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Volume 41 No 7 NOVEMBER 2014

Journal of the Australian Water Association

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Contents regular features From the AWA President

The Future: Our Sector And Our Association Graham Dooley

2

From the AWA Chief Executive

contents

Getting The Science Right For Successful Water Management Jonathan McKeown

4

My Point of View

Envisaging A Future Of Continuing Water Reform Ken Matthews

Crosscurrent

6 8

Young Water Professionals

Communication Is A Two-Way Street Justin Simonis

18

AWA News

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Water Business

ISSN 0310-0367

MANAGING EDITOR – Anne Lawton Tel: 02 9467 8434 Email: alawton@awa.asn.au TECHNICAL EDITOR – Chris Davis Email: cdavis@awa.asn.au

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Industry News

water journal

New Products And Services

84

Advertisers Index

88

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CREATIVE DIRECTOR – Mike Wallace Email: mwallace@awa.asn.au SALES & ADVERTISING MANAGER – Kirsty Muir Tel: 02 9467 8408 (Mob) 0412 077 964 Email: kmuir@awa.asn.au CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER – Jonathan McKeown EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT – Michelle Demos Email: ea@awa.asn.au EDITORIAL BOARD Frank R Bishop (Chair); Dr Andrew Bath, Water Corporation; Michael Chapman, GHD; Wilf Finn, Norton Rose Fulbright; Robert Ford, Central Highlands Water (rtd); Ted Gardner (rtd); Antony Gibson, Orica Watercare; Dr Lionel Ho, AWQC, SA Water; Dr Robbert van Oorschot, GHD; John Poon, CH2M Hill; David Power, BECA Consultants; Dr Ashok Sharma, CSIRO. PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, April, May, June, August, September, November and December. Please email journal@awa.asn.au for a copy of our 2014 Editorial Calendar. EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Acceptance of editorial submissions is at the discretion of the Editors and Editorial Board. • Technical Papers & Technical Features: Chris Davis, Technical Editor, email: cdavis@awa.asn.au AND journal@awa.asn.au

A new water treatment plant at Longreach in Queensland.

Technical Paper Submission Guidelines Technical Papers should be 3,000–4,000 words long and accompanied by relevant graphics, tables and images. For more detailed submission guidelines please email: journal@awa.asn.au

feature articles The Story Of Perth’s Water Resilience Turnaround How Perth Secured Its Water Future Peter Newman

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volume 41 no 7

Building Capacity & Resilience

Water Research Australia Celebrates Six Years Of Growing Angela Gackle & Carolyn Bellamy

27

Capacity Building In The Pacific

The Beneficial Role Of Twinning Partnerships Cameron Smith

30

The Future Of Asset Management: How Do We Get There? Learning To Leverage Technology David Robinson

33

Watering The Outback

A Regional Water Alliance Takes Shape In Central West Queensland Desiré Gralton

36

Planning For Water & Land: Sustainability Of Expanding Cities

The Challenges Of Peri-Urban Water Planning Basant Maheshwari & Bruce Simmons

technical papers

cover How Perth secured its water future.

39

41

• General Feature Articles, Industry News, Opinion Pieces & Media Releases: Anne Lawton, Managing Editor, email: journal@awa.asn.au General Feature Submission Guidelines General Features should be 1,500–2,000 words and accompanied by relevant graphics, tables and images. For more details please email: journal@awa.asn.au • Water Business & Product News: Kirsty Muir, Sales & Advertising Manager, email: KMuir@awa.asn.au ADVERTISING Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water sector and the objectives of AWA. PUBLISHER Australian Water Association (AWA) Publishing, Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, PO Box 222, St Leonards NSW 1590; Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 or 1300 361 426, Fax: +61 2 9436 0155, Email: journal@awa.asn.au, Web: www.awa.asn.au COPYRIGHT Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without the written permission of AWA. Email: journal@awa.asn.au DISCLAIMER AWA assumes no responsibility for opinions or statements of fact expressed by contributors or advertisers. Mention of particular brands, products or processes does not constitute an endorsement.

NOVEMBER 2014 water


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From the President

The Future: Our Sector and Our Association Graham Dooley – AWA President

The Australian water sector is a little like our climate – rarely static, always changing in some way. Reflecting this, three significant events have taken place in the last month: 1. AWA’s next Board was elected Every two years AWA elects the next Board of Directors from among Directors who are eligible to continue and from new nominations. A very able group has been elected and will take office at the next Ozwater Conference & Exhibition in May 2015. Carmel Krogh, Jodieann Dawe and Mal Shepherd will continue as Directors, along with Peter Moore (as next President) and myself (as Past President). New Directors are Francois Gouws, Managing Director at TRILITY Group; Michael Muntisov, Global Technical Leader – Water, GHD; Dr Annette Davison, Sole Director & Principal, Risk Edge Pty Ltd; Dr Jeremy Lucas, Senior Manager – Water Quality & Treatment Strategy, SA Water and Garth Walter, Manager, Ground Control & Water, BHP Billiton WA Iron Ore. Congratulations to all, and also a big vote of thanks to those who offered themselves for election. 2. The National Water Commission (Abolition) Bill 2014 This Bill shuts down the NWC and distributes its recurring functions. What has become clear is that there will be no single whole-of-water-sector voice on the big national issues set out in the National Water Initiative (NWI) – the only water document signed by the Commonwealth and all States and Territories since the Constitution, 103 years earlier.

water November 2014

AWA has always been a strong supporter of the undertakings made by all Governments in the NWI and of the role of the NWC. A vast amount of good work has been done by many parties, but the agenda continues. There is a need and a demand across Australia for a single advocate for the whole of the water sector. AWA is keen to see that need fulfilled after the NWC is wound up and is considering how AWA itself might better serve the needs of the whole sector and the demands of the entire Australian community. 3. National Water Policy Summit, October 2014 AWA has created an ongoing dialogue among the “captains” of the Australian water sector for discussing, debating and formulating what are the big national water policy issues – in urban, agricultural and resources settings. You will have noticed the first step was taken at Ozwater’14 in a number of forums; the second step has now been taken in AWA National Water Policy Summit 2014. The format of this Summit, which this year was held 14–15 October in Sydney, will be refined each year to create a focus relevant for the times, but the twice-yearly airing of the big topics at both Ozwater and the Summit is now firmly embedded in the AWA annual agenda. Thank you to all those speakers who talked plainly and clearly about the issues that are important to them; a number of them challenged AWA to take a stronger policy development and advocacy role across the entire sector. The event was webcast with the opportunity for interactive Q&A – another way in which AWA can better serve its members.


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From the CEO

GETTING THE SCIENCE RIGHT FOR SUCCESSFUL WATER MANAGEMENT Jonathan McKeown – AWA Chief Executive In mid-October AWA hosted the inaugural National Water Policy Summit in Sydney. Attended by over 120 representatives from the water, mining, energy and agribusiness sectors, the Summit provided a platform to discuss and collaborate on some of the major issues facing the water sector. The Summit enabled industry to shine a light on the hill for where the water sector should be heading.

voicing concern about the closure of the National Water Commission (NWC) later this year. Although the Federal Government has highlighted where key functions of the National Water Initiative will reside following the closure of the NWC, AWA members are concerned about the lack of independent leadership of water in Australia. AWA will be appearing at the inquiry on this matter in early November.

Included in the agenda were the issues of climate variability, regulatory reform, and cross-sector support to develop an industry-led national water strategy. The Summit concluded that AWA should take a leading position on the following five actions:

As I write this column, the NWC is releasing its final assessment of Australia’s water reform progress, calling on governments not to drop the ball on future water issues, echoing the industry’s concerns. The Blueprint report concludes that the National Water Initiative has driven changes that have made water use more efficient, sustainable and secure. AWA will strive to ensure the work of the NWI and NWC is not forgotten.

1.

The facilitation of an industry-led National Water Strategy accommodating cross-sector water users to be presented to State and Federal Ministers.

2.

Call on all State and Territory Governments to make environmental, health and economic regulation of water consistent across all jurisdictions.

3.

Recommend ways to reform the regulatory regime and structure of the water sector to reduce the political interference in the decisions and roles of state regulators and water utilities to enable more independent and effective management of water.

4.

