Issue Nº x
NEW METHODS OF
DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS FOR POULTRY DISEASES Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón
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OUT OF THE BOX
eeping poultry is a skill. I know this from my childhood, when I grew up on a broiler breeder farm. Over half a decade ago, my father was keeping a flock of about 10.000 breeders. In my home country The Netherlands, this was quite a size for a family owned farm in those days. Different from large scale, fully integrated poultry operations in many parts of the world, the independent family owned farm as a part of an integration is still common use in The Netherlands. My father managed the flock according to his own views, knowledge and skills. The lay out of the houses was based on models of the breeding stock companies, in my memory Arbor Acres in those days. Two third of the area along both sides of the house, existed of wire slatted floors with perches at a height of about 60 cm. Underneath, manure was piling up. The central one third part of the house was the free range area where the chickens could scratch and dust bath en where mating took place. Also the nest boxes were positioned in this area. My father had constructed/built these wooden nests by himself, according to his own insights. Inside the nest boxes hulls from buckwheat or woodchips were used as litter. “The eye of the master” further determined what happened inside the house. The clear objective was to collect as many valuable hatching eggs as possible with a high fertility rate, minimal broodiness, minimal floor eggs and cracks, keep the flock in good health condition, low mortality and so on. And of course ease of labour!
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As such, my father was a kind of inventor. Based on his own ideas and observations, he did what he found appropriate. Accordingly he managed the flock. These memories came across when I interviewed Cor van de Ven, founder and owner of Vencomatic for this edition of aviNews. Cor was not a poultry man from origin, but a mechanical engineer instead. Yet he quickly understood what happened inside a poultry house. Only by accident, Cor got involved in the poultry business when he met with a breeder farmer like my father. Cor was caught by the “chicken virus”. He started observing the flock and based on his findings he designed the first automatic nest. Out of the box, so to say, whereby his creativeness and knowledge of mechanics were important assets. From this moment, the Vencomatic company took off, almost 40 years ago now with poultry house automation as specialism. With that, the company has had a major influence on the development of the global poultry business. Always driven by innovation and “out of the box” thinking and only possible by understanding chickens’ behaviour. Am proud to be the son of a breeder farmer who did this in his own way in those days. Over half a decade ago meanwhile! Read the interview with Cor and other interesting articles in this edition of aviNews International. Enjoy and learn! Ad Bal
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1 aviNews International March 2022
How to minimize litter caking issues at the beginning of a flock
Michael Czarick1 and Brian Fairchild2 1 Extension Engineer 2 Extension Poultry Scientist University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA From the very early moment of growing a flock, birds are drinking a substantial volume of water. And this quickly increases exponentially. As a result, litter easily gets wet, thus leading to caking. The solution is adequate ventilation in order to keep the litter in good and dry condition.
Better males through restaurant feeding
Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
Nutritionist Hendrix Genetics Layers
Modern hybrid layers are highly productive birds. Nowadays, it is not uncommon for flocks to reach 100 weeks of age and still are productive. This demands a specific feeding regime to keep these layers healthy and enable them to lay good quality eggs.
Alternatives to control coccidiosis
Grandparent and parent breeder stock specialist Cobb-Vantress Inc., USA Male restaurant feeding has been around for some time in breeder production houses that are 100% litter. In this article, two designs are described. Split feeding of breeder males and females has been common practice for many years. An alternative is a “male restaurant”, in which males are kept together and fed at certain times.
Quality chicks born in the hatchery: care and monitoring that make a difference Érica de Faria Melo
Poultry technical coordinator Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Broiler production is aimed at productivity, profitability, and food safety for consumers. The objective of the hatchery is not only to obtain the highest hatchability but to promote the birth of quality chicks that can show high viability and performance in the field.
2 aviNews International March 2022
Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón
North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC
Coccidiosis is the most prevalent and costly parasite disease for the poultry industry worldwide. It could trigger most gut health issues of concern for poultry producers. Eimeria may cause disturbances in the gut epithelium and mucosa that aggravate intestinal dysbacteriosis, impair nutrient absorption, influence wet litter, cause enteritis, and initiate necrotic enteritis.
New methods of detection and diagnosis for poultry diseases Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón
North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC
Detection and prediction of emerging diseases in poultry are becoming more important every day. Due to the costs of an outbreak, the potential zoonotic implications of many poultry pathogens, and the negative impacts on the markets of any news about avian diseases, rapid and accurate detection and diagnosis are paramount.
Manuel Contreras DMV, MS, Diplomate ACPV Special Nutrients/Agrimprove, Miami, FL., USA Veterinarians and professionals who work in animal production have traditionally been trained to isolate or detect the etiologic agents causing the clinical symptoms reported in poultry facilities. Identification is often achieved by replicating the clinical picture of the disease or intoxication observed in animals.
Intestinal health in the era of NAE
Tom Tabler PhD Mississippi State University, MS, USA
Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón
Extension poultry specialist and broiler management Technical Direction
Learnings from the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2022
Almost 40 years ago, Cor and his wife Han van de Ven founded Vencomatic. Together with an ambitious team, they developed their company into an innovative global supplier in poultry house design and automation systems. Gradually Cor is stepping back now, with the new generation in command. Continuous innovation remains key, he emphasizes. “That’s in the DNA of our company”.
Interview Cor Van de Ven
Founder Vencomatic Group
Farm report: Future oriented layer farm reveals new insights
The responsibility for the articles, reports, press releases and communications falls exclusively on the authors. The editor is only responsible for his articles or editorials. Neither the publisher nor the authors assume any responsibility for the damages that may be generated, whatever their nature, as a consequence of the use of the data and information contained in this magazine.
In modern poultry farming, the use of antibiotics has gone down substantially. “Non Antibiotics Ever” (NAE) production is commonly accepted. Keeping the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of growing birds functioning properly, is vital however, Adequate management is essential to keep NAE flocks healthy and in good condition.
Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
Editor avinews International
International Poutry Processing Consultant Technical Direction
North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC
This meeting is conducted annually before the International Production and Processing Expo (IPPE) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. On January 24 and 25th, 2022, this Scientific Forum was concurrent with the 43rd Annual Meeting of The Southern Poultry Science Society and the 63rd Annual Meeting of The Southern Conference on Avian Diseases.
3 aviNews International March 2022
HOW TO MINIMIZE
LITTER CAKING ISSUES AT THE BEGINNING OF A FLOCK
Michael Czarick1, Brian Fairchild2 1Extension Engineer, University of Georgia Athens, GA USA 2Extension Poultry Scientist, University of Georgia Athens, GA USA
From the very early moment of growing a flock, birds are drinking a substantial volume of water. And this quickly increases exponentially. As a result, litter easily gets wet, thus leading to caking. Adequate ventilation is needed to keep the litter in good and dry condition.
4 aviNews International March 2022 | How to minimize litter caking issues at the beginning of a flock
Why does litter seem to suddenly cake over just prior to turning the birds out into full house?
In many cases it is simply because
Though this may be true towards the end of the flock, where minimum ventilation rates to control moisture often change less than five percent from week to week, it is far from the truth during brooding, where due to the extremely high chick growth rates minimum ventilation rates, can increase twenty percent or more in just 24 hours.
minimum ventilation fan settings are not being changed quickly enough to keep up with the rapidly increasing amount of moisture the chicks are adding to the litter.
Over the first ten days of a flock, the weight of the chicks typically increase seven-fold. To obtain this tremendous weight gain, the amount of water the chicks consume increases equally
The problem with this is that a specified minimum ventilation rate based on age of flock in weeks in a way suggests that the amount of moisture needing to be removed from a house doesn’t really change much over the course of a week.
This often occurs because suggested minimum ventilation fan settings are often provided in terms of age of bird in weeks.
For instance, water usage increases from approximately 2 gals (7.6 liter) /1,000 chicks on the placement day to approximately 4.2 gals(16 liter) /1,000 chicks in just 24 hours. By Day 4, water usage increases to over 10 gals (38 liter) /1,000 chicks and by Day 10, 24 gals (90 liter) /1,000 chicks. Roughly a ten-fold increase in water consumption in just ten days (Table 1).
5 aviNews International March 2022 | How to minimize litter caking issues at the beginning of a flock
Daily Water Age Weight Usage (Gals (Days) (lbs) /1,000)
Daily Water Water Usage (Gals Increase /30,000 chicks)
Dramatic fashion It stands to reason that as water intake increases dramatically, the amount of moisture the birds are adding to the air and litter in a house will increase in a similar dramatic fashion.
From the very early moment of growing a flock, are drinking Since our goal birds is to maintain a a substantial of water. And this relativelyvolume constant, low litter quickly increases exponentially. Asrates a result, moisture, minimum ventilation litter easily gets wet, thus leading to caking. need to increase roughly proportionally Adequate ventilation is the needed toare keep the the amount of water chicks litter in good and condition. consuming eachdry day.
For instance, if the birds drink 200 gallons in a day, roughly 200 gallons (760 liter) of water need to be removed from the house through ventilation to maintain a constant level of litter moisture. Though it is true that the chicks will retain roughly 20% of the water consumed to build meat, tissues, blood, etc., they are also “building” a significant number of water molecules as they chemically break down the feed in their digestive tracks. So the chicks are not only drinking water, they are also creating water from the feed. In fact, the chicks are actually producing an amount of water from the feed roughly equal to that which is being retained in the form of body tissues, etc.
Table 1. Broiler water consumption (1 lbs = 454 grams, 1 Gallon = 3,79 liter)
The net result is that for every gallon of water the chicks consume, roughly a gallon of water is added to the air and litter in the house which needs to be removed through ventilation.
Table 2 provides an example of the calculated daily minimum ventilation rates required to remove the moisture that 30,000 chicks are adding to a house over the first ten days of a flock. The values in the table were calculated assuming an outside temperature of 40oF (4,5O C) and a relative humidity of 50%. The inside relative humidity was set at 50%. 6 aviNews International March 2022 | How to minimize litter caking issues at the beginning of a flock
The calculated minimum ventilation rates to control moisture shown for the first few days of the flock are much lower than would typically be utilized in most poultry houses. This is because the minimum ventilation rates illustrated in Table 2 are only sufficient to remove moisture added to a house by the birds and not the additional moisture which may be added by a house’s heating system.
For each gallon of propane, nearly one gallon of water is added to the
Another important assumption used in creating Table 2 is that ALL the fresh air brought into a house is entering through air inlets and is properly heated and dried before moving down to floor level. Cold air entering through cracks, loosefitting doors, fan shutters, curtains, etc., can quickly fall to the floor and since its moisture-holding ability is lower than warmed air which entered through the air inlets, it is less effective in removing moisture from the litter.
air in a house.
