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Issue 10 May/June 2018





Daylighting & Smoke Ventilation from concept to installation With an experienced in-house design and specification department, plus our own teams of installers around the country, we are able to provide outstanding engineered daylighting and smoke & natural ventilation solutions for virtually any kind of project: new build or refurbishment.


Our ‘concept to installation’ approach allows continuity and close quality control over every stage of every project, to deliver excellence – every time. Call us today to discuss how we can help to bring your next project to life.

T 01506 448140 F 01506 448141 E



Editor’s Comment



Central Park Tower, New York: A Landmark Climate-Based Daylight Evaluation


New Projects

By John Mardaljevic PhD FSLL FIBPSA, School of Architecture, Building & Civil Engineering, Loughborough University



Industry News

NARM Daylight Diary Updates from the UK’s influential trade association for rooflight manufacturers


Daylighting Icons Nazarbayev Centre, Kazaksthan

Daylighting Design: Changing the Language of Daylighting By Jonathan Dore, Commercial Director, Kingspan Light + Air


Factories & Warehouses

Twitterings What’s trending on social media?


More about DAYLIGHTING Magazine Forthcoming features and information for advertisers & contributors

Bennett & Partners Pure Offices Lake View House Tournament Fields Warwick CV34 6RG United Kingdom TEL: +44 (0)1295 770833 EDITOR Paul Bennett Tel: 01295 770833 Mobile: 07900 895110 AD SALES Miki Bennett adsales@bennettand Tel: 01295 770833 DESIGN/PRODUCTION Jemma Pentney jemma@bennettand Tel: 01295 770833 WEBSITE

Case Study: Salisbury Industrial Unit

24 34

DAYLIGHTING is published by:

Domestic Properties Case Study, Private Home, East London


CIRCULATION Daylighting is circulated by email and social media to over 6,000 architects, specifiers, contractors, consultants, building owners and other groups. Full details are available on our website.

Fire Safety Acrylic in Roof Glazing: Reflecting on Fire Safety Concerns By Jim Lowther, Vice Chairman of NARM, the National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers 26 Fire alarms, human behaviour and the role of advanced glazing in safety By Jane Embury, Marketing Director, Wrightstyle Ltd 28

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted without the consent of the publisher. While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of content, the publisher does not accept liability for errors. The views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. This publication contains editorial photographs which may have been supplied and paid for by suppliers. Full terms and conditions can be found on our website.

Front Cover: Skyscrapers near Central Park, New York, where daylight modelling is playing an important role in addressing ‘rights to light’ issues. See page 10.

May/June 2018


Victorian Coach House by award-winning architect Peter Williams. Ten linked CR-13 rooflights.

Link up your Light We always have a Conservation RooflightÂŽ size to fit. Linking bars for every size - a simple and cost-effective way to introduce more light into your project. The original and still the most authentic Conservation RooflightÂŽ. Choose from our 14 sizes. Call us on 01993 833108 or visit



Are the Government’s environment policy makers missing the obvious? The Government’s recently published ‘Grand Challenge’ to halve energy usage in new buildings by 2030, is well intentioned and to be applauded. However, I’m disappointed by the initial communications on the subject, regarding suggested means of achieving this goal. I quote from the document: This goal will be achieved by: • making sure every new building in Britain is safe, high quality, much more efficient and uses clean heating • innovating to make low energy, low carbon buildings cheaper to build • driving lower carbon, lower cost and higher quality construction through innovative techniques • giving consumers more control over how they use energy through smart technologies • halving the cost of renovating existing buildings to a similar

Issue 6 September/October 2017





standard as new buildings, while increasing quality and safety To my mind this list fails to clearly address what should be at the core of any initiative to reduce energy consumption in new buildings. Yes, you guessed it... in my view, the glaring omission is: • ensuring that building designs harness natural energy sources such as daylight and solar energy to reduce pressure on power generation

Paul Bennett

In previous issues, I’ve raised the point that renewable energy gets all the headlines over daylighting. However, in the case of the Grand Challenge, neither appears to have been directly addressed so far. If, like me, you’d like to voice your views on this, there is a ‘get involved’ link make your point, look for the ‘add idea’ link at the bottom of the page.

Don’t forget, back issues are always available to read on-line at Previous issues of DAYLIGHTING Magazine will be available on-line indefinitely. So you can refer back to old issues whenever you like. It’s also on our ‘to-do’ list to set up a features index, so if you can’t remember in which issue you read that fascinating feature about XYZ, you’ll be able to find it in a moment.



May/June 2018



Kingspan Light + Air hosts daylighting summer event As many anticipate the approaching warmer weather, Kingspan Light + Air has given architects and construction professionals one more thing to look forward to, the Daylighting Summer Event on 14th June 2018 at The Building Centre in London. From 6pm, attendees will enjoy a packed programme, with talks from experts covering a range of industry topics. Kingspan Light + Air’s UK Specification Manager,

Imma Boada, will be presenting highlights from her ‘Designing Daylighting for Healthy Buildings’ RIBA CPD. Giovanni Cosma, Kingspan Light + Air Airvent’s Fire Safety Engineer, will be delivering ‘An Introduction to Ventilation and Smoke Safety Design’. There will also be an opportunity to learn more about the new Kapture nano-prismatic daylight solution. Presentations will be followed with live entertainment, provided by a four-piece band – Gravity. The evening will be

rounded off with a selection of tantalising canapés and cocktails. Spaces are limited, so do book early. To register your interest, please contact either Kingspan Light + Air’s UK Specification Manager, Imma Boada, at imma.boada@ or Kingspan Light + Air’s Marketing Coordinator, Ciara Maddock, at ciara.

