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Curated by Renzo Noventa



ASBo_DEM238 (1330-1337) ASBo_DEM239 (1349-1357)


Palaeographic Supervision Rossella Rinaldi Transcripts Sara Flammini English translation supervision Margaret Baigent

Baskerville Bologna

Renzo Noventa (a cura di) GIORNALE DELLE ENTRATE E DELLE USCITE DEL CONVENTO DI SAN DOMENICO IN BOLOGNA In due volumi: ASBo_DEM238 (1330-1337) ASBo_DEM239 (1349-1357) © 2015 Baskerville, Bologna, Italia ISBN: 978 88 8000 903 0 Il volume è composto in caratteri Baskerville [ITC Bew Baskerville OTF]


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Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna


While I was carrying out research into health care and hygiene in the Middle Ages in Bologna, Rossella Rinaldi, a paleographer who works at the State Archives in Bologna, suggested I should look at two volumes: ASBo Corporazioni religiose soppresse Abolished Religious Guilds, Dem238/7572 and Dem239/7573, which concern the book-keeping and accounts of St. Dominic’s monastery in Bologna. She was of the opinion that in these volumes I would certainly find the information I was looking for. From these book-keeping journals, I was able to extract abundant information about the life of the friars in this monastery, some of which is reported on the following pages. The first of these volumes regards the monastery’s accounts for the years 1330-1337, while the second covers the years 1349-1357. The two volumes, most of which were previously unpublished, were transcribed in their entirety by Sara Flammini. My research concerned the evidence regarding the monastery’s infirmary and the food used to feed the friars in a nourishing manner but, as I perused the entries line by line, I discovered a wealth of interesting information about the daily life of this community and in this way, little by little, I came to the conclusion that this information should not just be left where it was. It was at this point that, reflecting on the magnificent work done on the transcription of the two volumes, I thought it would be a good idea to make these transcriptions public and available to all instead of leaving them “inactive” after accomplishing the task for which they were initially made. When I described to the Editor, albeit briefly, the work carried out and the content which had emerged from the transcriptions, he shared my enthusiasm for the idea. Together we decided to publish the two volumes in order to place this heritage of information at the disposal of all, which may perhaps stimulate others to undertake further research in areas different from my own interests. The lay-out of the documents posed some difficulties but these were brilliantly overcome by Nicoletta Lupia who, in conjunction with the Editor and the printer, was responsible for this major contribution to the project. My deepest thanks go to Massimo Montanari for his encouragement in my research. I thank equally warmly everyone who believed in this project and who contributed to its successful completion.


Renzo Noventa



Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

The Monastery of St. Dominic in Bologna Dominican monasteries usually consist of a church, a shared dormitory, a refectory, a cloister and a room for the Chapter where the friars met to deliberate and for their common confession; there were also other minor buildings, which we will see for the monastery of St. Dominic in Bologna on the following pages. The monastery offered the Dominican friar a moment of meditation and rest; it also offered the discipline to enable him to approach his preaching work in the right spirit. At the time of the first General Chapter (1220), after only four years from the approval of the Order, there were about fifteen monasteries. By 1277 this number had risen to 4041; if we consider that, in order to open a monastery there had to be at least twelve friars, we can deduce that, after only fifty years from the approval of the Order, there were more than five thousand Dominican friars. In 1218 Dominic had sent four friars to Bologna to found a monastery. Bologna was famous for its University and Dominic probably thought the student environment would be a fertile ground for vocations. The four friars settled initially at the Mascarella church but this structure soon became inadequate for the great number of vocations, especially after the arrival in Bologna of Reginald of Orléans. It was at that time that the bishop of Bologna gave the Dominicans the church of St. Nicolò delle Vigne, with its adjacent presbytery; this church lay just inside the outer city wall and although it was not very large, it was sufficient for the many and various needs of the friars. From 1219, first Reginald, and later Dominic and his successors until 1243 adopted a purchasing policy of the land and buildings near St. Nicolò delle Vigne, obtaining an area totaling 31,500 square meters2. In this area they immediately began to build one of the biggest monasteries of the Order, which subsequently became the model for all the others that followed. In 1235, immediately after Dominic’s canonization, the monastery began to be known by the name of St. Dominic rather than the old name of St. Nicolò delle Vigne. This new monastery developed into a collection of buildings with the principal ones laid out around a cloister. The church occupied one side of the rectangle; a second side contained the Chapter house and the dormitory; the third side held the Chapter house for the novices and the library; and the fourth side housed the refectory. To the south of the cloister there was another cloister, whose east wing was formed by the extension of the dormitory; the northern wing was the Chapter house of the novices; the western wing the infirmary, while the South bordered a large kitchen garden. Other minor buildings lay behind the refectory and these served to contain the internal schools and everything necessary for the practical running of the monastery: the kitchen, the larder, the cellar, the tailor’s workshop, the shoe workshop. These minor buildings were in turn laid out in such a way as to form with the infirmary a third small cloister. 1 P. Lippini, La vita quotidiana di un convento medievale, Edizioni Studio Domenicano, Bologna 2003, p. 30 2 Ibidem, p. 36 5

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

Around the apse and along the northern side of the church there was a large cemetery area. The left corner of the church’s facade had a hanging pulpit (demolished when the Peruzzi chapel was built) from which the friar preached when the congregation was so numerous that it could not be contained in the church; this pulpit was overhung by a metallic weathercock which, turned by the wind, indicated to the preacher the direction towards which he had to speak in order that his voice would reach the listeners below 3.

The minor buildings of the Monastery of St. Dominic The refectory This had a front door opening onto the cloister, also known as the first cloister, of which it occupied the whole west side. The refectory was the largest room of the monastery as the tables and the benches were arranged along the wall and the centre was left empty. The friars sat along a single side of the table, closest to the wall4, and since there were more than a hundred friars, the refectory was a vast room5. The kitchen This stood behind the refectory, in the area now occupied by a Division of the Civil Court. As we will see, another kitchen also existed, that of the infirmary. The existence of the two kitchens might have been due to the fact that in the principal one, meat was always forbidden6. The cellar This was kept well stocked. It was run by an expert cellarman, who had to keep the barrels clean and repair them when necessary. The Dominicans were never farmers, so they must have had the wine produced for them or bought it7 from elsewhere. The infirmary As already mentioned, this formed one of the four sides of the first cloister: its rooms are now occupied by a Division of the Civil Court. The infirmary formed a separate wing of the monastery, with its own kitchen in which meat dishes could also be prepared, its own chapel, a well and a small garden. In practice, it was an autonomous entity equipped with linen, crockery and all other necessities: tables, stools, stoves, oil and candles for lighting, chamber-pots. The person in charge of the infirmary, the infirmarian, was always a lay brother. He was responsible for giving first aid and dealing with uncomplicated illnesses, despite never having studied medicine8. He would know how to produce remedies from the plants grown for the purpose in the “viridarium” and was authorized to buy from outside what the “viridarium” was not able to produce. He would prepare infusions, decoctions, syrups, medicinal wines, ointments, creams, poultices and lotions. Not only friars were admitted into the infirmary, but also the servants when they fell ill because they too had to be cared for with charity in case of need 9. The bleeding room The “minutio”or bleeding was an operation in which a certain quantity of blood was drawn via the elbow’s median vein; this was a custom practised since antiquity but in the Middle Ages it was extensively used. Bleeding was also carried out using leeches. The Dominican Constitutions included the obligation to undergo bleeding, because it was seen as a way to fight against the temptations of the flesh. The bleeding day become a joyful feast day during which everyone was exempted from work and from all other observances. 3 Ibidem, pp. 43-44 4 Ibidem, p. 107 5 Ibidem, p. 108 6 Ibidem, p. 113 7 Ibidem, p. 118 8 Ibidem, p. 130 9 Ibidem, p. 133 6

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

Bleeding was carried out by the barber, who also held the function of dentist and of surgeon10. The kitchen-garden This was very large and provided all the plants and vegetables that were useful to the monastery. Aromatic herbs were always grown: sage and parsley were used abundantly in the kitchen11.

