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2019 Summer Edition

WHY DIESEL FUEL

MUST IMPROVE Advances in Engine Technology Prompt Critical Look at Fuel SpeciďŹ cations, Storage Practices Page 20

Plus Spotlight on

Quality Solutions

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CONTENTS 2019 SUMMER ISSUE VOLUME 16 ISSUE 3

FEATURES

12 Quality Solutions SPOTLIGHT

Biodiesel Magazine profiles those dedicated to improving fuel quality and providing coproduct, feedstock collection and retail solutions

BY RON KOTRBA

20 Diesel’s Fuel Quality Imperative QUALITY

Engine advancements are outpacing diesel fuel’s ability to keep up, but experts suggest ways diesel and biodiesel fuel can remain topnotch

BY RON KOTRBA

12

DEPARTMENTS 4 Editor’s Note

Job No. 1

BY RON KOTRBA 5 Events Calendar 6 Business Briefs 8 Inside NBB

20 Advertiser Index

ON THE COVER:

The modular common rail injection system ensures efficient fuel supply in diesel engines, but with pressures reaching 40,000 psi today and up to 70,000 psi in next-generation engines, the tolerance for impurities in diesel fuel is at an all-time low. Does the market have what it takes to deliver clean, dry fuels for today’s—and tomorrow’s—engines? PHOTO: BOSCH

27 16 23 15 2 28 13 24 18 5, 26 7 25 17 19 14 6

2020 International Fuel Ethanol Workshop & Expo Advanced Fuel Solutions, Inc. BDI - BioEnergy International GmbH Center for Quality Assurance/Top Tier Diesel Fuel Desmet Ballestra North America Evonik Oil Additives USA, Inc. GlobalTech Fluids LLC Iowa Central Fuel Testing Lab Missouri Soybean Association National Biodiesel Board Oil-Dri Corporation of America Port of Stockton R.W. Heiden Associates, LLC Reiter Scientific Stanhope-Seta SWANA Solid Waste Association of North America www.BiodieselMagazine.com

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EDITOR'S NOTE

JOB NO. 1 Ron Kotrba

Editor Biodiesel Magazine rkotrba@bbiinternational.com

Many of you will remember the old Ford Motor Co. slogan from the 1980s, “Quality is Job One.” I sure do. The genius ad

campaign kept recurring in my mind as I put this issue of Biodiesel Magazine together, specifically when writing my page-20 feature, “Diesel’s Fuel Quality Imperative.” In particular, I kept thinking how the diesel fuel supply chain should really take note of that old Ford slogan. I attended several conferences recently where the issue of diesel fuel quality has been brought up time and time again, in numerous presentations by multiple stakeholders. Over the past several months, I held extensive interviews with many experts on this topic to dig deep into the issue. The resulting article is my attempt to delineate what the problem is (poor quality diesel fuel); why this is a problem (new engine technologies have low tolerances for impurities); who is to blame (it depends on who you ask); what can be done about it (the jury is still out on whether fuel specifications must be modified or if better downstream housekeeping can solve the issues); and what interim solutions can be helpful (volunteer quality programs such as Top Tier and better storage, handling and dispensing housekeeping procedures). Interestingly, as the National Biodiesel Board’s technical director Scott Fenwick points out to me, with all of the identified problems in today’s diesel fuel— moisture content, stability, metals, particulate contaminants, and cold flow—biodiesel actually has a specification and limits to address most of those, while diesel fuel does not. “Even though biodiesel is a relatively small component in the finished fuel, it’s the only component that has a filterability limit in the Cold Soak Filtration Test, a metals content limit, and a stability limit, which are some of the concerns OEMs have today,” Fenwick tells me. “Biodiesel is the only component that begins to address these.” This is important because if highquality biodiesel is mixed with low-quality diesel fuel, and the resulting blend is poor, which component do you think will get blamed most often? You know the answer. It’s the new kid on the block—biodiesel—even though it’s not so new anymore. Paul Nazzaro, founder and president of Advanced Fuel Solutions, says nearly two dozen revisions to ASTM D6751 have been implemented since its original publication less than 20 years ago. “The NBB and its champions as the single voice representing the biodiesel industry through the years have driven those improvements,” he says. “Unfortunately, there isn’t a single champion amongst the diesel fuel industry, and each participant has a different opinion and agenda to contribute.” While biodiesel may not be perfect, the industry has remained vigilant in its pursuit of quality and market acceptance. Perhaps biodiesel could teach its bigger, older, fossil-derived brother a thing or two in this respect. Finally, I would be remiss not to bring attention to one of our most impressive spotlight composites since we launched the section two years ago. Starting on page 12 in “Quality Solutions,” we spotlight a coproduct pioneer and his offerings to help biodiesel producers improve their margins; an analytical instrumentation company and its new, handheld measurement device; a volunteer diesel fuel quality program; a consultative additive supplier; a lab testing company led by a quality guru; a state association working to bridge gaps; and a software company streamlining feedstock collection. A special thanks to all of our advertisers for doing what you do to support the biodiesel industry and our publication, which serves those same hardworking individuals. Have a great summer! And remember, quality is? You got it. Job No. 1.

www.BiodieselMagazine.com E D I T O R I A L Ron Kotrba Editor rkotrba@bbiinternational.com Jan Tellmann Copy Editor jtellmann@bbiinternational.com P U B L I S H I N G

Tom Bryan

President tbryan@bbiinternational.com

John Nelson Howard Brockhouse

Vice President of Marketing & Sales jnelson@bbiinternational.com Business Development Director hbrockhouse@bbiinternational.com

Chip Shereck

Senior Account Manager cshereck@bbiinternational.com

Jessica Tiller

Circulation Manager jtiller@bbiinternational.com

Marla DeFoe

Marketing & Advertising Manager mdefoe@bbiinternational.com

Dayna Bastian

Social Media & Marketing Coordinator dbastian@bbiinternational.com

Jaci Satterlund

A R T Art Director jsatterlund@bbiinternational.com

Raquel Boushee

Graphic Designer rboushee@bbiinternational.com

Subscriptions Subscriptions to Biodiesel Magazine are free of charge to everyone with the exception of a shipping and handling charge for any country outside the United States. To subscribe, visit www. biodieselmagazine.com or you can send your mailing address and payment (checks made out to BBI International) to: Biodiesel Magazine Subscriptions, 308 Second Ave. N., Suite 304, Grand Forks, ND 58203. You can also fax a subscription form to 701-746-5367. Reprints and Back Issues Select back issues are available for $3.95 each, plus shipping. Article reprints are also available for a fee. For more information, contact us at 701-746-8385 or service@bbiinternational.com. Advertising Biodiesel Magazine provides a specific topic delivered to a highly targeted audience. We are committed to editorial excellence and highquality print production. To find out more about Biodiesel Magazine advertising opportunities, please contact us at 701-746-8385 or service@ bbiinternational.com. Letters to the Editor We welcome letters to the editor. If you write us, please include your name, address and phone number. Letters may be edited for clarity and/or space. Send to Biodiesel Magazine Letters, 308 Second Ave. N., Suite 304, Grand Forks, ND 58203 or email rkotrba@bbiinternational.com.

Please recycle this magazine and remove inserts or samples before recycling

COPYRIGHT © 2019 by BBI International

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S A L E S

CEO jbryan@bbiinternational.com

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Joe Bryan


EVENTS CALENDAR

National Biodiesel Conference & Expo JANUARY 20-23, 2020 Tampa, Florida This premier event offers an impressive schedule filled with opportunities for networking, learning and discovery. Conference-goers and exhibitors will be able to engage with decisionmakers and get an insider’s look at what the industry has in store for 2020. 573-635-3893 www.biodieselconference.org

International Biomass Conference & Expo FEBRUARY 3-5, 2020 Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center Nashville, Tennessee Organized by BBI International and produced by Biomass Magazine, this event brings current and future producers of bioenergy and biobased products together with waste generators, energy crop growers, municipal leaders, utility executives, technology providers, equipment manufacturers, project developers, investors and policy makers. It’s a true one-stop shop— the world’s premier educational and networking junction for all biomass industries. 866-746-8385 www.biomassconference.com

International Fuel Ethanol Workshop & Expo JUNE 15-17, 2020 Minneapolis Convention Center Minneapolis, Minnesota From its inception, the mission of this event has remained constant: The FEW delivers timely presentations with a strong focus on commercial-scale ethanol production—from quality control and yield maximization to regulatory compliance and fiscal management. The FEW is the ethanol industry’s premier forum for unveiling new technologies and research findings. The program is primarily focused on optimizing grain ethanol operations while also covering cellulosic and advanced ethanol technologies. 866-746-8385 www.biomassconference.com

Learn More About the Biodiesel Industry View Biodiesel Magazine's Webinar Series' upcoming and OnDemand webinars. 866-746-8385 | www.biodieselmagazine.com/pages/webinar

www.BiodieselMagazine.com

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BusinessBriefs

People, Products & Partnerships

offered biodiesel at its Peru, Illinois, location in 2004. Today, Sapp Bros. distributes and sells biodiesel throughout its wholesale and travel center network.

well as infrastructure to allow for blending opportunities at the loading rack. The product at this location will be distilled biodiesel shipped from one of REG’s production facilities. REG Marketing & Logistics Group LLC is a qualified supplier and wholesaler as part of the Massachusetts Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard.

PHOTO: SAPP BROS.