Convene a Water Regulators Forum for the state and territory water regulators to discuss implementing harmonised regulations at Australia’s largest water conference, Ozwater’15, to be held in Adelaide in May 2015.

5.

Lead the development and implementation of a campaign to evolve consumer perceptions about significant water issues, including the value of water in the Australian economy and the level of customer service.

The need for an industry-led water strategy was strongly supported by the participants, with many

water November 2014

Independent oversight and leadership of the water sector are paramount as the sector goes through much needed reform. Key planning documents for the development of Australia are underway with the Minister for Agriculture, Barnaby Joyce, releasing the Agricultural Competiveness Green Paper this week. Minister Joyce said, “Effective water infrastructure will be critical to the profitability and productivity of Australian agriculture into the future”; however, it is important that the infrastructure vision includes all options and is not limited to dams. There are options including aquifer recharge systems that Australia is well positioned to incorporate that enhance the environment while providing economic and social benefits. As these options are further analysed industry needs to offer its experience and expertise to ensure Australia implements the most sustainable options. Getting the science right in water management is the only way to advance our economic performance across all sectors dependent on water.


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My Point of View

ENVISAGING A FUTURE OF CONTINUING WATER REFORM Ken Matthews AO – Former Chair, National Water Commission Ken Matthews AO retired as Chair and CEO

A Vision FOR AUSTRALIA

of the Australian National Water Commission

In its published Position Statement, ATSE envisages a future of continuing water reform and year-on-year improvement in the way we manage our water resources. It calls for the governments of Australia to commit now to developing the next-generation water reform agenda.

(NWC) in October 2010. Ken was previously the Secretary of the Federal Department of Transport and Regional Services, and the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. In October 2014, the Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) issued an important statement: a public call for the governments of Australia to develop and commit to a renewed long-term national water reform agenda. The Academy is concerned that Australia’s strong history of successful water reform has ground to a halt and a dangerous complacency has developed. It is true that water management arrangements in Australia have been significantly improved by the reforms flowing from the 1994 Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Water Reform Framework, and the subsequent 2004 National Water Initiative (NWI). It is true also that the resulting water management arrangements have been of great benefit to Australia and are admired internationally. The results we have achieved in water trading, environmental water management, the MurrayDarling Basin Plan and improved water data husbandry are some of the outstanding legacies of many years of hard reform work. But in Australia the next drought is never far away – and even if it were not, so much remains to be done in water reform that abandoning reform efforts now would be irresponsible and enormously costly to both the economy and our environment.

water November 2014

Based on the remarkable success of water trading in Australia, it argues that future water management decisions should continue to be driven as much as possible by market forces. But ATSE also calls for intensified efforts in the next reform agenda to provide better science – both physical and social – to ensure environmental, economic, social and regional sustainability.

The Importance of Science Because of its special interests in science and research, ATSE has identified a range of specific areas that would benefit from focused research to guide future water reform. Among other areas, it argues that we need an improved understanding of: • Groundwater systems and their physical processes – these are essential to improving sustainable water resource management, particularly for the ongoing development of northern Australia; • Interaction of groundwater systems with resource extraction activities, including unconventional gas; • Ecological science, especially efforts to improve our understanding of ecological responses to changes in water regimes, to guide decisionmaking processes for the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder and environmental water managers;


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My Point of View • National principles and guidelines for water management in northern Australia; • National principles and guidelines for the best use of environmental water; • A national strategy and priorities to guide water science and research; • A forward reform agenda for water-related regulatory systems. Inconsistent and inefficient regulatory arrangements across waterrelated health, environment and economic areas provide many opportunities for improvement; • A national strategy to make better use of our experience in water reform as a competitive advantage for Australian firms competing in world markets, including the export of Australian water management skills, experience and technologies. In Australia the next drought is never far away, so planning for future water security is essential. • ‘Landscape carrying capacity’ and the effects of cumulative impacts on the natural resource base for both surface water and groundwater. • The impact of a changing climate on water availability across Australia; • Community participation in water management, such as how to improve participation in formal water planning processes and how best to engage the community in decisions about new technologies and alternative water sources, including recycled water; • Water-related cultural and economic interests of indigenous Australians.

AREAs FOR REFORM Informed by such research, ATSE has highlighted some of the most obvious opportunities for inclusion in the next-generation water reform agenda: • A forward reform agenda for Urban Water – a sector that has not to date been subject to the same reform pressures as non-urban water; • National principles and guidelines for water management in the mining and gas sectors;

In addition, ATSE argues for new arrangements for the ongoing leadership, assessment and evaluation of reform progress. As always, institutions and governance matter. The Government’s decision to abolish the National Water Commission has left a serious gap in national water reform architecture. Australia continues to need an independent, analytical agent to audit progress and to constructively stimulate and steer the reform process into the years ahead.

ThE NEXT sTEPs In my view, ATSE’s call for a next-generation reform agenda for water is very timely. The job is not finished. There continues to be dispute, dissent and dissatisfaction with current water management arrangements. There are large economic, environmental and regional benefits still to be harvested. There are also problems to be avoided, such as potential issues associated with undisciplined northern development. I believe it will be important for other organisations and individuals to take up the cause and argue also for our next chapter in the continuing story of national water reform. But perhaps this time the task should not be left to governments alone. There are many groups and individuals in Australia who have much to contribute in suggesting Australia’s next reform targets. ATSE has started the ball rolling; it’s time for others to get specific and go public about what needs to be done, by whom and by when.

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November 2014 water


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CrossCurrent

International Sue Murphy, CEO of WA’s Water Corporation, has won the 2014 International Water Association Women in Water award, which acknowledges and celebrates leadership of women in the field of water. Ms Murphy was presented with the prestigious award at the 2014 Lisbon World Water Congress. Sue was also keynote speaker at the Congress and presented to a packed auditorium on the journey of the Water Corporation in addressing climate change, improving productivity and focus on customer value.

Professor Helmut Kroiss from the Vienna University of Technology has commenced a two-year term as President of the International Water Association (IWA). Also joining the IWA Board is newly elected Senior Vice President Tom Mollenkopf, previously AWA CEO, with Dianne D’Arras from France continuing on as Vice President. Mr Mollenkopf held the role of Deputy Executive Director of IWA in London from 2005 to 2007 prior to his six-year leadership of AWA.

CSIRO, through the CSIRO Chile Research Foundation, has been contracted to work with the Chilean Government on an integrated water management plan for the Copiapó River Basin, located in the world’s driest desert. The Chilean General Water Directorate (DGA) contracted the CSIRO Chile Research Foundation to develop, together with colleagues from Australia, the first phase of the plan.

National The Productivity Commission will take on the role of monitoring and auditing Australia’s progress in achieving water reform. The National Water Commission will be wound up after the release of its final Triennial Assessment of national water reform later this year, with its key monitoring and reporting roles transferred to existing Commonwealth agencies. Triennial assessments of National Water Initiative implementation by State and Territory governments, as well as five-yearly audits on the implementation of the Murray-Darling Basin Plan, will be undertaken by the Productivity Commission. The Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences will be responsible for annual reporting on water markets.The Department of the Environment will be responsible for assessing milestone payments to Murray-Darling Basin states against the performance milestones specified in the National Partnership Agreement on Implementing Murray-Darling Basin reform. The role of advising the Clean Energy Regulator on effectiveness of water resource plans under the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Regulations 2011 will also be undertaken by the Department of the Environment. Funding for continuing provisions of these functions was provided for in this year’s budget, while abolition of the standalone agency will save $20.9 million over the forward estimates.

WaterRA is seeking sponsorship for a number of projects to provide students with added benefits to enhance their experience in opportunities offered through WaterRA. A PhD student package includes top-up stipend, operating allowance, mentor, introduction to AWA, in particular YWP networks, industry exposure, WaterRA

water November 2014

member engagement and more. The cost of a PhD student package over the three years is $36,000 – a relatively low cost to have a research need addressed that is of interest to your organisation. For more information please contact the Program Manager – Education, Carolyn Bellamy at carolyn.bellamy@waterra.com.au or phone 08 7424 2443.

