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INDEX – GJRMI, Vol. 2, Iss. 11, November 2013 MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH Botany & Plant Physiology IDENTIFICATION AND USE OF PLANTS IN TREATING INFERTILITY IN HUMAN FEMALES IN FAKO DIVISION, CAMEROON Fongod A G N, Veranso M C, Libalah M N

724–737

INDIGENOUS MEDICINE Ayurveda – Rasa Shastra IN VITRO EVALUATION FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TUTTHA BHASMA IN COMPARISON WITH GENTAMICIN AND AMPHOTERECIN B Mahapatra Anita, Mahapatra Brahmananda

738–744

Ayurveda – Dravya Guna A COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L.) G.Don (PINK AND WHITE FLOWER VARIETIES) ROOTS Raval Nita D, Pandya T N, Pillai A P G

745–751

Ayurveda – Dravya Guna - Review A REVIEW ON SWARNAPRASHANA - GOLD LICKING, A CHILD IMMUNITY ENHANCER THERAPY Sharma Chakrapany

752–761

Ayurveda – Moulika Siddhanta - Review UNDERSTANDING OF VAADAMARGAPADAS IN CONTEXT OF THEIR MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPLICABILITY Vyas Kavita, Vyas Hitesh, Dwivedi R R

762–771

Ayurveda – Dravya Guna - Review SHYAMA TRIVRUT, A LESS KNOWN BUT FREQUENTLY USED DRUG IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS: A REVIEW Kolhe Rasika H, Acharya R

772–784


Ayurveda – Review A REVIEW ON ANTI ASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF AYURVEDIC HERBS Singhal Harish Kumar, Neetu

COVER PAGE PHOTOGRAPHY: DR. HARI VENKATESH K R, PLANT ID – INFLORESCENCE OF SHATAVARI (ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILLD.), OF THE FAMILY ASPARAGACEAE PLACE – KOPPA, CHIKKAMAGALUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

785–793


Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 724–737 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Research article IDENTIFICATION AND USE OF PLANTS IN TREATING INFERTILITY IN HUMAN FEMALES IN FAKO DIVISION, CAMEROON Fongod A G N1*, Veranso M C2, Libalah M N3 1, 2, 3

University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon. *Corresponding Author: tina_fongod@yahoo.com; Phone No: +91 989 483 0514; (237) 77883443; Fax No: (237) 33432508

Received: 25/09/2013; Revised: 25/10/2013; Accepted: 27/10/2013

ABSTRACT A survey was conducted in Fako Division, Cameroon to establish an inventory and identify plants used by traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) in treating female infertility in humans including the cultural practices surrounding such treatments. Information was gathered through interviews and questionnaire with TMPs based on the focus data collection strategy. Forty two plants belonging to 31 families were found to be used by two or more TMPs with Anchomanes difformis (BI.) Engl., Costus afer Ker-Gawl, Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. Eremonmastax speciosa (Hotchst.) Cufod, Jateorhiza macrantha (Hook. f.), Trema guineensis (Schum.& Thonn). Ficalho, Musanga cecropoides R. Br. Ex Tedlie, Pipteadeniastrum africanum (Hook.f.) Brenan and Carica papaya Linn. being the most commonly used. The leaves and stem barks were the most commonly used plant parts and plants were used singly or in various combinations along with some non-plant ingredients. Treatment was usually preceded by some form of diagnosis, which could be by use of an oracle, communication through a trance and questions relating to the history of the patient‟s menstrual cycle. The average success rate was 66%, representing the proportion of cases that became pregnant following the therapy. Some of the plants found in this study are also used for treating infertility problems elsewhere while others are being reported for the first time. The project reveals the high medicinal value of plants in Fako Division and points to the need for proper estimation of success rate and identification of the active principles in the plants. KEY WORDS: Identification, Inventory, Traditional medical practitioners (TMPs), Female infertility, Cultural practices, Focus data collection strategy.

Cite this article: Fongod. A. G. N., Veranso. M. C., Libalah. M. N., (2013), Identification and use of plants in treating infertility in human females in Fako Division, Cameroon, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 2(11): 724–737

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INTRODUCTION Fako Division is one of the divisions in the South West Region of Cameroon, made up of six ethnic groups, namely the Bakweri, Bomboko, Wovea, Mungo, Bimbia (Isuwu or Isu) and the Balong (Matute, 1990). The indigenes live together with people of other origins-Cameroonians and foreigners. Though heterogeneous, the population is essentially rural. Cultural values of such rural settlements see marriage and motherhood as central to women‟s life and identity. Motherhood gives a sense of maturity and an opportunity for greater vitality, fun and humour (Richardson, 1993). There is no unanimous definition of female infertility, but NICE guidelines state that: "A woman of reproductive age, who has not conceived after one year of unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse, in the absence of any known cause of infertility, should be offered further clinical assessment and investigation along with her partner."(NICE guideline, 2013), (Larsen, 2005). It is recommended that a consultation with a fertility specialist should be made earlier if the woman is aged 36 years or over or if there is a known clinical cause of infertility or a history of predisposing factors for infertility (NICE Guidelines, 2013). Infertility, or the temporary inability to produce children, has become a major problem for women and men in recent times and is generally viewed as a painful condition for the individuals and couples (Fidler and Bernstein 1999). Female infertility can be subdivided into primary and secondary infertility (Larsen 1999). Primary infertility refers to the situation where the woman has never had children before, while secondary infertility occurs when the woman is unable to conceive after one or more successful pregnancies. The causes of infertility are varied and often termed idiopathic. Despite government policies on population control in conjunction with family planning organizations, children still stand out central in the community set-up. Children are needed as a means of economic advancement, to perpetuate the husband‟s descent group and

to increase household productivity (Kottak, 1991). Couples are often pressurized (especially by extended family members) to have children, and their absence means the woman has not fulfilled her part of the marriage agreement because, from the traditional view, marriage is seen as a union for procreation rather than love (Kottak, 1991). Love in the romantic and exclusive sense is familiar in most developed countries while in urban centers it is not demonstrably a universal need (Hamond, 1978). Couples in the developing countries are generally more often and more severely affected by the consequences of infertility due to protagonist social norms. (Van and Inhorn, 2002). Owing to the central role that children have in traditional marriage bonds, infertility has often been a primary cause for divorce. Practitioners of traditional medicine have variously been referred to indiscriminately as traditional healer, traditional medical practitioner, healers, people‟s doctors, traditional doctors, practitioners of African traditional medicine, witch-doctors, diviners, seers, spiritualists or African therapists (Sofowora, 1993). The term traditional medical practioner (TMP) was adopted for Anglophones at the third symposium organized by the Scientific, Technical and Research Commission of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU/STRC) held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast in September 1979 (OAU, 1979). Thus, TMP will be used throughout this text. This includes any person who is recognized by the community in which he lives as competent to provide health care by using vegetable, animal and mineral substances and certain other methods (Sofowora, 1993). These methods are based on social, religious and cultural backgrounds as well as on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that are prevalent in the community regarding physical, mental, social well-being and the causes of disability. Diagnosis of infertility, like other diseases, by TMPs is usually getting the medical history of the concerned and by the divine inspiration. Health problems originating from cosmic

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agents like the sun, moon, planets (astral influences), evil thoughts, desires, telepathic messages (spiritual causes) and diseases originating from the soul or deeds of individual in his former life (esotheric causes) can be handled (Mbenkum and Fisiy, 1992). Consultation of an oracle about the patient is another method of diagnosis and sources of appropriate treatment method (especially in cases where infertility is thought to be due to witchcraft). Seeds of plants, bones of animals, kernel seeds and shells can be used in the procedure of diagnosis depending on the culture of the TMP (Sofowora, 1993). The patterns these display, when thrown on the floor or mat is interpreted. Thus the cause, treatment and sacrifices required can be determined from these patterns. Communication through a trance is also used to identify the cause of the problem. In some cases the TMP can communicate with spirits in his trance. The spirit narrates what is wrong, as well as the sacrifice necessary to appease the gods through the traditional medical practitioner. Plants have been used by TMPs to treat infertility either exclusively or in combination with orthodox medical procedures. Thomas et al., (1989) mentioned some plants used in solving female infertility problems in the Korup area. These plants include Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R.Br. ex Roth, Annonidium mannii (Oliv.) Engl. & Diels, Cola lateritia K. Schum, Jateorhiza macrantha (Hook. f.) Brenan., Synphocephalum mannii (Benth.) Warb, Senna alata (Linn.) Roxb, Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don. People of Kilum mountain in the North west Province, Cameroon also use plants such as Coleus spp. Benth., Impatiencs burtonii Hook. f. and I sakeriana Hook. f. to treat women‟s fertility problems and menstrual pains (Thomas and Fisiy, 1992). There have been reports on the use of folk medicine from India in the treatment of gynoecological, fertility and sexual diseases in India (Jain et al., 2005, Das et al., 2005, Sugundha and Pandey, 2012, Koteswara et al., 2012, Dhiman K. et al., 2012).

Justification and objectives of study Infertility usually presents an enormous problem which, for those afflicted, causes great suffering and pain. In infertility marriages, a large proportion lays the blame on witchcraft and often seeks herbal treatment from traditional healers. The highly advertised and much debated reproductive technologies are out of reach for the vast majority of those affected by infertility today due to inability to pay bills for orthodox medicine and for cultural reasons. The proportion of couples visiting traditional healers for their infertility and other health problems has increased. This has met with some success and thus the need for an investigation into the herbal sources. Although some plants have been reported to be useful in treating infertility, the types of plants used often vary with locality since the healers need to obtain these from the vicinity. There has been no documentation of such plants from Fako Division. The survey of literature revealed that there are a few studies on ethnobotany of women‟s diseases, particularly fertility problems in different parts of Cameroon. Literature is confined to general ailments and therefore we were intrigued and prompted to carry out the present study. This study therefore sought to identify and establish an inventory of plants used to treat infertility in human females with the cultural practices surrounding the use of these plants as well as the perceived success rates in solving infertility problems. The findings form this survey will hopefully form a baseline for future studies on the bioactive agents and clinical aspects in improving on the success rates of traditional healers; and will also set a basis for any conservation and/or domestication efforts to enhance sustainable exploitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Location of study site The study was carried out in Fako Division which is in the South West Region of Cameroon, located between latitudes 4° 4‟ and 402‟ north of the Equator and longitudes 8°7‟

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and 9°25‟ east of the Greenwich meridian. It is bounded on the west and south by the Biafra, on the east by the Wouri and Mungo Divisions of the Littoral Province and on the North by Meme and Ndian Divisions (Figure 1). It covers an area of about 2.057 km2 with a population estimated at 446,170 (Folefac 2005). The population trends reflect those of the country with 50% living in urban/semi urban centers. This number is increasing at the rate of 5% per annum due to rural urban drift. The estimate terrain elevation above sea level is

2833 m. The population is heterogeneous because of job opportunities offered by the numerous plantations (Neba, 1987). This area has a humid tropical climate with an annual sunshine between 900 - 12000 hours per annum, average relative humidity of range 80 – 85 % (Fraser et al., 1998) and a mean annual temperature of 280°C. The annual rainfall is about 2000 mm, most of which is received between June and September (Peguy et al., 1999). Soil type here is basically volcanic (Cable and Cheek, 1998).

Figure 1: Map showing study sites in South West Region, Cameroon.

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Table 1: Distribution of TMPs among the sampling sites in Fako Division Block Bakweri Balong Bomboko Bimbia Mongo Wovia Total

No. of villages sampled 4 2 4 2 3 1 15

Population mapping The division was divided into six blocks corresponding to the six ethnic groups. A village was defined as a sampling site. The number of villages sampled for each ethnic group depended on the size of the ethnic group but at least two villages were sampled per block with the exception of Wovia (Table 1). Two to five TMPs were sampled for each village. The villages sampled included Bakweri, Balong, Bomboko, Bimbia, Mongo and Wovia (Figure 1). Traveling to the villages included any means possible but visit to many of the villages included public transport in vehicles and trekking. In each village, there was proper selfintroduction to the TMPs. In some cases, gifts were presented to the traditional medical practitioners. Some asked for money because to them, they are selling their “knowledge� by responding to the questions. In some villages, a Field Assistant, whose daily salary was determined by the chief and elders, was required to create the necessary contact with the TMP, as they cooperated in the exercise readily on seeing a familiar face. Prior informed consent was taken from the informants regarding ethno-botanical survey of the traditional herbal remedies used by the rural and urban women for fertility problems such as tubal factors, faulty menstrual cycle associated with irregular and painful menstruation, scanty, dirty and at times watery menses with no evidence of ova, leucorrhoea, faulty uterus and ovaries that render fertilization difficult. Some causes and symptoms of infertility are

No of TMPs interviewed 14 7 12 5 8 4 50

idiosyncratic to traditional medical practitioners (TMPs). The clinical symptoms associated with infertility are largely recognized in traditional medicine: secretions form the vagina, faulty menstrual cycle associated with irregular and painful menstruation, scanty, dirty and at times watery menses, leucorrhoea which causes the semen to run out immediately after intercourse, so that fertilization cannot occur, inflammation proceeding from other diseases (such as chronic gonorrhea and syphilis) or from the introduction of foreign bodies, or an inflammation of the vulva and vagina Swelling of the breasts some days before the monthly period is seen as a sign of barrenness; the real cause of this is unknown, presence of some pernicious worms which prevent pregnancy or cause abortions and unless these worms are destroyed or kept at bay, pregnancy is difficult. The worms are usually associated with witches. The sampling procedure was preceded by a preliminary survey, a general review and familiarization with most plants mentioned in the literature as having fertility properties. Reconnaissance visits and surveys were made to the villages in order to be familiar with the people where a pre-test of the questionnaire was carried out to ensure that it provided the necessary information and data. The present study is an outcome of an extensive survey from October 2011 to February 2012. This period coincided with the dry season when most of the roads leading to the villages are passable. Data collection was done by interview and use of a questionnaire which consisted of closed-ended questions. The problems relating to various aspects of

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infertility were presented and described verbally in the language best understood by the TMP. Use was made of a translator where necessary. The first part of the questionnaire sought to obtain the bio data of the TMPs and subsequent sections sought information on the names of the plants used, practices surrounding their harvest and administration along with their success rates. Plants collected were those described independently by two or more TMPs for the treatment of infertility. Plants which could not be found on the spot or in the nearby forest or whose names were given in the vernacular language unknown to the translator were later collected and presented to the TMP for confirmation. Branches, fruits, flowers and stem bark of plants were harvested. In the case of tall trees, use was made of a tree climber or a long rope was tied to a forked branch and the forked branch thrown up to bring down part of the treeâ€&#x;s branch. In addition to these, fruits of tall trees were collected using a catapult. Observation of minute plant parts was done using a hand lens. Plant parts were measured using a tape. Photographs of rare plants species were also taken. Information on the plant structure and place of collection was recorded in the field notebook. Some information from the TPMs was used to complement the description of parts of plants. Some plants were pressed immediately in the field while those that could not be pressed immediately were collected in a transparent plastic bag. The pressed plants were then dried, and put in order for scientific identification. The dried plants were identified in the Limbe Botanical Garden, Herbarium (SCA), Cameroon, by comparing them with other herbarium specimens and/or using illustrated floras and keys based on standard taxonomic principles. The use of illustrated floras was mandatory and instrumental in cases where the family name of the unidentified plant was unknown and herbarium experts and taxonomists were consulted in cases where a plant could not be found in the herbarium. Vouchers specimens for all species encountered were collected and deposited at the Limbe

Botanical Garden, Herbarium (SCA), Cameroon. Means and frequency distribution for various parameters were determined from the questionnaire. RESULTS Response to interviewees Out of 50 TMPs, 36 (72%) responded to all the questions and 14 (28%) attempted the questions partially. Of the 14 who attempted the questions partially, seven were not involved in treating infertility problems; four were unwilling to disclose the plants used and their methods of treating infertility problems while three did not use plants in Fako Division for treating infertility. The respondents were between the ages of thirty and fifty-five years and included four women and forty-six men indicating more interest by men in traditional medicine. All of them were Christians of various denominations. The population of women with fertility problems consisted of girls and women above twenty three years of age with different economic and educational backgrounds. Forty two plants belonging to 31 families were identified as being used for treating infertility problems by at least two or more TMPs (Table 2). The most predominant family was Bignoniaceae with three species. The frequency of uses of each of the species ranged from 2–11. The most commonly used species were Anhcomanes difformis, Costus afer, Kigelia africana, Eremomastax speciosa, Jateorhiza macrantha, Trema guinneensis, Musanga cecropoides, Piptadeniastrum africanum and Carica papaya, while the least commonly used were Newbouldia laevis, Nauclea dederrhichii and Scoparia dulcis. The plant parts used included stem bark, leaf, root, flower, fruit and tuber. In the case of Eleusine indica the whole plant was used. All parts of a plant were used at least once but the most commonly used parts were the leaves and stem bark (Figure 2). Enumeration was done and tabulated with botanical names and families of the plant species common names, frequency of usage and parts used.

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Table 2. Plants and plant part used in treating female fertility. Plant Species

Common (English)

name Frequency

Acanthaceae Eremomastax speciosa (Hotchst). Cufod

Two-sided leaf

6

Leaf

Apiaceae Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Apocynaceae Alstonia boonei De Wild Araceae Anchomanes difformis (BI.)Engl. Asteraceae Ageratum conizoides L. Arecaceae Elaeis guineenis Jacq. Asteraceae Emilia coccinea (Sims.) Asteraceae Senecio biafrae (Oliv.& Hiern) J. Moore Balsaminaceae Impatiens sp Bignoniaceae Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. Bignoniaceae

Indian Pennywort

4

Leaf

Mild stick

3

Stem bark

11

Roots, tuber

3

Leaf

4 3

Inner leaves Leaf

3

Leaf

4

Stem, leaf

Sausage tree

9

Fruit, root, bark

Fertility plant

2

Leaf

Flame of the forest

3

Stem bark

Boma tree

3

Stem bark

Cat‟s whiskers

2

Leaves and stems

Paw paw/Papaya

5

Leaf, Root

Umbrella tree

3

Buds

Monkey sugarcane

9

Stem, leaf

Bitter gourd

3

Flower

Bush or aerial yam

5

Tuber

Castor oil plant

4

Leaf tops

Beggar weed

3

Whole plant

„Goat weed‟ „King grass‟ African oil palm Palm tree

Part used

yellow

Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Seem. Ex Bur.

