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INDEX – GJRMI - Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH Horticulture EFFECT OF MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM) PLANT PARTS (SEEDS AND LEAVES) TO CONTROL THE ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN RABBITS Ahmad Hafiz Shakeel, Abbasi Karim Yar

1–7

Ethno-Medicine ETHNOMEDICINAL PRACTICES OF KURUMBA TRIBES, NILIGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, IN TREATING SKIN DISEASES Deepak P, Gopal GV

8–16

INDIGENOUS MEDICINE Ayurveda – Kaumarabhritya STABILITY STUDY OF MICROBIAL PROFILE

SWARNAPRASHANA YOGA WITH RESPECT TO BASELINE

Bhaskaran Jyothy Kothanath, Cholera Meera, Patel Kalpana Shanthibhai, Shrikrishna Rajagopala

17–23

Ayurveda – Review Article KAMADUGHA RASA AN EFFECTIVE AYURVEDIC FORMULATION FOR PEPTIC ULCER: A REVIEW Maurya Santosh Kumar, Arka Ghosh, Yadav Amit Kumar, Kumar Dileep, Singh Anil Kumar

COVER PAGE PHOTOGRAPHY: DR. HARI VENKATESH K R, PLANT ID – INFLORESCENCE OF A CULTIVAR OF JAPA (HIBISCUS ROSA -SINENSIS L.), OF THE FAMILY MALVACEAE PLACE – THIRTHAHALLI , SHIVAMOGGA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

24–32


Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 3, Issue 1 | January 2014 | 1–7 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Research article EFFECT OF MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM) PLANT PARTS (SEEDS AND LEAVES) TO CONTROL THE ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN RABBITS Ahmad Hafiz Shakeel1*, Abbasi Karim Yar2 1,2

Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan *Corresponding Author: shakeelnaurangani@gmail.com

Received: 07/10/2013; Revised: 20/12/2013; Accepted: 25/12/2013

ABSTRACT A lab experiment was conducted at Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research Lab, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to check the effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant parts for the cure of type II diabetes. Silybum marianum (milk thistle plant) is well known to cure chronic hepatic diseases and disorders for centuries. The antioxidant properties present in the milk thistle plant parts have also valuable effects on diabetes mellitus type II. Data were collected and analyzed statistically by using Fischer’s analysis of variance techniques and by using tuckey’s test at 5% probability treatment, mean were with at ten days interval for a period of one month. Blood fasting glucose (mg/dl), mean daily blood glucose (mg/dl) and body weight (g) of all the rabbits were recorded. The result showed that a gradual decrease occurred in blood fasting glucose level (mg/dl) and mean daily blood glucose level (mg/dl) of rabbits in group 3, group 4 and group 5 that were treated with milk thistle plant powdered seed, leaves and seed+leaves with 1:1 ratio respectively. While the rate of increase in the body weight (g) of rabbits in group 3 that were treated with milk thistle plant powdered seed was slow than other groups while the control group in which no drug was given to the induced diabetic rabbits , the rate of increase in body weight (g) was significantly high as compared to others groups KEY WORDS: Milk thistle, silymarin, induced diabetes type II, alloxan, Silybum marianum plant parts, anti-diabetic herb

Cite this article: Ahmad Hafiz S., Abbasi Karim Y., (2014), EFFECT OF MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM) PLANT PARTS (SEEDS AND LEAVES) ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN RABBITS, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 3(1): 1–7

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 3, Issue 1 | January 2014 | 1–7

INTRODUCTION Milk Thistle is a herb of ancient times. It is a member of the sunflower family which contains many medicinal constituents. Milk thistle plant’s history is much long for its uses to detoxifying the liver from harmful effects but it has also some newer applications including cancer as well as in diabetes (Wellington and Jarvis, 2001). Milk thistle plant is native to the Mediterranean region in the world and can be grown in much type of soils. Milk thistle plant can also tolerate the drought conditions. This plant has purple flowers. Dioscorides, who was a 1st century Greek physician, identified the milk thistle plant flowers as a herbal remedy by using this plant as an antidote for snake bites. In the 1900's milk thistle plants were used for the treatment of different kind of liver diseases in Germany and give milk thistle plant as high priority calling as Mary thistle on the name of Virgin Mary because it has white because it has white striations on the leaves and the people thought that it contain the Virgin Mary's milk. The major chemical constituent is silymarin, present in the fruits, seeds and leaves of Milk thistle plant that is used clinically anti-ulcer, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-arthritic and antiinflammatory agent (Alarcon de la Lastra et al., 1992; Flora et al., 1998). It has also been investigated that silymarin acts through increasing the intracellular concentration of glutathione or an anti-oxidative effect by the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant potential (Soto et al., 2003). Silymarin (flavanolignan compounds) present in the milk thistle plants considered as one of the most valuable drug that can be used in type II diabetes mellitus as a natural remedy (Soto et al., 2004) and this plant may also be therapeutically important for type I diabetes mellitus (Matsuda et al., 2005). Moreover it has been reported that the compound present in the milk thistle plants causes significant reduction in triglyceride and free fatty acids (Skottova et al., 2004). Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is an annual herb belongs to one of the largest family of plant kingdom Asteraceae (Compositae). It

is a tall, edible plant that can grow up to 3 meter height with reddish-purple flowers, large leaves and thorny stem which clearly distinguish it from others. Milk thistle plant has a complex compound (silymarin) in which many flavanolignans are present: Silybinin (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B), silychristin, isosilychristin, silydianin, and also contain one flavonoid taxifolin. These flavanolignan compounds are present in all plant parts i.e. leave, roots and seed (fruit) (Kroll et al., 2007). Milk thistle plant extract have been used as medicinal purpose for hundreds of years. Milk thistle plant that contains flavanolignans are used to treat liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), and gallbladder disorders. Some literatures also show that milk thistle plant has properties to lower down cholesterol levels, to lower down the blood glucose level; and to reduce the breast cancer and prostate gland cancer cells growth (NCCAM, 2009). The mechanism of action of milk thistle plants that contains flavanolignans compounds (silymarin) is not clearly understood yet, however the data in the literature represent that silibinin is present in silymarin take action in four different ways: (i) for regulators and scavengers of the intracellular content of glutathione act as antioxidants; (ii) act as regulators and stabilizers for cell membrane permeability that prevent toxic agents of liver from entering hepatocytes; (iii) to stimulate the liver regeneration act as promoters of ribosomal RNA synthesis; and (iv) for the transformation of stellate hepatocytes into myofibroblasts act as inhibitors to prevent liver cirrhosis. Silymarin also has anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anti carcinogenic properties (Fraschini et al., 2002). In Europe milk thistle plants are cultivated first and very effective against jaundice, used as a liver tonic against many liver disorders to cure the liver and spleen (Mayer et al., 2005). Moreover, Silybum marianum plants are using as a natural remedy for digestive and upper gastrointestinal tract complaints, liver and biliary tract diseases, menstrual problems and varicose veins for centuries. For its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities the first

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effect of milk thistle have showed in various illnesses of different organs such as CNS, kidneys, lungs, prostate, pancreas, and skin (Gazak et al., 2007). According to pharmacological studies, silymarin is a safe herbal product for its physiological doses that are not harmful unless therapeutic dosages are not properly administrated (Wu et al., 2009). Diabetes mellitus is a health problem that is continuously increasing day by day, which causes considerable morbidity, death and longterm complications even in developed countries. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plants have antioxidant properties, used in the control of oxidative metabolic derangement in diabetes (Maddux et al., 2001). Milk thistle plant is mostly used for liver diseases and a number of literatures, publications and research is done on milk thistle plant as hepato-protecting drug but the research as anti-diabetic effect of this plant is limited and not much explained. A huge research is required to check the anti-diabetic effect of this plant. Keeping these facts in mind, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant parts e.g. seeds and leaves for the cure of alloxan induced type II diabetes in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS An experiment was planned and conducted at Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research Lab, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The effect of milk thistle plant parts (seeds and leaves in powder form) was checked for the control of alloxan induced type II diabetes in rabbits. Seeds and leaves of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant were collected from the wild from the nearby fields and were authenticated by experts in the field of taxonomy. After collecting the leaves they were oven dried in the lab after drying, the leaves and seeds were grinded in the grinder separately into powder form. After performing this action they were stored at room temperature.