Heating and drying
So if on Day 1, 100 gallons of propane are burned to maintain the proper house temperature the moisture added to the house by combustion of 100 gallons of propane could be equal to that added by the 30,000 birds thereby requiring a doubling of minimum ventilation rates shown in Table 2. Age (Days)
Daily Water Usage (Gals /30,000 chicks)
Minimum Vent. Rate to maintain 50% Rh(cfm)
“On time” for fiveminute-timer (20.000cfm)
Table 2. Minimum ventilation rates to remove bird moisture and maintain an inside relative humidity of 50% (Min. vent. rates determined using Poultry411 App - outside conditions = 40°F / 50%Rh) 7 aviNews International March 2022 | How to minimize litter caking issues at the beginning of a flock
Relative humidity The best way to determine you are falling behind when it comes to getting rid of excess moisture is to track the relative humidity of the air in a house daily.
As a result, the looser the house, the more the minimum ventilation rates show in Table 2 would need to be increased to compensate for the fact that the air moving over the litter is cooler and wetter than if it would have been had it entered through the house’s side wall inlets. Last but not least, the minimum ventilation rates provided in Table 2 assume that there is little to no ammonia present and that carbon dioxide concentrations are at an acceptable level.
So though the minimum ventilation rates shown in Table 2 may not be precisely what is required to maintain proper air quality over the first ten days of a flock, Table 2 does make clear how quickly minimum ventilation fan settings may need to be increased to keep litter moisture levels from getting out of control.
It if is increasing, the birds are adding more moisture than the minimum ventilation fans are removing (Figure 1). If it is decreasing the minimum ventilation fans are removing more moisture than the birds are adding. If the relative humidity is staying roughly the same from day to day, the minimum ventilation fans are essentially removing all the moisture the birds are adding to the house and litter moisture levels will remain essentially constant (Figure 2).
The objective is to adjust minimum ventilation fan settings at the first sign that house moisture levels are building (increasing Rh), before moisture levels build to the point where the litter cakes over, ammonia levels rise, and bird health starts to suffer. Be proactive, not reactive.
From the very early moment of growing a flock, birds are drinkingventilation a substantial On average, minimum volume of control water. And quicklyincrease increases rates to birdthis moisture exponentially. As 30% a result, easily gets approximately per litter day during wet, thethus firstleading 10 daystoofcaking. a flock.Adequate If minimum ventilation is needed keep the litter ventilation rates aretonot adjusted onina good anddaily dry condition. nearly basis, dry litter can turn to caked litter in just a matter of days
If the relative humidity is increasing during brooding, it is crucial that relatively large changes in minimum ventilation rates are made to bring house moisture levels quickly back in check. Increasing minimum fan settings a few percent will accomplish very little.
8 aviNews International March 2022 | How to minimize litter caking issues at the beginning of a flock
First, if relative humidity levels are trending upward for several days, this means a significant amount of moisture has been added to the litter, which will need to be removed to bring litter moisture levels back down where they are supposed to be.
80 70 60 50
Figure 1. Inside temperature and relative humidity during brooding (Day 1 - 10)
Secondly, less than a 50% increase in minimum ventilation rates will not likely have a significant impact on house moisture levels, since around a 20% increase in minimum ventilation rate would be required just to keep up with the daily increase in the amount of moisture being added to a house by the birds.
100 The quicker the response, and the
more dramatic the change made
to minimum ventilation fan settings,
the more likely litter caking and all the
problems associated with it will be
1-Jan 2-Jan 3-Jan 4-Jan 5-Jan 6-Jan 7-Jan 8-Jan 9-Jan 10-Jan 11-Jan 12-Jan 13-Jan 14-Jan 15-Jan 16-Jan 17-Jan
Figure 2. Inside temperature and relative humidity during brooding (Day 1 - 17)
How to minimize litter caking issues at the begining of a flock DOWNLOAD THE PDF
9 aviNews International March 2022 | How to minimize litter caking issues at the beginning of a flock
BETTER MALES THROUGH RESTAURANT FEEDING
Winfridus Bakker Grandparent and parent breeder stock specialist Cobb-Vantress Inc., USA
Male restaurant feeding has been around for some time in breeder production houses that are 100% litter. In this article, two designs are described.
Split feeding of breeder males and females has been common practice for many years. An alternative is a “male restaurant”, in which males are kept together and fed at certain times. The reward is high male flock uniformity, high fertility rates, and excellent average hatchability.
10 aviNews International March 2022 | Better males through restaurant feeding
FIXED PEN LOCATED AT THE END OR MIDDLE OF THE PRODUCTION HOUSE
What are some potential advantages of this system with a focus on male management?
It is easier to control male bodyweight gain after mixing with females.
Males are not able to consume female feed.
Females will have no competition of males stealing feed in the period from 21 to 28 weeks of age. This provides more feeder space for each female and exact female feed availability.
After the females finish their feed, the door of the male restaurant is opened and the males stream outside and distribute over the house, mating with receptive females.
Male feed can be distributed over the entire feeder track or pans and checked each day before males have feed access. This will promote uniformity of male bodyweight, which is crucial to obtain high and persistent fertility over 97% for a 20-week period (32 to 52 weeks of age of flock).
This concept requires labor to train the males, get them inside the restaurant, and, subsequently, set them free.
Males can be weighed more easily and the sampling is more representative.
Fleshing of the males can be done more efficiently. Fleshing data is used to determine feed allocations to establish or maintain optimum conditioning.
Males can be observed more easily at feeding time. Restaurant feeding facilitates the selection of non-mating and over- and under-weight males based on Cobb management criteria and maintaining male-to-female ratios.
Males are transferred 5 to 7 days earlier than females to the production house to train them with a whistle to come to the restaurant pen for their daily feeding. When cued by the sound of the whistle, the males congregate at the restaurant entrance. The entrance is then opened to let all of the males inside and then closed after they are all in. Once the males are separated from the flock, the females are fed.
However, the method provides good outcomes of male flock uniformity, high fertility rates, and excellent average hatchability.
Photo 1. An illustration of a male restaurant, which is composed of a fixed pen located at the end or middle of the production house. 11 aviNews International March 2022 | Better males through restaurant feeding
In the first design on 100% litter, a male restaurant is placed in the middle of the house or at the end of the house and is composed of a fixed pen with sufficient male feeder space (photo 1).
Male livability improves considerably, and there is potentially less need for spiking, reducing the cost of additional management and male transfer.
Males can be fed either a female or male diet while still maintaining bodyweight control.
Treatments delivered through the water line are possible if a separate water line system is installed in the restaurant area. Males consume feed more quickly than females and require a water source when female feed cleanup time is extended through peak production. Males reared with pan feeders may not be accustomed to finding drinkers over the slats and therefore may be reluctant to jump onto the slats to drink. Placement of a male drinker line in the restaurant area will promote water intake for the males to support uniformity and fertility.
MALE RESTAURANT THAT RUNS LENGTHWISE IN COMMUNITY NEST HOUSE CONFIGURATIONS A second restaurant design (European configuration) can be used in production houses with a European community house configuration (photo 2). These houses have a slat-nesting system that runs through the middle of the house, creating a left and right side of the house.
Photo 2. An illustration of a second male restaurant design that runs lengthwise in community nest house configurations and uses a net to keep males separated from the females during feeding.
12 aviNews International March 2022 | Better males through restaurant feeding
They are normally 120 to 150 meters long, and feed distribution is done from the center of the house for males and females.
Use restaurant pens for feeding and to do male grading during the production period. Sort heavier-, medium- and light-weight males into different pens and feed them different feed amounts. This will facilitate corrections to bodyweight and uniformity, which can improve mating productivity, improve livability and conditioning of males, and maximize fertility and hatch.
This design allows producers to regulate the number of males that are allowed to mix with the female population by raising the netting and allowing only a portion of males out of the pen while the remaining males are segregated into the restaurant pens. In this way, male aggression can be controlled if males are ahead of female sexual development during the 21 to 26 weeks of age period. Using this method, different males will become acquainted with the females each day. This also alleviates biosecurity issues in areas where bringing in males from other locations at a later age is complicated.
It is important to note that if males are going to be segregated, water drinkers need to be available in the restaurant area. Males consume feed more quickly than females and require a water source when female feed cleanup time is extended through peak production. Furthermore, maintain sufficient spacing between the dropped netting and the male and female feeder track so that both sexes can eat comfortably and with ease.
The two male feeding systems are placed along both side walls over the length of the house. The restaurant feeding area is created by hanging netting next to the male feeder line. The netting must be rigged so that it can be raised to let males in and lowered when all the males are inside at feeding time. With this design, a whistle is also used to train the males to come to the male feeders. This concept is fairly inexpensive to install and has many of the same advantages described above. Some additional potential benefits include:
13 aviNews International March 2022 | Better males through restaurant feeding
With Cobb Cares, we combine our mission of feeding the world and making a difference with our values of family, integrity, innovation and being the best. We emphasize five key pillars for our Cobb Cares sustainability story. As we focus on genetic progress, poultry care and welfare, community, environment and the workplace, we hope you’ll have a greater understanding of how Cobb is committed to a more sustainable future not only for our business, but for our team members, the communities that we work and live in and the global poultry value chain.
Learn more here:
14 aviNews International March 2022 | Better males through restaurant feeding
MALES ONLY Some operations discontinue the male restaurant after peak production while others continue to use it over the life span of the flock. The male drinker line needs to be high enough so that only males can access it. If females are allowed to access male drinker lines, more floor eggs can be expected.
Calculate 8 males per nipple and place the nipples 1 meter apart. In a house that is 120 meters long with 5,000 females per side and 450 males (9%), this means 450÷8 males/nipple = 56.25 nipples. Nipples spaced at a 1-meter distance thus need approximately a 59-meter-long nipple line. The house is 120 meters long, so it means that the nipple line is not covering the whole length of the house.
Restaurants have some unique advantages in that males can be closely monitored in the production period to promote fertility and hatchability. Using this method, producers can manage mating activity if sexual synchronization is not optimal between the sexes and, as a result, improve female livability. In many cases, the investment in the materials needed for the restaurant pens is easily offset by the improvement in production performance.
Better males through restaurant feeding
15 aviNews International March 2022 | Better males through restaurant feeding
BORN IN THE HATCHERY: CARE AND MONITORING THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCE By Érica de Faria Melo Poultry technical coordinator Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Broiler production is aimed at productivity, profitability, and food
safety for consumers. The objective of the hatchery is not only to obtain the highest hatchability but to promote the birth of quality chicks that can show high viability and performance in the field. Approximately one-third of the broiler’s life is spent in the hatchery. Therefore, it is crucial to know all the factors that can influence the embryo’s development to control them and minimize production losses.