Eating habits in the Monastery of St. Dominic Lunch (the main meal) The Order’s Constitutions established that the friars should have two cooked courses. The monastery gardener provided the cook with a good variety of vegetables with which he could prepare appetizing dishes: peas, broad beans, beans, chickpeas, lentils, cabbages, carrots, pumpkins, onions and turnips were always available. Originally, bread would have come from begging but there was always plenty of it. The friars would have drunk wine. Special dishes A special dish, the “pictancia”, was sometimes allowed by the Prior, especially for great occasions such as the most important feast days or because of the presence in the monastery of some illustrious guest.

The Dominican Lent The first Constitutions prescribed that from the feast day of the Holy Cross (14th September) until Easter, the friars had to fast, and had to eat at the ninth hour (three p.m.). Fasting also had to be observed during the Four Ember Days, on the eve of Ascension Day and of Whitsun, of the feast days of the Saints John, Peter, Paul, Matthew, Simon, Judah and Andrew and of all the Saints, and on every Friday of the year excluding a Friday on which Christmas Day fell. Only a single meal, therefore, was permitted on the eves listed above and every Friday, on the three days of the “Rogations” and on the “Four Ember Days” (Wednesday, Friday, Saturday at the beginning of each of the four seasons – in this case, also with the hope of obtaining good harvests). Eating just once a day for seven months a year was a practice considered beneficial for the elevation of the soul and for the repression of fleshly lust, since a lack of food was believed to weaken sexual desire. The evening meal This was a light meal, as the friars would have eaten not long before (three hours), but this small supper, taken before going to sleep, was considered a necessity because they would not eat anything until lunch the following day12.

Finances at the Monastery of St. Dominic General comments The financial balance of this community of more than hundred individuals was frequently “in the red”. There were many expenses and the income was often insufficient. For this reason, the friars were compelled to borrow money and resort to loans. The amounts requested were not high and were normally for short periods; basically, the friars lived from day to day. It was the friends of the monastery who made loans to the friars, and their suppliers who gave their goods on credit. The friars had to provide some guarantee in order to obtain these loans and thus they sometimes gave as security objects of great value such as manuscripts from the library, chalices from the sacristy, or jewels. In 1354, for a loan of 70 Bolognese lira from Margherita Pepoli, the friars gave a jewel of great value as a bond. On 23rd June 1355, they recovered a bond of five gold-plated silver chalices which had 10 Ibidem, p. 122 11 Ibidem, p. 126 12 Ibidem, p. 249 7

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

been given to them by the queen of Hungary13. On 25th January 1356, the friars recovered some manuscripts that had been given as security for a loan14. Income and expenses Income The income of the monastery was unpredictable; still in the 14th century, as on the Order’s foundation, the friars had no regular income, apart from the landed income. Some of the most significant income derived from the large number of bequests that the community received, and the donations for masses for special intentions. Occasionally, the friars received land or houses but the costs involved in maintaining these often eroded a considerable part of the income15. Expenses The food needed to feed a community of more than a hundred individuals would have constituted a considerable expenditure. The friars ate mainly eggs, fish, cheese and pulses. We have already mentioned the many days of abstinence prescribed by the Order’s Constitutions; the use of meat was an exception reserved for guests and the sick. Wheat came from the land to which the friars had the right of use (the usufruct); vegetables were grown in the monastery garden; bread was made in the monastery; often wine too was made in the monastery . The food was more substantial when there was the “pictancia”. As we have already said, this was a special dish which appeared on the friars’ table on special occasions, especially when there were guests; one of these was the celebration of a General Chapter and on that day the friars would invite the authorities of the city, bishops and prelates. On these occasions, the costs would be covered by the well-off families of the city or by the city authorities themselves, because of the prestige for the city deriving from the presence of the General Master and of the Capitular Fathers from all parts of Europe16. Another frequent expense was the purchase of books for the library. Among the entries, we frequently find expenses to purchase papyrus paper, ink, paint and other writing materials17. Another constant and considerable outlay was that for the maintenance of the monastery buildings. There was also a notable expense in the pay of the lay staff who worked in the monastery: the infirmarian’s assistant, the cook, the store-keeper, the laundryman, the baker, the worker in the firewood-store, and the worker who drew water from the wells. All of these received a wage and a contribution toward their workclothes, shoes, etc. Some services were carried out by lay brothers; these were religious figures who were not priests and usually they were responsible for the sacristy, for the custody of the Ark of St. Dominic, for the infirmary, the tailor’s workshop, the shoe shop, the larder and the garden.

13 ASBo, Corporazioni religiose soppresse, Dem239/7573, c. 95 14 Ibidem, c. 108 15 Ibidem, c. 265 16 A. D’Amato, I Domenicani a Bologna, Vol. I, Edizioni Studio Domenicano, Bologna 1988, pp. 267-270 17 ASBo Dem238/7572, c. 137, c. 175; ASBo Dem239/7373, c. 83 8

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna


Editorial methods Before dealing with the content of the volumes studied, it may be useful to give some indication of how these were produced, since they consist largely of unpublished material. Volume Dem238 consists of 212 pages and was transcribed in its entirety; Volume Dem239 consists of 147 pages and was also fully transcribed. Originally, these pages were not numbered; if the original documents are examined, it can be seen that the numbering is in Arabic numerals and was added at a later date. To understand which side of the paper is referred to, a numbering code was adopted which first indicates the volume it belongs to; the separator “-“ follows the name of the volume, then follows the number of the page with the letter “r” if we refer to the “recto” or “v” if we refer to the “verso”. Each page of the original documents contains a variable number of lines; each of these lines was given a progressive number; a progressive numbering system was also used for each line of the transcriptions so we can easily find the connection between the line of the original document with the line of the related transcription. The sides of the pages which were blank in the original documents were not assigned a number; thus, in this publication there is not continuity between the numbering of the original documents and the numbering of the published document. The original documents Volume Dem238 deals with the income and expenses concerning St. Dominic’s Monastery from 11th December 1330 to 3rd October 1337. The entries for income are separated from those related to expenditure; the entries for income continue to page 92v while the expenditure begins from page 93r. Volume Dem239 deals with the income and expenses concerning St. Dominic’s Monastery from 28th November 1349 to 28th September 1357. As for Dem238, in this volume too the income entries are separated from those for expenditure; income entries continue to page 25v while expenditure begins from page 26r. It was the Procurator of the monastery, who held the office for some months at a time, who was responsible for the entries. Within the respective “sections”, all the transactions are recorded in chronological order with very few exceptions. It is my belief that, when this involves an entire page, it is probably the result of an error made by someone reordering the original documentation. If the non-chronological sequence occurs within the same page, it is probably a question of entries which were not made at the same time as the event taking place; notes were probably taken and only subsequently recorded. The two volumes are clearly written by different hands. The personality of the writer can be detected from the handwriting: sometimes the handwriting is fine, round and orderly, especially in volume Dem238, while in the pages of volume Dem239 we often find numerous corrections and the words are written in dense handwriting, with many added notes; in short, a rather “nervous”, even untidy hand. The entries do not always make clear the date of the event described; many entries begin with “eodem die” and so, in order to understand to which day the entry refers, we need to trace the entries back to match it with one with an explicit date recorded. Almost always at the end of each page, we find a note of the total number of the entries listed on it. Looking through the papers, we can see that occasionally “the accounts” were audited; this audit was always carried out in the presence of the Procurator as it was he was responsible for the “finances”. Among the Auditors there is always the Prior, the Superior and a number of the older friars (In IX novem ante meridian facta ratione die XI decembris coram frate corado de camarino priore et fratibus Iohanne de biblia, armaninus de gisileris, cristophalus 9

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

de saliceto, iohannes de dugolo, redericus, tadulfus, michael de saragoza, iohannes de dalmaze et me simone restorii procuratore remanserunt apud me factis omnibus expensis libras XVIIII solidos XI denarios X)18.