15 young and non-diabetic healthy rabbits were procured from the market and they were kept under observation for the period of about one month at Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research Lab, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The institutional ethics committee approval was taken prior to the experiment. The fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL), mean daily blood glucose level (mg/dL) and body weight (g) of all rabbits were checked with the help of ACCU check glucometer, weight balance and mercury thermometer respectively. Induction of diabetes in rabbits After checking the fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL), mean daily blood glucose level (mg/dL) and body weight (g) of all rabbits, the rabbits were orally administrated by alloxan chemicals @120 mg/kg body weight to induce the diabetes in rabbits. These chemicals were used to induce the type II diabetes in the rabbits as it destroys insulin producing cells in animals (El-Demerdash et al., 2005). After seven days of alloxan administration, the increase in the fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL), mean daily blood glucose level (mg/dL) and body weight (g) of the rabbits were checked with the help of proper instruments. Animal Treatments: All the induced diabetic rabbits were divided into five groups, each containing three rabbits. Group 1: This group was taken as control (T0) and all three rabbits were administrated with no drugs and treatments. Group 2: This group was taken as (T1) and each rabbit was treated with standard drug i.e. Glucophage, dional in this group. Group 3: In this group all the rabbits were orally administrated with powdered seeds of milk thistle plant @ 500mg. The drug was given three times in a day to all the rabbits. This group was taken as (T2). Group 4: In this group all the rabbits were orally administrated with powdered leaves of

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milk thistle plant @ 500mg three times in a day. This group was taken as (T3). Group 5: In this group each rabbit was orally administrated with powdered seed and leaves mixed with 1:1 ratio @ 500mg three times in a day. This group was taken as (T4). The following parameters were evaluated @ 10 days intervals for a period of one month of all the groups. Clinical Parameters: Fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL) Daily mean glucose level (mg/dL) Body weight (g) Statistical analysis: The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD) for five groups of rabbits. Data were collected and analyzed statistically by using Fischer’s analysis of variance techniques and by using tuckey’s test at 5% probability treatment mean were compared (Steel et al., 1997). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

leaves and standard drug indicates that group 3 and group 5 in which milk thistle powdered seed and leaves+seed (1:1 ratio) used significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose level of rabbits (89.000 mg/dL and 113 mg/dL respectively) and the fasting blood glucose level were recovered to normal after 30 days application of Silybum marinanum seed. Group 2 and Group 4also significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose level while in control group the fasting blood glucose increased to 179 mg/dL (Al-Jassabi et al., 2011). In another experiment, “The role of silymarin in prevention of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in balb/C mice”showed that silymarin which is a flavonoid mixture from milk thistle plant parts significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose level upto normal (from 163± 10 mg/dL to 109 ± 4.8 mg/dL) after two month study. (Huseini et al., 2006). Results showed that combination of Eclipta Alba extract and silymarin significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level to 111.00 ±3.45 mg /dL. So it is suggested that silymarin in milk thistle plant parts decreases the fasting blood glucose level significantly.

The results of after thirty days application of Silybum marianum plant parts i.e. seed and

Fasting Blood Glucose Level (mg/dl) of Rabbits

Fig.1 Effect of milk thistle plant parts (seed and leaves) on the fasting blood glucose level (FBGL) (mg/dl) after 30 days in induced diabetic rabbits.

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1

2

3

4

Groups

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5


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Mean Daily Blood Glucose Level (md/dl) of Rabbits

Fig. 2 Effect of milk thistle plant parts (seeds and leaves) on mean daily blood glucose level (MDBGL) (mg/dl) after 30 days in induced diabetic rabbits. 200 150 100 50 0

1

2

3

4

5

Groups

Body Weight (g) of Rabbits

Fig. 3 Effect of milk thistle plant parts (seeds and leaves) on body weights (g) after 30 days in induced diabetic rabbits. 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600

1

2

3

4

5

Groups

The results of 30 days application of standard drug and milk thistle plant parts on daily mean blood glucose level (mg/dL) were markedly significant. Group 3 (T2) and group 5 (T4) in which milk thistle seeds and seeds+leaves used exhibited significant decrease in daily mean blood glucose level (95.333mg/dL and 121.33mg/dL respectively) and all the rabbits were recovered to normal daily mean blood glucose in group 3, while the other two groups also exhibited significant decrease in daily mean blood glucose level than control, but the rate of decrease is less as compared to T2 (group 3). Vellussi et al., (1997) evaluated the daily mean blood glucose levels in long term treatment with silymarin of diabetic patient and the result was 202Âą19

mg/dl at base line and significantly decreased to 156 after 12 month. So it is suggested that milk thistle plant parts having falavanolignans compound (silymarin) markedly reduce the daily mean blood glucose level. After 30 days applications of Silybum marianum plant parts on body weight (g) of rabbits, he results indicates that the body weight (g) of group 2 and group 3 are significantly low than control group while other two groups exhibit more body weight (group 5= 2123.0g and group 4= 2037.3g) than that of control (1924.3 g). The graphical representation is also given in fig. 3. Vellussi et al., (1997) checked the body weight (g) by using silymarin (milk thistle plant extract) in cirrohotic diabetic patients and results indicated that silymarin

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significantly decreased the body weight 63 ± 4 Kg to 58 ± 2.3 Kg). So it is indicated that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant parts only seeds (having flavanolignan compounds) have valuable effects on the body weight of induced diabetic rabbits. CONCLUSION From the results obtained, it is clear that the milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has great

potential to control the chemically induced diabetes mellitus in animal and recover the diabetic animals to normal condition. Hence further studies are required on other animals to ascertain and establish similar effect. Pharmacological research is to be done to learn the pharmaco-kinetics & dynamics of the drug, which would help the research community to understand the effect of the drug in a better way so that such an effective drug could be used to treat diabetes on Human subjects as well.

REFERENCES Alarco´n de la Lastra, C., M. Martı´n and E. Maruenda. (1992). Gastric and antiulcer activity of silymarin, a lypoxygenase inhibitor in rats. J. of Pharmacy and Pharmacol. 44: 929–931. Al-Jassabi, S., A. Saad, M.S. Azirun and A. AlOmari. (2011). The role of slymarin in prevention of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Balb/C mice. Am-Euras. J. Toxicol. Sci. 3: 172–176. El-Demerdash, F.M., M.I. Yousef and N.I. ElNaga. (2005). Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan–induced diabetic rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 43:57–63. Flora, K., M. Hahn, H. Rosen and K. Benner. (1998). Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for the therapy of liver disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 93: 139– 143. Fraschini, F., G. Demartini, and D. Esposti. (2002). Pharmacology of silymarin. Clin. Drug Invest. 22: 51–65. Gazák, R., D. Walterová and V. Kren. (2007). Silybin and Silymarin – new and emerging applications in medicine. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 14: 315– 338.

Huseini, H.F., B. Larijani, R. Heshmat, H. Fakhrzadeh, B. Radjabipour, T. Toliat and M. Raza. (2006). The efficacy of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) in the treatment of type II diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Phytother. Res. 20: 1036–1039. Kroll, D.J., H.S. Shaw and N.H. Oberlies. (2007). Milk thistle nomenclature: Why it matters in cancer research and pharmacokinetic studies. Integr. Cancer Ther. 6: 110–119. Maddux, B.A., W. See, J.C. Jr. Lawrence, A.L. Goldfine, I.D. Goldfine and J.L. Evans. (2001). Protection against oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance in rat L6 muscle cells by micro molar concentrations of alpha-lipoic acid. Diabetes. 50: 404–410. Matsuda, T., K. Ferreri, I. Todorov, Y. Kuroda, C.V. Smith, F. Kandeel and Y. Mullen. (2005). Silymarin protects pancreatic beta cells against cytokine-mediated toxicity: implication of c-Jun NH2terminal kinase and janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways. Endocrinology. 146: 175– 185.

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Mayer, K.E., R.P. Mayer and S.S. Lee. (2005). Silymarin treatment of viral hepatitis: a systematic review. J. Viral. Hepatitis. 12: 559–567. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). (2009). Herb at a glance: Milk Thistle. [online]. Available at http://www.nccam.nih.gov/health/milkt histle/ at a glance.htm (accessed at 0106-2012). Skottova, N., L. Kazdova, O. Oliyarnyk, R. Vecera, L. Sobolova and J. Ulrichova. (2004). Phenolics-rich extracts from Silybum marianumand Prunella vulgarisreduce a high-sucrose diet induced oxidative stress in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. Pharmacol. Res. 50: 123–130. Soto, C., R. Mena, J. Luna, M. Cerbon, E. Larrieta, P. Vital, E. Uria, M. Sanchez, R. Recoba, H. Barron, L. Favari and A. Lara. (2004). Silymarin induces recovery of pancreatic function after alloxan damage in rats. Life Sci. 75: 2167–2180.