Bignoniaceae Spathodea campanulata Beauv Bombacaceae Ceiba pentandra Gaernt. Capparaceae Cleome gynandra L. Caricaceae Carica papaya Linn. Cecropiaceae Musanga cecropoides R. Br. Ex Tedlie Costaceae Costus afer Ker-Gawl Cucurbitaeceae Momordica charantia Linn. Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L. Fabaceae Desmodium triflorum (L.)DC

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Lamiaceae Ocimum gratissimum Linn. Leeaceae Leea guineensis G. Don. Malvaceae Hibiscus asper Hook.f. Malvaceae Corchorus olitorius L. Malvaceae Hibiscus sabdarifa L. Meliaceae

„Masepu‟ „Scent leaf‟ „Masepu‟

4

Leaf

4

Leaf

2

Whole plant

„Kreng Kreng‟

7

Leaves

Folere

8

Leaves

Mahogany

4

Stem bark

3

Stem bark

5

Leaf, stem

5

Stem bark

4

Flower (tassel)

3

Stem bark

3

Whole plant

3

Flower (silk)

5

Leaves

3

Stem bark

4

Fruit

2

Leaf

3

Root, tuber

5

Stem bark

4

Leaf

4

Fruit

Entandrophragma angolensis (Welw.) C.DC

Meliaceae Iroko Milicia excelsa (Welw.) CC.Berg. Menispermaceae Flat hand of Jateorhiza macrantha (Hook.f.) Exell & monkey Medonça Mimosaceae Small leaf Piptadeniastrum africanum (Hook.f.) Brenan Dabema Musaceae Plantain Musa pardisisca L. Myristicaceae False nutmeg Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb. Man caraboar Poaceae Bahama or Wire Eleusine indica Gaertn. grass Poaceae Maize plant Zea mays Linn. Apiaceae Parsley Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Fuss. Rubiaceae Bilinga Nauclea dederrhichii (De Wild. &Th. Dur.) Merril Rutaceae Lime Citrus auranolia Linn. Scophulariaceae Sweet broom weed Scoparia dulcis Linn. Smilacaceae Wild sarsaparilla Smilax kraussiana Meisn. Ulmaceae Pigeon wood Trema guineensis (Schum.& Thonn). Ficalho Charcoal tree Urticaceae Burning grass” or Fluerya ovalifolia Tropical (Schum. & Thonn) Dany Stinging nettle Zingiberaceae Sweet alligator Aframomum melegueta (Rosc.) K. Schum. pepper

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Treatment methods All the plants were harvested in the morning, some were however harvested in the evening but none was harvested specifically in the afternoon. Harvesting of any plant part was preceded in some cases by incantations, which often serve as a means for request of power from the ancestors and other divinities. In six cases, animals such as fowls, fowl eggs and goats are sacrificed prior to collection. Some of the plant species were used singly while others were used in various

combinations. Plants used singly Leea guineenisis, Anchomanes difformis (BI.) Engl., Costus afer, Jateorhiza macrantha, Fluerya ovalifolia, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Alstonia boonei. Combinations involving three plant species were the most frequently used (Table 3). The following plants (Leea huineensis, Anchomanes difforis, Costus afer, Jateorhiza macrantha, Fluerya ovalifolia and Piptadeniastrum africanum) were used singly as well as in combinations.

Table 3: Plant species combinations used in the treatment of female infertility in Fako Division. Two species Dioscorea bulbifera Kigelia africana Carica papaya Entandrophragma angolens Piptadeniastrum africanum, Pycnanthus angolensis Nauclea dederrhichii Alstonia boonei

Eleusine indica Anchomanes difformis Zea mays Citrus aurantifolia Pycnanthus angolensis Musanga cecropoides Emilia coccinea Milicia excelsa

Three Species

Kigelia africana, Kigelia africana, Jateorhiza macrantha, Trema guineenisis, Newbouldia laevis, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Elaeis guineensis, Eleusine indica, Entandrophragma angolens Scoparia dulcis Eremomastax speciosa,

Spathodea campanulata, Costus afer, Costus afer, Pycnanthus angolensis, Spathodea campanulata, Milicia excelsa Kigelia africana, Zea mays, Zea mays Emilia coccinea, Ageratum conyzoides

Four species

Musanga cecropoides,

Ocimum gratissimum, Kigelia africana,

Momordica charantia

Newbouldia laevis,

Entandrophragma angiogenesis, Elaeis guineensis,

Kigelia africana,

Citrus aurantifolia Elaeis guineensis

Carica papaya,

Zea mays

Kigelia africana, Fluerya avalifolia

Musa sapientum, Carica papaya,

Ceiba pentandra Citrus aurantifolia,

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Anchomanes difformis Elaeis guineensis Leea guineensis Milicia excelsa Carica papaya Musanga cecropoides Smilax kraussiana Ocimum gratissimum Musa sapientum Ageratum conyzoides Emilia coccinea Aframomum melegueta Eleusine indica Musa sapientum, Ocimum gratssimum Citrus aurantifolia Musa sapientum


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Non-plant ingredients were also used in combination with the plant material. These included animal products (honey), mineral products like red and white limestone („akangwa’) and plant derived products such as palm kernel oil and palm oil. Preparation of plants and ingredients for medicinal use was by boiling or infusions. Eleven TMPS administered the medication in the form of drink, 7 as enema and 14 as both. Where both are used, the same infusion is administered as enema and drink. In some cases the medication is administered to both wife and husband. Treatment usually lasted for more than two months until the woman in question became pregnant.

through a trance. Questions about the regularity of the menstrual cycle were also used as clues. Where treatment was unsuccessful, the gravity of the case was confirmed by reference to practitioners of orthodox medicine or by examination of the menses by the TMPs. In a particular case, small red ants were used to test for female infertility. Perceived success rates Out of the 36 TMPs who responded to the questions, only 11 attempted to estimate their success rates, measured as the proportion of treated women who conceived. The perceived success rate ranged from about 28.5–100% with a mean of 63.7% (Table 4).

Forms of diagnosis of infertility identified included use of oracle and communication Table 4: Perceived success rates of infertility treatment by 11 traditional medical practitioners in Fako Division. No of cases handled 2 3 3 3 5 6 7 9 9 10 11 Total/Mean 58

No of cases conceived (x) 2 3 2 1 3 3 2 6 4 5 6 37

DISCUSSION In the present investigation, an attempt was made to enumerate the different plant species employed by TMPs in treating female infertility in Fako division, Cameroon. The study has resulted in the identification of 42 species spread over 31 families. Analysis of the life forms showed that there were 23 herbs, 16 trees, one shrub, and two climbers. The following plants identified in this study have been reported elsewhere in treating fertility

Success % 100 100 66.6 33.3 60 50 28.5 66.6 44.4 50 54.5 63.7

problems: Costus afer, Emilia coccinea, Jateorhiza macrantha, Dioscorea bulbifera, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Entandrophragma angolens and Kigelia africana (Lambo, 1979; Thomas et al., 1989). Senecio biafrae was one of the plants employed for treatment of fertility problems which corroborate the findings of Landry et al., (2012) where they noted the extensive use of this plant by traditional healers in the western region of Cameroon for the treatment of female infertility. Foeniculum vulgare an Apiaceae has been used in India for

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fertility problems (Sugundha et al., 2012). A close species, Petroselinum crispum was identified as one of the species used for treating fertility problems in the study. Deka and Kalita (2013) reported the use of species of Costus and Desmodium in used in fertility treatment in Kamrup district. A proportion of species in the forest, fallows and farms of Fako Division have medicinal uses ranging from the common “folk” uses which are widely known, to the highly specialized use of complex combinations and powerful specialized species by TMPs. For example, the use of Costus after der-Gawl for cough, the bark of Alstonia boonei De Wild for malaria, leaves of Senna alata (Linn.) Roxb for ringworm, Euphorbia hirta L. for abdominal problems, amongst many others are well known by the local population. Some of the plants in this survey are being reported for the first time as having medicinal value against infertility; though some have been used in the treatment of ailments other than infertility. Citrus aurantifolia has anti-inflammatory, antihistamine and diuretic properties and Ocimum gratissimum is used as an antihelmintic, mouth wash, spice and for treating diarrhea because it contains thymol, an antiseptic active against bacteria and fungi (Sofowora, 1993). Leea guineensis is used to treat abdominal problems and for detecting pregnancy (Lambo, 1979). Eremomastax speciosa is used as a remedy for anaemia and other blood disease probably because of its high iron content. Others like Musa sapientum, Zea mays, Dioscorea bulbifera and Elaeis guineensis are common food plants while some of the species like Milicia excelsa, Entandrophragma angolens and Pycnanthus angolensis have been exploited for timber. Thus, although these plants are being reported for treating infertility for the first time, they are well known and used by the local population for treating other ailments, as food or for timber production. A few of the plants are more widely used by the TMPs than others. For example, Anchomanes difformis was used by 11 TMPS

while Nauclea dederrhichii was used by just two TMPs. A less frequently used plant can still be as effective as a frequently used one for treating infertility. The low frequency of use might be due to the fact that the TMPs do not know about the plants as a remedy for infertility but they could be using them for treating other ailments. Another reason may probably be due to the fact that knowledge of traditional medicine is usually acquired from ancestral spirits and apprentice-ship (Makhubu, 1978), and the TMPs will only use plants that his ancestors used for a particular ailment. Furthermore, availability of a plant will also influence its frequency of use. Plants not commonly found around the locality will be replaced by those that are readily available. Most of the plants used in treating infertility are used in combinations (Table 3) distinct from other areas where most plants are used singly (Thomas et al., 1989). The role of each plant in the combination was not clear although they may be acting as synergists to increase the potency of the preparation. Some species in the combinations could actually be there to prevent the adverse effects of other major constituents, but all of these need to be confirmed in a separate study. Eleusine indica, Aframomum melegueta and Scoparia dulcis are thought to have medico magical effects. In addition to treating infertility for example, Eleusine. indica was used to tie the plants before placing them in the collecting bag to prevent them from the action of witches who can “spoil” them or make less effective. Non-plant ingredients were also used in combination with the plant material. These included animal products (honey), mineral products like red and white limestone („akangwa’) and plant derived products such as palm kernel oil and palm oil. It is believed that these ingredients make these medications effective. In modern system of medicine this effectiveness requires further testing phytochemically and pharmacologically for better use in future. Preparation of plants and ingredients for medicinal use was by boiling or infusions and administration by enema and oral.

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Out of the 36 TMPs who responded to the questions, only 11 attempted to estimate their success rates, measured as the proportion of treated women who conceived. The perceived success rate ranged from about 28.5% – 100% with a mean of 63.7% (Table 4). The chances of success in the treatment of infertility problems vary with the cause, and with different individuals receiving treatment. With traditional medicine, the rate of success has been estimated at 70% (Lambo, 1979). A few of the TMPs were unwilling to share their traditional knowledge with other people. The existing knowledge on traditional uses of plants is fast abating especially as the youths show poor interest in acquiring this wealth of knowledge from the TMPs. CONCLUSION

increase awareness among rural communities for conservation and sustainable use of plant wealth. There is need for evaluation of the plants and investigation of their biological activity as well as isolation of active constituents by pharmaceutical industries and other laboratories to give lead to development of new herbal drug molecules. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are grateful to all the traditional medical practioners (TMPs) for sharing their valuable information on herbal medicines as well as to the rural community for their cooperation. Authors are also thankful to the staff of Limbe Botanic Garrden (SA) for their invaluable support in providing the necessary facilities for plant identification and documentation.

It is very necessary to collect and document such valuable data and precious knowledge and

REFERENCES Cable, S. and Cheek, M. (1998). The plants of mount Cameroon. A conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, P198. Das Nikhil Jyoti, Devi Kamala and Goswani Satya Rajan (2005) Report on the treatment of dysmenorrhea by the tribes of Nalbari district, Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional knowledge, 4(1) 72–74 Deka J.and Kalita J.C.(2013) Ethnobotanically important medicinal plants of Kamrup district, Assam, India used in fertility treatment. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 4(3) 229–232 Dhiman Kamini, Lata Kusum and Dhiman K. (2012) Rubia cordifolia (Manjishtha) in primary Dysmenorrhoea (kashtartava) – A clinical Study. Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., 1(3): 77–86

Fraser, P.J., Hall, J.B. and Healey, J.R. (1998). Climate of the Mount Cameroon region, long and medium term rainfall, temperature and sun shine data (unpublished) SAFS, University of Wales Bangor, MCP-LBG, Limbe. 56p. Fidler A and Bernstein J. (1999) Infertility: from a personal to a public health problem. Public Health Rep : 114:494– 511. Folefac Vincent Anu (2005) Fako Local Economic Development Agency (FEDA) Project To Alleviate Poverty Through Self-Employment And EnterpriseCreation in Fako Division of Cameroon. 35pp Hamond B and Hamond JL (1978) The village laborer. Longman Publishing Group. 301pp

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Koteswara J.Rao, T.V.V.Seetharami Reddi and O. Aniel Kumar (2012) Herbal treatments for women‟s problems practiced in the tribal groups of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Ethnobotany 24 : 43–47 Jain Anita, Katewa,S.S, Galavi, P.K., and Sharma Palavi (2005) Folk herbal medicines used in birth control and sexual diseases by tribals of Southern Rajasthan, India. India Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102 : (2)143–157. Kottak CP (1991) Cultural Anthropology. McGraw – Hill Higher Education. Lambo J.O.(1979) The healing power of herb with respect to obstetrics and gyneacology. African Medicinal Plants (ed) Sofowara E.A. University of Ife. Pages 23–31. Landry L Lienou, Bruno P Telefo, Bayala Bale, Didiane Yemele, Richard S Tagne, Stephanie C Goka, Chantal M Lemfack, Celestin Mouokeu and Paul F Moundipa (2012) Effect of the aqueous extract of Senecio biafrae (Oliv. & Hiern) J. Moore on sexual maturation of immature female rat. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12 : 36 Larsen U (2005) Research on infertility: which definition should we use? Fertil Steril 83 (suppl 4): 846–852. Larsen U. (1999) Primary and secondary infertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Int. J. of Epidemiology. 29 (2) : 285–291. Makhubu L.P.(1978) The traditional Healer. The University of Botswana and Swaziland, Muvaluseni, Swaziland.

Mbenkum FT, Fisiy CF. (1992) Ethnobotanical survey of Kilum mountain forest. WWF 1992. Neba Aaron Suh (1987) Modern geography of the United Republic of Cameroon. 204pp. Neba Publishers (Camden, N.J.) Thomas D, Thomas JM, Bromley WA, Mbenkum TF: Korup ethnobotany (1989) survey. WWF report, Godalming, UK; 1989. NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) clinical guideline CG156 (2013) a b Section "Defining infertility" in: Fertility: assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems. OAU 1979 4th OAU/STRC Inter-African Symposium on Traditional Pharmacopea and African Medicinal Plants: Abidjan -Ivory Coast, 25-29 OAU/STRC, 1979, 743 pages Peguy, R., Edward, I., Cheek, M., Ndam, N. and Acwarth, J. (1999). Mount Cameroon cloud forest. In: Timberlake, J. and Kavit, S. (eds), African plants: biodiversity, Taxonomy and uses, pp 263–277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Richardson D (1993) Women, Motherhood and Childrearing. Palgrave Macmillan Publisher Sofowora A (1993) Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd edition. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd; 1993:150. Sugundha Tiwari and Pandey I.B. (2012) Traditional herbal remedies for gynecological problems practiced in Kanpur division of Uttar Pradesh(UP), India. Ethnobotany 24: 132–135

Matute, D.L.(1990) Facing Mount Fako: An Ethnographic Study of the Bakweri of Cameroon. Milwaukee, WI: Omni Press

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Van Balen F, Inhorn M.(2002) Interpreting infertility: a view from the social sciences. In: Inhorn M, van Balen F, editors. Infertility around the globe: new thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies. London: University of California Press. p. 3–32.

Source of Support: Nil

World Health Organisation (WHO) (2002) WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005. World Health Organisation, Geneva.

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 738–744 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Research article IN VITRO EVALUATION FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TUTTHA BHASMA IN COMPARISON WITH GENTAMICIN AND AMPHOTERECIN B Mahapatra Anita1*, Mahapatra Brahmananda2 1

Research Scientist, AVP Research Foundation, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Prinicpal, Govt Ayurveda College, Bolangir, Odisha, India. * Corresponding Author: Email: dranitads@gmail.com 2

Received: 13/09/2013; Revised: 21/10/2013; Accepted: 26/10/2013

ABSTRACT In Ayurveda, Tuttha (copper sulphate) is one among the Maharasa varga (a group of minerals), which has been indicated in various diseases like skin diseases, eye disorders, obesity, pain, asthma, hyper acidity, hemorrhoids etc and the properties of Tuttha is mentioned as Cakshusya (good for eyes), Kandughna (reduces itch), Vishaghna (reduces toxic effect) and Krimighna (antimicrobial). The present study was aimed to validate the Krimighna property of Tuttha bhasma by screening for antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) bacteria and antifungal activity against two fungi (Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum) in comparison with standard drugs Gentamicin and Amphotericin B respectively via Kirby-Bauer method. It was found that the antibacterial activity of Tuttha bhasma at 20 mg was equivalent to the inhibition shown by 1 mg of Gentamicin and antifungal activity was equivalent to standard drug Amphotericin B at 1 mg. The minimum inhibition concentration of the Tuttha bhasma was also estimated in the study to rule the susceptibility. The present study was found to be valid in its anti microbial activity or Krimighna as mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. KEY WORDS: Tuttha, Kirby-Bauer method, antifungal, antibacterial, gram negative, gram positive

Cite this article: Mahapatra Anita, Mahapatra Brahmananda (2013), IN VITRO EVALUATION FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TUTTHA BHASMA IN COMPARISON WITH GENTAMICIN AND AMPHOTERECIN B, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 2(11): 738–744

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INTRODUCTION

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The diseases in Ayurveda are categorized into endogenous and exogenous. Infections exercise a major part among the exogenous categories. Microbes are responsible factor for infection. So to combat the microbes and their newly developing strains is a great challenge. Though, the term microbes or microbial activity have not been clearly described in the text but similar concept, their functional activities and remedies have been vividly described (A K Panja, 2011).