Training & development available through NARM CPD with rooflights manufacturer Training, development and awareness continues to be of critical importance when specifying products in buildings. With this in mind, one leading rooflight manufacturer, Xtralite, is now offering a NARM (National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers) RIBA accredited CPD course which will see members of its team visit architects and specifiers to deliver on site training. “The integration of daylight into modern buildings is a primary consideration and rooflights can play a vital part in delivering this and the benefits associated with it,” said Jim Lowther Head of Sales Xtralite Ltd. “It has been proven that daylight is critical to the health and wellbeing of building users and occupants and our one day course covers key elements to raise awareness of incorporating


May/June 2018

natural light in our buildings.” The course has five modules which include daylight in the build environment, the role of rooflights in energy saving and emissions reduction, overview of rooflight systems and applications, rooflighting basic designs and rooflighting legislation and standards. “Our course will unlock the specifics behind rooflights, explain how they are integrated into design schemes and tackle the important legislative elements that users are required to adhere to,” said Jim. “As well as building user benefits, rooflights have also been proven to save energy and reduce CO2 emissions and, as more builders and construction professionals place this as a priority, rooflights can be one way

in which more energy efficient buildings can be achieved. “Rooflights are no longer just specified in flat roofs and can be integrated into the most eyecatching, cutting edge building designs,” Jim concluded. “We look forward to educating industry professionals on the potential impact it could deliver for building designs in the future.”


Lareine Engineering announces new partnership The Directors of Lareine Engineering are delighted to announce the Company’s new position as a Kingspan Light + Air strategic partner. This follows the acquisition by Kingspan of European ventilation specialist Brakel, with whom Lareine Engineering has worked as a Certified Partner since 2016. For over 40 years, Brakel hasbeen a market leader in the Benelux and United Kingdomin highend solutions for glass daylight structures, ventilation and fire safety systems in commercial

and industrial buildings. Light + Air is a division within the Kingspan Group consisting of national and international companies that are engaged in sustainable solutions in daylight admission, LED, smoke and heat extraction and ventilation. Brakel fits seamlessly within the Kingspan Light + Air capability and has for many years been achieving a sustainable, safe and comfortable indoor climate using the natural elements of daylight and fresh air. Jonathan Dore, Divisional Commercial Director of Kingspan

Light + Air, said: “Lareine Engineering has an excellent track record in designing and installing smoke and natural ventilation systems using Brakel products. We are delighted to have them on board”. David Mowatt, Lareine Engineering Director, said: “We’re proud of our achievemements as a Brakel Partner and look forward to even closer collaboration with Kingspan Light + Air. The Kingspan name is globally recognised as a benchmark of quality and innovation.”

Interactive experience at New Lumen Showroom Lumen Rooflight has opened an innovative new showroom at its Devon based head office, allowing potential customers the opportunity to view its full range of rooflight products. As well as offering the traditional showroom experience, anyone interested in rooflights can connect online via a live video feed, to watch product demonstrations and interact with the expert Lumen team for advice on their wide variety of rooflights. The showroom incorporates each of the Lumen products, including their Heritage Conservation, contemporary EVO, Planus Accoya (designed for flat roofs), and bespoke rooflight designs, built into various roof applications. Customers can also find out

more about Lumen’s range of rooflight enhancements and accessories. Lumen Rooflight Managing Director, Paul Trace, said: “We have invested a significant amount of time and resource into developing the new showroom. This will help our customers better understand the full range of products on offer and which solutions best fit their requirements.

we make. It will also offer a visual guide as to how our rooflights are designed, for example, showing our conservation range sitting flush within a roof.”

“We understand that it is not always convenient for people to visit the showroom, so we have made it possible for those that are not local to us to experience our rooflights virtually. The ability to view our rooflights, either physically or online, will give customers a better appreciation of the quality craftsmanship that goes into each and every rooflight

Trace continued: “Our team have a wealth of experience and knowledge and we can advise on virtually every rooflight application and installation. The new showroom allows us to connect to individuals or groups and offer practical examples and solutions to meet their individual design needs.”

The new showroom will also enable Lumen to deliver informative presentations to architectural practices and anyone looking to specify rooflight products.

May/June 2018


NEW PROJECTS Tonbridge School, Kent Kawneer’s AA®100 mullion-drained curtain walling with bespoke fin caps and AA®541 concealed vents along with AA®720 entrance doors feature on a stunning new 13.5m high circulation tower topped by an AA®100 rooflight at the Smythe Library at Tonbridge School. They were specified by architects BDP to drive a simple natural ventilation strategy and enable high levels of natural light and were installed for main contractor Buxton Building Contractors by JPJ Installations.

President Kennedy Academy, Coventry Eight Brett Martin Marvault Rooflight Systems were installed at the President Kennedy Academy to admit natural daylight into corridors. This formed part of a wider framework project in which Brett Martin Daylight Systems installed rooflights in seven educational facilities.


May/June 2018

NEW PROJECTS Private Home, Cheltenham One of the key considerations in satisfying the Conservation Officer and achieving planning approval for this Grade II Listed William & Mary style property, was the specification of Lumen’s Conservation style rooflights. Fitted flush with the new slate roof, these provide a major feature of the new extension, and are sympathetic to the style of the original period property. www.lumenrooflight.

Higher Mill, Buckfast Abbey, Devon This conversion of a Grade Two listed mill factory and warehouse into a flexible workspace, features a two-storey glazed box providing a stunning entrance to the newly created office spaces. The Project was by Form Design Group Architects of Plymouth and the Pilkington glazing was installed by Veon Ltd. of Buckfastleigh.

