Bees for Development Journal Edition 19 - June 1991

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INSIDE INFORMATION Welcome to Beekeeping and Development 19. This edition presents you with plenty of information to obtain a harvest of pure, clear honey from frameless hives. Marieke Mutsaers describes how to obtain honey from top-bar hives, without damaging the combs which may then be returned to the bees. This ‘recycling’ of honeycomb, one of the major advantages of frame-hive beekeeping, is thus made available to low-technology, top-bar beekeeping. Rainer Krell describes how extractors can be modified to deal efficiently with broken combs harvested from top-bar or traditional hives. Also in this edition we zoom in to Mexico, have an update of GTZ-backed projects, hear news of beekeeping near rubber plantations in Sri Lanka, as well as all the other regular features. From the encouraging comments we have received it seems that readers like the Journal's new title and layout: but we haven't finished yet! More changes are on the way... Our aim remains the same: to assist our beekeeping colleagues around the world in sustainable beekeeping. Join the network by sharing your news and views. We also invite you to send pictures either for our cover or to illustrate beekeeping techniques.

Friends are welcome! Write to us at the address below.

Production Beekeeping and Development is edited by Nicola Bradbear with

assistance from Helen Jackson.

Four editions are published each year. 4000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed to beekeepers, projects and associations in 174 countries worldwide.



Full-page, half-page and quarter page ads are available or black and white. Please write for rates.

Beekeeping and Development is produced on a not-for-profit basis as part of the International Bee Research Association's information service to developing countries. At the time of going to press we have received generous support from the following sponsors: CTA, FAO, Oxfam, Traidcraft Exchange, The Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers and a number of individual donors. This support is acknowledged most gratefully.

TARA The International Bee Research Association is a scientific, charitable trust providing the world’s most comprehensive information service on all aspects of bees and beekeeping.



Our tefeonens atimber

in Ilesa, Nigeria, inspecting a comb from a top-bar hive. Photograph by Marieke Mutsaers.

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The Beeswax Barter system provides an alternative way for readers to pay their subscription for Beekeeping and Development. Congratulations to M S Khodabaks of Surinam whose block of clean beeswax, weighing exactly 5 kg, was the first to arrive at IBRA headquarters! Some beekeepers have commented that 5 kg of beeswax is worth more to them locally than the cost of the subscription. My suggestion to them is to pay in currency, and increase beeswax production! These are the conditions for Beeswax Barter: 1. Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of good quality. 2. Beeswax must be presented in solid form (ie not as scraps of wax or pieces of comb). 3. Beeswax from Apis mellifera is preferred. However beeswax from Asian species of Apis will be accepted as long as the species from which it is collected is clearly marked on the

parcel. Our cover picture shows agricultural students


Our adelrass is:


World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990.




Apimondia Gold 1989.


The current subscription is. 10 or US$20 per year including postage. Subscriptions commence on the date they are received by IBRA. See page 12 for methods of payment, and below for details of BEESWAX BARTER. Back issues are available at 2 or US$4 per copy. Groups or individuals who are unable to pay may request a sponsored subscription: please write to Nicola Bradbear.

Beekeeping and Development was previously published under the title Newsletter for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries.

items appearing in. Beekeeping and Development may be reproduced providing that appropriate full acknowledgement is given and copies are forwarded to the Editor.


We appreciate receiving any translations of Beekeeping and Development, information leaflets, and charts that you have prepared. We are regularly requested to supply information in languages other than English, and rely on the kind support of our readers around the world to help with this.

On the inside of the parcel state your name and postal address, the weight and origin of the beeswax you are sending, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. Mark on the outside of the parcel “BEESWAX RAW FOR IBRA" and the WEIGHT of beeswax in kilograms. 5. Any parcel containing comb, adulterated or very dirty wax or otherwise unusable wax will be destroyed on arrival at IBRA. It will not be returned to the sender, and will not be accepted for barter, neither will future beeswax received from the sender. 6. This beeswax barter system will operate for an initial period of 12 months. It will be extended only if successful and subscribers abide by these conditions. 7. Payment in beeswax is only available for subscriptions to developing countries and cannot be used for any other journal subscription or purchase from IBRA. 8. Arrangements for and costs of carriage of the beeswax to IBRA are the responsibility of the sender and IBRA will not be responsible for any postage or other costs whatsoever. Proof of postage is not accepted as proof of receipt. Ensure packaging used is adequate to endure the effects of travel. 4.

One subscription to any destination 10.00 Ten subscriptions to one postal address in a developing country 50.00 Back issues, per copy 700

US$ 20.00 100.00 4.00

Beeswax 5 kg 25 kg kg |


Since 1986, GTZ, which is owned by the German Federal Government, has supported more than 20 beekeeping development projects. Currently GTZ is assisting 12 countries in implementing beekeeping projects. Before any project is started — regardless whether it is long or short-term, major or less important in financial terms — a feasibility study is carried out.

Project categories

GTZ-supported beekeeping projects can be placed into three different categories according to financial commitment and subjects covered. Large-scale projects: these projects cover a wide range of field activities such as extension, research, training, production, marketing and institutional development. Generally these projects last more than nine years, the financial commitment is above US$6 million and they are assisted by a seconded beekeeping expert. Currently GTZ is helping to implement three projects in this category, in Malawi, Pakistan and Tunisia.

Medium-scale projects: projects

in this

category commonly cover subjects such as extension, production and marketing. Their lifespan is around six years, the financial commitment does not exceed US$3 million and they are frequently assisted by external consultancies. Often a project of this sort is implemented as a programme component of a larger rural development programme. Currently GTZ is helping to implement four projects which fall in this category, in Benin, Céte d'Ivoire, Yemen and Zambia. Small-scale projects: generally these projects cover only one or two subjects such as disease control measures and extension. They are implemented within a two to three year period, and their financial commitment varies between US$100,000 and 200,000. Commonly these are self-help projects implemented by producer associations and administratively assisted by another GTZ project in the country in question. This category covers projects now underway in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Tunisia.

Experience to date

In developing countries beekeeping promotion programmes are often implemented on the assumption that only a low level of investment

and experience is needed and that there is a rapid return on the investment. The experience of development experts shows that apiculture is just as difficult to promote as any other form of agricultural production. The risks involved are high. Survival of hives, for example, during the hot and dry season is not guaranteed, and disease problems — especially the Varroa mite — endanger production. Hive theft, the quality of the harvest and sometimes marketing problems make it hard to maintain intensive production. In order to minimise risk GTZ carries out a very thorough feasibility study which covers marketing, the socio-economic situation of the target groups, and production aspects. It is not surprising that not all project proposals appraised are implemented. The major difficulties encountered include: the chosen technology is inappropriate, beekeeping is not profitable, sustainability is not ensured, or markets are not secured, to name but a few.

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Beekeeping activities supported by the German Federal Government and (implemented by GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft far Technische Zusammenarbeit)

To avoid pitfalls during the project implementation period, projects commonly start as pilot schemes which give planners the necessary experience to successfully design and implement a large-scale project.

