Bees for Development Journal Edition 20 - September 1991

Page 1











Dear Friends Beekeeping and Development is not

- it

just the title of this journal

summarizes our objective!

Every successful industry, small or large, is strengthened by communication amongst its participants.

o ecourage networking

Beekeeping and Development aims to report news of value to our readers worldwide and In the beekeeping and development world information can be exchanged

amongst us. continents.

usefully between

But there is still a need for local co-ordination. Perhaps before too many years there will exist separate journals for beekeepers in Africa, for the Caribbean and so on. carrying local news and advice

So it is good to see an important step for regional development with the formation of the Asian Apicultural Association. AAA are adopting this journal as their Official Publication, but from time-to-time will insert their own separate supplement for distribution to AAA Members. Beekeeping and Development will also carry AAA news items. Of course there have already been great steps forward in Asian beekeeping - this edition alone brings news of publication of the Malaysian Pollen Atlas, the International Conference ta be held in Thailand next February, and major financial backing for bee research in the Himalayas. The new Association has an important role in helping to disseminate information and to forge links between all those working in Asia.

Apimondia Cold 1989

So, a friendly welcome to AAA. When, as must surely happen soon, an Association is formed for Africa name shall it have?

Observant readers will have noticed look loge. Hope you like it! World Vision Award


a further



change in our cover design. This incorporates IBRA‘s new fresh-

Nicola Bradbear, Editor

Developarent liitiative 1990



Beekeeping and Development is

edited by Nicola Bradbear with assistance from

Helen jackson. Four editions are published each year. 4000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed to beekeepers, projects and associations in 174 countries worldwide. Beekeeping and Development was previously published under the for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries.

title Newsletler

Reproduction Items appearing in Beekeeping and Development may be reproduced providing that appropriate full acknowledgement is given and copies are forwarded to the Editor.


The 1991 subscription rates including postage are shown below. Subscriptions commence on the date they are received by IBRA. See page |3 for methods of payment, and below for details of BEESWAX

BARTER. Groups or individuals who are unable to pay may request subscription: please write to Nicola Bradbear.



Sponsors Beekeeping and Development is produced on a not-for-profit basis as part of IBRA‘s Advisory Service to developing countries. We have received sponsorship from: CTA, FAO, Oxfam, Traidcraft Exchange, The Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers, and a number of individual donors. This support is acknowledged most gratefully


We appreciate receiving any translations of Beekeeping and Development, our information leaflets or our information charts. We are regularly requested to supply information in languages other than English, and rely on the kind support of our readers around the world to help with this.

The International Bee Research Association is a scientific, charitable trust providing information on every aspect of bees and beekeeping to all who need it.


Telephone: 0222 372409 Fax : 0222 665522 Address: International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CFI 3DY, UK.

Advertisements in Beekeeping and Development reach a very wide audience. Various sizes available. Write for rates.

Unless otherwise stated the sign $ used in Beekeeping and Development refers to US dollars.

Linch =2.54m




One subscription to any destination Ten subscriptions to one postal address in Back issues, per copy

_ iucnclormes lopment






developing country

BEESWAX BARTER Beeswax Barter provides a way to pay for Beekeeping and Development without involving a cash transaction

Conditions: |

Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of

good quality. Beeswax must be presented in solid form and not as scraps of wax or pieces of comb. 2.

3. Beeswax from any species of Apis will be accepted as long as the species from which it is collected is clearly marked on the parcel.










cover picture shows hive making in Guinea-


Photograph by Angelo Isola

4. Inside the parcel state your name and address, the weight and origin of the beeswax, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. On the outside of the parcel state "BEESWAX RAW FOR IBRA” and the weight of beeswax in





10.00 50.00 2.00

20.00 100.00

5kg 25kg




5. Any parcel containing comb, adulterated or very dirty wax or otherwise unusable wax will be destroyed on arrival at IBRA. It will not be returned to the sender, and will not be accepted for barter.

Payment in beeswax is only available for subscriptions to developing countries and cannot be used for any other subscription or purchase from IBRA.


7. Arrangements for and costs of carriage of beeswax to IBRA are the responsibility of the sender and IBRA will not be responsible for any postage or other costs whatsoever. Proof of postage is not accepted as proof as receipt. Ensure packaging used is adequate to endure the effects of travel.






Within a honey bee colony the combs containing developing bee larvae are referred to as the brood nest The nest is usually compact, with all the brood combs adjacent to one another and no intervening combs containing honey or pollen Normally the brood nest 1s near the entrance Honey is stored furthest away from the entrance either on both sides of, or above the brood nest This arrangement allows the beekeeper to harvest comb filled exclusively with



ES ery-

Woyke, Poland




Colony management The Kenya top-bar hive is typically around 90 cm long, and has no super Because the top-bars are placed together, touching each other, bees cannot escape from between combs when the roof is removed This construction helps to control the defensive behaviour of African bees Nevertheless some bee colonies sting so much that honey must be harvested at night Honeycombs within the hive are situated according to the entrance location When the entrance is positioned in the middle of the long wall. then honeycombs are located at both sides of the hive When the entrance 1s in the end wall the honeycombs are located at the other end of the hive. During honey harvest honeycombs are removed, ideally without disturbing any of the rest of the nest Many beekeepers have no honey extractors and honeycombs are crushed and pressed, or are melted As a result, honeycombs removed from the hives must be replaced by empty top-bars on which worker bees construct new combs

A top-bar with comb containing

a large amount of brood (left) and some stores


queens would not lay eggs inte old dark combs in which many generations of workers had been reared Dark combs situated by the entrance were the original cause of unusual brood nest arrangements That conclusion was verified. Dark combs near entrances were removed and replaced by empty bars After workers constructed new combs, the queens switched to egg laying in these new combs

Split brood nests When the nest is arranged as described above it is easy to remove the honey Even at night with little light. combs exclusively containing honey may be removed relatively easily However found quite different arrangements of bee nests when inspected colonies in all three zones of Ghana the coastal savannah near Accra, deciduous forest near Kumasi! and dry savannah near Tamale In several colonies found the brood nest divided into two with brood combs at each side of the hive. The central combs were filled with a little honey. some pollen, and some empty comb All the side combs contained brood in their lower part Half of the upper part was thicker and filled with honey it was impossible to find combs containing honey exclusively Therefore combs containing honey and much broad were removed The lower part with brood was cut off and the rest of the comb with honey was crushed and pressed or melted Parts of combs containing brood were fixed to the top-bars. and returned to the colonies The whole procedure was very unpleasant and uncomfortable |



Further investigations revealed bee colonies which had brood nests tn the rear of the hive when the entrance was in the front end wall

Brood on new combs Thorough examinations of such colonies were conducted Detailed records showed that brood in all unusually arranged nests was in new white, or light-coloured combs Very dark combs never contained brood even when these cambs were placed by the entrance. We rearranged the nests. Brood on new combs was placed opposite the entrance, in the middle or front of the hive, depending upon where the entrance was Over several months the brood nest was not split or moved to the rear of the hive. We concluded that

all the rearranged colonies, workers filled the brood-free, side or rear combs with honey Now was possible to harvest combs exclusively containing honey In


Recommendations To make honey harvest easier It is recommended that you rearrange the nest before the honey flow Old dark combs should be removed from places near the entrance, and put to the side or if the entrance is at one end of the hive, to the other end Brood on light combs should be by the entrance Some empty bars can also be placed there New combs by the entrance attract the queen to lay there leaving side or rear combs brood-free This kind of nest arrangement assures side or rear combs exclusively containing honey. An additional advantage is that ald combs containing honey do not break so easily as new ones.