According to Oviedo-Rondón (2013), the hatchery is where companies can have greater control over processes to ensure good productivity and economic results, as the variability on the farms is much more difficult to control, and this characteristic should be taken advantage of.
16 aviNews International March 2022 | Quality chicks born in the hatchery: care and monitoring that make a difference
Several factors can influence the incubation yield and chick quality. These factors are divided into:
Factors that precede the time of incubation (pre-incubation)
Factors inherent to the incubation process Post-incubation factors
Pre-incubation factors are those related to:
a Management on the broiler breeder farm
MANAGEMENT ON THE BROILER BREEDER FARM Fertility The production of quality eggs is essential
b Transport of eggs to the hatchery
for the proper development of the embryo.
According to Patricio (2013), a quality
egg is free from microorganisms, with good shell quality, without cracks or deformities, and fertile. The production of eggs that are fertile depends solely and exclusively on the farm.
Fertility is influenced by: Genetic line Nutrition Environment Light program male:female ratio Sanitation Bird body weight 17 aviNews International March 2022 | Quality chicks born in the hatchery: care and monitoring that make a difference
Egg contamination Regarding egg contamination, some management practices can be adopted on the farm and in the hatchery to reduce the microbial load. The egg disinfection procedure up to two hours after laying must be carried out without fail, respecting all controls such as: The concentration of the disinfectant The total disinfection time Temperature Moisture
Upon arriving at the hatchery, the eggs are sorted, removing the non-hatchable ones (deformed, two-yolk, cracked, dirty eggs), which also have a lower hatching rate so that the hatching load is then composed.
After the disinfection procedure, the eggs must be stored refrigerated until the transport to the hatcheries. The recommended storage temperature for eggs is around 20 to 21 ºC (Fasenko et al., 1992), a range within which embryonic development is halted (below physiological zero) until ideal incubation conditions can be met.
Egg collection In addition, carrying out an adequate number of collections (at least 6 to 8), concentrating them in the morning, separating clean eggs from dirty eggs, and contributing to lesser contamination of the egg is needed.
b TRANSPORT OF EGGS TO THE HATCHERY
Fertile eggs must be transported in climate-
There is no way to improve the quality of this egg after laying. That is why various management practices on the farm and in the hatchery must be adopted to maintain their quality and not compromise embryonic development.
controlled trucks, cleaned, and disinfected.
The transport must be done by a trained driver and in a truck with a good damping system, as this is a fragile load, and the objective is to prevent them from being cracked or broken during transport, as cracked eggs have less hatch (Barnet et al., 2004).
18 aviNews International March 2022 | Quality chicks born in the hatchery: care and monitoring that make a difference
DEVELOPMENT CONTROL DURING THE INCUBATION PROCESS
For adequate embryonic development to occur during incubation, the physical conditions to which the fertile egg will be submitted must be controlled and monitored; these conditions are incubation temperature and humidity, and ventilation and egg turning
3 POST-INCUBATION FACTORS After hatching, the chicks must remain inside the transport boxes under adequate temperature and humidity conditions. Transport to the farms should preferably be carried out in climate-controlled trucks. It is recommended that this transport be carried out as soon as possible after
Temperature is the most important physical parameter of incubation, as small fluctuations in the ideal temperature
hatching. The chicks have access to water and food quickly and, therefore, can maintain proper development.
influence the incubation process and, therefore, the quality and survival rate of the embryos (Meijerhof, 2013).
CHICKEN QUALITY Chick quality can be evaluated
not meet the embryo’s needs compromises its development and, consequently, hatchability and chick quality. According to Mesquita (2013), the final performance of broilers is directly related
Navel healing Hydration degree Absence of abnormalities (e.g., crossed beak, exposed brain).
to the results obtained in the first two
In addition to the physical aspects, a
weeks after hatching, which in turn depend
quality chick should:
on the embryonic development during the incubation process.
Being free from pathogenic microorganisms
Have good maternal immunity
The hatchery is also responsible for applying important
Adequate development of
vaccines, such as Marek, Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, among others. Therefore, they begin to play a fundamental role in biosecurity. Failures in this process can lead to health problems due to immunological failure, in addition to contamination of eggs and/or newborns chicks when a vaccine is poorly administered (Oviedo-Rondón, 2013).
according to its physical aspects: Any physical incubation parameter that does
lymphoid organs capable of immunologically responding to vaccine application and/or field challenges. Bibliography available upon request.
Quality chicks born in the hatchery: care and monitoring that make a difference DOWNLOAD THE PDF
19 aviNews International March 2022 | Quality chicks born in the hatchery: care and monitoring that make a difference
FEEDING LAYERS UP TO 100 WEEKS OF AGE Estella Leentfaar Nutritionist - Hendrix Genetics Layers
Modern hybrid layers are highly productive birds. Nowadays it is not uncommon for flocks to reach 100 weeks of age and still are productive. This demands a specific feeding regime to keep these layers healthy and enable them to lay good quality eggs.
Over the past 20 years, large improvements in the performance of laying hen flocks have been seen.
Combined with increases in the peak of egg production and improved livability, this has resulted in higher number of eggs per hen housed. The birds have also become more efficient, which resulted in more than 10% decrease in the feed consumed per egg produced. This massive improvement is only possible if the environment of the laying hens is optimal, as the final performance is an interaction between the birds genetics and their environment. Genetic progress and longer production cycles have direct consequences for nutrition. In order to get the full genetic potential out of a flock, it is important to supply the right daily nutrients at the right time.
Production cycles have increased all the way up to even 100 weeks of age.
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10
Age in weeks 20 500 eggs/100 weeks
360 eggs/80 weeks
Figure 1. Improvement in the egg production and production length
When laying hens are kept in production for 100 weeks instead of 60 or 80 weeks, the eggs output and their associated export of nutrients, like calcium, are much higher. As egg mass increases, the birds’ yolk and eggshell formation increase.
20 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
High performing birds need a perfect feeding strategy to maintain the desired performance levels.
THE BIRD NUTRIENT INTAKE SHOULD BE BALANCED WITH ITS NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS The actual daily nutrient intake is a result of diet composition (feed formulation) and the daily feed intake level (feed consumption). The actual nutrient intake should match the daily nutrient requirements in all stages of the birds’ development: growth, daily maintenance, and/or production. Nutrient requirement is also influenced by the daily egg mass produced, which is a result of egg weight and the number of eggs produced. In the period of 18 to 35 weeks of age, the birds are still growing and therefore they need nutrients for growth, next to their standard needs for maintenance.
Depending on the quality of rearing and the training of the feed intake capacity, feed intake is often limited between 18 and 25 weeks of age and might not cover the total nutritional requirement at that stage. If this happens, hens will start to lose body weight and they will compensate for the negative balance by lowering their production performance during the entire production cycle. For example, they will lower their production in terms of lower laying rate and smaller egg weights, mortality might be increased, and eggshell quality reduced, resulting in a higher number of second grade eggs.
This paper looks at the factors that should be taken into account when designing a feeding strategy to achieve the full genetic potential out of your birds.
A nutrient deficiency can also occur when daily feed intake is low due to environmental stressors, like heat stress, change in feeds or disease. In these situations an additional midnight feeding can be offered to the birds in order to increase daily feed intake. Besides daily feed intake, water intake is also important. If birds don’t drink, they will not eat either. Therefore check the water quality and the water intake regularly.
Besides, as birds come into production in this period, nutrients are required for egg production as well.
21 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
AMINO ACID PROFILE AND LEVEL
In general, three different stages and their ideal corresponding amino acid profiles can be distinguished:
Meaning that changing the rations in the diet is based on daily egg mass produced and not on age!
growth, growth combined with egg production, and egg production. Although all essential amino acids could be the limiting factor, it is lysine which is most commonly seen as being the limiting factor for growth, while methionine is commonly limiting for the production of eggs. At the start of production, it is important to provide a diet with sufficient levels of the essential amino acids available.
After reaching the correct egg size and adult body weight (approximately 30-35 weeks of age), the hens should be able to cope with a lower concentration of amino acids.
IMPORTANCE OF THE UNIFORMITY OF THE FLOCK Because of differences between birds in performance, nutritional requirements must take the uniformity of the flock into account. The feeding strategy should allow the weakest birds to further develop while allowing the best birds to produce at their genetic potential. This can be achieved by respecting a safety margin for the inclusion of digestible amino acids, particularly in a situation where uniformity is rather low.
Nevertheless, amino acid levels for birds in production should always be determined based on the daily egg mass produced (laying rate times egg weight) and never on the age of the birds.
22 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
20 Weeks of life
Uniformity 90% If levels of digestible amino acids are set above the theoretical concentration (+6%) excellent results can be achieved.
CHANGING ENERGY LEVEL RELATED TO FEED INTAKE AND BODY WEIGHT laying hens
Energy requirements are determined by the: bird’s maintenance (like temperature regulation and the daily activity levels) egg production growth The energy consumption is determined by the: feed composition feed presentation
For example, birds within the same flock but at different production performance levels, will consequently show variety in their requirements for methionine.
Please keep in mind, it is important to keep your flock as uniform as possible!
For brown egg layers a uniformity of at least 85% should be targeted, and for white egg layers a uniformity of 90%.
There is a direct relation between feed consumption and metabolizable energy intake, as laying hens are partly able to adjust their feed consumption according to the energy concentration in the diet.
However, this regulation mechanism is not perfect and a higher concentration of metabolizable energy leads to a higher energy intake even though daily feed consumption is reduced due to an increase in metabolizable energy concentration.
23 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
FIBRE FOR LIVABILITY As with all other nutrients, the energy intake is rather challenging around the onset of lay. At the onset of lay, the birds feed intake capacity is still low, whilst the daily requirements are high because the birds are still growing and they have already started with the production of eggs.
The presence of insoluble fibre, like oat hulls, appears to be essential. An appropriate supply of fibre results in a: good feather cover improved livability good intestinal health
Therefore, the priority at the onset of lay is to reach adult body weight in order to obtain high and good persistency and the desired egg weight profile during the production cycle.
To achieve this, a feed high in metabolizable energy is needed, this diet at the start of lay should be at least higher in energy compared with the diets provided at the end of rearing or later on in the laying cycle. If birds still struggle with gaining enough body weight at start of lay, energy content could be increased by an additional 50 to 100Kcal/kg. After the birds have reached their adult body weights, reached the proper level of daily feed intake and the targeted egg weight, energy levels can be lowered towards the end of the cycle.
