Issue Nº 3
p. 18 Jorge Amado
Ad Bal · Editor aviNews International Think different
POINTING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION
aviNews International the English-language poultry magazine for the international market aviNews® International agriNews®
Don’t underestimate backyard farming by the way. To a large extent, this is currently still common use in quite a number of countries around the world. Nothing wrong with of course. Keeping chickens in the backyard is an inexpensive way of getting an egg on the menu. And if these birds are no longer productive, they will end up on the grill, being an inexpensive piece of chicken for evening dinner. Often, these backyard chickens have turned feed ingredients which they could find wherever they could, into animal protein with a high nutritional value. Professional poultry production is based on productivity and efficiency. However, this system is receiving criticism as well. Next to other animal production sectors, the poultry industry is also blamed for using feed ingredients from large scale, grain production areas like in Brazil. And thus contributes to demolishing mother earth. The search for alternative production systems is therefore being investigated as well. The Netherlands ministry of agriculture even promotes en advocates new systems which are based on a circular way of farming. One such an example is the Kipster layer farm concept. It was founded by 4 investors with a vision, among which CEO Ruud Zanders.
Editor aviNews International +31 629791019 firstname.lastname@example.org avicultura.info
Prior to that, Ruud was running a large scale professional layer operation, but this went wrong. This made him thinking about a different way of egg production and the Kipster concept was born. This idea was also based on a meeting he had with a couple of poultry farmers from Africa. These paid a visit to The Netherlands in order to see, understand and learn from the Dutch way of poultry farming. Ruud took them around and showed them various operations. These African farmers were stunned to see that cereals were fed to chickens. “If we have cereals available, we eat those by ourselves rather than feeding them to chickens”, was their point of view. This opened Ruud’s eyes and became one of the cornerstones of the Kipster business model. Currently there are three Kipster farms operational and further expansion, also outside The Netherlands is expected. It is operating according to the circular way of farming with full care for the environment and human and animal welfare. Yet, Kipster is a commercial layer operation, making money. It is a different approach, but it proves that it is possible to produce eggs in a sustainable way. The commonly advised management of the flock of course is to be applied like in every commercial flock. A saying in our country is that “various roads lead to the city of Rome”. That absolutely also holds true for poultry farming and has been proven by Kipster.
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ADVERTISING Luis Carrasco +34 605 09 05 13 email@example.com Natalia Bellés +34 664 66 06 05 firstname.lastname@example.org CUSTOMER SUPPORT Mercé Soler EDITORIAL STAFF Ad Bal José Luis Valls Osmayra Cabrera Daniela Morales Maria de los Angeles Gutiérrez Priscila Beck TECHNICAL DIRECTION Ad Bal CONTRIBUTORS
he primary objective of every commercial poultry operation, is to make money and thus earning a living. After all, poultry production is serious business. With that, poultry farmers produce food and thus contribute to feeding the world population. Clear model.
Jose Luis Valls Michael Czarick Connie Mou Brian Fairchild Jorge Amado Manuel Contreras Helen Wojcinski Eduardo Cervantes Lopez Bart Stokvis
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Read all about this and other interesting topics in this edition of aviNews. Enjoy and learn!
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1 aviNews International November 2020
Why is my biosecurity program not working? Helen Wojcinski
Wojcinski Poultry Health Consulting
Ann Arbor Michigan USA
Biosecurity is key on every poultry operation, whether it is a layer, broiler, turkey or duck farm. In order to safeguard the biosecurity program, proper measures must be taken and practiced
The Importance of Monitoring chick wรกter usage Michael Czarick, Connie Mou and Brian Fairchild
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension, Athens, GA USA From the moment of hatch, water is a critical factor in the growth of broilers. Precisely monitoring and measuring water consumption is an important tool to successfully raise a flock.
Precision processing for comprehensive digital management Eduardo Cervantes Lรณpez Poultry processing consultant Barranquilla, Colombia
The demand for chicken meat and its further processed products is growing. This reality poses, among others, a specific challenge in the processing plant.
2 aviNews International November 2020
The responsibility for the articles, reports, press releases and communications falls exclusively on the authors. The editor is only responsible for his articles or editorials. Neither the publisher nor the authors assume any responsibility for the damages that may be generated, whatever their nature, as a consequence of the use of the data and information contained in this magazine.
Raising Good quality Males Jorge Amado
Head of Technical Services for Aviagen in Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean Although in a breeder flock both sexes are responsible for good fertility, raising and keeping good quality males during rear and throughout the stage of production is particularly important. A well-developed body is the basis for keeping fertility at a high level over a long period of time.
Managing layer health in analternative system Bart Stokvis Veterinarian Hendrix Genetics The Netherlands
In an alternative housing system, healthy birds are a prerequisite for the optimal performance of a layer flock. That demands adequate management and taking proper measures. Health management involves choosing the right breed, feeding program, and system design. Next, it’s a matter of planning, observing and adjusting.
Interview: Ruud Zanders
In the search for new and sustainable concepts in layer farming, uncertainties are evident. “Yet, you must have the guts to start somewhere”, says Ruud Zanders. And so he did. His “Kipster” egg production farms in The Netherlands have proved to be successful. Further expansion is expected shortly, also outside The Netherlands.
Editor aviNews International
Ensuring a good management of spray vaccination Jose Luis Valls Poultry consultant
Dr. Gregorio Rosales MVZ, MS, PhD., DACPV Poultry Health Consultant
It is a mechanical process of fragmenting liquids into droplets, but the key lies in how to evenly distribute them. Ing. Eduardo Cervantes International consultant poultry processing
Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens Manuel Contreras
DMV. Special Nutrients, Miami, Florida, USA
Dr. Guillermo Díaz Arango International Zootechnician Consultant in Nutrition and Production of Commercial Layers
Feed which is contaminated with mycotoxins has a severe impact on the performance of chickens.
3 aviNews International November 2020
WHY IS MY BIOSECURITY PROGRAM NOT WORKING? Biosecurity is key on every poultry operation, whether it is a layer, broiler, turkey or duck farm. In order to safeguard the biosecurity program, proper measures must be taken and practiced.
Helen Wojcinski, Wojcinski Poultry Health Consulting Ann Arbor, Michigan USA
What is critical about any biosecurity program is that you really have to commit to applying it on your farm and making sure it is consistently practiced by everyone in the company without exception. In many cases, when everything is said and done, more is said than is actually done. Before you start to think that this article is about what your “neighbour” should be doing, and not you, please read on… Although this article is not about environmental management, it is important to remember that when birds are stressed or their natural defenses are endangered by exposure to ammonia, dust or unhealthy water, it is easier for a smaller number of bacteria to affect the health and performance of our flocks.