Honeycomb is delicious!



honey ready for harvesting


therefore started to investigate the problem In the beginning blamed the entrances Many hives in Ghana, instead of having one entrance in the middle of the long wall, had two, often widely separated from one another It looked as if separate brood agglomerations were located near each entrance However the two clusters of brood were not exactly by the entrances, but on both sides of the hive. i

A lop-bar with comb containing ripe

Entrance position Remember that the natural tendency of bees is to keep the brood nest near the entrance, and the honey above or to the sides of the brood. It is therefore not recommended to make the entrance at the top of the hive near the roof. This stimulates swarming The entrance should be near the floor of the hive It is not recommended to make two entrances near both sides of the long wall of the hive (as illustrated in Beekeeping and Development 1991, No 19, page 4, Figure 1} Professor Wouke is Head of the Bee Culture Division at the Photographs

Agricultural University in Warsaw








PROJECT EXPERIENCES by Ange lo Isola vag

the plan must be modified to suit the field conditions. When we started traditional hives were already in position to be populated by natural swarms We were too late to introduce top-bar hives and besides, no local beekeeper was interested in adopting a new and expensive model But most people were interested in the Project if it meant they could get a better price for their honey We therefore decided to first improve the quality of honey produced by traditional beekeepers to help them get a better price and to gain their confidence

Centres Asingle honey collecting centre could clearly not

receive honey from the whole sector because of |} serious transport problems 2) the management of such a big structure would be impossible (lack of trained people. etc) and 3) the premises were not

available We helped





Potuiee datevested

Angelo Isola worked in Guinea-Bissau from January 1990 to January 1991 on a beekeeping development project

funded by


In this article he adds

his experiences to the debate on the


Utese Craditronadl


Guinea-Bissau 1s one of the poorest African countries Beekeeping and honey hunting are practised all over the country, but particularly in the Eastern Province, where there is very good natural potential Yearly honey production is estimated to be 800-1000 tonnes Reliable statistics are not available, but the Ministry of Commerce supplied data showing that during the 1960s and 1970s many tonnes of beeswax were exported Beeswax exports have now declined considerably this may be because of difficulties caused by strict control on commercial transactions

benefits and problems of beekeeping

development projects.

Objectives The objectives of the Project {in Pitche, Eastern Province} were to set up a honey collecting centre, establish a demonstration apiary, introduce top-bar hives, conduct experiments with frame hives. install a workshop for hive construction, train the technicians of the Beekeeping Department, and train the farmers And all within [2 months! Every beekeeper knows that honey production is the result of two different factors the bees. who produce the honey, and the beekeeper who collects it Generally the bees do a very good job, more often the beekeeper spoils the quality of the product due to poor techniques This happens the world over and in Guinea-Bissau as well!




Keeping in mind this “division of labour’, the Project decided to improve extraction techniques This seemed a short-term, easy-to-reach objective By contrast the improvement of colony management in Guinea-Bissau. as in the whole of Africa, is a long-term and difficult-to-reach objective


Beeswax exports from Guinea-Bissau




Tonnes 1961












No action of beekeeping development may succeed unless accompanied by positive marketing actions The basis for any marketing action is a good quality product The first step is to supply good quality honey which retains its properties and value





without fermenting





























Improvement in product quality is particularly necessary in Guinea-Bissau where honey is extracted traditionally by pouring hot water on the combs, you cannot bottle and market honey if your product is a dirty, sugar-water solution which quickly ferments

Activities Activities started with the arrival of the imported beekeeping equipment A rapid survey of the Project area and visits to 40 villages showed us that



Our Project set up 14 village centres in order to decentralise activities and encourage Involvement Each centre was equipped with a tropical honey extractor, a honey press, honey filters, storage tanks and small buckets The five biggest centres also had solar wax extractors

The activities of each centre were monitored by a Project extension worker who trained one or two villagers to use the equipment, check and buy incoming honey. Most honey was extracted by a press because the combs were too small to be put in the extractor Letting honeycombs drip on a wire mesh gave good results the system is slow but dripping honey is pure and clean Storage tanks to leave honey to ripen were essential Honey should be left to settle for a few days to remove the particles which are inevitably present even after a first straining The only problems we had related to the organisation and timing of activities sometimes we had no incoming honey, the next day we were brought 400 kg So it was tricky to make the work flow easily, especially because pressing honey or letting it drip are slow techniques, which cannot cope with several hurried beekeepers A wellorganised centre could extract up to 350 kg of honey a day Improved extracting techniques resulted in improved product quality which in turn led to increased prices for honey and beeswax The Project organised the marketing of all the collecting centres’ honey and beeswax by signing an agreement with the most important local honey buyer

At the end of the honey campaign. in June 1990, the 14 centres had collected a total of 25 tonnes of honey and 5 tonnes of beeswax The beekeepers received 1500PG (SO 6) per kilo for extracted haney and 4000PG ($1 6) per kilo for beeswax {Compare with 1989 prices honey 550PG ($0 2) per kilo, and traditionally extracted beeswax 1500PG (SO 6} per kilo ) |

25 tonnes of pure quality honey, (with no water added!), is a good result, especially considering that the Project started just a few weeks before the honey season, when many beekeepers were already engaged with other honey merchants and could not bring their production to our centre

Importance of village centres Very often development projects invest much of their funds in constructing premises, workshops, or buying sophisticated equipment which Is not useful Most of these expenses are for the “prestige” of the project or for (tolerated) unofficial use


This was true for our Project too. There was no technical reason for setting up a major collecting centre in Pitche or to build a well-equipped workshop to construct the few dozen hives needed over the year.

We were warned that we could not collect much honey because farmers would not trust us, “You know the farmers are traditionals, they are primitive, they don’t understand”

Actually farmers are quite right not to trust Government-sponsored projects. farmers everywhere have experience of promises which are not kept, and “development” projects from whose benefits they are excluded In our Project, participation was easy because farmers felt the village centre was their “own”

Small is beautiful The bigger the structure Is, the more farmers feel excluded by a “development” project even if, in theory, it is for their benefit

A village centre can be run by a farmer briefly trained in the use of an extractor and other equipment - a major centre would need several people working and more complicated administration

Price The Project had no revolving fund and so we were not able to buy honey in the short term and resell it over a longer period Of course no farmer was willing to give any honey without down payment In Guinea-Bissau beekeepers are often paid in advance for their honey: this means that the merchant can fix any price because the farmer has no contractural power Honey is collected at the end of the dry season when farmers are running out of food supplies and so must accept any price imposed by the buyer There are other factors which put the farmer in a weak position concering honey price the extreme dispersion of the producers - beekeepers each have their own different agreement with the buyer; the absolute lack of tanks for honey storage - generally the buyer supplies tanks, fermentation - apart from storage problems, beekeepers realise that they cannot keep their honey long because of likely fermentation during the rainy season By signing an agreement with the major local honey buyer the Project could solve, at least for the first honey campaign, the problem of marketing all the production of the centres The buyer paid, through the Project, 1500 PG/kg which was three times the previous year’s price This important increase was possible because. e

the Project could supply pure honey with no water added


the deal was directly between the producer and the end-user, without middlemen


processing was concentrated in the centres and so honey collection was easier for the buyer




A wooden hive represented a financial investment which was too high for the beekeeper on average a wooden top-bar hive costs 30 times more than a traditional hive and will not produce 30 times more honey No beekeepers in the world would change to different hives if they cust 30 times the price of the ones they use currently

Tanks and buckets are a major problem. We had 300 ke drum and 25 ke buckets which rusted in a short period, mostly because in the villages it is difficult to have them rinsed and dried. Of course the buckets intended for honey are used for other purposes Plastic buckets are a possible solution One of the major problems often underestimated for beekeeping development is the non-availability of containers for honey For the solar wax extractor we used plastic film because glass was too expensive The film (also used in glass houses) works well, is unbreakable and is cheap.