At the end of the audit the “balance” was noted; the expenditure is rarely equal to the income: often the expenses exceed the income; sometimes it is the contrary. The completion of the audit and the result is recorded on both the page dedicated to the income and on that for the expenditure; obviously, the date recorded is the same for both. We can say with a degree of certainty that the method adopted for the entries is that of a “revenue journal”, even though the income and expenditure are recorded on different pages. As for the book-keeping system used, I think we can fairly say that in those days the friars adopted a book-keeping method similar to today’s “cash-flow accounting”. Thus, if the friars had a lack of “liquidity”, they ran up debt by buying on credit, or took out loans. In the entries for expenditure we occasionally find repayment of these loans. The accounts and book-keeping of the St. Dominic Monastery from 1330 to 1337 (ASBo Dem238/7572) Types of income As we can see from the following examples the types of income are very varied: -

The Legate stays in the monastery and pays for his board and lodging according to a fixed scale (Item recepi a domino legato pro tribus septimanis libras III solidos XV)19. -

Cash is obtained from the sale of broad beans (Item recepi de faba solidos XXXV)20

The friars receive funds from the sacristy, which in turn has received the offerings made to St. Dominic’s church


(Item recepi de casa sacrestie die XVI jenuari libras V solidos V)21. - A plot of land in the territory of Marano is sold (Item recepi pro una pecie tere aratorie pro site in loco ubi dicitur Marano vendite cum domino episcopo adriensis libras CLXXXXIIII solidos VIIII)22.

Loans are received, including in foreign - mutuo a domino episcopo sigensis pro conventu florenos L)23). -

currencies, such as florins (Item recepi

Animals are sold (Item recepi de porcis venditis solidos XVIII)24.

There are numerous entries of this type. Other major entries are: offerings for masses to be said “pro anima”; bequests in wills; income from the rent of houses, grassland, arable land and vineyards. Important income in terms of value also derives from the sales of foodstuffs like wheat, oil, spelt, millet and wine. These are sometimes identified as coming from the “storeroom” of the monastery; on other occasions they come directly from lands given in management to small farmers with a rent paid partly in money and part in kind. For income in foreign currency, such as the florin or ducat, the equivalent value in Bolognese money is usually indicated. In these cases we can see the variations in the exchange rate, even over a relatively short period of time, just as happens today. There are also some cases noted of forged money; the consequent losses are always indicated in Bolognese money. From the various entries we can also deduce that on the occasion of some religious feast days (the anniversary of St. Dominic’s death, the feast day of St. Peter the Martyr, St. John the Evangelist, St. Thomas, St. Catherine) there would have been a committee who organized the celebration of the feast day and after subtracting the costs from what they collected, would give the Procurator the remaining part. Entries regarding the Minor Friars occur with a certain frequency. These were friars nominated in the will of some personage, generally not from Bologna but from 18 ASBo, Corporazioni religiose soppresse, Dem238 c.1r 19 Ibidem, Dem238, c.2r 20 Ibidem, Dem238, c. 2v 21 Ibidem, Dem238, c. 2v 22 Ibidem, Dem238, c. 5v 23 Ibidem, Dem238, c. 6v 24 Ibidem, Dem238, c. 47v 10

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

Imola or Ferrara. Important income also derived from offerings made for a thousand masses for particular intentions. It almost seems that at St. Dominic’s church the friars had established “lots of a thousand masses” of which it was possible to acquire a part. The offerings that the friars received were sometimes rather unusual; we can see the friars received animals but also a “ velvet cloth” as a “pro anima”offering, which was later sold and the amount obtained from the sale recorded in the income entries. Types of expenditure Infirmary expenses The expenses entered for this important part of the monastery for the period under consideration were not very detailed and fairly generic. From the entries we can see that funds were given to the incumbent infirmarian almost every week; we presume that this money would have been used for the various necessities of the sick. With very few exceptions, we do not find any explanation for the precise use of these funds. Very occasionally expenses are specified for the assistant infirmarian’s pay, or for the kitchen. Just once an expenditure on a supply of firewood is detailed (Item expendi in uno curu lignorum quos emi pro infirmis solidos XXVIII)25.

We can also find some expenses for the kitchen but it is not specified if these are for general maintenance or to buy some foodstuffs (Item expendi pro chochina infirmorum solidos XXVI)26. In rare cases some purchases for food like fat, eggs and almonds are specified (Item expendi in pingudine pro infirmis libras V)27 and (Item expendi in ovis pro infirmis solidos III)28 and (Item expendi pro amidolis pro infirmis solidos XII denarios VI)29. The friars pay a pharmacist without specifying his name (Item dedi apotacario infirmorum pro parte debiti sui libras XVI)30. They bought medicines for Friar John and Friar Zachariah (Item expendi pro medicinis pro fratre Johanne de Dugolo solidos XXIII)31 and (Item dedi magistro Merchadanti pro infirmitate fratris Zacharie solidos XX)32. Money was spent on laundry (Item dedi dicto fratri Johanni pro loctura panorum infirmorum solidos XII denarios III)33 and (Item expendi pro loctura panorum chocine infirmorum solidos IIII)34. The well was maintained (Item expendi pro puteo infirmorum solidos XXII)35.

Money was spent on the maintenance of lamps, the colonnade, the kitchen-range and the kitchen boiler. The well rope was changed (Item expendi in una corda pro puteo

infirmorum solidos XIIII)36.

The locks were changed (Item expendi in una clavatura pro chochina infirmorum solidos IIII)37. There are no other detailed expenses. At the end of the whole period covered by Dem238, the total amount of the expenditure is about 258 Bolognese lira, a rather small part (0.74%) compared with the monastery’s total expenditure for the same period (around 35,000 Bolognese lira), especially considering the size of the community. We can only conclude that the friars must have enjoyed excellent health. The details of these expenses are given in Table 5 attached. Expenses for food As we have already said, the food eaten by the friars was fairly simple. The Dominican friars had abolished meat, as their Constitutions prescribed, and proteins were obtained from pulses and from other foods that regularly appeared on their table. In analyzing the entries, we will see that some foods were never mentioned or, if they are mentioned, they appear very rarely. We think that this is

25 ASBo, Corporazioni religiose soppresse, Dem238, c.93r 26 Ibidem, c.95v 27 Ibidem, c.96v 28 Ibidem, c.119v 29 Ibidem, c.137bisr 30 Ibidem, c.97v 31 Ibidem, c.115v 32 Ibidem, c.181r 33 Ibidem, c.133r 34 Ibidem, c.154r 35 Ibidem, c.137bisr 36 Ibidem, c.200r 37 Ibidem, c.198r 11

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

due to the fact that St. Dominic’s monastery in Bologna had at its disposition a very large kitchen-garden; the monastery would have obtained from this most of the pulses and vegetables subsequently used by the cook to prepare the daily fare. Below is a list of foodstuffs, in Italian alphabetic order, each followed by a very short comment. Foods with a more significant number of entries are collected in various tables, all of which are attached to the Dem239 volume. Aceto (Vinegar): Only one entry documenting an expenditure on this food is found in the whole period covered. This would certainly have been something that the monastery produced itself owing to the great quantity of wine available. This purchase was probably due to their supplies having run out. (Item expendi in acipiendo unam bolitam pro uno corbe aceti solidos IIII)38.