The main objective of feeding adult birds all the way up to the end of the cycle, is to avoid birds from getting fat. The prevention of fat birds can be achieved by lowering energy levels and controlling energy intake. This can be achieved by reducing the levels of added fat or oil and increasing the amount of fibre in the diet
24 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
proper digestion (of mainly starch) and better manure quality (drier) Livability is positively influenced by fibre as it increases the feeling of satiety in birds, which in turn results in quieter birds and eliminating their need for feather ingestion (pecking and cannibalism). Fibre also helps to: Increase the gizzard size and therefore it improves the nutrient digestibility Diluting the feed with fibres helps to maintain a good energy balance in older birds and to prevent fatty livers. Birds also have a specific requirement for fibre during egg production. They must find fiber in the feed or in their immediate environment.
It has been shown that birds that are deficient in fiber ingest feathers as a fiber source. A fatty liver is in malfunction and will consequently lead to reduced production performance or a higher percentage of second grade eggs.
Feathers may be taken from the floor or pecked from other birds. Monitor feather presence on the floor and if no feathers are found, check out some gizzards for the presence of feathers.
The main challenge is the omnipresent risk of developing a fatty liver, as predisposing factors are frequently present in current commercial egg production circumstances.
This is a valuable tool to identify the origin of feather pecking behavior in a flock.
KEEP THE LIVER HEALTHY, AS IT IS A KEY ORGAN FOR EGG PRODUCTION
Therefore, replacing a part of the carbohydrates by fat or oil will help to keep the liver healthy. Other factors that might result in the risk of fatty livers are:
The liver is one of the key organs, essential to function properly in birds kept in a long production cycle. The liver plays a key role in:
The energy source has an effect on liver health, as lipoprotein formation from lipids (fat) is efficient and easy for the liver, while energy from proteins and carbohydrates/starch is more challenging.
high temperatures high energy intake fat birds and cage housing systems (less activity)
egg production egg weight profiles laying rate persistency in lay egg shell formation livability and feed conversion The older the birds grow, the more egg mass they have produced. Therefore the more challenging it will be to maintain a healthy liver.
With nutrition it is possible to stimulate the recovery of the liver. As mentioned above, replacing a part of the carbohydrates by fat or oil and providing the ability for activity, will help to reduce fat accumulation on the liver. Within the vitamin range, choline or betaine, vitamin B12, folic acid and vitamin E are important. Supplementary choline or betaine is always beneficial for the birds in production and therefore must be included in layer diets.
25 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
Choline is highly effective and present in a wide variety of raw materials, although the availability of choline in raw materials can fluctuate. Choline and betaine have several functions, but specifically related to the topic of fatty livers: they are working lipotropic by preventing fat accumulation by increasing the fatty acid utilization in the liver and by promoting the transport of lecithin. There are multiple factors that determine the amount of added choline or betaine: raw material selected, the length of the production period, the birds health status and the desired safety margins as part of risk management.
In situations of increased incidence of fatty livers, start increasing the choline or betaine supplementation from 18 weeks of age onwards. The advised added choline levels in the layer feed are 500-1000ppm, with 250ppm as an absolute minimum.
It is advised to feed a pre-layer diet starting at 14 to 10 days before expecting the first egg, until 2% of lay.
This will help to meet the calcium requirements for medullary bone formation and the first egg shell production, and to have a smoother transfer from a low calcium diet (developer diet) to a high calcium diet (layer diet). If the calcium level is not sufficient for eggshell production, it will result in decalcification and transport from calcium from the bones towards the eggshell.
In order to obtain robust medullary bone, and therefore better eggshell during the full laying cycle, decalcification should be prevented. During egg production the calcium source is important, especially towards the end of the cycle
THE IMPORTANCE OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS The first half of the rearing period is the most important period for preparing the bird for the laying period Skeletal development is finished for almost 95% at an age of 11 weeks.
The eggshell is mainly formed during the dark period, when the birds are asleep and are not actively consuming feed during. Therefore, the calcium source should be coarse (2-4mm) and slowly soluble to extend the period of calcium absorption from the feed in the intestinal tract and thereby lower the level of decalcification from bones.
During this period, the levels of calcium and phosphorus and their ratio are important to help the chicks in developing a robust frame Just before the onset of lay, calcium need is increasing for both medullary bone formation and the production of the first eggshells.
26 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
Making sure that most of the calcium used for eggshell formation is from the feed and not from the bones, will improve egg shell quality, especially towards the end of the laying cycle.
A CORRECT FEED COMPOSITION REQUIRES CORRECT FEED MANAGEMENT
Although calcium requirements will not be dramatically different for birds in longer production cycles, adaptations in management by adjusting the feeding technique have been shown to be beneficial. For maintaining good eggshell quality, the feeding technique seems to be more important than the actual nutrition, especially in birds at the end of a longer production cycle. One feeding technique beneficial for eggshell quality is providing the nutrient in line with the cycle of egg formation. During the morning, there is a higher requirement for energy, protein, phosphorus for yolk formation and replacement of the medullary bone. While the afternoon requires mainly calcium for eggshell formation during the night.
If farm management allows you to do so, you can help the birds supplying the right nutrients at the right time. By either providing to different types of feed, so called split-feeding, or by providing extra and coarse calcium at the end of the afternoon. This will maximize the use of calcium from the feed, while minimizing the mobilization of calcium from the bones. An additional method is to apply the empty feeding technique: It is important to make sure feeders are empty at the middle of the day (for 1.0-1.5 hours), in order to increase feed consumed at the end of the day.
A correct feed composition requires the correct feed management, to make sure the required nutrients are available at the correct timing.
The morning feed is around 40% of the daily feed intake. The afternoon feed, which is about 60% of the amount of feed consumed on a daily basis, can be fed from 6 or 7 hours before light off moment onwards.
Time of empty feeders
Empty feeder everyday 1/1.5h
14 to 16h 00 of a light at plateau
Figure 2. The empty feeding technique is applied to increase feed consumed at the end of the day.
27 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
IN SUMMARY To conclude, provide enough amino acids (take daily egg mass and actual feed intake into account), keep a close eye on the uniformity of the flock and provide amino acids above the theoretical requirements in order to achieve excellent results. Control the birds’ energy balance by respecting the amount of energy needed for growth, performance and maintenance.
For proper dietary energy management, frequent monitoring of feed intake and body weights is essential. Furthermore, lower the energy levels towards the end of the production cycle and control feed consumption by adding insoluble fibres to the diet in order to be successful in a longer production cycle all the way up to 100 weeks. Have a focus on liver health, try to prevent the development of a fatty liver by providing energy from fat instead of energy from carbohydrates and by supplementation with sufficient amounts of vitamins to support egg and eggshell production. Ca
And not to forget, make sure that the calcium supply is at the correct level especially at the end of the rearing period (pre-layer diet) to minimize bone decalcification as much as possible in order to achieve a robust medullary bone. For prolonged cycles of egg production, the moment of nutrients available is crucial for maintaining performance!
Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
28 aviNews International March 2022 | Feeding layers up to 100 weeks of age
Therefore, make sure that calcium is available at the moment of calcification by providing the sufficient amount of coarse and slowly dissolving calcium during egg production.
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ALTERNATIVES TO CONTROL
Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC
occidiosis is the most prevalent and costly parasite disease for the poultry industry worldwide. It could trigger most gut health issues of concern for poultry producers.
30 aviNews International March 2022 | Alternatives to control coccidiosis
A modeling exercise conducted
Phytobiotics are one of the products of
by a group of experts led by Dr.
election in organic production systems
Damer Blake from the British Royal
due to their connotation as natural
Veterinary College and published last
year estimated the global costs of coccidiosis in more than USD 14.05 billion at prices of 2016.
However, many of them may not meet this condition since the active compound is already produced by industrial chemical processes.
Eimeria may cause disturbances in the
Many companies have adopted
gut epithelium and mucosa that:
integrated control programs. These
Impair nutrient absorption Influence wet litter Cause enteritis, and Initiate necrotic enteritis
programs include a combination of: coccidiostats immunoprophylaxis botanical products
Aggravate intestinal dysbacteriosis
pre and probiotics improved biosecurity better poultry house ventilation water acidification
The coccidia control methods include: biosecurity
leakage-free water systems to provide a drier litter
chemical and ionophore coccidiostats live non-attenuated anticoccidial vaccines,and phytobiotic products that are becoming more popular
31 aviNews International March 2022 | Alternatives to control coccidiosis
POINTING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION
aviNews International the English-language poultry magazine for the international market aviNews® International agriNews®
Ionophores are natural metabolites
Chemical coccidiostats do not have
of fungi species. Ionophores include
known antibacterial activity and are not
monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin,
used in human medicine.
narasin, semduramycin, or maduramicin. It is well known that some Eimeria strains have gained resistance to some of the existing ionophore coccidiostats.
These characteristics make them ideal for poultry antibiotic-free production. Each chemical product has a unique way of action.
However, adequate shuttle or successful application of these products in most places. However, in some countries, the government includes some ionophores as antibiotic growth promotants, and consequently, this may limit its application in production systems that claim to be free of antibiotics.
This is the case in the USA and Canada. In contrast, in the European Union, ionophores were reclassified as feed additives, and they are still in use despite the ban of antibiotic growth promotants.
This group includes: nicarbazin zoalene decoquinate clopidol robenidine, and diclazuril.
rotation programs still allow the
Chemical coccidiostats are generally safe and have a zero-day withdrawal period in the USA, except for Robenz with six days. But, coccidia develops resistance against these products, except for nicarbazin. Nevertheless, a higher dose of nicarbazin than the recommended can cause broiler mortality under elevated environmental temperatures. Despite these limitations, chemical products are an excellent control tool that should be used strategically.
33 aviNews International March 2022 | Alternatives to control coccidiosis
Anticoccidial vaccines are applied for prophylaxis in layers and parent stocks worldwide but are not used in broilers in all countries worldwide.
The last alternative is the use of botanical products. Plant extracts contain: various natural compounds or metabolites that can stimulate
In the last years, cocci vaccination for broiler flocks has been very common in the USA as part of bioshuttle programs. Its application is part of strategies to
mucosal immune responses modulate inflammation through antioxidant activities modulate microflora.
use the bird immunity and the live oocysts from the vaccine to reduce drug-resistant Eimeria populations in the houses. However, the production of current live anticoccidial vaccines is limited by their low reproductive index and
high production costs, among other factors. Consequently, recombinant, subunit or DNA-based based vaccines are under development.
34 aviNews International March 2022 | Alternatives to control coccidiosis
Modulating gut microbial communities phytogenic products avoid losses in numbers and diversity of beneficial microorganisms. On some occasions, they can inhibit specific pathogens and Eimeria at diverse stages of their life cycle.
In several experiments, diverse phytogenic compounds have reduced the severity of Eimeria spp. infection in broilers or pullets by reducing lesion scores and oocyst shedding (Table 1). Currently, there is a great variety of products with good anticoccidial activities or properties as gut microbial population modulators.