Sapp Bros. celebrated the opening of its newest biodiesel blending terminal located in Sioux City, Iowa, with an open house June 13. Representatives from Sapp Bros., Renewable Energy Group Inc., Ag Processing Inc. and MEG Corp. were on hand to answer questions about the new facility and biodiesel. The new blending terminal is located approximately one mile from the Magellan Sioux City terminal. Fuel suppliers can load diesel on their transport at the terminal, then load biodiesel at the Sapp Bros. terminal to the desired blend level. Fuel suppliers will have 24/7 access and loading upon approval. The biodiesel offered at Sapp Bros.’ new blending terminal in Sioux City is sourced from BQ-9000-certified plants, assuring high-quality biodiesel. Sapp Bros. first

Renewable Energy Group Inc. and Broco Oil Co. announced a partnership May 6 to provide cleaner fuel options to heating oil dealers in the Northeast. The companies are working together to provide a state-of-the-art blending facility in Haverhill, Massachusetts. The partnership between REG and Broco is an agreement to provide Bioheat from the Haverhill location. “We believe in the environmental and economic value that blending biodiesel brings to our business and customers, and we are passionate about providing a clean and sustainable fuel option,� said Robert Brown, owner of Broco Oil. Terminal upgrades will include rail improvements as

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Atlantic Biodiesel’s grand opening ceremony in 2015 PHOTO: ATLANTIC BIODIESEL CORP.

A Canadian subsidiary of Germanybased Verbio Vereinigte BioEnergie AG signed a contract May 2 to purchase Atlantic Biodiesel Corp.’s biodiesel production facility in Welland, Ontario, Canada. Verbio is a German biofuel producer with approximately 470,000 tons of annual biodiesel productive capacity. The firm’s Canadian subsidiary pur-

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BUSINESS BRIEFS chasing Atlantic Biodiesel is named Verbio Diesel Canada Corp. Atlantic Biodiesel opened the 45 MMgy plant in June 2015 after the former Great Lakes Biodiesel plant’s lender Heridge S.a.R.L.’s stalking horse bid won the assets from a bankruptcy auction in early 2015. Heridge formed the subsidiary Atlantic Biodiesel Corp. to manage operations in Welland. According to Verbio, the purchase will be financed by using its freely available cash and internal cash flow. The company expects to close on the deal midyear.

tons today to 80,000 metric tons. The new capacity will come online in 2020. Sodium methylate is an efficient and reliable catalyst that provides a sustainable solution for the production and use of biodiesel, meeting the requirements of engine manufacturers for high-quality fuels and lower emissions. Sodium methylate supports higher yields and low preparation costs for biodiesel. With this expansion, BASF will support the growth of its sodium methylate customers. Brazil is an important and significant market for biodiesel and corresponding catalysts. BASF’s site in Guaratinguetá is ideally suited for the investment to supply the growing customer demand in Brazil and other South American countries. The site is close to the leading biodiesel producers in Brazil as well as Santos port, providing logistic advantages for exports to the region.

BASF’s sodium methylate plant in Guaratinguetá, Brazil PHOTO: BASF

BASF will increase the production capacity of its sodium methylate plant in Guaratinguetá, Brazil. The nameplate capacity will increase by 30 percent, from 60,000 metric

Inc., wholly owned subsidiaries of Seaboard Corp. and owner of two U.S. biodiesel plants, have changed names to Seaboard Energy Marketing Inc. No ownership changes have taken place. The name change is a rebranding effort as the business expands and grows into new areas. The company purchased an idle cellulosic ethanol plant in Hugoton, Kansas, from Synata in February, which bought the plant out of bankruptcy from Abengoa Bioenergy in 2016. Seaboard Energy is considering renewable diesel production at the site. The company’s two active biodiesel plants are changing names too. The 30 MMgy enzymatic biodiesel production facility in St. Joseph, Missouri, formerly owned by Blue Sun Biodiesel, which High Plains Energy acquired in 2016, is changing its name from HPB-St. Joe Biodiesel to Seaboard Energy Missouri LLC. The company’s biodiesel plant in Guymon, Oklahoma, is changing names from High Plains Bioenergy LLC to Seaboard Energy Oklahoma LLC.

High Plains Bioenergy and its biodiesel marketing division HPB Biodiesel

Select ADVANCING BIOFUELS Select® formulated mineral technology is a powerful solution for purification of diesel and renewable diesel feedstocks. It has been proven in refineries to efficiently remove metals and other impurities. Using Select can reduce operating costs and improve feedstock quality.

Partner with us to advance your operation. SGĚGEěHORDKOHTGĚSEOM ĝTKFSPTRKĂECěKON"OKĚFRKEOM


NATIONAL

BOARD

Making Connections in Biodiesel It’s been a busy first half of the year for the National Biodiesel Board—a time of travel, relationship building and extending the conversation about biodiesel and renewable diesel to a wide array of audiences across the country. Trade shows and conferences are in full swing, with industry professionals pouring in to talk about what the future has in store. With all the talk being about carbon reduction and cleaner emissions, the future means Donnell Rehagen, CEO, biodiesel and renewable diesel. National Biodiesel Board Through sponsorships, expo booths and a variety of speaking engagements, NBB has ensured that our biodiesel messages get heard by key audiences. This spring, important leaders in the industry represented biodiesel at Commodity Classic, the Climate Leadership Conference, National Renderers Association meetings, the National Association of Fleet Administrators Institute & Expo, the National Association of Farm Broadcasters Washington Watch, the Advanced Clean Transportation Expo, and much more. To continue to highlight our efforts and increase our footprint, I have had my boots on the ground working to develop and strengthen relationships with collaborative partners. In a new setting for the biodiesel conversation, I was invited to San Antonio, Texas, for the annual meeting of the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, where I participated on a panel with Bob Dinneen from the Renewable Fuels Association, Rob Underwood with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America, and Chet Thompson of AFPM to discuss the current status of the Renewable Fuel Standard and what we expect in the future. AFPM’s annual meeting is described as the world’s premier refining meeting, assembling key executives and technical experts from refining and marketing organizations worldwide, as well as representatives from associated industries. The petroleum industry remains an important partner of the biodiesel industry. As one of the largest buyers of biodiesel, it is important for the two groups to share common goals and success. Afterall, almost all of our product makes it to market with the help of our petroleum partners. It is important to stay aligned by attending meetings like this, as well as having petroleum industry leaders attend and speak at our National Biodiesel Conference & Expo. In addition, NBB sponsored and presented at the annual California Advanced Biofuel Alliance in Sacramento. California continues to be an important market for biodiesel and NBB is happy for the opportunity to speak in front of this critical stakeholder group. 8

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We have also hosted several strategic fly-ins to Washington, D.C., to fuel our advocacy efforts. In April, NBB’s governing board members met in D.C. where they visited Capitol Hill to meet with senators and representatives about biodiesel’s federal policy issues. Chief among these issues is the reinstatement of the biodiesel tax credit, which is vital for our industry to be able to grow and plan for the future. NBB’s June membership meeting was also hosted in our nation’s capital. This meeting allows our larger membership base to continue its very important advocacy efforts with legislators on the Hill. At the meeting, NBB staff, key contractors and invited guest speakers provided insights and updates on the main issues we are facing as an industry. Featured at the June membership meeting was advocacy for the biodiesel industry’s policy priorities, including tax incentives, trade and the RFS, technical advancements, sustainability program initiatives, the latest in state policy movement, communications campaigns, and more. In this busy season of advocacy and travel, our team also held multiple regional member meetings, where we led discussions on critical regional issues, high-level industry efforts, and other items in small group settings. Regional meetings provide an excellent opportunity for a more in-depth focus on issues that may not be available at larger gatherings. Attendees often share that they are able to ask questions and get a better understanding about programs and topics that they did not know about. Ultimately, I’d like to recognize our governing board for its strong commitment and willingness to share leadership with our organization and industry. I am beyond proud of the staff and team at NBB but, with the insights our industry members share with us, we can be much more assured of an accurate picture of the issues that really impact our industry. The volunteers who make up our governing board commit a lot of time and resources to making sure our industry is on a path to success. I am grateful to each of them. Through these extensive conversations and connections throughout the industry, it’s clear that biodiesel is making an impact among the crowds. With these meaningful face-to-face interactions, the National Biodiesel Board is showing how biodiesel is providing benefits and creating a future for America’s advanced biofuel. Donnell Rehagen CEO National Biodiesel Board


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NBB Biodiesel Producers, Congressional Champions Rally for Biodiesel Tax Credit On the morning of May 1, five U.S. representatives and three senators stood with biodiesel producers to rally in support of the biodiesel tax incentive. The event highlighted Congress’ bipartisan, bicameral support for the more than 60,000 workers across the U.S. that the biodiesel industry supports. The National Biodiesel Board worked with the offices of Sens. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa; Joni Ernst, R-Iowa; and Sheldon Whitehouse, D-Rhode Island; and Reps. Abby Finkenauer, D-Iowa; Cheri Bustos, D-Illinois; Darin LaHood, R-Illinois; Dave Loebsack, DIowa; and Rosa DeLauro, D-Connecticut; to organize the event on the steps of the U.S. Capitol building. NBB members and their employees also worked to make the event a success, with representatives of Newport Biodiesel, Hero BX, American GreenFuels, Western Dubuque Biodiesel, the Illinois Soybean Association, Archer Daniels Midland and Renewable Energy Group. “Biodiesel’s footprint is all over the country—Washington and Oregon, Connecticut and Rhode Island,” Grassley noted as he kicked off the rally. “There’s been a lot of talk about the need to promote green energy and reduce our carbon emissions. And this product goes a long way in helping us accomplish that goal. The biodiesel tax credit is a very effective and proven provision to accomplish that goal.” Grassley, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, is a cosponsor of Senate legislation (S.617) that would extend for two years all tax credits that expired in 2017. In the House of Representatives, Finkenauer is the lead sponsor of the Biodiesel Tax Credit Extension Act of 2019 (H.R.2089). She worked with Democrats and Republicans to develop the legislation, introduced April 4, which would specifically extend the biodiesel tax incentive for 2018 and 2019. Congress last extended the tax credit retroactively for 2017 but left it expired for 2018 and beyond. The members of Congress echoed the sentiment that extension of the tax credit was coming nearly a year and a half late for the industry. “This comes at a time when farm income is at its lowest point in more than a decade and farmers are bearing the brunt of ongoing trade disputes,” Finkenauer said. “I came to Congress to give Iowans a seat at the table and to make sure that our government stops kicking the can down the road on issues that affect Iowa’s economy and rural communities. It’s common sense and I was glad to work with my Republican colleagues on this important issue.”

