophisticated technology.

We need plenty of training courses to be available, and they must provide relevant, practical training.

Government and project workers in developing countries who need to acquire skills quickly usually have to travel overseas for training. Large amounts of available budgets are used for this and therefore relatively few people are enabled to train in this way.

Apimondia Gold 1989

sterling. S refers

Another problem is that unless selected carefully the training received may prove inappropriate.


This journal endeavours to find and provide information on appropriate training courses: two more are featured in this edition on page twelve.



Beekeeping & Development is edited by Dr Nicola Bradbear with assistance from Helen Jackson.

Advertisements in Beekeeping reach a very wide audience. available. Write for rates.

All items are written by Nicola Bradbear unless stated otherwise. 4000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed to beekeepers, projects and associations in 174 countries worldwide. Four editions are published each year in March, June, September and December.

The International Bee Researc h Association is a scientific, cha titable trust. providing information on eve y aspect of bees and beekeeping to all wh o need it.

Contact International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CFI 3DY, UK. Phone: 01 44 (0)222 372409 Fax: 01 44 (0)222 665522

Contributions Your contributions are invited. We welcome articles on techniques found to work well, on your events and activities, and news items of interest or concern to readers. Please include illustrations or photographs. Thanks to all who have contributed to this edition.

Sponsors Beekeeping & Development is sponsored by CTA, FAO, Oxfam, The NFC Foundation and Traidcraft Exchange.

Our aim is to make this journal as useful as possible for our readers, so let us know your views on Beekeeping & Development and of any subjects you would like to see discussed in the future.

We have also received donations from The Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers, UK beekeeping groups and individuals. We gratefully acknowledge this continued

Reproduction beekeeper with his baby and his colony of Apis cerana. A hat is used to shade the colony.

A Bangladeshi



Items appearing in Beekeeping & Development may be reproduced providing that appropriate full acknowledgement is given and copies are forwarded to us.





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by Bernhard Clauss A paper clip

Beekeeping research and extension persons in Botswana and Zambia have been familiar with queen includers for several years.

is fixed with

soft wax in front of an entrance hole

would like to add some of these experiences to Kwame Aidoo’s article “Queen includers” in Beekeeping & 1

Development 25.

The queen includer can be a valuable tool for beekeepers, when they want to make swarms or broodless “wild” colonies settle in new homes However the application of queen includers must be accompanied by attractive, “bee-friendly” measures like feeding and/or the introduction of a (mainly capped) brood comb. Before we start recommending the queen includer to our target group, the rural beekeepers, we have to make sure that it is available and affordable at any time.

As queen excluder grids keep up the dependence on costly importation and unreliable internal supply, the search for substitutes should be encouraged. Here is an encouraging example In 1981 a Motswana Primary School teacher recommended paper clips with the inner measurement of exactly 4 mm. We still recommend these in the Zambian beekeeping handbook (1992).

But let us be careful. 1.

Our experiences in southern and central Africa show that queen includers should be used for a few days only. As soon as the colony indicates the acceptance of the new home by foragers bringing in pollen the includers should be removed. Otherwise they may obstruct certain vital activities within the colony and cause stress, which often has the opposite effect For example, if queen includers trap drones or virgin queens that are ready to mate, or if they become obstacles for scores of heavily loaded workers during flowering peaks, the readiness of absconding may increase, especially with the small entrances recommended for top-bar hives.


It sometimes happens that small-sized queens can pass through the includers.

Long-standing beekeeping experts discourage the use of queen includers as a means of colony management. When bees have decided to go, they go. A queen includer fixed during the swarming season will not change the natural urge to swarm. Even worse: a stressed colony may decide to abscond, even without the queen, a shocking experience we had repeatedly in Botswana.

Generally speaking a sensible beekeeper has

Use paper clips with the inner measurement of 4 mm as temporary queen includers


less trouble when following the principle:

Manipulation without compulsion. If at all possible, only assist a newly hived swarm or wild colony with capped brood and food. And watch out for ants!

Encouraging a swarm to stay If no brood and food combs are available for your newly hived swarm you should fix queen includers in front of the entrance holes with soft wax.

The paper clips reduce the size of the entrance holes allowing only the worker bees to pass in and out, thus preventing the queen (and drones) from escaping. If the bees do not like their new home they will try to abscond and will cluster nearby, but as the queen is unable to follow them they will return to the hive. Take off the queen includers only to remove drones blocking the entrances in early evening. You can be sure that the bees have accepted their new home as soon as you see them bringing in pollen loads.

Watch the situation for one or two days, not more! After this time the queen includers must be removed.






The following item is taken from a report prepared by BETRESP (Henk van Blitterswijk, Dabbel Bahadur Bam, Lal Kumar Shrestha, Keshav Pandit Chettri and Jan Hoekstra) for Save the Children Fund/ USA.

Traditional log hive with spiny branches on top and plastered with an ash mixture al both ends where the log can be opened

These findings are from a survey carried out in the Gorkha District, in the western region of Nepal, about 100 km west of Kathmandu.

The survey was to evaluate the beekeeping development programme of Save the Children Fund in the district, as well as to advise on future actions. Beekeeping can be an income-generating activity This is the main reason for promoting it However, quantifying and generalising the profits of beekeeping is extremely difficult for various reasons:

the skill of the beekeeper is of major importance;

(NRs = Nepali Rupees)


some places are more suitable for beekeeping than others:


honey harvests vary from year to year;



some strains of bees are better than others;

manna (9 6 kg) per year. Price per manna (0.8 kg): NRs 50 ($1)

log hive |





honey NRs 600 ($12) honey NRs 3000 ($60)


Based on the figures (left), the following can be e

WALL HIVE Recorded average yield: 8 manna (0.4 kg) per year. Price per manna (0 8 kg): NRs 50


cost* 0




MODERN TOP-BAR HIVE’ Recorded average yield: manna (10.4 kg) per year. Price per manna (0.8 kg): NRs 50 ($1).