Source of Support: NIL

Soto, C., R. Recoba, H. Barron, C. Alvarez and L. Favari. (2003). Silymarin increases antioxidant enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetes in rat pancreas. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 136: 205–212. Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie and D.A. Dickey. (1997). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York. Velussi, M., A.M. Cernigoi, A. De Monte, F. Dapas, C. Caffau and M. Zilli. (1997). Long-term (12 months) treatment with an anti-oxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia, exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde levels in cirrhotic diabetic patients. J. Hepatol. 26: 871– 879. Wu, J.W., L.C. Lin and T.H. Tsai. (2009). Drug-drug interactions of silymarin on the perspective of pharmacokinetics. J. of Ethnopharmacol. 121: 185–193. Wellington, K. and B. Jarvis. (2001). Silymarin: a review of its clinical properties in the management of hepatic disorders. Bio Drugs. 15: 465–89. Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 3, Issue 1 | January 2014 | 8–16 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Research article ETHNOMEDICINAL PRACTICES OF KURUMBA TRIBES, NILIGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, IN TREATING SKIN DISEASES Deepak P1*, Gopal GV2 1, 2

Regional Institute of Education, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India. *Corresponding Author: Email: deepakpuravankara@gmail.com; Phone: + 91 – 8123784724

Received: 16/11/2013; Revised: 24/12/2013; Accepted: 31/12/2013

ABSTRACT Skin diseases have always been associated with a specific relation with the quality of patient’s daily life and personal hygiene. In Nilgiri district, most of the tribal settlements are dominant with variety of skin diseases which are more prevalent among the children, due to the poor hygienic condition in these settlements. Some of these infections are common and difficult to control because the causal agents of these infections have acquired antibiotic resistance and hence it is the need of the hour to develop new remedies with higher efficacy. In the present attempt, the Kurumba settlements in three taluks Kundah, Kotagiri and Coonoor were selected. The medicinal knowledge was documented through semi structured interviews with the Kurumba healers. The study documented the ethno medicinal aspect of 25 plant species belonging to 25 genera and 19 families which are used by the Kurumba tribe for skin diseases and this aboriginal knowledge was documented, as following botanical identity, family, local name, uses and preparations. The present study reveals that the aboriginal knowledge of Kurumbas on various plants used for skin diseases will pave way for new pharmacological studies for treating the skin ailments more effectively.

KEYWORDS: Ethnobotany, Kurumba, Nilgiris

Cite this article: Deepak P, Gopal GV (2014), ETHNOMEDICINAL PRACTICES OF KURUMBA TRIBES, NILIGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, IN TREATING SKIN DISEASES, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 3(1): 8–16

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INTRODUCTION Man has been depending on plants for medicinal purpose before the beginning of the written records. Studies now have shown that ethnobotanically derived phytochemicals have greater activity than compounds derived from random screening and therefore a greater potential for products had developed (Cox and Balick, 1996; Flaster, 1996). There are reports of intensive Ethnobotanical survey carried out in different parts of India viz Bihar (Gupta, 1963), Orissa (Jain, 1971), Arunachal Pradesh (Pal, 1984), Assam (Borthakur, 1976), Madhya Pradesh (Shukla et al., 2001), Karnataka (Gopal, 1985). However the Ethnobotanical information on Tamil Nadu are mostly a collective study on various tribal groups like Kanikar tribes of the Tirunelveli district (Mohan et al., 2008), traditional knowledge of Malasars of Velliangiri Holy hills (Subramanyam et al., 2008), medicinal practices of Kattunayakas of Mudumalai (Udayan et al., 2007), Ethnobotanical survey of Malayali tribes of Thiruvannamalai district (Subbaiah et al., 2012) etc. but there are very few plants listed in the available literature on traditional medicinal practices for various skin ailments viz. boils, sores, scabies, ringworm and eczema. Majority of the skin infections are caused by a variety of fungi and yeasts viz. Tricophyton, or Microsporium etc. Ringworm is a fungal skin infection caused by different type’s fungi and is generally classified by its location on the body viz. Groin Ringworm, Scalp Ringworm, Nail ringworm, Body ringworm, Beard Ringworm etc. These infections produces red ring like areas, sometimes with small blisters on the skin; the condition can be quite itchy and even painful. Recurrence is common because the fungi can survive indefinitely on the skin. Even with proper treatment, a susceptible person may have repeated infections (Falguni and Minoo, 2011). Hence the present study aimed at investigating the diversity of traditional medicines used for the management of various skin infections among the Kurumbas and thereby enriching the existing repository of traditional aboriginal practices for effective management of the skin ailments.

The Nilgiri district, also called ‘The Nilgiris’, is a hilly area of, 2549.0 sq.kms, located between 11°10’ and 11°30’ North latitude and between 76°25’ and 77°40’ East longitude, part of Nilgiris being in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR) in the Western Ghats which is one of the 24 ‘biodiversity hot spots’ of the world. The NBR is known for its rich biodiversity (Daniels, 1992). Six primitive tribes viz., Todas, Kotas, Irulas, Kattunayakas, Paniyas and Kurumbas live here. Among the six tribes, the Kurumbas are the expert healers using herbal medicines. On the basis of hill residence, clan organization, dialects and belief system, the Kurumbas of Nilgiri District are divided in to five ethnic groups. They are Alu or Palu Kurumbas, Betta Kurumbas, Jenu or Teen Kurumbas, Mullu Kurumbas and Urali Kurumbas. Among these five divisions of Kurumbas, Alu Kurumbas are experts in traditional medicinal practices (Parthasarathy, 2007). The present work indicates the multiple formulations in which the medicinal plants have been used exclusively for the skin diseases by the Kurumba tribes of three taluks Kundah, Kotagiri and Coonoor (Figure– 1). MATERIALS AND METHODS Ethnobotanical explorations were carried out during 2009–10 in 73 tribal settlements of the Kurumba tribes in the three taluks namely Kundah, Kotagiri and Coonoor. The Ethnobotanical information specifically related to skin diseases were collected from the tribal healers belonging to these communities who practice herbal medicine and we documented it with the help of semi structured interviews which consist of the information highlighting their expertise to cure the disease, plant part recommended as medicine, adjuvant in a recipe, mode of application, drug preparation, dosage and duration, local names of the plants etc. During the process of documentation consistent explorations were carried out to the specific habitat for identification and collection of the particular therapeutic plant cited by the healer. The information gathered was confirmed by different tribal groups dwelling in different places of the study area.

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Figure 1: Location map of the study area

The medicinal plants were identified, photographed and collected for preparing herbarium. The herbarium was prepared by following the procedure described in methods and approaches in Ethnobotany (Jain, 1989). Plants were characterized based on the identification keys given in standard identification manuals, The Flora of Presidency of Madras (Gamble, 1975), The Flora of Tamil Nadu Carnatic (Mathew, 1983) and The Flora of South Indian Hill Station (Fyson, 1932).

The preliminary ethno pharmacological validation of these medicinal practices is considered as the primary step to establish that these plants are safe and effective for usage. This also ensures that further studies carried on these plants will bear better results. Hence the validation of these remedies was carried out using a non experimental method (Heinrich et al., 1992) and the validation score of each plant species is mentioned in the table – 1.

Table 1: List of medicinal plants collected from Traditional healers of the Kurumba tribes of 3 taluks of Niligiri Sl. No

Botanical Name Common Name, Part Used

Family

1

Siegesbeckia orientalis L. (Nadukadachi), Leaf

2

3

4

Medicinal Uses

Mode administration

Asteraceae

Wounds and parasitic skin problems

Coleus parviflorus Benth. (Nila) Tuber Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Kannada: Jaregida) Entire Plant

Lamiaceae

Itching, boils on the skin

Leaf paste is used as an External ointment on the wounds and the affected areas Paste of the tuber along with neem leaves is used Paste is applied on the entire body before bathing the baby

Tinospora cordifolia (Wild) Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms. (Kannada :Amrithavalli) Leaf

Menispermaceae

Chenopodiaceae

For 1 month old baby to remove the body odour White rashes appearing on the body

of

Validation

Score 3

4

4

Decoction of stem is consumed orally

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Plantago lanceolata L. (Neela kare) Leaves

Plantaginaceae

Lantana camera L. (Kannada : Parale gida) Flowers

Verbenaceae

7

Trichodesma zeylanica,R.Br (Jalke maram) Root

Boraginaceae

Round patches appearing on the skin

8

Eucalyptus polybractea R. T. Baker (Kannada :Karpura mara), Leaf and bark Bidens pilosa L. (Katu kunni) Leaf

Myrataceae

Passiflora calcarata Mast. (Potul), Leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (Tamil: Sotru Kattrazhai), Leaf

Passifloraceae

Used for round patches appearing in between the fingers White patches appearing on the legs Skin diseases

Liliaceae

Hair and skin Diseases

Breynia rhamnoides, Muell.(Poolan), Root and leaf Ipomoea alba L. (Velutha) Leaf

Euphorbiaceae

White patches on the skin all over the body For skin diseases

Shuteria vestita, W&A (Kannada: Kadu belaga) Leaf Clematis gauriana Roxb. (Meenae), Leaf and stem

Fabaceae

Ruta graveolens L. (Tamil: Aruvadam) Leaf

Rutaceae

Euphorbia hirta L. (Tamil: Ammanpatcharisi) Leaf and Latex

Euphorbiaceae

5 6

9

10 11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Asteraceae

Convolvulaceae

Ranunculaceae

Boils on the legs

Leaf paste is used as an external ointment

Skin inflammations

Flower is squeezed and the juice is put on the affected area on the skin Root is grinded into paste and applied on the affected region externally Leaf paste is used along with various medicinal preparation

Boils appearing on the skin Wounds and skin Diseases

Skin diseases

For pimples

4

2 4

3

Leaf paste is used as an external ointment

3

Leaf juice is applied externally Leaf paste is applied on the Hair and also on the affected region on the skin