May/June 2018



Central Park Tower New York: A Landmark Climate-Based Daylight Evaluation By John Mardaljevic PhD FSLL FIBPSA School of Architecture, Building & Civil Engineering, Loughborough University

Art Students League building Art Students League building alongside superposed visualisation of the Nordstrom tower, plus two further visualisations of the tower

The Central Park Tower, due to be completed in 2020, will be the tallest residential building in the world and the second tallest building in the US [1]. Previously designated as the ‘Nordstrom Tower’, it is situated on West 57th Street in Midtown Manhattan. Immediately adjacent to the plot for the Central Park Tower is the historic Art Students League of New York (ASL) building. The ASL is housed in a 4– and 5–story brick and limestone building. The building is both historically and architecturally notable and has been designated a New York City Landmark. The ASL has educated many notable artists and remains a magnet for talent from around the world. This


May/June 2018

talent was educated, in part, in artist studios that occupy the top floors of the building. These artist studios have no artificial lights and are lit by north facing skylights. In the early 2000s, the lot directly to the west of the ASL was acquired by the Extell Development Corporation, which is the developer of some of Manhattan’s largest new buildings. Shortly after acquiring the lot, Extell started the process of merging its tax lot with neighbouring tax lots to make a very large zoning lot, which could house an extremely tall building. Any new building will have a detrimental effect on the daylight provision to the surrounding buildings to a greater or lesser degree

CLIMATE-BASED DAYLIGHT MODELLING depending on the particulars of the proposed design and the existing context. The detrimental effect, or ‘injury’, can be determined by a variety of means depending on the mode of assessment. Attempts to systematise the assessment of daylight injury date back to at least the 1800s [2]. Daylight injury can be measured in terms of the reduced view of the sky or the diminished illumination from it. Or, it could be judged in terms of the potential reduction in direct sun insolation, either for particular times of the day/year or the number of annual probable sunlight hours [3]. The method used may depend on local custom/practice or a legal requirement. In the UK, the possible infringement of “daylight adequacy” to an existing space by a proposed building is sometimes determined using the “rights to light” schema [4]. For this, a sky factor of 0.2% delineates the so-called “grumble point”. Areas of the space where the sky factor is greater than 0.2% are deemed to be “adequately” daylit. The sky factor is a measure of the illumination on a horizontal surface resulting from any direct view of a uniform luminance sky, expressed as a percentage of the horizontal illumination from an unobstructed view of the sky. Neither reflected light nor attenuation from any glazing are accounted for in the “rights to light” schema. The users of the Art Students League were particularly concerned about the potential loss of daylight to the rooflit studio spaces caused by the new building. They required some objective measure of the likely loss of daylight to serve as basis for negotiations with the developers, but also the potential to influence design features of the proposed building that could ameliorate the loss to some degree. The standard evaluation methods that 1

were initially offered to the clients by a US- based practitioner were deemed either inappropriate or could not address fully their concerns. For example, the skylights are north facing and receive hardly any direct sun, so the offered shadow pattern study was fairly pointless. Even if that had not been the case, the shadow pattern method offers only qualitative indicators of likely impact. The daylight factor approach was rejected because the client already appreciated how the character of illumination in the ASL studios depends on the various sky conditions, including the potential for reflected sunlight from nearby buildings – aspects of natural illumination that the daylight factor approach cannot address. Additionally, they considered both the daylight factor and the Waldram approach to be “abstractions” and divorced from the reality of experienced daylight illumination.

“Daylight injury can be measured in terms of the reduced view of the sky or the diminished illumination from it. Or, it could be judged in terms of the potential reduction in direct sun insolation, either for particular times of the day/ year or the number of annual probable sunlight hours [3]”

The solution offered to the client was an assessment of the daylight injury in terms of realistic measures of cumulative daylight illumination predicted using climate-based daylight modelling.1 The sun and sky conditions were derived directly from New York climate data. Total annual illumination is a measure of all the visible daylight energy incident on a surface over a period of a full year. In everyday terms, this is equivalent to the cumulative measure of illumination recorded by a light meter left at a fixed position on a building for a full year. The potential daylight injury to the studios was determined by predicting the total annual illuminance incident on the skylights for the existing situation and with the proposed building in place. For the client, the significance of these measures was readily understood since a decrease in incident illumination at these skylights

The term ‘climate-based daylight modelling’ was first coined by Mardaljevic in a 2006 paper presented at the CIBSE National Conference.

May/June 2018


CLIMATE-BASED DAYLIGHT MODELLING translates directly into reduced daylight provision for the studios. Daylight injury: 2005 Evaluation A highly detailed 3D model of the ASL and surrounding buildings was employed in the simulations. Renderings of the 3D model showing both the existing situation and with the proposed development are given in Figure 1. The two skylights – the only sources of daylight for the studios – are enclosed by the dashed-line ovals. Note that the skylights are not the same size. The simulations were carried out for the existing arrangement of buildings and with the proposed tower in place (Figure 1). Simulations with the proposed tower in place were carried out with the tower reflectivity set first to zero and then 50%. The zero reflectance case determines the diminution of total annual illumination (TAIL) with the tower acting purely as an obstruction. For the 50% reflectance case, the tower acts both as an obstruction and a reflector of light from the sun and the sky, including multiple reflections from other buildings. A reflectance of 50% is the highest that can be reasonably expected for an exposed vertical facade that is subject to weathering. The effect of intermediate reflectivity


values for the proposed tower can then be determined from a simple interpolation of the results for the zero and 50% reflectivity cases. The area-weighted mean TAILs were 36,946 klux hours for the existing scenario, 23,455 klux hours with a tower of zero reflectance and 29,972 klux hours for a tower with 50% reflectance – a percentage reduction in TAIL against the existing case of 35.5% and 18.9%, respectively. The simulations showed that the building as planned had a potential to significantly impact the quantity of natural light that reached the skylights of the artist studios. The simulations also showed that the impacts on the skylights could be mitigated through both building design and materials. In the legal terms that were agreed upon following the study, the final design for building had to be evaluated against the initial design proposal. This is believed to be the first – and perhaps still only – example in any city where the legal agreement covering the development of a site incorporates measures of daylight availability founded on CBDM. In 2008 the development project was put on hold following the global downturn in new construction projects.