Materials – Preparation of Tuttha Bhasma

Tuttha is a mineral compound of copper with chemical formula CuSO4.5H2O. It is also known as "blue vitriol" and "bluestone" that is indicated in various diseases like skin diseases, eye disorders, obesity, pain, asthma, hyper acidity and hemorrhoids etc. Tuttha is mentioned as pungent (Katu), alkali (Kshara), astringent (Kashaya), light to digest (Laghu), emetic (Vamaka), scraping (Lekhana), piercing (Bhedana), hot (Usna) in potency, beneficial for eyes (Cakshushya), pacifies Kapha, Pitta (Acharya JT, 1998) and is Krimighna (Sadanand Sharma, 1979). Review of all classical texts of Ayurveda suggests usage in both external and internal dosage forms with maximum frequency for external application in eye disorders (Acharya JT, 1997) and skin diseases (Acharya JT, 1992) etc. In Caraka samhita only its external uses have been mentioned which highlights the indication in external dosage form. The concepts of micro-organism as causative factors for the production of diseases were specified in samhita as krimi. Tuttha is mentioned as Krimighna that means it inhibits the growth of microbes. So it was aimed to revalidate the Krimighna property in the viewpoint of anti-microbial property. The aim of present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial property of Tuttha bhasma in comparison with Gentamicin and Amphoterecin B by Kirby-Bauer method (diffusion method). (Bauer AW, Kirby WM et al., 1996)

Crude Tuttha was obtained from local market and chemical composition was evaluated. Quantitative analysis revealed that Tuttha before purification contains copper 23.78 %, Sulphur - 11.98%, Iron - 0.33%. For purification as per classical texts Tuttha was dipped in lemon juice and triturated for 6 hours till it became dry. After purification of Tuttha with Lemon juice, the content of copper was 26.74%, iron was 0.76% and sulphur was 8.46%. Purified Tuttha was incinerated and heated to form ash (Bhasma) as per classical texts. (Sadanand Sharma, 1979) Prepared Tuttha bhasma fulfilled all the qualities of Bhasma pareeksha (Ayurvedic parameters to test bhasma quality) and was found to contain 66.74% of Cu, 8.72% of S and 1.59% of Fe. The quantitative determination of major elementals were followed by using A.A.S. (Atomic absorption spectroscopy) (API, 2009) and gravimetric analysis method (API, 2009). Methods - Antimicrobial Screening by KirbyBauer method Organisms Two gram-positive bacteria {Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis} and two gram-negative bacteria {Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli} and two fungi {Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum} were used in the study. Standards used in the study Gentamicin (Himedia labs, Mumbai, India) was used against bacteria and Amphotericin B (Himedia labs, Mumbai, India) against fungi. Preparation of test solution Suspension of Tuttha bhasma was prepared by dissolution of test sample - at 1 mg/ml; the sample contains copper salts which is an inorganic material not soluble completely in

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any solvents egethanol/Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80)/Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to prepare its solution. Hence, the suspension was vortexed in distilled water and loaded as such taking into consideration the particulate nature of the salt and its usage. Preparation of Plates The Muller Hinton Agar medium is dispensed in 500 ml. quantities into one-liter erlenmeyer flasks and sterilized at 15 lbs. for 20 minutes. The sterilized medium need not be kept refrigerated if it is made fresh every few days. Agar plates are poured about 24 hours before they are to be used. Large mouth pipettes are used to dispense 22 ml. of agar to each plate. The Petri dish used was somewhat deeper than that ordinarily employed, being 100 x 20 mm. for the bottom and 100 x 15 mm. for the top. The Petri plates were flooded with Muller Hinton Agar which has been melted and cooled to 48–50°C and then inoculated with 1 per cent inoculums (1 ml. of a 24-hour broth culture per 100 ml. of agar or 0.1 ml of 0.5 McFarland Standard culture/4ml). When inoculated agar was introduced into the dish, the plate was tilted and rotated to give an even inoculation over the entire surface. The plates were placed on a level surface for 5–10 minutes while the agar was hardening. Following this, the sterilized cylinders were dropped from a height of approximately 1/8 inch onto the agar surface. Four cylinders were placed on each plate being equidistant from the centre. (Schmidt and Moyer, 1944) Then the cylinders on each plate were filled with Tuttha bhasma solution with the help of a micropipette at concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 20μl, the plates were carefully placed at 37°C in an incubator for 24 hours. The diameter of each circle of inhibition is measured to the

nearest of 0.25 mm. Readings for the standards and the test samples are averaged, unless it is obvious that a cylinder has been jarred or that it leaks badly. The diameter of each circle of inhibition is measured by a scale. Diffusion tests widely used to determine the susceptibility of organisms isolated from clinical specimens. But these tests have their limitations; when equivocal results are obtained or in prolonged serious infection. Also the terms ‘Susceptible’ and ‘Resistant’ can have a realistic interpretation. Thus to rule out the doubt, the precise assessment on organisms were followed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) by Broth dilution method (Andrews JM, 2001) in this study. RESULTS The drug concentration in each microliter of test solution was 1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg and 20 mg. The zone of inhibition for Tuttha bhasma sample was measured by a scale and the measurements are tabulated. Statistical analysis was not done as the study is preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity. The results were proposed based on the difference in zone of inhibition for the tested sample. Tuttha Bhasma on bacteria, 1 mg concentration shown 7 mm against Salmonella typhi and 10 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and no activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. But when the concentration was increased the activity was significant against all the four selected bacteria. In 20 mg concentration the antibacterial activity of Tuttha bhasma was equivalent to the inhibition shown by 1 mg of Gentamicin and a better antibacterial result against Staphylococcus aureus compared to other organisms (Table 1; Figure 1 & 2).

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Table 1: Zones of inhibition measured in mm of Tuttha Bhasma and Gentamicin on given samples Sample / Organism E.coli B. subtilis + S.typhi S.aureus +

Tuttha Bhasma in 1 mg conc. − − 7 mm 10 mm

Tuttha Bhasma in 5 mg cocnc. 19 mm 16 mm 18 mm 14 mm

Tuttha Bhasma in 10 mg conc. 22 mm 20 mm 20 mm 24 mm

Tuttha Bhasma in 20 mg conc. 25 mm 24 mm 22 mm 26 mm

Gentamicin in 1 mg conc. 23 mm 30 mm 22 mm 13 mm

Figure 1: Zones of inhibition for Tuttha Bhasma in different concentration and Gentamicin on selected bacteria

Zone of inhibition in mm

Tuttha Bhasma on Bacteria 30

25 20

E.coli

15

B. subtilis

10

S.typhi S.aureus

5 0 1 mg Conc.

5 mg Conc.

10 mg Conc. 20 mg Conc. Gentamicin 1 mg

Figure 2: Zones of inhibition for Tuttha Bhasma on selected bacteria

Escherichia coli

Bacillus subtilis

Salmonella typhi

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Staphylococcus aureus


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Tuttha Bhasma on fungi, 1 mg concentration did not show any activity against Candida albicans and Trycophyton rubrum. But when the concentration was increased to 5 mg, the activity was significant against the two selected fungi. In 20 mg concentration the antifungal activity of Tuttha bhasma was

double to the inhibition shown by 1 mg of Amphotericin B. (Table 2; Figure 3 & 4) Hence to rule out susceptibility, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was carried out and showed 9.0 mg for Staphylococcus aureus and 6.0 mg for Candida albicans.

Table 2: Zones of inhibition measured in mm of Tuttha Bhasma and Amphotericin B on fungi Sample / Organism

Tuttha Bhasma in 1 mg conc. − −

C.albicans T. rubrum

Tuttha Bhasma in 5 mg cocnc.

Tuttha Bhasma in 10 mg conc.

17 mm 16 mm

20 mm 20 mm

Tuttha Bhasma in 20 mg conc. 26 mm 23 mm

Amphotericin B in 1mg conc. 13 mm 14 mm

Figure 3: Zones of inhibition for Tuttha Bhasma in different concentration and Amphotericin B on selected fungi

Zone of inhibition in mm

Tuttha Bhasma on Fungi 30 25 20 15

C.albicans

10

Trichophyton rubrum

5 0

Figure 4: Zones of inhibition for Tuttha Bhasma on selected fungi

Candida albicans

Trichophyton rubrum

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DISCUSSION Tuttha Bhasma has shown potential antimicrobial activity may be due the sample contains mostly copper salts. Copper and its alloys are natural antimicrobial. Ancient civilizations explored the antimicrobial properties of copper long before the concept of microbes in the nineteenth century (Wikipedia, 2013). It is also proved that the water stored in copper pots; kills contaminating diarrhoeagenic bacteria (Sudha VB, Ganesan et al., 2012). There are several theories existing and are being studied that copper ions cause leakage of potassium or glutamate through the outer membrane of bacteria, disturb the osmotic balance, bind to proteins that do not require copper and cause oxidative stress by generating hydrogen peroxide. (CDA publication, 2010)

Gentamicin and better antibacterial result against Staphylococcus aureus compared to other organisms. It was found that the drug is a significant antifungal agent in higher concentration and also equal inhibition even in lower concentration compared with Amphotericin B and better antifungal result against Candida albicans compared to Trichophyton rubrum. From this experiment it can be concluded that Tuttha bhasma is a potential anti microbial drug and has a better activity as antifungal compared to antibacterial. This can be further evaluated on various microorganisms with different concentrations, toxic and adverse effects of Tuttha Bhasma in preclinical studies and then can be further evaluated through clinical trials and made available in the form of external ointments for wound, ulcer and burn etc.

CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The samples were assessed by diffusion method, by comparing zone of inhibition between test drugs against control drug. It was found that the drug showed equal inhibition in higher concentration of Tuttha bhasma with

The authors wish to thank Dr.K.Latha, Project Director, T-Stanes and company Limited, Coimbatore for her invaluable guidance in this antimicrobial study.

REFERENCES A K Panja, A Patra, S Choudhury, Abichal Chattopadhyaya (2011), The concept of Antimicrobial Activity in Ayurveda and the effect of some indigenous drugs on Gram-Negative Bacteria, International journal of ayurvedic & herbal medicine 1(2) sep-oct :27–39 Acharya JT, (1998), Chaukhambha Bhawan, Varanasi, p. 58.

Rasamritam, Sanskrit

Sadanand Sharma, (1979). Rasatarangini, XI edition. Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, p. 542–543.

Acharya JT, (1997), Susruta Samhita, Uttarasthana, Chapter 18/105, 6th edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, p. 640. Acharya JT, (1992), Charaka Samhita, Cikitshasthana, Chapter 7/114. th 5 edition, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi, p. 455. The Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, (2009) part-1, vol -7, 1st edition, The controller of publications civil lines, New Delhi, p.77–80.

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Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sheriss JC, Turck M, (1996) . Antibiotic susceptibility testing by standardized single method. Am J Clin Pathol,45:493–6.

Wikipedia (2013), available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrob ial_properties_of_copper (Accessed on 17/10/2013).

Schmidt and Moyer, A.J, (1944) Penicillin, I. mehtods of assay, J. Bacteriol, 47:199.

Sudha

Andrews JM, (2001). Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations, J Antimicrob Chemother 2;S5–16.

VB, Ganesan S, Pazhani GP, Ramamurthy T, Nair GB, Venkatasubramanian P, (2012),Storing drinking-water in copper pots kills contaminating diarrhoeagenic bacteria. J Health Popul Nutr. Mar; 30(1):17–21.

Copper Development Association, UK (2010), available from http://www.antimicrobialcopper.com (Accessed on 10/09/2013)

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 745–751 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Research article A COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L.) G.Don (PINK AND WHITE FLOWER VARIETIES) ROOTS Raval Nita D1*, Pandya T N2, Pillai A P G3 1

Lecturer of Dravyaguna Department, Government Ayurved College, Junagadh, Gujarat, India Ex Reader of Dravyaguna Department, IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India 3 Ex Botanist of Pharmacognosy Department, IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved university, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India *Corresponding Author: drnitaraval@yahoo.in; Mobile: +919898340450 2

Received: 10/09/2013; Revised: 28/10/2013; Accepted: 05/11/2013

ABSTRACT Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don of the family Apocynaceae is a native of Madagascar and now found commonly throughout India. The species has been cultivated for herbal medicine as well as a garden plant. It is a rich source of alkaloidal constituents. The alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine extracted from the plant are used in the treatment of leukemia and Hodgkin's disease. The entire plant is used in many disorders like diabetes, malaria, hypertension, heart disease in many countries. This plant is commonly found with pink and white flower variety everywhere. The present investigation deals with microscopic evaluation of white and pink forms of Vinca rosea root. Both these plants have same medicinal value so in this study we observe if there any differential characters are present or not particularly in the root. A detailed pharmacognostic study of drug samples was carried out which highlighted certain diagnostic macro and microscopic characters useful for their identification. Such a study would serve as a useful gauge in standardization of the root material and ensuring quality formulations. KEY WORDS: Catharanthus roseus, Vinca, Apocynaceae, Pharmacognosy

Cite this article: Raval Nita. D., Pandya. T. N., Pillai. A.P.G., (2013), A COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L.) G.Don (PINK AND WHITE FLOWER VARIETIES) ROOTS, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 2(11): 745–751

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INTRODUCTION Catharanthus roseus is a native of Madagascar, now naturalized throughout the tropics of both hemispheres. It is commonly grown in gardens; it is also grown in large masses in parks, the plant is sometimes found as an escape in waste places and sandy tracts (Thankamma, 1998). The plant appears with 2 variations, one with a white and the other with a pink cloured flower. Linguistic analysis of the national and international names of plant suggests its clinical and commercial importance. Production and marketing of its alkaloids are giving international platform to this plant, some pharmacological and clinical trial to assess different activities are also giving supports to its traditional uses in different conditions. The leaves are used traditionally in various regions of the world including India, West Indies as well as Nigeria to control diabetes (Cowely R.C. et al., 1928). The leaves have been known to contain 150 useful alkaloids among other pharmacologically active compounds. Significant antihyperglycemic and hypotensive activity of the leaf extracts (hydroalcoholic or dichloromethane – methanol) have been reported in laboratory animals (Pillay P.P et al., 1959). Fresh leaf juice of C. roseus has been reported to reduce blood glucose in normal and alloxon diabetic rabbits (Nammi S. et al., 2003). Leaves and twigs of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don has been reported to have hypoglycaemic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (Singh S.N. et al., 2001). It is a rich source of alkaloids. It is cultivated mainly for its alkaloids, which are having anticancer activities (Jaleel C.A et al., 2006) the leaves and stems are the sources of dimeric alkaloids, vincristine and vinblastine that are indispensable cancer drugs, while root have antihypertensive, ajmalicine and

serpentine (Kulkarni R.N., et al., 1999). The plant contains the glycosides, loganin, deoxyloganin, dehydrologanin, sweroside, secologanoside and roseoside besides secologanic and oleanolic acids, adenosine and amyrin acetate. These glucosides act as intermediates in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids. The flowers contain petuhidrinemalvidin, Wrsutidin, etc. Bornesitol are present in the roots. Here pharmacognostic study including microscopic and macroscopic were planned to find out any differential characters in the root of both the available variety. MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of sample The basic plant material used for the study was the root of C. roseus with pink and white flower varieties. The said material was obtained from local gardens of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Mature plants with height of 50–60 cm were only selected for collection. Roots were separated from whole plant and after properly washed they were kept in separate plastic bags with proper labels. The plant specimen can be identified authenticated by expert of Botany from the department of Pharmacognosy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Powder of collected root samples was prepared in the pharmacy of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India and was used for analytical study. Processing and preservation For the pharmacognostic study the collected fresh roots were preserved in a solution of Formalin-Aceto Alcohol (F.A.A.). Macroscopic and microscopic characters of root were studied systematically. Transverse sections were prepared for microscopic examination.

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Fig. 1 Plant and root photograph

Morphology of C. roseus (Kirtikar K.R et al., 1984): It is erect annual or perennial herb or under shrubs, with 0.3–0.6 m high.It has a strong woody stem which covered with a very tough and leathery bark. Leaves are green coloured, oval, obovate or oblong, arranged oppositely on the branches. Flowers are axillary, solitary or in pairs, white or pink in colour. Corolla hypocrateriform, stigma ovate lanceolate carpels 2, ovules numerous, two seriate. Fruit is a dehiscent capsule which has pointed upper end. Seeds are numerous, black colour and very small in size. Roots are long and slight yellowish brown in colour. In the central part there is some woody portion which is milky white in colour. Different varieties (Sharma P.V., 2003) – It has another variety called Vinca pusilla which has small leaf and flower. Macroscopic and Microscopic characters of pink and white flower of Vinca root Macroscopic characters: There was a tap root system in pink and white flowered varieties of C. roseus. More of

the parts were underground stems with thick base. Externally the roots are slightly light yellowish brown in colour. Length of roots were approximately 7–10 cm and thickness was about 1–2 cm. Microscopic Characters of pink flower Vinca (PFV) root (Fig.1–4) The transverse section of pink flowered Vinca root showed cork with lenticels and cortex with simple and compound starch grains and prismatic crystals. The Phloem is composed of broad radial strips. The xylem in the centre constituted the major portion of the root. Here, uniseriate and biseriate medullary rays were observed to pass through the phloem. Microscopic Characters of white flower Vinca (WFV) root (Fig.5–8) The transverse section of WFV root lenticels with less circular out line. Cork was composed of 10–11 layers of cells. In the cortex region some solid rose like crystal was observed. Phloem parenchyma contains starch grains. There was mostly uniseriate and rarely biseriate medullary rays present in xylem region.

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Fig. 2 Transverse section of PFV root showing cork (c) with lenti cels (La) and cortex (Co) with starch grains (Sta.Gr).

Fig. 3 Transverse section of PFV root showing portion of cortex (Co), phloem(Phl), cambium (Ca), xylem (Xy) and prismatic crystal(Cr).

Fig.4 Transverse section of PFV root showing central core of xylem (Xy), medullary ray (Md.R) and xylem vessel (Xy.v)

Fig. 5 Transverse section of WFV root showing cork (C) and cortex (Co)

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Fig. 6 Transverse section of WFV root showing solid crystal (Cr) and starch grains (Sta.Gr)

Fig. 7 Transverse section of WFV root showing cork (c), cortex (Co) phloem(Phl) and xylem(Xy)

Fig.8 Transverse section of WFV root showing central core of xylem (Xy), medullary ray (Md.R) and xylem vessel (Xy.v)

DISCUSSION Transverse section of PFV root shows lenticels with more or less circular out line. The cork tissue consisted of 5–6 rows of rectangular, compressed cells with dark brown walls. The inner cells are irregularly arranged, rectangular, slightly tangentially extended. The wall of the cork cambium cells light white in colour. The phelloderm consisted of several rows of tangentially extended cells, filled with simple and compound starch grains. Cortex wide, made up of tangentially elongated and comparatively narrower parenchymatous cells. Most of the cells contained simple, compound

large sized starch grains, prismatic crystals and sclerenchymatous fibers. The phloem is composed of broad radial strips separated by the medullary rays. The parenchyma cells at the older peripheral portions of the phloem were mostly found in crushed condition. The phloem cells contained starch grains. The phloem ray cells were thin walled, slightly larger than those of phloem parenchyma. The xylem which is the center constituted the major portion of the root. The wedges of xylem alternated with two three seriate medullary parenchyma. The medullary parenchyma was twice as larger than the xylem parenchyma and these cells were also filled with starch grains. The cells of

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xylem and phloem were thin walled, arranged one above the other. Some cells were very narrow. There were uniseriate and biseriate medullary rays present in the phloem and xylem region. Uniseriate medullary rays also passed through the phloem. The cells were arranged radially, elongated and narrow. In the Transverse section of WFV root lenticels with less circular out line were observed. Cork was composed of 10–11 layers of rectangular, radially arranged cells with light yellowish brown cell wall. It was the differentiating character of WFV root from PFV root, Cork cambium was composed of 3–4 layers of narrow rectangular cells, light white coloured cell wall. Cortex consisted of tangentially elongated, narrow parenchymatous cells, contained simple and compound starch grains. In the cortex cell there were a few solid - rose like crystals. These types of crystal was not present in PFV root. Phloem composed of broad radial strips separated by medullary rays, parenchymatous cells contains starch grains. Xylem Parenchyma cells were smaller than medullary parenchyma. There were mostly uniseriate and rarely biseriate medullary rays which were present in phloem and xylem region.