How can beekeepers in developing countries benefit from GTZ


It all starts with a project idea. Anyone can come up with an idea which has to be formed into a clear concept and turned eventually into a technically and economically feasible proposal. The proposal must be channelled through the Government of the country concerned and forwarded via the local German Embassy to the Ministry of Economic Co-operation in Germany (BMZ). After a preliminary screening, considering the needs and plans of the developing country and the principles and objectives of German development policy, the BMZ asks GTZ to prepare a thorough project appraisal report. Should the BMZ consider the project “eligible for promotion’, a project agreement with the partner country is concluded. This seems a rather long-winded, tedious process before a project can get off the ground, but results achieved justify the initial


Hive-Aid An important part of Beekeeping and Development's objective is to help those involved with the planning or implementation of beekeeping projects to be aware of other projects, past and present. With funding for development in short supply it is vital that resources are not wasted in repeating work. Previous Hive-Aid features have given details of projects of FAO, IDRC and IFS. hope that other development organisations will feel encouraged to compile data on their projects, and to briefly explain their policy, as GTZ have kindly provided here. |


GTZ, Division 422, Eschborn.






Promotion of small-scale beekeeping in the Northern Region

Develop an economical beekeeping model. model. Improve marketing structure.


Support to the Beekeeping Institute of NARC in Islamabad


Promotion of beekeeping in the Sedjenane Region

Improve production systems. Production of extension material. Development of community self-help activities. Varroa control. Privatisation of beekeeping associations. Introduction of improved management

Advisory and consultancy services. Local and external training. Provision of equipment and materials. Advisory and consultancy services. Local and external training. Provision of equipment and materials.

Céte d'Ivoire

SODEPRA, Apiculture Centre


in the

Katiola Region Rural Development Programme, Al-Mahwit

Improve extension and marketing.

Materials and equipment. Advisory services. Provision of materials.

Improve extension material and marketing.

Advisory services. Provision of materials.

Agricultural Development Programme, North-West Region


Varroa control Improve Varroa control measures. Assistance to the National Beekeepers’ Improve disease control, production and bee Association, Damascus breeding. Varroa control Develop biological disease control method.


Advisory and consultancy services.

Improve extension field activities.



Advisory and consultancy services. Local and external training. Provision of equipment and materials.

Consultancy. Provision of drugs. Consultancy. Training. Equipment. Consultancy. Provision of materials and equipment. THREE

PROCESSING HONEY FROM TOP-BAR HIVES by Marieke Mutsaers, Nigeria sieve to separate wax particles from the honey « several clean containers of 5-10 litre capacity » scrapers to clean honey off the trays and containers (bakers’ plastic scrapers work very well) « three large aprons (if available, plastic are very good). e a

Preparation ideally two people should do the uncapping while one person turns the centrifuge.

FIGURE I. Transfer of combs to the harvest hive. The harvested comb is replaced with an empty topbar or by bars with extracted combs

(honey extractor) is very efficient for honey removal from combs in Sonttituge frames, but it can also be used for combs attached to top-bars. During transport some combs may break off the top-bars but this can be avoided during extraction: most of the empty combs can then be returned to the hives. This leads to future increased honey yields as bees are saved the effort and resources of rebuilding honeycomb.


Removing honeycombs from the hive


Manual centrifuge for two combs.

Take top-bars with honeycombs carefully out of the hive and transfer them to an empty hive: we call this the ‘harvest hive’ (Figure 1). Replace the removed top-bars with empty ones or with top-bars with extracted combs. The harvest hive should be of a small size (not more than 10-15 top-bars) or, if larger, it should not be filled up completely. This is because ten combs may weigh 10-15 kg, which is a heavy load. Try to keep the combs intact — attached to the top-bar — until reaching the place of processing. Broken pieces of comb can be put on a tray or in a container. Use a harvest hive which does not have the bee entrance at the bottom, but higher up. This will prevent honey from running out of the hive.

Materials needed


plastic container for cappings, a scraper, a fork for uncapping, and a tray with a rack or grid placed over it.

(Assuming that three people are participating in the honey harvesting) » a manual centrifugal extractor which holds two combs at a time (Figure 2) « trays for uncapping (Figure 3) « a wire grid placed over each tray: this supports the comb and prevents it from breaking during uncapping (Figures 3 and 4) a forks for uncapping » plastic containers to collect the cappings from the fork = two hinged, double-mesh frames to process broken-off pieces of comb in the centrifuge (Figure 5) « a double pot, the top one with a perforated bottom to press out the cappings and small pieces of comb (Figure 6) e asack with a plastic net at the bottom which fits in the top pot (Figure 6) e asimple honey press (cheese press) (Figure 7)

The extraction should be done indoors. If this is not possible then do it early in the morning or in the evening. If there is frequent honey and wax processing there will always be bees around which will recruit others. In less than 20 minutes there may be thousands of bees, reclaiming their honey and making work difficult.

Clean the inside of the centrifuge with a clean, wet cloth and dry it with clean, dry towels. Clean the mesh frames and put a container under the centrifuge (Figure 2). Put the trays with comb support, uncapping forks and capping containers (Figure 3) ready on a table. Put on a large apron.

Uncapping honeycombs a comb on each uncapping tray (Figure comb should always be manipulated vertically, to prevent it from breaking off the top-bar and to avoid loss of honey. This is illustrated in Figure 8. When placing it horizontally on the tray for uncapping, it should therefore be supported with the rack as shown in Figure 4.




Uncap one side, turn the comb carefully, and place it on the tray with the second side up while supporting it. Uncap the other side. Now lift it up with the comb hanging vertically. Turn the bar carefully (Figure 8) and place it in the centrifuge. With two combs in the centrifuge, spin the centrifuge at half-speed. After a little while stop the centrifuge, turn the combs (vertically only) and spin again. This time the centrifuge can be spun at full speed, until the cells on one side are completely empty. Now the combs are turned back and side one is extracted fully in a third run. In the first run the cells should not be emptied because the weight of the honey in the cells at the other side may cause the comb to break off.

While the first pair of combs is being extracted the other persons can start uncapping the next two combs.

Extracting broken comb using the centrifuge Combs which have become detached from the top-bar are placed in a hinged, double-mesh frame (Figure 5), and then put into the centrifuge. This frame should also be held only vertically, otherwise the honey wiil drip out and the wire may even come off as the weight to be carried can be more than one kilo.



Use of a honey press to remove honey from cappings The cappings which were put in plastic containers (Figure 3) are now transferred to the sack with netting at the bottom, which fits in the double pot (Figure 6). The sack is closed and the double pot is put under the honey press (Figure 7). The honey which dripped on to the trays during uncapping is scraped into a container and sieved. The honey press can be used for processing small quantities of honey (1-2 kg), but a centrifuge is more efficient for quantities above 2


Honey storage The extracted honey is stored in plastic containers of 5-10 litres. It is important that the honey is not kept in open containers, because it will attract moisture, become dilute and start fermenting.


wire rack placed over the tray supports the comb during uncapping

Repiacement of combs After extracting the honey, empty combs should not be left at the house, but put back in the apiary. The bees will clean out the remaining honey, stored pollen and bee bread. The (cleaned) combs are now used to replace harvested on following days from other rombs ives.


5. Two wooden frames, hinged together and covered with mesh These are used to hold broken preces of comb during extraction Be careful to turn them only in the vertical position

Comb honey, a special product Whole comb honey with white or palecoloured capping is an attractive and palatable product. Fresh white honeycomb occurs in hives when much honey is stored in a short time. These combs are very good for selling as cut-comb honey.

