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Just like humans, dogs hurt themselves every once in a while. Learn how you can prepare a first aid kit for your dog and what you should do in the event of an emergency.



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The domestication of dogs took place many, many years ago, yet many people aren’t familiar with how it all began. Over time, dogs and humans have become inseparable in every sense of the word.


If you’re looking for tips on how to correctly trim your dog’s nails, one of more challenging grooming tasks, then look no further. This guide will tell you all you need to know.


A Working dog will never let you down, and anyone who owns one will tell you that. Despite coming from all sorts of places, the qualities outlined in this article are shared by all Working dogs.


The decision to adopt a dog or puppy is one that should take much consideration and time, not done on a whim. Here are some things you should consider before bring that puppy or adult dog home with you.


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016



Dog training is a task that takes patience and perseverance to be successful. Learn the right tone of voice and body language to communicate with your dog effectively.

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Toy dogs are the perfect pet for families living in small homes. A Toy dog may be for you if you’re looking for a pet bred for companionship.


The Terrier is a popular breed of dog that is most known for its digging expertise. This introduction will familiarize you with more of the common Terrier characteristics.


The many types of working dogs perform different jobs, ranging from assisting people with disabilities to busting criminals. Learn more about these beautiful creatures.


HOUSE TRAINING YOUR DOG If you are bringing a new dog into your home, you need to make sure it is potty trained. If it is not house trained, that is one of the first things you need to work on.



If you are a dog owner, you should take care to ensure your dog stays in optimal health. Learn more about health issues dogs face so you can help your pet avoid them.



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Dogs are a wonderful addition to a family, but they are also a responsibility. With the right strategy and guidance you can respond to your dog’s specific needs properly.


Dog training can help you to teach your dog to be more well behaved. The following advice instructs you how to successfully teach your dog to stay until she is released.



LISTENING TO YOUR DOG While your dog may not be able to speak English, it can communicate in other ways. Learn more about how to decipher your dog’s language by actively listening to your dog.

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If you are looking for a new puppy to bring into your family, there are some things to consider. Before purchasing a dog from a breeder or pet store, do some research!


If your dog does not currently have a vet, you should remedy that immediately. To keep your dog in good health, you must select an experienced and educated veterinarian.



If you are in the market for a new dog bed, why not buy a new crate while you’re out shopping? Having a dog crate is a very intelligent idea for many different reasons.

Does your dog look like he or she could use a good grooming right about now? If so, learn how you can groom your dog all by yourself so that you can get started today.

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016




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Alicia Breckenridge Writer

Kelly Livingston Head of Creatives Nyvia Ross

Graphic Designer Kerwin Wepee

Digital Property Managers Maharlika Matutinao Layla Anaya

Digital Property Assistants

Hello, and welcome to the first issue of Dog Ownership 101! It is with great pleasure I announce what will hopefully be the start of a prosperous line of publications. We hope everyone’s holiday season saw them happy and healthy in the arms of their family. In just the past few weeks we’ve said sad farewells to classic talents Ian Fraser “Lemmy” Kilmister, David Bowie, a musical revolutionary, and Alan Rickman, famed actor of both the stage and screen. As heartbreaking as these goodbyes may be, for fans and family alike, we can only hope to remember the rich lives these individuals lived, and clutch our loved ones a little tighter as we strive to live our lives just as fully. The New Year is a time for resolutions, a time for us to reflect on a past year’s worth of experiences, and set goals for how we’d like to carry on through these next twelve months. For dog owners, I’m sure you have priorities for your furry friends as well, whether it’s house training a new puppy, helping an older dog transition comfortably into

their elderly years, or making sure your dog is happy and safe through all the stages in between. Inside Dog Ownership 101 you’ll find advice prepared by the staff on the history of dogs, how to make dog training as close to a painless process for you and your canine companion as possible, and more. Whether you’re in need of grooming tips, advice on emergency preparedness, or just want to know all that you can on being the best dog owner you can be, Dog Ownership 101 is here to support your needs. I now give the floor to Alicia Breckenridge, editor of Dog Ownership 101. Here’s to a happy and healthy January for everyone. See you in the next issue! Warm regards,

Kenan Ross KENAN ROSS CEO Authoritative Content

Krystine Sitjar Warren Nietes

Online Presence: Facebook Google+ Twitter Tumblr Pinterest

For advertising concerns please contact KJ Ross at

Dog ownership 101’s magazine content cannot be copied or reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publishers. Dog ownership 101’s editors and publishers shall not be held liable for any unsolicited materials. All prices and specifications published in this magazine are subject to change by manufacturers, agency and retailers.

LETTER FROM THE EDITOR Hello, and welcome! I can’t tell you how excited I am for Dog Ownership 101 to finally see the publication of our first issue! This has been a long work in the making, and what better time to see it released than the start of a New Year! I hope everyone’s holidays have treated them well, and that you all are looking at even more prosperous times ahead. I know I am! Dog Ownership 101 is all about getting you primed as a dog owner to fully understand your dog’s history, breed, and what to expect as they transition from one stage of life to another. As any parent knows, it can be nerve-wracking taking care of a small child who isn’t able to talk yet. Unless some of you are talented ventriloquists, your dogs won’t ever speak a word to you in their life time, but that doesn’t mean you’re doomed to never understand them.

understand you, and skip straight to learning to speak “dog”! We at Dog Ownership 101 believe knowledge is always power. Not knowing the type of breed that’s best for you and your style of living , making incorrect assumptions regarding grooming, house training, or even feeding habits, can be a disastrous experience for both you and your pet. We want our dogs to love us as much as we love them. That’s why we go the extra mile to cover all our bases and learn the best way to provide for them. I hope Dog Ownership 101 puts you one step closer to being an all-star dog owner! Best wishes,

Alicia Breckenridge

ALICIA BRECKENRIDGE By learning the way a dog’s body and mind works, Editor you can shelf the hope of getting your dog to Dog Ownership 101 Magazine DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


HOW DOGS STOPPED BEING FERAL Dogs haven’t always been the playful creatures they are today. Read on to learn about how dogs became domesticated.

by Kelly Livingston


ogs have been known as man’s best friend for years, and that’s no accident. The relationship you have with your dog has come from hundreds of years of humans co-existing with their canine companions. What were dogs originally like compared to today? The following will explain exactly why your pet is very different from the world’s first wolves. How Canines Compare Today You must remember that genetic ancestors aren’t everything. In the same way humans and apes are apples and oranges, your furry friend is not the same as the vicious wolves and jackals from which it descends. Like we share the ability to use tools and to socialize in a complex manner,


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

your dog may have some behavioral and physical similarities in common with the more savage beasts of it’s past lives, they are not one and the same. Domesticating Dogs As Pets When the practice of domestication began in ancient human society, it would seem as if humans had a nose for our canine companions. The domestication of dogs occurred before the domestication of any other animal species, or before the domestication of any crop. Recent archeological evidences suggests that dogs were domesticated between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago, in several locations independent of one another. Asia and Russia were the frontrunners of the pack, followed

by peoples in the Middle East, Europe, and North America. The Bond Between Human And Dog Right from the start, people and dogs developed a deep bond. Both species hunted for survival and were part of hierarchical societies. People were able to reason and learn, which is one advantage that dogs lacked, but dogs have always been and continue to be more intelligent than other animal species. Dogs developed from wolves’ habit of consuming the scraps of human populations, as it was easier and more reliable than hunting. People appreciated the presence of dogs, as they helped keep their camp clean of waste and pests. The Start Of Begging For Scraps Like our loveable dogs today, their wild ancestors were not afraid to linger around after human mealtimes to scavenge for leftover food. Normally these packs stuck together to form a unified hunting team that fed off of their collective gains. However, they were also smart enough to know that free, easy food could be sometimes found just outside villages and camps in trash piles called middens. The wolf ancestors knew that at certain times of the day, the middens were a smorgasbord of excess food that the pack could count on for nourishment. The Use Of Dogs In Camps Domestication of canines may have fallen short of what it is today if the relationship had been constrained by solely those factors. However, both humans and canines share the concept of

territoriality, viewing a certain area as theirs to live in and, if necessary, defend. Wild canines living around a human camp would view it as parts of their territory, and as such would rally to the camp’s defense if dangers such as rival bands of humans or wild animals presented themselves. The clamor created by the wild canines would serve to alarm the camp’s inhabitants, who would then take over defense of the camp. Human settlements benefited highly from the security granted by their companion canine packs, especially at night. Humans And Dogs Begin Co-Existing Wild dogs tended to stay close to prehistoric human populations. They were much more docile and friendly towards the people whose scraps they consumed, and soon people realized that if a pack of dogs could protect the whole camp, why not a single hut? Dogs were then kept by individual people and helped them to fight, hunt, herd, and to track food, people, and property. The Appearance Of Tame Canines The process of domesticating dogs was more complicated than a Stone Age man finding a wolf pup and raising it to be like a dog. In all likelihood the first stages of domestication were probaby started by the wolves themselves. Dogs were naturally selected out of the wolf population by humans culling packs of unusually agressive

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


animals, leaving the more docile wolves to feed on scraps. The docile wolves stayed near the settlement, becoming dogs. Both species benefitted from mutual protection, with dogs alerting humans to threats, and humans protecting their dogs. The breeding within this population of docile wolves created dogs. Dogs are therefore genetically prone to tame behavior. How Breeding Affects Behavior There is one main difference between domesticated and wild animals, and it may not be what you think. The main difference between a domesticated animal and its wild counterpart is not that it has been tamed by familiarity with human presence, but rather, that it has been genetically modified. Over many generations, humans have modified the breeding patterns of many species to create tame animals radically different from their counterparts in the wild.


You Cannot Tame A Wolf Researchers have determined that it is impossible to instantly domesticate a wolf pup. Even pups raised from birth on hand feeding are too wild to be pets. Cubs thought to have been tamed started to hunt other pets within the house, farm animals, and in some cases, even children. They challenged those appearing to be authority figures, becoming more dominant socially in an effort to seize more control. While tame wolf puppies can be taught to understand simple acts of obedience, as adults they refuse to recognize them, challenging humans who try to impose authority over them instead. In several reports, wolves that had been believed to be tamed suddenly lashed out and attacked their owners. The Effects Of Neoteny Dogs have been bred out of the wolf population by a process of domestication that leaves them

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

in a state closer to that of a puppy than an adult wolf. Theirs is a life of neverending childhood. Dogs retain into adulthood features normally found only in young wolves. This is called neoteny, and it’s why many adult dogs resemble wolf puppies rather than adult wolves. The reason that dogs make good pets and wolves do not has to do with the behavioral aspects of neoteny. As dogs mature they do not lose some of their puppyish behaviors. Mature wolves exhibit completely adult canine behavior, making them difficult to tame. Dogs have come a long way from the wild wolves that they started off as. Due to a natural form of breeding, today’s dogs are more like puppies than wolves. However, this tameness in behavior is the exact reason why dogs make such loyal pets, and are even safe enough to have around your children.