Rep. Abby Finkenauer, D-Iowa, addresses a crowd May 1 on the east front lawn of the U.S. Capitol building during a rally in support of the biodiesel tax credit.

Finkenauer continues to champion the biodiesel tax credit extension legislation. On May 25, over Memorial Day weekend, the congresswoman held a Biodiesel Day, visiting and speaking with constituents and employees at Western Dubuque Biodiesel in Farley and Big River Resources in Dyersville within her district. “When you have the House controlled by one party and the Senate by another, anything we do we have to find common ground, and it is happening,” Finkenauer said. “We absolutely have to get this done to help our soybean farmers.” Donnell Rehagen, NBB CEO, said, “The National Biodiesel Board and its member companies thank Congresswoman Abby Finkenauer for her leadership in making the biodiesel tax incentive a priority for this Congress. The biodiesel industry supports more than 60,000 jobs across the United States, and all of those workers are counting on Congress to get the job done and renew the tax incentive as quickly as possible.”

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Biodiesel Leaders Gather in DC to Amplify Industry Voice Biodiesel advocates met this summer in Washington, D.C., as the National Biodiesel Board hosted its annual summer membership meeting June 10-12. This year’s meeting focused on integral association business and critical federal policy initiatives, including the biodiesel tax incentive extension. “This annual meeting is beneficial for our members and is an excellent time for them to be in the Capitol, meeting with their legislators to strengthen the biodiesel message,” said Donnell Rehagen, NBB CEO. “With each conversation, NBB is able to continue to make strides on policy essential to our growing biodiesel industry.” Meeting with elected leaders is one of the key reasons NBB gathers in Washington, D.C., each year. During the members’ stay in D.C., NBB organized more than 70 visits on Capitol Hill for members to meet with their representatives in Congress. These visits help the biodiesel industry create strong relationships with those fighting for America’s advanced biofuel on the Hill and in moving the needle in terms of policy progress.

“It’s important for policymakers to hear first-hand from their constituents about the importance of the biodiesel industry,” said Kurt Kovarik, NBB vice president of federal affairs. “Nothing can replace the impact of face-to-face interactions with representatives in Washington, D.C., and its importance to achieving biodiesel initiatives.” In addition, members heard from association leadership, key staff and other subject-matter experts on topics ranging from trade and the Renewable Fuel Standard, technical advancements, sustainability program initiatives, the latest in state policy movement, communications campaigns, and more. If you are not currently a member of NBB and would like to attend and participate in future events, contact Brad Shimmens, director of operations and membership, at 573-635-3893 or bshimmens@biodiesel.org to join NBB.

Ad Campaign Turns up the Volume on Biodiesel Impact The National Biodiesel Board’s annual advertising campaign hit the airwaves in May with biodiesel education aimed to influence key decisionmakers on the many benefits of biodiesel. Funded by the United Soybean Board, the U.S. Canola Association and a dozen qualified state soybean boards, this educational campaign allows NBB to reach an audience unfamiliar with agriculture and the biodiesel industry, as a major component includes targeted advertising in the Mid-Atlantic, Washington, D.C., and California regions. “These ads strive to increase consumer acceptance and industry growth through education and promotion,” said Kaleb Little, NBB director of communications. “Extending our reach nationwide is mutually beneficial for NBB, its members and production agriculturalists across the country.” So far this year, digital ads have run in The Washington Post, The Hill, Politico, Roll Call, more than two dozen news and information sites, and on social media. The campaign has already earned approximately 1.25 million impressions. With more than 2,000 clicks on the ads, it’s apparent that viewers are interested in taking action and learning more about biodiesel’s impact across the nation. The NBB advertising campaign will continue to make a larger impact throughout the summer and early fall, promoting the biodiesel industry and its mission.

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Sustaining Environmental Stewardship with Biodiesel Sustainability is a hot-button topic and buzzword across industries today. We as a society are becoming more environmentally conscious. With continued and increased consumer interest in sustainable products, the National Biodiesel Board is taking the opportunity to spotlight biodiesel and its many ecofriendly benefits. To showcase biodiesel’s role in environmental stewardship, the NBB team has taken the sustainable message to the masses. “The National Biodiesel Board is actively working to tell the biodiesel story in multiple ways to multiple stakeholders,” said Don Scott, NBB sustainability director. In March, NBB attended the Climate Leadership Conference in Baltimore. Leading environmental groups such as the World Wildlife Fund, Rocky Mountain Institute and Environmental Defense Fund, as well as governmental agencies and large corporate partners, gather at this conference to discuss best environmental practices. During the event, NBB helped educate and remind advocates and policymakers of the benefits and opportunities with biodiesel. While popular solutions like electrification can often dominate the conversation, NBB staff was able to remind attendees of biodiesel’s many science-based advantages. In addition, Scott recently promoted biodiesel at a handful of media events in conjunction with Cummins and its new retrofit engine program. Scott has been working with NBB’s technical team to shore up Cummins’ support for biodiesel blends by helping the engine maker understand the benefits of domestic, low-carbon biodiesel. Cummins responded by donating one of its new retrofit engines to the National Biodiesel Foundation and inviting NBB to join Cummins in promoting biodiesel as Cummins promotes the benefits of its new retrofit engines. Cummins has shown its appreciation for NBB’s enthusiastic participation in these events and is expected to join NBB at other expos in the future. “Consumers and fleets are looking for cleaner fuel options,” Scott explained. “Biodiesel has both environmental and economic advantages, and engine manufacturers like Cummins are eagerly implementing it into their vehicles.” To continue the educational outreach and share the many benefits, NBB also celebrated Earth Day April 22. In honor of this national holiday, NBB hosted a webinar for biodiesel supporters that took an in-depth look into biodiesel’s sustainability benefits. Webinar attendees received materials in order to share biodiesel’s benefits on Earth Day. NBB shared these sustainable advantages across social media on the national holiday and throughout the week, celebrating biodiesel’s impact around the country. These messages gained more than 4,000 impressions, amplifying NBB’s voice coast to coast. It is important to share that biodiesel continues to do its part to protect the earth. In fact, biodiesel reduces carbon emissions in

This 1972 Jeep has been repowered by a new Cummins crate engine, which has tripled fuel economy while reducing fuel costs and CO2 emissions driving on B20.

America by 25 million metric tons annually, the equivalent of preserving 29 million acres of mature forests. That is nearly 80 percent fewer life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum diesel. In addition to reducing emissions, biodiesel also helps the nation’s food supply. One gallon of biodiesel cannot be produced without coproducing 30 pounds of protein and 22 pounds of carbohydrates and dietary fiber to help sustain healthy populations. More biodiesel simply means more food for American consumers. The earth must be preserved for future generations, and biodiesel is doing its part to help. These promising numbers are just another reason to share biodiesel’s story. “The biodiesel industry won’t continue to grow if consumers and policymakers don’t know and understand the many benefits,” Scott said. “If we reach different audiences, we can continue our sustainable approach and expand the use of biodiesel nationwide.” It is clear these events and initiatives were excellent opportunities to spread awareness about the reliability and advantages of biodiesel to stakeholders and thought leaders. For more information about biodiesel’s sustainability, visit biodiesel.org and check out our new brochure, “Biodiesel: Fueling Sustainability.”