When there are many farms in the same area, it is important that everyone participates with similar programs as a cooperative effort to reduce the risk of disease. Some diseases are more farm-specific, such as E. Coli or Bordetella, and do not spread easily from one farm to another, while others such as Avian Influenza, Newcastle and mycoplasmas spread easily from one infected farm to another and require the efforts of all contaminated farms to eliminate these agents. The disease results from the interaction between birds, the pathogen (bacteria, viruses, fungi) and the environment.
4 aviNews International November 2020 | Why is my biosecurity program not working?
NECESSARY STEPS FOR THE ELIMINATION OF PATHOGENIC AGENTS ON THE FARM Obtain an exact diagnosis of the disease In order to know the best way to eliminate a disease, we have to know which agent or agents were involved. Is it only E. coli that caused the problem or was the flock also exposed to Bordetella or Newcastle previously? If we want to get rid of E. coli problems we also have to tackle other pathogens that open the door to E. coli. Some pathogens have unique strengths and susceptibilities. Knowing what the agent is capable of will put you in a better position to focus efforts to remove it from the farm.
EXAMPLE Clostridia that causes dermatitis / cellulite can form spores making them virtually indestructible, while E. coli and Salmonella are sensitive to most contact disinfectants.
DIFFERENT DISEASES ARE TRANSMITTED BY DIFFERENT VECTORS In the case of Avian cholera, the main sources are rodents or other fourlegged pests, while for Bordetella the focus would be on the water system.
When a disease outbreak occurs, the current biosecurity program should be reviewed to ensure that it is being followed correctly This means that you must have a written biosecurity program that includes standard operating procedures (SOPs) for anything and anyone crossing the boundaries from the dirty area to the clean side of the farmâ€™s facilities, in addition to having specifications for the sanitary program.
Ensuring that procedures are performed correctly can mean the difference between successful removal of a pathogen and failure. Many times it is not what was done, but how it was done. Many excellent programs fail because they were not applied correctly.
EXAMPLE The lack of efficiency in cleaning and disinfecting the water system in the house may be because the wrong product was used, or the wrong concentration, or was implemented at the wrong time. If the program is followed correctly but the problems with the disease continue, it means that the program has to change. Pathogens continue to adapt, evolve, and become more resistant, which means that our programs to eliminate them must do the same.
5 aviNews International November 2020 | Why is my biosecurity program not working?
Every time the flocks leave the farm, there is a brief opportunity to eliminate pathogens â€œIt is important to maximize the effective sanitary rest time, which corresponds to the number of days that a clean and disinfected house remains emptyâ€?
The program may need to be customized for a specific pathogen, but in general the following measures should be implemented:
If you are doing a complete general cleaning, remove the used litter away from the farm. Accumulating it within the perimeter of the farm favors the appearance of the litter beetle, and contaminated water can enter the farm. Remove ALL organic material (dust, trash, feathers). If you are wondering if the house is clean enough, chances are it is not â€Ś If you have had a sanitation issue on your farm, invite new and fresher eyes to check that the facility is perfectly clean before applying the disinfectant.
Remember: it is a matter of numbers of bacteria. Once the house has been cleaned and disinfected, treat it as a bio secure area and do not re-contaminate it before or during the bird placement. For certain diseases, older birds on the same farm may be the reservoir for the pathogen. This is true for many of the intestinal viruses like Salmonella and Bordetella. In turkey rearing, the current system allow to eliminate the coronavirus and the necrotic syndrome in the poulter (PEMS).
Do not forget to clean and disinfect the entrance areas to the buildings and, when the weather permits, the feed silos. Clean and disinfect water pipes twice. Once before removing the litter, and a second time before housing the new flock. Despite the fact that the animals are no longer in the house, the bacteria in the water pipes continue to multiply.
6 aviNews International November 2020 | Why is my biosecurity program not working?
Control your biosecurity and health programs
Monitoring will allow you to know that the procedures you have applied are effective, instead of just thinking that they are. Depending on the specific challenge and whether it is a recurring problem on the farm, the consideration to be given to monitoring is as follows:
Sampling of water pipes instead of obtaining water samples. It allows to detect higher levels of bacteria. Check daily the water sanitation systems at the end of the pipe. Whatever product or system is being used, make sure your goals are being achieved. Sampling of the houses. This can be very important especially in rearing houses, as very young birds are more susceptible to even modest challenges.
Review all monitoring results on a regular basis regarding the performance of your flock, and make any necessary changes to achieve your goals Remember, if you do not look, you will not find, and you may miss the opportunity to take corrective action. Donâ€™t let a pathogen tell you if your programs are optimal or not.
Routine serology will help verify the effectiveness of your vaccination program
Although this article focuses on how to get rid of pathogens once theyâ€™re settled on your farm, you should always review how they got to the farm in the first place. Otherwise a lot of time and resources will be spent on eliminating the disease, only for it to reappear again later on.
Beetle populations. Make sure that the product and method you are using are effective. Read the label. Beetles can develop resistance. If necessary, consider spot treatment with a product approved for use even with birds inside the house. Bait stations. An empty bait station is a waste. Just because there is no cholera on the farm does not mean that rodent control is adequate. The routine serology of your flocks will indicate if they are being challenged and will help verify the effectiveness of your vaccination program.
7 aviNews International November 2020 | Why is my biosecurity program not working?
IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING CHICK WATER USAGE Michael Czarick, Connie Mou and Brian Fairchild College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension, Athens, GA USA
From the moment of hatch, water is a critical factor in the growth of broilers. Precisely monitoring and measuring water consumption is an important tool to successfully raise a flock.
8 aviNews International November 2020 | The Importance of monitoring chick water usage
Getting chicks off to a good start is very important to overall flock performance. At no time does a bird grow faster than during the first week of its life. Over the last week of a 42-day-old flock, a bird’s weight will increase by approximately a third. In contrast, a chick’s weight will typically increase approximately four fold, possibly more, by the time it reaches seven days of age.
Of course, if a chick is going to grow this quickly it has to eat plenty of feed. Research has shown that over the first full day of a chick’s life it will eat approximately 1/4 of its weight in feed.
By the end of the first week, a 40-gram chick (0.09 lbs) will eat approximately 150 gram (0.33 lbs) of feed and gain approximately 140 gram (0.31 lbs), giving it a feed conversion ratio (FCR) of approximately 0.5 kg (1.1 lbs) of gain/ lbs. of feed (Alqhtani, 2016).
This very high growth rate during the first week is only achievable IF the chicks have access to plenty of water. A chick will not eat, and therefore will not grow, if it cannot drink. In a previously noted study it was found that during the first few days of a flock, a chick will drink nearly three grams of water for every gram of feed. By the end of thje first week each chick in a house will drink approximately 340 ml (12 ounces) of water (Image 1). This is over eight times their initial weight in water.
Image 1. A chick will drink approximately 12 ounces (340 ml) of water by the time it is seven days old
9 aviNews International November 2020 | The Importance of monitoring chick water usage
WATER CONSUMPTION MEASURED A study was conducted on commercial broiler farms examining chick water usage over the first seven days. High accuracy water meters were installed in twenty-two broiler houses (eighteen 40’ X 500’ houses, four 54’ X 500’ houses) on nine farms.