4 4

Root and leaf paste is used

3

Leaf paste is used directly as an external ointment Leaf paste is used directly as an external ointment The paste is applied on the wound and sundried, then the patient is required to take bath separately Leaf is mixed with oil (any oil like coconut or sunflower oil) and boiled for 15 mins and applied in warm condition The latex is applied externally

4

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1

2

4

4


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18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Leucas biflora (Vahl.) R.Br. (Kannada: Kaduthumbae) Whole plant Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. (Tamil: Chembu) Leaves and Rhizome

Lamiaceae

Curcuma longa L. (Tamil: Manjal) Rhizome Murraya koenigii L. (Tamil: Karivepilla) Leaves

Zingiberaceae

Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. (Tamil: Chembarathi ) Flowers

Malvaceae

Cymbopogon citratus L. (Tamil: Karppura pul) Roots

Poaceae

Ocimum basilicum,var. purpurasens (Tamil: Katu thulasi) Entire plant Vitex negundo L. (Tamil: Nochhi) Leaves

Lamiaceae

Araceae

Rutaceae

Verbenaceae

Skin irritations

Small red colour boils appearing on the skin

Itching and also for skin glowing skin Skin inflammations

Good for hair

For pimples

Skin inflammations after the insect bites Rejunvating skin

Paste of the whole plant is mixed with the coconut oil and applied extensively on the affected area. Juice of the leaves and rhizome paste is mixed with gingelly oil to prepare a gel and this is applied externally for 21 days to cure skin disease Paste is applied on the skin Leaves are boiled along with coconut oil and applied on the affected part in warm condition Boiled along with oil and applied regularly on the head for cooling effect Garlic and grass root paste is applied on the body and then hot water bath is given

4

4

4

4

4

4

Leaf paste is externally applied

4

Boiled leaf is consumed on a regular basis

4

1,2,3,4 evaluation (4, presumably active; 3 likely to be active; 2, only Ethnobotanical information validates the popular use among the Kurumba tribes of Niligiris; 1, presumably in active)

RESULTS A total of 25 plant species belonging to 25 genera, 19 families were used as traditional remedies for various skin ailments (Table: 1). This data gathered were the results of the field visits carried during 2009–10 (Figure – 2). The preliminary analysis of the data gathered

clearly projects (Figure - 3) that leaves (49%) are primarily used for the medicinal preparations for the skin ailments followed by flower (13%), root (13%), bark (11%), rhizome (5%), stem (3%) and latex (3%). The study reveals that most of the preparations are administered in the form of paste and applied on the infected area externally except in the

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case of Vitex negundo and Tinospora cordifolia which were consumed orally along with warm water. However, the preparations for species like Murraya koenigii, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Colocasia esculenta, Leucas biflora and Ruta graveolens are boiled in gingelly oil or coconut oil and then was applied on the infected area. But the quantity and duration of administration depends on the severity of the infection. Certain medicinal plants like Murraya koenigii, Hibiscus rosa sinensis and Aloe vera were domesticated in most of the tribal villages due to the frequent medicinal usage of the same or various ailments apart from the skin diseases.

DISCUSSION Communities living in the three taluks like, Kundah, Conoor and Kotagiri have been practicing the herbal medicine to cure skin diseases like skin boils, fungal infections on the skin etc., which are prevalent in the above said areas. These skin diseases are very common among these tribal settlements due to the unhygienic conditions in which they live and also the infections got aggravated due to seasonal changes and some of these infections were also transmitted from the cattle’s like sheep. Aggravation of the infection was judged from the degree of itching narrated by the patients.

Figure 3: Glimpses of the field visit carried during 2009-10 to the study area

Plate A: Skin infection on the palm of the tribal women Plate B: Traditional healer collecting the plant sample Plate C: A Kurumba woman showing her certification for practicing traditional healing Plate D: Documentation process of traditional knowledge from a traditional healer

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Figure 3: Analysis of plant parts used in the remedies

Bark 11%

Latex Stem 3% 3%

Tuber 3% Leaf 49%

Root 13%

Rhizome 5% Flower 13%

Though some medical assistance is available in these three taluks, the tribal’s living in the remote areas is unable to get the facility and also due to the poor socio economic background they are not able to afford the readily available ointments for skin diseases. Hence majority of the families depend on the herbal medicines which is more readily available. Certain medicinal plants that are used for skin ailments by the Kurumba tribes are also used in other regions. For instances Leucas biflora and Colocasia esculenta are being used to treat skin ailments by the Kani tribes of Tirunelveli hills (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2005). Similarly the plant species Lantana camara is also used both by the Kurumba and Irula healers of Kodiakkarai Reserve forest (Subramanyam and Steven, 2009). But the quantity and duration of administration depends on the severity of the infection. According to this non experimental method of validity 18 plant species fall under the score of 4. Hence they are considered to be most likely effective remedy as these data is supported by the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies carried by earlier workers. Four plant species have a validating score of 3 in addition to their ethnobotanical data, the phytochemical and

pharmacological information of these plants validates their use in India, hence the plant may exert a physiological action on the patient and is more likely to be effective than those at the lowest level of validity. Under 2 and 1 score, 2 plant species and 1 plant species fall respectively. This is based on the popular usage within the group of a particular geographic region and 1 for presumably phytochemically inactive. CONCLUSION Hence the present study clearly proved that these remedies form an important database for the identification and purification of important therapeutic compounds and antimicrobial trials to prove their efficacy and also to develop new herbal products for the management of various skin diseases. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank all the traditional medicinal practitioners of Kurumba tribes of Kundah, Kotagiri and Conoor taluk for supporting the study by sharing their knowledge and Mr. Sudhakar who accompanied us to all the Kurumba settlements of the study area.

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REFERENCES Ayyanar M & Ignacimuthu S (2005). Medicinal plants used by the tribals of Tirunelveli hills, Tamilnadu to treat poisonous bites and skin diseases. 64(3): 229–236. Borthakur SK (1976). Less known medicinal uses of plants amoung the tribals of Mikir Hill, Assam, Bull Bot. Surv. India. 18:166. Cox AP, Balick JM (1996). Ethnobotanical Research and Traditional Health Care in Developing Countries, Plants, People and Culture. W. H. Freeman & Co. Daniels RJR (1992). The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and its role in conserving India’s biodiversity. Current Sci. 64:706–708. Falguni K & Minoo H, (2011). Ethnobotanical studies and validation of lead: a case study on evaluation of Claotropis sp. on dermal fungal infections, Int. J of Pharm. & Life Sciences; 2(6):797–800. Flaster T (1996). Ethnobotanical approaches to the discovery of bioactive compounds. In Progress in crops: Proceedings of the third national symposium ASHS Press, Alexandria, pp 561–565. Fyson PF (1932). The Flora of the South Indian Hill Station. In: Superintendent Government Press, Madras. Gamble JS (1975). The Flora of Presidency of Madras, Allard & Sons, Ltd London. Gopal GV (1985). A note on ethno – medical value of Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. J Mysore Univ. Sec –B, 86(31:36). Gupta SP (1963). An appraisal of Chotanagpur tribal Pharmacopea Bihar, Bull Bihar Trib. Res Inst.; 5:1

Heinrich M, Rimpler H & Antonio Barrera (1992). Indigenous phytotherapy of gastro intestinal disorders in a low land Mixe community (Oaxaca,Mexico): Ethnopharmacological evaluation, J. of Ethnopharmacology, 36 ;63–80. Jain SK & Goel AK (1995). A Manual of Ethnobotany, (ed.) S K Jain: Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, 142. Jain SK (1970–1971). Some magico – religious beliefs about plants among adibasi’s of Orissa, Adibasi; 12–39. Jain

SK (1989). Ethnobotany: An interdisciplinary science for holistic approach to man plant relationships, In: Jain, S.K. editor, Jodhpur, Methods and Approaches in Ethnobotany, 9–12.

Mathew KM (1983). The Flora of the Tamil Nadu Carnatic, The Rapinet herbarium, St. Joseph’s college, Tiruchirapalli, India. Mohan VR, Rajesh A, Athiperumalsami, & Sutha S (2008). Ethnomedicinal plants of the Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu, India, Ethnobotanical leaflets, 12;79– 95. Pal GD (1984). Observations on Ethnobotany of tribals of Subansiri, Arunachal Pradesh, Bull Bot. Surv. India: 26(26). Parthasarathy J (2007). Tribes & Inter Ethnic Relationship in the Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu, TRC/HADP publication, Udhagamandalam. Shukla KM, Khan AA, Shabina K & Verma AK (2001). Ethnobotanical studies in Korba basin, District Bilaspur (M.P.), India, Ad Plant Sci. 14:391.

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Subbaiah M, Singaram R, Arunachalam S (2012). Plants used for non medicinal purposes by Malayali tribals in Jawadhu hills of Tamil Nadu, India, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Vol 1(12), 663–669. Subramanyam R & Steven GN (2009). Valorizing the 'Irulas' traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest, India, J Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 5– 10.