Biado (Grain): The precise type of cereal is not specified, but the quantities recorded in the entries are considerable: they talk of carts and “corbe”. In the reason given for the expenditure, it is always specified that this is a local excise duty and therefore they are speaking of foodstuffs of the friars’ own production where a municipal tax had to be paid to bring it into the city. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 7 attached. Carne ( Meat): There is only one entry referring to this food. This meat was probably served to some important guest. As we have already seen, meat for the sick was charged directly to the infirmary. Ceci (Chickpeas): Sometimes the entries report a high expenditure on these with no other specification; at other times the entries specify the quantity but a low cost. When the quantity is comparatively high (e.g. a cart) and the cost attached to it is low I believe that this must be a product coming from land under the jurisdiction of the monastery, for which the municipal tax must be paid in order to bring it into the city. In other cases, when the expense is greater, I think it concerns an actual purchase. Still today, chickpeas are dried to preserve them; because of the quantities recorded and because often it is specified that the consignee of this food is the storekeeper of the monastery it is my opinion that, also at that time, these entries refer to dried chickpeas. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 8 attached. Cipolle (Onions): The onion is a much-used food in the monastery but, for the period we are examining in this volume, we can find only one entry with a comparatively low cost attached to it. This would surely have been an import from the land under the jurisdiction of the monastery; the very low cost seems in reality to be a municipal tax that has to be paid even on products from their own property to be able to bring them inside the city walls. It seems likely that onions were a vegetable grown in the kitchen-garden of the monastery (Item expendi in cucurbitis et in cepis pro conventu solidos XX)39. Fave (Broad beans): I found only ten entries for this pulse despite it being a food that was used extensively by the friars. In this case too I imagine that the monastery garden must have provided the majority of the beans consumed. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 9 attached. Fagioli (Beans): Only five entries were found for the whole period covered. If we leave out one entry with a comparatively high cost, from which I deduct that it was a purchase, the other entries relate to beans of their own production coming from the surrounding countryside. Beans too can be dried so would have been a suitable “store-room” food. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 10 attached. Formaggio (Cheese): This was a food that the friars ate quite frequently. It was often used in the preparation of pies or other baked products, especially on the great religious feast days. None of the entries in all this period specify if the cheese was fresh or matured. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 11 attached. Frumento (Wheat): This was a heavily consumed food in the monastery. Also in this case when the entry indicates a large quantity and the reason for the 38 Ibidem, c.207v 39 Ibidem, c.207r 12

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

purchase specifies simply “gabella (duty)”, I think it is a question of the friars’ own production. When we considered the entries concerning income, we saw that some of these derived from the sale of wheat. It is evident that the monastery usually had a large quantity of wheat available and, if part of this was sold sometimes, it suggests that the reason was that the friars needed some “ready cash” to be available at that particular moment. If we examine the details, we can see that in just a few cases, really very few, we have an entry for a real purchase, which may seem like a contradiction given the ready availability of this cereal; however, the explanation may be found above. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 12 attached. Frutta (Fruit): Inside the monastery the friars ate fruit at the end of a meal. The entries do not always indicate what kind of fruit was involved; when it is specified, we discover that there is plenty of variety but there is a prevalence of fresh or dried figs depending on the season. In addition to figs we find grapes, chestnuts, walnuts, almonds and cherries. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 13 attached. Latte (Milk): Only five entries were found for this food. In these journals we never find any element suggesting the presence of a cow barn inside the monastery (while, on the contrary, we do find entries regarding a donkey used to transport the Prior). Thus I think we can conclude that milk was not generally used in the diet of the monastery and the very few times it was bought it was probably needed for the preparation of baked goods. (Item expendi in lacte pro conventu in duabus vicibus libras IIII)40 and (Item expendi in lacte pro conventu solidos XL)41 and (Item expendi in lacte pro conventu solidos XL)42 and (Item expendi in lacte pro conventu solidos XL) 43 and (Item expendi in lacte in festo Pentechostem pro conventu solidos XXX denarios VI)44 . Legumi (Pulses): For this food we found only three entries. It is not specified which type of pulse is referred to. From the dates of the three entries (18th August 1333, 1st June 1334, 3rd September 1335) it would seem that these are fresh pulses. ( Item dedi fratri Lambertino canipario pro emendo legumina libras XX)45 e (Item expendi in ligumine pro conventu in duabus vicibus solidos XII)46 e (Item dedi fratri Paulo chanipario pro legumine emendo libras X)47. Miele (Honey): This was used fairly commonly inside the monastery although it is not possible to understand from the entries if it was utilized as a sweetener for cakes or as a food itself. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 14 attached. Olio (Oil): There are relatively few entries regarding this type of food. If we examine the details of the entries, we can see that the amounts involved are very high; this surely suggests that large quantities were stored given the characteristics of oil, which is easily preserved in a fresh, dry, dark environment. The cellar of the monastery was certainly an appropriate place to store this food purchased by the friars. In these entries it is never specified if we are dealing only with oil as a foodstuff or also with oil for the lamps. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 15 attached. Pane (Bread): Only two entries were found for this food. These two purchases are rather odd since bread was made by the friars inside the monastery. Given its specified destination this may regard a type of fine bread with which the friars wanted in some way to “gladden” the meal during the meeting of the Order’s Chapter that took place in the monastery in Bologna. (In primis expendi pro panis capituli solidos XXX)48 and (Item expendi pro panis capituli libras III solidos XIII)49. Pesci (Fish): This was without doubt the food par excellence for the monastery. We know that normally this would have been freshwater fish but the actual type was never specified; in only a very few cases is it specified that entries regard crabs, eels and salt fish. Observing the entries, we can often see that, after an entry concerning 40 Ibidem, c.103r 41 Ibidem, c.104r 42 Ibidem, c.121r 43 Ibidem, c.139r 44 Ibidem, c.206r 45 Ibidem, c.125v 46 Ibidem, c.140r 47 Ibidem, c.165v 48 Ibidem, c.97r 49 Ibidem, c.104v 13

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

fish, we have an entry which mentions another food: the “piperato”, a spicy sauce highly used in those times. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 16 attached. Pietanza (Dish): This would be a ready-prepared dish. For the whole period there are only ten entries of this type: ready dishes coming from outside the monastery. If we examine the details, we can see that this approach was used for important feasts or for guests toward whom the friars wanted to show special regard. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 17 attached. Pinguedine (“Fat food”): In all the period only three entries regarding this food were found. It is uncertain whether this is the same thing as lard. I think it is possible to hypothesize that this was bacon and therefore real food. This is a plausible hypothesis in the face of scant evidence; we know that in the monastery meat was a food that was allowed only for special occasions. This may be food used to flavor the vegetables of which the monastery made great use, or it may have been used as one of the ingredients with which savoury pies were made. (Item dedi Johanni becario pro complemento debiti sui pro pinguedine quos emi ab eo libras VIII)50 and (Item expendi in pingudine pro conventu libras VII denarios XI)51 and (Item expendi in pinguedine pro turtis faciendis solidos XII)52. Piperato (Spicy sauce): This was a spicy sauce with pepper as the main ingredient; it was used extensively during the Middle Ages. The monastery almost always used it to accompany fish dishes. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 18 attached. Riso (Rice): This cereal was very rarely used by the monastery. In the whole period we have only three entries, one of which refers to the preparation of a “pietanza” (dish). (Item expendi in uno ferculo de risu pro conventu libras III)53 and (Item expendi in uno ferculo de risu pro dicta pitancia libras III solidos VIII)54 and (Item expendi in piperato pro pitancia fratris Milini de Luteriis solidos XVIII) Item expendi in zafarano pro dicta pitancia solidos X denarios VI) and (Item expendi pro dicta pitancia in XXV libras de risu solidos XII denarios VI)55.