Don´t wa S te your energy!!!
These products include extracts from the following plants: Artemesia annua Pinus radiata Azadirachta indica Berberis lyceum
BIOSURFACTANT for: Fat digestibility and absorption enhancer.
Optimization of fatty acids profile in the diet.
Diets cost reduction.
Zootechnical performance improvement.
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Coconut oil, and
Several essential oil blends from multiple spices
Musa paradisiaca or plantain Olive tree
Oregano essential oil
In Table 1, we listed the active compounds for each plant that have shown anticoccidial activity on Eimeria species at specific life cycle stages.
Table 1a. Anticoccidial activity of plants against Eimeria spp. and their target life cycle stage. PLANT
LIFE CYCLE STAGES
Artemisia annua. Sweet wormwood, North America
E. tenella, E. Acervulina, E. máxima
Oocyst formation, Sporulated
Pinus radiata. Monterey pine, Central coast California and Mexico
E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. máxima
Azadirachta indica. Neem,India
Bornyl acetate, α-Pinene limonene, b-Caryophyllene
Oocyst formation (immune modulation)
Sophora flavescens, Shrubby sophora. Asia, Oceania, Pacific islands
E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. máxima
Oocyst formation (immune modulation)
Berberis lycium. India
Berberine, Berberine palmitine, Antocyanin berbamine
E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. máxima
Oocyst formation (immune modulation)
36 aviNews International March 2022 | Alternatives to control coccidiosis
Table 1b. Anticoccidial activity of plants against Eimeria spp. and their target life cycle stage. COMPOUND
LIFE CYCLE STAGES
Origanum vulgare. Oregano
Thymol, Carvacrol, γ-Terpinene, p-Cymene
E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. máxima
Pimpinella anisum. Anise, Eastern Mediterranean, Southwest Asia
Allium sativum. Garlic
Bidens Pilosa. Black-jack
Oocyst formation (immune modulation)
Linum usitatissimum. Flax
N-3 fatty acids
Ageratum conyzoides. Tropical America, Brazil
Carica papaya. Papaya, Americas
Oocyst formation (immune modulation)
Syzygium aromaticum. Cloves, Maluku Islands, Indonesia
Eugenol and eugenyl acetate
Melaleuca alternifolia. Tea tree, Australia
Terpinen-4-ol and gamma-terpinene
Artemisia sieberi. Middle East
E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. máxima, E. necatrix
Moringa oleifera. Moringa, India
Flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, terpenes, saponins, tannins, and many more.
E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. máxima, E. necatrix
Eclipta alba. False daisy, Yerba de tago, Worldwide
wedololactone[1.6%], demethylwedelolactone, desmethyl-wedelolactone-7glucoside, and other constituents are ecliptal, β-amyrin, luteolin -7-O-glucoside, hentriacontanol, heptacosanol, stigmasterol.
E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. máxima, E. necatrix
Areca catechu L.. Areca nut, Tropical pacific, East Africa
Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and fatty acids
On the other hand, some commercial products that claim anticoccidial properties and contain mainly phytogenic products.
Many other phytogenic products, especially the essential oil blends, available in the market have been shown to modulate microflora during
Each product has a brief description
diverse gut health challenges, including
of its composition.
Some products do not disclose their
Still, they may not claim specific
properties over Eimeria. We expect that this brief summary will provide ideas and
Alternatives to control coccidiosis
references to create better-integrated programs of coccidia control.
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37 aviNews International March 2022 | Alternatives to control coccidiosis
NEW METHODS OF
DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS FOR POULTRY DISEASES
Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC
etection and prediction of emerging diseases in poultry are becoming more important
every day. Due to the costs of an outbreak, the potential zoonotic implications of many poultry pathogens, and the negative impacts on the markets of any news about avian diseases, rapid and accurate detection and diagnosis are paramount.
38 aviNews International March 2022 | New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases
The sooner a poultry disease can be detected, the diagnosis completed, and the case correctly classified. Reasonable and timely measurements could help minimize costs and avoid spreading to other birds and flocks. In the same way, chances for impacting the final poultry products and consumers could be reduced. Poultry disease outbreak affects live
The laboratory analyses include: Culture techniques for bacteria and sometimes viruses Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) Isothermal amplification techniques Immunochromatography Immunofluorescence assay
production and the immediate delivery
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
of a product.
(ELISA) for virus or serum antibodies
Additionally, they may have significant and long-term supply-chain, especially in egg and chick production, and in the marketing of all poultry products.
All this process takes time, frequently days, and by the time a diagnosis is complete, the disease has spread. Many times, farms are located in
Current prevalent methods of diagnosis worldwide rely on observations from farmers, farmworkers, and veterinarians.
areas where local laboratories do not count with all reagents to determine a pathogen and submitting samples to other labs delays the process more. Some rapid detection kits for influenza virus, Newcastle, Salmonella, and a
Frequently necropsies are necessary to collect blood and tissue samples, and sometimes water, feed, and litter are also obtained to be later analyzed in laboratories.
few more common pathogens are available, but their sensitivity is low. The costs of current avian influenza outbreaks in Europe and Asia and the constant concern about Salmonella and Campylobacter worldwide led to the development of several automated technologies.
39 aviNews International March 2022 | New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases
negative consequences in the short
Let’s start reviewing what biosensors are.
These technologies include: Electrochemical biosensors
These devices can detect the presence
into a signal that a computer can read
of a biological element or compounds to produce a result.
Noninvasive approaches for poultry disease surveillance
A biosensor has a bioreceptor to analyze the compound to detect, a transducer to transform the detection into a signal, and the electronics that convert the signal into a displayable
The constant in-house monitoring
for poultry diseases using these
Bioreceptors can recognize antibodies,
new technologies has been under
proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes,
testing for several years. This
aptamers which are oligonucleotides or
article intends to share the current
status of new technologies under development for faster detection
of poultry diseases.
Figure 1. Biosensor scheme Schematic description of components and principle for electrochemical biosensors used to detect respiratory viruses. (ssDNA: Single-stranded DNA.)
Common detecting objects of repiratory viruses
Virus and their structural proteins
Bio-recognition elements Nanomaterials; Conductive polymers Amperometric Voltammetric Impedimetric
ssDNA Aptamer Antibody Peptide FetuinA
Electrode Interface Modification
Electrochemical Techniques Signal Output
40 aviNews International March 2022 | New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases
Electrochemical biosensors Fast Sensitive Selective Low cost Portable
The bioreceptors detect glycans for
Figure 2. Fabrication of electronical biosensor .
influenza virus, which can be divided into α-2,6 or α-2,3 sialic acids, allowing for partial differentiation between human and avian viruses, antibodies,
and aptamers that are capable of detecting specific influenza virus subtypes like H5N1, H5N3; H3N2, H1N1 . With the advent of nanotechnology, higher sensitivity is being reached in biosensors. The detections are now in the attomolar range, much better than the traditional methods.
central choices for transducing, as
the bioreceptors. Nevertheless, the previous serological assays and the genome study of
antibodies are the usual choices for
the viruses and bacterias will still be important because it will allow researchers to use this information and the microorganisms’ biological material to continue improving the immunosensor and genosensors.
Reference: Lee, T., Park, S. Y., Jang, H., Kim, G. H., Lee, Y., Park, C., ... & Min, J. (2019). Fabrication of electrochemical biosensor consisted of multi-functional DNA structure/porous au nanoparticle for avian influenza virus (H5N1) in chicken serum. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 99, 511-519. doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.02.001
41 aviNews International March 2022 | New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases
Miulti-Functional DNA 3WJ (AIV detection, EC reporter, Inmonilization)
the specific nucleic acids and antigen/ biological material to be immobilized in
Porous AuNP Hybrid Nanostructure
Optical and electrochemical are the
HA Protein (AIV Coat Protein)
These biosensors could use cloacal,
Wearable sensors are already used for
oropharyngeal, or tracheal swabs,
cows and pigs. Each device is attached
or serum samples to detect specific
to an animal, and it can measure:
pathogens directly in the farm in a few minutes.
The biosensors can reduce sample
preparation and the need for specialized equipment.
Some physiological parameters like temperature
However, this method requires manual sampling of birds that
Poultry flocks include thousands
probably are already showing some
of individuals, and only a few birds
signs of the disease.
can be monitored. However, during the past ten years, some tests have
Figure 3. Tracheal and oropharyngeal swabs.
demonstrated that these devices could detect avian influenza outbreaks. Wearable devices are already used to
track migrations of wildlife populations in many countries. Better analysis of that migration data and adaptation of those sensors to collect some physiological information can aid in alerting the presence of avian influenza viruses. Battery life was an issue for these sensors in the past, but now solar collars are available.
To avoid this delay in disease discovery and obtain realtime detection of infection, wearable sensors, vocalization, and image analysis methods have been developed.
42 aviNews International March 2022 | New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases
One flock surveillance method with even better capabilities for disease detection is the analysis of sounds that can capture birds’ natural vocalizations under diverse conditions. Several experiments have been conducted to detect infections with: Clostridium perfringens Avian influenza Infectious bronchitis virus, and Newcastle disease.
The detection of illness can start as early as second-day post-inoculation.
Figure 4.Goose with sensors
In the case of respiratory diseases sneezing is the main clinical sign to detect. The accuracy of detecting birds sneezing in a flock is over 88%.
Some improvements in the signal analyses of vocalization sounds from chickens using a mathematical methodology called convolutional neural network have improved detection accuracy.
43 aviNews International March 2022 | New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases
This method allowed to differentiate
These technologies can be linked to the
between healthy chickens and chickens
Internet of Things
infected with avian influenza H9N2 only two days post-infection with 93% accuracy. By six days post-infection, the recognition rate was 97.4%.
To generate alarms and give specific details about locations of sick birds within the house. Since the animals generate the initial alarm signals and are automatically transferred electronically to humans,
Vocalization, together with image analysis, can help detect sick birds
Internet of Animals.
even better. Image analyses are used
These technologies facilitate farmers’
to track changes in the behavior and
work to isolate the sick animals
movement of the flock.
faster and implement corrective
This method has been used to detect chickens infected with: Campylobacter
these technologies are also part of the
Lame broilers Any sick chickens by changes
measurements in case the house environment plays a role in controlling the issue. Poultry companies and government officials could generate efficient and more complete epidemiological plans to control emerging diseases.
Several image analysis systems claim that the accuracy of detection of sick chickens is superior to 99.4%.
Let’s hope that these technologies that have been under testing for more than 15 years can start to be commercialized and rapidly adopted by the industry. We hope this article has contributed to the awareness of these technologies for rapid implementation worldwide.