The weight ratio between wax and honey ina comb is about 1:30, so comb honey contains 3-4% wax. Wax is not digestible by humans but it can be eaten without any harm.


double pot, the base of the upper one perforated (nto this fits a sack with plastic in This goes under the honey the bottom nelling press

Before extraction with the centrifuge the combs which are suitable for comb honey are selected.


The comb is put on the same tray as used for uncapping. A container about 3 cm high is put upside down on the comb. A portion of the comb is then cut out with a knife tracing the shape of the container The container is now turned and the piece of comb is slipped in carefully by lifting it and sliding it into the container. A little shaking of the container may help to make the piece of comb go down to the bottom (Figure 9}. use oval plastic containers, which contain 500 g of comb honey. The pieces of comb remaining after cutting out the comb honey can be centrifuged as usual. |

Comb honey may be sold at than extracted honey.

a higher


7. A honey press (cheese press)

[| FIGURE 8. Always


manoeuvre honeycombs vertically They

break if held horizontally

FIGURE 9. Cutting

sections of honeycomb

Drawings by Chuks Onianwa. Photograph by loke Nassar





Extracting the honey Honey in a jar has been carefully removed from the wax combs. In modern beekeeping the wax caps with which bees seal their honey cells are removed by the beekeeper with a knife, the wooden frame with uncapped honey comb is placed in a centrifuge and the honey is spun out of the cells. The wax caps, referred to as cappings, are then processed.



An adapted four-frame tangential extractor.

An adaptation to modern centrifugal honey extraction can allow traditional, irregular honeycomb to be spun quickly and efficiently, increasing both the yield and the quality of the honey.

Beekeepers have made great strides in designing equipment that allows greater manipulation of colony conditions, and increases yields and quality of the extracted honey itself. The beekeeping methods used in industrialised countries, which use standardized boxes with movable wooden frames within which bees build their wax combs, have been developed over the last 150 years.

Traditional beekeeping

The straw skeps of northern Europe, the clay pots and cylinders of northern Africa, and the bark and log hives, also of Africa, are examples of traditional ‘frameless’ beekeeping. But honeybees’ behaviour varies with different climates and different environments. Economic, cultural and social conditions, too, differ widely throughout the distribution area of the honeybee. Movable-frame hives have always been expensive and difficult to make, and despite the advantages of easier handling, have not always been the most productive or economic choice. Intermediate hive-types then evolved, hives that combine many of the advantages of both traditional and modern beekeeping. Cheaper, locally available building materials can be chosen and less precision is necessary in their construction. The bees are encouraged to build their combs on wooden sticks or bars laid across the top of the hive container. The result is referred to as a top-bar hive, and it still permits the easy moving of brood or honeycombs for hive management and honey harvesting.

Different types of corners for baskets. B is easiest to build, and C is probably stronger. B and C are small in diameter, so the drum used can also be small.


But since bees store honey in tiny hexagonal wax cells, the harvesting of honey is not finished when the combs are removed from the hive: the honey still has to be separated from the wax. In ancient times and still today honey is eaten with the comb, sometimes with the brood and pollen.

In traditional beekeeping, which does not use frames and centrifuges, honey can only be allowed to drip from broken-up combs or be squeezed out by hand. Appropriate technology has provided special presses to squeeze the broken-up comb more efficiently. This process is slow: presses are still expensive and cannot be used for frame hive beekeeping and the honey almost always contains a lot of pollen. What is really needed is modern centrifugal extractor that can be used with traditional non-frame beekeeping. a

Centrifugal extractors

High-technology beekeeping has solved this problem inadvertently, by adapting radial centrifugal extractors to process cappings, which resemble in many ways the irregular and broken combs harvested from frameless hives. A commercial beekeeper in the US used the same 72-frame radial extractor to spin both frames and cappings. Stainless steel quarter sections were laid on the bottom struts of the cage, and vertical sheets, perforated by '/4-*/s inch holes, two per square inch, were fitted to the vertical reinforcements. In less than 30 minutes over 30 gallons (140 litres) of cappings were spun relatively dry with no reduction in honey quality. In 1987, went to Zambia and Malawi for Africare to help beekeeping extension officers. Local beekeepers did not have or want 72frame radial extractors, but after their harvest from bark hives, Kenya top-bar hives and modified Dadant top-bar hives, they were left with a honey and broken comb mixture very similar to the cappings from frame-hive beekeeping. |

The most common practice among advanced frameless-hive beekeepers is to press honey from the comb mixture. Sometimes honey is left to drip from the broken combs through a screen just as some frame hive beekeepers let honey drip from cappings. For the project in Zambia four-frame extractors had been purchased, which were used only for the processing of frames. The bulk of the comb and honey mix from bark hives or incomplete frames was still processed by pressing.

Modifying small extractors

The four-frame extractors available had a basket to hold the frames, made out of twomesh (three wires or two holes per inch) wire screen or hardware cloth. The bottom of the basket was a solid sheet of stainless steel. This was fortunate since it saved a lot of work and material when converting to centrifuging the honey and comb mixture. All that was necessary was to lay a finer mesh hardware


cloth (eight-mesh) around the bottom five to ten inches of the basket, pour in about three gallons (14 litres) of the well broken-up mixture of comb and honey, and spin it.

one of the described methods. The 72-frame radial extractor mentioned earlier could probably spin 40-50 gallons (180-230 litres) of the comb and honey mixture from framelesshive harvests in 30 minutes. One person with a four-frame non-reversible extractor could still process about 10-15 gallons (45-70 litres) of the same mixture in 30 minutes.

In less than five minutes most of the honey was spun out. Pressing the same quantity through a coarse cloth removed only two or three percent more honey. The quantity of residual honey was slightly higher when larger quantities were spun at one time.

The faster speed is impressive when compared to the 15 or 30 minutes (depending on the cloth mesh size) it takes to press even a small quantity of honey. A larger mesh used in the extractor will speed up the process, but more and larger wax particles will end up in the extracted honey. This may be perfectly tolerable depending on the processing or filtering methods to be used for the final cleaning of the honey. A finer mesh, like fly or mosquito screen, will leave very little wax in the honey, but prolongs the extraction. The eight-mesh hardware cloth was found to be quite satisfactory. Any wax particles passing through the cloth were allowed to float to the surface of the settling honey and were removed easily with a damp cloth laid across the surface of the flotsam. This size screen did not have to be removed for cleaning as frequently as the finer mesh. Often the finer mesh sizes are not available locally, but the two-mesh or five-mesh hardware cloths usually are. (The latter is also called coffee wire in some places.) Two or more layers of these screens can be wired together, with each wire cross centred over the hole of the other layer, in order to achieve a finer mesh size. If the screen inserts are made of two or three separate pieces they are easier to insert into the basket, but one piece of flexible plastic mosquito screen or similar material may be used as well. An inch or two of this soft screen should rest horizontally on the bottom plate. Many extractors do not have a bottom plate and one may have to be made: wood or galvanised metal sheets will work. If absolutely no screen material can be found, Stainless or galvanised steel or aluminium sheets can be substituted. Once cut to size they can be perforated with various size holes, up to *s inch, either by drilling or with a hammer and nail. Various thicknesses of plastic pieces from buckets or bowls can be used as well. you have a reversible frame extractor with individual cages holding each frame, the cages can either be lined with a sack of plastic mosquito screen or they can be removed completely and replaced with a strong wire cage modified as described above. The sacks can be cleaned and filled by one person while someone else spins another set of sacks. Several of these sacks could be laid on top of each other or hung from the inside top of the cage to increase the processing capacity per spin. If the sacks can be hung, a bottom plate for the cage is not necessary. Any size of extractor can be modified by either If

Honey presses Honey presses made from metal are not only slower than these modified extractors, but they are also more expensive, heavier, need special workshop equipment and good machining skills for their manufacture, and many have one fragile part that is difficult to replace. (A wooden press might be a useful alternative in many parts of the world.) Centrifugal extractors, however, can be made with ingenuity and a few spare parts. They are therefore cheaper, easier to repair, longer lasting, and faster. Their versatile use with traditional and modern beekeeping practices drastically reduces equipment costs in countries where beekeeping is in various different stages of development or where modernisation is planned in the future. Hobby beekeepers may also recognise here an easy, fast and efficient method for separating honey from cappings without heating.