Figure 1: 2005 evaluation of existing and proposed arrangement of buildings - skylights marked in blue and ringed


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10000 0 Direct sun

10000 0



TotalTotal sky sun Total sun+sky

Total sun+sky Total sky

Total sun+sky

23455 23455

36946 36946

1 7752 7

10000 Direct0 sky

33774 16537 6838 39327 18566 11517

klux h

29972 29972

19638 19241 26319 21374

50000 40000

26080 32893

30000 20000 10000 0


Proposed r=0

Proposed r=50

Figure 2: Total annual illumination incident at the skylights for the existing and proposed cases (2005 evaluation)

Total sun

Total sky

Total sun+sky

Daylight injury: 2013 evaluation

29972 6838 11517

19241 21374

As per the original legal agreement, the 2013 design had to be evaluated using exactly the same methodology to demonstrate that the level of daylight injury agreed between the parties in 2005 is not exceeded significantly by the new design.

DEVELOPMENT SITE LOT 14, 19, 43, 47, 50

291'-0" FROM ACL-1



A particular concern for the Art Students League, and indeed many others in New York concerned with planning and the city’s skyline, was the Tower’s cantilever which projected over the ASL building at a height of approximately 60 m above the rooflights. This is evident in the section drawing given in Figure 3. Views of the 3D model used for the lighting simulation are given in Figure 4. The ASL roof detail had changed since 2005 and there were now five individual rooflight areas. As before, the rooflight areas function as ‘sensor grids’ for the calculation of total annual illuminance incident on the rooflights. The grid for each rooflight area comprised several thousand calculation points; the total number of calculation points for all five rooflights was over eighty thousand.

26080 32893


The development of the 225 West 57th Street plot eventually restarted and, in 2013, a revised design was proposed. The new design – originally designated the ‘Nordstrom Tower – would be a very tall skyscraper, with a cantilever design that ‘stepped over’ the ASL building.


Figure 3: Section drawing of the Nordstrom tower showing cantilever projecting over the Art Students League

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F5 S8 S7 S6


Figure 4: CAD model of the Nordstrom tower and new arrangement of rooflights (shaded blue) on the Art Students League building

The same climate data and methodology for preparing the cumulative annual sun and sky models used for the 2005 evaluation were employed again for the 2013 predictions of daylight injury. The existing condition was repeated for the new arrangement of five rooflights, and now the daylight reduction was evaluated on a per-rooflight basis rather than calculating a single areaweighted value as used in the 2005 evaluation. Despite the monumental visual impression of the development conveyed by the concept renderings of the Nordstrom Tower shown on page 10, the daylight injury to the ASL skylights was found to be only marginally greater than that agreed upon for the original design in 2005. 2 3

The Nordstrom Tower design was finally approved in late 2013 following much heated debate amongst key stakeholders.2 The ASL study also has implications for the UK where the almost centuryold “rights to light” schema devised by Waldram for the determination of daylight injury has recently been critiqued in a number of papers [5] [6] [7] [8]. The measure of daylight used in the Waldram method is direct sky illumination under a uniform sky (without sun). It is now believed that this measure has little correspondence to commonly perceived notions of daylight sufficiency. In 2013 the UK Law Commission began a public consultation on “Rights to Light”.3 The 2005 ASL evaluation was submitted to the Commission as part of the

Link to article: Judge dismisses Art Students League suit over Extell tower


May/June 2018


consultation exercise and it was noted in their final report.4 It may be some time before it is possible to gauge the full impact of the study reported in this article. In 2013 the UK Education Funding Agency (EFA) made climate-based daylight modelling a mandatory requirement for the evaluation of designs submitted for the Priority Schools Building Programme (PSBP) [9]. This is believed to be the first major upgrade to mandatory daylight requirements since the introduction of the daylight factor more than half a century ago [10]. In the US, a climate-based daylight metric approved by the IESNA has appeared in the latest version of LEED [11]. In light of these developments, it seems likely that sooner or later climatebased daylight modelling will become a routine part of the evaluation of daylight injury at the planning stage. Until that time, the ASL / Central Park Tower daylight injury study will serve as a manifest demonstration of the application of a new approach to solving a long-standing planning issue.

[3] P. Littlefair. Site Layout Planning For Daylight And Sunlight: A Guide To Good Practice 2nd Edition. Building Research Establishment, 2011. [4] L Harris. Anstey’s Rights of Light and How to Deal with Them. 4th edition, RICS Books, London, 2007. [5] P. Chynoweth. Progressing the rights to light debate – part 1: a review of current practice. Structural Survey, 22(3):131–137, 2004. [6] P. Chynoweth. Progressing the rights to light debate: Part 2: the grumble point revisited. Structural Survey, 23(4):251–264, 2005. [7] Paul Chynoweth. Progressing the rights to light debate: Part 3: judicial attitudes to current practice. Structural Survey, 27(1):7–19, 2009. [8] P. Defoe and I. Frame. Was Waldram wrong? Structural Survey, 25(2):98–116, 2007.


[9] Education Funding Agency. EFA daylight design guide - version 2. Department For Education, UK, 2014.


[10] J. Mardaljevic. Climate- Based Daylight Modelling And Its Discontents. CIBSE Technical Symposium, London, UK, 16-17 April, 2015.

Article based on the paper [1] J. Mardaljevic, G. M. Janes, and M. Kwartler. The ‘Nordstrom Tower’: A landmark daylight injury study. CIE 28th Session, Manchester, UK, 2015.

[2] R.M. Kerr. On Ancient Lights: And the Evidence of Surveyors Thereon : with Tables for the Measurement of Obstructions. J. Murray, London, 1865.