CONCLUSION Vinca rosea produces more than 100 monoterpenoids indole alkaloids (TIA) in different organs (Jordan M.A et al., 1991). The drug Sadabahar is not mentioned in Ayurvedic texts but fewer references could be traced in the Nighantus (material medica). In some countries this drug traditionally used for disease like Menorrhagia, Diabetes and Hodgkins Disease Cancer, Heart disease, Fever, Stomach problem, High blood Pressure etc in different formulations. In the microscopic study of pink and white flowered Vinca root no major difference was found. Chief microscopic characters in transverse section of pink flower Vinca root showed presence of simple, compound large sized starch grains, prismatic crystals and sclerenchymatous fibres in most of the parenchymatous cells. Solid rose like crystals were present only in the T.S of white flower Vinca root. Such a study would serve as a useful gauge in standardization of the root material thus ensuring quality formulations.

Coweley R.C. and Bebbett F.C. (1928). Vinca rosea, Australian Journal of Pharmacy, vol.9.p.61.

Kiritikar K.R., Basu and Ani (1984). Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol-II, E. Blatter, J.F. Caius and K.S.Mhaskar editors. 2nd ed. Allahabad: Lalith Rohan Basu p.1559.

Jaleel C.A, Gopi R, Lakshmanan G.M.A, and Panneerselvam R (2006). Traidmiefon induced changes in the antioxidant metabolism and ajmalicine production in Cathranthus roseus (L.) G.Don, Plant Science, vol. 171.no.2, pp.271–276.

Kulkarni R.N, Baskaran K, Chandrashekara R.S, and Kumar S (1999). Inheritance of morphological traits of periwinkle mutants with modified contents and yields of leaf and root alkaloids, Plant Breeding, vol.118, no.1, pp.71–74.

Jordan M.A, Thower D, and Wilson L (1991). Mechanism of inhibition of cell proliferation by Vinca alkaloids,” Cancer Research, vol.51, no.8, pp.2212–1111.

Nammi S., Boini K.M, Lodagala S.D. and Behara R.B.S (2003). The juice of fresh leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. Reduces blood glucose in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol.3, article 4.

REFERENCES

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 745–751

Pillay P.P, Nair C.P.M, and T.N.Santi Kumari (1959). Lochnera rosea as a potential source of hypotensive and other remedies,’ Bulletin of Research Institute of the University of Kerala, vol. 1, pp. 51–54.

Singh S.N, Vats P, Suri S. (2001). Effect of an antidiabetic extract of Catharanthus roseus on enzymic activities in sterptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 76, no.3, pp. 269–277.

Sharma P.V. (2003). Dravyagun vigyan, Vol. II (Vegetable drugs), Chaukhambha bharati academy, Varanasi, p 831.

Thankamma (1998). Pharmacognosy of ayurvedic drugs kerala, Ayurveda Research Institute, Poojapura Thiruvananthapuram, series 1, number 12thp 61.

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 752–761 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Review article A REVIEW ON SWARNAPRASHANA - GOLD LICKING, A CHILD IMMUNITY ENHANCER THERAPY Sharma Chakrapany1* 1

Professor and HoD, Dr S R Rajasthan Ayurveda University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India *Corresponding Author: Email: chakrapany2006@gmail.com

Received: 17/08/2013; Revised: 10/10/2013; Accepted: 25/10/2013

ABSTRACT The immunity is the state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. In Ayurveda, the superior vital essence of all bodily tissues is called ―Ojas‖ which is responsible for the defense of human body against diseases and infirmity. Ayurvedic concept of Genetics refers that if parent’s genetic make up is healthy and in equilibrium, then it would provide complete health and immunity to their offspring. In Ayurvedic literature processed gold (metal) is used both externally and internally for therapeutic purposes. Ayurveda pediatrics refers various rituals or Sanskara like Swarnaprashana is mentioned for the recognition of milestones and to extend the required nutrition and immunity during the process of growth and development in the children. These rituals improve the immunity and intelligence. Acharya Kashyapa opines that, by feeding the gold for one month, the child is not attacked by any disease. This classical description implicates that ingestion of Swarna modulates immune mechanism, so that morbidity is reduced. Author made an in depth literary review to explore the role of Swarnaprashana therapy said for child immunity enhancing in Ayurveda. KEYWORDS: Ojas, Shukra, Artava, Sanskara, Swarnaprashana

Cite this article: Sharma Chakrapany (2013), A REVIEW ON SWARNAPRASHANAA - GOLD LICKING, A CHILD IMMUNITY ENHANCER THERAPY, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 2(11): 752–761

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INTRODUCTION The concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that it was caused by supernatural forces, and that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for ―bad deeds‖ or ―evil thoughts‖ visited upon the soul by the gods or by one’s enemies (Lindquester, Gary J. 2006). The immunity is the state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. It is the capability of the body to resist harmful microbes from entering it. The modern word ―immunity‖ derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens ―the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. For no one was ever attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result‖ (Gherardi E). Immunity – A Review Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity. Immune System: The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid

detection and neutralization by the immune system, however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system, in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms, (Beck, Gregory; Gail S. Habicht, 1996). including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer (Lisa M. Coussens and Zena Werb, 2001) Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system (K.J. O'Byrne and A.G. Dalgleish, 2010). Innate immunity or nonspecific immunity is the natural resistances with which a person is born. It provides resistances through several physical, chemical and cellular approaches (Grasso P et al., 2011). The innate immune system, also known as non-specific immune system and first line of defense, comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms in a non-specific manner. This means that the cells of the innate

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system recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way, but unlike the adaptive immune system (which is only found in vertebrates), it does not confer long-lasting or protective immunity to the host (Alberts, Bruce, et al., 2002). Innate immune systems provide immediate defense against infection, and are found in all classes of plant and animal life. The major functions of the vertebrate innate immune system include:  Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection, through the production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical mediators, called cytokines.  Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells and to promote clearance of dead cells or antibody complexes.  The identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, the blood and lymph, by specialised white blood cells.  Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation.  Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents (Janeway Charles et al., 2001). Adaptive immunity: The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogen growth. One of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being innate immunity), acquired immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. It is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. Naturally acquired immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not

deliberate, whereas artificially acquired immunity develops only through deliberate actions such as vaccination. Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. A vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease (Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook). Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether immunity is induced in the host or passively transferred from an immune host. Passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host, and is short lived—usually lasting only a few months—whereas active immunity is induced in the host itself by antigen and lasts much longer, sometimes lifelong. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity (Janeway Charles, et al., 2001). Passive immunity: Passive immunity is the transfer of active immunity, in the form of readymade antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and can also be induced artificially, when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune individuals. Passive immunization is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response, or to reduce the symptoms of ongoing or immunosuppressive diseases (Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook). Passive immunity provides immediate protection, but the body does not develop memory, therefore the patient is at risk of being infected by the same pathogen later (Janeway Charles et al., 2001). It is further divided into two groups: 

Naturally acquired passive immunity Artificially acquired passive immunity

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



Naturally acquired passive immunity: Maternal passive immunity is a type of naturally acquired passive immunity, and refers to antibody-mediated immunity conveyed to a fetus by its mother during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies (MatAb) are passed through the placenta to the fetus by an FcRn receptor on placental cells. This occurs around the third month of gestation. Immunoglobulin G is the only antibody isotype that can pass through the placenta (Coico, R, et al., 2003). Immunization is often required shortly following birth to prevent diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B, polio, and pertusis, however, maternal antibodies can inhibit the induction of protective vaccine responses throughout the first year of life. This effect is usually overcome by secondary responses to booster immunization (Lambert, et al., 2005). Passive immunity is also provided through the transfer of IgA antibodies found in breast milk that are transferred to the gut of the infant, protecting against bacterial infections, until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies (Janeway Charles et al., 2001). Artificially acquired passive immunity: Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization achieved by the transfer of antibodies, which can be administered in several forms; as human or animal blood plasma or serum, as pooled human immunoglobulin for intravenous (IVIG) or intramuscular (IG) use, as hightiter human IVIG or IG from immunized donors or from donors recovering from the disease, and as monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Passive transfer is used prophylactically in the case of immunodeficiency diseases, such as hypogammaglobulinemia (Keller, et al., 2000). It is also used in the treatment of several types of acute infection, and to treat poisoning (Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook). Immunity derived from passive immunization lasts for only a short period

of time, and there is also a potential risk for hypersensitivity reactions, and serum sickness, especially from gamma globulin of non-human origin. Passive immunity provides immediate protection, but the body does not develop memory, therefore the patient is at risk of being infected by the same pathogen later. (Janeway Charles et al., 2001). Immunology made a great advance towards the end of the 19th century, through rapid developments, in the study of humoral immunity and cellular immunity. (Metchnikoff Elie, 1905) Particularly important was the work of Paul Ehrlich, who proposed the side-chain theory to explain the specificity of the antigenantibody reaction; his contributions to the understanding of humoral immunity were recognized by the award of a Nobel Prize in 1908, which was jointly awarded to the founder of cellular immunology (Metchnikoff Elie, 1905). Child Immunity The immune system, which is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends people against germs and microorganisms every day. In most cases, the immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. But sometimes problems with the immune system can lead to illness and infection. During the last three months of pregnancy, antibodies from the mother are passed to her unborn baby through the placenta. This type of immunity is called passive immunity because the baby has been given antibodies rather than making them itself. Antibodies are special proteins that the immune system produces to help protect the body against bacteria and viruses. The amount and type of antibodies passed to the baby depends on the mother's immunity. For example, if the mother has had chickenpox, she will have developed immunity against the condition and some of the chickenpox

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antibodies will be passed to the baby. However, if the mother has not had chickenpox, the baby will not be protected. Immunity in newborn babies is only temporary and starts to decrease after the first few weeks or months. Breast milk also contains antibodies, which means that babies who are breastfed have passive immunity for longer. The thick, yellowish milk (colostrum) that is produced for the first few days following birth is particularly rich in antibodies. Premature babies are at higher risk of developing an illness because their immune systems are not as strong and they have not had as many antibodies passed to them. As newborn immunity is only temporary, it is important to begin childhood immunizations when a baby is two months old. This applies to babies who are either premature or full-term (http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/939). The newborn's immune system grows fast from a small size at birth by exposure primarily to the intestinal microflora normally obtained from the mother at and after birth. While building up its immune system, the infant is supported by the transplacental IgG antibodies, which also contain anti-idiotypic antibodies, possibly also actively priming the offspring. The second mode of transfer of immunity occurs via the milk. Numerous major protective components, including secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies and lactoferrin, are present. The breastfed infant is better protected against numerous common infections than the nonbreastfed. Breastfeeding also seems to actively stimulate the infant's immune system by antiidiotypes, uptake of milk lymphocytes, cytokines, etc. Therefore, the breastfed child continues to be better protected against various infections for some years. Vaccine responses are also often enhanced in breastfed infants. Long-lasting protection against certain immunological diseases such as allergies and celiac disease is also noted (Ann N Y, 2003).

Immunity and Child Immunity – An Ayurveda Overview The concept of immunity is of tremendous importance in the daily wellness of human beings; for prevention and recovery from diseases. Synonyms for Immunity which appears in Ayurvedic scriptures are: Sleshma, Bala, Ojas. The term ―Bala’ is defined by Sushruta, in detail. Sushruta describes - ―Bala imparts firm integrity to the muscles, improves the voice and complexion, and helps the person to perform his natural functions (including the external and inner function) normally‖ (Shastri Ambika Datta, 2004). Further this Bala is classified into three groups:a. Sahaja (Innate – which body possess at the time of birth) b. Kalaja (Body acquires immunity strength according to seasons, age and periodic factors) c. Yuktikrita (Adoptive) Kashinatha et al., 2004)

(Shastri

a. Sahaja bala (innate):- The constitutional strength present since birth (Shastri Kashinatha et al., 2005). It depends on the natural healthiness of shukra (sperms) and artava (ovum) at the time of concieving. Ayurvedic concept of Genetics refers that if parent’s genetic make up is healthy and equilibrium in health status then it will provide complete health and immunity to the children. On other hand if the genetic makeup of parents is susceptible to certain diseases, those diseases may be carried over into the next generation (Shastri Kashinatha et al., 2005). This concept indicates congenital abnormalities which occur due to abnormal changes at genes or chromosomal levels. b. Kalaja bala (according to time, season, and age):- Encompassing the time of day, season, age etc. enhancing immunity. Strength is assumed to be greater in the early morning, spring, and young age than in evening,

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summers and old age (Shastri Kashinatha et al., 2005).

product of poor digestion) (Tiwari PV, 2002; Pandit Hemaraj Sharma et al., 2006).

c. Yuktikrita bala (acquired):- Ayurveda focuses on following plans for acquiring bala or enhancing immunity:

Immunity Enhancing Therapies for Mother

  

Proper and suitable nutritious diet. Following exercise with proper method. Using different beneficial rejuvenator recipes. (Shastri Kashinatha et al., 2005).

Child Immunity Enhancing Therapies and Ayurveda Acharyas Sushruta, Vagbhata & Kasyapa describe a special formulation by the name of ―Lehana‖ - which enhances immunity and minimizes infection episodes, from the childhood period. Lehana Karma (Action of Licking Therapy): Lehana is purposes for:

Dushprajata literally means women with bad obstetrical history or difficult labor. While describing the indications of Lehana karma in pediatric population, Acharya Kashyapa explains that, babies born to Dushprajata mothers should be administered with Lehan (Swarna Lehana). This term broadly includes to all mothers who present with prolonged labor, either delivering prematurely or post term, abnormal presentation, along with associated complications like preeclampsia, etc. In short, all conditions which are not normal in an obstetric case can be considered as Dushprajata (Tiwari PV, 2002; Pandit Hemaraj Sharma et al., 2006).

1. To enhances growth & development by providing sufficient nutrition. 2. Promote health, complexion and strength (immunity). 3. Protect from various infections along with improving intellect and speech (delayed milestone).

Now, it is a matter of logical reasoning that why ancient scholars mentioned to give Lehana to babies born to these dushprajata mothers. Now days, with medical knowledge ever expanding and developing, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality, scheduled caesarean section is performed on these dushprajata mothers. It is a matter of interest to investigate regarding differences between babies born to normal mother and dushprajata mothers.

Indication of Lehana –

Studies:

Children receiving inadequate amount of breast milk due to pregnancy of mother, children having increased demand of food, children passing less amount of urine and stool, children: very lean & thin without any organic problems. Contraindications of Lehana – Children having improper digestion, lethargic, passing excessive amounts of urine & stool, suffering from various disorders like eye, ENT disorders (shiroroga), fever, diarrhea, edema, jaundice, anemia, cardiac problems, rectal disorder, excessive vomiting & nausea, abdominal discomforts, amaroga (disorders due to toxic residue that is left behind as a by-

A study the effects of the mode of delivery on oxidative anti-oxidative balance of mothers and infants reveals that both the mothers and neonates in scheduled caesarean section group were exposed to higher oxidative stress as compared to those in normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries patient group. It was further reported that the antioxidant mechanisms in babies are insufficient to cope with this stress during caesarean section (Mutlu B et al., 2011). Swarnaprashana (Gold Licking) Gold has been always considered to possess potential therapeutic efficacy. The use of gold in medicinal preparation can be traced back for thousands of years and it has been mentioned in

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medical literature since ancient times (Zhao Huaizhi, et al., 2001). Gold is one of the most non-reactive metals known to mankind till date. In this context for making the Swarna (Gold) therapeutically useful, there are mainly two requisites. First is reduction in particle size of the element. Unless the particle size is not reduced, it will not be absorbed or metabolized and will not impart any of the mentioned therapeutic effects. The second most important criteria is existence of metal in human body in ionic form. Non reactive substances will not impart any effect and will lie inert (Mahapatra et al., 2013). In Ayurvedic literature gold is used both externally and internally for therapeutic purposes. Externally Swarna dharana (wearing golden ornaments) is considered pious and mainly used in grahabadha. Internally it is either in the form of rubbed gold (Vidhrisya dhoute drishadi), incinerated gold or Swarna Bhasma, Swarna Lavana (Shastri Kashinath, 2000) or swarna vark (Mostly used in Unani system of medicine) (Bajaj S et al., 1999). Classical procedure of Swarna Lehana In Ayurveda pediatrics, various rituals or Sanskara like Swarnaprashana is mentioned for the recognition of milestones and to extend the required nutrition and immunity during the process of growth and development in the children. These rituals improve the immunity and intelligence. (Keshipedhi Sanadhya Rani and Yadav Babita, 2011) The procedure to Swarna Lehana, is described in Kashyapa Samhita in much detail. It is mentioned that, keeping face towards east, gold should be rubbed on a washed stone with a little quantity of water. Then it should be churned with Honey and Ghrita and should be given to the child for licking. Kashyapa opines that feeding of gold increases intellect, digestive and metabolic power, strength, gives long life; is auspicious, virtuous, aphrodisiac, increases complexion and eliminates the evil effects of grahas. Further it has been mentioned that by feeding the gold for one month, the child becomes extremely intelligent

and is not attacked by the diseases and by using for six months, is able to retain what-so-ever he/she hears (Tiwari PV, 2002; Pandit Hemaraj Sharma et al., 2006). In the Scriptures, it is stated to perform this Samskara prior to cutting off the navel string of the newly born child from that of its mother. For intellectual development, strength and long life of the newly born child, who has experienced this divine world for the first time, a pious mixture of honey. Sugar and Ghee is placed on the tongue of the child with a golden stick and at that time special Vedic Mantra is chanted. This Samskara is performed with special Mantras and rituals. After sanctifying with Mantras the mixture of two drops of Ghee and six drops of honey (Shahad), the mixture is placed on the tongue of the child and thereafter the father performs the ritual of Yagna. Thereafter the father whispers in the left ear of the child- our secret name is Ved. Thereafter the father cuts the navel string of the child and blesses him (Swami Shri Dharmnandan dasji, 2010). The basic concept of this Swarnaprashana (gold licking) is used only once in Jatakarma Samskara performed just after birth. Sushrut (Shastri Ambika Datta, 2005) and Vagbhata (Shastri Kashinath, et al., 1994) but have further prescribed four gold preparations for prolonged use. In Kashyapa samhita, while describing the benefits of Swarna Lehan, Acharya Kashyapa opines that, by feeding the gold for one month, the child is not attacked by any disease. This classical description implicates that ingestion of Swarna modulates immune mechanism, so that morbidity is reduced (Tiwari PV, 2002; Pandit Hemaraj Sharma et al., 2006). Sushruta and Vagbhat have prescribed gold along with various drugs to the newborn child immediately after birth. Sushruta has advised its use after emesis of liquor-amnii, but before massage (Shastri Ambika Datta, 2005) and bath while Vagbhata has indicated it after massage and bath but before emesis The drugs prescribed by Vagbhata is advised to be given through spoon made of gold (Shastri Kashinath, et al., 1994). The basic concept of this gold licking is entirely different as it is used only

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once in Jatakarma Samskara performed just after birth. Sushruta (Shastri Ambika Datta, 2005) and Vagbhata have further prescribed four gold preparations for prolonged use. (Shastri Kashinath, et al., 1994) CONCLUSION Passive immunity is the transfer of active immunity, in the form of readymade antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta. During the last three months of pregnancy, antibodies from the mother are passed to her unborn baby through the placenta. This type of immunity is called passive immunity because the baby has been given antibodies rather than making them itself. Antibodies are special proteins that the immune system produces to help protect the body against bacteria and viruses. Ayurvedic concept of Genetics refers that if parent’s genetic make up is healthy and equilibrium in health status then it will provide complete health and immunity to the children. Gold has been always considered to possess potential therapeutic efficacy. The use of gold

in medicinal preparation can be traced back for thousands of years and it has been mentioned in medical literature since ancient times. In Ayurveda pediatrics, various rituals or Samskara like Swarnaprashana is mentioned for the recognition of milestones and to extend the required nutrition and immunity during the process of growth and development in the children. These rituals improve the immunity and intelligence. Acharya Sushruta, Vagbhata, Kasyapa describe a special formulation by the name of ―Lehana‖, for this purpose which enhances immunity and thus minimizes infection episodes, from the childhood period. The basic concept of this Swarnaprashana (gold licking) is used only once in Jatakarma Samskara performed just after birth. Sushrut and Vagbhat have further prescribed four gold preparations for prolonged use. Kashyap samhita, while describing the benefits of Swarna Lehan, Acharya Kashyap opines that, by feeding the gold for one month, the child is not attacked by any disease. This classical description implicates that ingestion of Swarna modulates immune mechanism, so that morbidity is reduced.