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Quality SO L UT I O N S Biodiesel Magazine profiles seven companies and organizations dedicated to improving biodiesel fuel quality and providing coproduct, feedstock collection and retail solutions BY RON KOTRBA

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SPOTLIGHT GlobalTech Fluids Oscar Domingo is more than a visionary embodying disparate passions of chemical ingenuity and environmental stewardship. He’s a doer. After developing organic engine coolants and other functional fluids for automakers in Venezuela 25 years ago, he and his family came to the U.S. to safely continue development of his green technology as the social situation back home crumbled under the Chávez regime. Leaving everything behind, Domingo settled in Orlando, Florida, where he launched GlobalTech Fluids, a company dedicated to development and commercialization of glycerinbased engine coolant and hydraulic fluids. The most important partners in Domingo’s new endeavor are biodiesel producers. Not only do they make the base fluid at the heart of his vision, but many are located in ag country where farmers—heavy users of functional fluids and those who can benefit most from organic derivatives—are concentrated. “Spills can be detrimental to soil,” Domingo says. “If glycerin-based fluids spill, they have a fertilizing effect.” A technical specification exists for lowtoxicity fluids used in environmentally sensitive areas. “But heretofore these low-toxicity fluids have been expensive—five to 10 times the cost of petroleum-based fluids,” Domingo says. “By

creating fluids from a biodiesel coproduct, we create a finished product that may actually have a cost advantage.” With that, people pay attention. “The challenge,” Domingo says, “is communicating the existence of such products, and finding marketing partners who can produce and deliver to people who can use them.” With minimal investment, biodiesel producers can partner with GlobalTech Fluids to add significant value to their crude glycerin—a much-needed boost to bottom lines when margins are tight. Salt is the only real contaminant that must be removed from the crude glycerin before upscaling. “This can be done by a membrane filtration system,” Domingo says. The biodiesel producer must also have a blending tank and storage capacity for the desalinized crude glycerin and any potential blending fluids—whether this be water, 1,3 propanediol, propylene glycol or ethylene glycol. “Once the crude glycerin is desalinated, the question becomes, ‘What are we making today?’” Domingo says. Which functional fluid the plant chooses to make determines which blend agent is used. The technology is flexible enough that the final products can be tailored to the climactic and geographic region of the producer, but a general-purpose fluid can be made too. The partner-producer stores inventory of GlobalTech Fluid’s multifunctional additive

Domingo

package in 55-gallon drums. The proprietary additive package is the same whether making coolant or hydraulic fluids. “It’s a blend of carboxylic acids, lubricity improvers, antifoaming agents and corrosion inhibitors,” Domingo says. “It’s performance-improvement chemistry. The desalinated, crude glycerin can be used with the GlobalTech Fluids’ chemistry alone, or mixed with water, or another molecule. It’s literally just a blend.” Domingo sees the end of petroleumbased lubricants on the horizon with himself on top of a new wave of high-performing, organic replacements. “That’s my vision,” he says. “To protect equipment, but in a much more environmentally friendly way.”

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SPOTLIGHT Stanhope-Seta U.K.-based Stanhope-Seta has a long history of producing high-quality laboratory analysis instruments. Over the years, it has focused heavily on measurement of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), specifically in jet and marine fuels under the respective ASTM D7797 and D7963 specifications. “We’ve applied our experience and expertise to bringing fast, accurate testing of fuels to the wider end-user market,” says Matt Fielder, Stanhope-Seta’s market development manager. “The goal has been to see more lab-type testing done real-time in the field at affordable prices to the end user.” Enter SetaCheck Biodiesel SA5500-0—a truly portable, hand-held device that enables quick, accurate, on-site measurement of biodiesel content with a measurement range of 0.1 to 40 percent, with precision to one-hundredth of a percent. “Typically, the Fouriertransform infrared laboratory instruments can go down to a tenth of a percent,” Fielder says. “Our unique ‘FAME in Jet Instrument’ technologies can measure to parts-per-million levels. The SetaCheck handheld is a subset of the FIJI technologies and gives laboratory performance in a highly portable device. Knowledge gained from development of FIJI instruments and standards, coupled with our brilliant prod-

uct design engineers, has led to the repackaging of critical elements of the technology for wider portable use. We’ve looked at and evaluated many different techniques and designs for a true handheld product—and we believe we have finally created that tool.” A number of reasons exist why such a portable, rugged, easy-to-use field instrument is essential to rapidly and accurately checking biodiesel content in diesel fuel. “For blenders and users, proving your blend ratios are correct allows correct management of tax credits and associated income,” Fielder says. “The SetaCheck device allows a rapid and accurate check that the fuel delivered meets expected specifications,” particularly important in splashblended fuels. Furthermore, SetaCheck allows for a rapid check of a vehicle tank’s contents. “Vehicle and engine manufacturers all warranty engines under certain running conditions, and biodiesel content is one of the parameters,” he adds. “A rapid check by service centers of vehicle fuel immediately confirms whether the biodiesel content meets the requirements of the manufacturer.” Those who could benefit from such a device include oil majors and pipeliners all the way down to truck stop operators and systemcritical applications. “This device is perfect for anyone needing immediate, accurate, repeatable results to prove what they purchased is

what the supplier says it is,” Fielder says. “Realistically, there is no comparable instrument available. It’s rugged, robust, very simple to use with exceptional repeatability and precision. As for price, the instru- SetaCheck Biodiesel SA5500-0 ment cost falls sig- PHOTO: STANHOPE-SETA LTD. nificantly below that of existing technologies.” In March, ASTM announced a proposed standard, WK55232, under development by the D02 committee to allow use of portable, rapid, mid-infrared analyzers. Fielder says WK55232 successfully passed the D02 Sub 04F ballot and, at press time, a D02 main ballot was imminent. “The benefit of having an ASTM method highlights the process that we as a company have had to work through to ensure resilience, robustness and suitability for the U.S. market,” he says. Effective fuel quality control can now be performed outside the lab, Fielder says. “It doesn’t have to be expensive, and you don’t need super hi-tech equipment and a degree to operate it.”

SetaCheck® Biodiesel Rapid and precise measurement of Biodiesel in Diesel fuel ∞ Handheld instrument ∞ 0.1% to 40% range ∞ No sample dilution required ∞ Less than 1 minute test ∞ Simple to use ∞ Unique Mid-IR technology ∞ Bright, backlit screen ∞ User calibration via PC software

Stanhope-Seta, London Street, Chertsey, Surrey, KT16 8AP, UK t: +44 (0) 1932 564391 | e: sales@stanhope-seta.co.uk | www.stanhope-seta.co.uk 14

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SPOTLIGHT Top Tier Diesel Fuel

Following a successful 2004 launch of the Top Tier Detergent Gasoline program, a consortium of diesel engine OEMs unveiled Top Tier Diesel Fuel in 2017—a volunteer retail program to improve diesel fuel quality. “Advanced diesel engines designed to meet increasing emissions standards require precise control of fuel combustion,” says Jo Lynne Parsons, Top Tier program manager with the Center for Quality Assurance, which runs the Top Tier licensing programs for the OEM sponsors. “These engines cannot tolerate impurities such as water, particles and deposits. The fuel must be extremely clean to avoid damaging fuel system components. Proper fuel chemistry can prevent corrosive acids, peroxide, gums and deposits. Current industry standards do not address all the fuel quality concerns and issues, hence the creation of Top Tier Diesel Fuel.” The voluntary program is available to sitespecific retailers meeting the requirements of the program’s performance standard, which includes stability of diesel and biodiesel-blended fuels to prevent deterioration during storage and use; deposit control to help prevent injector deposits; lubricity to minimize wear on

fuel injectors and pumps; and fuel cleanliness, particularly water and particulate control. “It’s important to realize that additive companies develop and test the packages to the performance standard, so the retailer or supplier only needs to use an approved Top Tier Diesel Fuel package at the proper treat rate and additized at the terminal,” Parsons says, adding that noharm testing may also be necessary. She says filtration and water control are site-level requirements. “No modifications are necessary to the dispensers to use the proper filters,” Parsons says. Once the retailer’s ability to meet the requirements is established, an agreement detailing terms and conditions, such as displaying the Top Tier Diesel Fuel logo at the site, is signed. The program includes qualification for biodiesel based on enhanced stability requirements—an eight-hour minimum Rancimat induction time for B100 vs. three hours in ASTM D6751. “The program is based on performance requirements that do not limit use of biodiesel to any specific blend level,” Parsons says. “The engine manufacturers and automotive companies created the Top Tier program to address fuel properties that can result in engine issues. The original effort was to improve all of the market fuel, but we were not successful in gaining enough votes at ASTM or

the National Conference on Weights and Measures to change the standards. We noted there were, however, some fuel producers and marketers supportive of the increased standards, which already met some of the changes desired. Parsons Thus, Top Tier Diesel Fuel was created in the spirit of working with these fuel marketers and producers to recognize those willing to offer fuel preferred by vehicle, equipment and engine manufacturers based on testing and data. OEMs in turn recommend Top Tier to their customers so they can easily recognize the preferred fuel and where it can be purchased.” Parsons says awareness of the need for better diesel fuel quality is growing. “For example,” she says, “fleets are realizing the impact fuel quality has on downtime and maintenance costs, and retailers have seen the detrimental effects corrosion has on their equipment. But now there is a recognized standard they can refer to. Challenges still exist though, and the complexity of the diesel supply chain is not one to be taken lightly.”

A fuel standard designed by vehicle and engine manufacturers to help maintain optimal performance in today’s modern diesel engines! TOP TIER requirements include: • Fuel stability to maintain adequate shelf life of base fuel and biodiesel • Deposit control to help prevent injector deposits • Lubricity to minimize wear on fuel injectors and pumps • Water detection and filter sizing to promote fuel cleanliness • Filterability to prevent filter plugging issues Developed by Vehicle and Engine Manufacturers Detroit Diesel Corporation Ford Motor Company General Motors Company Navistar International Corporation Volkswagen Group of America Become one of the first to offer TOP TIER Diesel Fuel Visit TOP TIER Diesel Fuel at www.TOPTIERGas.com to learn more about TOP TIER, including details on the licensing process, specific testing requirements and how you can participate. Or, contact TOPTIER@centerforqa.com. www.BiodieselMagazine.com

