aviNews International June 2022

Page 1

Issue Nº 9

June 2022

AVIAN INFLUENZA

IN NORTH AMERICA SPRING 2022 Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

p. 36

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With Cobb Cares, we combine our mission of feeding the world and making a difference with our values of family, integrity, innovation and being the best. We emphasize five key pillars for our Cobb Cares sustainability story. As we focus on genetic progress, poultry care and welfare, community, environment and the workplace, we hope you’ll have a greater understanding of how Cobb is committed to a more sustainable future not only for our business, but for our team members, the communities that we work and live in and the global poultry value chain.

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SHOWTIME!

O

nce every four years, the VIV Europe tradeshow is taking place in Utrecht, its city of origin in The Netherlands. Over 40 years ago, the show was held here for the first time. After hardly having been able for professionals in the poultry business to meet in person, VIV opens its doors again from 31 May – 2 June at the Jaarbeurs fairgrounds in this city. As usual, a wide array of products, information and business opportunities will be found here. Of course, much knowledge exchange and business deals took place remote in the past few years through internet platforms like Teams, Zoom, Facetime, Skype, you name it. But that was just an alternative way of being in contact. A live event is so much more. Not just a physical meeting place, but also much a matter of inspiring each other, at the exhibition floor, but also during side events. We all know that the poultry business is much under debate, particularly in Europe. The demands for raising poultry are getting stronger, because of the influence of NGOs and the public opinion, as well as because of current legislation which is further tightened here and there. Not just that, it cannot be denied that producing food from animal origin, seriously contributes to the CO2 footprint and thus to the global climate change. This in relation to the increasing demand for food of the continuously growing world population. Productivity and efficiency in raising poultry are essential aspects in this context. The poultry industry therefore needs to permanently adjust to the situation of today. This is, by the way, not just driven by pressure of the public. The professional poultry industry

EDITOR

itself very well understands this reality and also proactively develops new systems, either or not supported by universities and research institutes. One such a good example is the Windstreek (wind direction) poultry house of broiler grower Robert Nijkamp from The Netherlands. In close cooperation with the Wageningen University and a number of suppliers, he developed this very special house which is fully naturally ventilated and energy neutral. Based on continuously collecting “Big Data” from this house and the flock, he precisely adjusts and finetunes the settings of the entire management system and hence produces in a very sustainable and efficient way. Another example is layer welfare. After the ban on cages came in place in the EU in 2012, not everywhere in Europe, the same rules were applied. Now, an initiative to further improve layer welfare across the EU, currently a pilot project is running to disseminate best practices on layer housing European wide. Welfare Professor Dr. Bas Rodenburg of the Utrecht University coordinates this promising project. And there is much more to tell about and explore in the fascinating and above all, important poultry business. Come to VIV Europe and discover yourself. And of course, read about Robert Nijkamp and Bas Rodenburg and other interesting topics again in this edition of aviNews. Enjoy and learn. See you in Utrecht! Ad Bal

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Edgar Oviedo

COLLABORATORS

Eduardo Cervantes

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1 aviNews International June 2022


04

Good quality drinking water

22

Estella Leentfaar

Douglas Zaviezo

Nutritionist Hendrix Genetics Layers

Birds, at all ages, must always have easy access to clean, fresh and good quality drinking water. Good quality drinking water is clean, clear, fresh, tasteless and free from contaminants. The quality of the drinking water should be regularly checked as contaminated drinking water can cause serious disease problems.

10

Plastic cooling pads Michael Czarick1 and Brian Fairchild2 1 Extension Engineer 2 Extension Poultry Scientist University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

Though paper evaporative cooling pads have been used by poultry producers for decades, plastic pads are a relative new phenomenon. As with any new product, there are a lot of questions. By far the most common question is whether plastic pads can produce the same level of air cooling as traditional paper pads. In short, the answer is yes.

16

The air cell of the egg Fabio Bittencourt

Specialist in Incubation of chickens and turkeys

The content of this article aims to produce insights for the reader so that we can help you at some point: By the strategy of defining egg handling routines, from broiler breeder farms to the hatchery, or by improving the embryo diagnosis, remembering that it starts with observing the air cell.

2 aviNews International June 2022

Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens PhD, International Consultant

Modern laying hens have a high genetic potential to produce eggs. If they receive adequate environmental conditions, health, and nutrition, they can maintain over 90% of the laying rate for a long period of the productive cycle. In the last decade, we have seen how genetic progress has generated laying hens with an extraordinary productive persistence.

30

Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems David Lizaso Díez de Ulzurrun Artoa Animal Feed Veterinarian

Until now, almost all egg production has been carried out in cages, and therefore parasitic problems have generally not posed any threat to the producer. However, in alternative production systems with access to the outside – especially free-range and organic hens–the parasitic processes caused mainly by nematodes and cestodes gain prominence.


36

Avian Influenza in North America spring 2022

60

Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC Avian influenza (AI) is a broad term used to describe infection or disease in birds caused by Type A influenza virus of the genus Alphainfluenzavirus and family Orthomyxoviridaevirus. The virus is distributed worldwide and can infect many avian species. It can also cause a range of disease symptoms, from subclinical infections to highly virulent disease with close to 100% mortality, and even has a zoonotic risk, a major concern for a potential pandemic.

North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science, Raleigh, NC The American College of Poultry Veterinarians (ACPV) organizes one workshop every year to offer an opportunity for poultry veterinarians to gain knowledge in specific topics necessary in their daily jobs. The 2022 Workshop was titled Sensor data and analytics for poultry health, welfare, and food safety.

68 46

Safety of mycotoxins binders in poultry

Traditionally, anti-mycotoxin additives have been used for decades to prevent the harmful effects caused by mycotoxins. Historically, one of the main concerns has been the possibility of negatively affecting performance parameters, through the absorption of essential nutrients, such as minerals and vitamins, within the gastrointestinal tract.

52

Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review Edson Luiz Bordin MV, Pathologist

Jose Larger

DMV Special Nutrients/Agrimprove, Miami, FL., USA

Main learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop

Nutritional immunology is a new science. It will be more effective when the relationship between nutrition and the immune system is better understood. That’s what we’re going to focus on in this review.

The responsibility for the articles, reports, press releases and communications falls exclusively on the authors. The editor is only responsible for his articles or editorials. Neither the publisher nor the authors assume any responsibility for the damages that may be generated, whatever their nature, as a consequence of the use of the data and information contained in this magazine.

Interview Professor Dr.Bas Rodenburg

56

avinews.com

TECHNICAL direction

Farm report: Futuristic “Windstreek” house is fully energy neutral

Edgar Oviedo

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TECHNICAL partner

The EU cage ban came into force in 2012. In some counties however, primarily furnished and colony cages replaced conventional cage systems. In order to also phase out these and help farmers in transitioning to non-cage systems, the EU pilot project “Best Practice Hens” was started.

EDITOR

Utrecht University, The Netherlands Extension poultry specialist and broiler management Technical Direction

Editor avinews International

Eduardo Cervantes International Poutry Processing Consultant Technical Direction

3 aviNews International June 2022


GOOD QUALITY DRINKING WATER

biosecurity

Estella Leentfaar Nutritionist Hendrix Genetics Layers

B

irds, at all ages, must always have easy access to clean, fresh and good quality drinking water. Good quality drinking water is clean, clear, fresh, tasteless and free from contaminants. The quality of the drinking water should be regularly checked as contaminated drinking water can cause serious disease problems. Never forget the importance of water: when birds don’t drink, they won’t eat and cannot grow or produce!

4 aviNews International June 2022 | Good quality drinking water


WATER IS AN IMPORTANT NUTRIENT Often neglected as a source of nutrients, but water is a very important nutrient for all production animals. Birds consume at least 1.6 times more water than feed, with an increased amount during the period of reproduction organ development. The birds should be able to easily find, access and drink the water, besides

VISUAL INSPECTION The easiest and cheapest way to inspect the drinking water is by having a look at it. Collect water samples from the source (the well) A sample from the beginning of the water line in the poultry house A sample taken at the end of the line

they should be able to drink as much

Water intake stimulates feed intake and both water and feed are necessary for the birds’ development and the production of eggs. A decrease in water consumption can be an early warning that something is wrong with the health of your flock. Daily water monitoring is therefore an easy and clear monitoring tool.

Compare all samples with each other, this will help to understand where problems with water quality might occur. The source is not always the problem, often the water lines inside the barn can cause problems, e.g. biofilter causing discoloration or

biosecurity

as they need at any time.

debris. Relatively cheap and easy method is to make use of an inspection camera, these cameras can be used to go inside the water system itself and have a closer look what the situation is inside the system.

Good quality water is important as it can also be used as a carrier for vaccines and antibiotics / chemotherapeutics. But on the other hand, it can also be an important source of pathogens! The goal is to keep your water free from biofilm, scale, bacteria, molds, fungus, algae and yeasts, while maintaining the correct chemical values as pH.

Photo 1. Contaminated water from a drinking system, versus clean drinking water from a well 5 aviNews International June 2022 | Good quality drinking water


KNOW WHAT YOUR BIRDS ARE DRINKING

WATER SOURCE AND DRINKING SYSTEM The water quality also depends on:

Soluble minerals can easily make interactions in water, this can reduce the

the source of water,

absorption of other minerals found in

type of drinking water system used in

water and feed, therefore certain minerals

the houses (storage vessels, pipelines,

in drinking water can have an indirect

drinkers) and

negative effect.

hygiene of the water system.

For example, it is known that high iron and calcium levels can lead to

Make sure the water system is closed

deficiency of other minerals. From

and cannot be contaminated from

several minerals it is known that

the outside. When using storage

they can have a direct effect in the

vessels, pay extra attention to the

performance of the laying hens.

quality of these vessels.

biosecurity

Table 1. Water Quality

When using municipality water, it is important to discuss the water

PARAMETER

GOOD QUALITY

DO NOT USE

pH

5–8

< 4 and > 9

Hardness in German degrees

> 4 < 15

> 20

Physical aspects

Clear, colourless and odourless

Ammonium mg/l

< 1.0

> 2.0

Nitrite mg/l

< 1.0

> 1.0

Nitrate mg/l

< 100

> 200

drinking water, because of the risk of

Chloride mg/l

< 250

> 300

contamination with bird pathogens.

Sodium mg/l

< 100

> 200a > 400b

Wild waterfowl travel freely over

Sulfate mg/l

< 100

> 250

with them (i.e. avian influenza)

Iron mg/l

< 0.5

> 1.0

and dropping large amounts of contaminated droppings on their

sources with your supplier. In general municipality water has different origins, and therefore the water quality could fluctuate more. Borehole water sometimes needs

Manganese mg/l

< 0.5

> 1.0

Oxidizable organic matter mg/l

< 50

> 200

H2S

Non detectable

Non detectable

Coliform bacteria CFU/ml

< 100

> 100

Total germ count CFU/ml

< 100.000

> 100.000

a for laying hens under 20 weeks of age, for laying hens above 20 weeks of age Source: GD Animal Health b

6 aviNews International June 2022 | Good quality drinking water

some treatments to make it suitable for drinking. Surface water should never be used as a source for

the globe, carrying diseases

resting places along their way.


The water system in the houses should be regularly cleaned and disinfected. It should always be disinfected inbetween flocks and after water treatments. To keep the water system clean in longer production periods it is important to check the water system regularly. If needed it can also be cleaned during production. Make sure that the water systems are working properly after cleaning. In general, a good cleaning of the system in the empty period should

A biofilm is a layer of microorganisms contained in a matrix (slime layer), which forms on surfaces in contact with water. Their presence in drinking water

be sufficient for the whole 16 weeks rearing period and the rearing birds should get the chance to build up some immunity against normal

biosecurity

BIOFILM

environmental bacteria’s like E. coli. Semi-

pipe networks can be responsible for a wide range

continuous use of water

of water quality and operational problems.

sanitizers can interfere with this.