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How To Properly Trim Your Dog’s Nails by Alicia Breckenridge


Trimming your dog’s nails can be tricky, but the tips in this article will make sure you are doing a good job.

ome dog grooming basics are easier, like combing and bathing, but then there are the harder tasks, such as tooth brushing, ear and face cleaning, and toenail trimming. These need to be done periodically, but you can make them easier on yourself and your pet. The following will focus on the guidelines you should follow when the time comes for you to clip your dog’s nails, and how you 10

can make the experience more bearable for both you and your furry friend. Knowing When It’s Trimming Time If your dog isn’t spending a lot of time on pavement to wear the nails down, you need to trim them regularly; they grow rapidly. Clicking on a hard surface tells you that it is time. But this is a

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

delicate procedure that many owners and their pets hate to do, especially if it’s been bad in the past. Establishing A Routine Your dog may never love having nails trimmed even though you try your hardest to make it a good experience because dogs are sensitive regarding nails. It helps to know you can make choices.

You can do them all at one time or clip in stages. Just keep up with it so the nails don’t get out of control. Weekly would be ideal for trimming a dog’s nails because then you prevent other problems and established a routine. Some dogs like grinders better than clippers so use this rotary tool if you need to or even hire a professional groomer or vet to do the trimming. How To Make Trimming Easier When trimming toenails on your dog try these tips: Make sure your dog is used to you touching her feet because a lot of them hate that. Get your pet used to tolerating it and it will be easier to do a manicure each week. You can start with the help of a vet or a groomer who can show you what to do the first time and then you can take care of them yourself periodically. Do just one paw at a time if you have a dog that is fussy. Trim one and then give the dog a rest period before you go on to do another. Then give the dog a treat, a hug, and an exclamation of praise along with a nice scratch behind the ears. What You Will Need Be sure to get all your tools together prior to picking up your nail clippers so that the procedure goes smoothly. You will need special nail cutters (the best choices are either the scissor or guillotine styles); a product to stop bleeding if you accidentally nick your dog’s veins (the best products are either styptic powder, in which case also grab cotton balls, or a nail-cauterizing tool); a damp towel to clean up any mess; a nail file to smooth the trimmed nail; and a favorite treat to reward your dog. Avoiding The Quick There’s a nail and a quick in every canine toenail, the quick being pink if you can see it. That’s where the blood supply to the nail is so try not to cut this sensitive part that will bleed easily. You can see the quick if your pet has nails that are white, but often they are darker than that and you can not find the quick. That means you must snip quite cautiously and keep looking closely. Stop right away if there’s a sponginess to the nail and be careful rather than sorry later. If you clip the quick, your pet, will not be a happy camper and there’ll be a lot of blood. Use a nail cauterizer or styptic powder right away to stem the blood. This hurts the dog and will usually DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


HOW TO TRIM THE NAIL For trimming your dog’s nails, here are the steps: 1. Hold its foot gently but steadily and firmly. 2. Snip a little at the end of all the toenails. Put a little bit of it in at a time. The dog should probably be lying down for this procedure. Do what works best for you and your canine. You might want to use a nail grinder instead of a clipper, but it’s the same kind of procedure. Hold the foot and grind some off every nail. Do it when needed, but before a bath is nice so that if the dog is quicked the blood can be washed off.


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be remembered by your pet for a long time. Remembering The Dewclaw Dogs have an additional claw called the “dewclaw,” which functions as a sort of ‘thumb.’ This claw is located at the top of the dog’s foot, on the inside of the leg. While the majority of dewclaws are located on the front of their leg, a few dogs have dewclaws on the rear. Not all dogs have dewclaws, however. For dogs who do have dewclaws, the groomer needs to pay careful attention when trimming these claws. Because the dewclaw is rarely placed on the ground, these claws tend to grow longer than other claws. Trimming these dewclaws is important to keep them from growing into your dog’s foot, a painful condition. Grooming is a very important part of being a pet owner, regardless of whether you’re interested in doing it. Toenail trimming can be especially tedious, but with the above tips, you should be able to get through trimming your dog’s nails pretty painlessly. Establish a pattern with your dog so that they know to expect this part of grooming, as it isn’t one that you can slack on.


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A GUIDE TO WORKING DOGS Not all dogs are bred for herding or hunting. This article will tell you about the Working Dog’s impressive qualities.

by Alicia Breckenridge


ne of the most impressive dog groups is the Working Group, which is made up of dogs that display bravery, strength and loyalty. This AKC category includes dogs that were bred for a job other than herding or hunting, including rescuing, guarding, sledding or carting. While the jobs of many of these dogs have become antiquated (for example, snowmobiles have taken the place of sled dogs), in many parts of the world, these working breeds still fulfill their original roles. The following will discuss working dogs, as well as list a few of the many different kinds of working dogs.

The Purpose Of Working Dogs

Taking Care Of A Working Dog

The Working Group breeds are designed to do difficult jobs. They are strong and more than able to carry large loads. They are courageous enough to follow soldiers into battle, and also able to protect against all types of enemies. These breeds are trained to have an extensive skillset that permits them to perform rescues, sniff out drugs and weapons, and swim and dive underwater. They are smart and able to make decisions on their own, which is a necessity if a dog is acting alone and must get the job done.

Most of the working breeds of dogs, like the Great Dane, the Akita, the Mastiff and the Doberman Pinschers, require a real effort to care for as a pet, even though they are excellent at certain tasks. The intelligence of these larger breeds can be channelled into a wonderful home companion if they are trained properly at an early age. It is imperative to teach these large and powerful dogs correct behavior or they will become challenging to control. These dogs must be taught to socialize throughout their lives so that they do not become


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overprotective, especially if you plan to introduce them to new people. Working Dog Characteristics The group of dogs known as working dogs are generally about the same size, even though they may look quite different. The hair types of these dogs range from the smooth hair on a Neopolitan Mastiff to the white corded hair on a Komondor. Each of these hair types relates to the type of work that the dog does. The look of a Neopolitan Mastiff is strange enough to startle an intruder. A Komondor’s hair on the other hand, allows it to blend in with the sheep it herds. These working dogs tend to make great guard dogs because of their large size and bark. When a criminal hears the sound of a Rottweiler, they think twice about entering a house.

Working Dog Activity Levels Some of the working breeds are content with little exercise and live happily in a small home or apartment regardless of their size. For example, Mastiffs don’t require much strenuous exercise and can be fine with a daily walk. Sled dogs, however, are completely different and are quite active. These dogs, the Alaskan Malamute, Samoyed, or Siberian Huskies for example, need more exercise and play. Other dogs that can benefit from more activity in the Working Group are the Portuguese Water Dog, the Boxer, and the Standard Schnauzer. Working dogs of all types enjoy having jobs to do. This could mean being a drug-sniffing dog, a therapy dog for nursing homes, or being in a team for the Iditarod. Other working dogs are content to be a guard for children in backyards. Nothing is better than being congratulated for a job well done by having a nap at the master’s feet.

THE GREAT DANE The Great Dane has a long history that includes ancient cross breeding with the English Mastiff, Irish Wolfhound and the Greyhound. They have been used in Germany as boar hunters as far back as the 14th century. At some point, the look of the breed became well liked by rich landowners. They are still a breed that is widely liked. Great Danes are large dogs with males ranging from 32 inches or more and between 145 to 185 pounds and females ranging from 30 inches or more and between 100 to 135 pounds. Their coats come in a variety of colors. They are known for being active, amiably and dependable. A Great Dane can be a great family addition with the right training.

THE AKITA The Akita dog breed, known for hunting and guarding, is the biggest of the seven Japanese dog breeds. Because of how well loved it is as a pet, the breed was recognized as a Japanese national monument in 1931. The Akita breed was introduced to the U.S. by both Helen Keller on a return trip home from Japan and by returning U.S. soldiers after World War II. These are large dogs. The males range from 26 to 28 inches and 85 to 115 pounds while the females range from 24 to 26 inches and 75 to 95 pounds. The dogs are found in a variety of colors such as white, brindle and pinto. They are known as alert animals who protect their families. They may at times be a danger to other dogs. DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


THE DOBERMAN PINSCHER Louis Doberman, a German tax collector, bred the first Doberman Pinscher around the beginning of the 20th Century, to protect him as he made his rounds. The Doberman was a product of breeding between several popular German dog breeds, possibly including the Weimeraner and Rottweiler, amongst others. Highly intelligent and loyal, as well as energetic and fearless, Dobermans make good family pets, and are well suited for police and security work. They are around the size of an Akita, medium to large in size and weigh more than 60 pounds. The females are around 2 feet, with males 2-4 inches taller. Dobermans usually have rust markings with black, red or fawn coats. Dobermans may be mistrustful of strangers and aggressive around new dogs.

THE MASTIFF It is unclear where exactly Mastiffs originally came from, but evidence of them have been found in images of Roman gladiators and monuments in Egypt. Further on into history, they were used as protective watchdogs by the English. The Mastiffs we know today are thought to have come from the line of the Lyme Hall Mastiffs of Lyme Park, England. Evidence proposes that Mastiffs first came to the United States in the late 1800s, but it is commonly believed that they came on the Mayflower. They are commonly known as the ‘Old English Mastiff.’ With males usually measuring around 30 inches and between 165 and 225 pounds and females measuring in at 27 1/2 inches and between 120 and 165 pounds, they are one of the largest breeds around. Some common coat colors for Mastiffs are brindle, apricot, and fawn. Mastiffs are known to be brave protectors, while also very gentle and docile at the same time.

Dogs from the working group, in spite of their name, can actually make great pets. You should make sure, however, that the breed you are considering matches your household, as some dogs do not get along with others, and others may be too big for the space you are currently occupying. Whichever breed you choose, so long as you have the resources and patience, a working dog has the potential to make a great companion for you and your family.


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Adopting a dog or puppy is a big decision for many people. There are many things to think about before making the pick.


nimal shelters have many dogs, and this proves that a lot of people choose the wrong dogs for themselves. The following will give you advice so you can make the right choice when you pick your dog, after you have thought about all the issues and factors. Certainly, your heart can influence you, however let your mind be the final judge.


A puppy is an adorable ball of fur, with a wagging tail and innocent eyes. Many people who want dogs to live with really want puppies, and it only takes one look to see why. Shelters place their puppies far faster than any older dog, but a lot of these puppies end up going right back to the shelter when they hit adolescence; the challenges of a big, active adolescent dog are even worse than the complete lack of training that a puppy has.


Before you buy or adopt a puppy, take a careful look at the other dogs. Breed, size, and temperament might be more important than how old it is, particularly if the puppy is a breed that grows large. That little ball of fur might grow into an inadvertent housewrecker, particularly if you have expensive breakables in your house. There are both advantages and disadvantages to puppies and adult dogs; think carefully before you choose.


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


Puppies are adorable and very small, and they make you want to take one home with their little paws. Consider, though, whether you should go through with it. There are a lot of positives to adopting a puppy; you control when and how well it is trained and adapted to living with humans, making sure that it learns good behavior, and you have the opportunity to bond with your puppy from the start. You also get that little, cute animal as your companion, and you get to watch it grow up and mellow into an adolescent dog in a couple of years. You get to watch it live its full lifespan, something you cannot do with an older animal.


But, you may not like how your pet behaves if you choose a puppy and you can’t train your puppy to have social skills, plus it is a lot of work and takes time to housetrain your puppy. If you are inconsistent with your training, your puppy will leave puddles

and bundles for you to pick up for a long time. Don’t be surprised if everything on the floor is chewed up. Puppies must chew. It is important they have toys, bones and other appropriate items to chew on and make sure you put anything you don’t want chewed somewhere high up or behind closed doors. If your habits include leaving your belongs all over the floor, you might want to consider a goldfish instead.