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SPOTLIGHT Advanced Fuel Solutions Paul Nazzaro built his career on being a disruptor. In the 1980s as a premium fuels manager for Coastal Corp., then a multibillion dollar vertically integrated refiner, he quickly observed that sales relied on lowest price. “I had to disrupt that system,� he says. “I knew then I couldn’t spend my career hoping to gain customers’ attention based on lowest price.� Nazzaro then focused on product differentiation for years until corporate downsizing in 1994 jettisoned him straight into launching Advanced Fuel Solutions, now celebrating its 25th year. “AFS began as a necessity for survival and flourishes by virtue of the support it provides customers to endure and excel in the everchanging energy landscape,� Nazzaro says. “From day one it was my goal to build a company that relied upon adhering to a consultative approach to establish all our relationships.� Starting with needs analyses, which brother Lou coined “the Optimum Discovery Process,� Nazzaro founded AFS on asking prospective customers “lots of questions� to determine what challenges impact their bottom lines. AFS is a consultative additive supplier navigating between fuel buyers and sellers to

improve clients’ market positions. “No shelf additive package will accomplish that,� Nazzaro says. “We differentiate ourselves by integrating an unmatched consultative approach to additive use.� Its clientele is diverse, ranging from heating oil jobbers and diesel distributors to terminal operators, traders, renewable fuel producers and marketers, fleets and government agencies. Close relationships with major additive manufacturers allow AFS to handpick products from vast portfolios to formulate custom packages based on client needs. “We follow the molecule to the fuel dispenser and provide counsel to transportation fleets on all aspects of fuel quality management, including procurement programs proven to save thousands of dollars on fuel expenditures each year,� Nazzaro says. AFS can introduce its custom formulas anywhere in the supply chain, treating fuel from barges into bulk storage, at the rack through electronic blending, or onboard trucks offloading into customers’ vehicles or on-site storage. “We scour the nation for relevant, innovative technologies that help us help our customers differentiate and prosper,� Nazzaro says. How the additive will be stored, handled and blended on-site also makes a difference in success, says Nazzaro, who has long been a vocal proponent of good fuel storage system housekeeping as

integral to quality management. Over the years, AFS’s services and products have evolved to meet changing fuel slates, evolving hardware and regulatory demands. As biodiesel entered commercialization, Nazzaro Nazzaro had already spent years working to understand the challenges and opportunities it provides fuel companies. Today he is a leading biodiesel expert. “Naysayers became adopters when they found out biodiesel delivers on its promise,� he says. Nazzaro points out how governments are legislating petroleum companies out of business. “Without a low-carbon fuel option like biodiesel, they will eventually be passed over for what we now call the electrification of everything,� he says. “Biodiesel’s value proposition is a right to survive.� Nazzaro’s vast expertise has been imparted in, shared with and built alongside the entire AFS team, which includes brother Lou and son Paul Jr. “You could say AFS stands for ‘A Family Solution,� Nazzaro quips. He says building additive packages that balance performance and cost is an art. If so, then Nazzaro is a Picasso.

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Improving fuel quality through innovation for 25 years. 16

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Ä´Ĺ•ÄŤĹžÎŽĆšĹžĆ”ĹžÄŤĆ”Ä˜Ĺ‡Ć‚ĹžĹ‡Ć”ĆŒÄ´ĹžĹ•Ě‘ÄŒĹžĹ“Η̤ʀɞɞ̼ÉşÉšÉťĚŠÉťÉşÉšĘ ĆŽĆŽĆŽĚ‘ĆšĹžĆ”ĹžÄŤĆ”Ä˜Ĺ‡Ć‚ĹžĹ‡Ć”ĆŒÄ´ĹžĹ•Ě‘ÄŒĹžĹ“Ě—ÄŠÄ´ĹžÄ‘Ä´Ä˜Ć‚Ä˜Ĺ‡


SPOTLIGHT RW Heiden Associates Richard Heiden has been investigating biodiesel phenomena for more than 25 years, and his groundbreaking work has contributed greatly to a better understanding of biodiesel properties and the improvement of test methods and fuel quality. Heiden’s entrance into biodiesel research was a project for the National Biodiesel Board in the early 1990s. “It really piqued my interest,� he says. This work involved examining possible methods to determine B100 purity, which eventually morphed into ASTM D6584, the method to determine biodiesel’s free and total glycerin content. “Out of that work I met key researchers and developers of biodiesel,� Heiden says. “When the commercialization of biodiesel grew in the early 2000s, a project on fuel filtration blockage issues from the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission was landed, which spurred research into solubility-related questions.� While the PTC is no longer involved, Heiden says this work continues today. Heiden has recently seized the opportunity to document more than 10 years of research into the causes of fuel filtration blockages and improvements in analytical methodology. “This work now involves international collaborations,

and some university support,� he says. “Almost yearly, advances in this work are presented at national or international AOCS meetings.� R.W. Heiden Associates’ full-service laboratory is located in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, once a hotbed of regional biodiesel activity. “Initially, we offered ASTM D6751 services to local firms with intentions to offer a range of other services later,� Heiden says. “As the local market for these services declined, we began to focus on other services based upon earlier experience and training, such as specialized analyses of materials obstructing fuel filters, impurity investigations, corrosion incidents, industrial water, plastic failures and feedstock-quality monitoring.� The company also offers support services involving patents and other legal matters. “All in all,� Heiden says, “the company is stronger as a result of this diversification.� The lab’s client base is nationwide and, thanks to unique learning experiences and greater availability of instrumentation, the services offered are broader than ever. “Now, the lab is much more short-term project oriented, while addressing routine testing requests as well as longer-term research,� Heiden says. In addition to routine ASTM testing, R.W. Heiden Associates specializes in nonroutine biodiesel testing and glycerin analysis. “At the moment, we’re working on a variety of challenging projects that call upon developed skills and long-term

experience as process engineers, materials scientists and analytical chemists,� he says. Furthermore, the super sleuths offer special services to address feedstock contamination. “The result is remarkable improvements in feedstock quality for cusHeiden tomers using our testing services,� Heiden says. Lab capabilities include a suite of inhouse tools for analyzing complicated mixtures and materials, offering a breadth of different analytical approaches. R.W. Heiden Associates also leverages university assets as needed. Since establishment of his company in 1987 through today, Heiden has been a reliable problem-solver who carries his work out with integrity and diligence. His expertise in biodiesel quality is second to none, and his candor on quality issues should be heeded. “The published minimum quality specifications for B100 are in some cases inadequate for optimal performance of a diesel engine or fuel infrastructure in all circumstances,� he says. “Just meeting these specifications raises the chance for considerable problems down the road, and it is wise to ratchet downward impurity levels to well-below current standard specifications.�

 

    

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SPOTLIGHT Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri The Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri officially formed as a bona fide state trade association in March 2018, but chairman James Greer, also vice president of supply and government affairs with member company MFA Oil Co., says the partnership to grow biodiesel usage in Missouri began as an informal working group nearly five years ago. “Last year we came together to take the next step—forming the Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri—to further unify our efforts in bringing together farmers, processors, distributors, retailers and others already working with biodiesel, along with those interested in the benefits biodiesel brings,” Greer says. The coalition and its partners are working directly with Missouri farmers to highlight biodiesel’s benefits to their bottom line. “In addition to hosting lunch-and-learn events for growers around the state over the past year, the Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri and Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council partnered to connect attendees at the Missouri Association of Counties annual meeting with the economic impact biodiesel brings to the Show-Me State,” Greer says. “Earlier this year, the coalition participated in both the Missouri Gover-

zine’s 2019 U.S. & Canada Biodiesel Plant Map, Missouri is third in the nation for biodiesel productive capacity with 242 MMgy, trailing only Iowa and Texas. “However,” Greer says, “we have fewer than two dozen retail locations Greer across the entire state consistently offering biodiesel.” Greer says the coalition’s challenge in addressing the gap between Missouri’s biodiesel production and retail availability is two-fold: awareness and infrastructure. “Consumers and retailers aren’t likely to seek out fuel they’ve not yet been introduced to,” he says, “and with the limited retail offerings for biodiesel in Missouri, it’s unlikely people would encounter the fuel by chance. Investing in infrastructure to offer the fuel, including prioritizing tank and pump space for biodiesel blends and appropriate labeling, would be directly tied to that consumer demand.” There is great opportunity for biodiesel in the fuel market, “and the challenge of growing demand isn’t unique to Missouri,” Greer says. “Driving demand for biodiesel, through education and policy, is a challenge being addressed in many ways across the marketplace.”

nor’s Conference on Agriculture and Missouri Pork Expo, highlighting the environmental benefits of biodiesel as well as the cost savings the biodiesel industry has created for livestock producers.” The Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri has multiple membership options for biodiesel producers and distributors, as well as membership opportunities for stakeholders. “The coalition has two classes of voting members, as well as two options for nonvoting partnermemberships,” Greer says. Membership continues to grow from the original informal working group partners to include broader industry representation. Current members of the Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri include big-name ag companies with biodiesel production in Missouri such as Archer Daniels Midland Co. and Cargill Inc., along with their joint-venture biodiesel manufacturing facilities such as Mid-America Biofuels LLC and Paseo Biofuels LLC, to fuel cooperatives such as MFA Oil Co., and organizations like the Missouri Soybean Association and National Biodiesel Board. One of the most significant problems the Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri is addressing today is the sizable gap between the state’s robust biodiesel production volumes and biodiesel’s rather sparse retail availability in Missouri. According to data from Biodiesel Maga-

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ARE YOU AN ADVOCATE FOR BIODIESEL AND ITS BENEFITS? Join the Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri.

The The Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri exists to promote the commercial success of the biodiesel industry. Biodiesel Coalition of Missouri Recognizing the important economic contributions of biodiesel, the Coalition works to increase the was founded to represent the Missouri availability of the clean, renewable fuel through promotion, training and advocacy initiatives.

biodiesel industry through collaborative efforts with industry stakeholders.

573-635-3819 | missouribiodiesel.org Chairman – James Greer, MFA Oil | Vice-Chairman – Cliff Smith, Mid-America Biofuels | Secretary – Neal Bredehoeft Treasurer – Gary Wheeler, Missouri Soybean | Executive Director – Tony Stafford, Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council

Missouri

s

NATIONAL

BOARD

Partially funded by Missouri soybean farmers and their checkoff.