However one important question has to be answered, “Can a farmer continue improved beekeeping in the long run completely without outside financial aid?” Only a positive answer means that one is supporting an economic undertaking.


A beekeeping programme does not have to


Top-bar hive



NRs 700 (S14) NRs 700 (S14)

honey NRs 650 ($13)




honey NRs 3250 ($65) years 2550 5 NRs Net gain after years: ($51). 5



the price of both a log and wall hive are arbitrary; many villagers in the survey area consider wood to be free of cost. the design of Kenya top-bar hive being used is at some altitudes certainly too big to properly house Apis cerana colonies.








The financial input with modern beekeeping with top-bar hives is quite high. The calculated average extra output, the highly fluctuating honey yields and the risks of absconding usually do not justify the initial investment. The costs for the farmer who wants to start beekeeping with an improved type of hive can be decreased by subsidising the equipment, giving equipment as incentives after training, having the hives made locally, sharing equipment or developing equipment of cheaper materials.

honey NRs 400 ($8} honey NRs 2000 ($40}

0 5 years Net gain after 5 years: NRs 2000 ($40).


the effect of pollination by bees on cropyield is hard to measure


0 years Net gain after 5 years: NRs 3000 (S60). 5

wall hive

difficult to take absconding into


Recorded average yield: 12

it is very


focus only on beekeeping with modern hives, but can also concentrate on improving traditional beekeeping.


The skill of beekeeping greatly determines the outcome of the enterprise Therefore, especially with the high investment in mind, the transfer of knowledge and skills is must Good training and follow-up are absolute necessities |f this cannot be done, one should not even start modern beekeeping, because losses, especially for the small-scale farmer will be significant a

To change from traditional methods of beekeeping to modern ones, beekeepers’ attitudes towards their bees must change Instead of “laissez faire” beekeepers must inspect their colonies regularly and manage them This process cannot be done overnight and coaching is required It goes without saying that setting an example, proving that modern beekeeping 1s a worthwhile undertaking, can do more than a thousand words One other fact hampering the development of beekeeping especially with Apis cerana has become clear over the last three years and also from the interviews during the survey bee forage is diminishing Because the flight distance of Apts cerana 1s only 800 metres, lack of forage quickly affects the colonies adversely Beekeeping programmes must also focus on the planting of bee flora preferably multipurpose species, training alone on bee management 1s not sufficient

have informed us that prices paid for honey



80NRs per manna

Kathmandu it

ts possible to obtain much higher but transportation to Kathmandu prices for honey, the problem Honey has to be carried over the


Top-bar fives on the balconu of a Nepali home


mountains on someone's back The project also reports that recent experiences with movable frame hives have shown that higher yields than those shown left are possible

checks fus tap-bar hive


traditional wall hive, protected by a damaged plastic drum



A farmer in Takukot, Nepal


in the villages have recently increased (on average) from






The Museum of the American Man Foundation is using IDB Funding for Special Operations to develop beekeeping activities among 250 small-scale farmers and their families who live near the Serra da Capivara National Park in Piauf. The Park is a protected area of significant ecological and archaeological importance, with tare species of flora and fauna, and rock paintings dating back 17,000 years. The beekeeping activities will provide a living for the residents without being harmful to the area's ecology. Source: The IDB, September-October 1992






x Comb from


Ghanaian top-bar hive

The enthusiasm of people to make money from honey has not been lost on Ebenezer Nartey, who as a driver with the Rural and Women's Industries Division of GRATIS has made many trips to beekeeping workshops and has learnt the craft of managing bee hives and harvesting honey.

Realising that he can supplement his income with the sale of honey and beeswax, in 1991 he acquired three hives to install at his hometown of Kodiabe in the Greater Accra Region. Barely five months after, Ebenezer was able to harvest four gallons of honey from his hives which he sold at 900 Cedis per beer bottle. Earnings from the sale of honey and beeswax enabled him to purchase three more hives. “Beekeeping can be lucrative and by getting deeply involved” says


am going to prove it

Ebenezer, who expects to harvest a gallon of honey from each of his six hives before the end of the year and hopes to acquire more bee hives to expand the business. Source: Gratis News, October 1992

INDIA Control of Thai sacbrood disease

A Workshop to discuss the control of Thai








“TEN PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT” Beekeeping & Development 24, page 3. We have been asked to


th urce quoted was not the first origin. Bonita Brindley was the author of this item first published in the FAO journal Ceres (128), March/April 1991.




sacbrood disease was held on 31 October 1992 at Mercara, Karnataka. It was organised by the Government of Karnataka and the State level steering committee for the control of Thai

sacbrood disease.

The Workshop was attended by over 300 scientists, officials and beekeepers from all over Karnataka. Dr Channabasavanna inaugurated the Workshop and stressed the economic importance of beekeeping and measures for conservation of all three species of honey bees. Sri P T Devaiah presented a brief account of the occurrence of Thai sacbrood disease in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and the

We damage caused to the bee industry where it is estimated that 90% of colonies are affected. Dr C Chandrasekhara Reddy gave a history of Thai sacbrood disease in India and abroad and suggested short term measures of destruction of infected brood and banning of migratory beekeeping in the affected regions for immediate control of the disease. Long term measures for the control of Thai sacbrood disease included the identification and mass rearing of disease-resistant queens and their supply to beekeepers.

He also indicated on the basis of epidemiological studies that the Thai sacbrood virus currently affecting colonies in South India is the same as that which destroyed many thousands of colonies in northern India during 1978 to 1984. Sri Joyappa reported that as many as 6000 colonies have been lost in Kodagu district alone. Professor G K Veeresh conducted a technical session and answered questions pertaining to the disease.

Sri N Sampangi was mainly responsible for the success of the Workshop, and he emphasised the need for preservation and conservation of honey bee species. He also stressed the need for the establishment of a Regional Centre: the Workshop unanimously passed a Resolution and recommended to the Government of Karnataka that an Apicultural Research Centre with all modern facilities be immediately established. Source: Dr C C Reddy, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi, Bangalore, 560 056, India.