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Grasso, P.; Gangolli, S.; Gaunt, Ian (2002). Essentials of Pathology for Toxicologists. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0415-25795-4. "Our immune system is therefore crucial to our survival. It is currently divided into two categories which are innate (non-specific) immunity and acquired (specific) immunity."

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Janeway C.A., Travers, P., Walport, M., Shlomchik, M.J. (2005). Immunobiology. (6th ed.). Garland Science. ISBN 0-443-07310-4. Janeway, Charles; Paul Travers, Mark Walport, and Mark Shlomchik (2001). Immunobiology; Fifth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6.. K.J. O'Byrne and A.G. Dalgleish (2001) "Chronic Immune Activation and Inflammation as the Cause of Malignancy", British Journal of Cancer, vol. 85, no. 4, pages 473–483 Keller, Margaret A. and E. Richard Stiehm (2000) Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 4; p. 602–614, Keshipedhi Sanadhya Rani and Yadav Babita, (2011) Restoration of Health through prophylactic and interventional dietetics, International Research Journal of Ayurveda and Pharmacy, 2 (6): 1622–1624 Lambert, Paul-Henri, Margaret Liu and ClaireAnne Siegrist (2005) Can successful vaccines teach us how to induce efficient protective immune responses? (Full text-html) Nature Medicine 11, S54–S62

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Metchnikoff, Elie; Translated by F.G. Binnie. (1905). Immunity in Infective Diseases (Full Text Version: Google Books). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 6802-5143 Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook: USC School of Medicine Mutlu B, Aksoy N, Cakir H, Celik H, Erel O. (2011) The effects of the mode of delivery on oxidative-antioxidative balance. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.; Nov; 24(11):1367–70. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.548883. Pandit

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Shastri Kashinath, Tripathi I, Tripathi S (1994) Ashtang Hridaya, Vidvanamanoranjini Hindi. Uttaratantra, Chapter 1. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy. Shastri Kashinatha, Gorakha Natha Chaturvedi (2005) Charaka Samhita (Vidyotini Hindi commentary), Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Part-I and Part-II (Reprint year: 2006), Su. 11/36, p- 228; Su. 3/17, p 865; Su. 6/8, p 138

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Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 762–771 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Review article UNDERSTANDING OF VAADAMARGAPADAS IN CONTEXT OF THEIR MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPLICABILITY Vyas Kavita1*, Vyas Hitesh2, Dwivedi R R 3 1 nd

2 year Ph.D. Scholar, Basic Principles Department, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Jamnagar, Gujarat, India Assistant Professor, Basic Principles Department, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Jamnagar, Gujarat, India 3 Professor & Head, Basic Principles Department, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Jamnagar, Gujarat, India *Corresponding author: E-mail: kavitakrishu@gmail.com 2

Received: 22/08/2013; Revised: 22/10/2013; Accepted: 29/10/2013

ABSTRACT In Vimanasthana, Acharya Charaka has mentioned 3 different modes of gaining knowledge (Trividha Jnanopaya) - learning (Adhyayana), teaching (Adhyapana) & debating with masters of the subject (Sambhasha). This debating may be of two types: friendly & hostile. Vaadamargapadas (VMPs) are the steps of doing a hostile debate. There are total 44 Vaadamargapadas. These padas are not limited to certain narrow boundaries rather many purposes may be solved through using them. They are found to be essential for learning, teaching, clinical practice, research & invention, approval of principles of Ayurveda in today‟s era, assessment of a scripture- preceptor-disciple-drug and interview or oral exam. They may be useful in politics and day to day life as well. Appropriate understanding of Vaadamargapadas is the only way of getting benefitted from their multidimensional applicability. For fulfillment of these purposes, one should study the VMPs in detail. KEY WORDS: Vimanasthana, Trividha Jnanopaya, Sambhasha, Vaadamargapada ABBREVIATION: Cha. Vi. = Charaka Vimanastana; VMPs = Vaadamargapadas

Cite this article: Vyas Kavita, Vyas Hitesh, Dwivedi. R.R., (2013), UNDERSTANDING OF VAADAMARGAPADAS IN CONTEXT OF THEIR MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPLICABILITY, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 2(11): 762–771

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INTRODUCTION To strive for the four goals of - depth in scriptures, clarity of expressions, comprehension of various concepts and power of oration, three means (Upayas) (Acharya JT, 2004) are described as - (l) study, (2) teaching and (3) debating with the masters. This third means of gaining knowledge is known as Tadvidhya-Sambhasha. It is a method of debate between two knowledgeable physicians in the presence of viewers. There are two types of TadvidhyaSambhasha:1) SandhayaSambhasha (friendly and treaty) and 2) Vigruhya-Sambhasha (Hostile or debate with intention of defeating the other). Out of them, hostile one is further of two types: Jalpa and Vitanda. While the physicians debate with each other certain terms may be useful to them to determine the path of the debate; these terms are known as Vaadamargapadas (VMPs) (Acharya JT, 2004). Vaadamargapadas VMPs are one of the most ignored aspects of Ayurveda, but if they are applied properly they certainly prove to be essential for achieving various targets like learning, research etc. So, it‟s the need of time to understand them in proper way for getting benefitted of their multidimensional applicability. The present review aims at understanding the Vaadamargapadas in detail for knowing their multidimensional applicability.

-

 MATERIALS & METHODS Materials- Charaka Samhita and all of its available commentaries Sushruta Samhita, Kashyapa Samhita and some of their commentaries Some research articles and related websites have also been referred. Method- Related references have been collected, compiled and analyzed. LITERARY REVIEW Vaadamargapada Vaadamargapadas (VMPs) are actually the steps/ processes/methods of discussion. At

whichever path one walks, they guide the one to put right steps, in a right manner, at the right time. Hence, they are applicable so many where. They are needed to bring any statement into practice. These are the ways to practically carry out whatever is being said; same way, they are essential to express in words whatever is being done practically. According to Ayurveda, it is mandatory to have pure intellect to treat the patients. For explaining this, Acharya Charaka has given example of weapon, scriptures and water. All of these three may cause benefit or harm, depending upon the one holding them (Acharya JT, 2004). Similarly, Chikitsa can be fruitful if the Vaidya‟s intellect has been pure through coming in contact of a good preceptor and scripture. VMPs are also a part of this process of purification. Hence, they are actually needed to be a successful Physician. Need, Importance & Utility of VMPs Need- Aptopadesha possesses a specific place in Ayurveda as a Pareeksha (examination) and also as a source of knowledge. Aptopadesha is not limited to read the ancient books only rather it has secured a wide network in today‟s era. Listening to a scholar is also a type of Aptopadesha as he reveals the knowledge he has gained from an Apta (master of the subject). It‟s also beneficial to make discussions with the various experts to learn many things within a short period of time. Thus, in this era of communication, there is indeed a need of such debates. Importance- Acharya Charaka has described the important benefits of Sambhasha (Acharya JT, 2004) as under, which can be taken as the benefits of VMPs: 1) It develops scholarship in the particular subject and skill of defeating the other by overruling his estimate or argument. 2) Enhances the power of elocution. 3) Removes doubts in the previously learned subject 4) Brings command and confidence over the subject.

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5) Brings the left matters to attention again. 6) It sometimes reveals out some secret knowledge Utility- Due to such debates, different scholars of similar field may come into contact and share their views, success and failures with one another. E.g. different methods of preparing a Kshara-sootra (Alkaline thread), complications during Karna-sandhana (Reconstruction or repairing of ear) and drugs contradicted during pregnancy are important to be known to other scholars also. Due to knowledge of someone‟s failure in an experiment, the scholars can go ahead without wasting time and energy for the same. Some new thoughts, ideas and methods may get authenticated. A physician may utilize it for getting name & fame. A Pranabhisara (Saviour of life) physician may also prove the

Siddhasadhita (Feigned physicians), Bhishagchhadmachara (Pseudo-physicians) etc as fake doctors. Standardization of facts also requires such discussions. DISCUSSION Vaadamargapadas are not limited to certain narrow boundaries. Many purposes may be solved through using them. It is said by Acharya Sushruta (Acharya JT, 2004 & Narayan Ram Acharya „Kavyateertha‟, 2003), this world is a bed of precious gems, so one should search everywhere for them; similarly, one may find usefulness of these 44 padas anywhere, in any field, as per one‟s own perspective. The VMPs essential in particular fields are as shown below (Table-1):

Table -Different purposes solved by applying VMPs

1.

Purpose Teaching & Learning

2.

Clinical practice

3.

Research Inventions

4.

Approval of Principles of Ayurveda in today‟s era Assessment or Examination

5.

6.

Politics

7.

Day to day life

&

Essential VMPs Vaada, 6 Padarthas, 5 Avayava-anumana, Siddhanta, Shabda, 4 Pramanas (four means of getting correct knowledge), Samshaya, Prayojana, Jijnasa, Vyavasaya, Arthaprapti, Sambhavaa, Vakyaprashamsha and Parihara Other VMPs like Ahetu are also helpful in understanding the facts in a reverse manner. Vaada, 6 Padarthas, Siddhanta, 4 Pramanas, Jignasa, Vyavasaya, Arthaprapti and Sambhavaa. 6 Padarthas, 5 Avayava-anumana, Shabda, Samshaya, Sambhavaa, Arthaprapti, Prayojana, Jijnasa, Vyavasaya and 4 Pramanas Savyabhichara, Vakyadosha, Ahetu, Upalambha, Pratijnahani and other Nigrahasthanas are helpful in either demolishing a null hypothesis or to reexamine the old hypothesis. Vaada, 6 Padarthas, 5Avayava-anumana, Siddhanta, Shabda, 4 Pramanas, Prayojana, Vyavasaya, Arthaprapti, Sambhavaa, Ananuyojya, Anuyoga, Pratyanuyoga, Vakyaprashamsha and Parihara 1) of a Scripture- 5 Avayava-anumana, Siddhanta, Shabda, Aitihya, Prayojana, Ananuyojya and Vakyaprashamsha 2) of a Preceptor- Shabda and 4 Pramanas 3) of a Disciple- Vaada, 4 Pramanas, Jijnasa 4) of a Drug- Samshaya, Jijnasa, Vyavasaya, Sambhavaa 5) Interview /oral exam- Vaada, 5 Avayava-anumana, Sidhdhanta, Shabda, 4 Pramanas, Samshaya, Prayojana, Jijnasa, Vyavasaya, Arthaprapti, Sambhavaa, Ananuyojya, Anuyoga, Pratyanuyoga, Vakyaprashamsa and Parihara Vaada etc all except Savyabhichara, Anuyojya, Vakyadosha, Ateetakala, Hetvantara and Arthantara , which are less useful 6 Padarthas, Hetu, Drushtanta, Siddhanta, 4 Pramana, Vyavasaya and Arthaprapti

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VMPs (Acharya applicability 

JT,

2004)

and

their

Vaada (debate)

To debate in a hostile manner with an opponent, following the laws of shastra, is known as „Vaada‟. It is essential for learning, clinical practice, approval of Principles of Ayurveda in today‟s era, assessment of a disciple, interviews and Politics. It definitely adds to practical knowledge regarding concealed effects of drugs and their varied doses, anupana, time and way of administration, their side effects, new experiments and researches, newly invented tools, machines and investigations etc. It becomes more beneficial when the Vaidyas of specific customs or inheritance share their valuable secrets either willingly or in arrogance. Thus, VMPs are beneficial to clinical practice. For approval of Principles of Ayurveda like Karya-Karanavaada and other philosophical concepts, vaada would be an easier and intelligent way. Vaadas are also important to prove the quality and safety of the drugs & procedures of Ayurveda. Assessment of a disciple can be done by observing him doing Vaada. Same way, a person may be interviewed in regards of his knowledge and qualities by initiating Vaada by the subjectexperts. The ideal use of Vaada, carried out in a negative way, is possible by politicians while their inter-conversations or public-talk. It seems that this is the only field in which the VMPs have never lost their existence as well as importance. 

6 Padarthas

For learning & teaching Ayurveda (both theory & practical), to do any assessment or research in the same field and to approve its principles, 6 Padarthas are undeniably required. Not only that, but in day to day life also, one always utilizes these concepts. The ground of 6 Padarthas is necessary for almost every aim.

Pancha- avayava- Anumana (Acharya JT, 2004)

Pratijna etc five factors are known as five Avayavas of Anumana. 5 Avayava- anumana are essential for Teaching, Research and Approval of Principles of Ayurveda in today‟s era, Assessment of a scripture and Interview. For instance, if one has to teach some topic, first he will have to declare what he is going to teach; the same will be the oath (Pratijna).Then, for giving knowledge about it (Hetu), he will have to mention either similarity or dissimilarity with an example (Drushtanta). On the basis of this comparison, he will have to take a decision (Upanaya) and then finally concluding the whole matter (Nigamana). The same process is needed for the aims of Research and else. As a part of assessment of a scripture, one has to check it in the context of its Pratijna and other four factors. If everything is proper and logical then it will add to the quality of the scripture. During interview, the expert may select certain subject for oath and then ask the candidate to establish it with help of other 4 factors. 

Siddhanta (Principle)

During Vaada, whatever is declared by any of the participants gets temporarily considered as a rule or principle. For example, if one of them takes an oath that „Soul is eternal‟, this will be accepted as a transitory rule; and if the opponent takes a totally reverse oath, then for that group, the reverse oath will be considered as a rule; in other case -“Siddhanta is a revealed truth established by numerous examiners after several tests and attestations.” It is of four types: Sarvatantra, Pratitantra, Adhikarana & Abhyupagama Siddhanta. Sidhdhanta is essentially required for teaching, learning, clinical practice, approval of Principles of Ayurveda in today‟s era, assessment of a scripture, interview, politics and day to day life.

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The subject, which has to be taught or learnt, itself is either Sidhdhanta (Principle) or a branch of it. Clinical practice is solely based on certain Chikitsa-sidhdhantas (Principles of treatment) without which only actions may be performed but no „procedure‟ can be carried out. Same way, certain principles like that of the principles related to generation of disease (Samprapti), its diagnosis (Nidana), treatment (Chikitsa) and prognosis (Sadhyaasadhyata)

can be approved only on the basis of certain basic principles like Agni, Samanya-Vishesha and Karya-karana vaada etc. Certain principles and their logical application determine the quality of particular scriptures. Having knowledge of important principles and putting them in practice help one achieve the goals not only in day to day life but also in the field of politics. Their role in making any oral performance successful is also very important.

Table -factors of Anumana No.

5 Avayavaanumana

Interpretation

In Research aspect

1

Pratijna

oath / selection of a problem / subject

Selection of the problem

Classical Example (Acharya JT, 2004) Nityah Purushah

Sthapana - establishment/ formulation of Hypothesis Pratishthapana - Null Hypothesis

2

Hetu

3 4

Udaharana Upanaya

5

Nigamana

Cause/ reasoning/ aims & objectives Example discussion as the relativity of the example with the object Repetition of the oath in relation to the cause

Shabda (words)

For forming a Siddhanta, words are necessary; so words are being narrated ahead. Every Shabda (word) is a group of letters (varnas). Here, words in a sound form are not taken but only a group of letters is meant. It is of four types: Drushtartha, Adrushtartha, Satya and Anruta. Among these four, Adrushtartha and Asatya cannot be used to make a Siddhanta. Drushtartha is already a proved

Reasoning / Aims & Objectives Example Discussion

Conclusion

Akrutakatvad Yatha Akasham Yatha cha akrutakamAkasham, tachcha nityam, tatha Purusha iti Tasmat nitya iti

one. Hence, all the shabdas used to form a Siddhanta should be of Satya type. Shabdas are vital for teaching, learning, approval of Principles of Ayurveda in today‟s era, invention, assessment of a scripture & preceptor and interview etc. No conversation can be done without using them. So for teaching, learning & oral exams, they are essential. Same way, Sidhdhantas can neither be made nor can be expressed without shabdas. Hence, to get them approved, shabdas are

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inevitable. Any invention is also reliant on shabdas, right from its oath up to the exposition of its result. The quality and authenticity of a scripture as well as the preceptor are also decided on the basis of their shabdas. For all these purposes, the Satya shabdas are needed indisputably. 