SPOTLIGHT Reiter Software Kristof Reiter founded Reiter Scientific in 2007 as a one-man consulting firm helping fix biodiesel production issues, performing process and design work at plants. As the company grew and evolved, Reiter Scientific branched out into trading and logistics. Three years ago, Reiter began developing software to streamline grease collection processes. “What I observed of these small startups is that, once they got to a certain size, they didn’t have the data systems to scale up,” Reiter says, adding that tailored software solutions for grease collectors were unavailable. “There are other systems made for related industries, but they just don’t work,” he says. “That’s why we created COST—Cooking Oil Service Tier. It’s a solution to overcome the growth impediments faced by small grease collectors and biodiesel producers who collect their own used cooking oil.” Reiter Software worked with several customers while developing the platform, continually making improvements based on beta feedback in order to digitize and simplify route optimization and tracking of fuel, accounts, profitability, contracts, employee hours, vehicles and more. Through fast-learning algorithms, COST’s accurate predictions on account service intervals help cut costs in half.

The software standardizes procedures and allows owners reluctant to get out of the driver’s seat confidence to give up control through real-time employee oversight. The money COST saves in labor, office hours and fuel is far greater than what it costs, Reiter says. The pricing structure is based on a minimal monthly fee to manage and maintain backed up, hosted, third-party data servers plus a nominal per-account fee. “We can save companies between $1 and $4 per month, per account serviced—depending on how unoptimized they are initially,” Reiter says. The user’s office staff manages the software from a desktop PC or Mac. Field employees can use older iPads for navigation routes and data entries. Setup is simple and fast, and Reiter Software is currently offering free basic setup. “All we need is key account data to get the system running,” Reiter says. “We enter this into the system once they provide us an Excel document. It takes three days. After that, there’s a couple hours of training. We take what they’re currently doing—planning, routing, scheduling—and have our software replicate it. The system begins gathering data and the algorithms begin to learn, and then they can really start playing with the advanced features to change how they run their business.” Reiter says users are responsible for tablet costs and can retain whichever service carrier they pre-

From left, KC Selleck, office manager; Kristof Reiter, owner; and Nathan Sitton, lead developer

fer. The program generates paper route sheets too, in case a tablet breaks or the driver enters a zone with no data coverage. “Other important aspects are that the software makes users California-compliant, and it can be a part of an ISCC certification to trace feedstock back to its origin,” Reiter says. “It implements best practices across the organization, standardizes procedures, digitizes everything, and is always being updated with new features driven by client requests.” Reiter says customers do not have to work with Reiter Scientific to work with Reiter Software. “Many have close relationships with their traders, and we respect that,” he says. “But if they want the best software in the industry, then give us a call.”

www.BiodieselMagazine.com

19


QUALITY

DIESEL’S FUEL

QUALITY IMPERATIVE Advancements in diesel engine technology require a critical look at diesel fuel quality issues BY RON KOTRBA

The pressure at which diesel fuel is injected into combustion chambers directly affects combustion efficiency, performance, fuel mileage and emissions.

quality diesel fuel and transported and stored in subpar conditions, then diesel fuel’s problems become visited upon the biodiesel industry. “Diesel fuel quality has not kept up with engine changes,” says Rebecca Monroe, the fuel trademark program lead at General Motors. She says emissions regulations are driving diesel engine changes— again. To some, this may all seem like a bad case of déjà vu. In the early to mid-2000s, U.S. EPA regulations were put in place to ratchet down diesel particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions by 2007 and 2010, when the standards went into effect. Today, negotiations between California Air Resources Board and EPA may lead to NOx emissions cuts by another 90 percent. According to Timothy Johnson, a Society of Automotive Engineers Fellow and consultant with Corning Inc., various approaches are being evaluated to reduce NOx from California’s diesel engines, but close-coupled selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies are a frontrunner. Unlike today’s diesel aftertreatment systems featuring an oxidation catalyst and particulate filter upstream of an SCR catalyst, a close-coupled SCR filter would be positioned as close to the exhaust manifold of the engine as possible

High pressure common rail fuel injection systems are not new to diesel engine technology, but tightening emissions and fuel economy regulations are requiring greater injection pressures than ever before, which is dramatically lowering the tolerance for impurities in diesel fuel. Experts suggest much of the diesel fuel on the market today is not suitable for tomorrow’s diesel engines, but whether this is because fuel specifications are inadequate or because supply management techniques are insufficient depends on who you ask. But in a world where internal combustion engines and liquid fuels face the threat of extinction by regulators fixed on electrification, the value proposition for improving diesel fuel quality is the right to survive, says Paul Nazzaro, founder and president of Advanced Fuel Solutions. There is somewhat of a consensus on what diesel fuel improvements are needed, but how to achieve these is less than clear. What is clear, however, is that no matter how high the quality of biodiesel produced, if it is blended with poorBIODIESEL MAGAZINE 20

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2019 SUMMER EDITION

to take advantage of higher exhaust temperatures for conversion, and the SCR catalyst would be exposed to soot and ash, bringing the metal contents of diesel and biodiesel under additional scrutiny. Not only must diesel engines further reduce tailpipe emissions of NOx, but there is serious discussion of significantly increasing the useful life of diesel engines and components from 435,000 to 1 million miles. On top of this, fuel economy standards are rising to satisfy greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Whichever approaches the marketplace chooses to cut NOx emissions under new California or federal standards, one thing is certain: Fuel pressures in common rail injection systems will only increase to achieve more efficient combustion, better fuel economy and fewer emissions. “With ultra-low NOx standards and expected changes to the useful life of diesels, engines are using and will continue to use much more sensitive technologies for moving fuel through the system,” says John Eichberger, executive director of the Fuels Institute. “Now, instead of 5,000 [pounds per square inch (psi)], new systems inject fuel at 40,000 psi, and next-generation engines may be as high as 70,000 psi. This reduces the tolerance for fuel

impurities down to 1 micron in the injector tip.” The compounding nature of enhanced engine designs, new regulations and the threat of electrification is cumulatively putting significant, additional pressure on the market to ensure fuels delivered are the highest quality possible. “All OEMs say fuel quality is a top concern for maintaining warranties,” Monroe says. Scott Fenwick, the National Biodiesel Board’s technical director, says the state of diesel fuel quality naturally comes up at ASTM meetings all the time. “It’s tough,” Fenwick says. “We’re trying to keep up with advancing regulations, advancing technologies—engine technologies specifically—but the fuels aren’t changing as fast.” Fenwick says conversations inevitably turn to 2006, when ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) was introduced as required on-road fuel for compatibility with diesel aftertreatment systems to reduce emissions. Nazzaro says reducing sulfur to 15 parts per million (ppm) changed critical areas of performance, lubricity, stability, conductivity, winter operability, solvency and density. “Although the environmental improvement associated with the reduction of sulfur was attained, these


PHOTO: BOSCH

other critical performance criteria have created operational challenges associated with powering diesel vehicles nationwide,” he says. Fenwick points out that 2006 was about the same time as commercialization of biodiesel. “Engine technologies are changing fast,” Fenwick reiterates, “but it’s difficult when you get a room of 400 people in a Subcommittee E meeting and try to balance everyone’s opinions and agendas— OEMs, petroleum refiners, renewable fuel producers, an entire array of the fuel distribution system, all with their own opinions on what can and can’t be done to improve today’s fuels.” Despite differing opinions and agendas, much of the concern over diesel fuel quality focuses on water, particulate and other contaminations, metals and stability. However, it is up for debate whether fuel specifications must be modified, or downstream fuel handling and storage practices improved. Is ASTM Enough? “Engine manufacturers have told me that even if we take a 100 percent on-spec ASTM fuel and put it into high pressure common rail engines, we may have problems,” Eichberger says. “The engines are so much more sensitive.” ASTM

D975, the specification for diesel fuel, contains a combined sediment and water limit of 500 ppm. “OEMs say that’s not sufficient,” he says. “In the EU, it’s 200 ppm. OEMs point to the Worldwide Fuel Charter. They want 24 ppm water/sediment content. They say ASTM is not enough.” Shailesh Lopes, a GM senior fuels engineer, says one of the most important changes needed in D975 relates to water and sediment. “There have been numerous ballots from the OEM side, both segregated and combined requirements,” he says. “They’ve tried and failed but haven’t given up. When you try for five years and keep failing though, there’s not the same level of enthusiasm.” Nazzaro says the single best opportunity to improve diesel fuel quality would be to eliminate free water within the fuel. “Water contributes to fuel instability and allows microbial growth to thrive in that environment,” he says. “ASTM meetings can be a difficult place to reach consensus. Everyone throughout the fuel supply chain wants their supplier to address the issues so they don’t have to. There’ve been attempts to limit the ‘total’ allowable water content within diesel fuel, but the committee can’t agree on the proper allowable limit.”