The onlitcaie







fe dtave

Pune fekerneds

At the beginning of the Project all the equipment was imported The tropical extractor is the only piece of equipment which could not be constructed in Guinea-Bissau, because of non-availability of stainless steel By the end of the Project all other equipment was rade locally It will take years before beekeepers observe a significant increase in production with top-bar hives This is because nobady yet knows how to manage a colony for maximum production: even with top-bar hives farmers think of themselves more as “honey hunters” than as “beekeepers”

We proposed that PrePeepers contract Here out Lap bar fives ceven stage (ne sanie Bratenal ds the traditional Hives

Results The Project had a good impact on iocal beekeepers because our activities resulted in marked increase in honey price a

Unluckily our assistance was interrupted in January 1991 just when we were preparing the next honey campaign Even if the life of the Project was very short and good first year results were not consolidated during a second honey season, think our experience has shown positive aspects worth considering for other projects I

Almost all our honey was used to distill an alcoholic beverage, “cana” This was not in the Project objectives and did not like to see a good quality foodstuff being used to produce alcohol, but in Guinea-Bissau 99% of the honey is marketed for alcohol production and the Project could not modify the entire marketing structure |

The main objectives of the Project were to improve the quality of the product, which we did, and to increase the revenues of the farmers, which we did also

Local comstrachian telp. ta credte vilaae work



huves and the new stule top-bar hive: The titreduction of lap-Bar fives ts ecessary Because we cannol ticrease focal production bu traditional


Buyers supplied the tanks (reasonably clean petrol drums) for storage and transport, and most Important, supplied cash and rice in downpayment Actually most beekeepers wanted to be paid in rice (1 5 kg of rice per kilogram of honey); barter is an important feature of rural economy, moreover they had the possibility through the Project to have rice delivered to their own village. without having to go to the main weekly market

Equipment Wooden hives are very expensive in Guinea-Bissau When constructing wooden top-bar hives we faced two problems first of all the availability of seasoned wood, which regardless of price is almost impossible to find, second to find a trained and reliable carpenter FIVE





BELIZE Asix week review of beekeeping

in Belize in 1990

concluded: |.

Beekeeping is in a state of decline throughout the nation and this was especially evident during 1988 and 1989.


The primary cause for the decline is the presence and continual expansion of the Africanized honey bee, a tropical honey bee biotype that is replacing the European honey bees.


The claim that beekeeping is being damaged by the aerial application of glyphosate (Roundup*) used in a marijuana eradication programme is unsubstantiated, both by previous studies on the toxicity of glyphosate to honey bees and by the results of field trials conducted by the Review Team.


Astrategy for the rehabilitation of the Belizean beekeeping industry is proposed


Review of the Belizean Honey Bee Industry, at the

request of the Belize Honey Producers Federation, Orange Walk, Belize, prepared by Michael Burgett and Glenn

Fisher, Consultants for Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance, Washington DC.





that the Lebanese bees wait for on the entrance and then encircle and kill.

The Lebanese bee is of the same character as the Lebanese people, after all is it not the daughter of this land? You are gentle to it, its response is gentle. But if you are nasty. it is more aggressive. have always worked my colonies without gloves and sometimes without veil too. My secret is love. You must open the hive of the Lebanese bee with all the affection it deserves and then, even if it falls under your finger. it prefers ta die rather than sting you |

Isn't it one of the best races of bees in the world?

NEEDING HELP? IBRA’s Advisory Service to Developing Countries exists to help beekeepers who need information that cannot be obtained locally. Please make your enquiry as specific as possible, and address it to Nicola Bradbear.

The Inter-American Development Bank has allocated $500,000 from the Fund for Special Operations for a credit and training programme to benefit small-scale farmers. The programme will be carried out by the Centro Agricola Cantonal de Hojancha (CACH}. a private, non-profit organisation in the province of Guanacaste.


The IDB, May 199]



Leaflet 2 The management of Africanized bees.

We had a sad experience in the mountain of Dahr el Baidar where we transported twenty colonies (10 Lebanese and 10 Italian}. The flowers faded suddenly, the Italian colonies continued eating as if nothing happened, meanwhile the Lebanese stopped eating waiting for a change in circumstances. So we found all the Italian colonies dead with their heads pushed in the empty honey cells. while none were dead in the

Lebanese colonies.


Apis cerana An eight page leaflet describing the biology and distribution of Apis cerana together with methods for the prevention of absconding.

Rashid Yazbek, President of the Beekeepers’ Union, Lebanon


The following information Leaflets are still available free of charge to beekeepers in developing countries who cannot otherwise afford to pay. Everyone else 2.00 per Leaflet:

A four page leaflet available in English or Spanish. Leaflet 3 - Varroa jacobsoni A four page leaflet describing Varroa jacobsoni, its biology, how to detect it and methods of control. Leaflet 4 - The Asian hive bee


The programme will provide credits for activities including beekeeping. In all the programme will benefit some 200 low-income people, approximately halfofwhom will be women.






At the end of the winter the Lebanese bees go out under the rain to collect pollen and nectar for the brood established in 15 or 18 frames. We noticed that with astimulant feed we could push the queen to enlarge the brood nest in autumn which is impossible with Italian bees even with continuous feeding Another quality of the Lebanese bee is resistance to diseases. While the Italian bees weaken from foulbrood, nearby Lebanese colonies remain healthy. We have to add that the Lebanese colony is ferocious in defending its hive against predators and invaders while the Italian bees let any intruder enter their hive even if it steals all their property. This also applies to wasps and hornets


US Ambassador signs grant for research on Himalayan honey bees (Kathmandu. 17 June 1991) The US Ambassador to Nepal. Julia Chang Bloch signed a grant for $148.46] for the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). The grant will support study of the Himalayan honey bee, Apis cerana. The grant. supplemented by major contributions from ICIMOD and the US Department of Agriculture, is the first USAID collaboration with other donor agencies under USAID's “Program in Science and Technology

Cooperation” (PSTC) The project “Exploration of genetic diversity in Himalayan honey bees, Apis cerana”. is one of 45 projects selected from 1000 proposals submitted. Scientists from over 70 developing countries competed for the grants

This project is the first to be conducted at a regional level with the co-operation of Bhutan, India. Nepal and Pakistan. The atm is to conserve Apis cerana through the development and promotion of beekeeping. The project scientists will study the genetic diversity of native bees through modern computer technology and genetic engineering techniques as well as the behaviour of the bees, with the overall goal of using the bees to enhance the production of agricultural crops. The project will also establish a permanent genetic bank of this species at ICIMOD as a valuable resource for the future.