Rainer Krell is with International Consultancies for Environmentally Responsible Development (ICON), Rome, Italy. |


= 2.54


Krell, R; Persano Oddo, L: Ricciardelli D'Albore: G. The influence of harvesting and processing methods on honey quality in Zambia and Malawi. |n Proceedings of the Fourth \nternational Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Cairo 1988. (1989) London. |


This is an amended version of an article which first appeared in Appropriate Technology Vol 17 No 3, December 1990. The kind assistance of Intermediate Technology Publications is acknowledged.

In addition, it appears from our trials in Zambia that the spun honey has a lower content of pollen and the other fine materials characteristically found in large quantities in pressed honey’. It is also possible, however, that this was the result of more careful harvesting and grading during the sorting and cleaning stages.

Buying an extractor For those who have to make equipment purchases with long-range planning in mind, these alternatives should make decisions much easier. Radial extractors only make sense in frame-hive beekeeping where wired frames with foundation sheets can be used. Since both wire and foundation sheets are generally hard to come by and are expensive, the more versatile non-reversible or even the reversible-type extractors with individual baskets are preferable. The two-frame extractors are generally too small for efficient conversion, while four- and six-frame extractors are only slightly more expensive and offer sufficient capacity for larger scale operations and community or co-operative projects. The larger volume cage also makes non-frame processing much faster and more efficient.

To simplify conversion for multiple use,

imported or locally made extractors should have large baskets made of strong noncorrosive hardware cloth or wire mesh, with simple straight corners and a solid bottom plate. would not be surprised if many beekeepers have already used one of these modifications or another variation. If so, would like to hear some of your experiences and possible ideas for further improvements. |


A. Top view of radial extractor; B. Top view of tangential (six-frame) extractor with swiveling self-reversing frame baskets (reversing when spin is reversed); C. Top view of tangential four-frame extractor; D. Radial extractor with metal plate inserts: E. Tangential extractor (four-frame) with flyscreen insert; F. Four-frame tangential extractor basket with fly-screen insert: G. Four-frame tangential extractor basket with fly-screen bags.





INDIA Canning Town



Every year, man-eating tigers kill at least 150 of the honey collectors and fishermen whose livelihoods come from deep within the Sunderbans forest reserve. No attempt has been made to drive the wild cats out of the 2,585 km’ of river delta mangrove swamp in the Bay of Bengal because they are protected by India’s decadeold Project Tiger. Villagers in the area will not give up what they say is their only source of income.

Project Tiger officials say attempts to reduce the death toll by introducing steel safety helmets and to deter the man-eaters using electrically-charged clay dummies of humans have also failed.

ISRAEL After three disastrous ministerial trips to Israel, British diplomats may have finally mastered the technique of avoiding catastrophe. In Mr Hogg's case this took the form of inspecting Gaza bee hives rather than rubber bullets or tear gas canisters.

“Killings will continue as long as people enter the core area of the forest” said Arin Ghosh, a senior official of Project Tiger in Sunderbans.

Elephant Ear Tree Wygandia urens This tree grows to 4.5-6 m with a fair spread. It flowers from May to October, bearing clusters of blue flowers about the size of apple blossom, with a very sweet perfume. The older houses in Lusaka, Zambia had one or two of these trees shading outdoor closets at the end of the gardens. It is very easily propagated from cut stems stuck in the ground when the rains come (in mid-November). The bees work it so intensely that one had to talk very loudly to be heard under this tree in July and August. In very dry conditions, bees worked for an hour or more at dawn and again at dusk, activity being correlated with the relative humidity. If occasionally in July some cloud brought the temperature down below 15°C bees would work even at midday. Towards the end of its flow, a few hummingbirds would usually be working it also. Honey from this source was very fine indeed, a light colour with a delicate flavour, and with pure white cappings, not unlike the best clover honey. By far the best source (in quality) of any the year round. When retired to Torquay, Devon in 1964 brought 9-14 kg of the honey back with me — it was much admired by local beekeepers. An extract from Ron ‘Beeswax’ Brown's |

diary, Lusaka, Zambia.



Mr Ghosh blamed the victims for the high death toll, saying they ignored clearly demarcated areas for fishing and honey

The Times, May 1991.

collecting. He said most of the killings go unreported because villagers fear they will be prosecuted for enterins the reserve’s ‘danger zone’. Fines for entering the zone can reach 5,000 rupees, a sum well beyond their means.

Honeybees in Lesotho are known as ‘Semana’. have surrounded my small home apiary with a tall and dense vegetation screen of Acacia species and Eucalyptus producing minor sources of pollen and nectar for the bees, and safety for the passers-by. The Acacia is especially valuable because it provides pollen in July and August when no other pollen is available.

The villagers in turn blame the Government. “The Government makes a profit selling beeswax, honey and fish but doesn't bother to protect us”, one of the villagers said. “There are crocodiles in the river, tigers and snakes in the forest and money lenders in the villages. We are the ones who always suffer’, Prahipraj Loch, said here in the small town that houses Project Tiger. Lodh, a fisherman, said most of the people who work in the area know the Government regulations about entering the forest, but have no alternative. “There are no bees in the areas set aside for collecting honey and no fish in the portion of the river marked for fishing. Naturally we violate the rules”, he said. “We are poor, we need the money”, said Uttam, a honey collector. "Should we go to Calcutta to beg like refugees?”.

The area's high salinity, due to tidal rivers which flow in the Bay of Bengal, means no food crops can be grown, leaving the villagers dependent on the forest for their livelihood. Local residents estimate that more than 1,000 people have been killed by tigers in the past eight years and most relatives have missed out on the 10,000 rupees compensation because they were attacked in the prohibited area. “It seems the Government loves animals more than men. We just keep our fingers crossed when our men leave for the jungle because it is sure that when they come back, someone will be missing’, said Ratnadevi, whose husband was killed by a man-eater five years ago. Last week Phulkumari, the newest widow, was mourning the loss of her husband Manik, a honey collector whose body was left halfeaten in the Sunderbans. The New Zealand Beekeeper, 1991.


Colonies are housed in double-brood chambers with queen excluders and a single modified shallow super, with 18 frames. A narrow strip iof wax foundation is fastened on the underside of a top-bar of each frame. rob my bees often during a flow when find some ripe honey in sealed combs. go to the first hive, open it, and take out two frames in the centre. replace the covers and do likewise with the rest of the hives until the super is full. Then carry it to the kitchen table where take out frames one by one and lay them flat on a wire rack standing in a shallow drip tray. |





cut honeycombs out of the frames with a water heated knife, but leave narrow strips under the top-bar as foundation for the next combs. pack the combs ready for market. Comb honey is in great demand — one sells for R5.00. Without going into production-cost analysis of cut-comb honey, the way keep and manage bees is no doubt low cost. believe that process cut-comb honey under satisfactory hygienic conditions. Comb honey’s attractive appearance, its nutritive value, its flavour and other desirable characteristics make it the finest product in beekeeping. |





I return empty frames to the supers on the hives and place them on the outside of the box after shifting unsealed combs with unripe honey towards the centre.