DAMAGED PARTS: External injector deposits are just one of many engine problems that can occur from poor-quality diesel fuel. PHOTO: CENTER FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE

Engine manufacturers run tests to determine why engine components fail. “They mostly find sodium concentration in diesel fuel engines, and that sodium is causing problems—sodium and magnesium— but they talk about sodium most,” Eichberger says. “They don’t know where it’s coming from. There is no spec in ASTM D975 to control for metals.” While petroleum diesel fuel has no metals limit in D975, ASTM D6751, the spec for biodiesel, has 5 ppm limits for sodium/potassium

and the same for calcium/magnesium—and sampling routinely shows market biodiesel is well below the limits for these. Fenwick says if high sodium is found in a diesel sample, the first thought is often that the biodiesel is off-spec. “The biodiesel industry has broad shoulders and we know the blame is coming at times,” he says. “But biodiesel is not the only means for sodium to enter the diesel fuel stream. Sodium can come from rain water, salt used to melt

www.BiodieselMagazine.com

21


QUALITY D6751 at 5 ppm for calcium/magnesium, and 5 ppm for sodium/ potassium. “The metals were previously limited by the sulfated ash test to relatively low levels,” says Steve Howell, president and founder of M4 Consulting, former longtime NBB technical director and AOCS Fellow. “With the advent of particulate traps coming in 2007 after ultra-low sulfur diesel was introduced in 2006, we added the separate specs for sodium and potassium, and calcium and magnesium for biodiesel.” These metals were identified since residues can be present in improperly processed biodiesel. “Most values we’ve seen for these in biodiesel are at or near the detection limit of 1 ppm, so it hasn’t really been a big industry focus,” Howell says. “This is especially so over the past few years, with most of the material being made from BQ-9000 companies that monitor closely to make sure their process is working properly.” With more diesel technology changes coming, however, Howell says there’s always more work to do to make sure the biodiesel spec keeps up with evolving diesel technology. “The changes we’ve made are working, [evidenced by the] quality of biodiesel we see in the market.” Any fuel quality issues experienced with biodiesel today are no different than “the normal issues we see with diesel fuel,” he says. Johnson says with the advent of close-coupled SCR filters, critical analyses must determine how biodiesel interacts with these devices. Howell and Johnson both say NBB and OEMs have launched a major test program to investigate this. “The big focus is the metals levels,” Howell says. “It’s currently limited to 5 ppm, but [it will] probably [have to be set] lower.” The introduction of the CSFT 10 years ago was another milestone in the evolution of biodiesel fuel quality. “Biodiesel fuel that met the ASTM specification at the time was still plugging filters under certain conditions,” says Brian Hess, Biodiesel Specs the technical service department In 2006, as diesel aftertreat- manager with Evonik Oil Addiment devices were being intro- tives USA Inc. “The method was duced to reduce PM and NOx, lim- developed to help prevent these its were imposed on trace metals in filter clogging issues in the field.” BIODIESEL MAGAZINE 2019 SUMMER EDITION 22 ice at retail stations, crude oil and the refinery if something upsets their system, or certain additives if they’re inadvertently dosed too high. There are multiple ways fuels can be contaminated.” Other efforts over the years at ASTM to change D975 have included measures to control deposit formations, oxidation and cold flow. “For deposit formations, these are specifically related to deposits in injectors,” Lopes says. “Until now there’s been no tool or method to characterize the propensity of the fuel to cause deposits, but numerous projects over the past decade have [made advances in this area].” He says there is still strong interest in putting stability requirements on finished diesel fuel. “Biodiesel has stability requirements, but when the finished fuel oxidizes, we’re not sure if it’s because of the biodiesel or petroleum diesel,” he says. Biodiesel’s oxidative stability is measured using the Rancimat test, but given the nature of the differences between diesel fuel and biodiesel, this would not be applicable for petroleum diesel, so a different test method and corresponding limits would have to be approved for D975. Lopes says there’s also been a parallel push to make nonmandatory cold flow guidelines mandatory in D975. “Diesel fuel has no mandatory requirements here in the U.S., unlike in the EU or other developed nations,” he says. Of the OEM’s greatest concerns over diesel fuel quality— moisture content, stability, metals, particulate contaminants, and cold flow—biodiesel actually has a specification and limits to address most of those, while diesel fuel does not. “Even though biodiesel is a relatively small component in the finished fuel, it’s the only component that has a filterability limit in the Cold Soak Filtration Test, a metals content limit, and a stability limit, which are some of the concerns OEMs have today,” Fenwick says. “Biodiesel is the only component that begins to address these.”

l

He says the test is performed using 300 milliliters (ml) of B100 cooled and held at 40 degrees Fahrenheit for 16 hours. “The B100 sample is then warmed to room temperature and subject to vacuum filtration with a 0.7-micron filter,” Hess says. “All 300 ml of B100 must pass through the 0.7-micron filter in less than 360 seconds. For use as Grade No. 1-B, the biodiesel must filter in less than 200 seconds.” The method was initially a part of the D6751 annex, but it later got its own method—ASTM D7501. “One of the early changes to the method focused on the type of filter employed to improve test reproducibility,” Hess says, “so the current version calls for a specific brand of glass fiber filters.” Evonik’s Viscoplex 10-340 cold flow improver (CFI) has been effective in taking B100 samples from failing the CSFT to passing. “Depending on the biodiesel quality, the CFI can also provide faster filtration times to allow a B100 stock to meet the No. 1-B requirement of 200 seconds,” Hess says. “Viscoplex 10-340 is effective in a wide variety of biodiesel types ranging from canola, soy, tallow and used cooking oil.” The effectiveness of a CFI depends heavily on the type of feedstock. “Less saturated biodiesel feedstocks have better inherent low-temperature properties and will also respond best to cold flow additives,” Hess says. “More saturated feedstocks like soy and animal fat methyl esters have warmer starting cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and pour point values and require different additive compositions to achieve low-temperature improvement.” He says typical canola biodiesel can expect a CFPP improvement of 15 degrees Celsius with Viscoplex 10-340 whereas a soy biodiesel improvement in CFPP of 5 degrees C would be achievable. Hess says Evonik can help producers select the proper CFI and optimize the treat rate for a given B100 or blend, noting that CFI dosages typically range between 250 and 1500 ppm. “Ensuring that B100 meets the CSFT is an important safeguard against potential filter blocking issues,” Hess

says. “Viscoplex CFI technology can fix a B100 that fails the test and improve its performance to fulfill all ASTM D6751 quality requirements.” Stability is another hot-button issue for biodiesel quality, with some arguing that the specification requirements are not stringent enough—even though petroleum diesel has none. In order to demonstrate adequate storage suitability (shelf life), B100 must meet a minimum three-hour induction period (IP) under the Rancimat test as described in D6751, while D7467— the spec for B6-B20 blends—must meet a six-hour IP. Earl Christensen, a senior scientist at National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has overseen many biodiesel stability tests over the years, the most recent and comprehensive of which was completed in 2017. The test pulled 12 B20 samples from 12 different states, with one sample prepared in the lab, for a total of 13 B20s. The samples were aged at 110 degrees F per ASTM standard method D4625 to the IP thresholds, after which they were readditized with BHT, simulating nearly three years of longterm storage. After 32 weeks, simulating two and a half years, most samples were still on spec for six hours. While there is a point after which the fuel shouldn’t be used, if the fuel is readditized soon after it shows signs of degradation, a B20 could easily be stored successfully for three years and remain on-spec. “B20 should be readditized before signs of degradation, which are indicated by peroxides and acids,” Christensen says. “Detectable increases in acids are preceded by the IP reaching a ‘threshold.’ The IP will go down, but the fuel will not change significantly in quality until the IP drops to low values, after which readditization is no longer viable. One happens before the other—IP goes down to a low level, peroxides spike, acids go up to an unacceptable level, and insoluble materials become apparent. The IP is a relative measure of the oxidation reserve. Once that reserve runs out, the IP gets very low and the fuel starts to oxidize. Making sure readditization is done well-above that low IP value allows


you to significantly delay all the bad stuff from happening. Thresholds of about four hours appear to be pretty conservative as a readditization point.” Christensen says one of the samples stood out to him. It arrived with only a two-hour IP, but when readditized it went 36 weeks before the acid number was out of spec. “This is really the more interesting sample to me, as this was not aged in the lab but was somehow aged in the field,” he says. “It’s a real-world example of B20 received out of spec. Acids and all other quality parameters were on spec so we still readditized it to see what would happen. Readditization increased the shelf life of this low-stability sample from only about three months to more than three years—quite an improvement with a few hundred ppm of BHT.” Overall, what Christensen and his team at NREL observed was samples that may have lasted slightly more than one year in storage could be extended to three or more years with readditization just up to the six-hour spec limit. When asked whether current ASTM requirements on biodiesel

stability are enough, Christensen says, “We are taking a very close look at these questions with our ongoing research. At this point our data from aging biodiesel blends inside vehicles and monitoring their stability in the lab indicate that with good, quality fuel the six-hour minimum is protective of the vehicle with fuel stored for one year or less. There’s plenty of evidence that off-spec fuels can be problematic, but on-spec appears to be doing its job. But keep in mind this is the bare minimum for what’s considered normal use.” He says if evidence demonstrates this limit is not high enough for normal fuel use and vehicles are at risk, then it must be raised to the appropriate level. “ASTM is a data-driven organization, so we need good evidence to argue for a spec change,” he says. “‘Everyone else is doing it’ is not a good enough reason to alter a fuel quality specification. If it were, ASTM might require a higher cetane number in D975 because the European spec is higher.” Nearly two dozen revisions to D6751 have been implemented since its original publication less

than 20 years ago, Nazzaro points out. “The NBB and its champions as the single voice representing the biodiesel industry through the years have driven those improvements,” he says. “Unfortunately, there isn’t a single champion amongst the diesel fuel industry, and each participant has a different opinion and agenda to contribute.” Downstream While some argue that ASTM specs must be changed to improve the quality of diesel and biodiesel fuels leaving refineries and production facilities, others suggest improper fuel storage and handling downstream are to blame. “Refiners say, ‘We produce fuel to ASTM specifications, so it’s downstream— pipelines, terminals, distribution and retail establishments—where the contaminants are introduced,’” Eichberger says. “They argue that ASTM specs can’t be changed until downstream contamination is controlled. If we can control that, then we may not need to change the specs.” Fenwick says people tend to overlook how much storage condi-

tions impact fuel stability. “Not just biodiesel, but fuel in general,” he says. “Dirty tanks, rust, sediment, water—those have a big effect on fuel stability.” Fuels produced on-spec can certainly become contaminated on the journey from refining and production to terminals and dispensers. “No testing takes place outside the bulk terminals prior to the dispenser, so here is where countless batches of fuel ultimately become comingled,” Nazzaro says. “The end-of-the-line treatment and observation is where the fuel is most likely to degrade. Obviously highturnover fuel is less susceptible to degradation, but time and temperature are drivers in the degradation process. Water, time and temperature drive microbial contamination, which then drives corrosion.” To protect the fuels, downstream processes must be tightened, Nazzaro advises. Clearly a lot of finger-pointing is going on between many diverse stakeholders in the diesel fuel supply chain. As some try to hash it out at ASTM or the National Conference on Weights and Measures, oth-