JAPAN Taste of honey brings a brush with death Five loggers in Iwate Prefecture on northern Honshu licked honey from some old honeycombs they found inside a hollow log and suffered symptoms of severe poisoning.

Symptoms included difficulty walking and falling into semiconscious state, an official said “I think they each only licked a small amount but a

it was enough to cause nausea and numbness”.


PERU The IDB Fund for Special Operations is providing $500,000 to the Foundation for National Development to promote beekeeping activities among some 500 low income farmers in the north west coastal area of Lambayeque. Source: The IDB, August 1992

Tests of the honey found poison from wolf's bane*, a flower of the buttercup family that contains dangerous alkaloids. “Poisoning from honey like this is certainly rare” the official said. * Wolf's bane Aconitum napellus, also known as aconite or monk's hood Source: Louis E Hitchcock. From The Washington


Times, 8 July 1992.



Tom Carroll has started work as a beekeeping management officer with the Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Project (KIFCON) in Nakuru, Kenya. Mr Carroll is VSO volunteer. His main objective is to encourage beekeepers to adopt methods of extracting resources for hive production with minimal damage to the forest.


To facilitate interaction and to foster a spirit of co-operation amongst apiarists.

To assist members in the theoretical and practical aspects of apiculture.


The Tobago Apicultural Society is now formally in existence. The first Management Committee was voted in on 3 November 1992. Our official mailing address is given below. Meetings are held on the third Tuesday of the month at 1600 hours and visiting beekeepers are welcome to share their experiences with us. The aims and objectives of the Society are:



Gladstone Selomon, President of the Tabago

Apicultural Society

To associate with related organisations on a national and international level.



Source: Gladstone Solomon, c/o Division of Agriculture, Forestry and Marine Resources, Botanic Station,

Scarborough, Tobago, West Indies.



The Subcomité Penisular para el Control, Aprovechamiento de la Abeja Africanizada y Fomento Apicola is a not-for-profit regional organisation working in the State of Yucatan. We expect our actions to have some impact in the rest of the Yucatan Peninsula in the near future. The other two states that form the Peninsula are Campeche and Quintana Roo.

Kabarole Beekeepers’ Association is growing day by day. It has spread over the following counties: Buraghya, Buyangabo, Kibale, Mwnge. The time has come to organise the Association more strictly and we have planned a general meeting for all the interested beekeepers in the Kabarole District. On the agenda is formation of the Constitution of the Association. Other agenda points will be: beekeeping seminars in several counties, introduction of standard Dadant hives, erection of collection centres for honey and wax, marketing locally and in the cities such as

The Subcommittee was legally constituted in July 1991 by four Mexican honey exporting companies.and by three beekeepers’ cooperatives (about 8000 beekeepers). These two groups together handle all the honey export activity in Yucatan Through a third-party agreement the Federal Government has provided the honey exporters with operating funds of $30,000.

Kampala. What is also of importance is the interest of the government in this growing eagerness to keep bees in Uganda.

The honey exporters will match this amount through a contribution of $1.67 per tonne of honey bought by them in the State of Yucatan during 1992, and of $3.34 per tonne during 1993. The third party in the agreement is the Government of the State of Yucatan, which will be making an equal contribution to the


Source: Fr Pieter Cornelisse, Chairman, Kaborole Beekeepers’ Association, PO Box 528, Fort Portal,



Funding is still needed to obtain one or more vehicles and to be able to hire more personnel for the project. Source: Carlos Vergara, Executive Officer, Calle 18 No SIE, Colonia Itzimnd, 97100 Mérida, Mexico.

To contribute to the growth and development of apiculture in Tobago.

In Beekeeping & Development 25 we sadly learnt about the death of Dorothy Galton. Our beekeepers will always remember her in their prayers and every time they visit Dorothy Galton Honey Camp at Msonga.

We hope our Lord will reward her in Heaven for her hospitality. |

Justin Madaha, Tabora, Tanzania





BEEKEEPING IN SYRIA A GTZ-financed promotion of beekeeping in Syria Honey has always been something special in Syria. It is regarded not so much as a foodstuff but as a tonic and remedy for illness, Syria beekeeping is principally a supplementary source of income. Most beekeepers are farmers, but many government employees, such as teachers or agricultural extension officers also keep bees. It is not unusual for their income from beekeeping to exceed their salaries. In

Traditionally bees are kept in earthenware pipes, but these are being superseded by Langstroth (movable frame) hives.

The Varroa threat When Varroa was first brought into the country some ten years ago the resulting epidemic led to devastating losses of bees, from which Syria has still not recovered. About 50% of colonies died while the strength and performance of those that survived was considerably reduced. lt must be assumed that al] bee colonies are now infested with Varroa mites

Traditional bee hive: traditional beekeeping using earthenware pipes These are opened only for harvesting. The honey combs are cut out of the pipes and the honey pressed out of them by hand.

Initial control of the epidemic was frustrated by the lack of an effective control strategy, by the traditional bee hives which do not permit disease inspection, by the lack of medicines, and by the non-existence of a distribution network for medicines. Furthermore, a rapid and effective transfer of know-how was hindered partly because beekeepers were not

organised, and also by the underdevelopment of extension services.

Beekeepers Association The ongoing GTZ project “Extension in animal production and animal health” in the Ministry of Agriculture took up the Varroa problem and used it as an opportunity for initiating a GTZfinanced measure to control Varroa and promote beekeeping in general. The executing organisation was the newly-founded Syrian Beekeepers’ Association (SBA).

to humans and other animals in the immediate vicinity. Hence work at the hive is only possible with suitably thick protective clothing.