Puppies are full of energy, and compared to adult dogs their need for stimulation never seems to wane. They can be a handful. This only makes sense from a human perspective, as the puppy just does things according to its nature, but puppies have absolutely no manners at all. They may bite at fingers, tug on the leash, bark like crazy (even at night), dig up your yard, try to get out of the fence, attack other animals, and possibly jump on people. Teaching your puppy not to do all this is your responsibility.


Adult dogs are often great pets when adopted. A lot of people have problems adopting puppies and swear never to do it again, deciding only on adult dogs. A lot of the adult dogs in shelters are well-behaved and trained as pets and simply lost their homes. Some dogs were abandoned because their owners couldn’t take care of them, others are there because of things like death and divorce happening to their owners, and still other dogs were abandoned simply because they are no longer puppies.


Dogs are most typically given up to shelters in their adolescent and early adulthood phases, between 9 months and 2 years of age. This is when dogs tend to develop difficult behaviors in conjunction with reaching a full-grown size. Rather than addressing these problems with proper training and socialization exercises, many pet owners choose to surrender their animals.

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Before you make up your mind about getting an adult dog, think about the pros and cons based on your lifestyle. An adult dog could be a wise choice since it might previously be trained to behave properly in the home, have fully developed teeth, have social skills and be more easygoing. Usually after they have passed the adolescent stage, they adapt better than puppies. A SENSE OF GRATEFULNESS It’s often thought that adult dogs that have been rescued from shelters seem to be aware of the fact that they’ve been given a second opportunity. It isn’t uncommon for pet owners who end up adopting older dogs to get a strong sense of appreciation from their dogs. Also, adult dogs generally pick up on things very easily and

will definitely enjoy spending time with you while learning new tricks. However, adult dogs are often passed by in favor of younger dogs and puppies when prospective owners visit shelters looking to adopt, so adopting an adult dog will save the life of an animal who would most likely never have found a home. ISSUES IN ADULT CANINES While adult dogs are wonderful, they have their own problems, and there are things you should know about them. They may try to guard their food by snapping at your hand if you reach for it, and some adult dogs do not like children and start getting aggressive or hurting themselves if they feel nervous. It is also hard to remove their bad habits, like barking too much, chewing shoes up, and digging holes in your yard.

TROUBLE IN ADULT DOGS Sometimes older dogs require a lot of time to adjust, as the dog tends to miss its old family and lifestyle. Some abused animals may need to be re-taught trust. There are also problems involving an older dog’s total lifespan; it may not have very many years left. Some larger dogs only live six to eight years, and if you have adopted a breed like a Great Dane at the age of four, you and the dog may not have very long together. There are a lot of adorable dogs who want your attention and show it by barking and jumping. You can’t take them all home with you, but you can find the right dog by focusing on the traits you need and deciding what kind of dog is best suited to your house and your life.


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DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

Stop 34 of the most common dog and puppy issues.

The Online Dog Trainer The Easy Way To An Obedient Dog

Doggy Dan’s four-part series in how to train your dog or puppy out of problematic behaviors takes pet ownership and makes it simpler than many of us thought possible! When you know the best way to correct your dog’s behavior, your chances of ridding your canine friend of annoying habits while making sure your relationship with one another stays strong remains encouragingly high.



Toy dogs are widely popular for their small size and huge cuteness. Read on to see if a Toy dog is right for you and your family.


o you want a lot of personality in a small dog, one who can travel around with you in a tote bag and think a walk up the block is a long trek? You might be looking for a Toy Dog. Whether it’s the teeny Chihuahua or a spunky Papillon, there are twenty-one wonderful breeds of toy types to choose.

which makes them perfect for urbanites and those who live in condos or retirement housing. It can be carried around easily and taken wherever you go, even on airplanes. Can’t do that with a Collie! A lot of them are very tough, though, and make good watch dogs because of their bark that signals a stranger.

The Start Of Toy Dogs

Some of the breeds most known for their alertness are the Yorkshire Terrier, the Pomeranian, Min Pin, Toy Manchester Terrier, Chihuhua, Brussels Griffon, and the Affenpinscher. Something to remember is that their principal strength lies in their bark versus the implied bite of a larger, more intimidating dog. Another advantage of toy breeds is that they require minimal exercise. With that said, they should not be lying around all day eating treats.

Some began as rodent hunters, but toys were mostly bred for companionship and royal accessories. They are often tinier versions of the bigger dogs, such as the toy from the standard poodle. But there is a Miniature Pinscher, which did not come from the Doberman even though they do resemble each other. The toy breeds don’t have just one set of features because they were bred from lots of different groupings. They’re usually gentle, but they can have quite differing personalities. Think about how sensitive the Italian Greyhound is, for instance, compared to the brave Min Pin or the perky Brussels Griffon.

Keeping Toy Dogs As Pets

Your toy will fit in your lap and even in your efficiency apartment, 22

Breed Specifics

Caring For A Toy Dog

All dogs, including tiny toy dogs, need exercise likes daily walks or play sessions with their owners to stay fit. Sometimes physically challenged or elderly dog owners may manage their dogs’ need to go out with puppy pads or a litter box. An advantage of toys

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

is that they need less grooming and there is less to vacuum up after. The toy breeds are loving, devoted and can certainly bring senior citizens great joy. They are companions for those who are alone or physically challenged and make wonderful therapy dogs. More and more nursing homes now have resident toy dogs that love to snuggle with the people who live there.

Toy Dogs Are Less Expensive

It’s cheaper to take care of a small pet because they don’t require as much food. These toy breeds have a longer life span than larger pets so the price differences even out over time. For some owners, whether or not their pet is covered by insurance is an area of concern. For instance, some policies won’t insure larger dogs, or if they do so it will be at a much greater

expense. By buying one of these very small pets, you won’t have to worry about this.

Toy Dog Owner Characteristics

This very small breed should not be purchased by all families. In particular, families that have younger kids should not buy toy breeds. A toddler may want to hug and squeezed one of these small pets like they’re a stuffed animal. A toddler’s actions may result in a small bite from the toy dog. It’s best to just not have these small breeds around small children. Families who are away from home most of the time also should not buy this pet. This breed needs company and was actually bred to provide such. They want to be around people as much as possible.

Exercise Levels

If you want a dog that will run

with you, you need to consider another breed. While an Italian Greyhound may enjoy a jog, most toy breeds only want a walk or to play with you. Also, some toys are sensitive to heat and some have respiratory problems. If you are looking for a show dog, you should consider a larger size within a breed. Even though these dogs are not appropriate for competition, they tend to be sturdier.

The Chihuahua

The Chihuahua is one of the most popular breeds of toy dogs. They may very well have come from an ancient Aztec dog called the Techichi that was used both for companionship and in religious rites. You can get this breed with a long or a short coat, and of course it has been bred to be more modern in its features today. This is a very small breed

in both inches and weight. They tend to be very self confident and alert. They are very loyal to their owners. Whether or not they bark varies from animal to animal. A good owner to a Chihuahua is one who spends a lot of time with them. It’s not unusual for them to live to be in their mid to late teens. If you’re looking for an adorable little pet that you can spend some serious bonding time with, a dog from the Toy Group could be exactly what you need. Toys are perfect for people living in studio apartments or other small living quarters, where a larger dog would easily make a mess. However, if you aren’t capable of spending much time at home with your dog, you may want to consider looking at something else.

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016



Terriers are highly energetic, loyal, and definitely brave. Of the many breeds, these aspects are definitely in common between all of them.





erriers are an old breed of dogs that have worked for their keep for hundreds of years. The name, which is Latin for “earth,” was no doubt given to this tenacious breed due to their ability to hunt such troublesome pests as mice, rats, and foxes, both above ground and in their burrows. Expert diggers, these brave animals have a history of being able to take care of themselves in nearly every situation, and it is undoubtedly their personality and untiring spirit that makes them popular to this day.

Modern Terriers pack plenty of dog appeal in their relatively tiny frames. Generally speaking, the Terrier category of dogs possesses a fine personality and a tendency to bond with their owners. Nonetheless, this breed isn’t suited to everybody. While these animals are endearing, they demand a certain degree of energy from their owners, which may make them a bit of a challenge to keep. Despite being small in stature, terriors are a very protective breed. They will alert you when someone is near by; whether it is a mailman, squirrel, or a neighbor. Their arrogant, Napoleonic demeanor is great for people who want to avoid some visitors. 24

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

The Terrier is a breed of dog that does not demand a lot of attention. Although it may not need as much human interaction, it could become bored and destructive without creative activities to keep it occupied. One way to do this is by testing your Terrier in trials that engage your dog in tunnels and courses. Other breeds that enjoy these tests, especially those where they can track prey, are the Border, Wire Fox, Lakeland, and Scottish Terriers.

When it comes to bravery, an indomitable spirit, and tenacity, Terriers are generally placed at the top of the list. While all Terriers have these common characteristics, there are many varieties to the breed that differ greatly physically. Westies, Bull Terriers, Australian, Borders, and Cairn are all different, and many are much smaller than Airedales and American Staffordshires. Whether they are long or short legged, or have smooth or wiry coats, these intrepid hunters are all prized pets and companions.

Airedales are the largest breed of terrier and also called the “King of Terriers”. They are thought to be a relation of the Old English Terrier, which is now extinct. Its ability to hunt otter, fox and badgers was prized by English hunters. Its looks, nature and intelligence have helped the Airedale attain plenty of admirers once it was brought to the USA. Regardless of its task ,the Airedale is a champion.

AIREDALE MEASUREMENTS AND TRAITS Dogs vary in sizes, as do particular breeds of dogs. The Airedale is a breed that ranges from medium to large, the male being around 23 inches while the female is smaller. They usually weigh between 45 and 70 pounds. Airedales are known to be smart dogs because they have the ability to learn new things if they are fun. They also like to seek adventure, but can be a bit stubborn. These dogs are great for those who like the outdoors because Airedales have a high level of energy; they enjoy daily exercise like long walks and hunting. To keep these dogs in excellent health for their 10 to 13 years, you should groom them and comb them twice a week, give them plenty of exercise, and they will protect you for life.

When it comes to hunting, one of Britain’s oldest breeds, the Border Terrier, has always been a favorite. A favorite for hunting foxes, because of its ability to follow its prey through nearly every kind of terrain, both above and below ground, the Border Terrier has excelled for over three hundred years. Today it is still prized for its hunting ability and as an excellent family pet.

BORDER TERRIER TRAITS Border Terriers aren’t too big, the females running up to 14 inches and 16lbs and the males 15 1/2 inches and 20lbs. They’re nice around the house but love to chase things outside, dig, and bark. They’re good around kids and pets that aren’t rodents. They have a moderate amount of energy well suited to an active person or family because they need exercise every day, a secure yard, brushing every week, and stripping every three months. Given good care, they should live 12 to 15 years. DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


The Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier is one of three Terriers from Ireland. It has a silky coat and was breed to be a farm hand. It is able to herd, hunt and guard. Introduced to the USA in 1946 and acknowledged by the American Kennel Club in 1973, this is a very versatile dog. The Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier is a great companion at home and a good competitor in areas such as agility and obedience.

WHEATEN TERRIER CHARACTERISTICS The Wheaten Terrier is a medium sized dog. The females are typically 17 to 18 inches, weighing 30 to 35lbs, and the males are just slightly larger. This is a dog that is friendly, easy going and affectionate. They are usually good with children, although some can be too rambunctious. As young dogs, their energy level is medium to high, and wanes over time. To own one, you should have training experience and take an active approach with your dog. This dog needs exercise everyday, ideally a fenced yard to play in, grooming every few days with trimming on a bi-monthly basis and good training by its owner. Their life expectancy is 12 to 14 years.