Although much research has been done on European bees, the application of European honey bee management practices to Himalayan honey bees has failed. This study will provide information on local bee behavioural traits that




Lares is one of the best places to establish colonies because it is the main agricultural town and bees have plenty of flowers. A single storey colony can produce 55 litres of honey and about 4.5 kg of wax per year (three seasons}. But average yields are 36 litres of honey and 3.6 kg of wax per


SToP woRK Now!


“THE WORLD will help to improve bee management and honey production.

comments at the signing ceremony today, Ambassador Bloch commended Dr L R Verma and the Nepalese scientists for their success competing for the PSTC grant. She emphasized the importance of scientific research to Nepal and its potential benefits for Nepal's development. In her

Concerning the profits, a litre sells wholesale for about $2.10. The retail price (sold in bottles) is about $3.30 per litre. A kilogram of wax sells for $2.00 and is usually exported to Kentucky. The average profit for a colony will be $90.00 a year. Justo Mendez explains that beekeeping in Puerto Rico has a tropical blessing: 12 months of the year are covered with flowers. Puerto Rico is an archipelago and is free of honey bee diseases.


Puerto Rican beekeepers do not produce royal jelly and propolis is thrown away as garbage.


Source: Lewis Manuel Medina

ZAIRE Beekeeping in the rain-forest

NICARAGUA exribare; de Mleanagua


Little is known about honey bees in the central part of Zaire. It was therefore interesting to join a Baptist scout-group from Sweden to carry out a one-month feasibility study for the possible introduction of beekeeping in the Bandundu area. was accompanied by a group of 10 people. including the scouts, two leaders and an interpreter. The group took part in all the research work and the formulation of a project proposal for the Baptist Community of Bandundu.



Apinaticias de Nicaragua:

organo de difusion apicola, a

bulletin all about bees, beekeeping and honey. Available in Spanish from: Programa Nacional de Apicultural, Apartado Postal 2556, Managua, Nicaragua. The Network, Val IV, Issue 2, April-June 1991

PHILIPPINES Bee programme of the University of the Philippines at Los Banos The UPLB programme aims to promote beekeeping, to provide support to new beekeepers and to monitor the qualit of bee products, especially honey. The first issue of their Newsletter includes letters. news, details of the bee programme and research abstracts. For further information please contact: Dr PC Pyawal. Institute of Biological Science, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College

Laguna, Philippines.

PUERTO RICO Tito Nieves and Lewis Manuel Medina chose Lares’ Public Library as the meeting place to find out how much money a person needs to start a honey bee operation in Puerto Rico. Considering that we work with the lowest priced materials and that we think of 10 colonies as minimum to begin with, the total investment comes to $605. The Government will pay a subsidy of $303. Practically all the materials are available locally, but are of course imported. The USA is the major supplier of tools and other materials while Spain and Latin American nations are suppliers of books and magazines {because they are printed in Spanish). a



We found only rudimentary knowledge about bees and honey amongst people having contact with, or originating from the pygmoid groups living in the rain-forest. Such reports indicated a tradition of felling both small and large trees for reaching wild honey bee colonies with fire and smoke or using a mass of cassava leaves to subdue the bees. This could be called opportunistic honey hunting. The honey was eaten on the spot and the wax was not used.

The study included a count of wild colonies of bees near villages, floral studies and some experiments with beeswax and honey. Wild colonies were available everywhere except in villages and the flora was very suitable for honey production. The population were extremely afraid of bees but still interested in our experiments. The project proposal suggests a second experimental phase covering two years, two parishes and about 300 families. A beekeeping volunteer wil! be responsible for experimenting with improved methods of honey hunting. purchase, treatment and marketing of beeswax and beeswax products such as wax candles. medicinal ointments and batik. Both men and women will be organised in development groups in the villages and simple hives for permanent beekeeping with appropriate technology will be demonstrated. A third phase will expand the project to a greater number of participants. The estimated cost for phase two is $58,400. The project will be financed by the scout-group in Motala with assistance from Swedish aid (SIDA). Source: Bérje Svensson. Honungsbin i norra Bandundu, Zaire (Des abeilles melliferes au Bandundu du nord, Zaire).

[, :













MS Swaminathan, Professor President of IBRA, speaking as outgoing President of the World


Conservation Union.

Sala/Motala 1990. Full paper presented at Scandinavian Seminar on Tropical Bees, Bornholm, 20-21 October 1990.


Unless the penguin and the poor evoke from us equal concern, conservation will be a lost Cause. There can be no common future without a better common present. Development which is not equitable is not sustainable in the longterm. 99











ASIAN APICULTURAL ASSOCIATION The Membership fee for AAA is $20 per year which includes four issues of Beekeeping and Development with additional supplements published by AAA.

AAA will present information on Asian beekeeping


and honey bee science in Beekeeping and Development, and release more personal or local information in the supplements

People in the countries listed below where there are AAA Chapters please send $20 or equivalent to the Chapter. People living outside these countries send $20 directly to the Administrative Office through one of these channels

Post giro: Tokyo 8-552675. Asian Apicultural Association

Bank account: 228-065! 192 Asian Apicultural Association. Mitsubishi Bank, Machida Branch. Coupon responsé: Send 30 coupon-responsé international to the Institute of Honeybee Science

Administrative office: AAA, Institute of Honeybee Science, Tamagawa University, Machida-Shi, Tokyo 194, Japan Readers in Asia are welcome to recruit people and form new Chapters of AAA in their own countries

Ocim® Chapters of Country


have now been established in the following countries:


Chinese Apicultural Association. Xiangshan, Beijing

China India


The Director Dr Vinod K Mattu

DrC C Reddy

Central Bee Research Institute, Khadi & Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 016 Department of Bio-Sciences. Himachal Pradesh University. Shimia 171 005 Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, |naha Bharati. Bangalore 560 056


Ms S Hadisoesilo

PO Box 4/BKN Bangkinang 28401. Riau. Sumatra


Dr Kun-Suk Woo

Institute of Korea Beekeeping Science. College of Agriculture, Seou! National University, Suwon 440 744 Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 635

Dr Hyonge-Gyun Park




Mr Krishna K Shrestha

Beekeeping Training & Extension Support Project. Godawari Kathmandu


Dr Rafiq Ahmad

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, PO NIH, Islamabad


Dr Cleofas R Cervancia

Department of Entomology. College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna

Sri Lanka

Mr R W K Punchihewa

Agricultural Research Station, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP)


Dr F K Hseih

Taiwan Apicultural and Serciultural Experiment Station. 261 Kuan-nan, Kung-Kuan, Miaoli


Dr Sirtwat Wongsiri

BBRU, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University. Bangkok 10330


Mr Pham Van Lap

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Hanoi, Hanoi



Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University Pertanian, 43400 Serdang. Selangor

LIGHT TRAPS KILL HONEY BEES Light traps are used commonly in coconut plantations to trap insect pests of cocoanut. Our studies used a conventional light trap, set at 1.5 mheight with a 100 W bulb for a period of six months from July to December in a coconut plantation. We found that rather than the Coleopteran pests of palms for which the traps are intended, the traps caught beneficial bio-control agents like parasitoids. and pollinating and productive insects like honey bees. The major pollinator and productive insect in South India, the Indian honey bee Apis cerana was found trapped to a great extent, with up to 90 worker bees trapped in one night

Since light traps in the coconut plantation did not attract the major insect pests of coconut but did trap honey bees and other bio-control agents of Lepidopteran pests, the setting of light traps in coconut plantations should be discouraged. it is important to note that the presence of honey bee colonies in coconut plantations increases female flower (button) setting and ultimately the coconut yields.