Sale (Salt): The importance of this food during the Middle Ages is well known. The amount recorded in ten entries is fairly high so it seems that these concern supplies for the store. Other entries indicate almost identical expenditure at regular intervals, suggesting regular supplies at stable prices since the quantities given in the entries are the same. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 19 attached. Senape (Mustard): Widely used during the Middle Ages, this is a spicy sauce made from the flour obtained from the plant’s seed. Due to its strong taste, it often accompanied egg dishes. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 20 attached. Torta (Pie): This was something that often featured on the table of the friars. Generally these would have been savoury pies prepared with a wide variety of ingredients: cheese, herbs, chickpeas, eggs, etc. Details of the entries can be found in Table No. 21 attached. Uova (Eggs): The friars used these in considerable quantity. Generally a single supplier was favoured. Eggs keep well and we know that until just sixty years ago, in the countryside, eggs were still preserved under lime in order to have them available in times of low production. We might wonder how the supplier was able to produce such a large quantity of eggs since at that time, the intensive farms that we have today did not exist. During the period covered in this volume the supplier is a certain Bonisine, who we encountered several times in the entries for the income of the monastery; the friars often received credit from her for the payment of goods, or money as loans. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 19 attached. Vino (Wine): It is important to emphasise the importance of this drink in the diet of the friars. We know that there are many reasons for its widespread use; 50 Ibidem, c.120v 51 Ibidem, c.136v 52 Ibidem, c.151v 53 Ibidem, c.138bisr 54 Ibidem, c.139r 55 Ibidem, c.210v 14

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

the most important of them was that it is a good source of energy if assumed in moderate quantities. Wine was also a substitute for water, since the latter would have come from wells or from other sources which were not free of contamination. Among the entries included in this analysis there are also those which do not clearly involve wine but concern large quantities of grapes which surely would subsequently be used to produce wine. The entries also include those one related to production methods necessary to obtain wine such as separating the must, filtering, etc. Details of the entries can be found in Table No. 23 attached. Zafferano (Saffron): Another spice used extensively, and not just by the friars. If we look through Medieval recipes we see that it was used for many purposes, the most important perhaps being to “colour” the dish it accompanied. Saffron was also used for its therapeutic qualities. Also in the case of this spice, due to the quantities used at an almost “industrial” level, we have to wonder what kind of organization was able to satisfy such huge volumes of requests. Saffron was a spice that was easy to adulterate, so much so that the municipality of Bologna protected its quality by injunctions requiring the fraudulent to be reported to the appointed Procurators56. Details of the entries can be found in Table No. 24 attached. Zucca (Pumpkin): We found only one entry during all the period. This is surely a vegetable that would have commonly been grown in the garden of the monastery. For this reason, the single purchase here is likely to have been due to a temporary decline in its production (Item expendi in cucurbitis et in cepis pro conventu solidos XX)57. Other types of expenditures Money was spent on washing kitchen cloths 58. Money was spent on hay and fodder for the Reader’s horse 59. Money was spent on repairing the well of the monastery60. Shoes were bought for the cook61. A plot of land was rented in the St. Procolo area62. Beds were purchased on the occasion of the Provincial Chapter63. The person who cut the wood for the monastery was paid64. Locks were bought65. Money was spent on the maintenance of a building66. The singers that sang at St. Thomas’s feast day were paid67. Cobbles were bought for the walkway68. The master builder who had done the paving was paid, and this included the necessary sand, cobbles, etc69. Money was spent on the candles for the feast of the Blessed Virgin70. Money was spent on maintenance in the room of Richard, the Theology teacher71. A sum was given to the sisters of the monastery of St. Peter Martyr as specified in a will72. A hood was purchased for the Provincial73. Crockery and clothes for the friars were purchased74. Money was given to the Prior when he went to the Chapter75. Tony, the town crier received some money76. The kitchen sink was repaired77. The cistern of the monastery was repaired78. The person who undertook to help the friars over a question related to the Fantuzzi inheritance was paid79. The servant who drew the

56 L. Frati, Statuti di Bologna, Tomo II, Libro VIII, rubrica XL, pag. 238 57 ASBo, Corporazioni religiose soppresse, Dem238 c.207r 58 Ibidem, c.093v 59 Ibidem, c.093v 60 Ibidem, c.094r 61 Ibidem, c.094r 62 Ibidem, c.094v 63 Ibidem, c.095r 64 Ibidem, c.095v 65 Ibidem, c.096r 66 Ibidem, c.096v 67 Ibidem, c.098r 68 Ibidem, c.098v 69 Ibidem, c.099r 70 Ibidem, c.101v 71 Ibidem, c.103r 72 Ibidem, c.105v 73 Ibidem, c.105v 74 Ibidem, c.105r 75 Ibidem, c.110v 76 Ibidem, c.110v 77 Ibidem, c.112v 78 Ibidem, c.115r 79 Ibidem, c.123r 15

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

water for the monastery was paid80. They had some curtains made81. The doors of the monastery were restored82. A window in the school was repaired83. Maintenance work was done on some of the novices cells 84. Maintenance work was done on the servants’ rooms85. The barber was paid for shaving the Teacher86. Candles were bought87. Money was given to Corsotto for the kitchen-garden88. Oil was purchased for the lamps89. Some bowls for salt were bought90. Lamps were bought91. Spoons were bought92. A notary was paid for two documents93. A cart was purchased for the monastery94. Money was given to the tailor to purchase cloth with which to make clothes for the students95. Money was spent on the Carnival celebrations96. Cutlery was purchased for the kitchen97. Some bowls were bought98. Money was given to visitors to the monastery to cover their personal expenses.99 We could go on, because there are innumerable other entries. Some of these are repeated at irregular intervals but frequently enough to indicate through the information they give us a settled pattern of daily life and an extremely efficient organization.