New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases DOWNLOAD THE PDF
44 aviNews International March 2022 | New Methods of Detection and Diagnosis for Poultry Diseases
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INTESTINAL HEALTH IN THE ERA OF NAE
Tom Tabler, PhD Extension Professor Mississippi State University - MS USA
In modern poultry farming, the use of antibiotics has gone down substantially. “Non Antibiotics Ever” (NAE) production is commonly accepted. Keeping the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of growing birds functioning properly, is vital however. Adequate management is essential to keep NAE flocks healthy and in good condition.
The vital role the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays in nutrient absorption and the immune response is probably much more complex and dynamic than most of us realize. We do know, however, that maintaining good intestinal health and minimizing intestinal disruptions are critical to growth, to the health and welfare of birds and to the food safety aspects of modern-day poultry production.
Although poultry companies with NAE flocks are turning to antibiotic alternatives to promote good gut health — prebiotics and probiotics, essential oils, enzymes, etc. — a properly functioning GIT is essential to achieve positive results with dietary manipulations.
This is especially true for no antibiotics ever (NAE) production systems.
If digestion and nutrient absorption are compromised, an overgrowth of intestinal microbes can occur that, in turn, affect bird health and performance.
46 aviNews International March 2022 | Intestinal health in the era of NAE
FEED AND WATER One of the most basic tenets for maintaining good intestinal health in NAE flocks is good quality feed and water. In fact, feed and water quality need to be superior. I advise producers with NAE flocks to make sure they have quality feed and to make sure they never run out of feed. It takes only a few hours without feed for the gut mucosa to shift, making birds more susceptible to enteritis.
Good drinking water quality is likewise critically important for NAE flocks. Much of my extension work today is focused on well water quality for poultry farms growing NAE birds. The mineral concentration, bacterial load and pH of the water needs to be monitored.
Feed and water quality for breeders are just as important as they are for broilers. Loose droppings and wet litter are just as bad in a breeder house as they are in a broiler house.
Eggs going to the hatchery must be CLEAN to limit the bacterial load entering the hatchery. Hatcheries must also be CLEAN if they are going to hatch quality baby chicks. Incubation temperatures are critical to chick quality at hatch. Suboptimal incubation tends to increase the hatch window by causing some chicks to hatch either too early or too late.
Feed withdrawal stimulates mucin production by goblet cells in the intestinal mucosa. This extra mucin is then used by bacteria to irritate the mucosa and generate inflammatory reactions.
Something that I think too often gets overlooked in an NAE program is the key role that breeder health, nutrition and welfare plays in producing a healthy broiler chick.
This results in problems with development of the lymphoid tissue associated with the intestines.
Water hardness, alkalinity and a high pH can disturb crop pH and reduce the early phase of digestion, bacteria can cause disease and threaten flock health, while a low pH can irritate the intestinal lining.
Water quality is not only important for good digestion, it can minimize microbial proliferation in water lines, nipples and drinker systems.
Failure to monitor and ensure water quality on the farm can be detrimental to intestinal health and bird performance.
47 aviNews International March 2022 | Intestinal health in the era of NAE
GUT DISEASE I often see multiple issues at the same time on farms with NAE flocks when intestinal health is compromised by coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis. Irritated intestinal linings often result in loose droppings and excess feed passage, in turn leading to wet floors. Excess feed passage results in a poor growth rate and high feed conversion ratios. Wet floors can lead to increased ammonia levels and eye irritations, increased footpad issues and poor paw quality.
For intestinal health to be maintained in today’s NAE era, coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis must be controlled. In NAE programs that do not allow anticoccidial medications, this is done mainly with coccidiosis vaccines and improved litter management. In addition, within the GIT, there are numerous interactions taking place between the bird’s intestinal cells, bacterial cells within the intestines and feed components. Hopefully, the bacterial population forms a protective lining over the gut wall, thus restricting or preventing growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens (the troublemaker responsible for necrotic enteritis), Salmonella and Campylobacter.
This is often called competitive exclusion but what it really means is that the good bugs, for the most part, fight off the bad bugs.
FIGHT THE PROBLEM, NOT THE CONSEQUENCES There are many times when we get the cart before the horse when it comes to intestinal health. When we have an intestinal health issue such as coccidiosis or necrotic enteritis, we tend to focus on controlling intestinal disease. This is understandable because we see coccidiosis or necrotic enteritis and realize we have a problem.
However, while coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis are certainly a problem, they are not the problem. The real problem is often an excess of nutrients that caused a proliferation of microbes, leading to coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis.
In the past, small amounts of antibiotic reduced the number and diversity of certain microbes and created enteric conditions with fewer bad bacteria. As a result, intestinal health issues were better held in check. Today, antibiotics (for the most part) are gone and microbes are better able to proliferate and cause problems. However, microbes have always been here and will continue to be here. Our first concern should be addressing the reduction in digestion or the excess in undigested nutrients in the GIT that is allowing the microbes to upset the intestinal equilibrium. Why is this happening and how do we fix it?
48 aviNews International March 2022 | Intestinal health in the era of NAE
BALANCING ACT Intestinal health relies on maintaining a balance between the host, the microbes, the intestinal environment and dietary compounds. When intestinal health is optimal, we see near complete digestion of the feed and absorption of feed nutrients.
When intestinal health is suboptimal, malabsorption and a gut imbalance are likely because of incomplete digestion. This can result in an overgrowth in the microbial population and a shift away from beneficial bacteria.
We must improve in all of these areas if we expect to have successful NAE programs in the future. Compared to just 3 to 5 years ago, we have a much better understanding that any negative impact on gut health — disease related or not — negatively affects performance and welfare.
When I necropsy birds, I pay special attention to the GIT both inside and outside.
I look at the crop, the proventriculus and the gizzard. In the intestinal tract, I’m looking for signs of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis. I’m looking to see if the intestinal walls are thin. I look for worms. I check the viscosity of intestinal contents, the ceca and the color of the intestine itself. Anything out of the ordinary is a red flag.
Poultry companies are learning to overcome challenges associated with NAE production by refining their nutritional programs, adopting the latest technologies and by altering animal husbandry practices.
So now, the bad bugs are fighting off the good bugs.
Even if the problem is a respiratory issue or an Escherichia coli infection and not an actual intestinal health issue, I still closely examine the GIT.
Obviously, there are a wide variety of factors that can affect intestinal health. Besides feed and water, hatchery conditions and egg pack cleanliness, they include farm management, the housing environment as well as biosecurity on both breeder and broiler farms.
Converting from conventional to NAE production can be done although it comes with reduced efficiency and increased production costs.
Sustaining NAE production is also possible - but it’s going to largely depend on how well we understand and manage intestinal health. www.poultryhealthtoday.com/ intestinal-health-in-the-era-of-nae/ Intestinal health in the era of NAE
49 aviNews International March 2022 | Intestinal health in the era of NAE
COR VAN DE VEN FOUNDER VENCOMATIC GROUP by Ad Bal
“Continuous innovation is key” Almost 40 years ago, Cor and his wife Han van de Ven founded Vencomatic. Together with an ambitious team, they developed their company into an innovative global supplier in poultry house design and automation systems. Gradually Cor is stepping back now, with the new generation in command. Continuous innovation remains key, he emphasizes. “That’s in the DNA of our company”. 50 aviNews International March 2022 | Interview with Cor van de Ven. Founder Vencomatic Group
I am still involved in our company, but to a limited extent”, says Cor. “I am 68 years old now and my 5 children alongside a professional team are managing the company. My task is primarily coaching young staff, which I much enjoy.
“It all started by an incident”, Cor continues. “As a young man, I had rented a piece of land on which I was growing Christmas trees. In order to prepare the land for this purpose, I needed a power harrow. I could borrow this from a breeder farmer, who was keeping 8000 breeder birds. This farmer was facing health problems and he asked me if I could help develop some kind of automation to ease the labour on his farm. And so happened.”
Cor first started observing the flocks of the farmer and registered his findings by using a video camera. Based on his observations he started thinking about an automated nest.
“This was truly an innovation in those days and well fitted to The Netherlands innovation land in poultry”, Cor says. “Germany was well known for its battery cages and automated feeding systems, whereas the Dutch were strong in incubation, poultry processing and egg grading. The automated nest in floor housing was a perfect addition to the level of innovation in our country.” Cor contacted various existing manufacturers of housing systems to try to sell his patent. There was hardly any interest, however. Then, in 1984 he decided to display his invention at the VIV Europe tradeshow. There appeared to be great interest from across the globe and the first batch of the automatic nest was shipped to a large poultry integrator in Australia. Vencomatic took off! The secret of this success was the expulsion of the breeder hen from the nest, thus protecting valuable hatching eggs and avoiding broodiness.
“In 1983 this was the very start of Vencomatic”, he says. On the basis of a traditional wooden laying nest, he built a fully automated nest with litter bedding. When the eggs were to be collected, the hens were mechanically but gently expelled from the nest boxes, after which a kind of fork mechanism moved the eggs to the collection belt.
51 aviNews International March 2022 | Interview with Cor van de Ven. Founder Vencomatic Group
Cor van de Ven is a self-made man. From history not so much in poultry housing and automation systems however. The founder and owner of the Vencomatic Group of companies from The Netherlands is a mechanical engineer instead, yet almost 40 years in the poultry business now.
Cor further developed his nesting systems. Litter inside the nest boxes turned out to be unfavourable, so he introduced the matted roll away nest floor. Based on his observations from the time he started, he decided to position the automated nest in the centre of the house on top of the slatted floor, with adjacent on both sides easy to access chain feeders and drinking nipples.
Thus, the breeders should be attracted to move towards the nest boxes, nearby feed and water. Vencomatic further expanded over the course of years. In 1988 they also stepped into layer housing systems, just prior to the moment the debate on the welfare issue started. Cor: “We got in touch with the Bolegg aviary system (short for BOdehaltung LEGehennen) from Switzerland, with whom we further developed their aviary housing system. Also, we developed other systems and innovations. And systems for turkeys and ducks were added.
A major achievement was the reduction of ammonia emission in breeder houses. In 1984 the average ammonia emission per breeder hen was 580 grams per year. In cooperation with the Spelderholt research institute in those days and through our innovative solutions, we managed to achieve a reduction to 80 grams in the first year and 50 grams in the second year.