“...In light of these developments, it seems likely that sooner or later climate-based daylight modelling will become a routine part of the evaluation of daylight injury at the planning stage”.

[11] Illuminating Engineering Society. Approved Method: IES Spatial Daylight Auton- omy (sDA) and Annual Sunlight Exposure (ASE). IES LM-83-12, 2012.

May/June 2018


MBS Software Waldram Tools v4.0 - Daylighting Software MBS has been developing software for the last 25 years. Delivering applications that are powerful yet easy to use. Waldram Tools is an excellent package for meeting the requirements for daylight & sunlight testing laid out in the BRE Guide. It is however much more than that, with many tools to aid design, such as facade analysis including solar radiation to test for overheating. Ray traced Daylight and sunlight calculations using Radiance, which allows more complicated situations to be assessed. Transient shadows can be assessed over a range of times with the shadow cast matching the colour of the proposed building The potential for solar glare can be assessed in an easy to read rendered image

The software produces:

· · · · · · · · ·

BRE Compliance tests VSC,APSH,NSL,Sunlight to Amenity and Average Daylight Factor Rights of Light contours Complete excel exports Automated transient shadow images Climate based daylight calculations Spatial Daylight Autonomy Annual Sunlight Exposure BREEAM calculations Solar Glare Solar Radiation Facade analysis

Available for AutoCAD 2014-2018* * Alternative product: "Daylight for Sketchup"

For more information contact us on:

Tel: 020 3176 0984


daylight diary 2018 marks a significant year for NARM, the National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers Over the 20 years since NARM was formed, our Technical Committee has played a pivotal role in establishing the effects of rooflighting on building performance. As an example, we were instrumental in collecting, analysing and interpreting rooflighting data upon which the regulations pertaining to rooflighting in The Building Regulations Approved Document L (Conservation of fuel & power), have been based. In 2018, the construction industry continues to face new and evolving challenges which we at NARM are working hard to meet.



that it was the UK rooflight industry that started this process. In fact, the rooflight industry, represented by NARM, has made more advances in safety than any other part of the roofing industry over the last 20 years. During this period, we have no evidence from the HSE that anyone has died by falling through a rooflight that was built since year 2000.

Rooflight specification

NARM has recently published a new Technical document entitled: Recommendations for good practice - fire performance of rooflight components.

This year, we have also been working hard on a new specification document entitled: Profiled Sheeting and Cladding: Rooflights for Profiled Sheeted Roofs. Due for publication soon, this will be the definitive guide for design & installation of profiled inplane rooflights

2018 has also seen NARM continuing its role as a champion for roof safety. From the year 2000 all UK industrial roofing has been designed to be nonfragile and it should be recognised


1998 – 2018

This year, NARM is working on new articles and communications to inform and educate on the subject of roof safety: a subject for which we remain passionate advocates.

Championing health & safety

Where rooflights have more than two layers, the fire rating of the intermediate layer(s) is currently not regulated by Building Regulations. This new NARM document outlines recommendations to address this important issue. It can be downloaded at: downloads/fire-performance/


View our CPD Seminar on YouTube Download NARM Technical Documents at Are you a RIBA member? Book our CPD Seminar now for double points Become a NARM member

May/June 2018



Changing the language of daylighting By Jonathan Dore, Commercial Director, Kingspan Light + Air

For many, daylighting means simply to introduce natural light into a building. Whilst this may seem like an efficient way to create a bright internal environment that complies with regulations, without adequate consideration, the actual results may fall short of expectations. To maximise the positive benefits natural light can provide, it is vital that we expand the interpretation of what daylighting is. Rather than being a question of whether to include daylighting measures or not, it should always be considered as part of a building’s holistic energy strategy to produce interiors that truly work for owners and occupiers. Focus on Quality In many cases, the drive to create healthier, more occupant-conscious buildings works hand in hand with the requirement for greater energy efficiency. Good daylighting should always balance these aspects. Historically, guidance on the use of daylighting focused purely on the proportional approach1. Applying a certain roof area percentage and addressing the thermal performance characteristics was thought to be enough. However, this can lead to numerous issues. If unmanaged, direct sunlight can cause disruptive or disabling glare, or

a build-up of heat in the space below, sometimes without actually providing daylight where it is needed to the building users. The resulting high internal temperatures can be seriously harmful to occupants or goods and may lead to an overreliance on air cooling systems, increasing energy use and running costs as well as causing low humidity and uncomfortable air quality. Consequently, it is essential that a daylighting scheme is designed not only with a realistic idea of the natural light levels in a space, but also what proportion of that light is ‘useful’ for inhabitants. Quality of daylighting and the correct selection of daylighting materials to provide controlled natural daylighting is therefore essential.

In many cases, the drive to create healthier, more occupant-conscious buildings works hand in hand with the requirement for greater energy efficiency. Good daylighting should always balance these aspects.

Climate Based Daylight Modelling (CBDM) is being widely adopted as the standard approach for effective daylighting design. This method predicts the quality and quantity of daylight a proposed construction will receive in its exact geographical location using realistic sun and sky conditions drawn from standardised climate data. From this information, building designers can then create a lighting strategy that optimises the amount of useful daylight illuminance (UDI) at the working plane. The recommended UDI varies depending on the type of space and the tasks that occur within it. For