Day 0 water usage data was adjusted so that the chick placement time was set at 12 pm regardless of their actual placement time. This meant that “daily” chick water usage on Day 0 was actually only for 12 hours, whereas on all other days it was the amount of water consumed for the entire day.
The high accuracy, ultrasonic water meters used were capable of accurately measuring water flow rates as low as 0.005 gals/ min (0.019 liter) which is 50 times lower than that of the typical poultry house water meter (0.25 gals/0.95 liter min). The ultrasonic water meters were accurate and sensitive enough that chick water usage could be measured on a minute-to-minute basis from the moment the chicks were placed in a house.
Figure 1 shows the average daily water usage of the chicks as well as the variation seen between the houses studied. Chicks were typically placed in the houses between the hours of 9 am and 3 pm (Day 0).
Figure 1. Average daily chick water usage (gals/10,000 chicks) (220 gals ~ 835 liter)
220 200 Daily Water Usage (gals/10,000 chicks
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0
4 Bird Age (days)
10 aviNews International November 2020 | The Importance of monitoring chick water usage
400 chicks in each study house were weighed upon placement, as well as on Days 1 and 7 (Table 1). Chick weights on average increased by nearly one quarter over the first 24 hours. From one to seven days of age, chicks weight increased on average 3.7 fold, which is very similar to the 3.3 fold increase seen in water usage.
Average chick water usage on Day 1 was 56 gallons (212 liter) / 10,000 chicks. By Day 7 this increased to approximately 190 gals (720 liter) / 10,000 chicks, a 3.3-fold increase. For a house with 25,000 birds, this would amount to an average water flow rate of approximately 0.10 gals (0.4 liter) /min on Day 1, increasing fairly linearly to 0.33 gals (1.25 liter)/min on Day 7.
Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between water usage and chick weights at seven days of age. The heaviest chicks tended to have the highest water usage, whereas the lightest chicks tended to have the lowest water usage. A similar trend was seen with the one-day-old chicks.
Table 1. Average chick weights (Day 0, 1 and 7)
Age in Days
Average weight, g
Standard deviation, g
This of course should not be that surprising, that larger chicks will drink more water than smaller chicks, but it does show that water usage can be a useful tool for gauging overall chick performance.
11 aviNews International November 2020 | The Importance of monitoring chick water usage
It can be difficult at times for a farm manager to determine how well their chicks are performing. Yes, it is possible for a grower to weigh a few hundred birds in each house every day, but not very realistic. Bird scales could be used to monitor chick weight, but will cost thousands of dollars per house to install. Bin/dump scales are a common, though costly, method of monitoring bird feed consumption but are not very effective with young chicks due to the very low rate at which feed is being drawn from feed bins. management
On the other hand, a relatively inexpensive water meter can be used by farm managers to provide a fairly accurate, indirect measure of feed consumption as well as a rough idea if chick weights are ahead or behind where they should be. A flock’s daily water usage can be compared to that shown in Image 1 to provide a rough idea if the chick water usage, and therefore feed consumption, is on target. More importantly, through daily monitoring and recording of water usage, a historical record can be developed that future flocks can be compared. Is a house ahead or behind the historical average for a given day? If it is behind, corrective actions (adjusting drinker height, house temperatures, feed availability, etc) may need to be taken before bird performance suffers. If it’s ahead of the average, then a manager might want to take a few moments to consider what may be different this particular flock.
Figure 2. Average daily chick water usage (gals/10,000 chicks) (220 gals ~ 835 liter) Daily Water Usage (gals/10,000 chicks
230 210 190 170 150 130 110
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Bird Age (days)
EXTRA SPECIAL CARE It is important to note that water consumption during the first week can be low simply due to the fact the chicks are small. Smaller chicks will tend to eat less starting off than larger chicks. This doesn’t mean over time they can’t catch up. With smaller chicks, it is important to provide extra special care to insure they get off to a good start. Since small chicks tend to have lower body temperatures and an increased rate of heat loss, house temperatures may need to be increased. Drinker lines may have to be set closer to the ground and feed area increased (ie. feeder paper). Monitoring daily water usage can provide important insight into how the small chicks are progressing. As with any monitoring tool, accuracy is crucial. The vast majority of poultry house water meters do a good job of accurately measuring water usage once the birds are a roughly a week old, but struggle with measuring water usage the first few days of flock.
12 aviNews International November 2020 | The Importance of monitoring chick water usage
To measure water usage during the first few days of a typical flock (approximately 24,000 birds), a water meter needs to be able to measure water flow rates down to at least 0.25 gals (0,95 liter) /min, ideally 0.10 gals (0,40 liter)/min. Meters with the ability to measure flow rates of 0.10 gals/min are typically able to accurately measure flock water usage on Day 1. Those only capable of measuring flow rates of 0.25 gals/min or higher were typically not able to accurately measure flock water usage until Day 2 or 3. As you might expect, the larger the house, the greater the number of birds, the easier it is to measure chick water usage on Day 1.
TREMENDOUS BENEFIT Being able to accurately measure water usage during the first few days of a chickâ€™s life can be of tremendous benefit. Generally speaking, the more water the chicks are drinking, the better they are doing. If water usage is lower than that seen during previous flocks, it typically means the chicks are eating less in previous flocks, and therefore growing less. Maybe the house too hot. Maybe itâ€™s too cold. Maybe there is something wrong with the drinker system. Regardless of the cause, having a water meter capable of accurately measuring chick water usage, is one of the best and most inexpensive methods of providing a farm manager an indicator of how good of a job they are doing getting their flock off to as good of a start.
Though installing the ultrasonic water meters would be cost prohibitive, at approximately USD 1,000 per meter, some water meters are better than others when it comes to measuring the low flow rates seen during the first few days of a flock.
13 aviNews International November 2020 | The Importance of monitoring chick water usage
PRECISION PROCESSING FOR
COMPREHENSIVE DIGITAL MANAGEMENT By Eduardo Cervantes Lopez Poultry processing consultant Barranquilla, Colombia. The demand for chicken meat and its further processed products is growing. This reality poses, among others, a specific challenge in
the processing plant.