On the climate control side we founded the Agro Supply company, providing heat exchangers and complete climate control systems for poultry houses.” “With our Patio system, we launched some kind of revolution in the world of broiler chick hatching”, Cor continue. “In this system, we take hatching eggs at day 18 to the prewarmed grower house. There the chicks hatch from the egg and have direct access to feed and water. This was a breakthrough which turned out to be very successful! Also we acquired Prinzen, specialists in farm graders and packers. This perfectly fits to our housing solutions. And our last addition was the recent acquisition of Van Gent, because of their unbeatable reputation on nest acceptance by breeder hens.” Over the years, Vencomatic has largely contributed to professionalization in poultry housing. With that, the company is to a large extent focusing on the developed world. Yet, the considerable growth of the world population is taking place in countries like India and on the African continent. Are high-tech solutions, like from Vencomatic Group, suitable for such areas?
“I think they are”, says Cor. “But the approach should be different. A good example is Ghana, where we are involved in a government project.
52 aviNews International March 2022 | Interview with Cor van de Ven. Founder Vencomatic Group
However, logistics in broiler production is a great risk in countries like Ghana. Hatching and transport of day-old chicks are difficult and often there are significant losses. For that reason, small integrations will be set up for the production of broiler meat, including breeder and broiler housing, incubation and processing.
Once this project is running, Ghana is supposed to be an example for neighbouring countries. In Surinam in Latin America, we are involved in a similar kind of project. I truly believe that these projects can be successful. On the layer side, a kind of “in between” solutions should be thinkable. Not the high end systems like we sell in the developed world, nor the very cheap and poor cages like from China. Our Veranda+, as well, can be a good solution for developing countries.
This is an affordable and animalfriendly system, much better than the more traditional equipment that is currently used in many places. And what about the dual- purpose chicken? Also well thinkable for those regions.”
Back to the further development in Vencomatic. “There are many more challenges ahead of us”, Cor concludes.
We spend about 4 to 5 million euros per year on R&D which is absolutely essential. And different than in the past, of our 500 head staff, we nowadays hire about 30 software specialists. After all, for managing a modern poultry operation, the availability of data is of great importance nowadays. Through sensor technology and monitoring processes inside poultry houses, these data are translated into smart management tools. We are on our way to helping customers manage their business via Precision Farming via collecting and analysing data taken from automated nest systems into egg handling. Thus valuable insights are created that will allow farm managers to optimize business processes and faster and more accurate decision taking. This allows increasing efficiency and together we will set the new standard for even more sustainable poultry husbandry. It does not need much clarification that continuous innovation is of paramount importance to our company. We have done so over the past 40 years and with that we have had a major influence on the poultry business worldwide. Significantly solved environmental, welfare and labour issues on an economic basis. Let’s proceed in this direction. With the new Van de Ven generation now in command”. Interview Cor van de Ven
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53 aviNews International March 2022 | Interview with Cor van de Ven. Founder Vencomatic Group
Currently, this country is for the major part dependent on imports of frozen poultry from the U.S. and Brazil. Yet, poultry production should take place locally instead.
LEARNINGS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL
POULTRY SCIENTIFIC FORUM 2022
Dr. Edgar O. Oviedo Rondón North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC
his meeting is conducted annually before the International Production and
Processing Expo (IPPE) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. On January 24 and 25th, 2022, this Scientific Forum was concurrent with the 43rd Annual Meeting of The Southern Poultry Science Society and the 63rd Annual Meeting of The Southern Conference on Avian Diseases.
54 aviNews International March 2022 | Learnings from the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2022
In 2021, the meeting was conducted
Nutrition is the most popular
virtually with approximately 600
topic, with almost one-third of the
participants, but this year the attendance
presentations. There are sessions in:
went back to over 1,000 people that have had since 2011. It is expected that this Forum will keep growing to reach again the 1,765 attendees registered in 2018. Three hundred sixty scientific communications were presented this year, 208 short oral presentations, and 152 posters. These research reports are offered by groups from universities, represented mainly by graduate students, professors, and also personnel from poultry and feed allied industry
Vitamins Minerals Enzymes Feed additives, and Amino acids These talks or posters also include reports of feed ingredient and quality evaluations, methodologies to evaluate energy and nutrient content and feed processing methods.
The information discussed in this
Among the hundreds of papers presented,
conference includes all poultry production
we would like to summarize key findings
and health areas, split into rooms for each
that could interest our readers and have
topic. The subject matters include:
not been discussed in previous articles. We will discuss diverse information related to
all poultry species in health, management, nutrition, and processing.
Endocrinology Reproduction Teaching, pedagogy and extension Processing and products Pathology Metabolism, and nutrition
55 aviNews International March 2022 | Learnings from the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2022
Let’s start with new findings in Histomona control for turkeys
Both species can get infected, but turkeys are more likely to develop a disease.
Histomoniasis is one of the biggest challenges worldwide due to the lack of effective additives for turkey production prevention. It is also becoming more common in broiler breeders and chickens
The RNA sequencing indicated that turkeys have a greater physiological response to H. meleagridis than chickens five days post-inoculation. Five to nine times more differentially expressed genes were observed in turkey cecal tonsils and livers than in chickens.
Researchers from North Carolina State
However, the imbalance of immune
University (Cupo et al.) reported gene
pathways enriched in turkey tissues,
expression findings related to the differences between broilers and turkeys on immune response against Histomonas
T-helper 1 and T-helper 2, can inhibit general immunity.
e Histiomas meleagridis
Figure 1. Illustrates Histomonas meleagridis. 56 aviNews International March 2022 | Learnings from the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2022
Homeostasis between these two pathways is necessary, and the overactivation of either pattern can cause disease. Either pathway can down-regulate the other. Modulating these pathways with feed additives, higher melatonin levels, probiotics, and trace minerals may improve resistance to Histomonas or vaccine
On the processing and products session, it was evident that Campylobacter jejuni is one of the main subjects of study in food safety research. One of the issues addressed is that the gold standard method using Campy-Cefex agar to quantify Campylobacter spp. is not
responses against it.
sensitive enough to quantify the viable
Now, it remains to determine
negatives. (Figure 2).
but non-culturable cells leading to false
which interventions will be more successful in achieving this goal.
Researchers from the University of Wisconsin, led by Dr. Steven Ricke, determined that the BAX® System Real-Time PCR Assay can provide the food industry with a rapid, accurate,
and efficient alternative method for Campylobacter in poultry processing rinses. On the control side of Campylobacter, a group led by Dr. Hofacre presented results of a trial evaluating the efficacy of an autogenous inactivated vaccine of Campylobacter jejuni J.B. strain with three adjuvants (carbigen, a commercial adjuvant, and two experimental polymer adjuvants, 222 and 111). This group concluded that this autogenous bacterin with adjuvant 222 could reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers early in the infection.
Figure 2. Campy-Cefex agar
57 aviNews International March 2022 | Learnings from the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2022
“One interesting presentation indicated that Campylobacter jejuni could be an issue also for broilers raised in the production system called ‘no antibiotics ever”. This system has increased in recent years in the USA, and in 2020 almost 50% of the poultry industry has reached that level.
On the nutrition side, Ana Villegas from the University of Georgia discussed the effects of soybean meal quality on intestinal health. Overcooked soybean meal increased intestinal permeability or translocation of bacteria from the gut lumen to intestinal
A research group from Mississippi State University used cloacal swabs from 9-week-old broilers obtained in processing plants to isolate C. jejuni and confirm its presence via PCR using the C. jejuni specific hippo gene. The isolates were tested for virulence genes and genotypic and phenotypic antibiotic resistance. From 270 samples, 16.3% were C. jejuni positive. events
The prevalence of resistance genes for quinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides were 100%, 59.1%, and 50%, respectively. Out of 41 C. jejuni evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility, eight isolates (19.5%) exhibited multi-drug resistance. The highest resistance was observed against tetracycline, whereas 24.4% of the isolates were resistant to clinically important antibiotics (azithromycin and ciprofloxacin). This information indicates that multi-drug resistance among C. jejuni does not come from the direct use of antibiotics in a flock. Past use of antibiotics in the same housing environments or other sources of antimicrobial resistance bacteria could also be factors to consider when controlling these pathogens.
tissues, depressed body weight gain, feed intake, worsened feed conversion ratio and decreased breast meat yield. On the other hand, undercooked soybean meal decreased the villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and reduced body weight gain. Proper soybean processing is key for poultry performance and gut health.
Dani Patiño and Dr. Joseph from North Carolina State University addressed the production of full-fat soybean meals. They used a single screw dry extrusion to produce six full-fat soybean meals using die temperatures of 135, 145, 155, 160, 165, and 170 oC. The extruded full-fat meals were evaluated with common lab tests for soybean meal quality like urease index, crude protein, KOH protein solubility (PS), protein dispersibility index (PDI), and trypsin inhibitors (TI). The PS (< 65%) and PDI values suggested overprocessing at 165 and 170 oC. Overall, the study indicated that 160 oC was the best operating temperature to obtain the best extruded full-fat soybean meal.
58 aviNews International March 2022 | Learnings from the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2022
Evaluations of low protein diets were also discussed either by looking at the feed ingredient sources or adding diverse crystalline amino acids. Low crude protein diets can improve: Nitrogen utilization from 59% to 66%, Reduce nitrogen excretion from 39 g/bird to 28 g/bird,
The climate change with land use footprint (kg CO2 eq.) can be reduced from 18 to 12%, while the eutrophication potential (kg P eq.) can be reduced by 15 %. Consequently, reducing crude protein with appropriate use of supplemental crystalline amino acids maintained growth and carcass yield parameters while improving litter quality, N-utilization, and broiler production sustainability.
Dr. Kim’s lab at the University of Georgia determined that including 5% canola meal in low crude protein diets produced a similar growth response as soybean meal. In contrast, higher inclusion levels of canola meal and corn distillers dry grains with solubles were detrimental. The amino acid digestibility and other nutritional factors influence the feasibility of replacing soybean meal in low protein diets.
Reduce litter moisture, potassium excretion, and ammonia
Other presentations confirmed that the addition of crystalline valine, arginine, and isoleucine to low protein diets effectively maintained live performance and processing yields. These low-protein diets also contained crystalline lysine, methionine, and threonine to meet the requirements of six essential amino acids for each phase.
The International Scientific Forum offers a variety of useful information for the poultry industry, and the abstracts of these presentations can be obtained online from early January every year. https://www.ippexpo.org/ipsf/
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59 aviNews International March 2022 | Learnings from the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2022
DIFFICULTY IN DETECTING HIGH LEVELS OF MYCOTOXINS IN CLINICAL CASES Manuel Contreras, DMV, MS, Diplomate ACPV Special Nutrients/Agrimprove, Miami, FL., USA
Identification is often achieved by replicating the clinical picture of the disease or intoxication observed in animals.
In the case of toxins, some feed mills often maintain experimental poultry houses, where they can test whether a nutritional ingredient or contaminant is causing the reported intoxication.