Project activities At first the project focused on Varroa control. The services of a short-term bee expert from Germany were enlisted to organise workshops for the beekeepers. Lectures dealt with both Varroa and the possibilities offered by modern beekeeping. To ensure the sustainability of this measure important information was translated into Arabic and sent to SBA members. The second activity was queen rearing. SBA is now collecting data on the performance and temper of individual bee colonies. Without data of this kind it is impossible to engage in selective queen rearing.

Thirdly the project aimed to improve the availability of tools, equipment, protective clothing and machines Much of this material is not available to Syrian beekeepers, either because it 1s too expensive or because there are import problems. However there is a large reservoir of skilled craftsmen (carpenters, tailors) who can make the objects needed by beekeepers locally and at reasonable prices.

Project impact Beekeepers are now considering ways of marketing their honey through SBA with suitable trademarks and quality controls. They are able to control Varroa effectively and at reasonable cost. They have access to aids that increase production, such as highly productive and “tame” bees, modern bee hives, honey extractors and protective clothing.

As a result, production and incomes have risen, and the general public and beekeepers alike benefit from a flourishing beekeeping industry

In 1988 the proposal to found a beekeepers’ association was adopted and within only a few months SBA had 70 members and a central office in Damascus.

Today the organisation is well established with 1700 members and undertakes activities in addition to Varroa control.

Agriculture, Damascus, Syria

Following the country-wide response received by the Damascus association SBA was organised regionally. Monthly meetings are now held in Damascus and the regional centres, and there is an exchange of experience between beekeepers, lectures are held, and information is distributed. Apart from Varroa control, members are primarily interested in rearing queens to increase honey yield and reduce aggressiveness in local bee colonies.

Dr D Stotz, GTZ Planning Officer, Eschborn, Germany

Local bees are in fact so aggressive that if colonies are disturbed they constitute a threat

GTZ is DeutscheGesellschaft fiir Technische Zusammenarbeit, the government of Germany's aid


Dr Gerhard Barnicket, GTZ Government Advisor, Ministry



Movable frame Langstroth hive:

these modern hives are

now made from waste materials by local carpenters





With this background, explored and identified beekeeping as one of the very few enterprises which could be viable and environmentally friendly under such fragile physical conditions. |

Project site Though the area has shallow soil and steep hills, there is good vegetation cover. This includes Acacia spp, Afzelia africana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Combretum spp, Sclerocarya birrea, Tamarindus indica and many other trees and

shrubs, all of which are good bee forage. In addition, there are numerous agricultural crops being grown by the refugees. These include bullrush millet, corn, cow pea, finger millet, pigeon pea, pumpkins, simsim, sorghum, soya bean, sunflower, sweet potato and various vegetables. Refugees have also been encouraged to plant trees and seedlings and are supplied freely with them by the UNHCR. Trees planted include good bee forage trees like Azadirachta indica, Cassia spectabilis, Eugenia jambos, Melia azadirachta and Moringa oleifera.

The current situation In early 199] a project proposal was produced for fund raising. No support was received. The UNHCR promised to assist the project if it could be shown to be viable. This promise has yet to be fulfilled. However, the field office in Pakele has been helpful and encouraging as will be shown shortly.

and have since become members of the

project. At the beginning of August the Field Officer of UNHCR, encouraged by the results of my experiment took a personal interest in the project. bought some timber and increased my top-bar hives to 14. At the same time people who had expressed interest in the project collected money for the procurement of the trunks of borassus palms which are the main materials for log hives in this district. UNHCR was kind enough to release a lorry for this and bought 61 log hives for members of the project form West Moyo where the palms are in abundance. |


The escalation of war in southern Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 80,000 refugees into Uganda. These people are mostly in 15 refugee camps and two transit camps in Moyo District along the east bank of the Nile, 440 km north-west of Kampala. This area is remote and poor. It has a very low agricultural productivity being mostly a marginal land. As a result few opportunities in agriculture or other business activities are available to the refugees.


Sudanese refuaees

At the time of going to press this is the summary of the project: Beekeepers registered by the project 24 (including 4 women) Number of bee hives 154 Number of colonised hives 53 Number of top-bar hives 14 Number of hives at demonstration apiary Number of colonised hives at demonstration apiary

Reader, eal to you to assist our ct in any way possible. [ ot need to emphasise to the problems of a ee if you have seen one ad about them but they


are definitely dispossessed persons. They are like plants that have been uprooted from their natural settings. If it is young plant and it is cared for properly, it will tecover from the shock and grow into a healthy plant. If not, or if it is too old, it will wither and die, We are plants. We need to be cared for.


Problems The project totally lacks equipment to ensure correct harvesting, processing and marketing of good quality honey. Specifically we lack: 1. Harvesting equipment - smokers and protective clothing. 2. Honey extraction equipment - manual


honey extractor. Honey storage - tanks and buckets. 4. Wax extractor - solar wax extractor. 5. Honey strainers. 6. Literature. 3.

Unfortunately there are too many of us in the world. Some are noticed and cared for, some are forgotten. You can help by donating any of the above mentioned equipment or send money. A good Samaritan has already subscribed us to Beekeeping &

In early February 1992, was offered a job to set up an educational resource centre and develop programmes of interest and benefit to refugees. took this opportunity to experiment with my ideas for beekeeping. used a good proportion of my salary for the first three months to buy traditional log hives and a few top-bar hives. |

For further information please contact:





By the end of April had set up 21 hives (17 log hives and 4 top-bar hives). By the end of july all the top-bar hives and 13 of the log hives had been colonised, 17 bee colonies in all. By this time people had begun to take an interest in the project. Others who had earlier started keeping bees came to report to me




Balanites aegyptiaca,

the desert date

Robert Lubajo (Chairman), Alere Resource Centre, PO Box 9802, Kampala, Uganda. For donations write to: c/o Barry Sesnan, Chairman, Education Programme for Sudanese Refugees, PO Box 9802, Kampala, Uganda.