If you can handle a dog with a high energy level, a pup from the Terrier group might be for you. These are brave and loyal dogs, but they don’t tend to run very large, making them great for those living in small living spaces. There are many Terrier breeds out there that weren’t mentioned here, so you should make sure to do your research if you do decide that this is dog group you’re interested in.


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

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by Kelly Livingston

Working dogs are intelligent creatures that perform important jobs for their owners. Learn more about these dogs and the jobs each breed is known for.


orking dogs are beautiful, strong animals that are as intelligent as they are loyal. Working dogs tend to be around the same size, but their appearances and hair types can differ greatly, as can the jobs that they perform. The following information will help you to see why people love working dogs so much and why working dogs are so good at what they do. After you are finished reading this you will probably want one of your own!

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


Working dogs form an amazing group of animals who are strong, brave, and loyal. This Working Dog category according to the AKC is defined as those who have jobs that are not herding or hunting, which can include pulling a cart, sledding, rescuing, or guarding. Such jobs are frequently done by machines nowadays, but around the globe you can still find Working dogs hard at their tasks. These strong dogs can carry heavy loads, and

their appearance and hair type may differ vastly. Dogs like the Komondor have white, long, matted hair while other dogs like Neapolitan have smooth and short hair. The type of hair a dog has serves different purposes. The long matted hair of Komondor protects the dog from rain and wind, and also helps to remain cool on hot days. Since the hair is white, the dog can easy blend with the sheep. Neapolitans have a terrific look, which is sufficient to frighten any uninvited guests. Most working dogs are used to guard homes and protect flocks of sheep. They are generally large in size and their barking is quite loud. The terrific bark of some working dogs is enough to stop would be thieves and burglars.


they’re so courageous that they go with soldiers into war zones and can protect a home against intruders. They are also great for going underwater, as well as for seeking out drugs and explosives.


These types of working dogs are known for being smart, which is quite important for a dog that needs to act independently. Great Danes, Akitas, Mastiffs, and Doberman Pinschers are all smart dogs that can be difficult to

handle at times because of their large size. They tend to be quick learners, so they can be trained to be a good pet. These dogs will be tough for an owner to care for if they aren’t trained correctly. It’s particularly important to acclimate them to new people so that they don’t become a guard dog when new people come around.


Almost all working dogs are around the same size, but

Even though they are on the larger side, there are working dogs that only need a bit of exercise and their needs can be satisfied in an apartment or smaller house. For instance, a Mastiff can get by quite nicely with a leisurely walk every day. A sled dog, though, is very active and you’ll have to play and run a lot with an Alaskan Malamute, Samoyed or Siberian Husky. In the working dog breed, Boxers, Portuguese Water Dogs and Standard Schnauzers could use more exercise, too.


The favorite thing that working dogs like to do is work. The type of job will vary with the dog. Some dogs go to work in a police car and help the police officers catch bad guys. Other dogs may be brought into a medical unit to help with therapy of elderly patients. After a hard day of work, a dog loves

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


to hang out with his owner. The Akita is a Japanese guard dog that is used for hunting. This dog is so popular that it was awarded a national honor in 1931. Interestingly enough, the Akita first came to the U.S. in the care of Helen Keller. More dogs were brought over after World War II by returning soldiers. The Akita received formal designation by the AKC in 1972 and has become a well-liked dog in the U.S.


Alaskan Malamutes have been sled dogs in Alaska for a long time. They would hunt with the Inuit people for seal and polar bear, then drag it all back to waiting families. Mixed breeding happened once Caucasians arrived on the scene, but then in the 20’s pure breeding was again encouraged because people 30

wanted to race sled dogs. The breed was recognized by the AKC in 1935, two years after it accompanied Admiral Byrd to the South Pole. In Turkey, the Anatolian Shepherd Dog developed, with connections to the war dog breeds Tibetan Mastiff and Roman Molossian. It was a watch dog for herds more than a herder and is both independent, loyal and very hardy. It was recognized in 1996 by the AKC as the 80’s brought it more appreciation in the world of working dogs.


Of all Swiss Mountain Dogs, the Bernese is probably the most easily recognized, and unlike the other three types, has a long, silky coat. This is a dog who survives well in the cold and has worked as a watchdog, and herder in Switzerland for centuries, and

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

now is beloved in European and American homes. It attained AKC recognition in 1937. Black Russian Terriers came from the Soviet Union in the mid 20th century and they make great watch dogs, having been bred from Airedale Terriers, Giant Schnauzers, and Rottweilers. The breed got AKC recognition in 2001 as part of the Miscellaneous Class and three years later as part of the Working Group. As you can see, working dogs truly are remarkable animals that are treasured by the people whose lives they enhance. Working dogs are usually similar in size, but their hair types and appearance vary as much as the jobs they hold. Now that you now more about working dogs you will be able to better appreciate these hard working animals that help so many people in so many different ways.

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YOU NEED THESE TIPS If you are a dog owner, you should take care to ensure your dog stays in good health. Learn more about health issues dogs face and help your pet avoid them.

by Kelly Livingston


f you are like most dog owners, you love your dog, and hate to imagine that they could ever become seriously ill and require the help of a veterinarian. Unfortunately, even with the best of efforts on your part, it is possible for your dog to get sick. The following is an examination of some of the many bacteria and viruses that harm dogs.


Most microorganisms won’t harm dogs. There are so many of them around that form the circle of life and can actually be helpful in clearing debris from the soil. They work in the intestinal system of people and animals to prevent infection. The good bacteria, provide protection from the bad bacteria, however, there are rare strains that cause diseases that affect the whole body of a dog. We talk about them in the following piece.


The smallest bugs known to man are viruses. 25 million viruses will fit in the space of a period at the end of a printed sentence. Viruses are unable to replicate by themselves and must grow within a host. The problem is killing the virus without killing the cell that it is inside. This is why there are so few


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

drugs that are able to treat a viral infection, and many of those are very toxic. The crucial thing, when you want to combat a viral infection, is prevention: meaning vaccination. Rabies, distemper, parvovirus, parainfluenza and such are usually the result of viral infections and we vaccinate against all of them. Once you understand their adverse effects, you will never want to skip a vaccination, so talk with your veterinarian about which of these your dog should get.


Rabies vaccinations are absolutely vital. All dogs should be vaccinated against the rabies viral infection. Most states have laws which allow dogs who have bitten humans and have not been vaccinated for rabies to either be impounded or put down. Rabies is not only dangerous for dogs, it is transported through saliva, therefore if a dog with the virus bites a human or licks an open wound, the virus can be transmitted to the human. Rabies is generally fatal in humans if it is not treated within two weeks of infection. It is imperative for dog owners to vaccinate their pets against the rabies virus.


Animals and humans catch rabies from an open cut, bite or wound. This virus moves up the nervous system, with the brain beings its site for replication. Rabies kills off brain cells, making the host act aggressive, anxious, hyper, and other times weak. Depending on where the entry area is for rabies it can take months to days to kill the animal. Thankfully, there are rabies shots that are completely effective at killing the virus. Rabies is hardly ever an issue in a developed country, but in countries like India people die every year from this virus.


Since the late 70’s, we have known about the disease called canine parvovirus enteritis. When it was first discovered, killing thousands of dogs across the globe, veterinarians worked long hard hours to figure out how it could be treated, what the virus was, and how to develop a vaccine. That vaccine was created and was being used after only a couple of years, rapidly decreasing the number of deaths.


Parvovirus goes into the small intestine and kills cells that allow the dog to absorb fluids, resulting in

an often bloody diarrhea. Such dogs will frequently throw up, and some folks report there’s a specific odor in puppies who have this problem. Dogs with a mild infection often get better in a couple of days, but those with severe cases get depressed, dehydrated and may die within days if untreated. Dogs are dying all the time from this virus, so if your dog has diarrhea for over a day or has blood in his feces, go to your vet.


Kennel cough has its name for understandable reasons: Dogs usually get it from other dogs in kennels and coughing results. Some vets want it to be called canine cough as your dog isn’t required to be in a kennel to get it. Kennel cough, also known as infectious tracheobronchitis can be caught from one or several viruses, mostly from canine adenvirus-2 and canine par influenza. A bacterium called Bordatella bronchiseptica can give kennel cough by itself or with other viruses as well. Viral infection can make the dog’s lungs not work, which can cause pneumonia.


Once a horror to the dog population, distemper is DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


now a success story for puppy vaccinations. While distemper used to be widespread, it is rarely heard of today because of modern vaccination programs. The distemper virus was very tricky: upon infection it spreads to all the lymph nodes via the blood stream and proceeds to kill the lymphocytes.


The biggest cells that defend against viruses are the lymphocytes, meaning that the dog who’s been infected has an immune system that is really weakened. That allows the virus to grow in the lungs, resulting in pneumonia; in the intestinal tract, resulting in diarrhea and dehydration, and in the brain, resulting in seizures, paralysis, and encephalitis. Since there is suppression of the immune system, dogs with the infection often fall victim to bacteria and parasites that may threaten their lives as well. As you can see, canine health is an important consideration. If your dog becomes ill, you owe it to yourself to bring your dog to a vet to ensure a speedy recovery. Depending on the severity of the condition, a vet may be able to fix things before they get too out of hand. Best of luck with your dog!


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DOG ENCLOSURE DO’S AND DON’TS by Alicia Breckenridge


Dogs are a wonderful addition to any family, but they are a responsibility as well. Learn more about how to respond to your dog’s specific needs properly.

f you are concerned about disciplining your dog or containing your dog to ensure its security and the safety of others, there is a lot to think about. Shock collars aren’t the best choice and neither are electric shock fences. A good old fashioned fence works the best. Learn about how to create the best dog house and doggie bed for your pup; and how best to protect your dog and your potential visitors.


Shock collars are used with electric fences so that dogs know where the borders of the property lie. They might be very helpful in certain circumstances, but they have big disadvantages, too. The first thing is that there are dogs who will take the shock if they’re sufficiently tempted by what is outside their parameters. However, when they get out, they are scared enough of another shock that they don’t want to come back in and can get lost.


With shock collars, predators can still come onto your property, which puts your dog at risk. People will still not be protected from your dog. After entering 36

an area protected by an electric boundary system, children have still been bitten. A fence that is solid can prevent this from happening, save a dog’s life and save a child from injury. Good neighbors have good fences and good fences make nice dogs.


Dog doors and baby gates make the containment and release of a dog easier. Dog doors are usually made of a metal or plastic flap that your dog can push open

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

with their feet or nose. These are great for when you don’t feel like letting your dog out or when you aren’t home to let them out. They provide a convenient way for your dog to let themselves in and out. Doggy doors may be set up between a yard and house or yard and garage. One idea is to have a little tunnel with dog doors on either ends so that cold air doesn’t get into your house. You might want to build the door on the side or back of the house so that potential burglars

don’t notice it. Also, remember to secure it when you’re away. All dog doors are a security concern. If the door is too large, a thief may be able to slip through it.