WATER TREATMENT A good water treatment program needs to effectively treat water coming into the poultry houses, and keep it clean all the way up to the end of the drinking

Different products can be used for cleaning the system, both in-between flocks, when the houses are cleaned and disinfected, and during the production.

water supply in the poultry house. These products can contain Your water treatment program should complement the water and make the quality consistent over time. Monitoring the water quality before

(combinations of) acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, organic acids and inorganic acids.

and after water treatment should be

Be careful of the percentages used

part of your program.

when using these products in drinking

Sanitizing the water system during the

water.

rearing period can be a risky exercise. 7 aviNews International June 2022 | Good quality drinking water


Also be careful with the taste and with the acidity of the water. Using acids, pH should be below 4, to achieve the disinfecting effect and above 3.5, otherwise it becomes corrosive and the birds stop drinking. High levels of chlorine have the same effect on the birds.

WATER ANALYSIS In order to know the drinking water quality that is provided to your hens, you can analyze the water. A proper analysis starts with good sampling and storage conditions. In total 2 liters of water should be enough to do both a chemical and microbiological analysis.

To have an efficient disinfection with

The frequency of checking should be at

chlorine, decrease the PH.

least once every 3 months. When checking water quality, it is important to check the water that

There must be no organic matter in the water, and a low iron and manganese concentration: if these conditions are not met, a proper water disinfection with

biosecurity

chloride is not efficient. Using only organic acids as a water sanitizer for a longer period can be dangerous. You can see growth of yeasts and moult in the water.

It is better to use acids and chlorine alternatively. However, always keep in mind the instructions and dosage of the supplier of the products.

Tip Adding natural dye to the cleaning products that you enter in the water line will allow you to monitor the flow of the cleaning products. You can easily check if it reached the end of the line, and next to that, also when it is completely removed from the water drinking system.

your birds are receiving, as most contamination occurs via the drinking water system and not necessarily at the source. In the Table 2 we give some simple indicators and tools to estimate the drinking water quality.

Table 2. Simple indicators and tools to estimate the drinking water quality

ESTIMATION OF WATER QUALITY pH

pH meter or pH paper

Conductibility

Conductibility meter

Hardness

Calcium sediments at the nipples, tap or in water cooker

Visual check

Clarity, sediment, biofilm

Odor

Sulphur, faecal contamination

Taste

Salty Source: layinghens.hendrix-genetics.com

Good quality drinking water DOWNLOAD THE PDF

8 aviNews International June 2022 | Good quality drinking water


An easy checklist for water supply towards your birds

Can the small birds easily activate the nipples? What is the nipple flow rate?

Is the water according to the recommendations?

Are there enough drinkers/nipples per bird installed?

Can the birds easily find and drink the water?

What is the water pressure?

For day-old chicks, is there enough light to find the water from the start? Is the water fresh (e.g. has the system been flushed shortly before the delivery of the day-old chickens)?

Always clean carefully your water systems between flocks, but be cautious when

Is the height of the drinkers correct? (adjust it over time as the chicks will grow)

leaving organic acids in mixing tanks and the

Is the system of the drinkers used the same during the different phases of production (rearing versus lay)?

and therefore biofilm issues. Always flush the

drinking lines. These acids may result in slime drinking lines prior the new flock enters the barn. In this way you still have time to solve

Are bell drinkers used or nipple drinkers, what was used in rearing?

any issue with the drinking lines and the quality of the drinking water.

What kind of nipples?

ACCELERATED genetic progress

W-80

Pink

Brown

W-36

Sonia

Silver Brown

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PLASTIC COOLING PADS MAY COMPETE TO PAPER PADS equipment

Michael Czarick and Brian Fairchild Department of Poultry Science University of Georgia, Athens, GA USA

Though paper evaporative cooling pads have been used by poultry producers for decades, plastic pads are a relative new phenomenon. As with any new product, there are a lot of questions. By far the most common question is whether plastic pads can produce the same level of air cooling as traditional paper pads. In short, the answer is yes. But just because plastic pads are capable of producing the same level of cooling as paper pads, this doesn’t necessarily mean they will.

10 aviNews International June 2022 | Plastic cooling pads may compete to paper pads


Average temperature (oF)

Average RV (%)

New paper – Old system

78.4

87.6

Plastic B New System

77.7

88.2

Plastic B Old System

79.1

88.0

Plastic BD Old System

78.6

87.8

Outside

84.2

74.8

A study comparing plastic pads to traditional paper pads was begun in the Spring of 2020 on a six-house broiler farm in North Georgia. Three of the 54’ X 500’ (16,5 x 150 meter) houses were equipped with plastic pads from two different manufacturers. One house was equipped with plastic pads provided by Big Dutchman* and two houses were equipped with plastic pads provided by Barku*. In one of the houses equipped with the Barku pads, the six-year-old water distribution systems were replaced with new systems manufactured by Barku. In order for accurate comparisons to be made between plastic and paper pads, the six-year-old, six inch (45o X 15o) paper pads in one of the houses were replaced with new 6” (45o X 15o) paper pads provided by Kuul*.

During the last ten days of the warmest summertime flock of 2021 (tunnel fans were operating 24 hours a day), the evaporative cooling pads were set to turn on at 80ºF (26.7 C) and off at 79ºF (26.1 C). No interval timers were used. Incoming air temperatures and RH, measured 18” from the evaporative cooling pads, were recorded every five minutes as were outside temperature and RH. Outside temperatures during the ten-day period ranged from around 90oF (32.2 oC) during the day to 70oF (21.1 oC) at night. Incoming air temperatures during the warmest times of the day (10 AM - 6 PM) were found to be very similar in all the houses (Table 1).

Since there was a minimal difference in incoming air temperatures, it was not unexpected to find that the incoming RH for all the houses were similar as well.

11 aviNews International June 2022 | Plastic cooling pads may compete to paper pads

equipment

Table 1. Average air temperature and RH between the hours of 10 AM and 6 PM during the last ten days of the flock


11:00 AM 11:30 AM 12:00 AM 12:30 AM 1:00 PM 1:30 PM 2:00 PM 2:30 PM 3:00 PM 3:30 PM 4:00 PM 4:30 PM 5:00 PM 5:30 PM 6:00 PM

Plastic B - News System Plastic BD - Old System

Plastic B- Old System Outside T

News Paper - Old System

Figure 1. Incoming air temperatures

100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50

11:00 AM 11:30 AM 12:00 AM 12:30 AM 1:00 PM 1:30 PM 2:00 PM 2:30 PM 3:00 PM 3:30 PM 4:00 PM 4:30 PM 5:00 PM 5:30 PM 6:00 PM

equipment

That being said, the incoming air temperature for the house with plastic pads installed in the new distribution system was consistently cooler than the other houses, including the house with same plastic pad installed in the older distribution system.

TEMPERATURE (0F)

As seen when the birds were present, there was minimal difference in the incoming temperature and relative humidity between the five study houses (Figures 1 and 2).

100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80

RH (%) / TEMP. (F)

The week after the birds were sold, daytime highs were in the mid-nineties. On one day all the tunnel fans were turned on in the study houses and the pads were operated between the hours of 12 PM and 5 PM.

Difficult to wet It is important to keep in mind that since plastic pads do not wick water like

Plastic B - News System Plastic BD - Old System

Plastic B- Old System Outside T

News Paper - Old System Outside Rh

Figure 2. Incoming RH

paper pads, they are more difficult to thoroughly wet and as a result are prone to produce less cooling than paper pads.

You have probably seen the wicking

The wicking action of paper pads is often

nature of paper pads in action when

underappreciated.

the bottom of the pad is sitting on an overfilled reservoir pipe and the bottom six to twelve inches of the pad is wet even

If a distribution pipe hole or two are

though the circulation pump is off.

clogged or a circulation pump is not

Since there is essentially no wicking

circulating the proper amount of water,

action with plastic evaporative cooling

the entire pad area will still tend to be

pads, it is crucial that the water

wet due to water moving from the wet

distribution system is delivering as much

areas of pad to the dry areas.

water as possible to all pad surfaces.

12 aviNews International June 2022 | Plastic cooling pads may compete to paper pads


JOIN THE POULTRY SCIENCE COMMUNITY IN PARIS!

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Specialized Sessions All WPSA working groups will have at least one session. Among our keynote speakers: Shai Barbut on meat quality, Roselina Angel on mineral nutrition, Joel Gautron on egg quality, Atushi Asano on reproductive physiology, Fallou Gueye on Small Scale Family Poultry Production.

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Wherein the past the farm manager would partially close the valve above the circulation pump to keep water from spraying out the top of the distribution system to a minimum, the valves above were opened fully. This was necessary because during

Though fully opening the valves did

preliminary testing it was discovered

result in significant water wastage in

that when the valves were partially

the houses with the older distribution

closed, portions of the plastic pads

systems, it was deemed necessary

remained dry, which resulted in a

in order to determine the maximum

reduction in cooling.

cooling ability of the plastic pads.

Twice the volume new distribution system and the older distribution systems on the farm was that the circulation pump in the new system was capable of circulating roughly twice the volume of water.

To date, the field study has demonstrated that plastic pads are capable of producing similar cooling to traditional paper pads. The lack of wicking action makes plastic pads more difficult to thoroughly wet compared to paper pads, which may result in reduced cooling in certain situations.

An equally important difference was

Having a distribution system capable

that distribution system cover was cable

of efficiently circulating a large

of focusing the increased volume of

volume of water over plastic pads

water onto the top of the pads with

will help insure that they produce the

little to no water wastage.

necessary level of cooling to keep

equipment

One of the key differences between the

birds comfortable during hot weather.

The ability of the new distribution system to deliver roughly twice the water to the pads very likely contributed to the slightly greater cooling produced by the plastic pads installed in the new distribution systems than those pads in the older distribution systems.

Source: poultryventilation.com *Trade and brand names are used only for information. The Cooperative Extension Service, The University of Georgia College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences does not guarantee nor warrant the standard of any product mentioned; neither does it imply approval of any products to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable.

Had all distribution systems been replaced, the slight cooling differences observed between the study houses may have been different.

Plastic cooling pads may compete to paper pads DOWNLOAD THE PDF

15 aviNews International June 2022 | Plastic cooling pads may compete to paper pads


THE AIR OF THE Author: Fabio Bittencourt Broiler and turkey incubation Specialist

CELL EGG

incubation

This phenomenon, when properly understood, is very relevant for anyone who wants to improve the productivity of their hatchery.

The content of this article aims to produce insights for the reader so that we can help you at some point: Or by the strategy of defining egg handling routines, from broiler breeder farms to the hatchery, Or by improving the embryo diagnosis, remembering that it starts with observing the air cell.

16 aviNews International June 2022 | The air cell of the egg


PROPERLY DEFINED FEATURES When the egg is laid, it does not contain an air cell. The membranes and the eggshell are taking up the space.

The air cell is located between the inner and outer shell membranes, which remain in contact with the albumen and the shell, respectively.

ND MEMBRAN

E Cuticle

EGGS

The size of the air cell varies according to:

Eggshell Inner membrane Outer membrane

incubation

E

A LL

The air cell is sometimes called the air space or air chamber.

The permeability of the shell, the age of the egg, and the temperature and humidity conditions to which the egg is subjected.

S

H

Its shape resembles a double convex lens.

The curvature of its outer boundary is the same as that of the shell. The opposite side may be less convex if the air cell is small. But it resembles the curvature of the outer boundary if the air cell is large.

The size of the air chamber is also related to the size of the egg. The larger the size of the egg, the larger the air chamber.