Indonesia wil! play host to the Second AAA Conference which will be convened in June or July 1994. The objectives of the Conference will be to improve knowledge of honey bees and beekeeping: to facilitate the exchange of information, ideas and experience in apiculture and to strengthen relationships amongst Asian nations.

The International Steering Committee will be comprised of representatives from the member countries of AAA.

Topics in the Conference programme will include: bee biology, bee pathology, beekeeping technology, bee products, bee flora and pollination, beekeeping economy and apiculture extension.

The First Announcement for the Conference will be available later on this year.

It is estimated that over 200 people will attend the Conference.

The Local Organising Committee will be formed between AAA and the Government of Indonesia.

Contact your AAA Chapter for further details.


The AAA Membership fee is $20 per year. This includes four issues ’ Beekeeping & _Development» “and: AAA Newsletter supplements. People in countries where AAA has chapters (listed below), please send $20 or local equivalent to your chapter. People in other countries send $20 directly to the AAA Office, . Institute of Honeybee Science, Tamagawa University, Machida-shi, Tokyo 194, Japan.






Dr Alamgir Mati, Bangladesh Apicultural Association, 135 Shantinagar, Dhaka 1217.


Professor G H Yang, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Xiangshan. Beijing.



Central Bee Research Institute, Khadi & Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 016. Dr V K Mattu, Department of Bio-Sciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171 005. Dr C C Reddy, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Jnaha Bharati, Bangalore 560 056.


Ms S Hadisoesilo, PO Box 4/BKN Bangkinang 28401, Riau, Sumatra.


Dr Kun-Suk Woo, Institute of Korea Beekeeping Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Suwon 440 744. Mr Ki-Tae Cho, Korean Beekeeping Association, 301 Sambo Bldg; Chonglo 6-Ga, Chonglo-Ku, Seoul, 110 126. Mr Woo-Suk Ahn, Cheju Branch, Korean Beekeeping Association, Sambo, 2-dong 1024, Cheju, 690 032.


Dr M Hj Muid, Plant Protection Department, Agricultural University of

' P

Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor.


Mr K K Shrestha, Beekeeping Training & Extension Support Project, Godawari, Kathmandu.




Dr R Ahmad, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, PO NIH, Islamabad.


Dr C R Cervancia, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, UP Los Banos, College, Laguna.





Okinawa, Japan Further details in Look Ahead page 14





Mr] M Al Mughrabi, PO Box 42332, Riyadh, 11541, Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Training Department, Riyadh, Training Centre. :

Dr R W K Punchihewa, Agriculture Research Station, Makandura, Gonawila

(NWP). TAIWAN (China):

Dr F K Hsieh, Taiwan Apicultural & Sericultural Experiment Station, 261



Kuan-nan, Kung-Kuan, Miaoli.

Mr S Buranapawang, Bee Research Section, Thailand Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkhen, Bangkok.

Mr Tran Duc Ha, Director, Bee Research

‘entre, Lang Ha, Dong Da, Hanoi:




Genetic Diversity in Apis cerana*

by L R Verma

cerana skorikovi, Apis cerana abaensis, Apis cerana hainanensis and Apis cerana indica.

Each subspecies has further locally adapted populations called ecotypes which differ from each other in several biological and economic characters. For example, we have successfully identified three ecotypes of subspecies Apis cerana himalaya that correspond to geographic distribution in 1) the Naga and Mizo Hills, 2) Brahmaputra Valley and Khasi Hills, and 3) the foothills of the north-east Himalayas On similar lines, Chinese bee scientists have also classified Apis cerana cerana into five ecotypes namely, Guangdong-Guanxi type, Hunan type, Yunan type, North China type and Changbaishan type. In some parts of the Hindu Kush Himalaya, Apis cerana cerana matches the European hive bee Apis mellifera in commercial value and has spectacular potential for further genetic improvement.

STOCK IMPROVEMENT Many of the above mentioned subspecies and ecotypes of Apis cerana are at present not economically viable. Therefore selection and breeding programmes to produce a bee suitable for intensive management is required To achieve stock improvement, different Apis cerana subspecies and ecotypes should be accumulated at a central location and superior genotypes be identified. Another important pre-requisite for stock Improvement is to evolve efficient queen rearing for Apis cerana and also establish isolated mating stations for pure line breeding The latter is essential because instrumental insemination in Apis cerana has unexpectedly turned out to be a difficult task due to very low volumes of semen ejaculated by drones.

During the course of evolution, Apis cerana has developed certain behavioural characteristics such as frequent absconding and swarming which are essential for the survival of colonies but undesirable from a beekeeping point of view

ABSCONDING Our research group has identified a lack of sufficient bee flora, excessive handling, exposure of colonies to summer sunshine and incidence of sacbrood virus disease as major causes of absconding.

Colony performance index (CPI) based on the number of pollenbringing foragers can be used to predict absconding. Based on this, native bee species start showing symptoms of absconding even two weeks before, and CPI reaches zero even a week before absconding. Management practices like feeding sugar, providing shade and providing queen gates at the hive entrance significantly reduce absconding. However, colonies affected with sacbrood virus disease show such a severe instinct of absconding that these may leave the hive even without the queen.



One research group in the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has successfully identified genetic variance in morphological characters of Apis cerana subspecies in the Himalayan region. These subspecies are named Apis cerana cerana, Apis cerana himalaya, and Apis cerana indica. According to bee scientists in China, five different subspecies of Apis cerana representing different eco-geographic zones have been identified These include Apis cerana cerana, Apis



The genetic diversity of Apis mellifera has been organised into 24 subspecies having varied economic usefulness. These subspecies are adapted to a wide range of ecological conditions and range from 0° at the equator to latitudes as great as 50°N and 30°S. So far only four subspecies of Apis cerana are recognised, although there may be several more because of its wide range of geographical distribution.