Loughborough University, Climate-based daylight modelling and its discontents,


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Kingspan Day-Lite Kapture rooflight

example, the SLL Code for Lighting (2012) suggests that 300 lux is ideal for interiors where visual tasks are ‘moderately easy’, such as sport halls, classrooms and background office lighting. In places where visual tasks are ‘moderately’ or ‘very difficult’, such as in kitchens, laboratories or electronic manufacturing facilities, high light levels of 500 or even 1000 lux will be necessary to allow colour and detail to be accurately perceived2. Managing levels above and below these limits is crucial to ensure that occupants can carry out their activities comfortably and that the energy efficiency of the building is reduced. However, even with careful planning, the orientation and location of most rooflights makes it difficult to shade

them with passive measures in periods of direct sunlight. Therefore, the design of the rooflights themselves can play an important role in ensuring effective daylighting. Materials Matter Some traditional frooflight materials offer low levels of light diffusion, or do not adequately control the scattering of light. This not only increases the area of daylighting required to achieve the correct light levels, but also does little to control glare or solar heat gain. To resolve this, the latest generation of polycarbonate rooflights feature a nano-prismatic composition. The microscopic structures within these layers help to efficiently scatter light, delivering 100% diffusion whilst allowing excellent light transmission


SLLCL SLL Code for Lighting (2012) detail?id=a0q20000008I6xiAAC

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Kingspan Day-Lite Vault rooflight

of up to 83% when new. This also achieves a better uniformity of light across the space and provides a more even illuminance of objects and people. Polycarbonate is highly resistant to UV degradation, so will not yellow or lose translucency over time. This ensures longevity of both the product’s light diffusion and the material’s non-visual benefits, such as the transmission of blue spectrum light. As diurnal animals, humans are biologically programmed to be more alert in the light of the day and tire at night when it goes dark. Therefore, exposure to blue lightwaves – the colour temperature associated with morning – stimulates this circadian system, enhancing our focus and energy levels. This is particularly beneficial in workplace or education settings where productivity is key and can help to improve the overall health and mood of occupants. By allowing the full natural daylight colour spectrum into the building, Polycarbonate daylighting products provide an indoor environment that is much more like natural outdoor daylight conditions.

Designing for the Future There is evidence that standards in the UK are moving towards a more holistic, occupant-led approach to building design. BREEAM, the widely recognised standard for sustainable buildings, offers credits for both the reduction of energy use, including four credits for undertaking energy modelling, and up to six credits for visual comfort3.

With energy efficiency standards only set to get stricter and recent discussions around healthy buildings bringing new focus to the importance of natural light exposure, it is likely that daylighting will become a fundamental consideration for any new or refurbished buildings.

With energy efficiency standards only set to get stricter and recent discussions around healthy buildings bringing new focus to the importance of natural light exposure, it is likely that daylighting will become a fundamental consideration for any new or refurbished buildings. Introducing optimised levels of natural light into our buildings today will help to both futureproof and enhance them, providing assets that are attractive to tenants whilst helping to reduce energy consumption. We need to change the language of daylighting, so that it truly reflects the benefits to be had and gets the balance right.



May/June 2018


GRP Over-roofing and rooflights extend roof life and improve energy efficiency and working conditions

Before refurbishment

After refurbishment

The roof on this unit at Salisbury’s Harnham Trading Estate was starting to fail, causing water ingress. The rooflights were also becoming discoloured, reducing light transmission into the building.

This created a big impact on light levels within the building, bringing an improved working environment and reduced energy consumption for the building occupant, New Garage (Harnham) Limited.

The existing fibre cement profiled roof sheets were generally in poor condition. However, stripping and replacing the sheets would have been prohibitively expensive and the business occupying the unit would have suffered considerable upheaval and potential closure during refurbishment.

GRP rooflights provide excellent light diffusion creating ideal lighting condtions for working environments like industrial units and warehouses.

Industrial Building Solutions of Wimborne, Dorset, installed lightweight GRP over-roofing to restore the integrity of the roof, together with replacement GRP rooflights. The old rooflights covering an area of approximately 50m2 were also replaced during the project, using profiled GRP rooflights also supplied by Filon Products.


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Andy Green, Director of Industrial Building Solutions, summed up: “We have used this system for many projects over the years. It’s simple to install, with minimal disruption, because the old roof doesn’t need to be removed. Also, because it’s so light, no additional reinforcement is needed. As the existing roof dries out the result is an overall reduction in weight, so it’s a win-win situation”.

GRP rooflights provide excellent light diffusion creating ideal lighting condtions for working environments like industrial units and warehouses.

Innovative upgrade & refurbishment solutions for profiled fibre cement or metal roofs & cladding

Filon Supsafe reinforced top sheet

Specify U-values as low as 1.0 W/m2K

Light Transmission – Category Lo

More diffused daylight. Less wasted energy.

Filon FAIRs Factory Assembled Insulating Rooflights. Filon FAIRs provide the optimum combination of light transmission and energy efficiency – the ideal solution for rooflighting in any profiled roof. UV protected GRP outer sheets can be manufactured to match all current profiles – and most discontinued ones, making rooflight upgrades simple – and the central core can be adapted to provide U-values as low as 1.0 W/m2K. As one of the UK’s leading providers of profiled rooflights and roofing sheets, with huge experience across all kinds of public and private sector buildings, Filon Products is your ideal partner in roof and rooflight upgrades and refurbishment. We also offer: • Fixsafe for safe replacement of rooflights and roof sheets • Lightweight over-roofing for cost-effective roof refurb with minimal disruption.

For details, please call us on 01543 687300 or visit

Filon rooflights provide outstanding light diffusion – ideal for factories & warehouses

Filon Products Ltd, Unit 3 Ring Road, Zone 2, Burntwood Business Park, Burntwood, Staffs WS7 3JQ


Lonsdale rafter glazing bars provide bright new family space Previous owners had carried out a basement extension at this mid-terrace property in East London. The new owners required more space for their expanding family and wished to infill the basement courtyard enabling re-instatement of a back garden and addition of a side extension gaining around 21Sqm of useable internal floor space.