Are you looking to find ways to ensure your pet is safe when you are not at home? You can do so by restricting your pet’s access to the areas of your home you feel are appropriate. You can use a dog door installed on an exterior wall instead of a door. If you choose to do this, you may require the help of a professional. You can also find portable barriers that can be found in many pet supply catalogs or wherever children’s safety items are sold. When you’re not with your dog using a baby gate will keep him in an area of your choosing, and providing him with a doggy door will allow him to have access to the yard. Depending on how much time your dog spends outside alone, he may need some type of shelter from the elements. The easiest way to provide this is via a

doghouse. Generally these come in plastic or wood.

style of your own house, such as a Cape Cod or Georgian!



Your dog should fit nicely in their doghouse, no matter what material it is made out of. She should have only enough room to stand and turn. Dogs have liked having doghouses for many many years. If the dog house you provide for your dog is too large she will have a hard time staying warm in it with just her body heat. To make sure your dog is able to be warm inside, the entrance should be off center; this will allow your dog to curl up at the other end for warmth. It’s great if you can find one with a roof that comes off so you can clean the doghouse easily, as well as a flap door that keeps out cold air. If you can do basic carpentry, you can construct a doghouse as a DIY project over a couple of days. Go to your local library or home store for plans. Or you can go for a kit that gives everything you need to build a wooden doghouse. You might even be able to blend it with the

Get your children to help with this DIY project. You can find molded plastics for the doghouse that are durable and bring advantages that wood ones don’t. For instance, they don’t hold odors, they’re easy to clean, they don’t offer a breeding ground for fleas if you make sure the dog always has clean bedding. Make sure you put it where your dog is most happy, which means protected from cold breezes in winter months and in a shady spot in the summer months. If you can allow for both conditions, that’s great, but if you can’t you can move the doghouse as needed.


Just because a dog lives inside doesn’t mean it doesn’t require sleeping quarters. Though opinions vary, if your dog isn’t an angel they shouldn’t be sleeping with you; it confuses them as to who is in charge. You don’t need

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


to feel bad for not allowing your dog in your bed, as there are many comfortable beds available for dogs today. No matter what your budget or style there is a dog bed available. A strong possibility that could be used for a bed is a crate, perhaps the most versatile equipment for a dog that was ever created. There was a time when they were used mainly for transporting dogs via airplanes, but crates have evolved to have many varieties such as open mesh, solid metal or even the high impact plastic most commonly found in pet stores. Crates also serve as a training tool for a puppy or a dog and can be used as a whelping box for breeding situations. Even the most friendly dog has its moments. Some dogs cannot be left alone in a house without making a terrible mess and require dog houses outside. Other dogs are territorial and need to be enclosed in the yard to ensure that a wayward child does not happen across them and get bitten. Whatever type of dog you have, be sure that you understand and respond to its individual needs so that you can have a better relationship.

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Dog training can help you to teach your dog to be more well behaved. Learn how to teach your dog to stay until you release her with the following advice.

og training is exceedingly important. Teaching your dog to stay is not enough on its own; you also need to teach your dog to stay until you release them. You should take care to reinforce good behavior and to reward your dog for initial success, then reduce the awards as time goes on so your dog obeys without needing a treat. Here is some advice that can help you to continue training your dog.


Remember to say the release word “Okay” always after you instruct your dog to stay. This word from you conveys the message to your dog that he is no more required to stay and is now free to move around. It is very important for the learning of your dog that you release him by using the release word. Otherwise, your dog will start releasing himself on his own and get the notion that he is free to move as per his will. This might hamper the progress of 40

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

his training. Another thing that you need to teach your dog is that being praised for correct response and being released for moving around are two different situations.


The use of praise for your dog shouldn’t be an invitation for them to move. Saying ‘good boy’ is for a response to a command. Praise is with voice commands. You can let him go once your exercise is finished. It is already engrained in your dog how to lie down, but teaching them to do it on command is key. Saying ‘Down’ is the obvious command if you want your dog to lay in place at that very moment and stay until you say it is okay. These steps will help you in educating your dog as to what this command means. Have your dog sit to your left and put the treat in your right hand. Place a couple of fingers of the left hand through the side of the dog’s collar, palm facing yourself.


Press down on the collar, say “Down” and show her the treat and lower it straight down. If she then lays down, give her the treat she’s been hoping for and let her know she’s done a good job. She’ll know it’s for going down when you keep the left hand where it is in the collar and don’t touch her with the right one. You might want to use a table for the exercise, if you have a small dog. Do the exercise in reverse by first

showing her a treat and raising it slowly above her head; applying upward pressure with the collar as she is told to sit. Have your dog lie down at your side five times straight for five days, or until she begins to do it on command with little pressure to the collar.


Congratulate and give her a treat each time. Have your dog sit left of you and slip two of your left

fingers through the right side of the dog’s collar, palm facing you. Say the word “Down” while putting a downward pressure on the collar of your dog. Your right hand must be ready with the favorite treat of your dog on your right side. As soon as your dog lies down, reward her with praise and the treat. After you repeat doing this whole process for many days, your dog will start lying down even without the pressure on the collar. Enjoy this learning process along with

your dog and always remember to treat her after she correctly responds to your “Down” command.


Gradually as she becomes conversant with this command, start rewarding her randomly instead of rewarding every time. Sit-Stay will be used for shorter periods, as to where Down-Stay

should be used for longer ones. Ordinarily, the Down-Stay is also taught for safety purposes. Take for example, if your dog is across the road from you and sees you, if they try to cross the road, the command Down-Stay will have them wait in place until any passing traffic is gone.


This command’s purpose is to be useful when in close proximity or over a distance. If you’re

pointing to the ground from a distance, don’t expect it to work. Training your dog requires verbal commands. Pointing comes into play with the Down-Stay command. The idea is that the dog will be less likely to move while in the down position. Even so, you will quickly see this command isn’t hard to teach. The command ‘Go Lie Down’ will come in very useful if you want your dog to stay in a specific spot for a long period of time prior to

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


release. This command should be used at times when you don’t want your dog underfoot. These times would be mealtimes, or when you have guests.


Find a spot where it will be alright for your dog to stay and wait. This could include a bed, crate or chair. If you’re using for example, a dog bed, take your dog to the bed, then command that they ‘lie down’. It may take a few attempts and coaxing them with a treat is always a good idea. When they accomplish the command, give them a treat, hold the position for a five count and then let him go. Until he lies down on the bed readily, keep repeating. Then, at 3 feet from the bed, command your pet to ‘Go lie down,’ and using your treats, lure him into the bed. Congratulate him, give your dog a treat or two, count to ten and then release him, after he lies down. Do this several times a day, increasing the delay between the treat and praise from a 10 count to 30 count.


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


You have to do it again. Start by repeating a couple of times what you did in your last session. After that, stand at a distance of 3 feet from his bed and indicate to him to go to bed. In case he actually achieves the feat, do praise him immensely and then give him his well deserved treat. However, the possibility is more that he would be puzzled by your action and would continue standing in the same place. Now you have to take him to his bed by putting your finger through his collar. Remember to praise him and to give him the treat after he lies down in his bed. He will start responding to your command after you repeat this whole process a number of times. At this point, you are ready to continue the dog training process. Be sure to keep your training sessions relatively short to keep your dog interested and know when to call it a day. Once your dog is trained to obey the above commands, life with your pooch will be much easier. Best of luck!

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EMERGENCY? by Alicia Breckenridge

Just like humans, dogs hurt themselves every once in a while. Learn how to create a first aid kit for your dog and what to do in the event of an emergency.


s a dog owner, you have to be there for your pup during both the easy times and the harder times. If your dog has an accident or is involved in a medical emergency, you will be able to handle the situation much better if you prepare for it well in advance. The following is information that can help you to create a doggie first-aid kit and to compile a list of important numbers starting today.


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lid, as well as your personal information. Pets, like people, can have emergencies and illnesses. During emergencies, it is vital that all information known about your dog’s condition be relayed to the proper people. Any health issues, allergies, medications and phone numbers should be listed on your dog’s tags, which should be secured on the collar.

Dogs Have Accidents Too

Everybody has accidents sometimes and our dogs are no exception. You can use several safety measures to prevent accidents from happening to your dog, however it is not certain if she will have any problems. First aid certification is useful for this situation. Most of all it is important to help your dog in case of an emergency, so get ready before something happens. It can be hard to do first aid or you might not be able to do it at all if you don’t have any supplies. Be prepared for emergencies. It is a good idea to make two first-aid kits for your pooch -- one for your home and one for you the car. Make sure that you keep these kits handy so that they can be used quickly in an emergency.

Take Care When Preparing Your Kit

Write down the recommended dose regarding every drug in the kit, adjusted for all of your pets. This means in an emergency you won’t have to be figuring this out in your head. Ask your vet about dosages when you get your kit ready. It’s a list you can keep at home as well as when traveling. Put it on the inside lid of the kit and make certain it contains a rabies certificate, because some states won’t let you travel with your dog without it. You also want a photo of every dog that includes name and contact/microchip numbers. This will aid the rescuer in figuring out who each dog is if you are incapacitated. Keeping the items together in a resealable plastic bag is a good idea.

Important Numbers To Have In Your Home

How To Create A Doggie First-Aid Kit

You don’t have to spend a lot on the kit. Put the items you would need into a waterproof container that is easy for you to carry. Using a fishing tackle box will work rather well as they have trays with dividers that keep things organized. Putting a large red cross and marking it FIRST AID on either side will help you identify it and make it easy for someone to find in case of emergency. Tape a piece of paper with your pet’s information on the inside of the

In your home, the name and phone number of the pet’s vet, along with the number for the National Animal Poison Control Center should be within reach should your dog get into something that may potentially be harmful. At the same time, you can receive guidance regarding emergency care for a pet that has eaten poison or any dangerous chemicals. Each case, including follow-up and contacting your vet (if you request it) costs $60, deducted from any major credit card. In order to avoid tracking down your credit card number in case of an emergency, you can dial 900-680-0000 and pay the fee on your phone bill. To find out more about this service you can go online at DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


More Helpful Information Is Listed Below

Listed below is a comprehensive list and description of each item you need and what to use them for. Most of the things on this list can be found at a pharmacy and the rest can easily be obtained from a vet or dog supply catalog. As time passes and you learn more, it will be easy and second nature to add additional items to your kit, as you’ll find yourself using the kit not only for yourself, but for others. You will also find with time, there will be a few items you won’t need. When building your first emergency first-aid kit for your dog, you should look to a few essentials first. An ACE brand bandage can serve multiple uses by providing support to a sprain (be careful not to wrap a sprain too tightly) or to hold an ice pack in place until you can get to a vet.

Elastic Bandages Can Be Very Helpful

You can also use an elastic bandage to help hold your dog on a stretcher, should the need arise. You should include a large roll of adhesive tape, which can be used to hold bandages and splints. Get alcohol swabs that are packaged singly that you can use to make your instruments or small spots of skin sterile. Find enteric coated (if it isn’t coated it could cause nausea) aspirin and administer 5 milligrams twice a day for pain relief. Or ask the vet for NSAID that’s made especially for dogs. Don’t ever give ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Both can be dangerous to dogs. Use Neosporin or Bacitracin to clean wounds that may very well become infected.