80 Ibidem, c.123v 81 Ibidem, c.124v 82 Ibidem, c.128r 83 Ibidem, c.132r 84 Ibidem, c.135r 85 Ibidem, c.135v 86 Ibidem, c.135v 87 Ibidem, c.136v 88 Ibidem, c.137terr 89 Ibidem, c.138bisr 90 Ibidem, c.143r 91 Ibidem, c.144r 92 Ibidem, c.145r 93 Ibidem, c.145v 94 Ibidem, c.146r 95 Ibidem, c.149r 96 Ibidem, c.155r 97 Ibidem, c.157v 98 Ibidem, c.158v 99 Ibidem, c.158v 16

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna


The accounts and book-keeping of the St. Dominic Monastery from 1349 to 1357 (ASBo Dem239/7573) Types of income We can say that the types of income concerning this period are quite similar to those already described in the volume Dem 238. Types of expenditure Expenses for the infirmary In this volume the expenses are more detailed compared with those in volume Dem 238. For this reason, the different expenses have been divided into different types of use. A total of seven categories of expenditure were defined as indicated in the following section. Only a single example has been given for each because, as in volume Dem 238, here too we have attached a table (Table No. 6), where the curious can examine all the details related to the period covered here. Let us see now, one by one, these seven categories referring by the “Tipo/Type� allocated to them in Table No. 6. Tipo (Type) 1: Expenditure on items necessary for the running of the institution Containers1, keys for cupboards2, buckets3, hot water heater4, chamber pots5, rope for the well6, washtubs7, box and scoop8, leather bag for enemas9, locks10, lamps11, papyrus, ink, pens12,bags to make wine for the sick13, basket for the refectory14, brooms15, small basin for washing the sick16. Tipo (Type) 2: General expenses for medicines and medical assistance Items necessary for a sick person17, for the sick18, doctor for a sick person19, general infirmary needs20. Tipo (Type) 3: Personal expenses for medicines and medical assistance For the Prior21, for the Reader22, for the Procurator23, for the Superior24, for the sacristan25, for various friars26, for the teacher of the students27, for the novice coming 1 ASBo, Corporazioni religiose soppresse, Dem239, c.27r 2 Ibidem, c.29r 3 Ibidem, c.29r 4 Ibidem, c.29v 5 Ibidem, c.30v 6 Ibidem, c.33v 7 Ibidem, c.44v 8 Ibidem, c.63r 9 Ibidem, c.63r 10 Ibidem, c.68r 11 Ibidem, c.73v 12 Ibidem, c.73v 13 Ibidem, c.99r 14 Ibidem, c.101v 15 Ibidem, c.115r 16 Ibidem, c.133r 17 Ibidem, c.27r 18 Ibidem, c.39r 19 Ibidem, c.44v 20 Ibidem, c.47r 21 Ibidem, c.27v 22 Ibidem, c.31r 23 Ibidem, c.33r 24 Ibidem, c.33v 25 Ibidem, c.38v 26 Ibidem, c.44r 27 Ibidem, c.66v 17

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

from Parma – note the enormous amount spent (Item die XXVII in una medicina pro capite illi novicii de Parma libras XXX)28, for the cook29, for the Vicar30, for the Provincial Father31, for the preparation of a dead body32. Tipo (Type) 4: Expenses for related activities and infirmary wages For the preparation of water for the infirmary33, for work in the “viridarium”34, for the application of leeches35, for bloodletting36, to pay the infirmarian37, assistance for the Prior when he was ill38, for work in the infirmary garden39. Tipo (Type) 5: Expenditure on maintenance Repairs to the “viridarium”40, repairs to a wall41, repairs in the corridor of the bedrooms42, disposal of waste43, roof repairs44, cleaning the well45, repairs in the kitchen-garden46, renovation of the chapel47, general cleaning48, lime and gypsum49, repairs to a stretcher50, repairs after a leak in the portico51. Tipo (Type) 6: Expenditure on clothes, linen and shoes Shoes52, washing clothes53, washing sheets54, washing bedcovers55. Tipo (Type) 7: Expenditure on food Sugar56, pomegranates57, eggs58, fish59, chickens60, pancakes61, meat(Item dedi dominico infirmario quos expendit pro fratribus Anthonio paduano et Anthonio trivisino in carnibus pro prima septimana Augusti et ultima Julii in duabus vicibus solidos X)62, mustard63, fruit64, wine65, almonds66. Looking at the period covered in Dem239 we can see a gap in the entries relating to the months July-December 1355. Even taking into account this missing information, the amount shown in the balance sheet for the overall expenditure for the whole period is significantly lower than that seen in Dem238. On the other hand, the expenses for the infirmary are significantly higher; in effect they amount to about 315 Bolognese lira, equivalent to 1,73% of the total amount of all the monastery’s expenditure (around 20.500 Bolognese lira) for the period. 28 Ibidem, c.70v 29 Ibidem, c.77v 30 Ibidem, c.105r 31 Ibidem, c.124v 32 Ibidem, c.130v 33 Ibidem, c.27v 34 Ibidem, c.29r 35 Ibidem, c.64v 36 Ibidem, c.65r 37 Ibidem, c.78v 38 Ibidem, c.90r 39 Ibidem, c.110r 40 Ibidem, c.39r 41 Ibidem, c.43r 42 Ibidem, c.52r 43 Ibidem, c.52v 44 Ibidem, c.58r 45 Ibidem, c.60v 46 Ibidem, c.68v 47 Ibidem, c.70r 48 Ibidem, c.75r 49 Ibidem, c.78v 50 Ibidem, c.122r 51 Ibidem, c.126r 52 Ibidem, c.32r 53 Ibidem, c.32v 54 Ibidem, c.33v 55 Ibidem, c.82r 56 Ibidem, c.31v 57 Ibidem, c.36v 58 Ibidem, c.52v 59 Ibidem, c.63r 60 Ibidem, c.63r 61 Ibidem, c.63r 62 Ibidem, c.65r 63 Ibidem, c.72v 64 Ibidem, c.82v 65 Ibidem, c.115v 66 Ibidem, c.121v 18

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

We believe this difference compared to the previous period covered by the register for the 1330s may be explained by the fact that in 1348 the plague arrived, which surely left its mark on the monastery, weakening the friars and reducing their number. Expenditure on food For this volume too a list of foodstuffs is presented, in Italian alphabetical order, each accompanied by a very short comment; for the food items with a reasonable or high number of entries, tables were compiled and are attached. As previously mentioned, the entries related to the period covered by this volume are much more detailed than in the previous one (Dem238); this can be seen by examining the entries below. Acquavite (Spirit): For the whole period only one entry for this product was found; the related expense is substantial (two Bolognese lira), but as it does not refer to a quantity it is impossible to say if this was an expensive product or not (Item dedi XXV die Februarii Larencino pro vite aque vite libras II)67. Biado (Grain): As in the previous volume (Dem238) this was cereal which was consumed in large quantities. The same considerations made in the previous volume are valid here. In some cases only “gabella/duty” is specified; in others not. In the first case, this means that these would have been the friars’ own products, on which some duty had to be paid in any case in order to bring them into the town; in the second case, these would have been real purchases of millet, blend of grains or barley. It is interesting to note that these products all originate in the surrounding area of Bologna or Ferrara. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 25 attached. Burro (Butter): Only two entries for the whole period. These were likely to have been purchases for important guests like the Provincial Father or the Master of the Order (Mensis Novembris Item in butiro pro provinciale denarios VIII)68 and (Item XVIIII expendi Naninus coquinarius pro una libra butiri solidos II denarios VI)69. Carne (Meat): Considering the quantities recorded in the entries and the reasons for these purchases, it seems that the Dominican Order may have relaxed its prohibition of this food as prescribed in the Constitution of the Order. This can be seen because the purchase was often in honour of important guests and not only to expedite the recovery of the sick. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 26 attached. Castagne (Chestnuts): The friars probably owned some chestnut woods as some of the entries indicate only costs for carriage and duty. Looking at the details we can see that they were cooked in many different ways: whole, with their skin on (boiled or roasted), ground, or served with dishes made with other foods like turnips, fruit pickle or different types of meat. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 27 attached. Ceci (Chickpeas): This food is often mentioned together with others. The entries also talk about “white chickpeas” and “red chickpeas” ; I am unable to say what is the difference between the first and the second (Item dedi pro gabella unius currus frumenti XV corbium de Centenaria et duorum farris et V quartarolarum ciceris et V quartarolarum vicie solidos XXI)70. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 28 attached. Cipolle (Onions): We know that this is a food which was widely used by the monastery; onions can be kept for fairly long periods. Given the low expenditure recorded in the entries and the quantities received, we believe that in general these vegetables were grown on the monastery’s own farmlands. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 29 attached. Confetti (Sugared almonds): These products were very common in the Middles Ages but it is surprising to learn that the friars consumed them too. They are distinguished by their colour, white or red, but we cannot say if the colour also 67 Ibidem, c.76v 68 Ibidem, c.68r 69 Ibidem, c.124r 70 Ibidem, c.131r 19