Minister for Industry Ian Macfarlane has welcomed the appointment of Dr Larry Marshall as the new Chief Executive of CSIRO. Mr Macfarlane said Dr Marshall would guide CSIRO through a significant new phase in which the national science and research institution will play an increasingly important role in the Australian economy. “Dr Marshall is a scientist who brings significant commercial experience to this role,” he said. “His experience in Silicon Valley, R&D development and the commercialisation of products and ideas will be valuable in ensuring CSIRO claims its place at the centre of Australian industry policy, building new links between business and research organisations.” Mr Macfarlane thanked outgoing Chief Executive Dr Megan Clark for her leadership of CSIRO over the past six years.

The Aither Water Markets Report 2013–14 Review and 2014–15 Outlook is now available. This report provides information on recent water market activity, with the current report focusing on trade of the main water products in the southern-connected Murray-Darling Basin in 2013–14. It presents trade activity, trends and drivers for water allocation and water entitlement markets, and provides comparisons with previous years. The report also covers market performance, size, liquidity and yields, and provides an outlook for 2014–15 conditions.

According to figures released by the ABS, the total Gross Value of Irrigated Agricultural Production (GVIAP) for Australia was $13.4 billion in 2012–13, a decrease of $116 million (or 1%) on the 2011–12 value. The total Gross Value of Agricultural Production (GVAP) (published as Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (cat. no. 7503.0)) was $48 billion, an increase of 3% from 2011–12. In 2012–13 GVIAP constituted 28% of the total GVAP for Australia.

BOM has released a monthly Climate and Water Outlook Video which covers rainfall, streamflow and temperature for the next three months and beyond. By integrating climate and water information into a short monthly video, it provides a ‘big picture’ overview of environmental conditions in Australia for the months ahead.

Lawyer and innovation expert David Miles AM has been appointed to lead the review of the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Programme. Minister for Industry Ian Macfarlane said Mr Miles, the former Chair of Innovation Australia, would bring considerable experience, expertise and insight to the review. The review will start this month, with the final report and recommendations expected by early 2015. The review’s terms of reference and information about how to make a submission can be found at www.business.gov.au/CRC-Review.


9

CrossCurrent

New South Wales The Chief Scientist & Engineer has released the final report from her 19-month independent review of coal seam gas activities in New South Wales. The report presents the findings of Professor Mary O’Kane’s independent review, as well as 16 recommendations to Government. Overall, the review found many of the technical challenges and risks posed by the CSG industry can in general be managed through careful designation of areas appropriate for CSG extraction, high standards of engineering and professionalism in CSG companies, creation of a State Whole-of Environment Data Repository, comprehensive monitoring of CSG operations with ongoing scrutiny of collected data, a well-trained and certified workforce, and applying new technologies as they become available.

The $18.6 million integrated surveillance, monitoring, automation and remote telemetry (ISMART) project, which will allow State Water to remotely operate and manage dams, weirs, regulators and urban water systems, is one step closer to becoming a realisation following contract award to the prime contractor Hunter Water Australia (HWA) last month. The project is one of a number of state-of-the-art technology upgrades currently being undertaken. Works packages one to three, including management plans and site and system audits, are due for completion by December 2015.

Queensland The Queensland Government says its $80 billion debt would be reduced and funds would be freed up for job-creating infrastructure under the final Strong Choices plan to lease some governmentowned assets. Queensland Premier, Campbell Newman, said the Government had listened to Queenslanders and responded to their feedback about retaining their stake in public assets. Mr Newman said the Government would also continue payments to the electricity companies to keep prices for regional Queenslanders in line with prices in the south-east.

Stanthorpe families and farmers will have access to a larger, more secure water supply after Queensland’s independent Coordinator-General approved the $76 million Emu Swamp Dam project. Queensland Deputy Premier and Minister for State Development, Infrastructure and Planning, Jeff Seeney, said the project would create up to 145 jobs during construction and secure Stanthorpe’s future water needs. “Stanthorpe is renowned as a topquality fruit-producing region, growing the majority of the State’s apples and stone fruit and about half its grapes,” Mr Seeney said.

Western Australia About 4,600 properties in the Margaret River area will benefit from a $67 million upgrade to the local water supply scheme. The Water Corporation carried out the upgrade in two stages. The first $48 million stage involved equipping a new bore, construction of a new

water treatment plant at Lilly Road and 25 kilometres of pipelines to connect these facilities to Ten Mile Brook Dam. The $19 million second stage included a new 15 million-litre water storage tank next to the WTP, transfer pumping and gravity supply mains, an upgrade of the Ten Mile Brook Dam drinking water pump station and treatment facilities.

Victoria A new $1.8 million pipeline and pump station will provide a more reliable water supply to 30 farms near Murchison, the Victorian Minister for Water, Peter Walsh, has announced. Launching the new Central Goulburn No 1 Pipeline and Pump Station, Mr Walsh said it was a significant milestone in the modernisation of the wider Central Goulburn irrigation area.

A new office for water brokers, Waterfind, has opened in Mildura. “Water brokers play an important role in developing water markets by bringing buyers and sellers together. As a large and innovative broker, Waterfind is an asset to the community of Mildura and water trading in the region,” said Senator Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary for the Environment. “Water markets have been critical in helping farmers and others manage marked reductions in water availability during the most recent prolonged drought,” he said.

The Victorian Minister for Water, Peter Walsh, has launched Ballarat and region’s water future, the first whole-of-water-cycle management framework for a Victorian regional city. A whole-ofwater-cycle approach is about being smarter, more efficient and more responsible with all of our water sources to take the pressure off precious drinking water supplies,” Mr Walsh said. Mr Walsh also announced four new innovative water projects around the Ballarat region.

The Macalister Irrigation District (MID) has launched the $1.6 million Heyfield Regulator Retrofit Program, which will save water and boost productivity. Deputy Premier and Leader of The Nationals, Peter Ryan, and Minister for Local Government and Aboriginal Affairs and The Nationals Member for Gippsland East, Tim Bull, launched the project in September 2014. Mr Ryan said the program had upgraded 18 kilometres of old channel infrastructure and was a major step forward in the modernisation of the Macalister Irrigation District.

The Victorian Coalition Government is providing $833,000 to deliver the next stage of Seymour’s flood mitigation project. Minister for Water Peter Walsh visited Seymour to make the announcement. “The Victorian Coalition understands the devastating impact that floods can have on communities and businesses,” Mr Walsh said. The $9.3 million Seymour flood mitigation project is being jointly funded by the Victorian Coalition Government, the Commonwealth Government and Mitchell Shire, through the National Disaster Resilience Grants Scheme.

November 2014 water


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South Australia The South Australian State Government has continued to invest in the state’s water infrastructure, ensuring security of water supplies throughout the state. Minister for Water and the River Murray Ian Hunter has announced that the $5.75 million desalination plant at Hawker in the Flinders Ranges has commenced operating, with the capability of supplying up to 440 kilolitres of treated drinking water a day to local homes and businesses. Construction of the $5.75 million reverse osmosis plant began earlier this year.

Member News Steve Atherton has been appointed CEO of Biogill, while founder John West has moved into an international business development role to take advantage of overseas opportunities. Steve holds a Masters degree in Engineering Science along with a Bachelors degree in Science (Engineering). Steve was appointed CEO in August 2014 to lead the company’s growth into new international markets.

Melbourne Water has appointed Michael Wandmaker to the position of Managing Director. Mr Wandmaker has extensive senior leadership experience across several industries both in Australia and internationally, including electrical and mechanical engineering, energy, oil, gas, mining and water, having worked at Sydney Water in the mid-2000s. He was previously CEO of Silcar Maintenance Services, Vice President at Siemens Canada Ltd, General Manager at Tyco Services and held various executive positions at Transfield Holdings Pty Ltd. Most recently, he was Group President of UGL Limited’s engineering, construction and maintenance division.

Phil Styles, formerly a Principal Engineering Geologist with SMEC, has joined NSP Geotechnics as a Principal Engineering Geologist and partner. NSP Geotechnics provides geotechnical services and advice in the areas of pavement analysis and design,

The National Farmers’ Federation (NFF) President Brent Finlay has announced the appointment of Mr Simon Talbot as the new CEO of Australia’s peak farm body. Mr Talbot has been a Director at Mondelez International (Kraft/Cadbury) for seven years, heading the corporate affairs function for Australia and New Zealand, and leading agricultural investment across Mondelez International’s fast-growing Asia Pacific region. Mr Talbot previously held various Federal and State Government advisory roles, providing insight into manufacturing, sustainable food production in the Asian century and economic development opportunities.