Air cell

Albumen Blastodisc Yolk

Chalazae

17 aviNews International June 2022 | The air cell of the egg


How quickly the air cell form depends on how the egg is cooled after being laid.

If the air temperature is low, the air cell may appear within a short time, such as two minutes.

2 min

Therefore, the initial size of the air cell represents the reduction in the volume of the eggs.

There is considerable evidence supporting the previous explanation of the origin of the air cell. For example, the refrigerated egg has its air chamber enlarged. The opposite is also true, it becomes smaller when the egg is kept warm.

incubation

In a hot and humid environment, it may take several hours to form.

In most chicken eggs,

It is worth noting why it is not recommended to incubate the egg during the day or even before lowering 6a 10

they appear in 6 to 10 minutes. Immediately after emergence, its average diameter is 0.5 to 0.9 cm, and the volume is 0.1 to 0.2 cc, depending on the size of the egg. But after two hours, it will be 1.3 to 1.5 cm in diameter.

Since the egg begins to lose heat immediately after it is laid and continues until its internal temperature approaches that of the air around it.

18 aviNews International June 2022 | The air cell of the egg

the internal temperature. The formation of the air chamber does not depend on chalazae or the yolk.


The normal position of the air cell is at the farthest angle of the egg (Figures 1 and 2) and its functions are: Perform gas exchange. Provide air to the embryo to pip the inner membrane, the moment when pulmonary respiration begins. The embryo head rests directly under the air cell, a reference measurement position for the external height of the internal and external pipping.

If the air cell is not at the wider end of the egg, the chick can incubation

suffocate inside the shell.

The inadequate size and position of the air cell will make it difficult for the chick to pip the eggshell properly. In Figure 3 the typical section is observed, while in Figure 4 the section is abnormal, which will lead to a lesion at the crest insertion level. Figure 1. The air cell should widen to reach the widest diameter of the egg.

Figure 4. Normal eggshell When you notice these lesions on the

Figure 3. Normal eggshell.

beak (Figure 5) it is a sign that this chick spent a lot of energy to get out of the eggshell, much above what is considered normal. This extra effort will directly impact the quality of the chick (example: less livability).

19 aviNews International June 2022 | The air cell of the egg


In this way, the wide part where the air cell will form will come in contact with nest or bedding materials. And as we’ve already talked about how the air chamber is formed, it’s evident that eggs with dirt on the wider end are more likely to be contaminated. Figure 5. Chick with beak lesion. When this is perceived, it is recommended to reduce this negative impact to avoid the holding time of these chicks longer than five hours after hatching.

After its formation, the air cell increases in size and causes the evaporation of humidity from the egg contents. For this reason, air cell size is often taken as an index of egg quality and age.

incubation

These chicks should be housed as soon as possible and, preferably, they are not subjected to long trips, as this will worsen their quality.

INADEQUATE POSITION OF THE AIR CELL

POROSITY Usually, but not consistently, eggshell pores are more numerous at the egg’s larger end than at the smaller. So this gives us a reasonable basis for setting up our egg collection program because when the egg is laid, the part of the air cell comes out of the cloaca first.

In fresh eggs, the air cell is rarely displaced from its normal position at the egg’s larger end. However, sometimes the air cell can be found at the narrower end, or on one side, of the egg. Sometimes, the air cell appears to be within the egg’s inner membrane, and it moves freely around the albumen throughout the egg. This is known in artificial incubation as a mobile air cell.

20 aviNews International June 2022 | The air cell of the egg


One way to solve this doubt is to separate these eggs when found, cook them in water and open them after they are cold. Then we will be able to see where exactly the air cell is.

This fact is observed in a widespread way in hatcheries, which causes significant damage. When we have many eggs with such characteristics, we have great possibilities of

In double yolk eggs, the air cell is almost always shifted to the side of the egg.

increasing the contamination of eggs by the so-called microcracks.

ROUGH HANDLING OF EGGS Rough handling, particularly in transport, can damage the eggshell the egg’s contents and thus accelerate

Eggs with air cells of this type are not

physical disintegration.

appropriate for prolonged storage. It can result in a relaxation of the

The dissonance can cause separation

albuminous structure, including

between the shell membrane and the

chalazae, whose function is to keep the yolk in its central position for the proper development of the egg embryo.

egg membrane, resulting in a somewhat mobile or unstable air cell. Sometimes

incubation

and the architectural distribution of

a loose air chamber consists of several air bubbles forming when the inner membrane ruptures.

The air cell of the egg

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21 aviNews International June 2022 | The air cell of the egg


CRITICAL POINTS

IN THE NUTRITION OF

LAYING HENS

Laying hens

Douglas Zaviezo Ph. D. International Consultant LPN Congress 2021 Miami, USA-October 2021

M

odern laying hens have a high genetic potential to produce eggs. If they receive

adequate environmental conditions, health, and nutrition, they can maintain over 90% of the laying rate for a long period of the productive

In the last decade, we have seen how genetic progress has generated laying hens with an extraordinary productive persistence, accompanied by a slight decrease in body weight, feed intake, and egg size, reaching 50% production earlier than ten years ago.

cycle.

22 aviNews International June 2022 | Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens


Modern laying hens, a challenge for nutritionists

Therefore, it is necessary to prepare the layers to start the lay with a suitable size

Modern laying hens represent a challenge

and bodyweight:

for nutritionists, as one can no longer

A feed intake of at least 95 g and

entirely rely on scientific information

ideally 100 g daily with an adequate

generated in the past with other types of

calcium reserve means a well-

birds.

formed medullary bone. To interrelate the above parameters, the rearing diets must stimulate the increase in the size of the digestive tract and increase the levels of fiber. It is also important to use feed with a

Laying hens

One could think of an increase in nutritional requirements. However, they still produce one egg per day, with slightly reduced daily egg mass. Therefore, daily nutritional requirements should not have increased; hence the importance of considering the nutritional requirements of the hen in the laying phase based on a daily intake of nutrients

granulometry of around 1.0 to 1.2 mm from the fifth week of age.

It is recommended to use fiber levels of 3.5% from 5 – 11 weeks and

The importance of reaching the bodyweight during rearing

3.5 to 4.5% from 12 to 18 weeks of age. Pullet rearing diets from 0 – 4 and 5 – 11 weeks of age should

One of the frequent problems today is in birds that are reaching peak production and cannot consume enough feed. Thus, they have to rely on their fat and bone structure to compensate for the lack of nutrients, generating a typical drop-in production that will impact the performance of the hens for

be formulated with no less than 18 and 16% protein, respectively, with corresponding amino acids to ensure good growth. Metabolizable energy levels should not drop below 2,750 kcal/kg after 12 weeks.

the rest of their days if stocks are not adequate and demand is high.

23 aviNews International June 2022 | Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens


Bone formation For bone formation, the nutrition of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D3 during growth is essential. Maintaining the proper ratio between available calcium and phosphorus and providing adequate levels of these minerals during pre-laying for proper medullary bone formation.

Medullary bone formation begins about ten days before laying, and the bird’s skeleton increases by 20%. This is due to a hormonal synergism of estrogens and androgens that indirectly increase the absorption and retention of calcium and phosphorus.

This process is reflected externally with the growth and coloration of the comb and barbels. It is completed by around 30 weeks of age. During laying, the formation of the medullary bone occurs between each ovulation and is due exclusively to the action of estrogens. The calcium in this bone (approximately 1 g) is always available for eggshell formation.

Ovary

Anatomical part (cm) 7

Oviduct

9

Follicles Infundibulum

Functions Gamete formation Yolk deposit Fertilization vitelline membranes

Time 150 days 10 days 20m

33 Magnum

Albumen deposit

3h30m

10 Isthmus

Testaceous membranes

1h15m

10 Uterus 10 Cloaca

Diagram of the egg formation.

24 aviNews International June 2022 | Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens

Albumen Hydration Eggshell formation Oviposition

21h 1h30m

From 24 to 26 hours

Laying hens

It is necessary to deliver enough nutrients to the diet at the right time for this process to work. Otherwise, marrow reserve will be maintained at the expense of structural bone, resulting in leg weakness and cage fatigue.


Calcium The particle size of the calcium source is one of the essential measures to maintain good eggshell quality. Particles larger than 2 mm are retained in the gizzard and slowly solubilized, delaying the assimilation of calcium. This dietary calcium will be available during the night when the greatest calcification of the eggshell occurs. The hen will not rely exclusively on the medullary

Laying hens

bone’s calcium.

Kidney 1c, hydroxylase 1,25 (OH)2D3

20-30 mg

E2 Ovary

Calcium in blood

25-OH D3

D3 Liver 25, hydroxylase

Intestine Ca++

Bone

Inhibits

Egg Figure 1. Calcium homeostasis (modified from Soares 1984)

25 aviNews International June 2022 | Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens


Phosphorus level The dietary level of available phosphorus is also important in the quality of the eggshell. An appropriate level and ratio of available calcium and phosphorous are necessary for optimal bone calcification and medullary bone formation during bird growth.

Laying hens

However, during laying, a

Vitamin D3

relatively high level of available phosphorus inhibits calcium mobilization from bone; Because although there is availability of dietary calcium during the night, the hen will always resort to the medullary bone to obtain part of the calcium that goes to the eggshell. Also, the mobilization of

Adequate vitamin D3 inclusion in the diet is essential for good bone and eggshell calcification. Metabolites of vitamin D3 are currently available to increase calcium retention and reduce mortality.

Zinc, manganese, and copper

calcium from the bone implies the presence of a high level of phosphorus in the blood.

It is also crucial that the diet contains adequate zinc, manganese, and copper levels because they participate in the formation of the internal membranes or cuticles of the eggshell and the

Therefore, limiting the level of available phosphorus in the diet, especially after 60 weeks of age, is necessary to improve eggshell quality.

organic matrix of the shell. Zinc aids in the availability of carbonate to form calcium carbonate in the eggshell. The addition of these minerals through a good organic source has been found to be more beneficial.

26 aviNews International June 2022 | Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens


Heat stress and eggshell quality When hens are under heat stress, the continuous panting generates a drop of carbonate in the blood and the consequent deterioration of the quality of the eggshell due to due to a lack of carbonate. To improve the situation, in this case, the use of sodium bicarbonate in the diet up to a maximum of 0.3% should be adviced to replace salt. Furthermore, vitamin C can be added to the diet, which favors converting 25(OH) D3 to 1,25(OH)2 D3. Feed and water consumption

Laying hens

can also be increased with one additional hour of nightlight.

Feed selection by the hen Laying hens need a minimum daily intake of metabolizable energy of 280 to 300 kcal/kg with a balanced intake of digestible amino acids, minerals, and vitamins to ensure adequate egg production and size. When the hen is in production, it can select different diet components during

Levels equal to or greater than 17% crude

the day.

protein have traditionally been used in

This is a very efficient process, so it is recommended to present a feed where the grain and the calcium source have

laying hen diets. However, the current trend is to formulate based on the essential digestible amino acid requirements.

a particle size between 3 and 5 mm,

Excessive levels of protein in the diet

promoting its selection.

not only means a high additional cost

At least 2% additional oil or high lipid ingredients, such as whole soybeans, are recommended to reduce dust and assist the bird with finer feed selection.

of the formula but can also affect the productive performance of layers, especially when the hens are under heat stress conditions.

27 aviNews International June 2022 | Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens


Its digestion and metabolism generate

The amount of information that has been

an unnecessary body caloric increase,

generated about the digestibility of amino

circulating amino acids increase, decreasing

acids in raw materials and the required levels

appetite and causing the excretion of

allows us to formulate laying hen diets with

excessive amounts of uric acid, with energy

greater precision. Table 1 shows the updated

expenditure, which will ultimately increase

range of suggested daily intake levels of

environmental pollution.

digestible amino acids for laying hens.