This side extension features a glazed roof using Lonsdale thermally broken aluminium glazing bars on top of 150 x 50 structural oak joists. The timber was recessed, allowing the base of the aluminium glazing bar to sit inside the top of the rafters so only timber is visible up to the glass line from inside. Safety was optimised by using laminated glass to the inner pane of the insulating glass units with heat soaked tested toughened glass for maximum strength to the outer panes. Importantly, the bottom edges of the double glazed units were stepped to avoid the laminated glass over-hanging at the gutter thus reducing the risk of thermal cracking. Similarly, heat soak testing the toughened glass reduces the risk of spontaneous breakage due


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to nickel-suphide inclusions. The Lonsdale rafter glazing system provides integral drainage channels to ensure any water that penetrates flows safely to the outside of the building. The continuous gaskets and pressure plates safely secure the glass and weight bearing glass stops prevent glass slippage. This combined with the advantage of maintenance free powder coated aluminium caps means a huge improvement in weather-tightness and durability over traditional methods using timber cappings and sealants. A nice design touch by HUT Architecture was extending the timber joists to floor level integrating them with shelving for the clients collection of books and retro artwork.

Illuminating experience Bright designs for architectural impact

At Whitesales, we design specialist daylight solutions providing outstanding aesthetics and creativity to buildings. Our bespoke roof glazing and continuous rooflights offer superior performance and turn aspirations into reality. 01483 271371


Acrylic in roof glazing: reflecting on fire safety concerns Jim Lowther, Vice Chairman of NARM, The National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers, explains why specifiers should give careful consideration to the materials used in rooflights.

In August 1973 a fire broke out at the Summerland leisure complex on the Isle of Man, in which 51 people tragically lost their lives. The building had been designed to accommodate up to 10,000 tourists and was billed as ‘the biggest and most innovative indoor entertainment centre in the world’. The street frontage and a large part of the roof was clad in Oroglas, a transparent acrylic sheet – or to give the material its full name – polymethyl methacrylate, abbreviated to PMMA. The blaze was started by a discarded cigarette and spread rapidly throughout the building. There were a number of contributing factors to this – one of which was the acrylic glazing. The heat caused the acrylic to melt, allowing more oxygen in to feed the fire and creating burning droplets of the material, which further propagated the fire. Following the tragedy, fire regulations were changed to restrict the use of acrylic as a glazing material, particularly in rooflighting. These restrictions remain and continue to apply to internal linings as well as roof coverings.


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In response to the regulation changes, rooflight manufacturers turned to alternative glazing materials which achieved the requisite Class1 fire performance to BS476 part 7. Glass had always been available, and manufacturers also used PVC (polyvinylchloride) which achieved the fire performance but suffered from UV degradation and discoloration resulting in loss of light transmission. During the 80’s a new high performance thermoplastic glazing material was introduced. The new polycarbonate sheets performed to BS476 Class 1 and offered greatly superior UV performance. Indeed, modern polycarbonate is fully UV protected to provide a long service life without any significant discolouration or deterioration in performance. It should also be noted that during this period GRP (Glass Reinforced Polyester) profiled rooflights with BS476 Class 1 certification also became widely specified for in-plane rooflights on factories & warehouses. Modern GRP offers excellent UV performance and remains the predominant material for these applications.

During the 80’s a new high performance thermoplastic glazing material was introduced. The new polycarbonate sheets performed to BS476 Class 1 and offered greatly superior UV performance. performance.

Time does not stand still in the development of building design – and

FIRE SAFETY Crucially, whilst Part B Building Regulations include requirements for the fire performance of both the inner and outer skin of a rooflight (traditionally the only skins in a rooflight), they do not yet include any specific requirements for the more recently introduced intermediate skin. When polycarbonate sheet was first introduced to the UK it was more expensive than both the original acrylic and the PVC which it replaced. However, the widespread use of polycarbonate has resulted in greatly reduced costs, making it a relatively cost effective material in today’s UK marketplace, and all NARM members supplying rooflights with polycarbonate inner and outer skins always ensure the intermediate skin is also polycarbonate, avoiding any increase in fire risk. This is not necessarily the case in other countries where acrylic is still widely used, so imported thermoplastic rooflights may contain acrylic intermediate skins - and it could

be argued that those products still comply with the letter, if not the spirit, of the Building Regulations. But this could present a risk, particularly when using thermoplastic inner and outer skins, which could melt to expose the intermediate skin to a fire: the very scenario that the Regulation changes following the Summerland Disaster were designed to restrict. In the interest of safety, we at NARM support a tightening of the Building Regulations to ensure rooflight intermediate skins are explicitly covered by them. In the meantime, to establish clarity, NARM has issued recommendations that the intermediate skin(s) of any rooflight should be at least as good as the fire rating of either the inner or outer skin, and we urge specifiers and users of rooflights to ensure this guidance is followed. Full details of this guidance can be found in the NARM Technical Library: https://

Remains of the Summerland Complex, Douglas, Isle of Man.

In the interest of safety, we at NARM support a tightening of the Building Regulations to ensure rooflight intermediate skins are explicitly covered by them.

Photo: Wikipedia Dr Neil Clifton

May/June 2018



Fire alarms, human behaviour and the role of advanced glazing systems in fire safety By Jane Embury, Marketing Director of glass and steel glazing specialist Wrightsyle

Today’s advanced glazing systems are designed to give protection against fire and toxic gases for up to 120 minutes. This is because large or complex buildings such as hospitals or tall office blocks can take a long time to evacuate and, then, protected access is needed for fire crews to extinguish the fire. But it’s not quite as simple as that, because human beings aren’t predictable. For example, a major UK retailer took part recently in a series of unannounced fire test evacuations. Interestingly, and contrary to their