14 aviNews International November 2020 | Precision processing for comprehensive digital management
How to manage integrally and productively each of the different stages to achieve the following objectives are, among others: Reducing downgrades Increase yields Lowering operating costs Create a friendly work environment for the staff ensuring permanent well-being
Poultry slaughtering and processing is a highly automated process. That demands permanent monitoring all the various stages, in order to keep everything on the move under the highest possible quality standards. A useful tool for this purpose is a special bracelet to be worn by the workers. This enables precision processing for comprehensive digital management in the plant. The purpose of this article is to show situations which are already managed digitally in other sectors of the food industry. Its implementation in poultry
during the day.
processing, would allow those who manage
ALWAYS guarantee proper biosecurity
by permanently walking around each
the plants not to be physically worn out
direct perception of the development of
infrastructure works with the least
this activity. For further illustration, some
cases that represent Great Challenges are
space in these facilities, in order to have a
Ensure that all equipment and technical
15 aviNews International November 2020 | Precision processing for comprehensive digital management
Effectiveness of the sanitary conditions of the hands or gloves before entering the corresponding section The staff strictly follows the procedure for washing and disinfecting hands. However, during the tour after passing through the station where they brush and clean their boots, some may fall to the floor. What do you usually do? The worker picks it up, but does not re-disinfect his hands and/or gloves. The use of a special bracelet prevents him from accessing his work area, because a part of his body is contaminated.
Compliance with Biosafety Standards, to avoid problems due to cross-contamination The use of special bracelets, operationally similar to Electronic Cards which are used in many hotels. In processing plants, we must guarantee that the personnel, once they have passed the security lanes, can only enter their workplace.
In the Cutting and Deboning Sections, the workers perform individual tasks using fixed cones or cutting boards. For this purpose,
Adaptive Rest NEW MANAGEMENT CONCEPT Because of the kind of work in the plant, many workers are standing. Short breaks are scheduled to allow the staff to rest. It has been proven that, for various reasons, humans do not all get tired at the same time. Consequently, to ensure a relatively stable performance in the work group, the above-mentioned bracelet allows monitoring in real time the level of tiredness. When it is close to its beginning, it warns the worker so that he can stop his work and go to rest. A supernumerary person replaces this worker.
Customized Job Performance Evaluation
the different parts of the birds are placed in different plastic boxes and then sent to the Control and Weighing area. In many plants they use different color cards with the personnel code. The versatility of the mentioned bracelet, allows to control the operational traceability of each worker. When the boxes with deboned chickens are taken away, this starting point is recorded. When the process is finished, it is also recorded. The area supervisor can evaluate the performance, concluding whether it is within the defined standard or below it. He may even exceed it.
16 aviNews International November 2020 | Precision processing for comprehensive digital management
Asepsis conditions of the end product
THE CODES ARE AS FOLLOWS:
The technology of these special
RED: Emergency with a high level of care.
bracelets can facilitate the control of the
The process is at a standstill!
microbiological conditions of processed
YELLOW: Alert. The machinery is experiencing
products. These can become contaminated by deficiencies during cleaning and disinfection of processing equipment and tools. This amazing implementation is a valuable tool for health control. This technology, which is used in fish and fruit processing plants, creates a link between the workers and the company’s reference parameters, since the permanent use
sudden interruptions. Under these circumstances it is not possible to normalize an operating speed. GREEN: Normal. All the equipment is working without any delay. BLUE: Maintenance. During the inspections carried out by the maintenance personnel, they detect small details that must be repaired and adjusted as soon as possible.En resumen, toda esta In
of this special bracelet personalizes their behavior and performance.
management is able to check the behavior and performance of all personnel. In this way, Human Resource management becomes Individual, facilitating the control of the welfare of those who work in these buildings.
summary, all this fascinating technology which is used in many sectors of the food industry already, has among others management benefits. The management of a processing plant has more time to satisfactorily answer these questions: What did I learn? Which incremental and/or disruptive ideas did I generate?
The operational complement is the
How did I make a difference in what I did
installation of an infrastructure that
facilitates the monitoring of the different machines that are in operation. To achieve this objective, many floors have strategically located lamps that have various colors. Depending on the registration of the equipment, they send signals allowing immediate interpretation by those who are in charge of maintaining efficiency
I put these reflections into consideration of my dear readers, so that they can evaluate them and if they exceed their expectations, be part of the new management culture, where “Let’s imagine situations that still DO NOT EXIST and WE ASK OURSELVES WHY NOT TO TAKE THEM INTO PRACTICE”. The purpose is to offer products and / or services which customers observe with surprise and appreciation, since their proven results, are translated into comprehensive savings. Only those who go one step ahead, will set the tone in a market that is increasingly competitive and demanding high quality products. 17
aviNews International November 2020 | Precision processing for comprehensive digital management
With this technology, the plant
RAISING GOOD QUALITY
By Jorge Amado Head of Technical Services for Aviagen in Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean
lthough in a breeder flock both sexes are responsible for good
fertility, raising and keeping good quality males during rear and throughout the stage of production is particularly important. A well-developed body is the basis for keeping fertility at a high level over a long period of time.
18 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
RAISING IN THE FIRST DAYS The key to promoting and developing a good strong skeletal frame size for males is to provide the correct environmental conditions and encourage good feeding and drinking
behavior during the brooding period.
RECOMMENDED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AT THE TIME OF PLACING DAY-OLD CHICKS Air temperature 30째C (86째F), measured
Feed on paper covering 100%
at chick height in the area where
of the rearing space
feed and water are positioned
Twelve feed trays per 1000 chicks
Litter temperature 28-30째C (82.4-86.0째F)
Eight bell drinkers and 12 mini
Relative humidity 60-70%
drinkers per 1000 chicks
Light intensity 30-40 lux 3-4 FC
Eight to 12 birds per nipple drinker
If possible, an initial visual grading of the males should be done around 7-10 days of age
with chicks graded into three or four subgroups according to body size and weight. This will help promote a good start and provide chicks with an equal access to feed and water.
19 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
SELECTION & SEPARATION By four weeks of age, the average weight of males should reach approximately 755 g, ranging up to 800 g. At 28-29 days of age (when 50% of
To further improve the uniformity
the skeleton has developed) a full
of the males, it is advisable
evaluation of the flock should be made.
to make up to four selections during the rearing period.
That is, at 4, 10, 15 and 20 weeks Birds are graded and separated
of age, removing males with
into different weight categories
a poor physical condition and
(light, average, and heavy). In
relocating the males within the
this way each group is raised
groups according to their weight.
separately to achieve the final body
In this way we can ensure the
weight and desired uniformity.
maximum possible uniformity in each flock. The objective is
Poor quality males should be
to finish the rearing period with
removed and a male reduction
an 11% male to female ratio.
program implemented, which removes very light males or those with physical defects
Uniformity targets of males versus females
100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50
Fig 1. Example of uniformity targets of males versus females.
11 Machos Males
20 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
Male body weight, breast condition and
Careful daily management, maintaining
muscle tone should be carefully monitored
adequate feeder space by gradually
on a weekly basis and any adjustment
increasing the floor space (flooring
to feed allocation should consider both
space after 10 weeks of age should be
body condition and body weight.