Honeybees can be used to improve the socioeconomic conditions of people in rural areas who do not hold land to grow their own subsistence crops or who have not received sufficient education or training to earn a living wage. I


recommend it wholeheartedly. Mahalefele, Tefobale Bee Research.

YUGOSLAVIA Apparently brown bears have taken to climbing the telegraph poles in the Sarb Planina mountains.

The theory is that the bears mistake the humming of the wires for bees, and conclude that there is a banquet of honey to be had. Sunday Express, April 1991.

NIGERIA The Leventis Foundation, Nigeria, has taken the initiative to include beekeeping in the curriculum of its agricultural schools in Ilesa (Oyo State) and Dogon Dawa (Kaduna State). The schools offer a full-time training course for 60 ‘students. Students are secondary school graduates. After the training course they go back to their own farms. During the one-year course they take care of their own farming plots and rabbits, pigs and cows. The cows are also used for traction. Improved crop varieties and new farming techniques are introduced to the farmer-students. The major course curriculum consists of theoretical and practical lessons on: crop production, animal production; agricultural engineering; farm management, farm products, processing and utilization; and agroforestry.

Beekeeping has been added to the programme first in Ilesa and will follow in Dogon Dawa. Apiaries have been set up in a patch of permanent forest. This provides coolness and isolation for the bee colonies. During the one-year course theory is taught in |2 afternoon sessions and practicals are held in 12 morning sessions.

Subjects taught are: honeybee biology and ecology; honeybees in their natural environment; seasonal development of vegetation and the honeybee colony; bee botany with observation and collection of plant species and pollen. Some attention is paid to stingless bees and pollination by other insects. Practical beekeeping in top-bar hives is demonstrated. Record keeping on individual hives is taught as management tool. Honey processing using a centrifuge, wax Processing and candle making are taught. The economics of beekeeping and how to integrate it with other farming activities form the last part of the programme.

Arumeru Beekeepers Women’s Group pictured at their recent two-day Seminar. The Group now consists of 61 Members, each having her own hives. The Group would like to contact other groups of women beekeepers. Picture provided by Christine Lukwaro.

Seven counries producing nore than 30,065 F honey in (996 Country



270,000 180,000 82,000 49,000 42,300 39,000 31,000

China US

Mexico Brazil Argentina Canada Source:


USDA World Honey Situation, October


Beekeepers’ days will be organised for Students and school leavers in years following the course. The contact is: Dr A Adeola, Principal, Leventis Foundation School of Agriculture, PMB 5074, Ilesa, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Mrs Marieke Mutsaers, c/o International Source: Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Qyo Road, PMB 9320, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Stamp featuring a honeybee, sent from Singapore by Tony Anderson. The species name given on the stamp is Apis javana, a species previously unheard of at IBRA! NONE


The Apiculture Development Project of Sri Lanka In Sri Lanka beekeeping is practised mainly as a part-time activity. Most beekeepers manage their hives in the Eucalyptus or rubber zones,

the major honey producing areas.

Beekeeping development in Sri Lanka has been confined to training, extension, honey marketing and supply of equipment. The extent of development was measured by the number of bee boxes issued by the Department of Agriculture. Such a measure is inappropriate since there is no relationship between total number of bee boxes issued and honey production. Low honey yields may be due to absconding, poor quality queens, lack of pollen, poor management and environmental factors such as droughts and

Colony multiplication The supply of colonies according to the current method of colony division may lead to failure or degeneration of existing colonies for the following reasons: e

high rains.

However beekeeping is very popular despite the various technological problems associated with it. Perhaps our extension and training have exceeded our research capacity. Also the supply of beekeeping equipment by funding agencies and subsidy programmes aggravate this popularity. It is essential to develop a strong research component to provide technical assistance.


Up to 1988, the Project's priorities were: training; production and distribution of equipment; honey promotion activities through processing, marketing, and model apiaries. Research was not considered a priority until 1988.

A marketing programme aiming to promote beekeeping and the honey market in Sri Lanka includes honey purchase, processing and sale, also using a revolving fund from CIDA. The ultimate goal is for the private sector to collect and process honey for marketing. A Cooperative Society of Honey Producers has been formed to continue these activities. The Project conducts training programmes for extension and training officers, those from other organisations and farmers’ groups.

Research Research work done in the past is inadequate to cater for our extension and training needs. Among the completed work, the identification of floral calendars, foraging distances, and the development of a metric hive are of major importance. Although these achievements help to upgrade beekeeping, there is more work to be done. The following are most important:

Emergence of poor quality queens The amount of royal jelly fed to queen larvae has a positive impact on the development of internal organs such as ovaries and mandibular glands. When a colony is divided, the queenless half is allowed to make emergency queen cells. The developing queens in these cells may be fed with inadequate amounts of royal jelly. The young bees necessary for royal jelly production occur in large numbers during the swarming period or should be added to queen cell-building colonies when queens are artificially reared. In addition, cell-building colonies are fed copiously with protein supplements to increase the production of royal jelly by young bees. Poor mating frequency

Mating with drones from many different genetic backgrounds results in progeny with different full and half-sisters. This mating behaviour increases colony resilience to stressful conditions and results in bees which work efficiently over a range of conditions. Virgin queens emerging from colony divisions may not be able to mate with an adequate number of drones (Apis cerana are reported to mate with 30 drones). Therefore it is essential to maintain a mating yard which is supplemented by productive drone rearing colonies.


Beekeeping equipment is supplied using a revolving fund from CIDA (Canada). Since there is a great demand for bee boxes (6,000 per year), they are produced by private manufacturers, but frames are produced by the Apiculture Development Project. Equipment such as smokers, honey extractors, and bee veils are also produced by private manufacturers. Production and distribution of bee equipment was to be privatised by the end of 1990 and their standard supervised by the Department.

by Dayarathne Howpage


Possibility of inbreeding Colony increase by division may lead to inbreeding (mating of virgin queens with drones from the same colony).


Considering these three factors, it may be essential to rear queens artificially from high producer colonies for requeening and for colony multiplication. The programme will include: 1} the maintenance of a mating yard 2) the maintenance of drone producing colonies and 3) the maintenance of queen producing colonies.

The production of nucleus colonies

This programme will be carried out with the queen rearing programme. The following studies must be completed before large-scale production can commence: |) compare the growth and development of different sizes of nuclei; 2) determine the effect of producing nuclei from colonies kept for honey production; 3) estimate the benefit of pollen supplements for the production of nucleus colonies.

Colony management in the rubber zone

Since rubber, Hevea brasiliensis is an important bee plant, it is essential to develop a system to manage bees in rubber plantations. Among many problems, the poor keeping quality of honey from rubber has been a barrier in promoting beekeeping under this plantation crop. Since preliminary trials in 1989 to process rubber honey gave successful results, there may be a good future.