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

meant a different taste for the two types. Furthermore, the entries registered are all concentrated into a short period (ten days) in April 1357. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 30 attached. Farro (Spelt): We have only two entries for this cereal, and on the same day. This food is occasionally mentioned alongside others; clearly the friars used it infrequently (Item dedi pro gabella VIII corbium fabarum et VII frumenti et unius corbis farris et unius sextorii roncie de Medesano solidos XV denarios IIII)71 and (Item dedi pro gabella unius currus frumenti XV corbium de Centenaria et duorum farris et V quartarolarum ciceris et V quartarolarum vicie solidos XXI)72. Fave (Broad beans): The entries often treat this food with others such as chickpeas, lupin beans, wheat or spelt. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 31 attached. Formaggio (Cheese): This food, both fresh and matured, was used in great quantity by the friars. It is interesting to note that “Parmesan cheese” was already known in 1355, as is possible to see in the following entry (Item eodem die in una forma casei parmesani solidos XXVIII denarios VI)73. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 32 attached. Frumento (Wheat): A food consumed in great quantity and of which the monastery had a considerable supply. Indeed, the entries indicate large quantities, such as cartloads, but only the cost of the “gabella/duty” is given, meaning that, as we have already said on other occasions, the product came from the monastery’s own farmlands. In observing the entries related to this food, it is also interesting to see the area it originates from. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 33 attached. Frutta (Fruit): As previously mentioned, the friars used to end their meals with this kind of food. The entries do not always specify the particular kinds of fruit but when this does occur, we discover that there is a reasonable consumption of pomegranates and raisins. From the descriptions, it seems likely that the pomegranates were squeezed to obtain the juice which, being slightly acidic, was then used in the preparation of sauces, spicy or otherwise, such as fruit pickles. Raisins, on the other hand, were probably used to prepare cakes and the sweet and sour dishes which were widely used during the Middle Ages. The friars also used apples and raisins to prepare fish dishes (Item expendi die XXI mensis Septembris in pictatia Sancti Bernardi in piscibus scilicet in festo Sancti Matthaei libras II solidos XII denarios II, Item in zafarano pro dicta pictancia solidos X, Item in duabus libris uve passe pro dicta pictancia solidos IIII)74. Pears were provided for guests; sometimes the entry specifies the type: “regina” pears, “moscatelle” pears (Item eodem die in piris reginis solidos II denarios IX)75 and (Item eodem die expendi in piris mostcatellis presentatis ser Dino de Jucho ex parte conventus solidos III)76. Watermelons, grapes, almonds, dried figs and ground chestnuts were purchased (Item eodem die expendi in prandio pro procuratore ordinis in fructibus scilicet pomis et castaneis pistis solidos III denarios IIII)77. Walnuts and cherries were consumed at the end of May and in early June. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 34 attached. Funghi (Mushrooms): A food that appears just once in all the entries, and may have been used to prepare a special dish since it is specified that this purchase was for the Master (Item die XVI expendi in fungis pro magistro solidos V)78. Lardo (Lard): The monastery did not use this very much. We could imagine that the friars used this lard to prepare special dishes for important guests like the Provincial Father or the Master of the Order, to “console” the friars in the monastery’s hospice (Item expendi in pinguedine et lardone pro ferculis fiendis diversis vicibus in hospitio pro conventu 71 Ibidem, c.131r 72 Ibidem, c.131r 73 Ibidem, c.107r 74 Ibidem, c.84r 75 Ibidem, c.109v 76 Ibidem, c.129r 77 Ibidem, c.126v 78 Ibidem, c.124r 20

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

et consolatione fratrum libras II)79 or on the occasion of major feast days. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 35 attached. Latte (Milk): As in volume Dem238, milk appears here in only two entries; this confirms that milk was not part of the friars’ diet and was perhaps used only as an ingredient to prepare cakes or other baked goods. (Item expendi in lacte pro conventu in sero solidosII)80 and (Item expendi in lacte in festo Madalene in sero denarios XVI)81. Miele (Honey): This was used mainly to make a paste with almonds, saffron and raisins to accompany fish dishes. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 36 attached. Mostarda (Fruit pickle): This was a sweet and spicy mixture which was widely used during the Middle Ages and was basically a spicy jam or chutney made with fruit cooked with honey and sugar. The method used was quite similar to that still used in Italy for the preparation of “mostarda”82. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 35 attached. Olio (Oil): Oil was purchased regularly throughout the year. In most cases, this was olive oil, or “oil to eat” (Item eodem die eidem pro centum XX libris cum dimidia olei ad comedendum ad rationem libras V solidos VI pro centenario cum portitura in summa libras VI solidosVIII denarios VI)83. But the monastery also bought poorer quality oil, which was used for the lamps in the church, the dormitory, the sacristy, for St. Dominic’s Ark and in the monastery in general. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 38 attached. Olive (Olives): In all the period covered, we find only six entries for this food. We might conclude that the purchase was made only for special occasions such as the presence of the Master of the Order or of the Provincial Father, towards whom the friars wanted to show particular respect even in the food offered to them daily. Pesci (Fish): This was the principal food of the monastery; the friars consumed a great quantity of fish. Sometimes the entry records the kind of fish as if to emphasise its better quality compared with the generic “fish for the monastery”. When this occurs, we can see fresh eels, salted eels, pike, tench, shrimps, crabs, large female eels that do not go to the sea to breed but stay in the inland waterways to rest and to put on fat. One entry talks of “fish and onions” (Item Item eodem die pro dictis pissibus in cepe et alliis necesariis solidos II)84; this is interesting as it is reminiscent of a typical dish from the Veneto region, the so-called “pesce in saore”(fish and onions), much appreciated by adults for its filling qualities. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 39 attached. Piperato (Spicy sauce): We have already met this pepper-based food, which was regularly used especially to accompany fish dishes. In the entries it often appears alongside saffron. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 40 attached. Rape (Turnips): There are only four entries for this vegetable in this volume. Since turnips were a staple food, we feel that these very few purchases would constitute exceptions and they would normally have been grown in the large garden of the monastery (Item eodem die ser Guidoni ortolano pro rapis pro conventu solidos VIII)85 and (Item eodem die in castaneis, mustardi et rapis pro eodem solidos III)86 and (Item eodem die in naponibus pro hospitibus solidos I)87 and (Item expendi in rapis pro composito conventus fiendo libras II solidos XII)88. Riso (Rice): Only two entries are found for this food in the volume and the use 79 Ibidem, c.117r 80 Ibidem, c.30v 81 Ibidem, c.30v 82 O. Redun, F. Sabban, S. Serventi, The Medieval kitchen, Recipes from France and Italy, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1998, p. 19 83 ASBo, Corporazioni religiose soppresse, Dem239 c.129v 84 Ibidem, c.70v 85 Ibidem, c.74r 86 Ibidem, c.84v 87 Ibidem, c.104r 88 Ibidem, c.115r 21