3 to 4 males per square meter) Being present during feeding time
Too often, farm managers only focus
to check for uniformity and speed
on the average body weight of the
of feed distribution (ideally <3
males in each house and overlook the
minutes), are powerful tools for
importance of monitoring the uniformity
rearing good quality males.
of the males. Poor uniformity can
During the production phase it is essential all times so that uniform and timely feed distribution is maintained (Table 1). To achieve this, the track length should be reduced or feeder pans closed off
production cycle if left unchecked. Body weight records alone will not provide an accurate measurement of body condition. As seen in Figure 2, even within
as the male population declines.
the average body weight there
However, the amount of feed per male
overweight males (Male 3).
should be increased throughout the production period in small portions of 1-2 g per bird every 2-3 weeks.
to maintain the correct track length at
negatively impact fertility later in the
will be underweight (Male 1) and
FLESHING Fleshing of males should be monitored weekly using a system in which:
A score of 1 indicates that a male is MALES
under-fleshed with poor muscle tone
Feeding Space Age (days)
Track feeder cm (in)
Pan feeder cm (in)
0-35 36-70 71-105
5 (2) 10 (4) 15 (6)
5 (2) 9 (3.5) 11 (4)
A score of 3 indicates that a male is correctly fleshed A score 5 indicates that a male is over-fleshed with firm muscle tone.
Recommended feeding space for males during rear.
21 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
Muscular development and size of three 28-week-old males with different levels of development and fleshing. The development of testicular size corresponds to the fleshing and size of each bird.
The feeding programs must be adjusted according to the body conditions and not just in response to body weight.
22 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
A score of 3 at 25 weeks of age indicates that the
An excessive proportion of males above
male is over-fleshed.
and below average indicates a lack of management in regards to feeding.
A score of 2 at this age indicates
Efforts should be made to ensure that
that the male is correctly fleshed
all males have access to the feeders and that feed is distributed quickly and evenly. At the same time, it is necessary to remove the lighter males from the flock. 25 semanas Weeks
It is also important to remember that body development of the male
35 semanas Weeks
changes with age (Figure 3).
Example of the change in fleshing scores of males from 25 to 35 weeks of age in a well-managed flock
RESTAURANT FEEDING SYSTEM Another useful measure to maintain and promote the quality of the males is the use of a so-called “male restaurant”
Optimum nutrient intake for both males and females,
during the production period.
The males to finish eating without any distractions,
These restaurants are a way of feeding
The females to eat without males stealing feed and
the males separately from the females. Feeders can be placed at the side of the houses, using nets or curtains, to keep the males separate from the females for
The male feeders to be positioned at lower heights so males of different sizes can eat more comfortably.
one to two hours during feeding. This system ensures optimal feed intake
Once trained in this system, males will
for the males and females by allowing:
instinctively go to the feeders within the “restaurant”. It is important to ensure that all males have access to feed simultaneously in these restaurants.
23 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
INTRA-SPIKING The rotation of males is not necessary if good management practices have been implemented. However, it can be useful to improve persistency in fertility and maintain hatchability with low biosecurity risks since all males are from the same flock.
With this system, approximately 30-40% of the males will be exchanged between
pens or sheds of the same flock.
This rotation of males helps to re-establish social order within each population, thus enhancing mating behaviour. The first rotation of males should take place when fertility is at its peak Fig 4.
Good quality males with excellent body and skeletal conformation and shank length.
(approximately 35 weeks of age), and should be repeated every 5 to 10 weeks throughout the production cycle. With a detailed management in rear,
Young males should only be added to the flock if the rate of males to females falls below 7.0-7.5%.
24 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
production flocks will not need to add young males to older flocks, allowing for an improved biosecurity status on the farm.
Good male management requires
It is essential to frequently monitor and
adequate attention to detail to
react to changes in body weight and
achieve the best possible results.
body condition during production. If
This can be accomplished by:
needed, take corrective measures. Once the males have begun to decline
Maintaining a correct growth profile from the moment they are placed as day-old chicks.
in physical condition it is difficult to regain the original condition and mating activity, as well as fertility.
Implementing a good selection of retaining only the best males.
Management practices such as male
Always ensuring a high level of
be useful tools to help maintain a high
uniformity that will be achieved by:
restaurants or rotation of males can level of mating activity, thus ensuring
program during rear with the goal
high fertility and hatchability.
Adjusting the feeder space for age
Maintaining the good feed distribution at all times Promoting uniform feed intake
Finally, it is of paramount importance for producers to monitor the behaviour of males and females, in order to achieve and maintain the highest possible level of fertile hatching eggs.
25 aviNews International November 2020 | Raising good quality males
MANAGING LAYER HEALTH IN AN ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM
Bart Stokvis Veterinarian, Hendrix Genetics The Netherlands
In an alternative housing system, healthy birds are a prerequisite for the optimal performance of a layer flock. That demands adequate management and taking proper measures. Health management involves choosing the right breed, feeding program, and system design. Thereafter, itâ€™s a matter of planning, observing and adjusting.
26 aviNews International November 2020 | Managing layer health in an alternative system
As many experienced egg producers know, a conventional cage system means small group sizes, climate controlled houses, lower dust concentration, easy access to feed and water, and a lower risk of disease. Manure can be easily separated and removed from the birds, and the eggs are delivered and collected in a clean and easy to manage system. However, from a welfare perspective, the alternative systems allow the birds to express natural behaviours such as perching, scratching, and wing flapping. When making the switch to an alternative system, how can one maintain good health within the flock? The good news is that once you have spent some time observing the birds in the system and then making the necessary adjustments, it is possible to achieve the same technical results as in previous cage systems. Time is the biggest investment.
Additionally, the birds must be able to seek out their feed and eat well, especially during the rearing process. Starting with a breed that has the drive to eat and will explore the system in order to find feed and water will go a long way in maintaining good health. During the rearing process, the goals are to achieve low mortality and make sure pullets are strong with high uniformity; pullets should be trained in moving around the system, keep a high feed intake, and maintain clean and undamaged feathering. This is all possible by starting with the right genetic solution. In addition, make sure that the system used for rearing is the same as what is used during production. Training is important so the birds can learn where to nest, eat, and keep busy. Using the right breed will also affect the layout of the house so that the birds are able to access feed, water, and nests. For example, white birds are more mobile and are able to navigate the different levels of an aviary system without posts for support, whereas brown birds need more support such as ladders between levels. Keeping the birdsâ€™ behaviour in mind when choosing a house layout, will help prevent injuries when navigating the system.
27 aviNews International November 2020 | Managing layer health in an alternative system
In the past, managing health in a cage system layer house involved few steps.
The first factor when choosing what breed to use in operations is whether a white or brown egg market is served. After determining which colour breed is needed, it is important to use a breed that is docile and robust when using an alternative system. Within a cage free system, the birds are able to move freely and express natural behaviours, so they use significantly more energy in their daily activity. For this reason it is important to start out with very robust birds that continue to produce a high number of eggs, maintain good health and are able to resist disease.