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training, staff didn’t always immediately start to move customers towards the exits. The majority first sought confirmation that it was a real fire alarm, which therefore delayed the evacuation. Evacuation models In other words, human behaviour can sometimes work against the fast evacuation of a building, whose evacuation models are often based on engineering and computational tools. However, research at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), among others, demonstrates that those computer models don’t


always take human reaction into consideration. After all, we’ve all been in a building when a fire alarm has sounded. Did you immediately move towards the nearest exit? Probably not. Our first instinct is not to take the alarm too seriously. We can’t see any smoke or flames. We can’t smell smoke. It must therefore be a fire test or a false alarm. Until we know for certain, we do nothing.

sounded. The average “start up” time before people began to move to the exits was between five and eight minutes. Others didn’t start to evacuate for up to 40 minutes. And then there’s “exit choice behavior” which computational models can also struggle with because, again, human nature comes into play. We don’t always exit a building by designated

That period is called “pre-movement time” – the period when nothing much happens. Psychologically, our brains are telling us to think logically. There is no discernible threat, the chances of it being a real fire are remote and, frankly, I’m composing a rather important email to my boss in Bradford. In most cases, therefore, a fire alarm isn’t in itself a call to action. More often, it’s a source of confusion because, even when we believe the alarm might be real, we don’t know where the threat is coming from. This also adds to a delayed evacuation because none of us wants to evacuate until we know that our escape route is safe. Start-up time The fire alarm therefore precipitates a variety of responses. Some people will take it seriously; others will wait until they have more information. Some will seek guidance from co-workers or their superiors; some will ignore it completely. It’s estimated that as much as two-thirds of the time it takes people to exit a building after an alarm is startup time – time wasted in looking for more information. The most tragic example was 9/11, when fewer than 9% of the occupants of the World Trade Center towers immediately evacuated after the alarms

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FIRE SAFETY routes. We’ll exit a building by the route we’re familiar with, even it’s a longer journey – for example, the route by which we arrive at our desk in the morning. But behavior isn’t just about us as individuals. Groups of people can influence one another. People want to evacuate alongside colleagues, slowing evacuation down to the speed of the slowest person. In a shopping centre, we might be evacuating with elderly relatives or small children. All of those factors, and many others, can influence the level of protection that should be applied within a particular building. It’s not just about using a computer model to estimate how long a well-drilled evacuation will take. It’s also about adding in human behavior.

have the strength to accommodate glass panes weighing up to 450kg. Steel large span systems can now offer exceptional glazing solutions in aesthetic architectural designs, without losing optical quality. Modern production methods for fire rated glass have kept pace with the demands of high optical quality in the finished product. This is partly down to an improved control of glass thickness in production – the more consistent thickness means that glazing beads can be pre-machined without concerns over glass rattle (when the glass is thin) or difficulty in fitting beads (when the glass is too thick) – all of which effects the optical quality.

The role of advanced glazing Advanced glazing systems are designed to stop fire and radiant heat for up to two hours. But that doesn’t mean any loss in optical quality or limit the spans of glass that can be incorporated into a design. Modern architecture is all about letting light flood in and systems such as those developed by Wrightstyle, give architects greater freedom to design buildings that incorporate larger areas of fire protected glass. Due to the high static values of steel profiles, large unsupported areas of glazing can be achieved. At the Ocean Terminal shopping centre in Leith, Edinburgh for example – now also home to the Royal Yacht Britannia - the glazed span is over 16 metres in height, with the largest individual free span of over 10 metres. Large span curtain wall facades


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May/June 2018


DAYLIGHTING ICONS The biggest: the best: the most awe-inspiring; the most outrageous; the most influential... In this regular feature we indulge ourselves and our readers with images of daylighting projects throughout the years that simply deserve a double page photograph...

Nazarbayev Centre, Astana, Kazakhstan The Nazarbayev Centre is the archive and library of the President of Kazakhstan located just off the central axis between the Presidential Palace and the Palace of Peace and Reconciliation. Its distinctive bowl-like form rises from the middle of a large formal landscaped garden, and is topped by a glass oculus spanning 90-metres, with views towards the Presidential Palace and gardens. The glazed roof is a shallow dome, supported by a steel frame and a steel ring beam that gives the structure its strength. Internally, the floors step back to reveal a large atrium at ground level.


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May/June 2018



Twitterings Follow us for regular updates between issues... in the meantime, more highlights...


May/June 2018


Stay up to date with DAYLIGHTING Magazine! Throughout 2018 we will be running features on just about every daylighting-related topic you can think of – and some you may not have... this year we’ll also be introducing a wider range of opportunities for advertisers, including low cost product advertorials and a product directory.

For further details download our media pack

JULY / AUGUST • Domestic Daylighting • Controlling Heat & Glare • Daylight in Agriculture & Horticulture • Glass Facades SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER • Daylight for Dramatic Effect • Daylighting in the Retail Sector • Refurbishment • Modular Rooflights • Daylight Harvesting NOVEMBER / DECEMBER • Daylighting, Health & Wellbeing • Daylighting in Factories & Warehouses • Lighting Controls • Translucent Cladding • Roof Windows

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Editorial Programme REGULAR FEATURES: Industry News & Comment, Technical Focus, Daylight & Energy Saving, Standards

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May/June 2018



1998 – 2018

Shaping the future of daylighting for over twenty years.

NARM, the National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers,

is the influential trade association representing the UK’s rooflight industry. We are closely involved in developing and implementing legislation affecting UK rooflighting. Choosing rooflights from a NARM member company is the simple and certain way to ensure adherence to standards and legislation. You can also gain access to a wealth of free and objective specification information on our website. BOOK OUR CPD SEMINAR

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DAYLIGHTING Magazine issue 10 May/June 2018  

The bi-monthly magazine for architectural specifiers and technicians, building contractors and anyone interested in the provision of natural...

DAYLIGHTING Magazine issue 10 May/June 2018  

The bi-monthly magazine for architectural specifiers and technicians, building contractors and anyone interested in the provision of natural...

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