It is important to mention that laying hens do not have a crude protein requirement. They only need an amount that ensures a sufficient nitrogen reserve to synthesize

Laying hens

dispensable amino acids.

During the last decade, many studies have been carried out to determine the daily needs of amino acids in laying hens. Therefore, formulating a proven practice based on the essential digestible amino acid requirements. Layers fed a 13 to 14% protein diet, adequately supplemented with pure amino acids (methionine, lysine, tryptophan,

Digestible amino acid

Ideal relationship

mg/day

Lysine

100

800 - 750

Lethionine

50

400 - 375

Met + Cys

88

705 - 660

Arginine

105

840 - 790

Threonine

72

575 - 540

Tryptophan

21

170 - 160

Valine

89

710 - 670

Isoleucine

79

630 - 590

Leucine

120

960 - 900

Table 1. The suggested ratio of digestible amino acids for laying hens.

arginine, threonine, valine, and isoleucine) have been shown to perform optimally, similar to those fed a control diet with 16% or 18% protein. Accurate and reliable values of digestible amino acids in the

CONCLUSION

ingredients are essential to obtain these results.

Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens

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28 aviNews International June 2022 | Critical points in the nutrition of laying hens

It is a great challenge to adapt the nutritional programs required by the new genetic strains of laying hens. They are very efficient birds with a great propensity to produce eggs and, therefore, more sensitive to any nutritional alteration.


@ZucamiGLOBAL ZUCAMIPOULTRY

Polígono Morea Norte, Calle C - Nº 2 • 31191 Beriáin, Navarra (Spain) +34 948 368 301 @ contact@zucami.com

www.zucami.com


EMERGING PARASITIC PROCESSES IN ALTERNATIVE POULTRY SYSTEMS David Lizaso Díez de Ulzurrun Artoa Animal Feed Veterinarian

U

ntil now, almost all egg

Little did I predict when I finished my veterinary

production has been carried

degree at the University of Zaragoza, back in 1996,

out in cages, and therefore

that one of the headaches in the exercise of my

parasitic problems have generally not

profession as a poultry veterinarian would be the

posed any threat to the producer.

parasitic processes caused mainly by nematodes

Laying hens

and cestodes.

However, in alternative production systems with access to the outside –especially free-range and organic hens– the parasitic processes caused mainly by nematodes and cestodes gain prominence.

Unlike the well-known problems caused by protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus or the Cryptosporidium genus widespread in poultry production in general. Additionally, the irruption in the market of the different alternative egg production systems –mainly free-range and organic hens– with abroad caused my first necropsy encounters with these worms in the digestive tract of our hens.

Figure 1. Heterakis gallinarum

One of the main reasons, if not the main reason why egg producers modernized their farms and introduced hens in cages, was undoubtedly to avoid the parasites that had given them so much problems in the past. The fact that practically all egg production was carried out in cages for decades meant that parasites generally did not threaten the egg producer. In my beginnings with alternative systems, I remember rereading books on avian parasitology from the 1950s and 1960s since modern

30

publications dealt with these topics little or nothing. aviNews International June 2022 | Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems


Nematodes In general, nematodes constitute

The eggs deposited by the

the most important group of

females reach the outside

helminth parasites of birds.

through the droppings.

In addition, they greatly exceed both

For the eggs to become infective

the number of species and the damage

for birds, extracorporeal existence

caused to trematodes and cestodes.

is necessary since the conditions within the definitive host are adverse to their development.

Description Nematodes, or roundworms, are usually spindle-shaped with attenuated anterior and posterior ends. Transverse grooves often mark their cuticle, and they can have fins on both the front and back of the body.

Embryonation

Outside, with optimal humidity and temperature factors, embryonation takes place, usually lasting between 10 and 12 days. Finally, the hens become infected: By directly ingesting the embryonated eggs and the free larvae

Laying hens

By ingesting the intermediate host – grasshoppers, ants, beetles, snails, etc.

Figure 2. Usual morphology of nematodes

By injecting the larvae by a hematophagous arthropod

With few exceptions, nematodes are sexually

The families of nematodes that most affect

differentiated.

laying hens are Ascaridiidae, Heterakidae, and Capillariidae, which generally cause

Generally, the male can

weight loss in birds and correlate with a

be distinguished from the

greater or lesser parasite load. Hens infected

female by the presence of

with large numbers of Ascaris suffer from:

two chitinous structures known as spicules located

Loss of blood

on the back of the body.

Increased urate

The function of these spicules is to keep the female’s vagina, and vulva open during copulation

Thymus retraction An Increase in mortality is mainly caused by the appearance of secondary infections, which take

and, to some extent, guide

advantage of that parasitism.

sperm into the vagina. Half of the nematodes do not require invertebrate intermediate hosts for their

Figure 3. Ascaridia galli

development, but the other half do and use insects, slugs, snails, etc., during the early stages of development.

31 aviNews International June 2022 | Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems


Fight against nematodes

–anti worms–

Periodic rotations in parks

Reduction of intermediate hosts –insecticides–

Symptoms

Birds infected with these nematodes

Eliminate the largest number of adults

show signs of weakness and emaciation and often spend a lot of time with their eyes closed and their heads thrown back. They move their heads forward and up and open their mouths wide to inhale air from time to time. They also often make convulsive shakes of the head to remove the obstruction of the

A notable effect of the infection, at least from an aesthetic point of view, is the appearance of the adult individual in the hen’s egg.

trachea to reestablish normal breathing.

Supposedly the worms migrate up the oviduct through the cloaca with

Figure 4. Heterakis Gallinarium

Symptoms after nematode infestation In laying hens, one of the first symptoms that appear after a nematode infestation is the increase in declassified eggs, mainly pale eggs. There are other nematodes, such as Oxyspirura, located in the eye of birds or Syngamus with tropism for the trachea. The Syngamus nematode is very peculiar

Syngamus nematode

Laying hens

subsequent inclusion in the egg.

in that the larvae mainly penetrate the duodenum and are transported to the lungs by the bloodstream through the liver and heart.

Control measures against nematodes Most of the control measures against nematodes focus on the life cycle’s interruption. So it is convenient to work on three fronts: Eliminating the largest number of adults through the use of authorized anti-worms such as flubendazole or piperazine. Reducing the largest number

The larvae probably rupture capillaries

of intermediate hosts such as

in the lung in the interlobular connective

snails, grasshoppers, ants, or flies

tissue and migrate into the parabronchi,

through the use of insecticides

molting and developing into the adult stage. Adults enter the trachea and become firmly attached to the trachea wall 11 days after infection.

Management of the parks, carrying out periodic rotations to avoid a high parasitic load.

32 aviNews International June 2022 | Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems


Cestodes and trematodes Known colloquially as “flatworms,” they belong to the genus Platyhelminths phylum and are found with some

Flukes are also flat parasitic organisms but differ from nematodes by having a digestive system and not having separate proglottids. The life cycle of all trematodes

frequency in the intestinal tract of

that parasitize birds requires a mollusk

birds with access to the outside.

as an intermediate host, usually snails.

The times of greatest abundance are As the adult trematodes and the

greater presence of intermediate hosts such as earthworms, snails, or insects. There are three families –Davainidae, Dilepididae, and Hymenolepidae– and the most common genera are

Trematodes

spring and summer, mainly due to the

larval metacercariae invade almost all the cavity and tissue of the birds, they can be found unexpectedly at necropsy. The body of the adult resembles a leaf and has two suckers.

Amoebotaenia, Davainea, Raillietina...

commonly segmented with individual segments called proglottids. One or more gravid proglottids are shed daily from the posterior distal end of the worm. Tapeworms are characterized by the Absence of a complete digestive system and feed by absorbing the intestinal contents of the host. Birds become infected by ingesting the intermediate host, which introduces the larval stage into the intestine of the definitive host. Most cestodes are usually a specific host for a type of bird or group of birds, so it is crucial to diagnose the species as close as possible to establish specific control measures depending on the type of cestode. The cestodes cause emaciation, inflammation of the villi, and the consequent loss of weight, altering the productive parameters.

They lack an anus, so the excretion of the eggs occurs through collecting tubes that empty through a pore near the rear end of the parasite.

Laying hens

Description

Cestodes are flattened, ribbon-shaped worms,

One species of Prosthogonimus causes losses for poultry producers by drastically reducing egg production, although its occurrence is relatively uncommon.

All trematodes require a mollusk as an intermediate host, usually snails. As with nematodes, the evolution of production systems from the 1960s towards the confinement of birds almost totally reduced the appearance of these parasitic processes. In the USA, in 1932, between 20% and 25% of the birds that were sent to the laboratory had this type of parasite in their digestive tract. Thus, returning to production

Figure 5. Head of a cestode of the family Hymenolepididae

systems with access to parks caused by consumer demand for differentiated poultry products has brought with it the emergence of almost forgotten pathologies.

33 aviNews International June 2022 | Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems


The incubation period is usually

Fortunately, we have antiparasitics to carry at the ovarian level, so they do not limit the placing of eggs on the market. It is important to remember the different intermediate hosts’ fundamental roles. Since, when it comes to closing the parasite’s life cycle, everything that reduces their presence in

around 7-12 days and originates when

Incubation period

out treatments that are also not absorbed

the histomonas penetrates through the wall of the ceca, multiplies, passes into the bloodstream, and finally parasitizes the liver. The first signs to appear are sulfur-colored stools, and in some cases, bloody cecal excretions may appear that can confuse the

the parks will contribute

diagnosis with coccidiosis.

to the non-appearance of these parasitic processes and, therefore,

Figure 7. Histomona meleagridis

to the improvement in the sanitary status of the birds.

Laying hens

Figure 6. Railletiniosis

Histomoniasis I do not want to finish this article without special mention of this disease caused by a protozoan called Histomona meleagridis. Recent cases are reported in Europe, mainly linked to the peak production period. The essential role in the emergence of this process of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum and earthworms comprise one of the most intriguing relationships in parasitology. Histomonas are found in the epithelial cells of the intestine of worms, and it is these that act as transport hosts in which Heterakis eggs hatch, and the juvenile forms survive in the infective stages.

The earthworm serves to collect Heterakis eggs in the production of alternative systems with access to the outside.

Histomonas meleagridis lesions affect a large part of the liver.

34 aviNews International June 2022 | Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems


Histomoniasis is transmitted through Heterakis eggs.

Since transmission of histomoniasis

Primary lesions

occurs via heterakis eggs, effective

Primary lesions occur in the ceca

control measures are primarily directed

and liver. After tissue invasion,

at reducing or eliminating this parasite.

the cecal walls are thickened with a serous and hemorrhagic

Preventive chemotherapy through the

exudate that becomes

use of anti worms is very effective

caseous in its central part.

in controlling intermediate hosts. Within the anti worms, there are only two

Ceca

registered with a suppression period in eggs of 0 days, which are flubendazole and fenbendazole. Therefore, they would

Thickening of cecal walls

be the only ones that could be used in

Laying hens

Liver

production without diverting the eggs. It is crucial to emphasize that currently, poultry veterinarians do not have any specific drug to combat Histomoniasis directly. Still, we can only

Liver lesions

act against intermediate hosts, which

Liver lesions appear ten days postinfection, and their appearance

drastically reduces the effectiveness of controlling this disease.

is very varied. They are usually circular areas of necrosis 1 cm in diameter circumscribed

The imidazole derivatives used in

by an annular elevation.

the past cannot be used today. The periods of sanitary vacuum are of particular importance. We must

In severe infections, the lesions may be small and numerous, discolored green or tan in color, and involve much of the surface of the liver.

take advantage of disinfecting and disinfecting both the interior of the farm and the park areas closest to the production poultry house. Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems

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35 aviNews International June 2022 | Emerging parasitic processes in alternative poultry systems


AVIAN INFLUENZA IN NORTH AMERICA

SPRING 2022

Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón1 and Rocio Crespo2 1Prestage Department of Poultry Science - North Carolina State University 2College of Veterinary Medicine - North Carolina State University

pathology

A

vian influenza (AI) is a broad term used to describe infection or disease in birds

caused by Type A influenza virus of the genus Alphainfluenzavirus and family Orthomyxoviridaevirus. The virus is distributed worldwide and can infect many avian species. It can also cause a range of disease symptoms, from subclinical infections to highly virulent disease with close to 100% mortality, and even has a zoonotic risk, a major concern for a potential pandemic

The influenza virus was first isolated in the early half of the twentieth century. Since 1959, 44 genetically distinct epizootics associated with high mortality in poultry have been described. The largest outbreak spread intercontinentally began in 1996 in domestic geese in China.