Grafting larvae


Apis cerana




SWARMING One of the most effective ways of reducing frequent swarming is to following selection programmes against this undesirable trait. Removal of newly constructed queen cells during the active season also helps to check


The recurrence of sacbrood virus after an earlier cycle during 1982-1986 has threatened beekeeping with Apis cerana throughout its range and is forcing beekeepers to replace it with more prolific Apis mellifera. Some colonies are still resistant to this disease and in the absence of any effective chemical control measures, a vigorous selection programme needs to be followed. *

part of this paper was delivered by the author as Chairperson and Organiser of the Symposium entitled Apis cerana and other honey bees of Apidae, during the XIX International Congress of Entomology, Beijing, China 1992




DEVELOPMENT Namibian women are interested in the opportunity for income


generation provided by beekeeping.

material suitable for specific groups and different beekeeping methods, and catering for a wide variety of educational levels and


by Marie Fry

Beekeepers’ Association is managed by a woman, Geraldine Nsubuga, and there are many other examples of women taking a leading role in beekeeping activities all over the world.

On 8 May 1993 a group of women from overseas will arrive at the Centre for Rural Development Training (CRDT) at the University of Wolverhampton to do something that has never been done before in the world of beekeeping. They will register for a short course which is being run in collaboration with lan MacDonald Associates (IMA) in Brighton. The title of the

eight-week course is “Training Women Trainers in Beekeeping”.

TRAINING IN EGYPT. ‘Ain Shams University offers training courses in: -1.


Basic beekeeping. jelly production. Honey bee diseases: diagnosis and control.


Manufacturing beekeeping tools and equipment. '5. Instrumental insemination of queen bees.

The duration of each course is four weeks, and the tuition fee is 250 or $430. ‘Accommodation and travel costs will be additional. For further information please contact:

Honey Bee Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams ‘University, Shoubra El-Kheima, Egypt. |Cairo,: kes |



The journal Beekeeping & Development is edited by a woman, Dr Nicola Bradbear, and the definitive textbook Bees and beekeeping was written by Dr Eva Crane. The Uganda


Women are at the centre of modern beekeeping development.

In many developing countries beekeeping is something that women do, and even in countries where the men climb trees to get the honey, it is still the task of the women to process and to use the honey.

WOMEN Beekeeping is especially suitable for women, hives can be placed close to the homestead, thus addressing two of the problems most often ignored by planners, who on the whole plan for, rather than with women. Those two problems, lack of time, and the long distances travelled to collect fuel and water, are daily problems for rural women. Other positive attributes of beekeeping are that it requires low initial inputs so that very poor women can, with a little assistance, set up and run a hive or two. The choices are wide: modern hives which are efficient and easy to handle or the more traditional log hives which may not be quite so efficient but cost almost nothing to get going. The products, honey and beeswax, can be either utilised by the household or sold for income.

That makes it all sound very easy and simple, and of course any one who knows anything at all about beekeeping knows that it is a skilled and indeed a sophisticated matter. The proposed course is not therefore an exercise in “instant beekeeping” or “beekeeping in a flash”. Rather, we hope that the women who come for training will have basic beekeeping skills and some experience of managing hives. The course will aim to give them specialised skills in teaching beekeeping to women’s groups and to individuals who wish to keep bees as both a subsistence and an income generating activity.

COURSE CONTENT The course will be in two parts. The first six weeks being spent at the CRDT in Walsall, doing skills analysis and curriculum development and generally working out training strategies and lesson plans. Time will also be spent on the development of training

The last two weeks will be spent at IMA in Brighton where the emphasis of the training will be on the need to make programme planners and development agencies more aware of the needs of women in overall agricultural development They will learn how to write proposals to gain funds for developing women’s beekeeping activities, and in the broader sense to make the case for the wider involvement of women in the planning and management of rural development. Both organisations will use participatory training methods, which will have to include buzz groups, and create hives of activity. The timing of the course in May and June is important, as it will allow practical skills analysis to take place in the field with “gloves and veils on” experience, and will enable the group to make visits to processing centres at the height of the season. Initial interest has been encouraging and the demand for application forms is high.

FUNDING Whether the funding agencies will have the imagination and the flexibility of mind to support this venture remains to be seen.

At the Fifth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates in Trinidad and Tobago in September 1992, it was noted that “there are few opportunities for appropriate training’. Well here is an opportunity, aimed at and designed appropriately for a specific target group. Most of the major agencies have for some time been trying to encourage more women into the training programmes, and most have now identified the development of sustainable agricultural activities as an objective. In this course the requirements for specific targeted training with the need for sustainable systems and methods have been put together. If the funders do not fund those who apply, then we shall have good reason to think that they are not serious in their call for targeted training leading to sustainable ends, and it will be seen as another triumph of rhetoric over reason. We hope that the course will be the first of several and that beekeeping as a sustainable, environmentally-friendly activity will prosper because of it. Marie Fry is a Director of lan MacDonald Associates. Details of the course are available from: The Course Administrator, 36 Robertson Road, Brighton BN1 5NL, UK.







VIETNAM Size 329,566 km?2. Vietnam stretches a long way north and south, sharing borders to the north with China and to the west with Cambodia and

Laos. The South China Sea lies to the south and east. The land is now mainly agricultural with a central tropical rainforest.

Population 64,411,668.

GNP $198 per capita. Agriculture accounts for 40% of the GNP.

Main crops The staple crop is rice although significant amounts of cassava, coffee, fruit, maize, sorghum, sugar and sweet potatoes are also grown.

Honey bees Native species: Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, Apis florea.

Non-native species: Apis mellifera was first introduced in 1947, but large scale importation took place in the early 1980s.

agricultural land. Important forage sources include:

Nephelium litchi, Rhizophora conjugata,

Honey production 1800 T per annum (1992), of which 1100 T are exported. 200 T are collected from Apis dorsata. Apis cerana colonies yield up to 15 kg per annum, and more if

18,000 keeping Apis cerana. For most people Apis cerana beekeeping this is a part-time activity but there are beekeepers operating commerically with Apis cerana, mainly in the


migratory beekeeping is practised. Apis mellifera colonies yield up to 60 kg per annum: migratory beekeeping with this

species is practised widely.