S Sadakathulla and


K Ramachandran, Coconut Research

Station, Tamil Nadu


G D Naidu Agricultural University


Beekeeping & Development 20



Caribbean Sea



Size 5



128 km?(1 980 square miles)

Population GNP




$3375 per capita (Agriculture accounts for 5% of


spe: Mo =

Main agriculture Bananas, citrus fruits, cocoa, coffee, rice, sugar

Honey bees

is 3


@San Fernando



Apis mellifera of European origin were introduced

to Trinidad sometime during the last three centuries, and to Tobago as recently as 1933. Africanized honey bees arrived in Trinidad in June 1979 having flown under their own steam from Venezuela. The nearest point of Trinidad is only 15 km from Venezuela.


Beekeeping association

unclear whether Africanized bees are present in Tobago: a recent beekeeper visitor to Tobago stated that bees there definitely do not show Africanized behaviour. Tobago is 50 km from Trinidad.

Trinidad & Tobago Beekeepers’ Association, Ministry of Food Production, Harris Street, Curepe. Trinidad



When Africanized bees first arrived in Trinidad, the Government attempted to destroy all Africanized colonies. In the ten year period 1979-1989 36,630 colonies were destroyed. However this is not sustainable in the long-term and beekeepers have gradually become accustomed to managing the bees. As always after Africanized bees arrive, the number of beekeepers declined and then began to increase again

Honey bee pests

It is

Frame hive beekeeping is used. Most of the hives (Langstroth} and related equipment are made

locally. Traditional fixed-comb hives are prohibited by law. Beekeepers and apiaries must be registered in accordance with the 1980 Beekeeping and Bee Product Act.

Melliferous vegetation The climate allows lush vegetation with abundant forage for bees available throughout the year Trees important for bees include Teclona grandis (teak), Swietenia mahogani (mahogany), Andira inermis (angelin), Cordia alliodora (cypress), Haemotoxylon campechianum (log wood) Samanea saman (rain tree), Erylhrina micropteryx (immortelle) Fruit trees providing forage include avocado, cashew, citrus, coconut, coffee, guava and mango. Herbaceous plants are also important forage sources.

Number of beekeepers 460 Number of Apis mellifera colonies in hives Around 5000. Beekeeping and Development recipients

Honey bee diseases

Bacchacs - the local name for ants which are a problem for bee colonies. Local beekeepers have developed techniques to protect colonies from their attack.

Honey Total annual production is around 60 tonnes. Importation has been banned by law since 1935, and the demand for local honey is therefore high. The standard container for the sale of honey is the rum bottle and one of these sells for about T&ETS29 (USS7.6 per kilogram). It is easily possible to obtain a honey yield of 80 kg/colony/year, but the average yield 1s probably less than this.

Beekeeping department Apiaries Unit, Ministry of Food Production, Harris Street, Curepe, Trinidad.

a chance to meet

Gladstone and Tobago bees at

IBRA’s Fifth liternational Conference

an Apicullure

in Tropical Climates. in Trinidad and Tebage



Stingless bees


Stingless bees are present on both islands and are kept in traditional hives, and wild nests are also



Previous articles Beekeeping and Development 18 sheets in beekeeping.

News Around the World

Newsletter 16

Newsletter 15 Newsletter 6






\ my

Using newsprint





News Around the World


News Around the World

News Around the World

Further reading Hallim, M K (1989) 1988 Honey Industry in Trinidad and Tobago. In Proceedings of the Fourth 1

International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Cairo, Egypt, 1988 509-510. .


Gladstone Soloman, a beekeeper in Tobago. demonstrates the friendliness of the bees You will have

D M (1989) Beekeeping in Trinidad. American Bee Journal 129(9}: 589-590.


The assistance of Michael Duggan and The High Commission for The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, London in providing this information is gratefully acknowledged. Requests or suggestions for future “Zoomings’ are welcome.








Inthe remote North Western Province of Zambia 4 great plateau covered by forest Here the scattered villages are isolated clearings in the bush which stretches like a dark green ocean to the harizon tt is a region hardly touched by modern ‘devclopment” where peuple live much as they always have done - by hunting. fishing and hes


Ye Peete




Pande Peadtie



Certain tribes have spectalised in beekeeping and use techniques that enable them to harvest honey and beeswax in harmony with the bees and the forest ft is remarkable that while African bees are venerally feared tor their stings, traditional beekeepers do not need protective clothing because they know the laws by which bees recognise friend or foe

great excitement as one by one beekeepers weigh their buckets and are pald They can now buy essential commodities from the marketing team

Beekeeping 1s not just an income source, It is d way Of life [tis hard work and needs enterprise and initiative but it is a lifestyle which 1s rewarding on many levels

How are beekeepers organised? The Company tries to reach every group of beekeepers no matter how remote they are and the Companys vehn des travel toy 300 isolated Villages scattered one 75 000 bra

is the traditional beekeepers. together with their District Councils who have formed the North Western Bee Products Company to market their honey and wax throughout Zambia and abroad This has encouraged beekeepers to Increase production so they can purchase essential items like salt soap and blankets lt


PRODUCTION disappointing year for honey production but beeswax production topped 53 tonnes This is an excellent result tne best for 37 years! The records show that only in 1954, 1951 1946 and 1945 was wax production higher The bumper wax harvest had several causes The producer price for Wax has become very attractive, especially ina year when bees gathered little honey Some group chairmen reported that beekeepers were cropping the combs left behind in hives abandoned as the colonies migrated ta better bee 1990 was a

pastures The man responsible tor this achievement 15 Bob Malichi, the manager of North Western Bee Products It 1s through his policies of working with the beekeepers to arrive at fair prices that the people have been motivated to go Gul and produce more This result also shows that bark hive beekeeping is a sustainable use of the forest resources which has been maintained at present levels for most of this century Forest Honey News, lune 1991

Coie TEN



also proce sed dl tte Haste fe tory

Traditional beekeeping Beekeepers start Jearning at an early age when they travel with their grandfathers far into the bush to help with hive making Hives are placed deep in the forest many miles from the villages Hives made of the bark of particular trees are suspended high in branches to avoid army ants and honey badgers Each beekeeper usually owns about 100 hives but some own over 2000! During the flowering season swarms of bees arrive to occupy the hives After a couple of years the hives are ready to be cropped Beekeepers and their helpers set up a bush camp where they stay fora few months, gathering the honey and hunting The evenings are spent around the camp fire, drinking honey beer and telling stories