Take Care When Applying Ointment

Be sure to never apply these near the eyes. There are alternatives for the eyes; but, be sure to consult your veterinarian first. In the case of insect stings, give your dog Benadryl 1.5 mg/lb 3 times a day. A cohesive bandage is a stretchable wrap that can cover and secure a gauze bandage in place. It has the ability to adhere to itself, eliminating the use of tape. A cold pack should be used in order to prevent or reduce any swelling once the joint has become strained or sprained, and can also treat any type of burn. Purchase the type that get cold as they are folded. Cotton squares can be used for the cleaning and protection of wounds and are far better than a cotton ball as they won’t shed any fibers into sticky areas. Your pet relies on you for security and safety. Don’t let your doggie down! Now that you know more about how to prepare to handle an emergency 46

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involving your dog, you owe it to yourself to get started. The sooner you begin the preparation process, the sooner you will be able to help your dog should an emergency occur.







by Kelly Livingston

Does your dog look like he or she needs a good grooming right about now? If so, learn how to groom your dog on your own so that you can get started today.


s a dog owner, grooming is one important responsibility you need to keep up with. Grooming your dog properly at regular intervals prevents your dog’s coat from becoming overly feathered or matted and ensures that dog grooming will be easier in the future. The following is some advice that will help you as you prepare to groom your dog on your own.

How To Remove Feathering

If your dog’s forelegs have short hair, they won’t need a brushing. If however you notice any feathering in their hair, it will be necessary comb through it. When your dog’s fur feathers, like what you often will see behind the ears, it will have a tendency to get more


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tangled than the other parts of their coat. Always have a good dog detangler in order to comb mats and tangles out with ease. A guarded clipper can be a good way to remove the feathering on both sides and create a cleaner look.

Protect Your Dog’s Skin If your dog isn’t a show dog but still has matted feathering that is difficult to constantly brush out, protect your dog’s skin by placing your fingers between the clippers and dog. Trim the hair so it looks clean and nice. Next, brush out your dog’s belly and chest. Take a slicker brush against the way the hair lays. Keep in mind that your dog has an incredibly sensitive underside, particularly around the belly and genitals. If your dog will lay on their

side, all the better. Use a gentle motion when brushing your dog’s private areas. Don’t tug at any mats on your dog’s underbelly; nor should you use a rake, as it could cause problems if you slip at all.

How To Handle Matted Areas If you notice any matting, take your pet to the vet or a professional groomer that is skilled in using electric clippers to remove mats. The side and top of a dog is no doubt the easiest areas to groom. Use a slicker and a brush against how the fur lays and then follow with a comb. Detanglers and mat splitters will be needed to remove any matting. Like bellies and undersides, a dog’s rear may be particularly sensitive, but it is most likely the first place that your dog will experience any shedding.

Test Your Dog’s Tolerance To Grooming Not all dogs like being touched, so you need to find out how tolerant he is to being brushed. A slicker brush should be used first, especially around the hind leg area. Here, fur may be feathered or in bloomer looking tufts (often referred to as

pantaloons). As long as your dog allows, brush the fur against the grain, first with the brush and then with a comb. If you find any mats, a detangler solution and mat rake will come in handy. Be very careful around the sensitive parts near the base of the tail.

Consider Detangler Solution For Feathering You don’t need to brush out your dog’s front or back legs unless your dog has feathering, which requires a good combing out. A detangler solution can be helpful for carefully combing out feathering, which tends to tangle quite a bit, similar to the hair behind the ears. You can also use a mat splitter or mat comb to tackle the feathering. Feathering down the back legs can be trimmed on non-show dogs, just like the front legs are trimmed. If you take care of the feathering, grooming your dog will be easier.

How To Trim Back Feathering Use an electric clipper with a blade guard. Trim the feathering back carefully, making it neat and organized. Your dog’s tail may require some

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grooming, but only if they have longer hair or plumes. If it is short and sleek, there is no need to worry about it. If you find your dog’s tail to be matted, try using a detangler or a mat splitter. It is said that doing so will dry out her coat by removing essential oils. Dog people know this story so well that even breeders and canine experts repeat the mantra.

Use High Quality Dog Shampoo Years ago, dog shampoo was irritating and harsh, with the ability to strip oils from a dog’s coat. Nowadays, you can get almost any hair care product that humans use, like shampoo, conditioner and detangler, but of high quality and made specifically for dogs. Bathing doesn’t harm your dog’s coat but, as with brushing, your dog may feel traumatized. A lot of dogs will not want to have a bath, but you need to be patient just to get him or her to tolerate it.

Start Grooming Your Dog As A Puppy There are some helpful suggestions, like getting the dog used to it when a puppy because a good experience will change perception. You’ll have to train your pet if they act up. In extreme cases similar to a dog who won’t be groomed, your only option will be to muzzle them or give them


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some medicine to calm down. Start out by picking a good bathtub that your dog can get into easily. With a household bathtub, you probably can get your dog to just hop right in.

Where To Bathe Your Dog If you’re using a groomer’s bathtub, you might want to use stairs or a ramp to help a larger dog in because they’ll be too heavy for you to carry. The sink is an option for petite dogs. Never bathe your dog in a shower. You may find yourself tempted to use your outdoor hose for bathing, but don’t do it. The water is most often too cold and your dog will just get dirty again from being outside. Dogs dislike staying still when in the tub, so try using a bathing ‘noose’ in order to keep them from moving a lot. Don’t leave the dog alone at any time while they are restrained by the noose. Now you are ready to begin grooming your dog. Remember that if you cannot for whatever reason do so on your own, there are many professional dog groomers out there who would be happy to help you. In addition, if any areas are severely matted, you should probably enlist the help of a professional to remove them so that you do not risk harming your dog. However you get the job done, once your dog is groomed, both you and your dog will be much happier.



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PUPPY by Kelly Livingston

If you’re looking for a new puppy, there are several things to consider before you buy. Before purchasing a dog from a breeder or pet store, do some research!


here is nothing like a new puppy. Puppies are loving and adorable animals that can bring a smile to almost anyone’s face. However, if you are not careful when purchasing a puppy, you could end up with a dog that is sick or a dog whose personality does not fit in with your family or lifestyle. The following information will help you to find the best new puppy to bring into your family.

Buying A Puppy From A Pet Store

There have been numerous pet stores that have ceased in the sale of cats and dogs in favor of merchandise that doesn’t require special needs and attention. Some of the bigger chain operations however will sponsor ‘adoption days’ where a local shelter can bring animals into the store in order to find good loving homes. Often times the pets are cleaned up in order to add a special commercial appeal. There are some pet stores that will sell puppies they get from local owners, brokerages and some larger commercial groups. A puppy no doubt is hard to turn away from. There is something about them that will draw your attention. Wherever you purchase your pet from should have a staff that cares for the welfare of the puppy.

Ask Questions When Purchasing From A Pet Store

Social skills are developed mostly during puppyhood. Should you decide to purchase your dog from a pet store, be as diligent with your questions as you would when purchasing through a breeder. Use your head, not your heart to make your decision. Most everyone at first sight will want to buy him, but you need to go over a few things before enjoying that first cuddle with the puppy. 52

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Review their registration and any applicable health certifications for the puppy and parents. Be sure you have copies of paperwork that reflects their health and shows they have an updated shot record. Get your breeder’s contact information so you can ask them any questions that may arise.

by trying to care for a sick puppy. Some shelters have the strict standards that breeders have. They might not allow dogs around little children or want a fence around the yard. The overall goal is to give the animal a second chance at family life.

Do Not Buy Puppies Under 8 Weeks Old

If you have other pets at home, see if the shelter will allow a visit prior to adoption to see if your pets can socialize with one another. There are some shelters that have a day long waiting period in order to make sure that the adopter is serious about wanting the animal to be a member of their family. Potential adoptive families will need to find out if the shelter has any history about the dog. In some cases, dogs have been given up by their previous owners. There are a multitude of reasons where a behavior is acceptable to some, but not to another. If the dog has been in the shelter for an extended period, employees should be able to give you a wealth of useful information.

If the puppy is under 8 weeks old, don’t buy it. It is illegal too in most states, but also keeps the puppy from being with their litter mates at a time when they need it most to understand not biting and to gain social skills. A younger dog will also have less control of their bladder and bowels and as a result will be harder to housetrain. Talk with a representative from your pet store to determine how long the puppy has been there. The dog may be 8 weeks old, but if they were taken away from their mother and litter mates two weeks prior, you may be in for a host of issues.

Take Your New Puppy To The Vet Immediately

If you go to a pet store and purchase a dog, go see an animal doctor as quickly as possible - approximately 24 hours. Usually you have just 24 to 48 to return a puppy after you buy. It can be hard on your emotions to return a dog, but don’t make it worse

Consider Seeing If Your Pets Get Along

Ask Questions As To The Dog’s Personality

They would know firsthand if the dog is noisy, friendly, trained or shy. Many people are looking for a dog with friendly and calm features, but also one that wants to play. Find one that reflects optimum DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


health. Many shelter dogs have something negative that clouds their history, even with some dogs being given up due to an owner’s poor health or other unfortunate circumstance. Dogs that appear shy in a shelter can seemingly bloom overnight when a loving and tender approach is used. However one that is overexcited in an unfamiliar surrounding will require an owner that exudes the same energy. Either way, you could end up with the perfect dog for you if you are careful in your selection.

Adopting From A Shelter Involves Fees

There are many different procedures and adoption fees at shelters. These fees may range from $50 to 75$, sometimes including a rebate if the pet gets neutered or spayed; placing one animal then receiving several more defeats their purpose. Some shelters fix their animals before adoption, while others will make referrals to vets that will perform the surgery at a discount. Adoptions from some of the more involved shelters will follow up to ensure the dog has been fixed and is being cared for properly.


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If Purchasing From A Breeder, Ask For Photographs

Some shelters offer information about clubs and breeders that can give you vital information about your breed. How can you buy the dog of your dreams if he is 1,000 miles away? It’s possible and happens fairly often. However, since you can’t see the pup personally, a breeder can send you photos of both the parents and the puppy. As technology has increased, it has become possible for breeders to send videos and photos through e-mail. You need to be able to trust your breeder and know that they operate in an ethical manner when you’re buying your dog without first having seen them. Now you are ready to begin looking for your new puppy. Remember that you should never buy a puppy that is younger than 8 weeks old, so be wary of any pet store owner or breeder who refuses to tell you the age of a puppy. Be sure to look at shelters too, as there are so many dogs (even puppies) waiting for adoption in shelters right now. Best of luck finding a great new dog to join your family!





VETERINARIANS by Kelly Livingston

If your dog does not currently have a vet, you should remedy that immediately. It is imperative for your dog’s health that you select a great veterinarian.


o not underestimate the importance of having a good vet for your dog. The right veterinarian makes all the difference to preserving your dog’s health and spotting health issues when they arise. Here is some advice that can help you to recognize the importance of veterinarians and that can help you to select the best vet for your dog.

Veterinarians Test Your Dog’s Health

Should your veterinarian find something amiss during their physical examination with your dog, they may choose to take a sample of either blood or urine and run a few biochemical tests. The purpose of the test is to find any issues or infections within the liver, kidney, muscles or other internal structures of your dog’s body. Vaccinations for the most part are given on an annual basis, so make sure your dog is current. When you decide on a vet for your dog, use the same process to find the perfect one as you would to find your own doctor.

How To Find A Good Vet

One of the best ways to find a good vet is to get a recommendation from your friends or neighbors. When it comes to the care of your dog, you want an opinion you can trust. You need to ask them what kind of issues their dog has had and how the veterinarian treated it and the results of the treatment. You’ll also need to figure out if the veterinarians have talked about the illness and care for the dog and if all of their questions were completely answered. Once you’ve put together a small list of 56

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candidates, make appointments to meet with each of them without your dog. Let them know you’re looking to meet them, tour their facilities and talk about care options for your dog.