GHD has named Blair Shackleton as Market Leader – Water for Western Australia. Blair is a chartered chemist with more than 33 years’ experience in the water and power industries, including plant design, process monitoring, troubleshooting, operations support, and project management roles. He has led the design of municipal potable supplies, industrial and power station water systems, and large desalination plants.

ACCIONA Agua Australia has appointed Cliff Stone as the new Business Development Director (Agua) responsible for expanding ACCIONA’s municipal and resource sector water services Australiawide. Cliff has more than 30 years of global experience in the Water and Wastewater industry and is currently based in Brisbane.

Hydro International has opened an office in Singapore as a centre for its growing business across the Asia Pacific region. As part of a program to establish a direct presence in strategic international locations, Hydro has appointed Andy Tang as APAC Regional Business Manager to run the Singapore office and develop sales distributorships across the region. Andy’s brief is to establish a platform for the introduction and support of Hydro’s vortex control and separation technologies.

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Industry News

Agricultural Competitiveness Green Paper released The Australian Government has released the Agricultural Competitiveness Green Paper and is asking everyone in agriculture to have their say on a range of new proposals and policy suggestions. Minister for Agriculture, Barnaby Joyce, said that the Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper that the Coalition Government has carriage of is seminal to who we are, where we came from, and is a vital part of the puzzle of how we get out of our current financial bind. “The Green Paper outlines fresh ideas on a range of vitally important issues for the future of our nation including infrastructure, drought support, trade and finance,” Minister Joyce said. To have your say go to www.agriculturalcompetitiveness.dpmc.gov.au. Submissions close 12 December 2014.

Australia’s water blueprint: national reform assessment 2014 The National Water Commission has released its final assessment of Australia’s water reform progress, calling on governments not to drop the ball on future water issues. The report, Australia’s Water Blueprint: National Reform Assessment 2014, highlights the very real successes achieved since the historic signing of the National Water Initiative by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2004 and its predecessor, the 1994 COAG Water Reform Framework. Commission Chair, Ms Karlene Maywald, said: “Our report finds that Australia’s National Water Initiative has driven changes that have made water use more efficient, sustainable and secure. Enduring bipartisan political support has been fundamental to these hard won gains.”

• The National Water Initiative principles should underpin resource development decisions; • The National Water Initiative should guide the way water is allocated and managed for all users, including extractive industries. Please go to www.nwc.gov.au/publications for more details.

Industry Innovation and Competitiveness AgendA The Australian Government has released the Industry Innovation and Competitiveness Agenda to strengthen Australia’s competitiveness. The Agenda is a key business-focused element of the Government’s Economic Action Strategy and provides a framework for boosting Australian industries’ competitiveness and driving greater innovation and investment across Australia. The Government has four key ambitions as part of this agenda, including: a lower cost, business-friendly environment with less regulation, lower taxes and more competitive markets; a more skilled labour force; better economic infrastructure; and industry policy that fosters innovation and entrepreneurship. The Industry Innovation and Competitiveness Agenda statement and fact sheets can be viewed at www.industry.gov.au/industry

John Holland awarded major sewer project John Holland, as part of the John Holland and Kellogg Brown and Root Joint Venture (JH-KBR JV), has been awarded the construction contract for Melbourne Water’s Carlton Main Sewer Project. The project will see 1.35km of the century-old Carlton Main Sewer renewed, and a new 510m connection built to relieve pressure on the ageing infrastructure and build sewer capacity for future growth.

The National Water Commission makes 10 recommendations that call on governments to sustain their commitment to water reform so that Australia continues to optimise water’s contribution to our economy, environment and communities:

Executive General Manager for Specialist Engineering, Brendan Petersen, said the JH-KBR JV is one of two joint ventures that will deliver projects as part of Melbourne Water’s 2013 Water Plan Capital Works Program.

• Governments should not backtrack on water reform;

The project is planned to commence in the first week of October and tunnelling will start mid-2015. The project is scheduled for completion in mid-2016.

• Governments should not ‘mark their own scorecards’ on water reform; • The Murray–Darling Basin Plan should be implemented in full and independently audited; • Reforms to water rights and markets should be completed and expanded; • Urban water reform should be accelerated to drive greater efficiency and innovation; • Water quality objectives should be integrated into decision making; • Water information collection and sharing should be streamlined; • Governments should invest in water infrastructure only after rigorous cost-benefit analysis;

One of John Holland’s major past projects, the Sugarloaf pipeline in Victoria.

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Industry News

ghd cio wins telstrA business women’s AwArd GHD congratulates its Chief Information Officer, Elizabeth Harper, who was named one of Queensland’s most inspirational private sector leaders at the 2014 Telstra Business Women’s Awards. Accepting the Private and Corporate Sector Award for Queensland, Elizabeth thanked her team and colleagues at GHD. She said, “I’m so honoured and humbled. A lot of us are tempted by ‘untraditional’ fields such as IT and engineering. We can do it. Go girls!” According to the judges, Elizabeth “is a role model in a nontraditional female career, showing strong values, leadership and mentoring while driving a culture of service delivery and strong engagement for global internal and external clients.” Elizabeth will now proceed to the national awards in Melbourne on 26 November 2014.

makes him an excellent fit. Dr Marshall combines commercial and scientific credentials with extensive global experience, making him the world class leader we were seeking for CSIRO.” Dr Marshall will join CSIRO in January 2015. He is currently Managing Director of Southern Cross Venture Partners, an early stage venture capital firm specialising in creating Australian technology companies and growing them globally in Asia and the United States.

Dr Larry marshall

usQ leAds internAtionAl wAter proJect The University of Southern Queensland’s (USQ) expertise in the area of agricultural water resources has been called upon to help farmers in Nepal, India and Bangladesh. Australian Ambassador to Nepal, Glenn White, recently launched a four-year Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) funded project on improving water use for dry-season agriculture in the Eastern Gangetic Plains. USQ’s National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture (NCEA) is the lead partner in the project, with collaboration from CSIRO Land and Water and numerous organisations from each country involved. NCEA Director, Associate Professor Craig Baillie, welcomed the additional support to help USQ researchers continue their important work in the area.

AQuAsure boArd Announces new chAir AquaSure’s Board of Directors has announced the appointment of Adrian Kloeden as Chair of AquaSure. Mr Kloeden¹s appointment comes after a recruitment process to replace Ron Finlay who announced to the Board his intention to retire as Chairman earlier this year. The Board would like to acknowledge and thank Mr Finlay for his contribution and wish him all the best for future endeavours. Adrian has over 40 years’ experience in the infrastructure, engineering, transport, services and education industries, having held senior executive roles with listed and unlisted entities in Australia and in international joint ventures. He spent the last five years of his executive career as CEO of Serco Asia Pacific.

internAtionAl technology innovAtor to leAd csiro Chair of the CSIRO Board, Simon McKeon has announced that the new Chief Executive of the CSIRO will be Dr Larry Marshall. “Dr Marshall has an impeccable record as a scientist, a technology innovator and business leader,” Mr McKeon said. “His wealth of experience in developing and applying science and technology

water November 2014

“The Eastern Gangetic Plains is one of the world’s most densely populated farming regions,” he said. “Many farmers face problems with water and power so we’re working on ways to help them make best use of their available resources. This project will help farmers boost their crops by making more efficient use of ground and surface water during the dry summer months.” For more information please go to www.aciar.gov.au.

oricA And csiro form reseArch AlliAnce Commercialisation of ground-breaking technology to improve productivity and environmental performance in the mining sector will be the focus of a new five-year research alliance signed by global mining services company Orica and the CSIRO. The agreement was signed by Orica Managing Director and CEO, Ian Smith, and CSIRO CEO, Megan Clark, on the sidelines of the IMARC Mining and Resources Conference in Melbourne. “Over the past five years Orica and the CSIRO have been engaged in a hunt for innovation across the mining value chain and to date our partnership has achieved very pleasing results,” Mr Smith said. “The second alliance agreement signed today will allow a number of these groundbreaking research projects to continue their progression towards commercialisation.” CSIRO Chief Executive Officer Megan Clark said: “Our relationship with Orica over the past five years has produced many outstanding