AAA Chapter Mr Tran Duc Ha, Director, Bee Research Centre,

Ho Chi Minh

Lang Ha, Dong Da, Hanoi.

Beekeeping department Vietnam Bee Research Centre, Lang Ha, Dong Da, Hanoi.

South China Sea

There are also Bee Research Units at Can Tho University, Hanoi Agricultural College, Hanoi University, National Veterinary Institute, Plant Protection Institute and Thu-Duc Agroforestry


A quarterly journal

Number of beekeepers


Ziziphus jujuba.

There is a strong tradition of beekeeping with Apis cerana with each area of the country having its own system. Apis cerana are kept in log hives or frame hives. Upright log hives fitted with top-bars were first recorded in 1907.

Frame hive beekeeping was introduced during the 1960s from China. Apis mellifera are kept exclusively in frame hives.


Nganh Ong is published by the Vietnam Bee Research Centre. The journal is in Vietnamese with English summaries.

Projects The National Bee Research Programme is coordinated by the Vietnam Bee Research Centre. Since 1987 assistance has been provided by KWT, The Netherlands Committee on Science and Technology for Vietnam. KWT has assisted particularly by improving awareness of honey quality and thereby helping beekeepers to obtain better prices for their honey.



Previous articles

The Technical Board of the Central Honeybee Company is responsible for beekeeping extension work. It organises training courses, provides literature and answers technical

Newsletter 12:


Newsletter 15:


Mekong river delta. 900 keeping Apis mellifera: all commercial beekeepers. 350 collecting honey from Apis dorsata colonies.


Number of frame hives

Honey bee diseases European foulbrood, Thai sacbrood virus, Tropilaelaps clareae, Varroa jacobsoni.


Newsletter 16: Beekeeping in Vietnam by Vincent Mulder. Newsletter 17: Herbal treatment®

for Varroa. -

1992 information: 70,000 with Apis mellifera; 45,000 with Apis cerana.



Euphoria longan, Eucalyptus spp, Gerbera piloselloides, Hevea brasiliensis,


leucadendron forest.


Vietnam has 8.5 m hectares of forest and 7 m hectares of


Apis dorsata colonies are managed for honey production in the south in “Tram” Melaleuca


Melliferous vegetation


More articles and papers held in the IBRA Library.


= 9







In issue 18 of Beekeeping & Development Mr Tomlinson describes how to make a wax extractor. agree with him that it is hard to understand why so many beekeepers do without one. Under some circumstances the northern-designed extractors do not work too well, or work only infrequently. One reason is that if sunshine periods are short and intermittently interrupted by passing clouds, the large extractors built for sufficient capacity do not heat up enough or for long enough to melt old combs. Besides, extraction from very old combs is not efficient in these extractors as Professor Morse {Beekeeping & Development 19) pointed out. However, once processed in the solar extractor the dark Jeft-overs can be processed in boiling water. Solar extractors work very well and fast for lighter combs, cappings and the left-overs from honey pressing. However two small modifications are necessary: 1. Asmall solar wax extractor heats up quickly and reaches the wax melting point fast. It therefore extracts wax even during short, intermittent sunshine. Painting it black inside and out (not with tar paint) - will

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Tropical Rainforest Research. Current issues


27 June-3 July 1993, Okinawa. With the support of the Inter-Congress [VII PSIC). Further details from: VU Pacific

14th Commonwealth Forestry Conference “People, the Environment and Forestry - Conflict or Harmony.” 13-18 September 1993, Kuala Lumpur.

Information regarding Apiexpo 93, pre- and post-Congress tours, accommodation and travel arrangements contact: Mr Li Wei or Ms Xu Youjing, The XXxXIil international Apicultural Congress, No 33 Nonfengli, Dongdagiao, Chao

Further details from: The Secretary General CFC-1!4, Forestry Department

Headquarters, Peninsular Malaysia, lalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50660 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fax: 01 603 292 5657

Yang District, 100020 Beijing, China Telex: 22233 MAGR CN. Fax: 01 861 500 5670. GHANA “Second West Africa Beekeeping Research Seminar 28 November - 4 December 1993, Aburi Botanical Gardens. The purpose of this Seminar is to bring together beekeepers from West Africa to discuss the progress made in beekeeping development in the last two years following the First West Africa Beekeeping Seminar held in The Gambia in November 199]. Topics will include ail facets of beekeeping development in the region. Further details from: Mr Ralph A Hoyte-Williams, General Secretary, Ghana Beekeepers’ Association, PO Box 9581, Airport-Accra, Ghana. INDIA international Symposium on Pollination in the Tropics.

TANZANIA Arusha Beekeepers’ Association, Annual Meeting. October 1993, Arusha. Further details from: Mr AY Kimishua. Co-ordinator, Arusha Beekeepers’ Association, PO Box 2005, Arusha. Tanzania. UK Women and Agricultural Development. 29 March - july 1993, University of Reading. Further details from: AERDD, University of Reading, Whiteknights Road, Reading, RG6 2AL, UK. IBRA Day 26 June 1993, Rothamsted Experimental Station. A one-day open day incorporating the 1993 IBRA annual general meeting




Science Inter-Congress Secretariat.


20-26 September 1993, Beijing Internationa] Convention Centre. Further details from: Apimondia, General Secretariat, PO Box 69, 1-001 24. Rome Casal Palocco, Italy. Telex: 612533. Fax: 01 396 685 2286.


8-13 August 1993, Bangalore.

and lectures

Ganeshaiah, Secretary, International Symposium on Pollination in the Tropics, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India. Telex: 8458393 UASKIN.

Further details from: IBRA, 18 North Road, Fax: O1 44 222 665522.

Further details from: Dr



17-22 July 1994, Ramada University Hotel and Conference Center, Ohio. Further details fram. Secretary. IX International Congress of Acarology,

Acarology Laboratory, Museum of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA.

of your event included here send details to the Editor. |


CardiffCFI 3DY, UK.