4 Pramanas: (Means for getting correct knowledge)

1) Pratyaksha (Cha. Vi. 8/39) Knowledge perceived directly by the soul itself or through sense organs is considered as „Pratyaksha‟. The soul directly receives happiness, sadness, desire, envy etc (Atmapratyaksha) while sound and other 4 vishayas are perceived directly through sense organs (Indriya- pratyaksha). For any perception, Atma requires Mana to be with it as its tool; even though here, only sense organs are pointed out just to focus them as the chief cause of „taking up‟ the vishayas. The definition of „Pratyaksha‟ given in Cha. Su. 11 mainly emphasizes on conjugation of the sense organs with their vishayas. This is important for all pratyakshas done through sense organs but not for the pratyakshas done by the soul directly like happiness etc. Hence, to clear the things more, both types of pratyakshas are narrated here separately. 2) Anumana (Cha. Vi. 8/40) The logic (Tarka) wanting or following „Yukti‟ is known as Anumana. E.g. Agni can be inferred from digestion- capacity, strength from the capacity of doing exercise and sense organs from perception of their own vishayas. Presumption of an unknown or hidden substance on the basis of Karya-Karana relationship found in a known case is Anumana or inference. 3) Aitihya (Cha. Vi. 8/41) Whatever is told by the experienced (Vruddha) and knowledgeable (Apta) persons is

reliable and hence accepted as a Pramana called „Aitihya‟. Without knowledge of the basic concepts one cannot be able to utilize or interpret Pratyaksha and Anumana. Hence, Aitihya is undeniably important for doing Vaada. Though perception of the words of the Aptas (masters of subject) is done by the sense organs (Shravanendriya), their meaning is obtained as a proof through their mental interpretation. Hence, Aitihya is different from Pratyaksha. 4) Aupamya (Cha. Vi. 8/42) Elucidation of the unknown or unfamiliar one by pointing out similarity of that with the other well known one is Aupamya or analogy. The examples is – if a student is taught that in a disease „Dandaka‟, the body-parts of the patient become as rigid as a „Danda‟ (stick), when he practically observes such a patient for the first time, he easily recognizes the disease. Another example is of comparison between an archer and a successful Physician. If a clever archer aims on an object which is not so far and big enough, he surely succeeds in achieving his target. Similarly, if an intelligent physician, who has all the needed aids with him, tries to treat a patient suffering from some curable disease, he never fails in doing so and surely gives the gift of complete Health to the patient. Thus, analogy of these two persons, makes the image of a physician much clear in one‟s mind. Aupamya is necessary in Vaada while giving Drushtanta. Pramanas are crucial for doing any examination. Nothing can be concluded without using them appropriately. Pramanas are needed to learn, to teach, to approve, to search and to authenticate things. They are undoubtedly needed in the fields of Medical practice, day to day life and even in politics to prove one‟s own opinion and to disapprove the opinions of others. For instance, in the field of Medical practice, the physician has to examine

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and assess the patient, the disease and the drug by using all of these pramanas and Yukti. Hence, utility of VMPs depends up on these 4 Pramanas. 

Samshaya (doubt)

Samshaya means condition of indecisiveness. It shows a „doubt‟ interfering in taking decision in relation to different objects having similar property, characteristic or derivation. Here, similar origin / characteristic is the subject of doubt and the condition of indecisiveness is the symbol of doubt. When the candidate feels dilemma due to knowing something opposite to his own view (Paksha), it creates confusion about whether it is so or not. This is called „Samshaya‟. Having samshaya or raising a doubt is the very first step for gaining knowledge. If one has no doubt in his mind regarding a subject, he can neither learn nor teach that subject. Similarly, as it is said truly that curiosity is the mother of invention, samshaya is necessary to start any research or invention. It is only samshaya of the scholars that creates need of approving the concepts of Ayurveda. Every assessment or examination ends only with the elimination of samshaya (doubts). Thus, in one or other way, samshaya is a part of the processes of assessment, approval & examination. It‟s also useful in the field of treatment; e.g. doubt in diagnosis leads to Aatura-pareeksha and doubt in lakshanas leads to Upashaya pareeksha. All investigations are also suggested on the basis of certain doubts only. 

Prayojana (object)

Prayojana is an object to achieve which all the efforts have been made. It is said by wise people that even a fool doesn‟t initiate doing anything without any purpose (prayojana). So for each & every aim, whether it may be teaching or any other work in our day to day life, prayojana is quite essential.

Arthaprapti (implied meaning)

When some other meaning is understood through implication of the told/ described meaning, it is known as „Arthaprapti‟ in Vaada. „Arthapatti‟ (told by Gautama) is often compared with Arthaprapti. If Arthapatti is devoid of any error, it can be covered under Anumana pramana, but if otherwise it can neither be taken as a pramana nor can be compared with Arthaprapti. Though almost all commentators have accepted Arthaprapti as Arthapatti itself, there is minute difference between both of them. In Arthapatti, totally opposite meaning is taken through implication while in Arthaprapti, a definite meaning comes out. E.g. if for an object, it is told that- „It is Arooksha‟ then Arthapatti will be- „It is unctuous (snigdha)’. Here, Snigdha is totally opposite to Rooksha. In the same case, Arthaprapti will be- „It is little bit unctuous (ishad snigdha)‟, which reveals a very pin pointed meaning. In another example, if the sentence is- „A boy doesn‟t eat during day time‟, then Arthapatti will be- „The boy eats during night‟ and Arthaprapti will be-„ The boy may drink/ lick/ munch during day time.‟ Arthaprapti is helpful to achieve following aims: teaching, learning, clinical practice, research-invention, approval of certain principles and oral exams. It‟s also useful in day to day life. A good scripture should be neither too descriptive nor too short. So, the author of such a scripture tends to give some description and the rest is to be self-understood. So, to learn or teach this type of scripture, one must have knowledge of Arthaprapti. In clinical practice also, it is needed similarly; specifically in the cases where one of the two therapies, like langhana or brumhana, santarpana or apatarpana etc, are to be applied. In these cases, either indication or contraindication of one therapy is suggested and the rest half is to be known through Arthaprapti. Some other examples may also be given like- determination

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of involved dosha, pathya-apathya, aggravating – reducing factors etc. In research and interview etc also, it is needed in the same way. The classical example of a boy not eating during day time shows the importance of Arthaprapti in routine life. 

Sambhava (source/ origin)

The origin or source is known as Sambhava of that thing. Actually, as per SatkaryaVaada, the effect remains there in the source in its nonmanifested form and manifests subsequently. The examples arewholesome and unwholesome regimens are the sources of health and disease, respectively. Another meaning of Sambhava is like being a small part of the thing or to be a component of something, e.g. Sambhava of the whole world is Avyakta. It‟s useful in achieving almost all of the above mentioned aims e.g. it‟s needed for understanding as well as clinically applying some concepts. Qualities of a thing can be known by knowing its origin, likewise, the nature of any Upadhatu may be assumed through the nature of the Dhatu which is the origin of it. Same way, nature of a disease can be assumed by considering either Amashaya or Pakwashaya as its origin. 

Ananuyojya (infallible statement)

When the statement is devoid of all types of Vakya-Doshas and it divulges the anticipated meaning exactly, in that condition the sentence becomes indisputable and unquestionable. It is known as Ananuyojya. Every sentence of the preceptor, disciple, scripture, researcher, subject expert or leader is ideally expected to be of this type. Savyabhichara, Vakyadosha, Ahetu, Upalambha, Pratijnahani and other Nigrahasthanas are helpful in either demolishing a null hypothesis or to re-examine the old hypothesis. Ahetu etc are also helpful in

understanding the facts in a reverse manner. So, to rule out the negative points and determine the positive things, these negative VMPs are equally useful. 

Vakya- Dosha (Defects often possible in statements)

VMPs are actually the tricks to impede the opponent from doing any further argument. Any defect in the statement makes it easier. It‟s not that there are only 5 defects; there are many other types also. Some of them are considered as Nigrahasthana while some are accepted as distinct Vaadamargapadas. The following five are chief in destroying the core meaning of the statement and hence are considered as prime Vakya-doshas- Nyoonata, Adhikata, Anarthaka, Aparthaka & Viruddha. If the meaning revealed by a statement is opposite to/ doesn‟t match with either Drushtanta (example) or Siddhanta (principle) or Samaya (custom), it is known as „Viruddha’ Vakya-Dosha. Among them, Samaya is taken as the norms of that particular faculty. It gets fulfilled when all the configurative factors come together. It is of three types: Ayurvedic, Yajnika & Mokshashastrika Samaya. In Ayurveda, the custom is that Bheshaja or Chikitsa possesses four constituents: Bhishak, Dravya, Upasthata & Rogi. Thus, Ayurvedika Samaya gets fulfilled only when all of these four congregate. Same way, Yajnika Samaya is„The host or Yajamana should slaughter the animals brought as an endowment for Yajna‟; hence, when these animals are brought, the Yajnika Samaya is accomplished. The Mokshashastrika Samaya is, „Nonviolent attitude should be maintained towards all the creatures‟, which gets done on following the same by mind and behavior. Thus, the statement contradictory to own customs is called to have „Viruddha‟ type of Vakya-Dosha in relation to that particular faculty.

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Table -Interpretation of VMPs VMP Jignasa Vyavasaya Anuyoga Ananuyoga Parihara Chchhala Ateetkala Upalambha Pratijnahani Abhyanujna Hetvantara Arthantara Savyabhichara Anuyojya 

Interpretation examination determination scriptural enquiry scriptural counter enquiry correction deception delayed/ disordered proclamation imperfect cause/ exclusion after criticizing disruption of the oath confessional retort fallacy of reason irrelevant statement statements with various possibilities or exception leading to a doubt but not a doubt in itself defective statement or statements made to specify an object

Ahetu (causal fallacy)

In the previous pada ‘Chchhala’, the Hetu itself becomes Ahetu. Hence, Ahetu is taken next for description. When Hetu cannot prove the object to be proved, it is known as Ahetu. Actually, existence of the Hetu itself is unconvinced. Some of the scholars and commentators believe that Ahetu and Hetvabhasa are same, but in actual, there is very minute difference between both of them. In Hetvabhasa, a cause is given which seems to be „Hetu‟ as it is quite like that, while in Ahetu, existence of a distinct cause is absent. In Ahetu, the Paksha or Sadhya (object to be proved) itself appears as Hetu; or in other condition, the cause (Hetu) of doubt itself is the cause (Hetu) of solving the same doubts. Actually, the relation between the Hetu and the Sadhya must be constant for all the three points of time (Trikala-abadhita). It should not be conditional. If so, it becomes Hetvabhasa. For example, if it is like-„Pitta is the Hetu of ruja (pain)‟, it would be an example of Ahetu as Pitta is not the real cause (Hetu) of ruja. Another statement is- „Vata is the Hetu of ruja (pain)‟. At first sight, this seems to be completely right, but it‟s not so. Vata can be the Hetu of ruja only if it is increased or

vitiated, otherwise only the presence of normal Vata cannot cause ruja. Hence, it becomes an example of Hetvabhasa as the relation between Hetu and Sadhya is conditional here. Further, there is confusion among Ahetu, Hetvabhasa and Upalambha. In Upalambha, hetu is present, hence it differs from Ahetu. Here, the Hetu is definite and not doubtful, hence it is somewhat different from Hetvabhasa, too. In Upalambha, the present Hetu is not completely perfect. One has to add something to it to make it complete & perfect. E.g. both Sitopaladi & Talisadi powders are effective in Kasa; but one is used in dry cough and the other is used in cough with expectoration. Hence, the Hetutva of destroying Kasa, in any of them, is not constant in all the conditions, at all times. Same way, Vahni is the hetu of Dhooma only if the firewood is wet. 

Nigraha-Sthana (reasons of defeat)

„Nigraha‟ means defeat and „sthana‟ indicates reason. Hence, here total 15 reasons of defeat in Vaada are given. Among them, some of the Vaadamarga-padas are included which means that if during Vaada, the candidate employs these padas he will be declared as defeated. Such padas are-

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Pratijnahani, Abhyanugya, Kalateeta vachanam, Ahetu, Nyoonam, Adhikam, Vyartham (Aparthakam), Anarthakam, Punaruktam, Viruddham, Hetvantaram and Arthantaram. Moreover, if during Vaada, the candidate does a statement for three times even though the opponent cannot catch the proper meaning of it (while the assembly has already got it), he gets defeated. Also if he enquires about something which ought not to be enquired or he doesn‟t enquire about something which ought to be enquired, he is brought to Nigraha-Sthana. In this way, any type of „Vipratipatti‟ i.e. false understanding or „Apratipatti‟ i.e. lack of understanding brings up to defeat. Interpretation of other VMPs may be done in the way explained in Table III.

CONCLUSION Vaadamargapadas are the means of understanding and proving the facts. They guide one to rightly put every step of his journey towards attainment of knowledge. They prove to be crucial to bring the proclamations into practice and vice versa. VMPs are used as the steps or methods or processes of doing a hostile debate but they are not limited to certain narrow boundaries rather several purposes may be solved through applying them properly. They are found to be essential for learning, teaching, clinical practice, research & invention, approval of principles of Ayurveda in today‟s era, assessment of a scripture- preceptor-discipledrug and interview or oral exam, politics and day to day life. Thus, these padas possess multidimensional applicability.

REFERENCES Acharya JT (2004), Charaka Samhita of Agnivesa elaborated by Charaka & Dridhabala with the Ayurveda dipika commentary by Chakrapani,; Third Edition, Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, p.262, 264,265,266,267

Source of Support: Nil

Yadav Sharma (2003), Sushruta Samhita, with Nibandha samgraha commentary by Dalhana and Nyayachandrika commentary by Gayadasa, Third Edition, Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, p.507

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 772–784 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Review article SHYAMA TRIVRUT, A LESS KNOWN BUT FREQUENTLY USED DRUG IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS: A REVIEW Kolhe Rasika H1*, Acharya R2 1

PhD scholar, Department of Dravyaguna. IPGT& RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar- 361008, Gujarat, INDIA 2 Associate Professor, Department of Dravyaguna. IPGT& RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar361008, Gujarat, INDIA *Corresponding Author: dr.rasika_kolhe@yahoo.com

Received: 10/10/2013; Revised: 25/10/2013; Accepted: 31/10/2013

ABSTRACT Trivrut is widely used herbal drug in Ayurveda, reported best among laxative drugs (Rechana Dravya). Shyama, Shukla, Aruna, Trivrut, Mahashyama are the terms used to describe variety of Trivrut. Shyama variety is accepted by most of the seers of Ayurveda and authors of Nighantu (lexicon). Though a chapter namely Shyamatrivrut Kalpadhyaya has been described in Charaka samhita, its botanical equivalent is still the matter of debate. In this article, an attempt has been made to collect the information regarding to Shyama Trivrut from 18 classical texts including Samhitas, Samgraha granthas and available ten Nighantus. Critical analysis of the compiled data showed that, 29 synonyms were attributed to Shyama, it is described in 7 different Varga (group of drugs) and posses Katu Rasa, Ushna Virya, Tikshna Guna as its pharmaco-dynamics properties. Its purgative action is more potent than other variety of Trivrut and explained with undesirable effect. Though, it has been advised to use with cautious, it is reported in near about 190 formulations among which 153 and 32 are for internal and external use respectively. Maximum number of formulations are reported for their indication in Gulma (abdominal lump) followed by, Jwara (fever), Prameha (diabetes), Raktapitta (bleeding disorder) Udara (abdominal disorders), etc. in different dosage form like Churna, Kwatha, Ghruta, Taila, Lepa etc. KEYWORDS: Trivrut, Shyama Trivrut, Ayurveda, Virechana, Operculina petaloidea, Ipomoea petaloidea

Cite this article: Kolhe Rasika. H., Acharya R., (2013), SHYAMA TRIVRUT, A LESS KNOWN BUT FREQUENTLY USED DRUG IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS: A REVIEW, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 2(11): 772–784

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 772–784

INTRODUCTION Since ages Trivrut is an important and frequently used herbal drug in Ayurveda. It is considered as the best among laxative dugs. (Acharya YT, 2011). Complete chapter namely Shyamatrivrut Kalpadhyaya has been described in Charakasamhita (Acharya YT, 2011). Its Root bark, root and leaves have medicinal values. (Acharya YT, 2011). There is different opinion regarding its variety in the classical text of Ayurveda. Most of the authors considered two variety namely Shyama and Aruna, (Acharya YT, 2011) or Shyama and Shukla (Mishra Brahmashankar, 2007), Mahashyama as third variety is accepted in Sushruta samhita. (Acharya YT, 2009). Among these varieties, Shyama has been advised to be used precautiously. Its therapeutic properties and actions have made it useful in many disease conditions. Part use, pharmacological properties and actions, side effects along with indications and contraindications of Shyama Trivrut have been systematically recorded in Samhitas (treatise) as well as Samgraha Granthas (compendia). It is being used either as a single drug or an ingredient of compound formulations. In the present review article attempt has been made to compiled information pertaining to Shyama Trivrut including formulations from different classical texts and present in systemic manner. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Ayurvedic classical texts, the word Shyama has been used as a synonym for the description of as many as twenty drugs like Shyamalata, Priyangu, Bakuchi, Krushna, Nilika, Guggula, Somalata, Gundra, Guduchi, Vanda, Kasturi, Vatapatri, Pippali, Haridra, Niladurva, Tulasi, Padmabija, Vruddhadaruka, Krushnasariva, Shimshapa etc. (Shaligram, 2004). In the present review article, Shyama, denoting variety of Trivrut by the authors or the commentators was referred only. Total 18

books i.e various available Samhitas (treaties), Samgraha Granthas (compendia) including Bharata bhaishajya ratnakara were scrutinized for the formulations containing Shyama as an ingredient. The synonyms, properties and actions were compiled from various available Samhitas and Nighantus (lexicons) and different dictionaries were referred for the interpretation of synonyms (William Monnier, 2007) (Apte Vaman, 2009). All the compiled data were arranged systematically and presented alphabetically with their respective Panchavidha Kashaya Kalpana (dosage form), Adhikara (prime indication) and internal or external mode of administration, in a tabular form. RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Critical analysis of the obtained result from the compiled data shows that, among different variety of Trivrut, Shyama was accepted as a variety in Samhita as well as in Nighantu Granthas. Total 29 synonyms have been coined and attributed to Shyama Trivrit in different ten available lexicon for the description of its morphological characters, properties and action (Table No1). On the basis of reported synonyms it is presumed that, it is a prostrate with spreading nature, can be found in town. Leaf are similar to lentil gram leaf with lunar base, flowers with dark colour or copper colour, winged stem and dark colour roots. Others synonyms elucidate protecting action against diseases and purgative nature of plant. But still, authenticated botanical source for this drug is controversial. Lettsomia atrepurpurea (Convolvulaceae) (William Dymock, 2005), Operculina turpethum, Ipomoea petaloidea (Convolvulaceae) (Khare C P, 2000) are some of the botanical source drug, considered as source for Shyama by different authors. Common synonyms like Trivrut, Sarala, Kalmeshi, Kalindi etc are attributed to the different varieties of Trivrut may suggest two different species from same family.