13

Industry News • Awarding of a patent on conductive polymers as an alternative technology to replace wire in detonating systems. These polymers have the potential to improve reliability and durability significantly compared to current products. • Filing of a patent application this year for a new method of ore waste boundary mapping that minimises ore dilution. This technology is now in the process of being commercialised.

photogrAphy competition winners celebrAte our greAt southern lAnd innovations, and the new agreement gives us even more opportunity for our science to make a difference to industry and the community.” Research milestones achieved during the alliance include: • Development of a new catalyst system targeting greenhouse gas abatement in high pressure nitric acid plants. If successful, the potential exists to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide by up to 70 per cent compared to operation without abatement.  Nitrous oxide is approximately 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. Commercial trials are planned to commence later this year.

for

earth PTYLTD

The winners of Geoscience Australia’s 2014 Top GeoShot photo competition capture the essence of Earth science and showcase Australia’s unique geological history. Over 360 outstanding entries were received from across Australia, highlighting this year’s theme, “Great Southern Land”. Winners were announced at an awards ceremony at Geoscience Australia in Canberra. The 2014 overall winner was Mark Jekabsons from the Australian Capital Territory. Mark’s photo “Gibraltar Falls” (shown overleaf) was chosen from a tough field of finalists and captures mountain and valley formations from the top of Gibraltar Falls in the ACT. Callum Porter from New South Wales took out the student category with his photo “Cathedrals”. Callum used a long exposure

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Industry News Colm’s expertise covers contaminated site assessment, remediation and redevelopment; waste management and civil engineering; mining services including geology, environmental and tailings management; air quality; environmental management and approvals; foundation engineering; urban redevelopment; and water management. SLR is an international environmental consultancy with over 200 staff in Australia. Globally, SLR employs over 1,000 employees working from 67 offices in Europe, North America, Australasia, and Africa. It is one of a very few truly international specialist environmental consultancies.

tAsmAniAn irrigAtion wins AwArds Tasmanian Irrigation has been recognised at this year’s Engineers Australia’s State awards for engineering excellence. Technical General Manager and Deputy Chief Executive Officer, Greg Stanford, was named Professional Engineer of the Year for his oversight of all the irrigation schemes being developed in Tasmania, and also won the Award of Merit for outstanding contribution to an engineering project. Tasmanian Irrigation also won the Project Infrastructure category for the Midlands Water Scheme, which has just come into operation.

sewer technology brings internAtionAl honour for uQ-led reseArch teAm to highlight the distinctive volcanic Cathedral Rocks formation in Kiama, New South Wales. Geoscience Australia’s Top Geoshot photo competition is run annually as the highlight of Earth Science Week. Entries are judged on their creativity and suitability to that year’s chosen theme. The winning entries are available on Geoscience Australia’s website: www.ga.gov.au/top-geoshot.

A University of Queensland-led research team that is radically improving sewer design and management has won a prestigious international prize in Portugal. The team’s $21 million project, ‘Sewer Corrosion

Key Appointment for environmentAl consultAncy

and Odour: Putting Science in Sewers’, is believed to be the world’s largest sewer-related research program. At the World Water Congress in Lisbon in September, the International Water

Dr barry Cayford, who completed his PhD at UQ, at work on sewer research.

Association awarded the team the 2014 Global Project Innovation Key industry professional, Colm Molloy has recently joined global environmental consultancy SLR Consulting Australia in their Sydney office. The appointment will allow SLR to strategically utilise Colm’s 23 years’ experience in senior and executive management. Colm is a chartered engineer with wide experience across the infrastructure and resource sectors, and has proven experience in business leadership, project and operational management, and business development.

water November 2014

Award (Applied Research). UQ Vice-Chancellor and President, Professor Peter Høj, said the group’s discoveries had already saved the industry partners several hundred million dollars. Program leader, Professor Zhiguo Yuan, from UQ’s Advanced Water Management Centre, said sewerage system corrosion and odour was a huge problem for water utilities globally. “Our research has uncovered a substantial level of new knowledge, highly advantageous tools and innovative technologies to address these problems,” Professor Yuan said.


15

Industry News The five-year research project brought together researchers from five Australian universities and 11 industry partners, and was supported by the Australian Research Council. Project partners are: University of New South Wales, University of Newcastle, University of Sydney, Curtin University of Technology, Sydney Water Corporation, Barwon Region Water Corporation, CH2M HILL, City of Gold Coast, Hunter Water Corporation, Melbourne Water Corporation, South Australian Water Corporation, South East Water Limited, Veolia Water Australia and New Zealand, Water Research Australia Limited, and Water Corporation Western Australia.

urbAn dAtA proJect to mAKe townsville A resilient city

water use helps them use water smarter – saving on average 10 per cent. The AURIN project will bring energy and water consumption data, and weather records and climate data, together with Council’s land use, geospatial and demographic information. Townsville Mayor Cr Jenny Hill said the project would assist researchers and urban planners to identify strategies to make Townsville a more affordable, sustainable and healthier place to live. The project is a partnership between the City, AURIN, James Cook University, Ergon Energy, Queensland University of Technology and the Queensland Cyber-Infrastructure Foundation.

new progrAm director for globAl sAnitAtion fund

Townsville City Council is partnering with the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN) on a major data project that will help guide Townsville’s future water and energy security. The Townsville Data Hub will research information and trends on energy and water consumption that will assist residents, business and Council plan for a sustainable future for the city’s predicted population growth. Water and energy security are seen as fundamental areas of future planning for Townsville, with an expected doubling of the city’s population over the next 25 years. A related project showed last year that giving households access to daily information about trends in their

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) has announced that David Shimkus has joined the Global Sanitation Fund as its new Program Director, bringing over 15 years of experience in international health and development. He will oversee the Fund’s ongoing efforts to support community-led sanitation programs in developing countries, including resource mobilisation, financial management, capacity building and program monitoring and evaluation. Mr Shimkus joins WSSCC from the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), where he served as Senior Manager of Global Health Partnerships. In that role, Mr. Shimkus provided

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Industry News financial and programmatic oversight for collaborations between UNOPS and major global health organisations. Prior to joining UNOPS, Mr Shimkus was the Director of Business Development for Pathfinder International, where he led global planning and resource mobilisation for HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment and maternal and child health. “I believe that sanitation is the crossroads of development – the focal point where wise investments can have a catalytic impact on all aspects of a community’s growth, from health to education to economic opportunity,” said Mr Shimkus. “I’m looking forward to working with my colleagues at WSSCC and our many partners to build on the Fund’s strong foundation and expand our reach in the years to come.”

Water project wins Engineering Excellence awards in WA GHD and a joint venture of ACCIONA and TRILITY (ATJV) were recognised for delivering the Mundaring Water Treatment Plant at the 2014 Engineers Australia Excellence Awards ­Western Australia Division. The project received the top prizes in two categories, ­ winning both the Infrastructure and Building and Engineering for Regional Communities categories. ATJV contracted GHD to provide major design services for the Mundaring Water Treatment Plant, which was the first Public Private Partnership in the Western Australian water industry. ATJV forms part of the Helena Water consortium, which designed, constructed and funded the plant. Helena Water will now operate and maintain the plant for the next 35 years, before handing it back to the Water Corporation. The $300 million capital works project, including a new water treatment plant, pump station and integration works, is the latest and largest of a series of upgrades to Western Australia’s iconic CY O’Connor’s Goldfields and Agricultural Water Supply Scheme (G&AWS) of 1903. The G&AWS water supply network is the largest water network in the southern hemisphere, extending 580 kilometres from the Mundaring Weir to Kalgoorlie and supplying water to over 100,000 customers of the Water Corporation. It is an international historic civil engineering landmark and was included in the Australian National Heritage list in 2011. The water treatment plant, which has a current design capacity of 165 million litres per day and can be expanded to deliver 240 million litres per day, is a critical piece of community infrastructure, as it further improves the quality and reliability of water supplied to Water Corporation customers connected to the G&AWS. It is unique in that the plant has been engineered to treat water from three different and variable sources t­ o ensure water quality and security of supply. Craig Walkemeyer, GHD’s State Manager for Western Australia, said, “GHD is proud to be recognised for the excellence of our engineering. Excellence is only possible with the right client leadership and great partners, and we would like to acknowledge the contributions of Water Corporation, ACCIONA TRILITY, Brookfield Multiplex and the other organisations who have helped bring this project to life.”

water November 2014

TENIX HOLDINGS AUSTRALIA TO BE SOLD TO DOWNER GROUP Tenix Holdings Australia Limited (Tenix) is being sold to Downer EDI Limited (Downer Group). Tenix Chairman, Paul Salteri AM, has welcomed the sale of the company to the group. Mr Salteri said, “The decision to sell the business to Downer Group has been difficult for shareholders, as we believed the business is well positioned in its markets to take advantage of exciting growth opportunities. Our decision to change from our strategy to raise external capital funding via either an equity selldown or IPO was a difficult one, but ultimately in the best interests of the company and the employees.” Mr Salteri thanked all Tenix staff for their support and loyalty, and for their hard work and dedication in building a great company. “Tenix employees have shown fantastic commitment to building the company as a leading sustainable infrastructure solutions, services and delivery partner,” Mr Salteri said. “On behalf of the shareholders and the Board of Tenix Holdings Australia, I extend my warmest thanks to them all and my best wishes for the future.” Tenix is among Australia’s leading providers of services to owners of gas, electricity, water, wastewater and industrial assets across Australia and New Zealand.