FEED MANAGEMENT The feeding technique used when managing hens is a key factor in achieving the best possible shell quality and nutrition levels. The empty feeder technique is helpful for this goal (figure 1). To encourage natural feeding behaviour, especially in an alternative system, it is advised to provide at least 60% of the daily feed in the afternoon and before this period start, the feeders should be emptied in the middle of the day for 1 to maximum 1.5 hours.
Applying the empty feeder technique controls body weight, flock uniformity and egg shell quality because the total diet is consumed daily, including the fine particles containing important vitamins, minerals and amino acids.
Figure 1. Empty feeder technique timing
60% of the feed in the afternoon
6 to 7h00 Night time
Empty feeders every day 1/1.5h 14 to 16 h 00 of light at plateau
28 aviNews International November 2020 | Managing layer health in an alternative system
DESIGN OF THE HOUSE Choosing the right aviary system as well as the right lighting is extremely important in an alternative system. It allows to manage behaviour and guide the birds to be able to eat and nest properly. First, be sure to light where the birds can access feed and water as well as the litter areas to prevent floor eggs.
For an alternative layer house to be successful, the design of the system, breed selection, and nutritional profile need to work together. When each piece is in place, be sure to observe and adjust as needed. Once one has committed the extra time to learning the system, it is possible to keep the birds healthy and producing at their full potential. health
Additionally, the color of the light used matters in maintaining docile behaviour. It has been found that warm spectrum lighting can calm the birds, whereas brighter, blue-tinged lighting can increase aggression.
Ventilation is another important factor. In an alternative system, fine dust is increased and can cause health issues. Using the right method of ventilation to reduce the dust and circulate air will improve efficiency and health. The air must flow so it is distributed evenly. This will keep ammonia levels low, litter dry, and the birds comfortable and productive.
The design of the house is important for good bird health
29 aviNews International November 2020 | Managing layer health in an alternative system
“EVERY ERA DEMANDS NEW INSIGHTS”
In the search for new and sustainable concepts in layer farming, uncertainties are evident. “Yet, you must have the guts to start somewhere”, says Ruud Zanders. And so he did. His “Kipster” egg production farms in The Netherlands have proved to be successful. Further expansion is expected shortly, also outside The Netherlands. 30 aviNews International November 2020 | Interview with Ruud Zanders
“Large scale poultry farming is not by definition the best answer to feed the world
START FROM SCRATCH
population”, says Ruud Zanders. “Even on
This was more or less the basic thought for
the contrary!” Together with his co-founders,
the foundation of Kipster. “Together with
Ruud is owner and CEO of “Kipster” in The
my three partners and co-shareholders we
Netherlands, a high end, revolutionary layer
started, truly from scratch”, Ruud continuous.
farming concept. Currently, there are three Kipster farms operational, populated with
“Literally on an unwritten, blank piece of paper.
by around 67.000 Dekalb White birds.
Our objective was to found a new business with full focus on animal welfare, care for the
“Our objective is to show to the world that
environment and for humans. We approached
it is possible to also produce poultry and
our objective from different angles, “out of the
eggs in small sized operations, but in a
box” so to say. When Steve Jobs introduced
sustainable way. And yet being productive
the iPhone a few decades ago, who would have
and efficient. But our approach is different
expected that he was introducing something
from the current and generally accepted
that would change the world in a certain way?
methods. I came into this insight some years ago when a number of poultry farmers from
Why shouldn’t that hold true as well for
African countries visited The Netherlands.
agriculture production and for poultry made somewhere, we must change our
as a top level country in poultry production. I
mindset. How ethical is it to keep producing
took them around a number of farms, a feed
in the way we have always done?
farming in particular? But a start must be Their aim was to learn from The Netherlands
plant, processing plant and so on, and told them about how Dutch farmers manage to produce in a highly efficient way. Where they raise their flocks on high energy diets
The world population keeps growing and with that the available land for agriculture is getting more scarce. Our aim with Kipster is
that existed from mostly imported grains.
to show that producing eggs in a sustainable
They were stunned to hear that those
harm and deteriorate mother earth.”
and circular way is possible. And not further
valuable grains are fed to chickens. ”If we manage to get grains, we eat those ourselves, rather than feed them to chickens”, they told me. That truly opened my eyes. I had been involved in large scale poultry farming myself. But that had gone wrong, so I knew from my own experience the negative side of large scale production. The remarks of the Africans truly changed my mind.”
Modern architecture is the basis for the Kipster poultry house
31 aviNews International November 2020 | Interview with Ruud Zanders
WHITE LAYERS Ruud: “Our choice for raising the Dekalb White breed, is because it has been bred on characteristics which fully comply with our vision”. White birds are more efficient in terms of feed efficiency and thus they are more sustainable than brown layers. Moreover, the Dekalb white is a calm and social bird and it easily adapts to the ration that we are feeding to them. During the daytime until dawn, the birds have access to a partly covered outdoor garden, where they can scratch and roam around.
We prepare our own feed under strict conditions. Kipster doesn’t use any agricultural land, no cereals which are also suitable for human nutrition. We feed our
IN- AND OUTDOOR “On our Kipster farms we keep our birds
birds with a specially developed feed which is made from residual flows from the food industry, such as from large bakeries.
in very uncommon houses, which for
Also we use byproducts from cereal
the major part are covered with solar
processing, such as oat hulls.
panels. With that, we provide our own energy supply and even submit electricity
Our chicken feed exists for 95% of leftovers
to the public electricity network.”
and 5% of vitamins and minerals. The CO2
A Big Dutchman aviary system provides
50% smaller compared to standard feed.
the indoor living environment for the birds. Moreover, the birds have access to an indoor garden where they can scratch, dustbathe
footprint of one kilogram of Kipster feed is
This means that formulating this feed is quite a challenge however, as the birds of
and even have artificial trees to jump in.
course need to be fed according to the
An intelligent air cleaning system reduces
supposed to lay a full number of eggs.
the fine particle emission to an absolute minimum, thus creating the climate inside the house healthy and comfortable.
standards of this breed. After all, they are
Luckily our layer flocks indeed produce the expected number of good quality eggs.
This technique is also applied in hospitals and garages. During the daytime until dawn, the birds also have access to outdoor gardens, again where they can scratch and roam around. An intelligent air cleaning system reduces the fine particle emission to an absolute minimum inside the poultry house, thus creating a healthy and comfortable climate
32 aviNews International November 2020 | Interview with Ruud Zanders
SUSTAINABLE EGG BOX We have an exclusive agreement with the Lidl retail chain in The Netherlands. Moreover
Eggs for the Lidl retail chain are packed in specially designed 5 and 10 piece boxes. It is highly sustainable, made from potato starch, cellulose fiber and water. The CO2 footprint is 90% smaller compared to a similar sized carton box
we sell our eggs to other customers in our country through the Victoria trading organization. The eggs for Lidl are packed in specially designed 5 and 10 piece, blue colored boxes. It is a highly sustainable box, made from potato starch, cellulose fiber and water. The CO2 footprint of this box is 90% smaller compared to a similar sized carton box. On our farms, we have our own packing station. Last but not least, the male chicks from our layer flocks at the moment of hatch, are not culled. Instead, we raise them until an age of 18 weeks and then take them to
slaughter. These birds, as well as our spent hens, are processed into rooster burgers and chicken sausages respectively. Also these products are marketed through Lidl.