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Table no 1: Synonyms attributed to Shyama in different Nighantus (lexicons) and their interpretations Morphology Habit

Leaf

Root

Mayura Nagari Kala Virala Malavika Ardhachandra Ardhachandrika Masuravidala Kalaprni Shyama

Prostrate nature of plant Serpentfoe/inhabitant of town It grows for many years Having interstices, separated by intervals, Grows in malava desha(region) Leaf base is lunar shape Leaves are similar to Bengal gram Blackish coloured leaves Root bark is black in colour. Plant looking alike to Trivrit but blackish in appearance

Kalavarnika Flower

Fruit Stem

Tamrapushpika Tamrapushpa Palindi Koshaphala Trivrut, Trivruta

Copper colour flower Species of Ipomoea with dark blossoms Fruits with well demarcated septa Three winged stem

Pharmacological action Protecting nature

Kalameshika Palindi Sushenika

Fight against death Provide protection against pitta jwara etc. Its good quality will help it in the form of army to fight against diseases Having a good missile

Sushena Sukhena Nisruta Disappeared disease Mrudvega Having the velocity of wind Purgative Sarala Act as purgative Sarata Act as purgative Kakseva Miscellaneous Vaishika Kalindi* * Pathbhed expressed juice (other opinion) –palindi Classification: Classical texts of Ayurveda and Nighantus (lexicons) classified the drugs according to their properties, actions, uses and morphological characters of plant. Shyama has been categories under various Vargas (group of

drugs) like Mulini Varga (group of roots) (Acharya YT, 2011), Mulasava (group of alcoholic preparations of root) (Acharya YT, 2011), Virechana Dravya (Acharya YT, 2011), Adhobhagahara Varga (group of purgatives), Shakavarga (group of vegetables) (Sharma Shivaprasad, 2008) Shyamadi Gana (group of

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drugs where Shyama is considered as the first drug), Eksara Gana (Acharya YT, 2009) etc.

and action of Shyama have been explained with some side effect/drastic effect (Table No 2).

Shyama is having Katu Rrasa, Ushna Virya, pacifies Kapha Dosha, indicated in Udara (diseases of the abdomen), Jwara (fever), Krumi (worm infestation), Pleeha (spleen disorder), Pandu (anemia) and Shopha (oedema) (Tripathi Hariprasad, 2008). Its properties have been explaind as Hinaguna /less effective as compare to other variety of Trivrut (Mishra Brahmashankar, 2007). It has been advised to use only in Krurakoshthi and in Bahudoshavastha (vitiated dosha) Properties

To avoid these undesirable effects, it has been advised to fry the roots in oil, before use to minimize its potency (Tiwari Premavati, 2007). It is used, both internally as well as externally, in various dosage forms such as Kwatha (decoction), Churna (powder), Taila (oil), Ghruta (clarified butter/ ghee), Lepa (paste), Varti (suppositories), Rasakalpa (mercurial preparation), Vati (tablet), Modaka (solid dosage form), Kshirapaka (medicated milk) etc. Following table (Table No.3) shows the compiled formulation from different books.

Table No 2: Undesirable effects of Shyama Trivrut delineated in the classical texts of Ayurveda Undesirable effects Bhrama (giddiness) Bhranti (Confusion) Daha (Burning sensation) Hrudaya Karshana (Hurting Pain in heart) Kantha Karshana (Hurtimg pain in throat region) Karshanakari ni (emaciation) Mada Murccha (syncope) Sammoha Tivrarechani (drastic purgative) Vanti/cchardi (Vomiting)

Charak Samhita

Ashtanga samgraha

Ashtanga Hrudaya

Madanpal Nighantu

Kaiyadeva Nighantu

Shodh ala

Bhava prakash

+

+

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+

Guna ratnamala

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ +

+

+ +

+ + = reported undesirable effect

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+


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Table No 3: Formulations with dosage form and prime indication of Shyama Trivrut Formulation

Dosage form

Prime indication

Sr.No. Aaragwadhadi Leha 1.

Avaleha

Virechana purgative

Aaragwadhadi Lepa

Lepa

3.

Abhayarishta(4)

4. 5.

Ajamodadi Churna Amavatari Vati

Arishta alcoholic preparation Churna Vati

6.

Amrutadi lepa

Lepa

7.

Apasmarahara Nasya/ Triphaladi nasya Arshohara Lepa Arvindasava

Nasya drop

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

I

Ashwagandhadi Niruha Asitakadi Churna Bahirparimarjana Baladi Khsirapaka Bilwamuladya Churna Bindu Ghruta

Granthiapachi arbuda 2 boil Prameha diabetes 10,18

Prameha/Ojomeha Amavata rheumatoid arthritis Kshudraroga skin diseases nasal Apasmara Epilepsy

E I

16 7,16,18

I I

4

E

18,1

I

Arsha Haemorrhoids 18,1 Balaroga pediatric 16,17,18 diseases

E I

Phalamatrasiddhi

I

Churna Churna Kshirapaka Churna

Amavata Shotha oedema Vatarakta gout Aantravruddhi

Ghruta Ghruta Ghruta Ghruta Taila

21. 22.

Chaitasa Ghruta

Ghruta

23. 24. 25.

Chandanadi Churna Chandanadi Kwatha Changeri Ghruta

Churna Kwatha Ghruta

20.

1

Ghruta Kwatha

6

13,18 8 4 7,9,10,11,15 ,16,18 Udara abdominal 7,9,11,14,15 disorder ,16,17,18 Kushtha skin disease 10,18 Unmada 3,4,17,18 Vruddhi 18 Gulma abdominal 10 lump Pramehapidika 16 diabetes carbuncle Netraroga eye 16 diseases Unmada 7,9,10,11,14 ,17,18 Apasmara 8 Prameha/Ojomeha 18 Arsha 3

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of

administration

Lepa Asava alcoholic preparation Kwatha

Brahmi Ghruta Brahmi Ghruta Bruhat Danti Ghruta Bruhat Sahachara Taila Bruhat Shyamadi Ghruta Bruhat Vasadi

16. 17. 18. 19.

Mode

confectionaries

2.

8. 9.

References of books*

I E I I I I I I I/E I I I I I I


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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Chitradi Kshirapaka Dantiphala Kalpa Dantyadi Churna(2) Dantyadi Kwatha Dantyadi Pralepa Dashmuladi Taila(2) Dhamargava Prayoga Dhavatwagadi Taila

Kshirapaka

Shotha

5

I

Ghruta Churna Kwatha Lepa Taila Kwatha

Dantiphalakalpa Shula colic pain Jwara fever Arsha Gulma Dhamargav kalpa

6 11,18 11,18 1 18 6

I I I E I I

Taila

Drakshadi Ghruta(4) Dwitiya Alambushadya Churna Dwitiya Chaitasa Ghruta Erandapaka

Ghruta Churna

Nasaroga disorder Raktapitta disorder Amavata

Ghruta

Unmada

Avaleha

Vatavyadhi joint 18 disorder Prameha 11 Snehadivyapadsiddhi 3

I

Grahani Malabsorption syndrome Vishopadravapratishe dha Vranavibhagiyaparidn yaniya Pandu anemia Gulma

16,18

I/E

3

I

3

E

10,18 9,10,11,14,

I I

Gokshuradi Vatika Vati Gomutradi Taila Kwatha Basti Grahanimihira Taila Taila

Gruhadhumadhi Ghruta Gunjadi Taila

Ghruta

Avaleha Churna

50. 51. 52.

Haridradya Avaleha Hingunavaka Churna Hingwadi Churna Hingwadi Ghruta(4) Jyotishshmatyadi Lepa Kampillakadi Yoga Kashmaryadi Kwatha Katrunadi Niruha Ketakyadi Taila Khadiradi Pralepa

53.

Khadiradi Gutika

Gutika

41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

Taila

Churna Ghruta Lepa Churna Kwatha Kwatha Taila Lepa

Nasal 4,11,17,18 bleeding 8,18

I I

7,9,10

I

7

I

I I

Gulma 3,7,10,11,16 Gulma 9,15,18 Bhagandara fistula in 11,18 ano Gulma 7,10,18 Garbhinichikitsita 5

I I E

Mangalasiddhi 5 Kshudraroga 11,18 Granthiapachi arbuda 10 galaganda lymphadenitis Mukharoga 10

I E E

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I I

I


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54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83.

84. 85. 86.

Khadiradi Lepa Kiratadi Taila Kulatthadi Lepa Kumkumadi Churna Kushmanda Avaleha Kushthadi Taila Laghu Manjishthadi Kashaya Laghu Talisadi Churna Lodhrasava Mahamanjishtadi Kwatha Mahanila Ghruta Mahanila Ghruta(2) Mahanila Ghruta(3) Mahanila Taila Mahaniladi Ghruta Manjishthadi Kwatha Manjishthadi Kwatha(4) Mrudwikadi Ghruta Mustadi Churna Nadeyadi Kwatha Nagaradi Kwatha Nimbatwagadi Kashaya Panchasama Churna Panchasama Churna Pantradi Churna Pathyavaleha Patradi Churna Patrakadya Churna Patrangadi Lepa Phala Varti

Lepa Taila Lepa Churna Avaleha Taila Kwatha

Kushtha Jwara Kshudraroga Ajirna indigestion Raktapitta Shula Kushtha

7 18 2,13,15 18 10 5 7

E I E I I I I

Churna

Shwasa dyspnoea

8,18

I

Asava Kwatha

Prameha Vatarakta

3 7

I I

Ghruta Ghruta Ghruta Taila Ghruta Kwatha

Kushtha Kushtha Kushtha Shiroroga Shwitra-krumi vitiligo Vatarakta

2,18 11,18 10,18 10 3 15

I/E I/E I E I I

Kwatha

Kushtha

11,18

I

Ghruta Churna Kwatha Kwatha Kwatha

Raktapitta Prameha Balaroga Gulma Kumbhakamala

8 3 5 2 17

I I E I I

Churna

Gulma

10

I

Churna

Shula

10,12,14,18

I

Churna Avaleha Churna Churna Lepa Varti

11 7,11, 7,11,18 7 10,18 2

I I I I E I

Pippali+shunthi+sh ara+madhu Pippalyadi Lepa Pippalyadi Mishrakasneha

Churna

Raktapitta Arsha Raktapitta Raktapitta Mukharoga Udavarta Condition in which threre is upward movement of vayu Ajirna

9,11

I

Lepa Sneha

Arsha Gulma

1,18 3,4

E I

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87.

88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115.

Pippalyadi Rechana-shishira vasant Pippalyadi Yoga Pittahara Niruha Pushakaramulasava Rajanyadi Kwatha

Churna

Virechana

14

I

Churna Kwatha Asava Kwatha

7,11 6 10,18 18

I I I I

Rasa Parpati (3) Rasnadashmula Kwatha Rasnadidashmula Kwatha Rechan Prayoga Sahachara Taila(3) Saindhavadi Anuvasana Basti Saindhavadi Taila Saindhavadi Taila Saindhavadya Taila(4) Bruhat Saktudi Lepa Sanjivana Agada Saptaladyo Modaka Saranasundara Rasa Saureshwara Ghruta Shilakusumadi Dhuma Shitajwarari Rasa(3) Shitari Rasa Shleshmaghna Niruha Shodhana Basti Shunthyadi Mahakashaya Shwadamshtradi Loha Shyama Kwatha Shyama +Alambusha Shyama +Gomutra

Rasakalpa Kwatha

Virechana Phalamatrasiddhi Apasamara Striroga gynecological diseases Grahani Amavata

18 11,18

I I

Kwatha

Amavata

10

I

Churna Taila Taila

Shyamatrivrut kalpa Vatavyadhi Vardhma

6 10,18 15

I I I

Taila Taila Taila

4 1 7,9,10,11,14 ,16,18 3 3 10,18 18 7 10

I I I

Rasakalpa

Bastikalpa Snehavyapad siddhi Vruddhi Enlargement of liver and spleen Kshudraroga Visha poisonous effect Jwara Udara Shleepada filariasis Shiroroga diseases of head Jwara

12,18

I

Rasakalpa Kwatha

Jwara Phalamatrasiddhi

12,15 6

I I

Kwatha Kwatha

Bastikalpa Kushtha

3 18

I I

Rasakalpa

Prameha

10,11,18

I

Kwatha Churna

Netraroga Vatadhikara

7,9,16, 7

E I

Kwatha

Vamanavirechaniyasid 5 dhi Nadivrana 11,13,16,18 Sutikaupakramaniya 5

116. Shyama Ghruta 117. Shyama Ghruta

Lepa Churna Modaka Rasakalpa Ghruta Churna

Ghruta Ghruta

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122. Shyama+Trivrut+ Triphala 123. Shyamadi Anulomana 124. Shyamadi Basti 125. Shyamadi Basti 126. Shyamadi Basti 127. Shyamadi Basti

Churna

adhyaya Balroga Raktapitta Visha Hrudroga diseases Udara

Ghruta Kwatha Kwatha Kwatha Kwatha

128. 129. 130. 131.

shyamadi Churna Shyamadi Churna Shyamadi Churna Shyamadi Churna

Churna Churna Churna Churna

132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138.

Shyamadi Ghruta Shyamadi Ghruta Shyamadi Ghruta Shyamadi Ghruta Shyamadi Kadha Shyamadi Kashaya Shyamadi Kshirapaka Shyamadi Kshirapaka Shyamadi Kshirapaka Shyamadi Kwatha Shyamadi Kwatha Shyamadi Lepa Shyamadi Lepa Shyamadi Lepa Shyamadi Lepa Shyamadi Lepa

118. 119. 120. 121.

139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147.

Shyama Ghruta (1) Shyama Ghruta (2) Shyama Lepa Shyama Trivrut

Ghruta Ghruta Lepa Ghruta

11,18 11,18 3,14 heart 7

I I E I

3

I

Udara

2

I

4 3 1 1

I I I I

5,16 10 10 2

I E I I

Ghruta Ghruta Ghruta Ghruta Kwatha Kwatha Kshirapaka

Bastivyapad siddhi Snehadivyapadsiddhi Trimarmiyasiddhi Vamanavirechanavyap adsiddi Shula Udara Virechana Virechanadravya vikalpa Granthiapachi arbuda Udara Udavarta Visarpanadi stanaroga Udavarta Netraroga Shotha

2 4 11 2 14,15 11,18 1

I I I E I I I

Kshirapaka

Vatarakta

1

I

Kshirapaka

Vatavyadhi

2,4

I

Kwatha Kwatha Churna Lepa Lepa Lepa Taila

Bastisiddhi Tandavaroga Annarakshavidhi Kshudraroga Kushtha Medoaja galaganda Vranavibhagiyaparidn yaniya Snehavyapad siddhi Granthiapachi arbuda galaganda Bastivyapad siddhi

1 16 3 2 4 14 3

I I E E E E E

1 2,10,15,16

I E

1

I

148. Shyamadi Niruha 149. Shyamadi Pradeha

Kwatha Lepa

150. Shyamadi Varti

Varti

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151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158.

Shyamadi Varti Shyamadi Varti Shyamadi Yoga Shyamadin Pradhamana Shyamadya Ghruta Shyamatrivrit Kshirapaka Shyamatrivrut Kalka + Ghruta Siddha Ghruta

Varti Varti Churna Churna

Udavarta Yonivyapada Gulma Trimarmiya chikitsa

1,4,18 9 10,18 1

I I I I

Ghruta Kshirapaka

Shishuroga Jatharagnivikara

11 13

I I

Kalka

Hrudrogapratishedha

2

I

Ghruta

Vranavibhagiyaparidn yaniya Striroga Shwasa kasa

3

I

7,16,18 10,18

I I

Netraroga Jwara Vranavibhagiyaparidn yaniya Vatavyadhi

10,16 11,15,18 3

I I E

10,18 7,13,14

I I

2,3,4 2 5

I I I

Lepa Modaka Kwatha Taila Churna

Shotha Jwara Vamanavirechaniyasid dhi Shotha Visheshakalpadhyaya Mangalasiddhi Apasmara Jwara

5 5 5 1 10,18

E I I I I

Modaka Churna Churna

Parinamshula Jwara Udavartachikitsa

16,18 11,15,18 5

I I I

Churna Modaka

Jwara Raktapitta

I I

Modaka Vati

Shula Udavarta

15 4,7,9,11,16, 18 1,18 7,9,10,11,14 ,18, 3

159. Soma Ghruta (2) 160. Suryachandraprabh a Gutika 161. Tambuladi Yoga 162. Tiktadi Kwatha 163. Tiladi Ghruta

Ghruta Rasakalpa

164. Trayamanasava 165. Trayodashanga Guggula 166. Trikatudi Kshira 167. Triphaladi Churna 168. Triphaladi Ghrurta

Asava Vati

169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178.

Triphaladi Lepa Triphaladi Modaka Triphaladi Niruha Triphaladi Taila Triphaladi Virechana Trivritadi Modaka Trivrutadi Churna Ttrivrutadi +Gomutra Trivrutadi Churna Trivrutdi Modaka

179. Trivrutdi Modaka 180. Trivrutadi Vatika

Anjana Kwatha Ghruta

Kshirapaka Churna Ghruta

+ Churna 181. Trivrut Madhu+Ghruta+Sh arkara

Rajayakshma

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182. Udaradhvantasurya- Rasakalpa Kwatha 183. Udayamartanda Mahakashaya Taila 184. Vachadya Taila(2) Churna 185. Vidangadi Churna 186. Vidangadya Taila(2) Taila 187. 188. 189. 190.