Aurecon ANNOUNCES NEW TECHNICAL DIRECTOR FOR WATER SERVICES Water infrastructure planning and delivery specialist Mike Axton has joined Aurecon as Technical Director, Water Services. In his new role Mike will work closely with other senior managers at Aurecon to deliver sustainable outcomes and client service excellence across the company’s broad client base. Aurecon’s Unit Manager for Water Services in Sydney, Brian Horton, said that the appointment was driven by significant growth within Aurecon’s water business in Sydney. Prior to joining Aurecon, Mike worked on the New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment’s Growth Infrastructure Plans, providing trusted advice, project management and leadership to their infrastructure strategies and programs team. Mike was previously the project manager on Sydney Water’s award winning Lane Cove wet weather overflow abatement project, which was recognised for its innovative approach to community involvement and public participation.


industry-AcAdemic exchAnge fellow wins internAtionAl AwArd Professor Karl Linden of the University of Colorado, Boulder, and a Fellow with the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, has won the 2014 WateReuse Person of the Year at the WateReuse Association’s 2014 Symposium in Dallas, Texas. As well as being a leader in research and education in the area of water reuse for over a decade, Professor Linden has a long history of working with and supporting industry. Professor Linden was nominated for the award by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence and Melbourne Water because of his expertise in advanced disinfection and oxidation processes, which he has applied to the Western Corridor Advanced Treatment Scheme in Queensland, and used to help gain approval from the Victorian Department of Health for Melbourne Water’s reuse applications. Dr Mark O’Donohue, CEO of the AWRCOE, who was in Dallas to present a workshop to US regulators and utility and private enterprise representatives, was on hand to see Professor Linden receive his award. “Karl has contributed to the national framework for validating water recycling technologies being developed in Australia, and will provide information on this new approach to our US counterparts. We congratulate him on receiving this award; it is much deserved recognition for the contribution he has made to water recycling over his career, and we look forward to continuing to work with him on water technology and validation projects.”

sA mAnAger hAiled As inspirAtionAl role model GHD congratulates its Head of Operations in South Australia, Van Tang – winner of the 2014 Telstra Business Women’s Awards for South Australia in the private and corporate sector category. After moving to Australia as a refugee from Vietnam at a young age, Van has become a principal civil engineer with almost 15 years’ experience in the transportation and aviation industry. She leads GHD’s business in South Australia.

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The award acknowledges Van’s commitment to the growth and development of GHD’s people, and her leading roles in the delivery of major projects for private sector and defence clients.

© 2014 Evoqua Water Technologies Pty Ltd. Wallace & Tiernan, and MEMCOR are trademarks of Evoqua, its subsidiaries or affiliates, in some countries.

November 2014 water


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Young Water Professionals

COMMUNICATION IS A TWO-WAY STREET Justin Simonis – AWA YWP National Committee President

As part of the rollout of AWA’s new strategy, AWA CEO Jonathan McKeown recently presented his vision of how our association will adapt to a changing industry to ensure it remains relevant to our needs. But having an individual provide us with an idea for change (as confronting as it may be) is merely the first step; the audience must embrace the idea of change in order for it to be implemented, and to do this they need to become engaged. In other words, the audience has just as much responsibility to progress the process of change as does the speaker.

When the pieces of the puzzle fell into place for me during that training session, however, I began to wonder if we had put the cart before the horse. Had we failed to give you – the ‘audience’ – the opportunity to engage with the NRC? I regularly request feedback as to where the broader membership, not just YWPs, see that we can add value to the association and our specialist network committee members.

The reality of this was brought home to me at a recent training session, where I realised that the old saying that you only get out of something what you put into it is true. Rather than just sitting inert and uncommunicative, we need to answer the questions asked of us – and ask questions in return. The more we engage with the process the more we will get out of it. And it is only if we participate as an audience that we will be in a position to provide meaningful, specific feedback.

This is the big question – and one that, without focus, can be hard to answer – so let me provide you with the following to help get you thinking.

TIME TO RETHINK OUR ROLE The YWP National Representative Committee (NRC) mirrors the association in many ways – not least of which is the need for us to rethink our role, reposition ourselves within AWA and refocus our efforts to ensure we provide maximum return to our membership base. For some time now I’ve been thinking about these questions. I’ve also been discussing what they mean with the other representatives of the Committee and, together, we’ve been trying to work out how we can effectively respond to them.

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HOW CAN WE TRULY ADD VALUE TO AWA?

It is our view that if the YWPs are to truly add value to AWA and return on investment to the organisations that support our involvement in AWA, then we must be engaged at a different level in the association. Our vision is for the NRC to be recognised in a similar way to AWA branches, with national representation at the same levels, including the Strategic Advisory Council. While this vision (let alone the mechanics of how it might work) needs to agreed on and further defined, we see the increased visibility and the requisite accountability that would come with it as an exciting challenge. As the audience, from now on when an idea is being presented to you, I hope that you will all now be thinking about how you can respond. I look forward to your feedback as it will be instrumental in shaping the role of the YWPs and the NRC within the association both now and into the future.


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AWA News

WATER INDUSTRY PICKS UP WHAT GOVERNMENT LETS GO At the inaugural AWA National Water Policy Summit, over 120 representatives from the water, mining, energy and agribusiness sectors met to dliscuss the challenges for the sustainable management of water in Australia. Following Summit discussions, AWA will undertake the following actions: 1. Facilitate the development of an industry-led National Water Strategy accommodating cross-sector water users to be presented to State and Federal Ministers. 2. Call on all State and Territory Governments to make environmental, health and economic regulation of water consistent across all jurisdictions. 3. Recommend ways to reform the regulatory regime and structure of the water sector to reduce the political interference in the decisions and roles of state regulators and water utilities to enable more independent and effective management of water. 4. Convene a Water Regulators Forum for the state and territory water regulators to discuss implementing harmonised regulations at Australia’s largest water conference,Ozwater’15, to be held in Adelaide in May 2015. 5. Lead the development and implementation of a community campaign to evolve consumer perceptions about the main water issues, including the value of water in the Australian economy and the level of customer service. AWA Chief Executive, Jonathan McKeown, said the Summit provided the opportunity for industries across urban water, mining and agribusiness to discuss how to provide national leadership following the Government’s decision to close the National Water Commission. “Water remains a key national priority to drive Australia’s future prosperity. The potential for the development of Northern Australia and the expansion of agribusiness and the resources sector could all provide great benefits for Australia. The success of these initiatives will be determined by how well we manage our major asset of water,” Mr McKeown said. “Data shows that there is a strong decline in the availability of water over the next 50 years and industries reliant on water, including utilities, are being challenged to be innovative to ensure Australia’s ongoing water security both in an urban and rural context. With Australia’s inherent climate variability, we are no longer just planning for the probable, but now need to plan for the possible. This will affect infrastructure and investment decisions in both the public and private sectors.”

return to the owners of water assets, be they public or private. Australia’s future economic development remains directly linked to our water industry and its impressive expertise. The food and beverage industry, agribusiness, power and energy, mining and tourism all depend on water and its proper management to succeed. “With water being a crucial economic driver behind Australia’s future productivity and prosperity, Governments need to reprioritise water as a major economic driver. The water sector needs to work collaboratively with all Governments to better inform the community on issues and solutions to improve the way we manage water.”