36 aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022


Influenza viruses are classified by examining

The viruses can cause localized

the nuclear and matrix proteins

infections, primarily associated with

There are three types of flu viruses: A, B, and C. All avian influenza viruses are type A.

respiratory disease, and are usually referred to as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. The viruses that cause systemic infections typically

Traditionally, type A influenza viruses are classified into subtypes based

have high mortality and are categorized as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses.

on antigenic differences of the two surface proteins hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N).

The LPAI viruses can be of many different hemagglutinin and

These two proteins on the virus surface make it capable of entering and exiting host cells.

neuraminidase subtypes. Although most of the viruses that belong to the H5 and H7 subtypes are

At least 16 hemagglutinins and nine neuraminidase subtypes are recognized

generally low pathogenic, they have the potential to mutate to HPAI.

from avian origin. Consequently, the numbers.

Matrix (M1)

pathology

subtype is labeled with the N and H

M2 io channel

Hemmaglutinin (HA)

Neuraminidase (NA)

Nuclear export protein (NEP)

Nucleo protein

Polimerase complex (PA, PB1,PB2)

Photo 1. Influenza virus structure

37 aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022


In 1996, an HPAI H5N1 emerged in Hong Kong and Guangdong. This virus is known as H5NI A/goose/ Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD). Between 2008 and 2010, this virus generated novel reassortments by introducing other neuraminidase subtypes (i.e., H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8).

Five genetic order clades (a, b, c, d, and h) predominate in these H5Nx HPAI outbreaks. These viruses were transferred to different continents by wild migratory birds that follow seasonal flyway patterns around the North Pole and occasionally contact birds that migrate from and to the South.

The 2.3.4.4c lineage was responsible for a major outbreak in North America between 2014 and 2015 after wild birds crossed from Asia via Bering Strait.

The H5Nx HPAI Gs/GD continues to circulate and evolve in wild birds and poultry and has been responsible for most outbreaks in poultry in the last 15 years.

The WHO/FAO/OIE H5 Evolutionary Working Group clustered these H5Nx HPAI Gs/GD viruses into a systematic and

pathology

unified nomenclature of clade 2.3.4.4. In virology, a clade describes groups of similar viruses based on their genetic sequences, and changes in those viruses

That outbreak was the worst animal disease epidemic in US history. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that more than 200 premises were affected in 15 States, with more than 48 million birds depopulated.

can also be tracked using phylogeny.

This genetic subgroup was eradicated from poultry in June 2015 and somehow disappeared

The clade 2.3.4.4 has diverged into eight genetic subgroups labeled from a to h. Since 2014 this linage of viruses has spread in: Europe, Middle Eastern, Africa, and North America

38 aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022

from wild birds in North America by the end of 2016. So far, there is no clear explanation why subgroup c disappeared.


clade 2.3.4.4b subgroup appeared in Europe. These viruses then spread to Africa and Asia. Late in 2021, the virus was detected in North America. It is believed that these viruses came from Europe to North America via the North Atlantic flyway (Photo 2). Molecular biology studies have demonstrated that Eastern Canada viruses are most closely related to European viruses from Spring 2021.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has indicated that

The observed persistence and continuous circulation of HPAI viruses in migratory and resident wild birds will continue to pose a risk for the poultry industry in Europe for the coming months. Some European countries have reported the presence of these 2.3.4.4b subgroup viruses in mammals. In the last five months:

2021, and March 2022, 2,653 HPAI

The UK reported one human infection with A(H5N1),

virus detections were reported in

China 17 human infections with A(H5N6), and

In Europe, between December 9,

33 European countries and the UK in poultry (1,030), wild (1,489), and captive birds (133).

Viral migration of Group A HPAI

Dec 2014-Jun 2015 in North America

China and Cambodia 15 infections with A(H9N2) virus.

Since HPAI H5 viruses of the clade 2.3.4.4 were first detected in 2014, only 77

Viral migration of Group B HPAI

people have been reported to be infected

Viral migration of Group C HPAI

in China. EFSA and other International

Viral migration of Group D HPAI

Organizations consider that the risk of

Breeding site of migratory wild birds

infection for the general population is

Virus circulation in poultry

low, and for occupationally exposed people to infected flocks, low to medium. There is consensus in the scientific community and food safety specialists that infection with avian influenza virus in humans is not possible by consuming poultry products like poultry meat or eggs. Jan 2014 Winter 2014-2015 Winter 2016-2017 Winter 2016-2017

Jan 2014-Apr 2016 in South Korea

Photo 2. Geographic map showing movement patterns of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses. Source: Lee et al. J Vet Sci 2017, 18(SI), 269-280, 2017 https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2017.18.S1.269 39

aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022

pathology

In the last quarter of 2016, the HPAI H5


THE CURRENT SITUATION IN NORTH AMERICA

Outbreaks Since December 2021, the H5Nx Gs/GD

The viruses isolated in the USA are closely

Eurasian HPAI lineage (clade 2.3.4.4) has

related to Eastern Canada viruses.

affected wild birds and non-commercial and commercial poultry in North America. The first detection occurred in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in black-backed gulls and a backyard flock with mixed poultry species.

As of April 20, 2022, the USA has reported 582 wild birds, 138 commercial and 75 noncommercial flocks in 29 States affected by 2.3.4.4b HPAI virus (Photo 3). This outbreak has affected more than 28.81 million poultry,

pathology

The current outbreaks include:

15.3 million laying hens and pullets in 14 cases,

migratory aquatic birds,

2.1 million broilers in 9 locations,

raptors,

3.9 million turkeys in 93 cases, and

backyard and village poultry,

over a hundred thousand mixed flocks

and

in 7 cases.

commercial poultry.

Photo 3. Distribution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 and H5N1 in North America, 2021/2022.

40 aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022


Transmission and carriers in North America Constant updates are available on several websites from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), a division of the USDA, for wild birds and commercial and

The AI virus transmits by: Contact between naive and infected birds and Indirect contact with contaminated

backyard flocks.

equipment and materials. WILD BIRDS

Infected birds excrete the virus in feces and secretions of the

COMMERCIAL AND BACKYARD

upper respiratory tract and eyes. Waterfowl and shorebirds are the

Chickens infected with the clade 2.3.4.4b

generally show no signs of illness

HPAI virus present severe early illness

but excrete the virus for long

in one- or two days post-exposure with

periods. The H5 HPAI Gs/GD can

ruffled feathers and extreme lethargy. By

cause mortality to wild birds.

pathology

natural reservoirs of AI, and they

the third day, birds become: Cyanotic with necrotic combs and wattles Wild birds migrate with seasons, and Presenting with necropsy hemorrhages

consequently, when they contact infected

on legs

birds from contaminated areas, they can receive the virus and disseminate the

Periorbital edema

infection as they follow their migratory pathways.

Lethargy

Most birds in North America are There are no apparent signs in turkeys until

migratory according to the National

close to death, but the severe lethargy,

Audubon Society (Photo 4)

huddling, and ruffled feathers are common. Turkeys also can present locomotion issues and neurological symptoms.

70% of birds in North America migrate More than 80% make their seasonal flights at night.

41 aviNews Inter International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022


Ornithologists recognized four main flyways:

Photo 4. Birds’ migration in North America.

MOST BIRDS IN NORTH AMERICA ARE MIGRATORY

Atlantic,

PACIFIC FLYWAY

Mississippi, Central, and Pacific flyways.

ATLANTIC FLYWAY

70% of terrestrial recurring birds are migratory

80% These natural bird behaviors represent a higher risk for poultry.

of those birds migrate at night

MISSISSIPPI FLYWAY CENTRAL FLYWAY

Looking at the current reports of HPAI detection between December 2021 and today, we observe that all migratory flyways are

pathology

compromised in these outbreaks.

Photo 5 and Photo 6. Map of 2022 H5N1 reported in the United States and Canada for 2021-2022.

So far, no H5 Gs/GD Eurasian HPAI has been reported in Mexico or other countries in the south covered by the Central or Pacific flyways

(Photo 5 and Photo 6).

After the second week of April, the number of cases detected in the Southern States has reduced but increased in the Northern States. This epidemiological pattern reflects the migratory movement of wild birds to the North in this period of the year. The epidemiological trend reduces risk in the broiler-producing States in the USA. Still, it increases risks for turkey and table egg producers in the North and the poultry industry in Canada.

42 aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022


Control There is an agreement that the main control measurement against avian influenza continues to be biosecurity. The whole management plan of control includes: Increasing awareness

Information about biosecurity to reinforce knowledge and practice is available on several websites from the USDA and Canadian governments, universities, and other organizations. GOVERNMENT OF CANADA Avian influenza in wild birds

Strengthening biosecurity Enhancing detection in wild birds and

GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

commercial poultry

National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard (2nd edition)

Applying quarantine for infected flocks Depopulation of infected flocks as quickly as possible, within 24 hours after

THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

detection

mortality

USA, the USDA has a plan for appraisal,

Elimination of the virus by complete cleaning and disinfection

Maintaining biosecurity

depopulation, and compensation. The compensation requires that affected

Testing after 21 days of depopulation Restocking under surveillance

In case of dealing with an outbreak in the

pathology

Proper management and disposal of

producers and growers certify and verify that a biosecurity plan was in place before the HPAI detection. The compensation payment for depopulation costs can be split between the contract grower and the integrator company owner of the flocks. The first indemnity payment is received early in the response process to deal with quarantine costs.

43 aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022


The USDA compensation also includes a

Yet, even if vaccines are used, they will

standard amount according to the:

be part of a comprehensive control

category,

program where enhanced biosecurity, biosurveillance, rapid depopulation,

size,

and other virus elimination methods

the number of birds in the flock

the outbreak resolution.

continue to be the main components of

depopulated, and the costs of virus elimination activities.

In a situation where the AI virus, especially the HPAI strains, is becoming endemic despite other measurements, vaccination could provide an additional control tool.

pathology

Vaccination against HPAI has been used as a preventive measure in Mexico, China, and Hong Kong. It has reduced mortality, but vaccination has not been able to control the spread of HPAI.

However, screening methods for commercial flocks may have to be modified when approved for vaccination.

We hope this article has contributed to understanding some terminology used in the multiple reports given lately about this disease and summarized

The USDA APHIS and Canadian

the current status in North America

authorities have not approved the

for a disease that raises human health

use of vaccines. But, according to

concerns in a world more aware of

previous communications, USDA

viruses.

APHIS is taking the steps necessary to be ready to make this decision.

The websites provided may help

This includes:

keep you updated on the evolution of these outbreaks that hopefully

Reviewing new vaccines for

can be resolved by the end of this

licensing

summer.