Harvested honey 1s transported many miles back to the village usually by bicycle along narrow torests paths In the villages wax 1s separated from honey using simple press machines provided on loan by the Company The honey is packed in plastic buckets ready for sale and the wax ts purified by melting in boiling water and straining through a cloth When the village beekeeping group chairman sees that most of the honey 1s ready he sends a messenger to the Company office in Kabompo to find out when a lorry can be sent to collect the honey On marketing day all the beekeepers gather at the chatrmans house with ther buckets of honey and cakes of wax There is

Processata wa utd villdde kitchen

this way the Company allows many more people to participate in beekeeping As it 1s one of the anly sources of cash Income in this part of Zambia, this makes a real difference in bringing commodities to the villages The Beekeepers Association fover 4000 Members| holds 50° of the shares in the Company In order to stimulate management mitiative and ensure growth the Company operates independently and profitably This strategy has proved successful - production has continued to expand This 1s a remarkable achievement given the difficult economic condihions which Zambia faces as a “Frontline State” In

In Zambia today the economic situation is so bad that it 1s very difficult to buy even the simplest imported item Essential household items are only available at prices out of reach of the ordinary Zambian, outside cities they are not dvallable at all This alse brings problems for companies as many materials and services are

Reprocessed Wa al He honey factory reddy for sale





bE bth





bark ince

nat avatlable North Western Bee Products needs to export a proportion of their honey and wax so that they can import spare parts tor their vehicles

=STERN BEE PRODUCTS l¥ ASSISTS ANGOLANS The United Nations Development Programme Is providing S700 000 to North West sm Bee Products to enable J

Export The Company's honey 1s now being exported to Europe 54 tonnes in the last year Attractive labels are used in the UK to encourage and inform potential customers Their purchases will help te safeguard the surival of Zambian forests


Honey buyers help preserve forests Every jar of honey sold makes a contribution to the beekeepers’ family, to the survival of their was of life and the preservation of the forest on which North Western Bee Products aims they depend to strenethen village economies which have developed over centuries using materials harvested sustainably from the forest Beekeepers have been producing large quantities of wax from these forests for at least 200 years Wax was sold to Portuguese traders who established trade routes leading from the coast thousands of miles Into the interior The traders paid good prices tor the wax and were able to purchase large amounts - similar quantities to those produced today This proves that beekeepers operalions are sustainable over long periods of time For forests to be preserved it is essential that local people benefit from them by obtaining economic harvests They do not want to stay in a reserve stuck with a way of life belonging to another century they want to combine traditional village

ais tha othe







Pt aes

Beebe ber

eb hes



life with some of the benefits of modern technology This can happen if their forest products are given appropriate value in the West By bringing these products to the European market and explaming the unique features of the products lo customers the value to village beekeepers 15 greatly increased The utformation ur this article was provided by David Wautwright of Tropical Forest Products Lid This Company was setup ut October 1990 to enable the village people of tropical forests ta find a market for (heir nea-tunber products ut the Wes!

Peaple escaping trom the conflict in Angola have settled in areas such as Mwinilunga and Zambezi These peaple arrive with only the few possessions they can carry One of the few productive activities they can carry out is bark hive beekeeping as this needs no cash investment Many of these people already have experience and traditional knowledge of beekeeping

UNDP ts providing estra equipment vehicles and buildings These will enable North Western Bee Products to reach even the remote border areas with four wheel drive vehicles The buying teams will have enough ‘essential commodities’ to supply the beekeepers UNDP will also be constructing a new depot in Mwinitunga where honey and wax can be processed and stored ready for dispatch to the city.

al aS

Tras homey gathered S PreOuUL anes Out er wth Wettig wt





tee tat


ad akera

her per chaps Ihe

pax p(y>a Pas

tib 4549


into areas where peuple from Angola have settled



This honey is gathered frony,| witd bees in tropical forests -.;; Produce ot Zambia

this product you support the Zambian beekeepers’ own company, NWBP Ltd in their traditionat use of the forest The survival of the forests


These labels are bee used to help sell the Zambian forest honey in the UK. It seems that UK honeyeaters are happy to support forest beekeepers by buying their honey One retailer ordered supplies they thought would last for six months - they sold out in two weeks!

The Kavindama brothers again shared the coveted Beekeeper of the Year title with sales of 1112 kg of honey and 142 kg of wax in one season They taced stiff competition from 6000 other contenders but reached the top through hard work, good organisation and a measure of luck Next year they will be up against a fierce challenge from the hardened professionals of Mwinilunga who were hamstrung tn 1990 by bad weather Forest Honey News, lune 1991






Honey hunters and beekeepers. A study of traditional beekeeping in Babati District, Tanzania

Honey bee pathology by L Bailey and B

V Ball

Academic Press, London, UK (1991 second edition) 193 pp, hardback.

Available from [BRA price 27.00.



M Ntenga and B T Mugongo

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Working Paper 161, Uppsala, Sweden (1991).

This is an in-depth study of traditional beekeeping practises within one district of Tanzania. It is extremely interesting. The authors deserve credit for the amount of information they have documented on traditional beekeeping practises and the importance of honey within this society: “A person suspecting another of theft or any other crime, summons the elders who proceed to a termite mound. A small trench is dug across the termite hill and the accuser and the suspect sit opposite each other with the trench between them. Honey is brought in a calabash and the suspect is asked by the elders to eat it first, saying ‘Leat this honey knowing that the accusation is false, but if it was true should not take long before dying’. The elders then ask him to cross over to the other side of the trench. Then the complainant is asked to eat the honey, saying ‘I eat this honey because my accusation is true, if it was false, this honey should not take me far, it should not take long before die’. He then crosses the trench to the other side. If the accusation is true then the suspect will soon die: if it is false the complainant will die”. The report suggests short and long-term measures to help beekeepers develop their activities. Some improvements are simple to implement, for example, honeycomb is currently carried home in wooden troughs or wide brimmed gourds: these could be improved by fitting covers to keep out bees and dust. Honey is stored in calabashes which are sealed with cow-dung and ashes: airtight stoppers made of wood would be better. Traditional beekeepers would benefit by the provision of efficient smokers, which could be manufactured locally. A strategy for effective extension assistance is recommended.

The ten years since the publication of the first edition have seen global change in the distribution of honey bee diseases and parasites and much advance in our knowledge of them. This text is for those who need to know the scientific basis of these diseases. For example the biology of Varroa jacobsoni, and the secondary diseases which result from its presence, are covered in detail. Methods for the treatment of Varroa infested colonies are reviewed relatively briefly. Both authors have particular expertise in the field of bee viruses and this is reflected in the text: the chapter on viruses contains considerable detailed and current information. The second edition is attractively presented. using a more easily-read style than the first. Amidst the science there is much good advice and warning to the beekeeping world: the common wish of beekeepers to import bees that are alleged to be superior to their own is easily gratified with the aid of modern transport, but little heed has been paid to the dangers of introducing exotic diseases or unusual strains of pathogens, especially of viruses, which are not easily diagnosed. For these reasons more attention needs to be paid than in the past to the prevention and suppression of diseases. The difficulties to be overcome may be great, but so is the room for improvement”.



This report is an excellent example of a wellwritten field study together with logical and feasible suggestions for further assisting the beekeepers. It is full of helpful illustrations which add much interest.