Source of Support: NIL

Subramanyam R, Newsmaster G S, Murugesan M, Balasubramanian V & Muneer M (2008). Consensus of ‘Malasars’ traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri Holy hills, India, J Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine : 4:8. Udayan PS, Tushar KV, Satheesh G & Indira B (2007). Ethnomedicinal information from Kattunayakas tribes of Madumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, Indian J. Traditional Knowledge: 6 (4):574–578.

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 3, Issue 1 | January 2014 | 17–23 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Research article STABILITY STUDY OF SWARNAPRASHANA YOGA WITH RESPECT TO BASELINE MICROBIAL PROFILE Bhaskaran Jyothy Kothanath1*, Cholera Meera2, Patel Kalpana Shanthibhai3, Shrikrishna Rajagopala4 1

PhD Scholar, Dept. Of Kaumarabhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India Head, Microbiology Laboratory, I.P.G.T. & R.A, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India 3 Professor & HOD, Dept. Of Kaumarabhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India 4 Assistant Professor, Dept. Of Kaumarabhritya, I.P.G.T. & R.A, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India *Corresponding Author: jyothybmenon@yahoo.com 2

Received: 10/12/2013; Revised: 26/12/2013; Accepted: 01/01/2014

ABSTRACT Administration of Gold in children is a unique practice explained in Ayurveda. Kashyapasamhitha has mentioned the administration of pure gold triturated over a clean stone along with water, honey and ghee as ‘Swarnaprashana’. In the present study, stability with respect to its microbial profile of Swarnaprashana Yoga prepared with Swarna Bhasma, ghee and honey in a specific proportion was carried out. Three samples of Swarnaprashana Yoga named A, B and C, prepared and stored during different climatic and temperature conditions were studied at regular intervals for a period of 3 months to analyse mycological findings and presence of microorganisms by Wet mount preparation and Gram stain test respectively. Sample A and B were stored at room temperature while sample C in refrigerator. At the end of the study, sample A did not reveal presence of microbes after 3 months of preparation of the sample. Sample B showed presence of many gram negative pleomorphic rods at the end of 1 month of preparation. Presence of many gram negative rods was found in Sample C at the end of 3 months of preparation. The findings of the present study reveal that microbial contamination in Swarnaprashana Yoga has relation with the changes in climatic conditions and temperature. In the present study, the stability of Swarnaprashana Yoga with respect to microbiological findings was 3 months when stored at room temperature during warm and dry climatic conditions, 1 month and 2 months when stored in room temperature and refrigerator respectively during cold and humid climatic conditions. KEYWORDS: Stability, Microbial Profile, Swarnaprashana Yoga, Climatic condition

Cite this article: Bhaskaran Jyothy. K., Cholera M., Patel Kalpana S., Shrikrishna R., (2014), STABILITY STUDY OF SWARNAPRASHANA YOGA WITH RESPECT TO BASELINE MICROBIAL PROFILE, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 3(1): 17–23

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INTRODUCTION Swarnaprashana (oral administration of gold) is a very unique practice of internal administration of gold explained in Ayurveda especially for the benefit of children. Kashyapasamhita mentioned the term Swarnaprashana for administration of gold with the benefits of improvement in factors like intellect, digestion and metabolism, physical strength, immunity, complexion, fertility and life span. According to the classic, Swarnaprashana Yoga (formulation of gold) has to be prepared by triturating pure gold along with water, ghee and honey on a clean stone. The administration of this Yoga has been told for children with specific indications and contraindications (Hemaraja Sarma 2006). Many other texts of Ayurveda have also explained internal administration of gold (Jadavji Trikamji, 2005, Harisastri Paradakara, 2002 & Shivaprasad Sharma, 2006). From the above cited references it can be understood that this specific formulation has to be freshly prepared and administered. People do get attracted by knowing the above said benefits of Swarnaprashana, but the preparation of the formulation on daily basis in present busy life style make them quite hesitant in approaching the clinicians. Although there are many formulations available in the name of Swarnaprashana in the market there are no uniform protocol followed in their preparation, storage, and information of shelf life period etc. This also discourages the public from accepting this unique formulation with complete confidence. A formulation which is prepared in specific proportion with good quality ingredients and stored well in good hygiene for at least an acceptable time period could surely improve acceptance of such a formulation among public. As Swarnaprashana is administered in children even from new born period, it was necessary to prepare the formulation in a better dosage form which is also free from any microbial contamination. Stability of a pharmaceutical product is the capability of a

particular formulation in a specific container or closure system, to remain within its physical, chemical, microbiological, therapeutic and toxicological specifications at a defined storage condition (Linda Ed Felton, 2013). Thus in the present study an attempt was taken to check the stability of Swarnaprashana Yoga with respect to its microbial profile in 3 samples prepared and stored in two different climatic conditions and temperature set ups at regular intervals for a period of 3 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Samples of Swarnaprashana Yoga labelled ‘A’ and ‘B’ (stored at room temperature) and ‘C’ (refrigerated) were prepared and studied to check microbial contamination at regular intervals for a period of 3 months. The study was conducted at Microbiology laboratory, Institute for post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Contents of samples: All the three samples contained 1 g of Swarna Bhasma (Ash of gold), unequal quantities of 22 g of ghee and 248 g of honey triturated well for about 8 hours in Akika Khalvayantra (Mortar and pestle made of semiprecious stone, Akika). This specific proportion was followed to fix the dosage form as drops which will be easier in administration in children. Swarna Bhasma was procured from the Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Honey (Grade A) was procured from Khadi gramodyog, Jamnagar and Ghee (Agmark Cow ghee) from standard local market which were also evaluated for microbial contamination before the preparation of Swarnaprashana Yoga. Preparation time: The samples were prepared in two different batches. Sample ‘A’ was prepared and preserved during the months of April to June, 2012 and samples ‘B’ and ‘C’ were prepared

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and preserved during the months of September to November, 2013. The preparation was done with utmost care to avoid any sort of contamination by using sterile vessels and gloved hands. Cap and mask were worn during the entire preparation period. To ensure further safety, glass bottles for storage were sterilised by rinsing with 10% sodium hypochlorite (chemical sterilisation method) and then kept in hot air oven (physical sterilisation method). Storage: The 1st batch sample (sample ‘A’) was stored at room temperature in a dry and dark place to avoid exposure to direct sunlight and wind. The 2nd batch sample was stored in two parts; one part at room temperature (sample ‘B’) and the other in refrigerator (sample ‘C’). No preservatives were added to the samples for storage. All the three samples were subjected to stability study with respect to microbial contamination at regular intervals for a period of 3 months the details of which are cited below. Microbial profile: Microbial contamination was assessed by two methods to check any mycological findings and bacteriological findings. The details of the procedures followed are given below. 1. Wet mount test: Aim: To rule out any mycological findings. Specimen: Samples A, B and C. Procedure: A drop of selected samples were taken on 3 grease free glass slides marked A, B and C respectively and covered with cover slips for microscopic examination.

2. Gram stain test: Gram staining is a differential staining technique that differentiates bacteria into two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative. The procedure is based on the ability of microorganisms to retain colour of the stains used during the gram stain reaction. Gram-negative bacteria are decolourized by any organic solvent, losing the colour of the primary stain. Gram-positive bacteria are not decolourized and will remain as purple. After decolourization step, a counter stain is used to impart a pink colour to the decolorized gram-negative organisms. The Gram stain procedure enables bacteria to retain colour of the stains, based on the differences in the chemical and physical properties of the cell wall (Alfred E Brown, 2001). Aim: finding

To rule out presence of bacterial

Specimen: Sample A, B and C. Procedure: The smear was covered with crystal violet and allowed to stand for a few seconds. Then the stain was washed off, using a wash bottle of distilled water. Excess water was drained off. The smear was covered with Gram’s iodine solution and allowed to stay for a minute. Gram’s iodine was later poured off and the smear was flooded with acetone for a few seconds. The excess acetone was removed by rinsing the slide with water for a few seconds. Later the smear was covered with safranin for 30 seconds. It was then gently washed for a few seconds, blot dried with bibulous paper, and air-dried. The slide was examined under oil immersion. OBSERVATIONS Following findings were observed at the end of the study. The tables I, II and III show the observations in the samples A, B and C respectively during the tests at regular intervals for a period of 3 months.

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Sample ‘A’ (Table I) preserved at room temperature during the month of April to June 2012 did not show presence of any mycological or bacteriological findings at the end of 3 months after preparation of the sample.

contamination the sample was not subjected to further tests but discarded. Sample ‘C’ (Table III) preserved in refrigerator during the month of September to November 2013 did not reveal any positive mycological findings at the end of 3 months. But in gram stain test there was presence of many gram negative rods arranged singly on 86th day of preparation of sample. As the sample showed positive finding of bacterial contamination it was not subjected to further tests but discarded.

Sample ‘B’ (Table II) preserved in room temperature during the month of September to November 2013 showed presence of many gram negative pleomorphic rods after 37th day of preparation of the sample. But no mycological findings were observed. Once there was positive finding of bacterial

Table I- Observation of Sample ‘A’ preserved in room temperature Sl.no. Test done after preparation Observation Wet Mount test

Gram Stain

1.