Securing that enough doses of approved vaccines will be available Completing any required environmental assessments

Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022 DOWNLOAD THE PDF

44 aviNews International June 2022 | Avian Influenza in North America Spring 2022


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CONTACT US!

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SAFETY OF MYCOTOXIN BINDERS IN POULTRY

Jose Larger, DVM Agrimprove/Special Nutrients

nutrition

Traditionally, anti-mycotoxin additives have been used for decades to prevent the harmful effects caused by mycotoxins.

Historically, one of the main concerns has been the possibility of negatively affecting performance parameters, through the absorption of essential nutrients, such as minerals and vitamins, within the gastrointestinal tract. Under commercial conditions, there are cases of farms that have reported that some products are capable of affecting the ideal level of birds’ productivity.

Considering all these factors, it is crucial to review the results of in vivo tests when evaluating the mycotoxin binders to be used in the feed.

46 aviNews International June 2022 | Safety of mycotoxin binders in poultry


To understand whether these products affect production efficiency per se, it is necessary to pay attention to the treatment used in the experimental design. This only contains the control feed without mycotoxins and the evaluated binder’s inclusion.

If any decrease is identified in daily body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and some other parameters, there is a chance that the additive is causing deleterious effects on the birds in the experiment.

In several tests carried out in different experimental research institutions located in different countries, their effects on the bone composition and skin pigmentation in broilers were evaluated. The last cited research measured the effect on performance parameters and bones in ducks.

Among the research reviewed in this article, we include the evaluations of two types of anti-mycotoxin additives.

One of the trial objectives was to determine the effect of the anti-mycotoxin additive on bone composition. Thirty-two five-day-old male broilers were used in the experiment. Performance was evaluated up to 38 days of age. Ash, calcium, and phosphorus in the bone were measured in all broilers from treatments 1 and 2. (Casarin et al. 2006 International Poultry Forum. Atlanta, GA, USA).

A traditional clay A modified clay

Effects of a modified clay and T2 toxin on bone composition and performance of 38-day-old broilers fed experimental diets for 33 days.

Bone ash

Calcium in the bones (%)

Phosphorus in the bones (%)

ADBWG

ADFI

FCR

1. Control

45.95a

23.87 a

8.71 a

54.8a

105.3a

1.92a

2. Control + 0.25% Modified clay

44.20a

25.11 a

8.66 a

51.3a

103.0a

2.01a

3. Control + 1.25 ppm T-2

N/M

N/M

N/M

44.9b

98.4a

2.19b

4. Control + 1.25 ppm T-2 + 0.25% modified clay

N/M

N/M

N/M

53.5a

101.4a

1.90a

TREATMENT ADBWG = average daily body weight gain ADFI = average daily feed intake FCR = feed conversion ratio N/M = No measured

a, b,

Means within columns without common superscripts differ significantly (P≤ 0,05)

47 aviNews International June 2022 | Safety of mycotoxin binders in poultry

nutrition

Effect of a modified clay on the bone composition and performance parameters in broilers


Effect of a modified clay in broiler skin pigmentation

Effect of a modified clay on broilers performance at 49 days of age.

This experiment evaluated the effect on the skin pigmentation on the carcass before refrigeration in commercial broilers (Forat et al. IIIA, Querétaro, México. 2011/ unpublished).

nutrition

During the first 14 days, no pigment was included in the diet, and from 14 to 49 days, 60 ppm of total xanthophyll were added. All diets included 60 ppm salinomycin. Skin color was measured at 49 days of age with the Minolta CR 300 method.

TREATMENT

ADBWG

ADFI

FCR

Control

2987 a

6056 a

2.03 a

Control + xanthophyll

2987 a

6032 a

2.02 a

Control + xanthophyll + 1 kg/MT modified clay

2982 a

6027 a

2.06 a

MT = Metric tons ADBWG = Average daily body weight gain ADFI = Average daily feed intake FCR = Feed conversion ratio

The results indicated that no significant differences were detected in the skin color when the group treated with the modified clay was compared with the treatment that only included xanthophyll.

Values within a column with different letters are significantly different (P< 0,05) a

Effect of a modified clay on skin pigmentation of broilers at 49 days after evaluation with a Minolta camera

TREATMENT

Lightness

Red a*

Yellow b*

Chroma (Orange) c*

Control

74.2 a

5.1 a

19.9 a

20.6 a

Control + xanthophyll

70.0 b

3.0 ab

41.6 b

41.9 b

Control + xanthophyll +1 kg/MT Modified Clay

71.4 b

1.4 b

41.1 b

41.2 b

Values within a column with different letters are significantly different (P< 0,05) a

48 aviNews International June 2022 | Safety of mycotoxin binders in poultry


Effect of a traditional clay on bone structure, target organs and performance in ducks

The objective was to demonstrate the safety of natural clay in highly susceptible animals such as ducks, based on the effect on performance, bone strength, liver characteristics and protection of target organs.

THAILAND STRENGTH DAY-OLD DUCKS KHON KAEN UNIVERSITY POULTRY RESEARCH CONTAMINATED WITH 120 PPB

When Clay (2.5 kg/MT) was added to the diet, without the inclusion of AFL (treatment 2) a better performance was obtained in some parameters and bone structure than in the group where mycotoxin and Clay were not added (treatment 1). When Clay (2.5 kg/MT) plus 120 ppb AFL (treatment 5) was tested, it showed significantly better performance, target organ protection, and bone strength than ducks receiving only AFL on diet (treatment 3).

49 aviNews International June 2022 | Safety of mycotoxin binders in poultry

nutrition

One day-old commercial ducks were fed a diet naturally contaminated with 120 ppb AFL at the Khon Kaen University poultry research farm in Thailand (Wongtangtintharn, S. et al. XXV Worlds Poultry Congress. Beijing, China. 2016).


Effect of a traditional clay and Aflatoxin on performance and bone strength in ducks of 4 weeks of age

Feed intake g

Body weight gain g

FCR g/g

Viability %

Tibial bone porosity

1. Control

2777 a

1630 a

1.70 a

97.5 a

1.08 b

2. Control + 2.5 kg/MT Natural clay

2776 a

1660 a

1,67 a

100 a

1.03 a

3. 120 ppb AFL

2595 c

1406 c

1.85 b

87.5 b

1.70 e

4. 120 ppb AFL + 1.5 kg/MT Natural Clay

2680 b

1533 b

1.75 ab

100 a

1.25 d

5. 120 ppb AFL + 2.5 kg/MT Natural Clay

2826 a

1629 a

1.74 ab

97.5 a

1.17 c

6. 120 ppb AFL + 3.5 kg/MT Natural Clay

2845 a

1644 a

1.73 ab

97.5 a

1.14 c

nutrition

TREATMENT

a, b, c

Means within a column without a common superscript differ significantly (P<0.05)

In conclusion, in the experiments reviewed in this article, no negative effects were detected on the productive results neither in the bone structure of the birds evaluated when including two types of commercial antimycotoxin additives. Safety of mycotoxin binders in poultry

DOWNLOAD PFD

50 aviNews International June 2022 | Safety of mycotoxin binders in poultry


www.mycotoxin.com


interview

INTERVIEW

PROFESSOR BAS RODENBURG UTRECHT UNIVERSITY, THE NETHERLANDS by Ad Bal

“Taking layer welfare to a higher level across Europe” The EU cage ban came into force in 2012. In some counties however, primarily furnished and colony cages replaced conventional cage systems. In order to also phase out these and help farmers in transitioning to non-cage systems, the EU pilot project “Best Practice Hens” was started. “This will further improve hens welfare across Europe”, says project coordinator Professor Dr. Bas Rodenburg. 52 aviNews International June 2022 | Interview with Professor Bas Rodenburg , Utrecht University, The Netherlands


Bas Rodenburg is Professor of Animal

“The first step towards improved layer

Welfare at the Faculty of Veterinary

welfare was taken in 1999, when Council

Medicine at Utrecht University in The

Directive 1999/74 /EC was adopted by

Netherlands. From this position, he also

the European Union”, says Bas.

took the role of project leader “Best Practice Hens”, which was initiated by the European Commission in May 2021.

The objective of this so called DG SANTE (the Commission’s Directorate General for Health and Food Safety) pilot project is to support egg producers in transitioning to higher welfare-non-cage systems and to

“This directive included the complete ban on conventional cages for commercial laying hens as of 2012 across the EU. European layer farmers had the opportunity to gradually change to new systems, which met the EU standards from that date forward. These systems were enriched and colony cages, as well as aviary and outdoor (free range and organic) systems”.

A consortium, consisting of 7 partners,

“Currently, we are ten years further in

is developing Best Practices for

time”, Bas Rodenburg continues. “And EU

Non-cage Egg Production Systems.

citizens and NGOs are calling for further

These Best Practices will provide practical support to egg producers to encourage them convert from cage systems to non-cage

interview

further improve animal welfare.

improvements in laying hen welfare, for instance through the European Citizens’ Initiative ‘End the Cage Age’, that was supported by over 1.3 million EU citizens.

systems, including free range and organic production. The pilot project will finish in May 2023.

The Best Practice Hens project aims to support the transition towards non-cage systems with a special emphasis on countries where the majority of the hens is still kept in furnished cages.

53 aviNews International June 2022 | Interview with Professor Bas Rodenburg , Utrecht University, The Netherlands


This will be realized by sharing knowledge and best practices from countries that already keep the majority of their hens in non-cage systems, whilst also adjusting this knowledge to the local situation in the target countries. In many of the target countries, there is already a growing demand from the market for eggs from cage-free systems, stimulating the egg sector to switch to non-cage systems by 2025. However, the

“Of course “Best Practice Hens” is a European wide project”, Bas continues. “It is organized by the European Commission, and managed by a consortium with seven parties from various European countries involved. These are: universities, research institutes and an NGO.

transition is not always straightforward for the producers in the target countries and they may have doubts about the feasibility of transitioning.

interview

They may also have questions regarding the novel housing systems and the management of these systems. This pilot project aims to help producers in transitioning”

Our objective is to collect and bring together as much information (best practices) as possible from non-cage layer housing systems and convey and disseminate all this knowledge to producers throughout the EU and specifically those in the target countries (Spain, Poland, Portugal and Belgium). This refers to all aspects of managing layers, including the raising of pullets.

SOURCE MAP

54 aviNews International June 2022 | Interview with Professor Bas Rodenburg , Utrecht University, The Netherlands


Which bird type is the best? A white layer weighs less than a brown bird for example and moves

PR campaigns are being set up to reach the layer business in those countries.

up easier to the higher positioned

Our aim is to reach layer farmers

tiers in an aviary system.

and advisors, but also veterinarians,

However, it also depends on consumer preferences of course, if brown or white birds are to be kept.

decision makers and politicians, agri-food chain players, etcetera. Instruments for this purpose are distributing leaflets and

Based on literature and practical

showing video’s, joining local

information, such as management

activities, exhibitions, etcetera.

guides and interviews, we have defined 67 best practices for both the rearing and laying stages. This refers to:

Preventing feather pecking Use of perches, etcetera. We suppose that indoor aviary systems will be the most common solution for existing professional layer operations in the target countries, rather than organic systems. However, there may also be farms and situations in which a transition to a free range or organic farm may be decided.

In each of the target counties, a dedicated dissemination event will be organized, and all materials will be available in multiple EU languages through our website. In addition, a final event will be organized for the whole EU. Participants from all Member States, including business operators will be invited to disseminate the transition materials as widely as possible. We hope to make the layer business everywhere in Europe aware of the benefits of further improved bird welfare. With the help of useful best practices “.

interview

Nutrition

To read more visit: https://bestpracticehens.eu/

Interview with Bas Rodenburg, Utrecht University, The Netherlands DOWNLOAD THE PDF

55 aviNews International June 2022 | Interview with Professor Bas Rodenburg , Utrecht University, The Netherlands


FUTURISTIC “WINDSTREEK” HOUSE IS FULLY ENERGY NEUTRAL farm report

Ad Bal

R

obert Nijkamp is an innovator. The broiler grower from The Netherlands designed a very special, fully naturally ventilated and energy neutral “Windstreek” house. He permanently collects and connects big data in order to as effectively as possible manage his flock in this unique house.