The off-season management, lack of pollen, swarming, absconding and variability in honey yields (with 1989 data, average yield per colony is 3.4 kg) are major problems that have to be solved.

Supplementary feeding Pollen provides the total protein requirement of bees. Research has shown that an inadequate supply of protein led to absconding in Apis cerana colonies.

OTHER VIEWS FROM Sil LAN The villagers around the rubber plantation house bees in inverted clay pots and smoke the bees out when the pot is full of combs. Our season here is from JanuaryApril when the rubber trees are full of flowers. also have two bee boxes from the Department of Agriculture and two round clay pots. The villagers in the area where am working bait the bees by smoking the empty inverted clay pot with incense or some coconut husk, and within week or two a colony is sure to make a home in the pot. Harvesting the honey is the problem because the bees have to be driven out by smoke. |


Last year our preliminary observations with a mixture of soya-flour, water, and sugar or honey showed promising results. This mixture provided as a pattie of 150 g was consumed bees in a moderately strong colony in 2-3 byays.


Recent developments



My project consists of 100 Apis cerana colonies and is situated in the wet zone which consists mainly of rubber and coconut. must however mention that apart from two large colonies consisting of 12 brood combs which are used for queen rearing the rest are small consisting of three to four combs which are sold as nuclei to potential beekeepers. No pollen substitute is fed. During the dearth season from JuneDecember sugar syrup is fed at the rate of 200 g per colony per week.

From 1990 the Apiculture Development Project started selling limited numbers of mated queens at the introductory price of Rs20.

M C Perera, Colombo.





Experiments are underway to determine the effects of feeding protein supplements on colony productivity by recording brood area, colony population, colony weight and honey yield.


result of the development of a rubber honey processing plant we started selling fresh rubber honey in February-April 1990.

Weare studying the effects of swarming on colony productivity in the rubber and Eucalyptus zones of Sri Lanka.


Studies on absconding behaviour and a queen selection programme are being carried out at the Agricultural Research Station, Makadura. Mating behaviour has been studied here during 1988 and 1989.


Bee equipment from Sri Lanka has been exported to the Maldives from our Project as a result of the introduction of bees to that country by one of the officers attached to the Department with the assistance of FAO.

Harvesting is possible during only four weeks in February and March, coinciding with the shedding of leaves and new foliage on the rubber. Harvesting is carried out every four to five days and a yield of 6-8 ke is obtained per colony. The Manager, Bee Craft, Karangoda.


The literature available to develop our local Project is inadequate to cope with our technological demands. We still use temperate bee biology as a tool to teach beekeeping in Our region. Although there are similarities in the biology of European races of bees, it is very important to understand the biology of our local honeybee to improve beekeeping in our region.

Therefore we suggest that our literature, and technical work in the field of research and extension be exchanged in future research and development programmes. Dayarathne Howpage is Assistant Director of Agriculture for the Apiculture Development Project at Bindunuwewa, Bandarawela, Sri Lanka.

oan ot

bee from Sri Lanka. Kindly provided by George Lanerolle.


A beautiful batik





BeeksHELf Guide it 7 arid

falerant of arid conditions ;

by E Weiss Margraf Scientific Publishers, Weikersheim, Germany (1989) 543 pp, hardback.

Arid and semi-arid lands constitute 50% of tropical Africa and support over 35% of its population. Increasing livestock populations put tremendous pressure on these drylands which now face constant ecological degradation through overexploitation. It is this insidious process of desertification that turns marginal crop and pasture land into wasteland, reduces the quality of life of the people and threatens their survival.



Rehabilitation of degraded areas is essential and to achieve this, the identification of drought resistant plants is important. Information on the plant species of arid and semi-ari lands has been published previously, but not in easily accessible format. This publication compiles a summary of plants reported to tolerate arid or sem-ari condtion, gives a (very) brief guide to the uses these plants might have, but most usefully, serves as an identification guide to the plant species: about 500 of them are illustrated.


or-8 AR

ork wes








The large size and weight (1.6 kg) of this book make it rather cumbersome for field use, but it is a most useful reference text. The book does not mention melliferous value in any way. Species are merely categorised according to whether they have any of six potential uses, one of which is fodder/forage.

ormation charts by Nicola Bradbear London, UK; IBRA 1986. Full (58 x 73 cm). Available from IBRA, price 5.00 postage and packing.




each excluding

a Pe aeMS

Post and pact charges Orders to overseas address by

surface mail — Orders totalling: Up to 10.00 €10.01 to 20.00 20.01 to 30.00 30.01 to 50.00 50.01 to 100.00

The charts are available from IBRA, but free of charge only to beekeepers projects and associations, schools and agricultural colleges in developing countries. This forms part of the IBRA Advisory Service for beekeepers in developing countries.

Proceeds from the sale of the charts will be used to maintain the Advisory Service.

The Sixth international Symposium on Pollination, Tilburg. The Netherlands 1990 edited by C van Heemert and A de Ruijter

Available from

Up to 10.00 10.01 20.01 30.01 50.01

to to to to

20.00 30.00

€50.00 100.00


price 38.00


postage and packing.

Orders totalling:




1.00 2.50 3.50 5.00 6.00

Cheques and bank draft (if paying in non-sterling, please add 5% to cover bank charges for exchange).

you can order fast by fax from IBRA. See our number on page 2.

CHART 4 Information on Pollination. This chart helps explain to crop-growers the value of honeybees in pollination. Brief descriptions of why pollination is important and how it takes place are given, along with lists of tropical crop plants that benefit from honeybee pollination.

parcel rate)

Orders over 100.00 or to be sent by air mail including insurance, prices on request. (No insurance available to Afghanistan, !ran, Iraq, Lebanon,

Dont forget

CHART 3 Information on Top-bar hives. The basic features of a top-bar hive are described along with illustrations of various types. Some advantages and disadvantages of beekeeping in top-bar hives are listed, and the basic principles of their construction are given.


All orders are subject to the availability of books at the prices quoted.

Please quote Beekeeping and Development when you order.

CHART 2. Information on Honey. This chart describes what honey is and how it is made by bees. Simple details are given on how to prepare honey for market, what determines honey quality, and the difference between granulated and liquid honey.

Orders ta UK address (2nd class/

This service does not include goods-intransit insurance. IBRA is not responsible for damage to, or loss of goods once they have left our premises.



Research Centre for Insect Pollination and Beekeeping and International Society for Horticultural Science, Wageningen, The Netherlands (1991) 472 pp,

The charts are designed as teaching aids.


Information on Beeswax. This chart aims to persuade beekeepers not to discard beeswax, but to value it as an additional crop which can, by simple methods, be readily processed for market.


Methods of payment

Bankers: Midland Bank, 56 Queen Street, Cardiff UK. Account No 01326740. Postgiro/National Girobank: Account No 291794408. Credit cards:


please give name on card, full address, type of card, card number, expiry date on card and your signature.

The texts of 59 papers and 23 posters presented at the Symposium held in The Netherlands in August 1990. Papers are grouped according to subject: The use of insects as pollinators, Management of solitary bees and bumblebees, Commercial production of seeds and fruits using solitary bees and bumblebees, Commercial production of seeds and fruits using honeybees, Plants in their relation to pollinators, and Insect pollination in relation to plant breeding. Papers within the Proceedings relate to temperate and tropical crop plants, and species of bees other than Apis mellifera are considered.