EXPANDING BUSINESS All in all, we are convinced that with Kipster we have developed a promising, sustainable concept in egg production. This is also recognized throughout our country and abroad. We have been awarded
The roof of the house is fully covered with solar panels, thus fully providing their own energy supply. Also they supply electricity to the public network
various times by newspapers and all kinds of organizations across the globe. We produce under the 3 star label of the Dutch Society for the Protection of Animals. Also other animal protection organizations like “Wakeful Animal” and “Compassion in World Farming” are supporting us. That’s truly an honor and satisfying. Currently we are in the process of expanding our business in Belgium. “And most likely, soon we will also make our entry into the USA. With that, we truly believe in Kipster as a future solution in egg production across the globe!”
33 aviNews International November 2020 | Interview with Ruud Zanders
ENSURING A GOOD MANAGEMENT OF SPRAY VACCINATION
By Jose Luis Valls
Spraying It is a mechanical process of fragmenting liquids into droplets, but the key lies in how to evenly distribute them. Some techniques of spraying include: Hydraulic spraying: Put the liquid under pressure, making it come out through a calibrated hole or nozzle Pneumatic spraying: Place the liquid in a high speed air stream Centrifugal spraying: Subjecting the liquid to the reaction forces generated by a rotating element
By combining the process of drop formation with the technique used to transport it to the target, it is also possible to classify the sprayers. In the hydraulic system (the most used) the formation of the drop is made by the pressure of the liquid and its transport by the kinetic energy that is produced.
34 aviNews International November 2020 | Ensuring a good management of spray vaccination
between 18 - 25 ºC
The water to dilute the vaccine must be completely free of sanitizers with an added stabilizer and at a temperature between 18 – 25 ºC.
Nozzle Nozzle functions:
important elements for carrying out spray vaccination. These are parts that have calibrated holes for vaccine release. By changing the nozzle and the working pressure, you can get drops of different sizes and flow rates.
Volume: Determines the applied flow Quality: Produce droplets of a certain size Uniformity: Proper distribution
The mouthpiece is one of the most
of the vaccine
PRESSURE MODIFIES SIZE OF THE DROPLETS Higher pressure = smaller droplet size
A 1 bar
Figure 1 . Droplet diameter according to pressure
35 aviNews International November 2020 | Ensuring a good management of spray vaccination
Objectives to be fulfilled by a good vaccination device
The nozzles used for spray vaccination are adjustable. The most commonly used, are variable cone nozzles, because when the body
is rotated, the spray angle varies from a narrow jet with large droplets to a wide cone with small droplets.
A spectrum of drops between a maximum and
The identification of the nozzles is
a minimum defined as adequately as possible and according to the type of vaccination to be
carried out in accordance with the ISO standard, through a color code and / or
performed should be sought.
through numbering. These specifications are defined for
flat fan nozzles at a nominal pressure
of 3 bars, see Table 1.
It must emit a spray according to the type of
Higher pressure not only increases
vaccine to be used and it must also deliver
the flow rate of the nozzle, but also
the droplets with enough energy to ensure
influences the size of the droplets and
the wear rate of the holes.
DROP SIZE (DMV)
API Very Fine
Table 1. Identification of nozzles according to the ISO standard -through a color code and / or by means of a numbering
36 aviNews International November 2020 | Ensuring a good management of spray vaccination
Vaccination in the hatchery When vaccinating in a hatchery, it is necessary to check the dispersion of the droplets produced by the vaccine spray on the chick tray. For this purpose, a droplet verification tool
Figure 2. Before and after the installation of a vaccination kit with conical spray nozzles for vaccination in hatcheries.
is used, which allows the evaluation of the dispersion (Figure 2). Coverage of the vaccine solution in the chick box
The uniformity of the vaccine solution,
large enough to avoid loss by evaporation or drift. In addition, they must be small enough to produce good coverage on the target, i.e: not less than 60 microns for adult birds, 100 microns for young birds, and up to 300 microns for hatchery use.
that is, whether or not there is homogeneity in the droplet size. Carrying out this test allows us to check if we have forgotten to review the proper maintenance and correct calibration of the
Spray must be produced with droplets that are
nozzles, to determine the uniformity of the flow rate and the wear and tear over time and their use.
The spray profile is made up of numerous droplets of variable size, also known as the spray spectrum. When speaking of droplet size,
Flow and wear uniformity
it refers to the diameter of an individual droplet Steps to determine the uniformity of flow and
wear (hydraulic spraying):
DROP SIZE Very fine
Measure and record the flow rate L/Min of each nozzle. It should be done at normal
working pressure with a flowmeter.
Table 2. Drop size used for spray vaccination based on individual diameter.
See the uniformity. The flows are added and the average flow is calculated. Nozzles with a deviation of + â€“ 10% must be replaced.
W:Wear CF: Checked flow TF: Theoretical flow
37 aviNews International November 2020 | Ensuring a good management of spray vaccination
ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOTOXICOSIS IN CHICKENS By Manuel Contreras, DMV. Special Nutrients, Miami, Florida, USA
eed which is contaminated with mycotoxins has a severe impact on the performance of chickens.
In commercial and breeding hens this may lead a variety of problems, such as Oral lesions Stools of watery consistency Egg quality problems
38 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
Oral lesions They are mostly associated with feed contaminated with mycotoxins and consists of the presence of erosions and ulcers in the oral cavity.
Initially they appear as
yellowish and whitish plates located focally.
Photo 1. Caseous material in the salivary glands located on the palate of a broiler breeder hen that consumed feed contamined with T2 and DAS toxins
2 Later they transform into ulcers that extend
to the palate, oral, mucosa, salivary glands
In severe cases, partial (tip of tongue) or full necrosis of the tongue occur.
and labial commissures.
Oral lesions are generally not reported in birds less than 3 to 4 weeks old, unless the contamination level is extremely high.
In countries where sorghum is included in the diet instead of corn, lesions can be observed in younger birds as sorghum is more susceptible to mycotoxin contamination when compared to corn.
Sorghum Corn 39 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
Action mechanisms Mycotoxins such as T2 Toxin, MAS
Occasionally, clinical observations occur
–monoacetoxiscirpenol–, DAS –
in the field where T2 is unsuccessfully
diacetoxiscirpenol– and HT 2 toxin –T 2
identified in feed. However, when
metabolite– produce these changes through
testing for DAS or HT 2, the aetiological
two mechanisms of action:
agents can be identified.