30 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

2.

37 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

3.

44 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

4.

51 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

5.

58 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

6.

65 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

7.

72 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

8.

79 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

9.

86 days

No Fungal filaments No Microorganism

Table II – Observations of Sample ‘B’ preserved in room temperature Sl.no.

Test done after preparation

Observation

1.

30 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

2.

37 days

No Fungal filaments

Many Gram negative pleomorphic rods

Wet Mount test

Gram Stain

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Table III – Observations of Sample ‘C’ preserved in Refrigerator Sl.no.

Test

done Observation

after

Wet Mount test

Gram Stain

preparation 1.

30 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

2.

37 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

3.

44 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

4.

51 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

5.

58 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

6.

65 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

7.

72 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

8.

79 days

No Fungal filaments

No Microorganism

9.

86 days

No Fungal filaments

Many gram negative rods

DISCUSSION Swarnaprashana is a widely used formulation and being practised among Ayurvedic practitioners. But at present there are no uniform protocols followed in the preparation, storage and administration of this formulation. It is need of the hour to incorporate some constructive steps to prepare and store this unique formulation in good quality for a reasonable time period which will be helpful for the safe usage in infants and children. Swarnaprashana Yoga prepared in the present study contained Swarna Bhasma, ghee and honey in a specific proportion which was selected for a better dosage form in children. The present study was carried out to observe the stability of Swarnaprashana Yoga with respect to microbial contamination of the samples prepared and preserved in two different climatic and temperature conditions. Thus a baseline microbial profile was studied at regular intervals for a period of 3 months. At the end of the study it was observed that sample ‘A’ preserved at room temperature during the months of April to June 2012 did not show presence of any microbes at the end of 3 months. Sample ‘B’ preserved in room

temperature during the months of September to November 2013 showed presence of many gram negative pleomorphic rods on 37th day of the Gram stain test. But no mycological finding was observed in it. Sample ‘C’ preserved in refrigerator showed negative results in wet mount test at the end of 3 months. But in gram stain test it showed presence of many gram negative rods arranged singly on 86th day of preparation. After the samples revealed positive finding of bacterial contamination they were not subjected to further tests but discarded. Stability is usually expressed in terms of shelf life, which is the time period from when the product is produced until the time it is intended to be consumed or used. Several factors are used to determine a product's shelf life, ranging from organoleptic qualities to microbiological safety. The factors which may be considered when determining whether a prepared product requires time/temperature control during storage, distribution, sale and handling may be categorised under intrinsic, extrinsic and other factors (FDA report, 2001). Intrinsic factors include moisture content, pH and acidity, nutrient content, biological structure, redox potential, naturally occurring and added antimicrobials. Extrinsic factors

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include types of packaging/atmospheres, effect of time/temperature conditions on microbial growth, storage/holding conditions and processing steps (FDA report, 2001). The prepared Swarnaprashana Yoga in this present study contained Swarna Bhasma, ghee and honey. No preservatives were added to the formulation. The factors which might have influenced the findings of the tests in the samples are discussed here in detail. Microorganisms need water in an available form to grow in a product, the measure of which can be named as water activity of a product. Water activity is defined as the ratio of water vapor pressure of the prepared product to the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature (James M. Jay, 2000). Thus the aw describes the degree to which water is bound in the product, its availability to participate in chemical or biochemical reactions and its availability to facilitate growth of microorganisms. Microorganisms generally have optimum and minimum levels of aw for growth. Gram negative bacteria are generally more sensitive to low aw than Gram positive bacteria (FDA report, 2001). Honey, an ingredient of Swarnaprashana Yoga of the present study was of comparatively higher quantity than ghee. Approximate aw value of honey is < 0.60 (Bibek Ray, 2004). Honey is hygroscopic in nature. The amount of water honey absorbs is dependent upon the relative humidity of the air. Although the water activity value of honey is high, a change in that value might have taken place in the samples due to change in climatic conditions and temperature. Positive findings of gram negative rods was found in the sample B stored at room temperature during the months of September to November 2013 and sample C which was refrigerated during the same period. In Jamnagar where the present study was carried out, September to November are the months with an average temperature of 21.7ºC to 34.26ºC when the atmosphere is usually cold compared to the months of April to June with an average temperature of 24.9ºC to 39ºC (http://www.meoweather.com/history/India/na/ 22.466667/70.066667/Jamnagar.html) which is

usually hot and dry. There was no positive finding of microbial contamination in sample A stored at room temperature during the month of April to June which may be due to the hot and dry climatic conditions. Thus the cold weather might have contributed to the change in water activity of honey which was observed as positive findings in microbial contamination in samples B and C. The level of microorganisms in the air is controlled by degree of humidity, size and level of dust particles, temperature and air velocity and resistance of microorganisms to drying. Generally dry air with low dust content and higher temperature has low microbial level. Microbial contamination of a product from the air can be reduced by removing potential sources, controlling dust particles in the air, reducing humidity level etc. (Bibek Ray, 2004). The month of September in 2013 received heavy rain fall in Jamnagar district and during October to December 2013 received average 27% higher rainfall in Jamnagar district (http://www.imdagrimet.gov.in/sites/default/fil es/rainfall_map/Gujsearf-SPR.jpg) during which, low temperature, high humidity and moisture content of the atmosphere might have also influenced the positive microbial contamination findings in the samples during those period. CONCLUSION Shelf life is the time period from when the product is produced until the time it is intended to be consumed or used. Several factors are used to determine a product's shelf life, ranging from organoleptic qualities to microbiological safety. For the purpose of this study, key consideration was the stability of Swarnaprashana Yoga with respect to microbiological safety of the product. The present study was an initial attempt in analysing the microbial contamination in the samples of Swarnaprashana Yoga prepared in two different climatic conditions and stored at two different temperature set ups. The stability of Swarnaprashana Yoga with respect to only microbiological findings were studied for a

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period of 3 months when stored at room temperature and refrigerator during April to June 2012 and September to November 2013. The findings of the study indicates that warm, dry and less humid climatic conditions does not favour any microbial contamination when handled hygienically. However the cold climatic conditions favoured microbial contamination even when handled hygienically and preserved in both room temperature and refrigerator. Thus the study advocates that

Swarnaprashana Yoga prepared using the above ingredients should be consumed within 3 months during warm and dry climatic conditions and within 2 months during cold climatic conditions. As this was a baseline attempt, further studies are to be carried out in sophisticated laboratories, at various climatic conditions to establish the stability of Swarnaprashana Yoga with respect to microbial contamination.

REFERENCES Alfred

E Brown (2001), Benson: Microbiological Applications, 8th Edition, The McGraw−Hill Companies, pg. 64.

Bibek Ray (2004), Fundamental of Food Microbiology, 3rd Edition, CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W, pg.72 & 37–38. FDA

(2001), http:// www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResear ch/SafePracticesforFoodProcesses/ucm 094145.htm last updated: 06/03/2013, retrieved on 1.12.2013.

Harisastri Paradakara (2002), Ashtangahridaya by Vagbhata with Sanskrit Commentaries of Arunadatta and Hemadri, Edited by Harisastri Paradakara Vaidya, 9th Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi: pg.778 & 781. Hemaraja Sarma (2006), Kasayapa Samhita by Vrddha Jivaka, revised by Vatsya with Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, Reprint, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi; pg.4–5. Source of Support: India

http://www.imdagrimet.gov.in/sites/default/file s/rainfall_map/Gujsearf-SPR.jpg last retrieved on 1.12.2013. http://www.meoweather.com/history/India/na/2 2.466667/70.066667/Jamnagar.html last retrieved on 1.12.13. Jadavji Trikamji (2005), Susrutha Samhita by Susruta with Dalhanacharya Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; pg. 388- 389 & 395. James

M. Jay (2000), Modern food microbiology, 6th Edition, Aspen publication, Gaithersburg, Maryland, pg. 41.

Linda Ed Felton (2013), Remington: Essentials of Pharmaceutics. 1st Edition, Pharmaceutical Press, UK. pg. 37. Shivaprasad Sharma (2006), Ashtangasamgraha by Vagbhata with Sasilekha Sanskrit Commentary, Edited by Shivaprasad Sharma, 1st Edition, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series office, Varanasi: pg.914.