“We have been raising broiler birds on our farm for about 60 years”, says Robert. “In two regular houses (with daylight in the houses and a extrernal wintergarden), we keep 45.000 broilers.”

56 aviNews International June 2022 | Futuristic “Windstreek” house is fully energy neutral


liveweight of 2.5 kgs.

In the year 2010 we started thinking of another house. However, since we were convinced that innovation was essential, this new house had to be of a different design and “futureproof”. Hence, we got in touch with the Wageningen University in our country (WUR). This resulted in high involvement of the university in this special project. Moreover we contacted suppliers and also in close cooperation with a number of them, the Windstreek design was born.” The very unique house measures 23 x 90 meters. It offers space to 25.000 birds, also of the slow growing Hubbard breed.

WIND DIRECTION The most eye catching aspect of this house is of course its shape. Some people even think it’s a soccer stadium. Windstreek is the Dutch word for “wind direction”. That refers to the principle of its construction and ventilation system. On the one lateral side, the house is only 3 meters high, while at the other side it measures about 12 meters high. It is completely naturally ventilated without any fans. The entire ventilation system is based on natural principles, being relative humidity and temperature. On the low side, fresh air comes in through inlets. The incoming air is warming up, thanks to the body temperature of the birds.

farm report

All are slow growing Hubbard birds, raised under the “one star better life” label, which is a qualification of the Dutch organization for protecting animals. This involves that our birds are taken to slaughter at 56 days of age, when they have reached an average

As a result, this warm air moves upwards and leaves the house through outlets at the high end on the opposite side (Photo 1). This airflow is fully natural, also thanks to the slope shape of the roof. On many places inside the house, sensors measure temperature and relative humidity. The air inlets and outlets are controlled permanently, based on these figures, mainly on relative humidity.

Photo 1. Warm air leaves the Windstreek house through outlets at the upper end of the building 57 aviNews International June 2022 | Futuristic “Windstreek” house is fully energy neutral


For this purpose, smart software has specifically been designed. A vast surface of solar panels is placed at the roofs of the other buildings on the farm. All electricity needed and mainly for heating the brooders, is obtained from these panels. As a result, the electricity supply is fully energy neutral.

When day old chicks arrive for a new round, temperature inside is too low. “For this reason we place them underneath an infrared brooding line, which runs over the full length of the house”, says Robert. “This

farm report

feels as if they can hide under the wings of mother hen. Also this is very energy saving, since only the space underneath the brooding line is heated, rather than the full house. This saves up to 75% of the energy input.” (Photo 2).

Photo 3. Either by jumping or by means of stairs, the birds have access to higher positioned tiers with straw bales

Photo 2. Once the infra-red brooding line is lifted, the young birds have full access to the litter area

STRAW BALES Once the chicks are growing bigger, they get access to the full surface of the house. There’s a litter area, but Nijkamp also created higher positioned tiers. These are easily accessible for the birds, either by means of stairs, or by jumping (Photo 3). On these tiers (slatted floors), the birds find straw bales, allowing them to scratch. “Broiler birds like to sit in a higher position”, says Robert. “These bales create extra movement space for them.”

“The benefit from this house is not so much a gain in FCR and less mortality”, Robert continues, referring to the economics of the Windstreek house. “These figures are similar to our other houses. FCR is equal or even slightly higher. The greatest benefit is that this house is fully energy neutral. We have no energy expenses and as a result it is very sustainable. Other benefits are lower emissions from ammonia, odor and particulate matter. The result is a very pleasant climate inside. That is truly a positive aspect, both for the benefit of the birds and for ourselves”.

58 aviNews International June 2022 | Futuristic “Windstreek” house is fully energy neutral


BIG DATA “However, we don’t stop at this stage”, Robert continues. “The basis for properly managing the flock, is having ample data available, to quickly respond to the circumstances. Real time information is useful. All kinds of data can quite easily be measured through sensor technology. But that doesn’t necessarily add so much to the data we have available already”, says Robert.

Also, we can derive data from the veterinarian and other sources. This may explain what the flock behaviour can be after vaccination. Do they again drink

Photo 4. Robert Nijkamp: “In order to achieve the best possible conditions for our flock in the Windstreek house, we need to collect and connect big data” farm report

“It doesn’t really make sense to measure feed consumption, for example. The birds will empty the feeders anyway. But that doesn’t say too much. Measuring water consumption is more useful instead. The more the birds move, the more water they drink. Where does that signal come from? It seems obvious that the incidence of light causes more movement of the birds. In that case, no measures are needed. We try to understand the biorhythms of the birds.

“In the end, that’s what it is all about. We aim to achieve the best possible conditions for our flock in the Windstreek house”, Robert concludes. “Keeping

mother hen in mind and create natural circumstances. Thereby managing the flock on the basis of solid real time data.” (Photo 4).

more water? We connect the available data from different computers and platforms to each other. And based on these big data analyses, we aim to predict the health condition of the flock.” That’s why Robert founded farmersnet.org. Through this, farmers can join and help each other to develop new big data analysis with themselves in the lead.

During the upcoming VIV Europe tradeshow in Utrecht, The Netherlands, from May 31 - June 2, Robert Nijkamp will be on display with farmersnet.org.

Futuristic “Windstreek” house is fully energy neutral DOWNLOAD THE PDF

59 aviNews International June 2022 | Futuristic “Windstreek” house is fully energy neutral


MAIN LEARNINGS OF THE

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF POULTRY VETERINARIANS WORKSHOP

events

Edgar Orlando Oviedo-Rondon1 and Federico Etcheverry2 1Prestage Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University 2Anprocampus

T

he American College of Poultry Veterinarians (ACPV) organizes one workshop every year to offer an opportunity for poultry veterinarians to gain knowledge in specific topics necessary in their daily jobs.

60 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop


The ACPV Workshops in the past five

The 2022 Workshop was titled Sensor data

years focused on diverse issues such as:

and analytics for poultry health, welfare,

incubation and hatchery

and food safety.

performance,

The workshop addressed technologies available to monitor the health status

communications,

of flocks, disease prevention, improving

updates on poultry vaccination,

animal welfare, and food safety.

animal welfare, and

This hybrid workshop had two

antibiotic use.

course online and one live event in

components one virtual interactive Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, that is now also available online. In Vancouver, four of the ten speakers participated with remote presentations.

However, this learning opportunity is not Over 120 people took the workshop,

limited to Veterinarians, and any person

and about 60 attended the meeting

involved in the poultry industry could

in Vancouver, despite travel limitations

benefit from the information gathered

events

due to COVID-19.

in these workshops. Generally, this workshop has been organized before the Western Poultry

The interactive course Introduction to

Disease Conference on the west coast

Data Analytics provides a short overview

of the United States, Mexico, or Canada,

of data analytics techniques applied in

or in Ocean City, Maryland, during the

poultry production and health. It includes

National Meeting on Poultry Health and

eight modules:

Processing. The next meeting will be hosted in Sacramento, California, in Spring 2023.

1

Statistical Thinking

2 Identifying Potential Root Causes

Due to the pandemic, the 2020 and

3 Data Visualization and Graphics

2021 workshops were virtual, and the entire content presented was recorded. Videos and proceedings are available on-demand on the ACPV website. The ACPV intends to

4 Compiling and Collecting Data 5 Data Preparation for Analysis 6 Logistical Regression

offer this material for two years after each event.

7

Decision Trees and Random Forests

8

Neural Networks

61 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop


Each module describes the topics, provides a couple of examples with detailed solutions, and exercises either in

Dr. Suresh Neethirajan, former associate

R or JMP software. These introductory

professor at Wageningen University &

modules were extracted from the

Research in the Netherlands, presented

Data Analytics for the Poultry and

his vision of using sensors to monitor

Swine Industries course, containing 32

commercial poultry’s physiological

interactive modules and 11 webinars with

responses and behavior.

worldwide experts developed by NC State University through Anprocampus. In the live session, the invited speakers discussed methodologies used to gather

events

and analyze data.

He showed examples of how multimodal

One area of great interest was using

continuous real-time heterogeneous sensor

electronic sensors available for

data acquired by video cameras, thermal

monitoring poultry environments,

cameras, microphones, a variety of sensor

behavior, health, and welfare and

platforms on the vocalization calls, visual

the ones available to track and

activity index, egg production, variations

improve biosecurity and facilitate

in humidity and temperature, feed and

management.

water intake can be used via sensor fusion

The other was proper data collection, organization, storage, control,

approach for data analysis and prediction model development.

governance, and the tools and techniques used to analyze data.

62 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop


Dr. Neethirajan explained how the poultry

Biosecurity is a key element in preventing

industry could harness the massive

diseases, minimizing production losses,

datasets of health and welfare indicators

reducing antibiotic use, and the impact of

in poultry systems to predict disease

important zoonotic diseases. Dr. Jean Pierre

before it strikes and takes management

Vaillancourt, a Professor at the University of

interventions to avoid them.

Montreal, shared his experiences with sensors

Various Artificial Intelligence algorithms can be applied to

to improve compliance and obtain real-time critical information about on-farm activities.

determining the patterns and trends

Dr. Vaillancourt discussed several studies

in the indicators and predictors of the

demonstrating that biosecurity practices

health and welfare of poultry.

are frequently inadequate.

Digital biomarker sensors can

Although the principles and effective

capture data to shift from reactive to

biosecurity practices are well-known

proactive.

and continually reminded to all poultry personnel and stakeholders, their 50%.

The sensor technologies and the methodology of big data analysis are the keys to leveraging poultry health data in enabling the farmers to transform the health and welfare management.

Dr. Vaillancourt explained the benefits of using a radio-frequency-identificationbased (RFID) real-time continuous automated monitoring system to assess farm and regional biosecurity compliance. The RFID is a low-cost wireless technology connecting billions of things to identify, locate, transact, and authenticate products.

63 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop

events

compliance rates often do not exceed


At the farm or hatchery level, hand sanitizing compliance and tracking of

Continuing with the live program in

personnel in farms and other poultry

Vancouver, a panel of three speakers

facilities have improved in those adopting

representing companies that offer

RFID. Placing these RFID in work shoes can

monitoring and data analytics services

track who gets in and when in each facility.

discussed their visions.

Using this technology increased changing boot compliance from 53 to 93%.

Health, presented Poultry Sense, a service

RFID can be linked to a sound alarm

for monitoring birds’ environment in real-

when non-compliance is detected.

time.

That real-time feedback immediately improves adherence to all practices. These electronic sensors can help to enhance the effectiveness of biosecurity programs, interventions, or incentives to achieve true biosecurity. Various sensors have been evaluated in

events

Dr. Alan Beynon, representing MSD Animal

regional biosecurity to improve disease outbreak response and minimize regional disease spread. Sensors tested include:

This technology links environmental data with feed intake, weight, flock code, and veterinary diagnostics, among other parameters. The analytics platform created to present this data allows the creation of customized reports to track birds by genetics, geographical regions, and feed type.

Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE),

This type of information can help

GPS,

leading to better and faster solutions.

veterinarians make informed decisions

Mid-range and short-range RFID, and LoRa, a low-power wide-area network modulation technology.