These Proceedings provide a concentrated guide to current pollination science. They will be of value to those involved with research into plant-bee relationships or the management of bee species for pollination.







Size 1,958,201 km? (60,000 square miles).


83.5 million


Gulf of Mexico

US$1880 per capita (Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP).

Main agriculture Corn, beans, oilseeds, feedgrains, fruits, cotton, coffee, sugar, vegetables.

Tropic of Cancer

Pacific Ocean



No species of Apis are native to Mexico. Apis mellifera of European origin arrived in Mexico around 1520.

Africanized honeybees were first identified in September 1986, in the state of Chiapas, and have now been identified in 16 of Mexico's 29 States. They reached Texas in October 1990. A co-operative plan for the control of Africanized bees was initiated between the Mexican and US governments. This resulted in pheromonetreated bait hives being positioned to capture swarms and, if found to be Africanized, the swarms were destroyed. This programme ended in September 1990.


As in other countries,

it is beekeepers Practising on a small-scale who have been most adversely affected by the arrival of Africanized bees. Such beekeepers lack financial resources to deal with the problem. Medium and large-scale producers are more likely to have resources and incentive to deal with the new bees. It is probable that, as happened in Brazil, honey production will decline in the short-term but will recover when new management practices are established.

Hives Traditional: hollowed-out trunks of palms or softwood trees, wooden crates, baskets, gourds, pottery, timber or whatever is available.

Modern, low-technology: top-bar hives are not widely used.

Modern frame: Dadant hives. Commercial beekeepers, many of whom manage more than 1,000 colonies, often use equipment manufactured in the US.

Melliferous vegetation

Vegetation ranges from wet marshland to desert and from tropical lowland jungle to high alpine vegetation. The dry, high plateau in central Mexico is important for flowers in the summer, when hives are migrated up to this area. The Gulf coast and Yucatan peninsula are areas of high rainfall, while the north-west region is most productive agriculturally. The rich flora of the Yucatan peninsula has made it a world-famous honey-producing area, and today it supports around 510,000 colonies each yielding 40-45 kg honey. One of the most important melliferous species is tajonal, Viguiera helianthoides, a yellow flower which thrives on land abandoned after slash and


burn agriculture. Other important species here are Vitex gaumeri, and Gymnopodium antigonoides.

Number of beekeepers 50,000 plus. Number of Apis mellifera colonies (kept commercially) 2,400,000. Recipients of Beekeeping and Development


Beekeeping department

Departamento de Apicultura, Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos, Durango 138-503, Col Roma, Mexico 7.

Beekeeping association

Union Nacional de Apicultores, Av Uruguay 42-101, DF, Mexico |.

Equipment supplier Miel Carlota SA, Apartado Postal 161-D, Queretaro 111], Cuernavaca, Mor, Mexico.

Honeybee diseases Acarapis woodi, American Foulbrood,

Chalkbrood, European Foulbrood, Nosema.

Honey production and export

49,000 tonnes per year of which 80% is exported, mainly to Germany, US and the UK.

Stingless bees

Beekeeping with stingless bees was widely practised before the introduction of A. mellifera, and there has been a resurgence of interest following the arrival of Africanized honeybees.

Journals General: Apicultura Moderna (Instituto de Investicacién Apicola de México, AC, Apartado Postal 5-855, Guadalajara, Jalisco 45000, Mexico).

Stingless bees: U T’an Yik'el Kab (Calle 25 No 273, entre 26 y 28, Colonia Miguel Aleman, Mérida, Yucatan, 97148, Mexico). A new journal, first edition January 1991.

Rob Paxton

The honeybees in New Spain and Mexico (1988) Brand, D D. Journal of Cultural Geography 9 (1) 71-82.

Co-operative efforts in genetic control of Africanized honeybees in Mexico (1989) Iwamoto, R H Jr. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Cairo, Egypt, 6-10 November


Migration of Africanized honeybee swarms in Chiapas, Mexico (1989) Ratnieks, F L. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Cairo, Egypt, 6-10 November 1988.

Important plant species for apiculture in Ejido Plan del Rio, Veracruz, Mexico (1989) Villanueva,


tn Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Cairo, Egypt, 6-10 November 1988.

Usurpation of managed honeybee colonies by migratory swarms in Tabasco, Mexico (1989) Vergara, C; Dietz, A; Perez, A. American Bee Journal 129 (12) 824-825.

Pollination tests with Africanized honeybees in southern Mexico (1991) Loper, G M; Danka, R G. American Bee Journal 131 (3)


Many more articles and papers are held in the IBRA library.


BEESWAX OINTMENT Method Heat the oil for five minutes. Add the beeswax. The beeswax can be either already melted, or still in solid form. 3 Add the three capfuls of glycerine. 4. Continue to heat the mixture for five minutes. Heat, but do not allow the mixture to boil. Add perfume if desired. Pour the mixture into the containers. Allow the mixture to cool. As the mixture cools, it resembles petroleum jelly. This recipe will make approximately 810 g. 8. Store in a cool place. Candles can be used instead of beeswax. Use two candles, placing the candles into the hot oil. After the candles have melted, remove the strings from the mixture. 1.



This recipe has been sent by Kathy Gau who is promoting beekeeping in Swaziland, with support from the Swaziland Ministry of Agriculture and the Near East Foundation. Kathy has found that the use of beeswax in making this ointment has been of great interest to the general population in Swaziland. The ointment resembles the petroleum jelly that is used as lip balm and as a soothing cream.

Supplies needed 750 ml cooking oil 150 g beeswax. This is equal to a tin cup half full of melted beeswax capfuls glycerine Perfume (not essential, but can be added if desired) 3

Equipment needed

Total cost

Pot for melting Heating unit, either a hot plate or fire Stick for stirring Containers for the ointment. Save old glass and plastic jars for this purpose.

Petroleum jelly in the shops: 810 g would cost US$6.32 Ointment made from home-produced beeswax: US$2.94 If made from bought beeswax: US$4.44 If made from candles: US$3.50.








IBRA is about to commence a project in co-operation with the Government of Tanzania's Njiro Wildlife Research Centre at Arusha. The project, which is funded by ODA, will focus on top-bar hive design. It is hoped that a volunteer position will be available to work on this project, initially for a two-year period. If you have experience of beekeeping and are interested in this volunteer post, then please send your CV and other relevant information to Nicola Bradbear at IBRA.

lam interested in the note on page 5 of the last issue concerning solar wax extractors. They are certainly wonderful little gadgets. However, it is important to understand that they are not very efficient. The wax they produce is of high quality and they are simple to operate. (Part of the high quality may be due to bleaching.) For these two reasons, their use should be encouraged. However, they do not remove all of the wax no matter how well built they are’. The only way one can remove 98 to 99 percent of the wax from old comb is to use steam, a press and to give the press time to work. In our experience it takes eight to ten hours to remove most of the wax. This is discussed further in the book that Coggshall and wrote on beeswax’. Insofar as practical beekeeping in Africa is concerned it is possible that one of the greatest things that could be done would be to build a stainless steel plant with good presses that could render (recover) what must be tonnes of beeswax lost because of inefficient harvesting methods. Also, Jim Nightingale in Kenya showed me his solar wax |





Extracting wax efficiently



racy [2,

350 inl.


machine. He was buying the dregs from the local beer factory and rendering useful beeswax from it. Professor Roger Morse, Cornell University,

USA. |.