IPGT & RA, Jamnagar, Gujarat,

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 3, Issue 1 | January 2014 | 24–32 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Review article KAMADUGHA RASA AN EFFECTIVE AYURVEDIC FORMULATION FOR PEPTIC ULCER: A REVIEW Maurya Santosh Kumar1*, Arka Ghosh2, Yadav Amit Kumar3, Kumar Dileep4, Singh Anil Kumar5 1, 2, 3, 4

Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Mirzapur–231001, Uttar Pradesh, India 5 Department of Dravyaguna, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi–221005, Uttar Pradesh, India *Corresponding Author: Email: dravyapharma@gmail.com

Received: 10/12/2013; Revised: 25/12/2013; Accepted: 01/01/2014

ABSTRACT At the present time PUD (peptic ulcer diseases) is common problem in societies due to various behavioral and environmental factors. Further excessive use of NSAID’s (non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) and infection of Helicobacter pylori also contribute major part in pathogenesis of PUD. PUD is

gastrointestinal disorder that has been recognized since ancient time. In Ayurveda, it is equivalent to amlapitta (hyperacidity/acid peptic disorders) and is common throughout the world and prevalence has been estimated to approximately 11–14% for men and 8–11% for women. The usage of synthetic drugs such as antacids, H2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors have abbreviated due to their side effects. These crises lead to the search for natural products from plant or mineral origin possessing potential anti–ulcer activity. Rasaushadhis (mineral and herbo–mineral ayurvedic medicines) are unique dosage forms having benefit of longer shelf life, better therapeutic efficacy at low dose. Kamadugha Rasa is one of them and effectively used for anti ulcer activity. The ingredients of Kamadugha Rasa like bhasmas (Powder obtained by calcinations of mixture of minerals and herbs or any one) of Mukta (pearl), Pravala (coral: Corallium rubrum), Shankha (conch shell), Shukti (oyster shell) and Varatika (cowries shell: Cyprea moneta Linn.) are the sudha varga dravyas (calcium containing group) which are known for their importance in the management of Amlapitta, Pittaja vikara, (disorder related to biological fire or metabolic catabolic enzymes), Jirna Jwara (chronic fevers) and Somaroga (The condition in which there is an excessive urination in women). In the present review, an attempt was made to understand the possible mode of action of Kamadugha Rasa as a gastro-protective and for its anti–ulcer activity. KEYWORDS: Kamadugha Rasa, Amlapitta, Rasaushadhis, Peptic Ulcer Disease, Anti–Ulcer Activity

Cite this article: Kumar Maurya Santosh, Arka Ghosh, Kumar Yadav Amit, Kumar Dileep, Singh Anil Kumar., (2014), KAMADUGHA RASA AN EFFECTIVE AYURVEDIC FORMULATION FOR PEPTIC ULCER: A REVIEW, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 3(1): 24–32

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INTRODUCTION The demand of herbal drugs is increasing day by day due to their excellent efficacy, fewer side effects and good faith by Indian community on herbal medicine and also their products (Rawat et al., 2003). The drugs which are available in Ayurvedic system of medicine are obtained either from herbal, animal and mineral sources. Rasaushadhis (mineral and herbo-mineral ayurvedic medicines) are unique dosage forms having benefit of long shelf life and better therapeutic efficacy at lower dose. In the current kinetic era, Rasaushadhis have given Ayurveda a complete novel health care look (Chaudhary and Singh, 2010). Kamadugha Rasa is a unique Kharaliya Rasayana (medicine prepared in mortar and pestle) which contains equal amount of Mukta bhasma (calcined pearl), Pravala bhasma (calcined coral: Corallium rubrum), Shankha bhasma (calcined conch shell), Shukti bhasma (calcined oyster shell) and Varatika (cowries shell: Cyprea moneta Linn.), Shuddha Gairika (purified red ochre) and Guduchi Satva (cold water extract of Tinospora cordifolia). It is a completely balanced healing agent which is designed to tackle the various types of diseases ailments such as Amlapitta, Pittaja vikara, Jirna Jwara and Somaroga (Hariprapannaji, 1999, Palbag et al., 2013). It is also advised in many complications of Amlapitta (Anonymous, 2006) like Parinama shula (duodenal ulcer), Annadrava shula (abdominal pain related with poor digestion) and other Gastro-intestinal disturbances which are now a day’s regarded as the most commonly occurring diseases due to present life style and food habits. Since times immemorial, this drug has been most widely and successfully used in clinical practice. Several variations of Kamadugha Rasa have also been mentioned in many classical texts (table 1) and are described in various chapters of Jwara (fevers) (Hariprapannaji, 1999) and Amlapitta (Hariprapannaji, 1999). In addition, it is also indicated in many diseases such as unmada (psychosis), apasmara (epilepsy), pradara (leucorrhooea), mutra daha (burning micturation), raktarsha (bleeding piles), vrana

(ulcer/wound) produced due to Amlapitta (Anonymous, 2006; Anonymous, 2000), bhrama (vertigo), daha (burning sensation), murcha (loss of consciousness), rakta pitta (bleeding diathesis/ innate haemorrhage) and trishna (thirst) (Joshi and Rao, 2003). Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encircling gastric and duodenal ulcer is a major gastrointestinal disorder (Valle, 2005). An ulcer forms when there is an imbalance between aggressive forces, i.e., the aggressive power of acid and pepsin and defensive factors mucus layer, mucosal blood flow, PGs (prostaglandin) and growth factors (Sairam et al., 2003; Szabo et al., 1998). However, in majority of patients, acid secretion is within normal limits or is moderately raised. It can occur at any age, including infancy and childhood, but are most common in the middle aged adults (Beer and Berkow, 2006). Lifetime prevalence is approximately 11–14% for men and 8–11% for women (Le and Fantry, 2008). In the present times, approximately 80% of the patients that suffers from PUD are mainly associated with the Helicobacter pylori infections (Warren and Marshall, 1983; Matsukura, 1995). The excessive consumption of NSAID’s (non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) is also one of the main contributing factors for the development of PUD (Wallace, 2000). However, various behavioral and environmental factors such as smoking (Kaur et al., 2012), excessive consumption of alcohol, improper diets and excessive stress leads to the generation of PUD. Current therapy for the treatment of PUD mainly includes various combinations of antacids, H2 receptor blockers (ranitidine, famotidine) and proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole) (Rao et al., 2004). The aim of such therapy is attributed to the reduction of gastric acid production and strengthening of gastric mucosa (Hoogerwerf and Pasricha, 2001). The complete cure of peptic ulcers is still one of the challenging problems, since the disease is likely believed to re–occur in the future (Bandyopadhyay, 2002). Most of the synthetic drugs are cost effective and can produce several health problems that generate unusual adverse effects in the body.

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Hence, there is a necessity to discover newer, cheaper, and safe antiulcer agents. Herbal medicines have been shown to produce promising results in the treatment of PUD. They have often shown to reduce the

aggressive factors and strengthening the mucosal defensive layers, thus serving as important tools in the prevention of gastric ulcers (Laloo et al., 2013).

Table 1: Kamadugha Rasa in classical Ayurvedic texts Jwaradhikara (Hariprapannaji, 1999)

Amlapittadhikara (Hariprapannaji, 1999)

Amlapittadhikara (Hariprapannaji, 1999)

Ingredients

Swarna Gairika, Ghrita, Amalaki Swarasa (juice of Emblica officinalis)

Guduchi Swarna Abhraka Karsha

Preparation

Bharjana (frying) of Swarna Gairika is done with Ghrita, powdered and seven bhavana (trituration) given with Amalaki swarasa.

Indication

Pitta roga, Prameha, Pradara Prameha (diabeties), Pradara, Pandu roga (anemia), Kamala (jaundice), Daha, Trishna, Bhrama, Jirna jwara

Sattva, Mukta Bhasma, Gairika, Pravala Bhasma, Bhasma Shukti Bhasma, Kapardika Bhasma, Shankha Bhasma, Shuddha Gairika, Guduchi Sattva all in equal quantity All the ingredients All the ingredients are finely powdered are taken in equal and mixed well. quantity and triturated homogeneously.

As long as samprapti (etiopathogenesis) of Amlapitta is concerned, it is explained with the help of samprapti of grahani roga mentioned by Charaka. In Amlapitta the Nidanas (etiology) are predominantly from the non compliance of dietetic code of selection and eating. However psychological status of a person also plays an important role. The

Ratna Pradhana Yoga (Joshi and Rao, 2003) Swarna Gairika, Guduchi Sattva, Sharkara, Amalaki swarasa

Shodhita Swarna Gairika triturated with Amalaki swarasa continuously for 21 days, dried and powdered. Mix Guduchi Sattva equal to it and also mix Sugar equal to both and grind well. Jirna jwara, Rakta pitta, trishna, Bhrama, Unmada, Daha, Bhrama, Pitta roga, Murcha Amlapitta and Somaroga.

etiological factors like Ati snigdha ahara, Ati ruksha ahara, Vishamashana, Akale bhojana, Akale anashana Veganigraha (suppression of natural urges) (Sharma, 1988), Vidahi anna sevana, Vidahi pana sevana, Dusta anna sevana (Upadhaya, 1981) and seasonal variation etc. cause the vitiation of Dosha (especially liquidity of Pitta) and Agni which results in