These sensors can be placed in feed trucks, birds or mortality vehicles. They help determine where these vehicles enter, how long they stay in each place, and whether they use wash bays. With network analysis models, it is possible to study how the movements of vehicles, equipment, people, or animals affect the spread of a disease and make corrective measurements in real-time. 64 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop


Dr. Kevin Watkins representing Asimetrix, computing, and machine learning technologies. Remote sensors include hanging and platform scales, environmental monitoring, and vision systems.

An inability to put data into actionable outputs or align decision-makers on how to use analytic services can result in inaction even when data tells you something. Some decision-makers

Kevin mentioned that Asimetrix

discount data and rely more on

provides real-time web reports, custom

experience.

alerts, chatbots, and descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive analysis.

Value can also fall short when companies can’t integrate data

But experience has taught us that

across their operation, when critical

we often don’t spend enough time

data are unavailable, or when

learning about the more complex

decisions are not promptly made.

process of how the poultry industry uses data to make decisions. Electronic sensors are already in place in many poultry facilities, but there are still gaps between receiving information summaries and actions to be more productive. Kevin left several interesting thoughts that triggered further discussions. For example, the return on data collection and analytics investment depends on implementing that knowledge gained with the data analysis process.

Poultry production moves fast, and analytic services also need to speed up. The speed of poultry production

events

discussed their remote sensing, cloud

often becomes an excuse for not learning from deviations or a pretext for quickly responding without cause. Not learning is a missed opportunity for improvement. But acting without justification might mean you overreact to normal variation, only making matters worse. We don’t just need to know when and where to act but when not to act.

65 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop


Simon Cohen, M-Tech Systems Chief

In the afternoon, Dr. Maurice Pitesky from

Marketing and Sales Officer, continued this

the University of California Cooperative

discussion, presenting their 30 years of

Extensive presented the topic of data

experience in data capturing, traceability,

challenges and practical aspects of machine

and big data analysis in MTech’s platform.

learning-based statistical methods to

Simon gave examples of the whole process of data gathering through

Poultry data is frequently incomplete,

environmental, bird and feed weight

inaccurate, insufficiently integrated, and

sensors, water flow sensors, and

not leveraged for decision making.

machine vision.

Dr. Pitesky’s described the utilization of

He continued his presentation with

data integration and data visualization

data cleaning and analysis of artificial

for whole company analyses.

intelligence to detect the impact of factors on plant condemnations.

events

analyze poultry data.

One of the participants’ main concerns was data governance, the confidentiality of the data, data security, and the willingness to share in the industry to make progress. Among the conclusions, Simon Cohen stated a well-known principle in data security:

Additionally, he illustrated how machine learning models could help make better predictions. Later, Dr. Gustavo Machado, associate professor at North Carolina State University, provided an overview of epidemiological models to reproduce trajectories of outbreaks. He presented examples of modeling Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV)

there are only three types of companies, those that were already hacked, the ones that will be hacked, and the ones that are being hacked right now. Simon and the other panelists stated

and Salmonellosis infections. The IBV is a major economic burden in North America, and despite vaccination, the high mutation rate triggers the emergence of new viral strains hindering control and prevention measures.

that, in their experience, sharing data

The phylodynamic analyses conducted

successfully is possible. When it is not

used information from isolates from 65

feasible for multiple constraints or

genetic sequences and the vaccination

hesitations, numerous opportunities can

information of each farm.

be developed within the companies to explore and use that valuable information hidden in the data. Nevertheless, data sharing continues to be important.

Combining this genetic information with geostatistical information can help track the spread and evolution of the disease.

66 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop


Finally, Joe Heinzelmann from Neogen Surveillance samples and Salmonella

covered applications of track and tracing

serotyping from turkey farms were used in

endeavors in food safety, specifically some

the Salmonellosis example.

of the technologies being evaluated, used,

The models demonstrated seasonality

and leveraged according to rule 204.

of Salmonella presence and that

Joe presented data aggregation

Salmonella was more likely to occur in

engines and data deployment

older farms than in farms built more

solutions to improve workflows,

recently.

processes, and decision making.

Also, the contact network connectivity

The workflow systems must define

analyses indicated that Salmonella

and deliver new insights, enhance

dissemination in this study case was

data quality, and unique metrics to

unlikely to occur by movement of

determine deployed programs’ risk

turkeys among farms.

profile and overall effectiveness.

Dr. Jose Linares from CEVA Animal Health presented examples of analysis and use of

management is critical for the success of new technologies.

diagnostic and monitoring data. Using real values, Jose showed how data could be visualized, integrated, clustered, correlated, and put into economic analysis to determine the benefit of changes or interventions. Dr. Linares also emphasized the importance of the process of data cleaning and homogenization, followed by merging and consolidation.

Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop

The workshop aims to contribute knowledge and ideas for developing more effective sensor technologies and data analytics applications to improve all aspects of the poultry industry. The full content of this workshop is now available on the ACPV website, offering RACE, NC State University, and ACPV certifications.

DOWNLOAD THE PDF

67 aviNews International June 2022 | Main Learnings of The American College of Poultry Veterinarians Workshop

events

Joe also concluded that change


IMMUNOMODULATORY AND IMMUNOSTIMULATING EFFECTS OF BETA-GLUCAN: A REVIEW Immunology

Edson Luiz Bordin MV, Pathologist

N

utritional immunology is a new science. It will be more effective when the relationship between nutrition and the immune system is better understood. That’s what we’re going to focus on in this review.

68 aviNews International June 2022 | Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review


Infectious diseases, possibly contagious in swine, avian, bovine, and other species, cause damage, corroborated by the reduction in the use of antibiotics, increasingly legislated.

Currently, there is an intense scientific movement devoted to immune tissue, its development, and functioning, seeking more effective technologies, with resistance to antigens, and ultimately, more production.. In recent decades, Immunosuppressive viruses such as Gumboro disease in birds and circovirus in swine have greatly catapulted the development of veterinary immunology. This coincided with the advent of molecular biology and technological support, high-tech vaccines, and new diagnostic methods.

The identification of dendritic cells, for example, occurred at this time, as well as some specifications of the B cell, and some immunoglobulins. (13).

Together with recombinant vaccines, the development of more efficient and safer adjuvants is another example. The enhancement of the immune response, intestinal or general, and reducing dependence on antibiotics is great. Today there is a multitude of molecules promoted for this and other purposes. Further on, categories of compounds in use are listed.. There are experimental studies to assess their effectiveness; some prove benefits, while others do not, reflecting the lack of adoption of an adequate experimental methodology.

69 aviNews International June 2022 | Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review

Immunology

It increases the importance of the immune system.


These are the most commonly used categories of compounds:

1 Acidifiers Organic and inorganic acids;

2 Essential oils

3

Don´t wa S te your energy!!!

Minerals ZN, Se, etc.;

4 Stimulants of

5

BIOSURFACTANT for: Fat digestibility and absorption enhancer.

digestive functions Enzymes;

Nucleotides acids Nucleics;

Optimization of fatty acids profile in the diet.

6 Probiotics and

7

Diets cost reduction. Zootechnical performance improvement.

Thymol, etc.;

prebiotics Fermentable bacterias and fibers;

Immunomodulators Beta-glucans.

Phone +34 91 725 08 00 www.liptosa.com

liptosa@liptosa.com

...the green way of life

These effects are welcome in an environment without antibiotic growth promoters, considering a system compatible with proper management and animal welfare.


Strictly speaking, benefits are sought or promoted, such as:

Decreased PH and increased anaerobic activity; Production of SCFA (short-chain fatty acids); Reduction of pathogen adherence to enterocyte receptors; Reduction of intestinal permeability; Increase of intestinal immunity and regulation of inflammation; Greater resistance to intestinal aggressors.

BETA-GLUCAN Beta-glucan, notably in humans, has been studied in some pathologies such as diabetes. This compels experimentation with production and companion animals, to control various pathologies, although with a more discreet representation. Let’s stick to dietary fiber. According to Rosch, C(1),, dietary fiber is a carbohydrate polymer with three or more monomer units that do not undergo digestion.

They are D-glucose monomer polysaccharides joined by B-glycosidic bonds, with various conformations and part of fungi’s cell wall, for example. The same reference (1) characterizes beta-glucan also as hemicellulose. In a recent review in 2016(12), beta-glucan does not fall into the category of fermentable prebiotic by lactobacillus, as are FOS, GOS, and MOS, but rather as an immunomodulator of the response. For information regarding the fermentative characteristics, in vitro and in vivo of fibers in general, refer to the relevant bibliography (1, 9, 16).

Strictly speaking, beta-glucan obtained by alcoholic fermentation is considered quite effective in this function, so there is a direct relationship with the industrial method of obtaining it (9, 16).

71 aviNews International June 2022 | Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review

Immunology

Competition, adsorption, and exclusion of pathogens;


Bone Marrow

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Hematopoietic Stem Cell

Lymohoid Progenitor Cell

Myeloid Progenitor Cell RBC Platetlet

Immunology

Neutrophill Eosinophil

Natural Killer Cell

T Lymohoid

B Lymohoid

• Helper cells • Regulatory cells Plasma Cells • Cytotoxic cells

Basophill Moncyte Dendritic Cell

Adaptative

Antibodies

Figure 1: Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system (Adapted from Rosch1)

Macrophage

Innate

To better understand how beta-glucans work, let’s briefly review the immune system. Above are the cells involved in immune and inflammatory reactions, considering innate and adaptive immunities. The first is nonspecific, recognizes and eliminates the pathogenic agent quickly, and constitutes the main focus of the immediate defense.

The adaptive is slow and specific, occurs through the production of immunoglobulins and memory cells, and promotes the pathogenic agents’ elimination.

Thus, resistance to an agent defines immunity. But what gives the immune system the ability and adaptability to mobilize a network of specialized cells and proteins to defend against infectious agents and altered cells?

This is what we propose to discuss now.

72 aviNews International June 2022 | Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review


Lymphoid tissues and their resident cells Intestine Thymus - T and B cells, macrophages and antigen-presenting cells (DCs or dendritic Cells);

Bone marrow - all lineages, including monocytes, macrophages, except T cells; Lymph nodes - B and T cells, with B in the cortex and T in the medulla of the organ and macrophages. In pigs, B cells settle in the cortex and T cells in the medulla. It is the opposite of what happens in other animals and man;

The intestine is the organ that most includes defense cells. Immune cells (T and B lymphocytes) located in the mucosa differentiate and develop as they are stimulated by pathogens or foreign molecules. T cells depend on macrophages in this intermediation. B cells do not because they have globulin receptors.

Jejunal Peyer’s patches - B cells, macrophages, and DCs;

Ileal Peyer’s patches - B cells;

Tonsils - T and B cells, macrophages, and DCs;

Fabricius bursa - mainly B cells.

73 aviNews International June 2022 | Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review

Immunology

Spleen - white pulp (T and B lymphocytes) the red pulp (erythrocytes);


Note (figure 2) that there are differences in the populations of immune cells in the different intestinal germinal centers. They occur in a more significant expansion in the lateral panels, with a profusion of B cells, notably. In the central panel, this activity is more

Immunology

discreet.

Figure 2: Immune cells in the mucosa. Osman (2011)

SPF animals have a lower distribution of immune cells, which increases with age and exposure. There are about 250 PP (Peyer’s patches) and numerous follicles at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa so that no change in diet and biome goes unnoticed by the immune system of vertebrates, including fish. In the germ nuclei formed in the immune reaction, there are regions of B cells and T cells, between macrophage cells and others. In the ganglia, the same process

In the second part of this article, which you will find in the December issue of aviNews Brasil, we will discuss the Immunomodulatory and Immunostimulating effects of Beta-glucan: reaction to antigens.

occurs. Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review

DOWNLOAD IN PDF

References on request from the author.

74 aviNews International June 2022 | Immunomodulatory and immunostimulating effects of beta-glucan: a review


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