USA IX International Congress of Acarology

INDONESIA Asian Apicultural Association, 1994 meeting. For further information see AAA page ten. If you want d

VI Pacific Science

c/o Section of International Affairs. University of the Ryukyus, ]-Senbaru. Nishihara. Okinawa 903 01. japan. Telephone: 010 98 895 2221. Ext 2126/2027. Fax: OF 8198 895 6096.



Rainer Krell, Rome, Italy

JAPAN Second Asia-Pacific Conference of Entomology (APCE).

The XXXII International Apicultural Congress - Apimondia.




9-17 April 1993, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. loint Conference of the Universiti Brunei Darussalam and the Royal Geographical Society. Further details from: Rainforest Conference Organiser, Registrar's Office. Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan 3186, Brunei Darussalam. Fax: 01 673 242 7003.

further speed up the process. Double pane glass covers are unnecessary and only retard the whole process. Extra insulation beyond the three-quarters to half-inch wood box is not necessary for tropical climates except in cold mountain areas. A good size is about that of a Langstroth brood chamber or super. Small adjustments can be made if whole frames are to be processed and cleaned, though are rarely necessary. The colder the outside climate the larger and better insulated a solar extractor should be. 2. A metal grid (3. 6 or 8 mesh wire screen) should be placed 0.5 to cm above the metal tray. This will allow faster run off of the melted wax and thus compensate again for the smaller capacity. With these adjustments a small extractor actually has a higher capacity than larger models and is considerably cheaper (both timber and glass are very expensive). If you want to spend the money, build two, and you can even lend one to a friend!

Fax: 01 1614 292 7774.




BOOKSHELF Zambian beekeeping handbook by B and R Clauss Reviewed in Beekeeping & Development 23, this book is now available to purchase from IBRA price 14.00.

Honey Bee Ahmedabad, \ndia; Indian Institute of Management. For further information and subscription details write Honey Bee, c/o Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Vastrapura, 380 015, India. to:

Despite the title Honey Bee this is not a journal specifically for beekeepers. Rather it is an informal, quarterly newsletter documenting innovations by farmers and field workers. It intends to lobby to protect the intellectual property rights of grassroot innovators.

Lapiculture simplifié by J Choquet. Paris, France; La Maion Rustique pp. '



1992 eprint)


In French.

Available from IBRA price 10.50.

First published in 1978 this useful pocket guide is a basic beekeeping text relating to framehive beekeeping in France.

MAIL ORDER SERVICE Prices shown for books available from IBRA exclude post and packing charges. The following must be added to all orders: Overseas orders (surface mail) p&p UK orders p&p up to 10.00 up to 10.00... 1.00 to 20.00 10.01 10.01 to 20.00 2.50 to 30.00 20.01 20.01 to 30.00 3.50 30.01 to 50.00 5.50 30.01 to 50.00 5.00 50.01 to 100.00 7.50 50.01 to 100.00 6.00 Surface mai! does not include insurance. .



Jack Choquet


Orders over 100.00, or to be sent air mail including insurance, prices on request. (No insurance available to Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Nigeria.) IBRA cannot be held responsible for damage to, or loss of goods in-transit. Please quote Beekeeping & Development when you order.

METHODS OF PAYMENT Access/Mastercard/Eurocard/Visa Please quote name on card, full address, type

of card, card number, expiry date on card, and your signature for authorisation. Cheques and bank drafts made payable to IBRA in sterling or US dollars. Send to IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff, CF] 3DY, UK. Bank transfer to National Westminster Bank ple, 117 St Mary Street, PO Box 117, Cardiff CF1 1LG, UK. Account No: 85015415. Bank sort code: 56-00-41

Girobank/Postgiro Account No 291794408 Order fast by fax. Our number is 0! 44 222 665522.








A Guide to Appropriate Equipment for Smallholder Farmers Introduced by Dr Ian Carruthers and Marc Rodriguez

June 1993

A unique guide

to small-scale farming, equipment which offers invaluable information to smallholder farmers, development workers and manufacturers all over the world.

IMA and The Centre for Rural Development Training at the

University of Wolverhampton offer an eight week course for women trainers to enable them to assist women’s groups in setting up beekeeping enterprises. Participants will be expected to have some beekeeping skills and be familiar with the management of bees and hives.



Farmers’ representatives purchasing equipment on their behalf.

Advisors assisting farmers and their organizations with the *


purchase of equipment. Development agency personnel who need to purchase equipment for farmers or for rural development projects. Prospective manufacturers or manufacturers’ agents.

Development workers, students and others who wish to learn about the types of equipment available. Equipment information services who wish to provide

advice to

enquiries about specific equipment.


Beekeeping skills

IT Publications ].td

4th edition 1992

103-105 Southampton Row,


London WC1B 4HII, UK


paperback 1

85339 100 X

Tel: 071 436 9761 Fax: 071 436 2013

analysis e

Training Methods



Training Aids e

Production of Training Material e

Marketing e

Networking and Information Systems The course fee is 3990.00 including accommodation.

For further information please apply to the Course Administrator at 36 Robertson Road, Brighton, BN? 5NL United Kingdom

Tel: +44 273 559000 Fax: +44 273 500045



One subscription to any










Ten subscriptions to one address in a developing

country Back issues per copy* *

25 kg 1


editions 1-8 are available only as photocopies.

Subscriptions commence on the date they are received by IBRA. Each subscription covers four editions, and includes airmail postage. For methods of payment see “Bookshelf”. Details of how to pay by Beeswax Barter are given in Beekeeping & Development 23.

Groups or individuals who are unable to pay may request a sponsored subscription, please write to Nicola Bradbear.

Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by the International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF] 3DY. UK. Telephone 0222 372409 International 44 222 372409, Fax: 0222 665522 International 44 222 665522

Environmentally Friendly Paper.

ISSN 0256-44