The study formed one of a series of Community Forestry Studies, part of the Tanzanian Forests, Trees and People Project, financed by SIDA, and implemented by FAO and SUAS. Published by Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, [RDC. Box 7005, S-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. TWELVE

Beekeeping in Malaysia: pollen atlas by R Kiew and M Muid Malaysian Beekeeping Research and Development Team, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (1991) 186 pp. Available from IBRA price 6.00. was very pleased to see this book. It contains information which will be of great help to beekeepers and researchers in Malaysia and other countries sharing similar tropical flora. |

The Atlas describes 95 plant species widely used by Apis cerana in Malaysia. Many of the plant species are common throughout the tropics. For each there is a picture of the whole plant, the flower, and a picture of a pollen grain as it appears using the most widely available method of examination. This is accompanied by a description of pollen colour and size, the plant’s occurrence, importance for beekeeping, pollination requirement and any other relevant information.

This type of publication assists beekeeping industry in many ways. it allows the marketing of honey to become more sophisticated: the floral source(s) of locally produced honeys can be stated, and imported or adulterated honey can also be detected. Knowledge of floral sources used by bees helps beekeepers very much - they can now manage colonies to ensure maximum numbers of foraging bees at times when major sources are in flower. An understanding of plants a


valuable to bees also helps those selecting species for agroforestry programmes, and such a publication emphasises the importance of this consideration

This text reflects the considerable development in beekeeping which has been taking place in Malaysia in recent years The Malaysian Beekeeping Research and Development Team are dynamic!

Beekeeping in Africa by

S Adjare

FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 68/6, Rome, italy (1990) 130 pp. Available from IBRA price 4.00

This is

a practical guide and will provide much useful information for anyone starting beekeeping in Africa Mr Adjare has long experience of working with bees in Ghana and this is revealed tn his clear and helpful descriptions of handling bees. capturing swarms and managing colonies The book provides enough information to help a beginner who has access to enough materials to build a top-bar hive, stock it with bees and manage it. The beekeeping which Mr Adjare describes is certainly Africa, but the emphasis is on Ghanaian beekeeping The title of the book is mis-leading a more apt title would be “A guide to beginning beekeeping tn Ghana” (a comprehensive text describing beekeeping in Africa would certainly be an extensive volume). This text could have helped the reader more by providing lists of further reading and opportunities for training. An index would also have been useful On the plus side, the book is easily readable, and is very good value.

The “African” honey bee edited by M Spivak, D M D Breed


C Fletcher and

Westview Press, Oxford, UK (1991) 435 pp, hardback.

Available from IBRA price 26


Another book with a possibly misleading title: those quotation marks are crucial! It is in fact a comprehensive review of current knowledge of Africanized honey bees (descendents of the African honey bees taken into South America in 1956). In the introduction the authors briefly address the main questions surrounding these bees: what are they, where did they come from, are they hybrids? The editors do not just tell us what is known but explain that opinions vary and some questions have no clear answer The book is divided into five major parts Within each part are chapters by scientists writing about their own research fields and the editors have allowed a diversity of views to be presented. Part covers identification and characterisation of Africanized honey bees. Part 2 reviews the spread of Africanized bees and what happens as they displace existing European subspecies - this is “Africanization” Part 3 deals with the biology, ecology and diseases of these bees - much useful insight here too for scientists interested in tropical bees elsewhere Part 4 discusses defensive behaviour - what it is and the genetics of this trait Part 5 describes the history of Africanized bees’ arrival in Brazil (1956), Peru (1974) and Venezuela (1975) The history of the bees’ arrival in Costa Rica is described within Part 2. 1






Although at 26.00 it ts still expensive, this book presents up to the minute information which is not available elsewhere and represents good value compared with other currently available texts.

Beekeeping study notes by


D and B



Bee Books New and Old, Burrowbridge,

UK (1991 2nd

edition) 174 pp

Available from IBRA




The British Beekeepers’ Association organises a range of basic and intermediate examinations This book provides concise facts written in note, form on each of the 90 topics covered by the examinations. Naturally the information relates td British beekeeping and the lists of flowering plants, seasonal references, timetables and so on refer to conditions prevailing in the UK However the book is reviewed here because a proportion of its contents could be of value to students of beekeeping everywhere If, for example, you have heard beekeepers talk of ‘nucs’ and want to know what these are, this book - In eight pages - defines a nucleus. lists nine requirements for the box construction, describes two methods of filling it with bees, and summarises nine uses of nuclei and their management into productive colonies The clear and orderly way in which information is presented will quickly guide any student reader to the important points in matters concerning bee biology and natural history, and beekeeping in frame hives

Honey and Beeswax A survey

on the Netherlands and other major markets in

the European

Community CBI have published this 40-page booklet which gives useful advice regarding the European market, required product characteristics, trade structure, prices, tariff barriers, promotion and further sources of information It would be very helpful to any beekeeping co-operatives with sufficient quantities of honey and/or beeswax for export. It is available free of charge from CBI (see back page}

MAIL ORDER SERVICE Prices exclude post and packing. For UK orders

For overseas orders (surface mail)


Orders up to1000.




350 450 550 750

to 2000 2001











Orders upto1000.








01 to 50






00 00

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3.50 00 .6 00

Surface mail rates do not include insurance Orders over 100 00, or to be sent by air mail including insurance, prices on request {No insurance available to Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Nigeria }

IBRA cannot be held responsible for damage to. or loss of goods in-transit Please quote Beekeeping and Development when you order.

METHODS OF PAYMENT Cheques and bank drafts. In sterling or US dollars Bankers Midland Bank, 56 Queen Street, Cardiff. UK Account No 01326740

Girobank/Postgiro/cep. Account No, 291794408 Credit card. Access/Mastercard/Eurocard/Visa Please quote name on card, full address. type of card, card number, expiry date on card, and your signature for authorisation Don't forget


you can order fast by fax See our number on page








APPEAL Rodbee is an association of honey producers in the remote Rodrigues Island which is a dependency of Mauritius. Honey is produced from fixed-comb, traditional hives in wild areas, Most of our production is sald to intermediaries from the other islands of Reunion and Seychelies Following the recent passage of the devastating and terrifying cyclone “Bella”. the inembers of our organisation undertook a careful survey of all natural bee habitats It is sad and very regretful to state that there is nothing left. No hives, no bees and consequently no honey production lor the clear part of this year. So as to restart production we are hesitantly and with much reluctance forwarding this appeal letter for any form of grant aid or financial support. To date. we have received favourable support in terms of tools and materials from some benevolent societies and organisations. Please give us the names of aid agencies that can support us in this very critical period We need around $2000-2500 to fully satisfy this emergency requirement. Very urgently required are second-hand or reconditioned tools In particular we need chain saw (petrol powered} stone breaker (petrol powered) machetes (4} hammers (5] aluminium sheets - 160 m: for store roofing hurricane lamps (4) Please address ail donations to the Co-ordinator Thanking well in advance M Hurbunas, Rodbee Co-ordinator. loin Kennedy Street, Pamplemousses, Mauritius.