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

made of it is not specified; it was probably used as one ingredient among others in a dish(Item die VIII pro una libri risi solidos I denarios II)89. Sale (Salt): We know that salt was extensively used at that time. But, strangely, the entries for this food are far fewer compared to the entries found in the other volume analyzed (Dem238). These few entries found are, however, distributed regularly throughout the eight years examined in this volume. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 41 attached. Salsa o Sapore (Sauce): It is not clear what the ingredients of this were; sometimes we can see that it accompanies fish dishes; at other times meat. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 42 attached. Senape (Mustard): This was discussed in the previous volume (Dem238). There are few entries in this volume (Item eodem die in sex libris senapis solidos IX)90 and (Item die XIII in XII libris sinapis pro composito conversi et constitit libra solidos II libras I solidos IIII)91 and (Item eodem die in sinapo pro infirmitorio solidos II denarios VI)92 and (Item eodem die in duabus libris synapi pro conventu solidos IIII)93 and (Item eodem die in nucleis nuchum et sinapio pro provinciali solidos II)94 and (Item in quondam salina pissium et duobus urceis sinapii libras IIII solidos VIIII denarios III)95. Spelta (Spelt flour): Few entries mention this food. It is a cereal of low quality compared to wheat but it was simpler to grow. Details of the entries are shown in Table No. 43 attached. Spezie (Spices): Spices were widely used in the Middle Ages. From the entries in this volume we can see that the most common were pepper, ginger, cloves, and “sweet spices” like cinnamon. . Details of the entries are given in Table No. 44 attached. Torte (Pies): These were used especially to honour some illustrious guest or for a celebration. From the descriptions we can see that they were always savoury pies made with a variety of ingredients: lard, fresh cheese, eggs, butter milk. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 45 attached. Uova (Eggs): In this volume the purchase of eggs always mentions the quantities, generally expressed in “hundreds of eggs”. The dates of the entries indicate the great use that the friars made of this food and the regular frequency of the purchases. Eggs and fish were certainly the foodstuffs which were eaten the most in the monastery. The entries also show variations in the price of eggs, which I imagine were influenced by the seasons: at that time there were not the huge intensive farms that can guarantee a constant production level as happens in this day and age. Details of the entries are given in Table No. 46 attached. Vino (Wine): Another food item with high levels of consumption; in several cases the origin is mentioned: Malavolta, Mongardino, Borgo Panigale, Serravalle, Monte S. Pietro, Pontecchio, Ronchi di Marano, Pizzo Calvo. In some cases the variety of vine is recorded, such as “Albana for the Communion” (Item eodem die dedi brentatoribus qui portaverunt decem corbes vini albane pro sacrificio a domo illorum de Odofredis usque ad conventum solidos V)96 or “Malvasia” (Item eodem die expendi in duabus fialis malvasie pro procurator ordinis solidos XVI)97. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 47 attached. Zafferano (Saffron): See the observations already made regarding this item in the previous volume (Dem238). From the entries we can see that this spice would accompany fish dishes and was often used with the spicy sauce (piperato), with fruit pickle (mostarda) or other sauces. It was also used to make aspic. Details of the entries can be seen in Table No. 48 attached.

89 Ibidem, c.124r 90 Ibidem, c.66v 91 Ibidem, c.69r 92 Ibidem, c.72v 93 Ibidem, c.79v 94 Ibidem, c.83r 95 Ibidem, c.109v 96 Ibidem, c.101v 97 Ibidem, c.126v


Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

Zucchero (Sugar): Entries for this food are few. We can see that it was purchased for a sick person (Item expendi in zucharo pro uno converso infirmo denarios VII)98, for the Prior (Item eodem die dedi in duabus unciis zuchari pro priore solidos II denarios VIII)99, and for the monastery (Item die VIII pro media libra zuchari solidos VII) and (Item X die aprilis pro media uncial zuchari solidos VII)100. Conclusions regarding the expenditure for the infirmary and food An examination of the information collected in the tables cited above reveals that during the period 1349 – 1357, the population of the monastery was greatly reduced, most probably because of the plague and the general difficulties of that time. Firstly, the general expenses during this period (20.500 Bolognese lira) equals only 58,48% of those for the years 1330 – 1337 (35.053 Bolognese lira). Similar observations regarding the drop in the monastery’s numbers have already been made in reference to the infirmary. We can also add here that the total expenditure for medicines and medical assistance in the second period (Type 2 + Type 3 = 195 Bolognese lira) is equivalent to about 62% of all the infirmary expenses, 314 Bolognese lira, which includes expenses for furnishing, clothes and equipment. Further confirmation of the reduction in the monastery’s population, again for the period 1349 – 1357, comes from the expenditure on food; this was 4.567 Bolognese lira, which represents 22,28% of the total expenditure for the same period (20.500 Bolognese lira). If we compare the expenditure on food for the period 1330 – 1337 (10.314 Bolognese lira), this accounts for 29,4% of the total expenditure for the same period (30.053 Bolognese lira). In other words, during the 1330s, the food needs of the community were greater. Thus we can assert that the plague had a profound effect on this monastery since the expenditure on food over the second period (4.567 Bolognese lira) is equal to only 44, 27% of the amount spent in the first period (10.314 Bolognese lira). Other types of expenditure Apart from specific expenses for the infirmary and for the purchase of food, the entries relate to many other types of expenses. Some examples follow; these are not intended to be exhaustive, but give an idea of life in the monastery. Expenses for the maintenance of the buildings Purchase of gypsum for various building jobs and for bricklaying101. Purchase of gypsum for work in the sacristy102. Payment to the workers who repaired the school roof 103. Construction of a wall in the dormitory104. Payment for work done by a blacksmith105. Payment for sweeping the chimney106. Payment to repair the well wheel107. Expenses for various activities Purchase of keys for the kitchen-garden108. Payment for the cook109. Payment of a duty regarding a building received as a donation110. Payment to the workers who cut the firewood111. . Purchase of papyrus112 98 Ibidem, c.31v 99 Ibidem, c.85v 100 Ibidem, c.124r 101 Ibidem, c.028r 102 Ibidem, c.030r 103 Ibidem, c.029r 104 Ibidem, c.030v 105 Ibidem, c.030v 106 Ibidem, c.041r 107 Ibidem, c.111r 108 Ibidem, c.058r 109 Ibidem, c.028r 110 Ibidem, c.029v 111 Ibidem, c.029v 112 Ibidem, c.030r 23

Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna

Payment for laundering the sheets of guests and the kitchen cloths113. Purchase of candles, paint, paper114. Payment for the repair of barrels in the cellar115. Purchase of broad beans for sowing in the monastery vegetable garden116. Purchase of sewing thread for clothes117. Payment to the barbers for shaving the friars in the monastery118. Payment for grinding the kitchen knives 119. Purchase of olive tree branches for Palm Sunday120. Payment of a duty on a cart of firewood121. Payment for the transport of oil by boat from Ravenna to Molinella122. Repayment of credit and loans123. It would be possible to continue with further examples but it will surely be more interesting to venture into the entries themselves in order to have a more immediate impression of the daily tasks carried out by the friars.

113 Ibidem, c.030v 114 Ibidem, c.033r 115 Ibidem, c.033r 116 Ibidem, c.033r 117 Ibidem, c.050v 118 Ibidem, c.051r 119 Ibidem, c.054r 120 Ibidem, c.058r 121 Ibidem, c.069v 122 Ibidem, c.076v 123 Ibidem, c.065r 24

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