Vruddhagni Churna Vrushadi Kadha Yapanaraja Basti Yshtimadhudi Taila

Churna Kwatha Kwatha Taila

Udara Kushtha

18 7

I I

Gulma Gulma Krumi worm infestation Ajirna Jwara Bastikalpadhyaya Balaroga

2,11,18 2 18

I I E

15 15,18 4 3

I I I E

*1-Charakasamhita (Acharya Yadavji, 2011), 2-Sushrutsamhita (Acharya Yadavji, 2009), 3-Ashtangasamgraha (Sharma Shivprasad, 2008), 4-Ashtangahrudaya (Shastri Harisadashiv, 2010), 5-Kashyapasamhita(Satyapala Bhishagacharya, 2012), 6-Bhelasamhita (Sharma P V, 2008),7-Vrundamadhava (Tiwari Premvati, 2007), 8-Haritasamhita (Pandey Jaymini, 2010), 9-Chakradutta (Tripathi Indradeva, 2010),10-Gadanigraha (Tripathi Indradeva, 2005), 11-Vangasena (Tripathi Hariprasad, 2009), 12-Sharangadhara (Tripathi Brahmanand, 2005),13-Bhavaprakashasamhita (Mishra Brahmashankar, 2007), 14-Yogaratnakara (Shastri Brahmashankar, 2007),15-Nighanturatnakara (Navre Krishnashastri, 2011), 16-Bhaishajyaratnavali (Mishra Brahmashankar, 2008), 17-Sahasrayoga (Panditrav D V, Singh Mahendrapal , 1990), 18-Bharatbhaishajyartanakara (Shah Nagindas Chhaganlal, 2005). Abbreviations: I-Internal use, E-External use, I/E-Internal and external use

Shyama is being used as an ingredient in near about 190 formulations used in different diseased conditions. Among them 153 and 32 for internal and external use respectively and 5 formulations are having both internal and external uses. Maximum number of formulations i.e (12) is being used in Gulma(abdominal lump), followed by 11 in Jwara (fever), Kushtha (skin disease), 8 in Prameha (diabetes), Raktapitta (bleeding disorder) and 6 in the Udara (abdominal disorders), Shotha (oedema), 5 in Arsha (piles), Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis), Kshudraroga (skin diseases), Netraroga (eye diseases), Balroga (pediatrics disorders), Udavarta (Condition in which threre is upward movement of Vayu), 4 in Striroga (gyanaecological disorders) and Vatavyadhi (diseases of joints). Among the different formulations maximum number of formulations were Churna (powder) 40, followed by Kwatha (decoction) 38, Ghruta (clarified butter) 33, Taila (oil)19, Lepa (paste) 16, Kshirapaka and Rasakalpa 7, Modaka 5, Varti (suppositories) and Vati (tablet)4. Among the Bruhatrayi (Charaka samhita, Sushruta samhita, Astanga samgraha)

maximum number of formulations were observed in Ashtanga samgraha 18, followed by Charakasamhita 15 and Sushruta samhita 11. Seven formulations have been reported in Ashtangahrudaya. Among the Laghutrayi (Bhavprakasha, Sharangdharasamhita, Madhavanidana) and other Chikitstagranthas, maximum formulations were observed in Gadanigraha 34, followed by Vangasena 32, Kashyapasamhita 12, Yogaratnakara 11, Vrundamadhava 7, Bhelasamita 6, Bhavprakasha 5, Sharangadhara 3. Bharata bhashajyaratnakara has reported 12 formulation of Shyama Trivrut. CONCLUSION Dedication of a chapter (Shyamatrivrut Kalpadhyaya) in the Charaka samhita and inclusion of the drug Shyamatrivrut in different Ganas (group of drugs) in the classical texts, denotes the importance of Shyamatrivrut. Classical texts of Ayurveda described Shyama as a variety of Trivrut with potent purgative action. Shyama is attributed with same pharmacological properties of Trivrut but should be used under medical supervision due to its undesirable effects. To minimize its

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potency and Tikshana Guna, it has been advised to fry it in oil. About 190 formulations contain Shyama as an ingredient and used both internally and externally in 17 different dosage forms and indicated in more than 45 diseased conditions like Gulma (Abdominal lump), Jwara (fever), Udara (abdominal disorders), Krumi (worm infestation), Pandu (anemia) etc.

Though highlighted for its adverse effects this drug is also indicated in the management of Striroga (gynecological diseases) and Balaroga (pediatrics diseases). Basing upon the synonyms and vernacular names Operculina petaloidea Ooststr. Synonym Ipomoea petaloidea may be considered as the botanical source of Shyama Trivrut.

REFERENCES Acharya YT (2009), Sushrutasamhita. Chaukhamba Surbharati Varanasi. Sutrasthana 38/14 p. 165, kalpasthana 5/86 p.579. Acharya YT (2011), Charakasamhita, with Ayurvedadipika commentary by Chakraprani, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Sutrastahana 1/79 p.20, 25/40 p.132, kalpasthana 7,Vimanasthana 8/136 p.283. Apte Vaman Shivram (2009) Sanskrit Hindi Shabdakosha, Asoka Prakashana Delhi Dwiwedi Ramnath (2010) Chakradutta of Chakrapani, with Vidyotini Hindi commentary, by Indradeva Tripathi, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhavana,Varanasi, India Khare CP (2007), Indian medicinal plants, 1st edition. Springer reference. Delhi,p.

334 Mishra Brahmashankar (2007), Bhavaprakasha samhita, with ‘Vidyotini’ hindi commentary, 11th edition. Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhawan, Varanasi Mishra Brahmashankar (2008) Bhaishajya ratnavali with ‘Vidyotini’ Hindi Commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri, 19th edition Chaukhmbha Prakashan, Varanasi

Navre

Krishnashastri (2011) Nighantu ratnakara, 1st ed. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthana, Delhi

Pandey Jaymini (2010) Haritasamhita, text with Nirmala hindi commentary, 1st ed Chaukhambha Vishwabharati. Pandeya Gangasaha (2005) Gadanigraha of Sodhala, ‘Vidyotini’ hindi commentary by Indradev Tripathi, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Pandit rav D V, Singh Mahendrapal (1990) Sahastrayoga, published by CCRAS, new Delhi,. Satyapala Bhishagacharya (2012), Kashyapa Samhita of Vruddha Jivaka with Vidyotini Hindi Commentry, Chaukhambha Sanskrita Sansthana, Varanasi, Shah Nagindas Chhaganlal (2005) Bharat bhaishajyaratnakara, Vol. 1 to 5, B Jain Publishers Shaligram Vaishya Shaligramoushadhasagara, Shrikrishnadasa, Mumbai

(2004), Khemaraja

Sharma P V (2008) Bhela samhita text with English translation, Chaukhambha Vishvabharati Varanasi, Sharma Shivprasad (2008) Ashtanga samgraha, with Shashilekha Sanskrit commentary by Indu, 2nd edition. Choukhambha sanskrit series office, Varanasi. Sutrasthana 7/113 p.59.

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Shastri Brahmashankar (2007), Yogaratnakara, ‘Vidyotini’ hindi commentary, Chaukhamba Prakashana, Varanasi Shastri Harisadashiv (2010), Ashtangahrudaya with sarvangasundara of Arunadatta and Ayurvedarasayana of Hemadri, Chaukhambha Surabharati Prakashana, Varanasi, sutrasthana 15/45 p.239. Tiwari

Premvati (2007), Vrundamadhava athava siddhayoga. 1st edition. Chaukhambha vishvabharati,oriental publisher Varanasi.

Tripathi Brahmanand (2005) Sharngadhara samhita with ‘Dipika’ Hindi commentary, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi.

Source of Support: Nil

Tripathi Hariprasad (2008) Dhanvantari nighantu, 1st ed with Hari hindi commentary, Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, p.60. Tripathi Hariprasad (2009) Vangasena samhita, 1st edition. Hari hindi vyakhya. Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, William Dymock (2005) Pharmacographia Indica, Srishti Book Distributiors, New Delhi, p. 528. Williams Monier Sir M., (2007) A Sanskrit English Dictionary, Bharatiya Granthh Niketan, New Delhi.

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 785–793 ISSN 2277-4289 | www.gjrmi.com | International, Peer reviewed, Open access, Monthly Online Journal

Review article A REVIEW ON ANTI ASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF AYURVEDIC HERBS Singhal Harish Kumar1*, Neetu2 1

Assistant Professor, Deptt of Kaumarbhritya (Ay. Pediatrics), Dr S R Rajasthan Ayurved University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 2 Lecturer, Department of Rasa Shastra, Punjab Ayurvedic College, Sri gananagar, Rajasthan, India *Corresponding Author: Email: drharish_md@yahoo.co.in

Received: 06/09/2013; Revised: 15/10/2013; Accepted: 25/10/2013

ABSTRACT Ayurveda is an ancient system of health and life containing information regarding the fitness, longevity of life and for the treatment of various diseases. Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic illness of the childhood and the most frequent cause of parents’ visits to paediatricians. 74% of asthma episodes experienced in children less than 5 years of age and 26% in less than one year of age. It causes negative effect on children during their critical periods of growth and development. In modern medicine, its management includes bronchodilators, mast cell stabilizers, antihistaminic and corticosteroids apart from avoidance of allergens but these medicines are mostly associated with many adverse effects like tremors, tachycardia, hypokalemia, restlessness, sedation, growth suppression etc. Due to these untoward effects whole world are employed to seek safe & effective treatment of asthma. Ayurveda refers the term Tamak shwasa to bronchial asthma. This paper reviews various clinical and experimental studies conducted in the last few decades on plants showing anti asthmatic property. This study ascertains efficacies of these Ayurvedic herbs and found that Ayurveda can efficiently manage as well as provide prophylaxis against bronchial asthma. KEY WORDS: Ayurveda, Bronchial asthma, Tamak shwasa, Antiasthmatic property

Cite this article: Singhal Harish Kumar, Neetu (2013), A REVIEW ON ANTI ASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF AYURVEDIC HERBS, Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med., Volume 2(11): 785–793

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INTRODUCTION Asthma is a disease of the lung's airways. It affects 155 million individuals in the world. Its prevalence and severity among children have increased significantly in the world over the past 40 years (Weiss K.B., 1990). It varies from 5–30 percent in different population. Records of its clinical description date from antiquity. Man is trying to curb this disease since time immemorial. But he does not have much in his credit. The magnitude of the problem is still increasing. There are no definite population based figures that have used uniform diagnostic criteria to estimate the incidence or prevalence of bronchial asthma. But from whatever data are available it can, at least, easily be concluded that the magnitude of this problem is very high and the morbidity and mortality rates are on rise. It has affected 14–15 million people in the United States, including estimated 4.8 million children. It is the most common chronic disease of childhood. It accounts for about 11 million hospital visits annually and the sixth most frequent reason for visits in ambulatory setting. About 4, 70,000 patients are hospitalized and more than 5,000 patients die annually due to asthma (Joseph M., 1998). Such is the state of magnitude of bronchial asthma in developed countries like United States. In developing countries like India, the magnitude of this problem must be higher especially in urban and metropolitan population because of higher pollution levels, changing environmental conditions and increased stress levels (Ghai O.P. 2009). Asthma closely correlates with the description of the disease "Tamak Shwasa" recorded thousands years ago by the sages and eminent scholars of Ayurveda. (Sharma R K, 2009). Even at that time the seriousness of this disease was well recognized since it was considered one among the most dreadful diseases. Acute exacerbations of Tamak Shwasa are also an important cause of school absenteeism. Morbidity due to exacerbation and persistent symptoms present a huge burden to individuals and their communities. Though any disease can be fatal there is none which terminates the patient’s life so as hikka and

shwasa. (Sharma R K, 2009) Sushruta has also described shwasa roga among four viz. hikka, shwasa, kasa and vilambika to have fatal prognosis. (Sharma P V, 2004) Besides these, Charaka has specifically mentioned the occurrence of asthma in infants fed on breast milk vitiated with kapha dosha. (Sharma R K, 2009). This description signifies that shwasa roga is a disease which is difficult to cure and have serious prognosis. With increasing environmental pollution and mental stress, this disease 'Tamak Shwasa' (Bronchial Asthma) is imposing burden on the community of developing countries like India. Modern medicine is much advanced in treating the infectious diseases but has limitations in treating endogenous diseases like Asthma, Diabetes Mellitus etc however it provides only palliative treatment. In treatment of bronchial asthma extensive use of bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids and other measures are helpful (Tripathi K.D 2001) on prolonged use of steroid therapy hoarseness of voice, dysphonia, sore throat, asymptomatic or symptomatic oropharyngeal candidiasis and suppression of immune response etc seen in users while GIT, CNS and CVS toxicity occurs with theophylline and methylxanthines which are potent bronchodilators. (Tripathi K.D 2001) On the other hand in Ayurveda, proper implementation of the ancient approach is advantageous. In Ayurvedic classics various herbal drugs either single or compound are prescribed for the management of Tamak Shwasa mainly due to their kapha vata doshaghnata and shwasa kasa hara properties. (Sharma R K, 2009). The plants having similar properties are included among those drugs acting on pranavaha srotas. The goal of the therapy is not only to treat the condition but also to enhance the immune system of the child against Tamak Shwasa (Childhood bronchial asthma). Many Ayurvedic plants have been described to be useful in the treatment of various bronchial disorders including bronchial asthma (Kumar Suresh, 1979). The use of medicinal plants and natural products increased dramatically in the last two decades in all over the world. More than 400 medicinal plant species have been

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used ethano-pharmacologically and traditionally to treat the symptoms of asthmatic and allergic disorders worldwide.

scholar by using the key words bronchial asthma, ayurveda, antiasthmatic, bronchodilator, mast cell stabilizers, antiallergic, immunomodulatory and anti inflammatory etc from 1973 to till date.

MATERIALS In present paper there is an attempt by author to explore the Ayurvedic plants which show inhibitory effect on bronchospasm and are in use as anti-asthmatic agents. Therefore the material for review was collected from the articles published and indexed in Google

DISCUSSION Herbal drugs mentioned in these selected studies are compiled here in the form of table (Table 1) with their effect as:

Table 1: Ayurvedic medicinal plants with anti-asthmatic and other beneficial properties Plant Name

Part used/extract/ fraction

Aerial parts/Aqueous

Anti-asthmatic and other beneficial effects proved scientifically Mast cell stabilizer

Stem bark/Aqueous

Bronchodilator

References

Agarwal and Mehta (2005) Leaves/ Methanol, Bronchodilator & Paliwa et al., (2000), Roots Antiallergic Muller et al., (1993) & Kumar Suresh (1979) Stem bark/Aqueous Bronchodilator, Mast Tripathi and Das Albizzia lebbeck Benth cell stabilizer & (1977), Tripathi et al., Antiallergic (1979) & Baruah et al., (1997) Bulbs/Juice Mast cell stabilizer, Johri et al., (1985) Allium cepa Linn. Anti inflammatory Vazquez et al., (1996) Aloe vera Tourn. ex Leaves/Aqueous, Chloroform and Linn. ethanol Bronchodilator Channa et al., (2003) Alstonia scholaris R. Br. Leaves/Ethanol Mast cell stabilizer & Kim et al.,(1997) Aquillaria agallocha Stem/Aqueous extract Antiallergic Roxb Mast cell stabilizer Acharya et al., (2003) Azadirachta indica A. Leaves/Juice Juss Mast cell stabilizer Samiulla et al., (2001 Bacopa monniera Linn. Leaves/Ethanol Bronchodilator Kumar and Ramu Benincasa hispida Fruits/Methanol (2002) (Thunb.) Cogn. Immunomodulatory Mungantiwar et Boerhaavia diffusa Roots/ethanol al.,(1999) Linn. Mast cell stabilizer & Kumar and Basu Calotropis procera (Ait) Latex Anti inflammatory (1994) R.Br. Seeds Mast cell stabilizer Kanno et al., (1999) Cassia tora Linn. Mast cell stabilizer Shinde et al., (1999 ) Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Wood oil Achyranthes aspera Linn. Adhatoda vasica Nees

Loud.

Clerodendron serratum Linn. Moon. Ethanol

extract

of Mast cell stabilizer

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Gupta & Tripathi (1973) Bhujbal SS et al.,


Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 785–793

roots cyminum Aqueous extracts

Cuminum Linn. Curcuma longa Linn.

Cynodon dactylon Pers Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K.Schum. Ficus bengalensis Linn.

Rhizome

Methanol extracts Fruits

(2009) Bronchodilator Boskabady M et al., (2005) Mast cell stabilizer, Ammon and Wahl Antiallergic & Anti (1991), Suzuki et inflammatory al.,(2000) & Ammon and Wahl (1991) Mast cell stabilizer Savali et al., (2010) Bronchodilator Singh et al., (2000)

Ethyl acetate, ethanol Antiallergic and aqueous extracts of bark Antiallergic Hemidesmus indicus R. Roots Br. Anti inflammatory Indigofera tinctoria Whole plant/methanol Linn. Mast cell stabilizer & Inula racemosa Hook. F. Roots/Alcohol Antiallergic Leaf/Aqueous Immunomodulatory Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Bronchodilator Lepidium sativum Linn. Seeds/Ethanol Bark/Alcohol, ether Immunomodulatory Magnifera indica Linn. Mast cell stabilizer Mentha spicata Linn. Leaves Emend. Nethh. and Antiallergic Momordica dioica Roxb. Methanol aqueous extract of Ex Wild. pulp Bronchodilator Myrica esculenta Buch- Stem bark Ham ethanol extract of Antiallergic aerial parts Antiallergic Nyctanthes arbortristis ether extract Linn. Bronchodilator, Anti Ocimum sanctum Linn. Leaves/Ethanol inflammatory Leaves/Aqueous Mast cell stabilizer Aqueous extract of Bronchodilator Piper nigrum Linn. fruits Bronchodilator & Picrorhiza kurroa Royle Roots Mast cell stabilizer ex Benth. Seeds/Aqueous Immunomodulatory Plantago ovata Forsk Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & H. Wendl Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.

Roots/Alkaloidal fraction ethanol extract

Taur et al., (2009)

Bhujbal et al., (2009) Oli et al., (2005) Srivastava et al., (1999) Hueza et al.,(2003) Mali et al.,(2008) Makare et al.,(2001) Satoshi et al.,(1998) Rakh et al., (2010)

Patel et al., (2008) Patel et al., (2010) Nirmal et al., (2009) Singh and Agrawal (1991) Sen et al., (1993) R. Parganiha et al.,.(2012) Stuppner et al., (1991)

Rezaeipoor et al., (2000) Mast cell stabilizer & Chitravanshi et al., Antiallergic (1990) Mast cell stabilizer Mathew et al., (2009)

Aerial parts/Ethanol Bronchodilator, Mast Gokhale et al., (2000) extract cell stabilizer & & Damre et al., (2003) Immunomodulatory

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Global J Res. Med. Plants & Indigen. Med. | Volume 2, Issue 11 | November 2013 | 785–793

Terminalia chebula Retz. Tinospora cordifolia Wild Mier ex Hook f. Tylophora asthmatica (L.f.) Wight & Arn. Vitex negundo L.

Fruits/Aqueous

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Coded extracts

Stem/Aqueous Leaves/Alkaloid Leaves/Ethanol

Herbal approaches have regained their popularity, with their efficacy and safety aspects being supported by controlled clinical studies. The herbal approaches have offered effective mast cell stabilizers like sodium cromoglycate developed from khellin. Ongoing research worldwide has provided valuable clues regarding the precise mechanism of action of these herbal alternatives and these herbs, have shown interesting results in various target specific biological activities such as bronchodilation, mast cell stabilization, antiinflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory and inhibition of mediators in the treatment of asthma.

Mast cell stabilizer & Shin et al., (2001) Antiallergic Mast cell stabilizer Nayampalli et al.,(1986) Mast cell stabilizer & Geetha et al., 1981 & Anti inflammatory Manez et al., (1990) Bronchodilator, Nair and Saraf (1995) Antiallergic & Mast & Nair et al., (1994) cell stabilizer Immunomodulatory Rasool and Varalakshmi, (2006 ) CONCLUSION All the Ayurveda Herbs discussed in this review have exhibited significant clinical & pharmacological activity. Some herbal alternatives employed in these traditions are proven to provide symptomatic relief and assist in the inhibition of disease development as well. In a nut shell author attempt to provide herbs which can be used single or polyherbal formulations on the basis of drug action at particular sites of patho-physiological cascade of asthma not only treating but also provide prophylaxis however more subsequent clinical studies are required to established it.

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M, Varalakshmi P (2006) Immunomodulatory role of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental induced inflammation: An in vivo and in vitro study. Vascul Pharmacol 44:406–410

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Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None Declared

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GJRMI - Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2013  

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