We have now adapted the system of honey hunting in tree holes by the provision of clay hives which are models of pot made trom clay and baked This pot hive is oval in shape with a lid at ane end which serves as the opening where one can harvest the honey, and a small entrance hole of 4 cm diameter at the other end for the bees. This is made from local materials to reduce cost and to teach farmers that resources around them can be put to good use in this system the hive is placed on a fork-shaped branch of a tree and secured with wire, strings or ropes The hive is left in position to serve as a permanent hive and not just a swarm catcher The inside is rubbed with beeswax or smeared with honey to trap any swarm that comes its way

Aduku K David, Peng Tamale, Ghana Beekeeping and Development should always have been the name of the Newsletter. BRAVO for its re-

baptising! Bumanga Umaru Mufti, Borne State, Nigeria. Beekeeping und Development is a real linkage agent which is playing a very useful role. It is alse both informative and educative to us, the beekeepers. hope that, in Uie foreseeable future, we will be able to pay for this priceless paper Beekeeping has been introduced in our Junior Secondary School as a cottage industry. It is our hope that beekeeping will help curb the ruralurban drift in our villages

O K Anno, Begoro Beekeepers Association, Gharta

Wanted Urgently.


Bee Research Officer to work on the project that looking for


IBRA is about to commence in co-

operation with the Government of Tanzania's Njiro Wildlife Research Centre in Arusha.

The post will be a varied one. It will include the design, construction and evaluation of top-bar hives. you have a diploma in Science or Agriculture and at least three years work experience, VSO would like to hear from you. Experience in bee hive design and management would be an advantage. For more details, please complete and return the coupon to: Enquiries Unit, VSO, 317 Putney If

Bridge Road, London SW15 2PN.

= Pay based on local rates Equipment and re-equipment grants provided = Rent-free accommodation usually provided # National Insurance and medical insurance 8 paid « Language training provided where necessary Return flight paid @ Posts (always approved by our field staff) are for a minimum of two years.

Conditions of work:


VSO It’s a working experience.


PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY I'm interested. have the following training |





Telephone 081-780 1331

(24hr. ansaphone).

Postcode___ Charity No. 313757






lab SE


btornib is



Please note that


you want details of an event to be advertised in this column il is umportant that you send information to the Editor well in advastee of the planned date


CHINA XIX International Congress of Entomology 28 June


- 4

July 1992,

Beijing |

Further details from ProfessorZ L Zhang, Secretary-General, XIX International Congress of Entomology 19 Zhongguancun Lu, Beijing 100080, China Telex 222337 ICCST CN.


Fax (861) 2565689 |








Further details from Dr Siriwat Wongsiri, Bee Biology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thatland

THE GAMBIA First West African Beekeeping Research Seminar 23-28 November 1991, Frendship Hostel, Bakau

Further details from AFET, Brikama Town, Kombo Central District, Western Division, The Gambia


TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Fifth International Conterence on Apiculture in Tropical Climates 7-12 September 1992, University of the West Inclies |

Day will be devoted to the biology, nest associates and management of leafcutting bees (Megachile) Day 2 will be set aside tor similar discussions of other pollinators, including Bombus and Osmuia Days 3 and 4 will be reserved for bee ecology, behaviour, evolution, biosystematics and other basic research topics |

International Symposium on The Asian honeybees and bee mites and APIEXPO 92. 10-14 February 1992, Chulalongkorn University.


International Workshop on Non-Apis Bees and their Role as Crop Pollinators August 1992, Logan, Utah The purpose of the Workshop will be to facilitate exchange of current information on all aspects of bee biology and to improve prospects for establishing non-Apis bees as crop pollinators The four-day Workshop will include both tnvited symposia and contributed papers

Further details from international Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CFl 3DY UK

Further details tram Dr lohn D Vandenberg USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan. Utah, 843222 5310, USA

YUGOSLAVIA XXXHI InternaliGnal Congress of Apiculture - APIMONDIA 29 September - 4 Split Btfabys 19911 OP


ZA Pcelarstve Further details trom Poslovna Kay yca ; Bulevar 17a 11070 Becki Yugoslavia Jugoslavije, 1}




\ honey extractor made froma disused container and buvele parts, Built at

Dincnlla Technical lnstinde, (Photograph


Set Lanka

Keah Machel,


FIRST INTERNATIONAL BEEKEEPING RESEARCH SEMINAR IN THE GAMBIA This meeting is being organised by the Association of Farmers, Educators and Traders in the Gambia and will be held in The Friendship Hostel, Bakau, 23-28 November 1991.

The Seminar aims to define the problems facing beekeepers in West Africa, and to discuss solutions towards these problems. Approaches to beekeeping projects and the implementation of appropriate technology will be discussed. Further details from:

AFET, Brikama Town, Kombo Central District, Western Division, The Gambia

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE ASIAN HONEY BEES AND BEE MITES International Symposium on The Asian honeybees and bee mites and APIEXPO 92.

10-14 February 1992, Chulalongkorn University. Further details from: Dr Siriwat Wongsiri, Bee Biology Research Unit,

Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. —




We are Kimpton Brothers Limited, one of the world’s largest, most established honey importers and traders. We buy 20 metric tonne loads (no less) shipped in 20 ft containers. The honey must be guaranteed totally pure with a moisture content under 20% (preferably under 18.5%). Colour preference is light amber or even lighter but some darker grades may be acceptable. Honey must be reasonably free from extraneous matter and packed in 300 kilo steel/iron drums (if steel drums are unavailable plastic drums may be considered). Containers must be food grade, being lined either with food grade epoxy resin or with a coat of natural beeswax.

INTERESTED? Please contact:

The Honey Department, Kimpton Brothers Limited, 10-14 Hewett Street, London, EC2A 3HA, UK. Telephone: 44 71 247 2702. Fax: 44 71 247 2784. Telex 263061. We may also be interested in 5 metric tonne lots (no less) of pure unadulterated beeswax.



ITDG's 25th Anniversary — Where is the AT

CBI is the Centre for Promotion of Imports from

Developing Countries. CBI is an agency of the Netherlands government, established in 1971 to promote the import of industrial products and services from developing countries to Western Europe, notably to the Netherlands. Its aim is to contribute to the prosperity of developing countries, by providing trade information and intermediary and training services, within the policy framework set by the Minister for International

Development Cooperation. All services are free of charge. Applicants are, however, requested to complete a company profile issued by CBI and to provide other relevant information at the discretion of CBI. CBI offers assistance to exporters and trade promotion



developing countries.

CBI mailing address:

30009, 3001 DA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Telephone: (010) 413 07 87. Fax: (010) 411 40 81. Telex: 27151.

P.O. Box

Please write to us


English, the working language of CBI.

Mountains — overcoming the isolation. Pastoralism — support for a traditional and sustainable way of life.


movement and where is it going next. Renewable energy — and what are the options how to choose.



APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY The quarterly magazine of practical change in the developing world

Reports from the field for anyone concerned with development in practice. Plus the latest in appropriate technology applications, news from Intermediate Technology, book reviews, Foodlines, Resources Guide and a development diary. Annual subscriptions institutions 12 individuals


Intermediate Technology Publications, 103-105 Southampton Row, London WC 1B 4HH, UK

Beekeeping and Development is published quarterly by the International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY. UK. Telephone 0222 372409 International 44 222 372409, Fax: 0222 665522 International 44 222 665522. See page two for subscription details. Environmentally Friendly Paper.

ISSN 0256-4424