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FUEL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHECKLIST

Establishing a simple check list* to manage fuel quality is highly recommended. 1. All water and sediment should be monitored and eliminated from storage tanks at least every six months. a. Monitor tanks with stick and paste. d. Bulk tanks should be evaluated for bottom water as well. b. Check and drain water from water/fuel separators. e. If all the water cannot be removed, drain as much as possible and treat the c. Blow down saddle tanks when possible to remove tank bottom water. remaining in-tank water with a dual-phase biocide and test for its effectiveness.

a decade of success with its gasoline program, another consortium of diesel OEMs launched the Top 2. Use fuel additives judiciously and in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations—more is never better. 3. Keep tanks topped off when possible. Tier Diesel Fuel program 4. Know the operability values of your fuel. in 2017 as a way to combat 5. Keep vent alarms protected. all the troubles with diesel 6. Be certain dispenser filters, primary and secondary filters are OEM-approved. fuel in the marketplace. 7. Use water-removal additives before the winter season commences. The diesel program 8. If filters are black, seek the consult of fuel management experts for further instructions. began to take shape with 9. Establish a proactive tank management process. *List courtesy of Paul Nazzaro, president, Advanced Fuel Solutions feedback from a survey of OEMs, which identiers are working on alternative solu- items causing concern, that’d be a of the nozzle, what’s different, how tions to protect engine, vehicle and big deal—a huge step.” Gathering important the difference is, and fied five top factors of concern how to pursue corrective action in diesel fuel: water, fuel stability, empirical data is step one. storage assets. Step two is developing best to get in line. If industry decides detergency/cleanliness, total conpractices for the supply chain from ASTM standards must change, tamination, and lubricity. This is the Solutions In late 2017 the Fuels Institute rack to retailer, including compre- then we can quantify how those basis for the Top Tier Diesel Fuel launched its Fuel Quality Council hensive maintenance and house- changes will be reflected at the program. Retailers wanting to parto evaluate the relationship be- keeping throughout the distribu- nozzle and measure the progress.” ticipate in the volunteer program While the FQC is gathering must demonstrate that their fuel tween diesel fuel and modern high tion chain. “The best practices will pressure common rail engines. be an aggregation of knowledge in data and putting together best prac- meets specific requirements re“Our first charter is to get people easy-to-follow steps with quantifi- tices for the entire diesel fuel supply lated to the issues identified above, with pointing fingers in a room able risk-mitigation procedures,” chain from retailer up through the which include parameters that are and have them put their fingers Eichberger says. “A $500 invest- distribution system and possibly either tougher than ASTM specs or away,” Eichberger says. “Let’s fos- ment this quarter may save you to the terminal, another program requirements that ASTM does not ter an environment of collabora- $200,000 in failed tanks in a year.” focused on retail quality is mak- currently have, such as a stability retive discussion. We don’t advocate, He expects the best practices guid- ing headway—the Top Tier Diesel quirement for diesel fuel. Fuel stability of diesel fuels Fuel program. we research and study. We’re try- ance to be released this fall. The Top Tier Detergent without biodiesel or up to 2 perFinally, Eichberger says the ing to quantify the scope of the problems in the market. There’s a FQC will study how best to moni- Gasoline program started in 2004 cent blends are determined within lot of anecdotal data, but no quan- tor the quality of fuel going into after federal lowest additive con- the Top Tier Diesel Fuel program tifiable data set. We’ve been in the vehicles, looking at sampling meth- centration (LAC) minimums sig- by Rapid Small Scale Oxidation market for several months listen- odology and evaluating aspects nificantly dropped the amount of (the PetroOXY test) per the ASTM ing to fuel retailers, fleet operators that are intrinsically important to detergents in retail gasoline, which D7545 method. Acceptable fuel and OEMs, gathering data on fuel engines. “We’ll test mechanisms to led to increased fuel injector de- should have an IP of greater than quality. There are inherent costs as- measure metals at the tanks and in posits and other issues in engines. 60 minutes. For B100 as a blend sociated with fuel quality problems, the dispensers—the overall health The program was developed by a agent, Top Tier requires a miniparticularly with OEM warranty of the fuel as it’s introduced to ve- consortium of OEMs interested mum IP of eight hours as meaclaims. If we can put a number on hicles, and compare that to refinery in engine longevity and reduced sured by the EN15751 test method it, quantify the risk and narrow the fuel,” he says. “What’s coming out warranty claims. After more than vs. three hours required in ASTM

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QUALITY D6751. “We love biodiesel,” Monroe says, “but we love very stable biodiesel.” The diesel fuel supply chain is different from gasoline’s in many ways. For one, there are no federal additive requirements for diesel fuel as there are for gasoline in the LAC regulations for detergents. This means that while gasoline is most often additized at the terminal rack, not all diesel fuels are additized this far upstream. Thus, the Top Tier Detergent Gasoline program allows a retailer to enroll all of its stations in the program whereas the Top Tier Diesel Fuel program is site-specific. Thus, it may not be possible to qualify the stability performance of B100 used to make biodiesel blends, in which case for blends greater than 2 percent up to 5 percent—permissible in D975— Top Tier requires a minimum IP of 24 hours as measured by the EN15751 test method. Detergent and lubricity additives to meet the requirements of Top Tier Diesel Fuel are likely dosed upstream from the retailer, so the only site-specific requirements are installation of water-absorbing 10-micron or lower filters on low-flow dispenser pumps and up to 30-micron filters for highflow pumps typically found at truck stops and travel plazas. Naturally, filtration is a last defense, so Top Tier recommends good housekeeping practices and diligent water monitoring per the Coordinating Research Council Inc.’s Report No. 667, “Diesel Fuel Storage and Handling Guide.” Once a retailer demonstrates its ability to meet Top Tier Diesel Fuel program requirements, an agreement laying out terms and conditions, such as displaying the program logo, is signed. Diesel truck drivers and vehicle owners can then easily identify where to buy the enhanced fuel. Participants are subject to random, routine monitoring to ensure they continue to meet the program’s requirements and pay a fee to participate. Growmark is a major agriculture and fuel supply cooperative founded in Illinois in 1927. Today, the co-op owns five fuel terminals and has positions at additional terminals and pipelines owned by

others. Growmark has the ability to additize diesel with its proprietary additives to make its Dieselex Gold brand of fuel, which meets or exceeds Top Tier Diesel Fuel standards, at bulk facilities or right on the tanker truck. In December 2017, Growmark announced it was supplying Top Tier Diesel Fuel blended with biodiesel. According to Curt Dunafin, Growmark’s energy services manager, the cooperative blends 18 to 20 MMgy of biodiesel. While the biodiesel is supplied by multiple sources, Growmark requires BQ-9000 certification from its suppliers. “The things I see being brought up in meetings—problems with fuel contaminations—we’ve seen and battled for years,” Dunafin says. “We’ve adjusted our additive formulation and our [housekeeping] program and we know what to look for, how to find it and remove it. Our approach evolved over 65 years.” With more than 20 sites certified under the Top Tier Diesel Fuel program, Dunafin says Growmark has long hoped OEMs would officially put statements behind what they want to see in fuel. Now that Top Tier has done this, he is glad to be a part of the program. “We see it as validating and catching up to what we’ve worked on for a very long time,” he says. “It gives credence to what we’ve been telling our customers, such as the use of detergents, the right filtration, water detection and removal, oxidative stability—with biodiesel and straight No. 2 diesel—and a lubricity spec. We’d like to see more of that. We want to see a fuel requirement with a minimum 47 cetane. That is something that’d be great for our industry. It would raise fuel quality for everyone.” From Growmark’s standpoint, fuel quality is a combinative approach. “You can’t skip on any of it,” Dunafin says. “If you start with quality fuel and biofuel and add additives to protect it, then it makes the rest of the job easier. But you have to be proactive, transport it correctly, and keep things clean and dry.” Author: Ron Kotrba Editor, Biodiesel Magazine 218-745-8347 rkotrba@bbiinternational.com

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2019 Summer Biodiesel Magazine  

The Fuel Quality, Additives; Testing, Analytical Services; Post-Treatment Technologies; Plant Automation, Instrumentation; Process Controls;...

2019 Summer Biodiesel Magazine  

The Fuel Quality, Additives; Testing, Analytical Services; Post-Treatment Technologies; Plant Automation, Instrumentation; Process Controls;...