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Agnimandhya (digestive weakness). Once Agnidushti occurs it results in Ajirna (indigestion). In this state of whatsoever food material are consumed by an unwise person, become Vidagdha (acidic) and are converted into Shukta (acid) form which leads to formation of Amavisha. Thus, Amavisha (acidic dietary toxins in the body) produced disturbs the Grahani and once it happened it further produces the Amadosha (excessive accumulation of dietary toxins) and vicious cycle starts. Amavisha Produced by this Samprapti when mixes with Pitta, it will produce Amlapitta (Jadavji, 2004). In the present review an attempt has been made to understand and explore the possible mode of gastro-protective and anti–ulcer activity of Kamadugha Rasa. MODE OF ACTION OF KAMADUGHA RASA Ayurvedic Perspective Some of the ingredients of Kamadugha Rasa such as pravala and mukta have dipana (appetizer) and pachana (digestive) properties (Kulkarni, 2006) maintain the normalcy of agni (digestive fire) and thus help in curing and preventing the production of ulcers (Ghosh and Baghel, 2011). The kshariya (alkaline) nature of these drugs would reduce the amliyata (acidic nature) and help in vrana ropana (promotes wound healing). These are sita virya dravyas (the drug having cold potency or cooling effect usually resembles to endothermic) which does Pitta shamana (pacify the biological fire) and Vrana ropana. Shankha Bhasma being Sita Virya, alkaline in nature, Grahi (absorption enhancing), it is indicated in gastrointestinal disorders like Amlapitta, Parinama Shula, Grahani (Irritable bowel syndrome) and Agnimandhya (Shastri, 1989) which is clinically proved (Pandey, 2000). Gairika is another ingredient which is madhura (Sweet), kashaya (Astringent), snigdha (smooth), hima (cold), rakta pitta hara (effective in bleeding diathesis) and Vrana ropaka. These properties are very necessary in the healing of ulcer. Guduchi Satva being

another important ingredient is known for its Rasayana property (Upadhyay et al., 2010). It is having tikta (Bitter), kashaya rasa with madhura vipaka (post digestive effect which is sweet in nature), snigdha guna and is tridosha shamaka (pacify three Bio energy Principles, Vata, Pitta, and Kapha), dipaniya. These all would support in the anti ulcer activity along with Rejuvenation. Pitta is having tiksna (sharpness), usna (heat), sara (mobility), laghu (lightness), snigdha, etc. properties by which it brings biochemical changes at the cellular and tissue levels. Pitta maintains digestion, thirst, appetite energy production and body temperature, colour, complexion. Pitta is Drava (liquid) in consistency, inspite of which, it performs actions similar to Agni, in the course of process of digestion, largely due to its actual Teja (heat) component (discarding its liquidity-Drava). This fact is inferred from the way in which Pachaka Pitta (digestive component of biological fire) performs pachana (digestive) Karma (action). The capacity of digestion also depends on the qualitative increase of Usna Guna of Pitta. Conceptually it was concluded that substances having the properties like ruksha, kasaya, laghu had the effect to decrease the drava guna of pitta and maintaining the proper function of agni. Similarly substances having madhura, sita properties, decreased the usna property of pitta to maintain the proper function of agni. Modern Perspective Kamadugha Rasa mainly contains calcium compounds chiefly calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcium oxide (CaO) and some amount of calcium silicates. Calcium carbonate is widely used in the treatment of peptic ulcer (Loevenhart and Crandall, 1927; Meletis et al, 2008). It is a fast acting antacid and reduces gastric acidity resulting in an increase in the pH of stomach (Akhter, 2007). Calcium being the main ingredient plays an important role in many physiological activities not only related to bones but also includes blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, regulation of

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enzyme activity and cell membrane function. It takes part in production of many enzymes and hormones which regulate digestion process and metabolism. (Piste et al., 2013). Calcium is essential for the normal transport of nutrients through membranes, blood coagulation and muscle functioning (Piste et al., 2013). Calcium also helps in regulating potassium and magnesium balance in the body (Swaminathan, 2003). It prevent blood loss if ulcers are bleeding, heal the ulcers by muscle contraction and hardening and also reduces the pain by regulating nerve function (Piste et al., 2013) and perhaps most importantly, Calcium is the main buffer used in the body to neutralize acids and maintains the proper pH (Akhter, 2007). Even it is evident that excess intake of calcium leads to production of peptic ulcers instead of healing. The administration of calcium both orally or intravenously, stimulates acid secretion and increases circulating concentration of gastrin (Petersen et al., 1984). Stimulation of acid secretion by the parietal cells occurs by at least three major pathways: the cholinergic transmitter such as acetylcholine, histamine, which is locally released in the gastric epithelium and the hormone gastrin. The effect of histamine is mediated by increasing adenylate cyclase activity, whereas the effects of the acetylcholine and gastrin seem to involve an increase in cytosolic free calcium (Zhou et al., 1997). Kamadugha Rasa contains not only calcium but also other minerals thus reducing excess absorption of calcium. Magnesium is one of the minerals which is said to reduce the absorption of calcium in the intestine. However, the action of magnesium is very weak; hence it may not hinder the absorption of calcium to large extent. Kamadugha Rasa also contains many elements like iron, oxygen, sodium, zinc, aluminium, silicon potassium and others which are essential minerals for the maintenance of healthy body. The presence of zinc, aluminium and magnesium also helps in the ulcer healing process (Varas et al., 1991; Frommer 1975; Watanabe T, et al., 1995; Itoh et al., 2004; McIntosh and Sutherland, 1940). Kamadugha Rasa displays gastroprotective activity against different ulcer inducing agents,

as well as it has ability to decrease gastric secretion (Chandra et al., 2010). Ingredients of Kamadugha Rasa are individually useful in peptic ulcer. Kirtikumar et al., 2010 performed a comparative clinical study between Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma with reference to Amlapitta (Parmar, 2010; Chouhan et al., 2010) which justifies this claim. The study conducted by Pandya (1968) assesses the effectiveness of Pravalapanchamrita (formulation containing Mukta Bhasma, Shankha Bhasma, Shukti Bhasma, Varatika Bhasma and Pravala Bhasma) in patients of Amlapitta and conclude that it is a highly effective medicine (Pandya, 1968). Momin Ali (1970) evaluated the effect of Shukti Bhasma against Amlapitta to observe its clinical efficacy (Ali, 1970). Shankha Bhasma acts like antacid. Its acid neutralizing capacity, speed of antacid action and prolonged buffering action were excellent (Pandey, 2000). Shankha Bhasma causes noteworthy decrease in ulcer index in both the indomethacin and cold resistant stress models for studying PUD. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) of stomach in the indomethacin treated rats were also reduced by Shankha Bhasma, but serum calcium level was not altered (Pandith et al., 2000). Guduchi satva is the most effective drug against hyperacidity as observed in pylorus ligated (Shay) rat model (Prashanth et al., 2011). Treatment with a formulation containing guduchi has been shown to reduce ulcer index and total acidity, with an increase in the pH of gastric fluid in pylorus–ligated rats and in the ethanol–induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. (Bairy et al., 2001; Kaur et al., 2012; Chandan et al., 2013) CONCLUSION In the present era, various types of allopathic drugs are used to treat PUD, but the most important lacunas in them are their side effects. Some alternative therapies from the natural sources are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Kamagudha rasa, a herbo–mineral formulation is widely used for the treatment of PUD in common practice. It is

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expected that this formulation would be beneficial for society to eradicate this problem and their further use would also be expected. The advanced research may discover its exact mechanism in PUD. In context to the present review, it can be concluded that the ingredients

of Kamadugha Rasa can be regarded as the contributing factors in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. It is worthy of exploring the opportunity of employing the therapeutic advantages of Kamadugha Rasa.

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Mymoona, (2007) Gastrointestinal Agents, Available Online. http://nsdl.niscair.res.in/bitstream/12345 6789/707/1/revised+Gastrointestinal+ag ents.pdf.

Bairy K. L., Roopa K., Malini S., Rao C. M. (2001) Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats; Journal of Natural Remedies, 2(1):49–53.

Ali Momin (1970) Kapardi Tatha Shukti Bhasma Evam Inki Amlapitta Me Tulanatmaka Karyakshamata, I.P.G.T. and R.A, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar.

Bandyopadhyay D, Biswas K, Bhattacharyya M, Reiter RJ, Banerjee RK. (2002) Involvement of reactive oxygen species in gastric ulcer protection by melatonin. Indian J Exp Biol. 40(6):693–705.

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Chandan N.G, Tirthankar Deb And Bhargavi Manju S. (2013) Evaluation of anti– ulcer activity of tinospora cordifolia in albino rats; Int J Pharm Bio Sci 4(2):78–85.

Anonymous, (2006) Rasatantrasara Va Siddhaprayoga Sangraha, 17th edition, Ajmer, Krishna Gopal Ayurveda Bhavan Publications, Vol–I, pp 444– 446. Avnish K. Upadhyay, Kaushal Kumar, Arvind Kumarand Hari S. Mishra (2010) Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) – Validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies Int J Ayurveda Res. 1(2):112–121.

Chandra P, Sachan N, Gangwar AK, Sharma PK. (2010) Comparative study of mineralo–herbal drugs (Kamadugha and Sutshekhar Rasa Sada) on gastric ulcer in experimental rats. J Pharmacy Res; 3:1659–62. Chaudhary Anand. and Singh Neetu (2010) Herbo Mineral Formulations (Rasaoushadhis) of Ayurveda An Amazing Inheritance of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics Ancient Science of Life, 30(1):18–26.

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