Your Veterinarian Will Explain Your Dog’s Health

competent assistants, with the ability to receive test results within a 24 hour period. You should have excellent care for your sick dog. Try to make sure your vet is able to move your dog, if needed, to a 24hour emergency care location for observation and treatment.

A veterinarian will normally be able to give a diagnosis once they’ve fully examined your dog. When you take your dog to the vet, you should expect to get all of your questions answered. Even if she has not come up with a single diagnosis, she should let you in on all the the possible problems your dog may have and her plans for further evaluation. If she can’t answer your questions right away, she should be willing to do the necessary research and report back to you. If you don’t understand the terms she uses, she should be willing to explain the diagnosis and her recommendations for treatment and follow-up care.

Do Not Hesitate To Get A Second Opinion

Ensure You Have A Vet Who Cares

Ensure Your Vet Practice Works With A Surgeon

Make sure your vet is one who listens to your concerns about your pet’s condition. You should work together as partners, with the result your dog’s continued improvement. The vet should work in an up to date, hygienic facility with a diagnostic lab and

She or he should also be able to refer you to other places if more care is needed that cannot be done there. 24 hour staff is always a good idea so your pet can be watched. Your vet should not take offense when you would like a second opinion and ask for a referral. Each veterinarian has an area they specialize in. It may be that your vet works their best with dogs and even more so than that, your particular breed may hold their interest. When it comes to surgery, every veterinarian is different and may not be as talented when it comes to performing the surgery. That is okay too.

However, given that most dogs will require surgery at some point in time, you need to have confidence in your veterinarian’s surgical skills. Its important to know if the surgeons work in the same practice or DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


will operate at the facility. Always find out if you will need to take your dog to another facility. It’s best to find a vet you’re happy with before your pet is actually ill. The first time you visit a clinic, notice if the receptionist and other staff work well together and genuinely enjoy animals.

Do Not Simply Choose The Cheapest Vet

Never choose a place just because their prices are lower than others. Veterinarians put a lot of money and time in their schooling, office and equipment. A veterinarian’s office has high costs due to the costs associated with maintaining assets and equipment such as the building, surgical equipment, X-ray machines, Ultrasound machines, etc. The cost of first class care for your dog and assistance with surgery. The vet charging less for their services than other vets in the area are more than likely cutting some corners, which probably affects the care of your dog. You’re going to have to pay for your dog’s healthcare if you want the best, so trust your gut when it’s time to select a vet. If you don’t feel you can talk freely with him or her, are wondering if the care given is the best, or see that your pet doesn’t like the vet, then look for another.

Spaying And Neutering Is Important

Millions of unwanted dogs are killed annually in the 58

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U.S. because of supply and demand, meaning that more pups come into the world than there could be lifetime homes for. Many dog owners do not realize their dog can begin having puppies as early as 5 or 6 months old resulting in unwanted litters. Other unwanted litters are due to misinformed people despite their good intentions. Many people who fall into the second category say they want their children to witness the ‘miracle of life’ and allow their dog to have puppies. However they might not realize that sometimes it is not a good experience to watch puppies being born, particularly if a puppy or the mother dies during this time. If you want your kids to learn about animal population, let them know how important it is to sterilize pets, and visit the Human Society or animal shelter in your town to see there are a lot of dogs that want a nice home. You are now ready to find a great vet for your dog. While quality veterinarians may cost a bit of money, it is well worth paying the price to ensure that your dog is in optimal health. Proper vet care today can add years to your dog’s life and can actually save you money in the long run. So be sure to find your doggie a great vet to help it remain happy and healthy for many years to come.

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If you are in the market for a new dog bed, why not buy a new crate while you’re at it? A dog crate is a very intelligent idea for many different reasons.


f you are currently shopping for essential dog accessories, be sure that a crate is high on your list. Dog crates are practical and convenient, and can even be lifesaving for your dog in a natural disaster. Learn why dog crates are such an excellent idea and how to shop for a great dog crate, dog bed and food bowl.

A Dog Crate Works Well For Timeouts

If your dog has bad behavior, using the crate is perfect for ‘timeout.’ Should there be a reason you don’t want them underfoot, like a guest with allergies, the constant movement of contractors or other workers, having a crate is ideal. Use caution though. Be sure they understand the crate isn’t a specific place for punishment. 60

The crate is also ideal for what it was originally created for, transport. Loose dogs in your car can be incredibly annoying and possibly dangerous. Using a crate is much safer. If there is an auto accident, loose dogs are just as vulnerable to injury as any single person. Crates are durable. Durable enough that a dog kept in a crate once survived a plane crash with an almost total loss of human life.

Traveling With A Crated Pet Is Well Received

As you travel with your pet, you’ll see that when you arrive with your animal crated, this will please a hotel owner, and often sweet talk them into giving you an exception when it comes to a no dog rule. A dog that is used to their crate tends to love them. It is a space of their own

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that provides a sense of security. Often times a dog will go to their crate without being asked. Two ways your dog can help a household go green. Yes, even dogs can find uses for a reused crate. There is no argument that an open ended crate with a nice fluffy blanket or pillow in it, makes for the pint house of dog houses. In the case of a natural disaster, put your pet in the crate. If you

have to head for the hills, your dog is safely contained.

Get Your Dog A Crate To Prepare For Natural Disasters

Don’t let your dog take all the credit for being green. The ideas are endless of how you can incorporate these crates as furniture in your home. If you are a pet owner, it is important to

consider crates for your pets in the event of a natural disaster. If there is a natural disaster in your area, and you are a pet owner, there are many animal shelters available to you in which your pet can be safely boarded. The problem with these shelters is that the cages that are available for your pet are quickly filled up due to the high amount of pet owners also looking for safe

havens for their pets. If you as a pet owner are able to furnish your own crate, the chances of your pet finding sanctuary in one of these animal shelters is much higher than with no crate.

Be Sure To Purchase A Heavy-Duty Crate

When purchasing a crate for your pet, ensure that the crate is intended for heavy use as

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opposed to just light use, where the crate is simply used for house training purposes. If you intend to use a crate for house-training, as a bed, for travel, for occasional confinement, and possibly for a whelping box, you’re better off buying a top-quality crate of high-impact molded plastic, approved for air travel. Buy a crate to fit the size your puppy will be when grown. He should be able to stand, turn around, and lie down comfortably. When house-training a puppy, make the crate smaller by using a panel. As an alternative, borrow a puppysized crate from a friend or the puppy’s breeder.

shop smartly, using sources like garage sales and classified ads to limit your expense. A crate is not the only choice for a bed, despite its many other uses. Dog beds are an important item for owners, providing a guilt-free resting place, other than your own bed, that is comfortable for even older and arthritic dogs, and which will keep your flooring clean. Even something as simple as an old blanket can fill this essential need for every dog. lf Oval cuddlers, which look like old muted beanbag chairs and include plush or faux sheepskin linings and cushions, are a popular item for dogs to sleep in.

Shop Smartly To Get A Good Deal

Make Sure Your Crate Has A Washable Bed

Since a crate can be an expensive item to buy, it is important to 62

The washability of the bed or the inclusion of a removable

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washable cover is essential when picking one out. If you do not wash the bedding on, ideally, a weekly basis, you may have trouble with shed fur, bad odors and pests. This is why it is not advisable to use carpet remnants as pet bedding. It’s nearly impossible to keep dog beds clean because they are a perfect environment for fleas and other critters. You might be able to find some nice beds if you shop locally, but there are very high quality beds available online and through mail order magazines, and they often come in a huge variety of different sizes and colors.

Where To Obtain A Great Dog Bed

Some of the best beds come from Doctors Foster and Smith ( and

from Wisconsin and L.L. Bean ( You can even buy great dog beds at local dog shows, and these beds might be exclusively sold at different dog shows. There are many styles of dog dishes available, depending on your needs and how much money you want to spend. You can use something as simple as an old pot you already have at home, or you can buy a ceramic bowl and have your dog’s name painted on it. You will also find dishes that store a few days’ worth of food or water, and some people use disposable paper bowls that can be used for only one meal (these are often used at boarding kennels and veterinary hospitals). The best option for dog dishes are those made of molded, high-impact plastic or stainless steel that hold up well to chewing and scratching and can be washed in the dishwasher.

so that fur doesn’t get in the dish is the kind to purchase if your dog has long ears, similar to the kind that Cocker Spaniels have. If your dog is the type of eater that throws caution to the wind and just chows down, using a bowl with a rubber or non skid type base will stop the dish from sliding and ending up under a cabinet. There are some people that are hesitant to put their dog dishes in the dish washer, but if your dishwasher is working properly, the water will be hot enough to clean and disinfect everything to the point you will be able to eat from it. Now you’re prepared for your shopping trip. If you already have a dog crate at home but it is not a study crate, consider replacing it with a heavy-duty crate. When you shop for your food bowl, dog bed and dog crate, be sure to select high quality items to ensure they last for quite some time. Happy shopping!

Selecting The Right Food Bowl

A stainless steel food bowl is very resistant to damage and can be used for many years. Bowls that are not as strong can also be more difficult to clean since food may get into any minor cracks that form. Your dog may be one of those that dislikes a cheap plastic dish. A dish with high sides

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e to Lea lick Her

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HERE ARE SOME HELPFUL TIPS by Alicia Breckenridge

Dog training is a task that truly never ends. Learn how to use the right tone of voice and body language so you can communicate with your dog effectively.


og training is a process that is never truly complete. Your dog continues to learn as he or she grows. It is important that you continue to reinforce and reward good behavior, and that you let your dog know when they are misbehaving. The following information will teach you how to use effective body language and vocal tones to ensure that your dog knows when you are pleased or displeased with their behavior.


Body Language Is Very Important

It can be tricky to deal with body language. Here’s an example. Your dog gets worked up when guests come to your home. You begin to shove and yell at your dog, trying to mitigate the embarrassment, as your guests try to defend themselves with whatever’s on hand. No matter what you try -- ‘Stop, Fido! Down, girl! No!’ -- you can’t seem to direct your dog. Your guests’ arrival becomes a comedy of errors. There are specific postures in Doglish for playfulness, relaxing

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and aggression, because it is all based on body language. Your dog isn’t likely to understand the frantic pushing you do to them if you don’t like how they greet you.

How To Show Your Dog You Mean Business

When you react like this, given the situation, you’re giving them a different signal than what you’re trying to. By shoving and shouting, you’re simply mimicking their body language and making them believe the behavior is okay. Stand straight, but be relaxed when giving

your dog commands. Show dominance. When trying to train a puppy, it is important to keep as calm as possible, as animals will pick up on a human’s behavior very quickly. If you are upset and trying to chase a puppy, the puppy will be confused and think you are only playing. A puppy wants to please its owner and will follow your example if you are very calm.

Save Training Sessions For When Your Dog Is Focused

If the puppy is in a playful mood, keep in mind that this is not the optimal time to try and train them, as they are not in the frame of mind to pay attention to what you are trying to teach them. Keep in mind, if your dog sees you as another dog, they are going to interpret your actions as a dog. You see yourself screaming, they see you barking and being rude. It tends to work up the dog as well. This tactic may scare a young dog, but it’s not going to break them. Yelling is scary to people and it’s no different for a dog and the dog can’t interpret what you screaming about.

disciplinarian, but there should be a few tones in your voice that signal your dog they should back down or move away. It isn’t necessarily the word, so much as how the word sounds. There should be a tone of shame or disapproval in your voice and it should be properly toned. Commands shouldn’t be continually repeated. In order to have your dog pay attention when you give them a command, you need to only give it once and then show them what you want by positioning them.