State of the Water Sector SURVEY 2014: Australian water sector needs to improve operational efficiency Over 1,000 water industry professionals have identified that improving the operational efficiency of the water sector is the top issue for their industry, reflecting growing concern about the need to control costs for the benefit of consumers and demonstrate value for money within the sector. The 2014 State of the Water Sector Report, released on 15 October by AWA and Deloitte, reveals that 46 per cent of respondents believed this was the key area of concern in the industry, an increase from 35 per cent that identified it as a key issue in 2013. Following closely, the next highest priority issue identified was maintaining and augmenting infrastructure, which was ranked as one of the top three issues by 45 per cent of respondents. AWA CEO, Jonathan McKeown, thanked AWA members for taking the time to complete the Survey and said it shows that there is a strong need for continued investment and leadership in the Australian water sector.

The Summit highlighted the need to overhaul Australia’s regulation of water in all areas – economic, environmental and health. “The current regulation of the water industry does not guarantee a financially sustainable model for the delivery of our water services. We need a clear and consistent approach to the regulation of water across all states and territories. This will encourage increased investment in the water sector to secure long-term benefits for customers. “Given that our State Governments have limited financial resources, and competing demands, we need to look at increasing private sector investment. To achieve an increase in private or public investment, Australia’s economic regulation of water needs to balance price and affordability for consumers against the need to provide a reasonable

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AWA News “The water industry is challenged both now and in the coming years in balancing price and affordability for consumers and industry, against the need to maintain and augment existing infrastructure – which comes at a cost. It is timely to ask how the water industry is going to fund the required investment. “The Report provided great evidence for discussions at the National Water Policy Summit about where exactly these funds are going to come from, and given that our State Governments have limited financial resources and competing demands, we need to look at the option of increasing private sector investment,” said Mr McKeown. Sources of Supply The Report also showed what the industry believes to be safe supply options for potable use. Dams Eighty-four per cent of respondents at least ‘somewhat agreed’ that dams are an effective method of managing water security within their region, while 55 per cent felt that there is scope for more dams to be built. However, the percentage of respondents that at least ‘somewhat agreed’ diminished when specifically asked about the need for more ‘big dams’ in Northern Australia (North-West WA, NT and Far North Qld) (45 per cent) and Southern Australia (Murray-Darling Basin and South-East Coastal Areas) (37 per cent). Desalination An overwhelming number of respondents (96 per cent) believed that desalinated seawater can be treated and managed to a level that is sufficient for safe and reliable potable supply. Recycled water: Eighty-seven per cent agreed that recycled water can be treated and managed to a level that is sufficient for safe potable supply. Urban stormwater Around 79 per cent of participants also believe that urban stormwater can be treated and managed to a level that is sufficient for safe potable supply. “It is great to see such strong support for the diversification of supply options on the cusp of National Water Week, which has the theme of ‘Water Sources, There Are More Than You Think’ in 2014,” said Mr McKeown.

Water prices are about right Water pricing remains a ‘hot topic’ in the industry. Although price rises in 2013 in most jurisdictions were less than in previous years (Melbourne and Perth being exceptions) the industry is clearly concerned about the public’s view on household water bills. In the 2014 survey, responding to community concern about rising prices was the fourth most frequently identified issue, with 37 per cent of respondents nominating it. This is a significant increase over the 25 per cent of respondents who identified it as an issue in 2013. In some jurisdictions concern is particularly high – for example, in South Australia 52 per cent identified it as an issue. Overall, respondents were slightly more relaxed about prices in 2014 than 2013, with slightly more respondents considering prices in their state or territory to be ‘about right’ and fewer considering them to be much or a little too high. Consistent with community concerns noted, South Australia was the main state that was contrary to this trend, with 46 per cent of respondents believing prices were much too high or a little too high, an increase from 37 per cent in 2013. Interestingly, the jurisdictions that use on average the most urban water – the Northern Territory and Western Australia – are those where concern about prices is lowest. PPPs in the water sector With the ongoing debate around the privatisation of what have traditionally been publicly-owned assets, the water industry needs to consider how to meet the emerging challenges of increasing water demands and the capital expenditure required to deliver safe, secure and reliable water to all.

For the first time the survey tested views on public-private partnerships and found that over 81 per cent of respondents believed there were opportunities for more public-private partnerships. The full report can be found at www.awa.asn.au/State_of_the_ water_sector_report For more information please contact Amanda White, National Manager – Communications and Policy, at AWhite@awa.asn.au

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AWA News

AWA Submission to Environment and Communications Legislation Committee on National Water Commission (Abolition) Bill 2014 AWA does not support the abolition of the National Water Commission on the basis that it removes any national leadership of Australia’s most valuable economic and environmental resource. AWA has developed a submission to the Environment and Comminications Legislation Committee on National Water Commission (Abolition) Bill 2014. AWA is calling for: 1. Independent national thought leadership for the water sector; 2. Frank and fearless review and transparent reporting of national water management for multiple stakeholders; 3. Re-invigoration of the National Water Initiative (NWI).

• Poor governance arrangements; for example, some governments have not moved towards upper-bound pricing for utilities, which is a clause stipulated in NWI. Abolishing the National Water Commission, a body providing fearless advice to both Federal and State governments, will allow conditions for this backsliding to continue. AWA recommends that: 1. A revised National Water Initiative be developed for urban water to meet the challenges of a) C  limate variability, urban growth and the liveability of our cities and towns; b) P  roviding the financial sustainability necessary for utilities to deliver the services that customers need and are willing to pay for; and c) E  nabling greater private participation in the industry to drive innovation. 2. The National Water Initiative should bind State Governments to implement a regulatory framework that at least meets the following criteria: a) H  as clear objectives – protecting the long-term interests of consumers;

The water sector is critical to Australia’s economy, society and environment. It provides healthy, safe and reliable water and wastewater services that support Australia’s high standards of living and underpin its economic success. The sector delivers a range of social and environmental outcomes through its protection of public health, contribution to amenity and recreation and facilitation of development. It also ensures environmental health and biodiversity outcomes in catchments and water systems, including estuaries, coasts and bays.

b) Is customer‐centric – the regulator avoids getting unnecessarily between the utility and its customers;

The National Water Initiative includes commitments to provide water for the environment, address over-allocation of rural supplies, register water rights, develop standards for water accounting, expand water trading, improve water supply pricing and manage urban water demands. In doing so the NWI has highlighted the value of water as contributing to economic prosperity in Australia. Key industries, and emerging industries, including food and beverage industry, agribusiness, power and energy, mining, and tourism and leisure all depend on water and effective management to succeed.

e) H  as strong incentives for efficiency and innovation, including rewards as well as sanctions; and

According to a recent report by the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training (NCGRT), Economic Value of Groundwater in Australia, the economic contribution of groundwater alone to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is between $3.0 and $11.1 billion, with a midpoint of $6.8 billion per annum. Further, they go on to state the ‘value of production supported’ figures are a lot higher – $33.8 billion. Further reform of water pricing, trading and infrastructure is needed to promote strong economic growth, sustain population growth and prevent irreparable environmental damage. Longterm sustainability in urban and rural water use will require a new, ambitious reform agenda with states and industry. Unfortunately we are already seeing backsliding from states in relation to implementing the National Water Initiative: • Increasing politicised pricing determinations with rates of return that will not encourage private sector investment; • In many growing regional centres the transition to upper-bound pricing is slow to non-existent;

c) E  stablishes a framework where broader costs and benefits can be incorporated into investment decisions for the full range of services it provides across the water cycle; d) H  as appropriate risk sharing mechanisms — for example, revenue caps, and pass through mechanisms;

f) C  ontains an appeal mechanism. 3. The National Water Initiative, now and once revised, requires an independent custodian – the role that has been performed by the National Water Commission – who will collaborate and maintain a constant vigilance and leadership role. A full version of the submission is available on the AWA website.