Lesher, C; Morse, R A (1982) The efficiency of solar wax extractors. American Bee Journal 122 (12) 820-821. Coggshall, W L; Morse, R A (1984) Beeswax: production harvesting, processing and products, Ithaca, NY, USA: Wicwas Press 192 pp.

Criticals do not come singly! It is source of hopelessness and pity that we are unable to pay the subscription for the Newsletter nor do we have wax to send. wish had the ability to participate in this special moment but unfortunately, as our people say “criticals do not come singly”. Let me again hope that may be so lucky as to be paid for and pray that God save our very special a





EL-Amin Mohammed Ahmed, West Darfur, Sudan.






You now have a choice of ways to subscribe to Beekeeping and Development: Option |. Pay the equivalent of US$20 in your loca! currency to the Chapter of AAA in your country. In addition to receiving Beekeeping




Iso be

3a Me

10 or US$20 (or by Beeswax Barter) direct to IBRA. Your copies of Beekeeping and Development will be posted to you air mail by IBRA.

Option 2. Pay

etyer of AAA.

Your copies of Beekeeping and Development will be delivered by your

Dr Vinod K Mattu

Ms Soesilawati Hadisoesilo Dr Kun-Suk Woo

indonesia Korea

Dr Hyong-Gyun Park

MH Muid





AAA Chapter. CHAPTERS OF AAA HAVE NOW BEEN ESTABLISHED Address Country Representative China India




Chinese Apicultural Association, Xiangshan, Beijing Central Bee Research Institute, Khadi & Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 016 Department of Bio-Sciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171 005 PO Box 4/BKN Bangkinang 28401, Riau, Sumatra Institute of Korea Beekeeping Science, College of Agriculture, Seou! National University, Suwon 440 744 institute of Agricultural Science & Technology. Kyungpook National University, Taegu 635 Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University Pertanian, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Beekeeping Training & Extension Support Project, Godawari, Kathmandu Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, PO NIH, Islamabad Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna




Mr Krishna K Shrestha


Dr Rafiq Ahmad


Dr Cleofas R Cervancia

Sri Lanka

Mr R W K Punchihewa

Agricultural Research Station, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP)


Dr K K Ho


Dr Siriwat Wongsiri


Mr Pham Van Lap

Department of Plant Pathology & Entomology. National Taiwan University, Taipei BBRU, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Hanoi, Hanoi

LOOKING AHEAD Please note that if you want details of an event to be advertised in this column it is important that you send information to the Editor well in advance of the planned date.

China XIX International Congress of Entomology.

28 june — 4 July 1992, Beijing. Further details from: Professor Z L Zhang, Secretary-General, XIX International Congress of Entomology, 19 Zhongguancun Lu, Beijing 100080, China. Telex: 222337 ICCST CN; Fax: (861) 2565689.

New Zealand Annual Conference of the New Zealand Beekeepers’ Association. 15-18 July 1991, Blenheim. Overseas beekeepers and members of the scientific community are welcome to attend as observers. Further details from: R J Clarke, 81 Lakings Road, Blenheim, New Zealand. Tel: 057 89803.

Thailand International Symposium on The Asian honeybees and bee mites and APIEXPO 92. 10-14 February 1992, Chulalongkorn University. Further details from: Dr Siriwat Wongsiri, Bee Biology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

The Gambia First West African Beekeeping Research Seminar. 23-28 November 1991, Friendship Hostel, Bakau.

If there is no Chapter of AAA in your country, then please write to: AAA, Institute of Honeybee Science, Tamagawa University, Machida-Shi, Tokyo 194, Japan.

Further details from: AFET, Brikama Town, Kombo Central District, Western Division, The Gambia.

Trinidad and Tobago

Fifth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates. 7-12 September 1992, University of the West Indies. Further details from: International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF] 3DY, UK.

UK 2nd Quadrennial Meeting of the International Society of Hymenopterists. 11-17 August 1991, University of Sheffield, Sheffield. The programme will include papers, posters and symposia on all aspects of Hymenoptera research. Further details from: Paul M Marsh, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, c/o National Museum of Natural History NHB-168, Washington DC 20560, USA. Tel: (202) 382 1782; Fax: (202) 786 9422.

USA International Conference on Black Locust: biology, culture and utilization. 17-21 june 1991, Michigan State University. One Session will include ‘Honey production’. Further details from: Dr James W Hanover, Department of Forestry, 126 Natural Resources Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1222, USA. Fax: (517) 336-1143.

Yugoslavia XXXII

International Congress of Apiculture — APIMONDIA. 29 September — 4 October 1991, Split. Further details from: Poslovna Zajednica ZA, Pcelarstvo Bulevar 17a 11070 Beograd, Yugoslavia. Jugoslavije, 11





FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERSNTE OF APCULTURE le CMATES Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, 7-12 September 1992 Plans are proceeding smoothly for the Fifth in this series of Conferences, to be held in Trinidad and Tobago in 1992.

The Conference venue is the University of the West Indies in north- vest Trinidad. On one day during the Conference week Delegates will have the opportunity to travel to Tobago to visit government and private apiaries. Plans are in hand for optional beekeeping visits during the week following the Conference. you wish your name to be added to the Conference mailing list please contact: IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY, UK. If



awoke, 2. -EMINAR IN THE GAMBIA This meeting is being organised by the Association of Farmers, Educators and Traders in the Gambia and will be held in The Friendship. Hostel, Bakau, 23-28 November 1991. The Seminar aims to define the problems facing beekeepers in West Africa, and to discuss solutions towards these problems. Approaches to beekeeping projects and the implementation of appropriate technology will be discussed. Further details from:

AFET, Brikama Town, Kombo Central District, Western Division, The Gambia


INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE ASIAN HONEY BEES AND BE MITES International Symposium on The Asian honeybees and bee mites and APIEXPO 92.

Bee World has been published since 1919. This informative journal, published quarterly by IBRA, is used and valued by its worldwide readership. Read by both scientist and non-scientist, articles in Bee World aim to be of wide interest and the journal includes many distinguished names amongst its authcrs. individual IBRA Membership, including Bee World 27.50 Bee World to non-members 33.00.

10-14 February 1992, Chulalongkorn University. Further details from: Dr Siriwat Wongsiri, Bee Biology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University,

Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Details of other IBRA services and specimen copy of Bee World free on request from: International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY, UK.

IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION 1990/2 (December 1990) TIGERPAPER Vol XVII: No 4 (October-December 1990)


These two publications are available from FAO regional office in Bangkok. Neither contains information pertaining to bees or beekeeping but both carry interesting papers on rural technology, forest and wildlife conservation programmes. Those wishing to obtain free copies please write to:

Dr Y S Rao, Regional Forestry Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.








is a quarterly magazine on appropriate technology aiming to create more effective communication concerning small-scale technology transfer and development.

AT-Source articles are published in the fields of agriculture, energy, engineering, services and health. Information is given on small-scale technology and on the social and economic impacts of technology introduction. In

AT-Source is published by four organisations in the Netherlands and Belgium in both English and French versions. At the moment, AT-Source has 2,500 subscribers. Information and a free issue can be obtained from:

Editorial Staff, AT-Source, PO Box 41, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Beekeeping and Development is published quarterly by the International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY. UK. Telephone 0222 372409 International 44 222 372409, Fax: 0222 665522 International 44 222 665522. See page two for subscription details. ISSN 0256-4424 Environmentally Friendly Paper.