Veterinarians and professionals who work in animal production have traditionally been trained to isolate or detect the etiologic agents causing the clinical symptoms reported in poultry facilities.
Despite the fact that mycotoxins are not living microorganisms, but rather metabolites produced by fungi as they grow, we tend to try to conclusively detect which is the etiological agent. In other words, demonstrate that the mycotoxins were present in the feed consumed by the affected animals.
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to identify the mycotoxins that caused different symptoms or lesions in the animals after seeing a case that we consider typical.
61 aviNews International March 2022 | Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
Below, we list the causes that prevent us from being able to confirm the relationship between what we see in the field and the presence of mycotoxins in the analysis:
Irregular distribution of mycotoxins in grains and feed.
2 3 4
Sampling errors. Laboratory techniques used to do the analysis. Presence of conjugated or masked mycotoxins.
IRREGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF MYCOTOXINS Unlike the protein or moisture content in corn or soybeans, mycotoxins are not uniformly distributed. The main reason is that fungi do not grow everywhere, they do so in specific places. This trend can start in the field. Some grains can contain high levels of mycotoxins while others do not.
At the level of feed mills, especially in silos, fungi grow mostly where humidity is more prevalent, also known as “hot spots”. These points have been identified for decades and occur due to the mobilization of moisture from the outside to the inside of the silo or storage area, mostly at night when ambient temperatures drop. These changes in temperature produce condensation on the internal walls of the silo, which promote the growth of fungi.
The same phenomenon can occur in trucks, barges and other compartments where grain or feed are stored.
62 aviNews International March 2022 | Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
That is, if only areas with low or without contamination are sampled, no actual results will be obtained. False negative results can occur as a result of inadequate sampling and poor preparation of the sample tested. When few incremental samples are taken or the total batch sample is too small, it is common to “lose” a contaminated grain than to “find” it.
The chances of identifying mycotoxins in feed increase if they are taken from feeders located on farms, because that feed has been stored inside the silos for about 5 to 7 days and close to a day inside the house, once it is transferred to the hoppers and then to the feeders (automatic feeders).
A correct analysis means detecting the average contamination within a batch of grain or finished feed. If proper sampling procedures are not followed, analytical results are likely to underestimate the true mycotoxins concentration.
The time that the feed remains in the farms depends on the company’s management and the type of birds raised.
Unfortunately, even in clinical cases of mycotoxicosis where affected animals show typical lesions and where samples are taken following the correct methodology, we often fail to identify them.
63 aviNews International March 2022 | Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE USED Results may vary depending on the type of test. Some tests are more specific than others with the ability to detect lower levels of mycotoxins (higher sensitivity).
In Elisa’s case, the possibility of false positives is higher than in HPLC.
HPLC (high-precision liquid chromatography) has a higher sensitivity than Elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which means that it can detect lower levels of mycotoxins in the sample.
QUICK, PRELIMINARY TESTS (SCREENING) This includes techniques such as Elisa, TLC (thin layer chromatography), and immunostrips that are characterized by reporting preliminary results faster. Elisa’s test is used to detect aflatoxins, T2 toxin, DON, HT-2, zearalenone, and fumonisins, among others. TLC takes longer to perform than Elisa because it is necessary to clean the samples to obtain more accurate results.
RECONFIRMATION TESTS These are tests with greater specificity (less chance of presenting false positives) and sensitivity (capable of detecting very low concentrations). Among these is HPLC, and lately, it has been recommended to work with the technique known as liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC / MS / MS). LC / MS / MS is highly advanced and simultaneously analyzes hundreds of metabolites and mycotoxins, which cannot be done with HPLC or Elisa.
64 aviNews International March 2022 | Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
CONJUGATED OR MASKED MYCOTOXINS They represent a new challenge that prevents determining the actual concentration of these toxins in humans and animals’ feed.
The agents that catalyze the development of these variations in the integrity of mycotoxins are enzymes produced by plants that commonly act in the detoxification process. Mycotoxins adhere to other nutrients such as sugars (glucose), fatty acids, or amino acids.
Fungi that cause damage to plants at the field or greenhouse level are identified as phytopathogens. It is important to clarify that not all fungi that grow on plants affect their well-being.
They consist of derivatives of mycotoxins not detectable with conventional analytical tests, since the chemical structure of the mycotoxins has changed during the plant’s growth in the field, before the grains were harvested.
A metabolite of the T2 toxin is HT-2, which originates in plants as a defense mechanism to try to neutralize the toxic effect of this mycotoxin.
Generally, mycotoxins adhere to a more polar substance such as glucose, and there is the possibility that these conjugates release their toxic precursors after hydrolysis occurs within the host.
65 aviNews International March 2022 | Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
OTHER LABORATORY TESTS After reviewing the factors mentioned in this article, we have no doubt that the detection of mycotoxins in ingredients or feed has certain limitations. For this reason, clinicians have resorted to other laboratory techniques to determine if mycotoxins are present in these clinical field cases.
HISTOPATHOLOGY The most helpful technique used so far is histopathology, since it allows us to identify characteristic (non-pathognomonic) lesions in target organs caused by specific mycotoxins.
IDENTIFICATION OF MARKERS OR MYCOTOXIN METABOLITES Another technique that may be used more frequently in the future, once it is more developed, is the identification of markers or metabolites of mycotoxins. With this test, the objective is to demonstrate that the animals were in contact with the mycotoxins and that as a consequence of this exposure, the host produces specific chemical substances that can be measured.
66 aviNews International March 2022 | Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
It has become very fashionable in recent years, but unfortunately, it does not always offer consistent results, depending on the type of mycotoxins tested.
We have observed this when evaluating the relationship between the levels of sphingosine and sphingonine, two markers associated with Fumonisin intoxication, which inhibits the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of sphingolipids (fats) in the blood.
In our experience, compiled in scientific tests carried out in different countries, the relationship between markers and intoxication is reported in some cases. In other experiments the relationship is not detected.
Despite this variability in many markers, there is a highly reliable marker that has become a standard test worldwide and consists of detecting M1 in cow’s milk, a metabolite of Aflatoxins B1 and B2.
Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
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67 aviNews International March 2022 | Difficulty in detecting high levels of mycotoxins in clinical cases
FUTURE ORIENTED LAYER FARM REVEALS NEW INSIGHTS Ad Bal
Turning a dream into reality.
That’s the vision of Eric Thielen. On his “Lamberdina’s Hoeve” layer farm he built a very innovative new house. Eric is convinced that excellent living conditions for his birds go hand in hand with care for humans and for the environment. Through this, he is producing in a sustainable way.
Eric Thielen: “If you take good care of the birds, they will thrive and the reward will be satisfying production figures”.
68 aviNews International March 2022 | Future oriented layer farm reveals new insights
Eric Thielen is an avid and highly motivated
On his existing farm, he had been
layer farmer from The Netherlands. His
using the Bolegg aviary system from
farm is located nearby the village of
Vencomatic already. As this had turned
Castenray in the south part of the country.
out to be a satisfying system, he decided to set up a comprehensive plan
On his farm, Eric is keeping 195.000 white layers. New part of the farm
for the new facility, again together with Vencomatic.
however, is “Lamberdina’s Hoeve”
Both his grandparents founded the farm a century ago. Eric is the third generation nowadays, to run the layer farm. Both his grandparents and parents had an innovative vision and Eric is proud of that.
Lamberdina’s Hoeve is an impressive farm. Eric is keeping 39.500 brown laying hens in this house. It is a nice, under modern architecture designed building. From a distance the wooden
This motivated him to move on
pillars which mark the “winter garden”
and run the farm in an organic and
are to be seen. Also, the six Eco-Units
outside are visible.
Eric is emotionally connected to mother earth and the environment. Hence for him, being an entrepreneur and businessman, keeping layers is more than just making money.
(farm), named after his grandmother.
The Eco-Units firstly provide an optimum climate for the birds inside the house. Also these filter the outgoing air. During summertime the incoming warm air is cooled down, while during
He is convinced that if you take good care of the birds, they will thrive and the reward will be satisfying production figures.
wintertime it goes the other way around. As a result the birds feel comfortable, particularly during the night when they
Eric also feels a strong responsibility
clog together at the perches and sleep.
for the environment and human society however. Preserving mother earth was the main reason to build the farm in a sustainable way and as a result is meeting the demands of the future.
69 aviNews International March 2022 | Future oriented layer farm reveals new insights
During the daytime, the birds
ACCELERATED genetic progress
like to dustbathe in the litter on the floor. This produces fine dust in the air.But once the air is exhausted from the house, it will be filtered in the Eco-Units and clean air will leave the house.
Scientific research has proved that the units capture around 80 percent of fine-dust and ammonia.
During summertime it is the opposite way. Ingoing warm air is cooled Brown down, thus again W-36 providing excellent
conditions for the birds. Exactly this is Pink
what Eric is aiming for.
The poultry house is built under modern architecture with wooden construction.
Get more saleable eggs from balanced layers suited for every market.
Eric’s objective is to provide excellent conditions for the birds and for the caretakers
Contact your local Hy-Line representative to learn which variety is best for you.
of course, take care of the environment and produce in a sustainable way with care
Hy-Line International Email: email@example.com | www.hyline.com
for mother earth.
These conditions hold true for the situation inside the house. The organic status however, demands that once the weather allows, the birds must have outdoor access. For that purpose an 18 hectares area with
The Eco-Units provide an optimum climate for the birds inside the house.
fruit and nut trees is located adjacent to the farmhouse. Also in this garden they can dust bath
and roam around as much as they want. This fully fits into the vision and conviction of Eric Thielen.
Since the farm has the organic status,
The wellbeing of his layer flock is
ingredients are sourced from nearby
top priority and this fully meets with
located grain farmers. For that reason
the concept and the objectives of
feed formulation and mixing takes place
at Vitelia, a feed plant close to the farm.
The investment in this very special farm of the future was considerable. Of course this
All these factors together, says Eric,
puts a burden on its profitability.
lead to better health for the layers. As a logical result, feed intake is more effective and consequently this contributes to sustainable production.
71 aviNews International March 2022 | Future oriented layer farm reveals new insights
For Eric however, the economic result is
However, Lamberdina’s Hoeve is
not the only important aspect. Probably
clearly an excellent “place to be”
even more important is the reward of a
for laying hens.
flock of healthy and productive birds.
“Yet, as time progresses and since this is not a regular farm, we must change the settings according the reality of today by now and then”, Eric says.
It is a farming operation of the future, which provides excellent living conditions for birds and at the same time is taking care of mother earth.
“After all, our farm remains a commercial business and we must earn a living from it.”
Future oriented layer farm reveals new insights DOWNLOAD THE PDF
72 aviNews International March 2022 | Future oriented layer farm reveals new insights
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