Put Yourself In Your Puppy’s ‘Paws’

Think about how life would be if you were a puppy, trying to understand all of the people you see, the other dogs you are around, and the strange information you have to be able to take in and understand with no instruction as to how to do it. For a puppy, living with a human can be difficult at times. You crave attention and ask for it in simple ways like putting your head in the human’s lap or your paw on his and. The human does not always respond, and sometimes

Tone Of Voice Is Also Important

It’s a good idea to use an uplifting, happy tone when you want to commend your dog. When training your dog, make sure you use a tone that is soothing and does not excite him. You should use direct and clear tones when giving your commands. Use the Peacock Position when giving your commands, which will show your authority. If you bend over, as if you are bowing, this is a signal to your dog that you want and theye may not listen. It may not be in your nature to be a

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


pushes you away. It seems as if the television or objects the human holds mean more to him than you do. You are also expected not to pay attention to all of the sights, sounds and smells around you, which is hard. When you are resting quietly with a bone, you do not get attention for that either. Dogs need all kinds of attention, but not always the rough housing, wild, hoot-and-holler type. They also need loving, soothing and calm attention.

excitement and body contact. Even if you shove your dog so that he moves away from you, all you have done is scare him. There are better ways to train a dog than through fear. Chasing a dog can be one of the worst things to do because the dog feels it is being rewarded. Imagine chasing your dog after it has grabbed a sock, it feels as though it is being rewarded. The dog wivll think you envy its great new sock and

How To Teach Your Dog To Love And Trust You

Dogs will repeat whatever action you pay attention to. They love positive energy. Be your dogs teacher. A soft, gentle voice giving praise and a pat on the head is best. Your dog will love being with you if you keep up the cheer. Using negative reinforcement by yelling at a dog during the training process never really works. The dog will more than likely repeat the behavior because they are receiving attention by doing it. Watch what you’re doing, dogs relate body contact and you looking at them as attention. It’s pretty cut and dry, dogs look at you as another dog. A strange looking dog that can do some amazing things. If you get excited in response to their getting excited, they will feel as if they are leading you. If you imitate their energy level, you are conveying that they must evaluate new situations. They don’t understand that you are displeased with their behavior.

Do Not Unintentionally Reward Bad Behavior

When you are upset, you are displaying human emotion. Dogs communicate through


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

will begin to see this as a way of establishing dominance. As you can see, it is essential that you pay careful attention to your body language and your tone of voice when you are communicating with your dog. Keep your emotions in check and be sure that you do not use anger as a training tool. The better you are able to communicate with your dog, the more your dog will love, trust and respect you.





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DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016



If you are bringing a new dog into your home, it may need potty training. If your new pup isn’t house trained, you should work on that as soon as possible.


ne of the most important considerations for many dog owners is to house train their dog. A house trained dog does not consider the entire home a bathroom and knows that it is important to go outside whenever it needs to urinate. However, puppies are often unable to hold it or have not been properly trained to do so before they arrive at your


DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

home. The following information will help you to effectively house train your puppy or adult dog.

House Training Your Dog

The teaching method you use to potty train your pup will set the tone for the rest of the training you plan on giving the dog in the future. This first training sets a precedence for what the dog should expect from you and the dog itself, when teaching it new tasks and commands. It’s imperative that you are patient and do this correctly. Before you ever met your four-legged friend, she probably learned certain bathroom

behavior. It doesn’t matter whether she is an adult dog or a puppy. Much of what she knows is instinctive as well. The things that drive her or the things she wants have been within your dog since day one. She is simply genetically wired to be a certain way. So, many of her behaviors come naturally, rather than being taught to her.

Some Dogs Have Strange Habits Some dogs have strange and annoying tendencies from the day they were born. Generally these traits won’t inhibit a dog from being trained well, they just may take more time to break ability to learn not only bathroom manners but whatever else you want him to pick up.Any dog can be house-trained. The effort you need to put in to train a puppy is quite different from the challenge of teaching an adult dog. These issues depend on what kind of behavioral training and bringing up the pet has already had.

Most Puppies Can Be House Trained Quickly

A healthy, happy puppy can be house trained fairly quickly as long as they have time to grow and come into some self control. Obviously it will require your guidance. If your puppy came from a good breeder, they may already know the basics of what they should be doing. Wellbred dogs have many chances to learn how to clean, and to socialize with other dogs and people. It is easier to train a pup that has already picked

up the basics than to teach an untrained one. You will be surprised to know that most breeders appreciate their puppies when they show their potty manners. For this these pups are taken out side after their meals and also in the mornings.

Your Pup May Already Be Partially House Trained

Find out from the breeders, rescue groups or the shelter people if they have already given the pup any sort of training. If so, almost half the job of house-training is done for you. Your new puppy might be acing his first lessons but still beginning to learn self-control. In other words, your puppy can’t hold their urine for a long time. Under the age of 4 months, a puppy does not have a large enough bladder or ample muscle control to last more than just a few hours without urinating. This time limit gradually increases with age.

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


Dogs Over One Year Are Usually Able To Hold It

A healthy dog usually has some measure of control of himself by the time he is about a year old. In fact, a lot of dogs are capable of holding their bladder for quite a while. However, a dog that can wait to go isn’t necessarily the same as one that will wait to go. So, dogs with iron bladders are not necessarily house trained properly. A dog may have bad habits or be upset, causing it to be more difficult to house train properly. Take for example, if you’ve adopted your dog from the local shelter, its previous owners may not have taken the time to house train it. It could be that they did, but didn’t do it very well. Either way, the dog’s inability to figure out what to do in this situation may have been the cause of their arrival in the shelter to begin with.

Some Dogs May Have Potty Accidents

There are shelter and rescue dogs that will no doubt have underlying behavioral issues that will come in the shape of a potty accident. A shy dog may roll over and pee if they find someone looking at them. Even a dog that has been picture perfect when it comes to its bathroom behaviors can have an accident. It should come as no surprise that house training a dog requires a little more attention to detail than doing so with a puppy. Adult dogs with poor manners may need to unlearn their habits in favor of new ones. Those that live with that kind of dog will need to brush up on their detective skills and try to put together the clues as to what has the dog making the same mistakes. House-training your pet dog becomes quite easy once you learn to sense his instinctive and impulsive behavior. 70

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

Puppies Learn A Lot From Their Litter Mates

A pup starts to learn quite a lot right from when he is with his litter siblings, as to how a dogs life goes about. Naturally, he understands that he should never bite very hard and that if he needs to bite at all. He also learns to demand a position and earn it while suckling. A pup can be trained in bathroom manners from the age of 3-weeks to 4 weeks, or even earlier. They will slowly start putting these manners into practice once they are able to move around on their own inside or even outside the whelping box. At this point, you are prepared to start thinking about potty training your dog. Remember to be patient with your dog and to reward success and to reinforce good behavior. At the end of the day, both you and your pup will be much happier once house training is out of the way. Best of luck!

HOW TO PROPERLY CARE FOR A PUPPY Don’t Miss These Dog Owner Essentials!


LISTENING TO YOUR DOG by Kelly Livingston

While your dog may not speak English, it can communicate with you in other ways. Learn to decipher your dog’s language by actively listening to your dog.


s a dog owner, you should know that it may take a while for you to truly understand your dog. While dogs don’t open up their mouths and speak English like they may in movies, dogs do communicate with their owners - just in different ways. The following will teach you more about how to listen to your dog and how to respond to what your dog is saying in the best possible manner.

Listen To Your Dog

Dog owners today know that learning to listen to their dog is 72

the best way to receive whatever they want from them. What a dog is thinking, how they feel and how they learn are some of the many things people now understand about dogs. They realize now that dogs dislike eating and sleeping near where they go potty, and that every dog enjoys having their own little home. They finally understand the fact that a dog’s memory span is just a couple of minutes long. The best tools for teaching your dog to learn what you want them to learn repetition, consistency and -- most of al l-- patience,

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

Train Your Dog With Patience

This type of information allows you to create a way to train your dog to express her instincts in a manner that you are comfortable with. So in reality you are teaching your dog to do what you want but also to do what she wants. Once you know what your dog can bring to training, you have to realize what you can bring too. Any communications theorist, corporate trainer or psychologist will say that in order to get someone to do things you want them to do, you have to be able to put yourself in their position. You have to be able to figure out

exactly how his mind works and what he is thinking.

Show Empathy To Your Dog

It’s important to empathize with your dog just as you would a human being, if you want to be able to train him well and understand him better. It ’s important to be able to see the world from the perspective of your dog. Provided that you can manage to think the way your dog does, training him will be much easier for you. For example, you’ll be better able to understand that you can’t discipline your dog unless you are certain that he understands exactly what he did that was wrong. A lot of dogs consider peeing more than just that. It is a way to talk to other dogs.

manners. Rather they are recognizing you in their own way. If your dog suddenly stops mid walk, it isn’t that they are being stubborn. They are probably seeing something that worries him. When you are the point that you think you know how your dog is feeling, you should be able to have the dog bypass the item with out having to drag the

dog. The dog has to be open to being house trained rather than pushed into it. Work together with your dog to tackle these tasks, otherwise you might have a long, drawn out battle and a dog that doesn’t want to be your friend.

Do Not Bully Your Dog

There are a lot of people in the

Know What Your Dog’s Behavior Is Saying

Your sweet little dog that rolls and pees every time you come around doesn’t have bad potty DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016


dog world that think domineering the dog is key to training the dog well. The rest of us call that bullying. There are some so called professionals that recommend using physical force to let the dog know who is in charge. Others say the best way to help a dog overcome a fear, is to work with the dog to overcome that fear. However, there is no advocacy of that here. It is important for the owner of a dog to act like a leader sometimes. However, a leader doesn’t have to be mean. Instead, you can lead with positive actions, fun, praise and love.

You And Your Dog Should Be A Team

Cooperation and benevolence can be much more useful than trying to get your pet to submit to you. You and your dog can be a team, even if you are the leader of the team. So, work with your


dog and earn his trust if you want housetraining and other training to be more efficient and more fun for you both. He can pick up on housetraining much quicker when his instincts to have a clean, safe den are nurtured. That’s why you need to use those instincts to help you with your training. Putting your pet on a schedule will greatly reduce how much time it takes for housetraining to become successful.

Be Consistent And Set A Schedule

The process will be simplified if you get your dog used to a certain play, feeding and housetraining schedule. The consistency, predictability and repetitive nature of a set schedule is exactly what your dog needs. Keeping your dog on a schedule can also help you to housetrain him because you will be able to teach him to go outside at certain times

DOG ownership 101 | JANUARY 2016

or anticipate when he will need to go. Unfortunately, the same schedule doesn’t work for every single pet. So, when you create a schedule, you’ll need to factor in your housetraining plan, your own schedule, your dog’s age and ability to hold his bladder, and similar issues. What is your dog telling you? It may take a bit of time before you completely understand your doggie’s communication efforts. Don’t worry though, your dog will be patient with you as you attempt to understand it. So show your dog the same courtesy by being patient, loving and empathetic. Once you get into a consistent schedule, your dog will know what to do to keep you content.





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Dog Ownership 101  

Jan/Feb 2016 - Learn the secrets stellar dog owners already know. We'll teach you how to ensure your pet is perfectly groomed and provided f...

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