Caustic effect by direct contact The first is a caustic effect via direct contact, that damages the epithelium of the oral cavity.
Intestinal absorption of mycotoxins
It is important to mention that T2 Toxin, MAS, DAS and HT2, have a toxic-necrosis effect to a greater or lesser degree in almost the entire digestive system, causing damages to the gizzard, liver and the entire gastrointestinal mucosa.
The second mechanism consists of intestinal absorption of the abovementioned mycotoxins into the first portion of the small intestine and then transport into the bloodstream. Once in the blood, they are secreted into the oral cavity through the salivary glands and cause injury to the oral tissue again.
This latter mechanism explains why when an effective mycotoxin trap is used, a decrease in the degree and number of birds with oral lesions is reported.
40 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
Other agents Other confusing agents that can also cause oral lesions are mentioned below, although these changes are generally not as severe and typical as those caused by
Decreased volume of food consumed & increased consumption time The great damage from the point of
view of productive efficiency caused
Feeding the birds very finely ground
the volume of feed consumed and
feed, incorrect use of quaternary
increases the time of consumption.
by oral injuries is that they decrease
ammonium-based disinfectants and strong acidifiers can all cause changes in
The very fine food
Increased consumption time is very
The very fine feed will cause these
critical in warm climates and in broiler
very small particles to deposit easily
breeders, who compete voraciously to
in different areas of the lip and mouth
consume the diet in very few hours.
the appearance of the oral mucosa.
Finally, in some countries that substitute
corners, and may cause the clinician to misdiagnose them as oral lesions.
The beak of birds is similar to the lips and teeth of mammals, therefore, any kind of discomfort
will affect consumption.
wheat for corn in the diet, this grain has the tendency to settle in some areas of the mouth and produce deposits that are relatively similar to oral lesions caused by mycotoxins.
Differential diagnosis through histopathology When the differential diagnosis is made by histopathology, there are no typical lesions in the oral cavity that can be associated with the mycotoxins of the trichothecenes group, but typical histopathological changes â€“ thinning of the thymus cortex and lymphoid depletion â€“ do appear in the thymus. In addition to these changes, other lesions in other important organs within the immune system will be identified.
41 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
Watery stool Although mycotoxins are often included as casual agents of these relatively common conditions in commercial production, watery stools are multifactorial problems It is believed that dysbacteriosis or imbalance in microbial populations that are part of the normal gut flora is responsible for much of the pathology that occurs at the gastrointestinal level. Improving the balance of microbial flora should be one of the first steps in preventing these conditions. The etiological
agents associated with these conditions can be dietary / nutritional, toxins, pathological and environmental.
Dietary / nutritional elements The watery consistency of feces is traditionally associated with the use of poorly processed soybean paste, the inclusion of high levels of salt – sodium – and very high levels of calcium carbonate in the form of powder – not particle – in the ration consumed by commercial laying hens. High levels of magnesium in the diet
A coccidiostats from the group of ionophores such as Lasalocide stimulates increased water removal if sodium levels in the feed are not decreased.
due to the use of limestone with high Mg levels -more than 1%-, which is known as dolomitic calcium carbonate can also produce the same effect.
42 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
Mycotoxins They are frequently associated with mycotoxins such as T-2 and DAS, due to the enteritis they cause at the intestinal epithelial level or like Ocratoxin due to their effect on
Colibacillosis, Clostridiosis and Salmonellosis are traditionally associated with very wet stools due to the diarrhea they cause. Spirochetes, which are rare in
Citrinin, another mycotoxin, can also cause
commercial conditions, can also
kidney damage, but we do not detect it
frequently under commercial conditions. Although Fumonisin and other mycotoxins are associated with disorders of intestinal integrity when high levels of feed are used in experimental tests, in field conditions it is difficult to clearly establish a relationship between this mycotoxin and the presence of lesions in the intestines.
Environment Among the environmental factors, it is necessary to mention caloric stress that ends up causing excessive water consumption. In
What can be established is a negative
some farms they use well water
effect on the productive parameters
contaminated with high levels of
such as feed conversion, weight gain,
magnesium, potassium or sodium
that can cause diarrhea.
It is necessary to take into consideration that once many of these toxins are combined, a synergistic effect will occur that will amplify the degree of damages or cause
the absorption of fluids through the kidneys.
Intestinal infections such as
The great negative effect of watery stools is the high percentage of dirty eggs and the productive inefficiency of hens, which have to eat more to cover their nutritional needs. Rapid mobilization through the gastrointestinal tract will hinder the absorption of important nutrients.
43 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
Poor egg quality – external and internal Shell quality Aflatoxin and Ocratoxin can interfere with the absorption of vitamin D3 by the damaging effects on the liver and kidneys respectively. As a consequence, the normal production of 25-hydroxy-D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy-D3 is compromised. Enteritis, at the level of the first portion of the small intestine caused by intoxication with fusariotoxins such as toxin T2, MAS and / or DAS, causes lack of absorption of vitamin D3, calcium
and / or phosphorus at the intestinal level, which explains why the shells appear soft.
Eggs of watery consistency Characterized so because the white presents a consistency similar to that of water. In these cases, the height of the albumin, which is measured in Haugh = HU units, is very low. It can be a product of mycotoxins such as Aflatoxin due to the effect they have on protein synthesis at the liver level. Other management practices that may affect are the following: Long storage time High temperature storage Low humidity in storage rooms Infectious Bronchitis and Egg Drop Syndrome – EDS – can cause similar symptoms.
44 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
Photo 2. Blood stains in an egg produced by a 327 week old broiler breeder who was eating aﬂatoxin contaminated feed.
Meat stains By contrast, meat spots consist of small sections of tissue – darker than blood spots – produced when small sections of the oviduct are collected by the egg before the shell membranes form. They are usually associated with albumin, not so much with the yolk and can be made up of portions of blood spots or pigments that have been degraded. They can be blood spots produced before ovulation. The breakdown of hemoglobin causes them to be darker in color.
Blood stains Blood stains are produced by hemorrhages The small blood vessels located in the
Causes of the spots
ovary rupture when the yolk is released, causing the blood to be transported within the yolk into the oviduct and become part of the egg’s content.
within the ovarian follicle during ovulation.
The most important causes of blood spots include vitamin K deficiency, Aflatoxin and the presence of red
These spots are usually located near the bud, although occasionally they spread in the albumin.
mites. The effect of Aflatoxin on the capillary fragility of blood vessels explains why it increases the incidence of meat and blood stains in chickens that consume
Mycotoxins can be correlated with many clinical pictures, therefore, it is necessary to consider many of the factors mentioned when making a differential diagnosis.
contaminated diets. A scientific paper was published in Poultry Science, demonstrating the relationship between mycotoxins and a higher incidence of blood and meat stains – Poultry Science 2015, Annual Meeting.
45 aviNews International November 2020 | Clinical observations associated with mycotoxicosis in chickens
POINTING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION
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