Australian Water Delegation at the World Water Congress in Lisbon The 2014 IWA World Water Congress was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21–26 September 2014. With an overarching theme of finding solutions for a more secure water future, the event offered a timely platform to showcase Australia’s expertise in water reform, technological innovation and R&D. Bringing together over 5,000 of the world’s leading water professionals, the AWA/WaterAUSTRALIA delegation was well versed to support the Congress theme of finding solutions to assure the future. “There is little doubt that the world is feeling the impact of a shifting climate and Australia’s 20 years of water reform experience in navigating through new extremes was of great interest to our international counterparts in Lisbon,” said AWA CEO Jonathan McKeown.

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AWA News The Australian delegation were active participants in workshops, panel sessions, specialist groups, and in showcasing the latest in innovative technologies and approaches. Delegates included AWA, Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, International Water Centre, Institute for Sustainable Futures, the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities, Rock Solid, Invisible Structures, NICTA, Leightons and Phoslock.  AWA congratulates ex-CEO Tom Mollenkopf for his succession to Vice President of IWA. With his longstanding understanding of the Australian water sector we are extremely fortunate to have Tom in this role. AWA is proud to be partnering with IWA to deliver the 2016 World Water Congress in Brisbane.

AWA and the Federation of Thailand Industries AWA and the Thailand Federation of Industries (FTI), with support from Austrade, have established a working alliance that will bring closer collaboration in education and training, trade and business matching, policy and regulation and capacity building. Under an MoU to be established with the FTI, AWA will coordinate both inbound and outbound business delegations in the coming months. The Bangkok Municipality Authority and various Thai water businesses are planning tours of Australia’s iconic water management sites, while outbound Australian delegations will be provided with tailored business matching opportunities with Thailand¹s water and industrial sector. In addition, AWA and the FTI are planning two-way exchanges of professionals between Thailand and Australia¹s government, industry and R&D sectors. If you would like to showcase your innovative demonstration sites and technologies to inbound or outbound delegations, or if you are interested in a professional exchange program with Thailand’s government, industry or R&D sector, please contact Paul Smith, Manager Industry Export and Market Access at psmith@awa.asn.au

BRANCH NEWS NEW SOUTH WALES

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY ACT Branch Lunch Session: Maximising Environmental and Social Outcomes in the Murray-Darling Basin Registrations are open for a luncheon with senior staff from the Commonwealth Department of Environment to discuss maximising environmental and social outcomes in the Murray-Darling Basin on Thursday 13 November at GHD Premises Canberra. Tim Fisher and John Robertson will present and lead an interactive discussion on Commonwealth initiatives to establish a Sustainable Diversion Limit (SDL) Adjustment Mechanism for surface water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin. This presentation will provide participants with an overview of the policy environment framing the SDL adjustment mechanism policy, and provide background on the proposed program of projects needed to effect a SDL adjustment between 2015 and 2024.

QUEENSLAND North Queensland Regional Conference The NQ Regional Conference was held on 30–31 July 2014 in Mackay and attracted a record 125 delegates. This year’s theme was ‘What Lies Ahead? The Future of Water and Wastewater Service Delivery in North Queensland’. The two keynote speeches reflected this theme. Dave Cameron of qldwater spoke on ‘WaterQ in ROQ’, which discussed the gaps and challenges for urban water, while Brad Cowan of AQUA Projects spoke on ‘How are Australian Government Owned Water Businesses Responding to their Environments? Are They Building a Sustainable Business?’. The best paper went to David Brooker of Mackay Regional Council, who spoke on the topic ‘AMI: It’s not about meters or technology’. As part of his prize, Dave will present his paper at QWater’14 on 7–8 November 2014 at the Marriott Surfers Paradise. This year AWA announced a scholarship to enable a regional or rural delegate to attend the conference. The recipient was Dan Spooner, Manager Engineering Services – Water & Wastewater, Carpentaria Shire Council. We thank our host sponsor, Mackay Regional Council, our Best Paper sponsor, TRILITY, our Meet the Trades Drinks sponsor, KSB, our lunch sponsor, Zinfra, and our Scholarship sponsor, AECOM.

NSW Legends of Water

YWP Mentoring Program Mid-year Event Recap

Spots are filling fast for this year’s NSW Legends of Water on Thursday 28 November. Meet some of the ‘Legends’ of our industry and network with your fellow water industry professionals in a relaxed environment. Be entertained by the stories and experiences of this year’s three legends, as they are interviewed “Parky” style by Will Strachan. We are delighted to announce that the 2014 Legends of Water are Cheryl Marvell – Sydney Water; Daniella McKenzie – NSW Public Works; and Annalisa Contos, Atom Consulting.

On Thursday 25 September the Queensland YWPs hosted a catch-up event for participants involved in this year’s mentoring program. The event provided an opportunity for everyone to come together for the first time since the program’s launch and share their progress.

NSW Heads of Water Awards Gala Dinner

The night, hosted at KBR’s Southbank office, featured a presentation on effective communication by James Alderton. James facilitated discussion throughout the presentation, recognising that all individuals have different emotional intelligences and that different communication strategies would be required for different situations.

In 2015 we are combining the NSW Heads of Water Gala Dinner & the NSW Branch Awards Night to bring together industry leaders for an evening of networking and to celebrate the achievements of peers and colleagues. The event is scheduled to take place in Sydney on Friday 20 March. Visit the AWA website for details or email NSW Branch Manager, Peta Owsnett, powsnett@awa.asn.au

For each mentoring relationship, effective communication becomes a critical process between the mentor and mentee as they are able to break down barriers and build trust. The night finished with a speed networking session facilitated by Dr Brian McIntosh from IWC. We thank sponsors IWC, CH2M HILL and KBR for their continuing support in the program.

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AWA News

New Members AWA welcomes the following new members since the most recent issue of Water Journal

NEW CORPORATE MEMBERS

NEW INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS

D Lansdown, K Patel, A Garfield, T Donlon, J Gandy, C Rodriguez, A Bezzina, V Pettigrove, H Kukde, L Lopez, Y Orakzai

New South Wales

Australian Capital Territory L Mansfield,

Western Australia R Walton, A Flynn, M

S Perry, B Thiyagalingham, T Crockford, A Thakare, N Vu, P Prentice New South Wales R Anderson, M Demos, S Ghobad, A Heidrich, R Krishna, J Coles, M Juddoo, H Chapman, S Zander, K Mobberley, L Roberts, C Cunningham, G Wade, K Shaw, K Love, D Collins, S Khan, T Fujioka, G Hamlin, D Howley, R Melville, S Loder, G McGill, G Rhodes, D Sligar Northern Territory M Hodson Queensland M Arthur, G Bladon, M Zeilinga, D Maloney, C Kelly, D Maguire, S Kress, L Hopsick, S Blackburn, M Kelly, A McGregor, A Brown, EM Likosova, R Paviour, J Black, T Bevan, B Stewart, S Johnston, A Crombie, M Lawrence, M Swisanti, J Phillips, R Rashid, J Carroll, L Opray, K Teweldemedhin, S Laing, J Keller, B Allegria, S Farrelly South Australia S Hatcher, A Parkinson, M Campbell, D Pileggi, D Baldwin, J Dreyfus, B Moore, Tasmania J Bush Victoria T Vesey, S Pearce, L Wilson,

Corporate Gold

Netzsch Australia Pty Ltd Thales Australia

Corporate Silver

Pure Technologies

Corporate Bronze

Aerofloat (Australia) Pty Ltd Ozwater Tech

Queensland Corporate Gold

CNC Project Management Pty Ltd

Corporate Bronze

Automation IT SCIACCAS Lawyers Corporate & Commercial Pty Ltd

South Australia Corporate Silver

GJ Dix & Sons Pty Ltd

Western Australia Corporate Bronze

Carnegie Wave Energy

Scholtemeyer, R Slater, H Brookes, A Kaye, D Slack, JO Mingo, G Claydon

NEW OVERSEAS MEMBERS Z Zhou, Shanghai, China

NEW STUDENT MEMBERS Queensland Z Wu, X Liu, LN Marin, W Oakes, C West

Victoria C O’Reilly

AMENDMENT In the September 2014 edition of New Members we spelt one new member’s name incorrectly. The correct spelling is M Halliwell, not M Haliwell as published. Our apologies for any inconvenience caused.

AWA EVENTS CALENDAR This list is correct at the time of printing. For up-to-date listings and booking information please check the AWA online events calendar at: www.awa.asn.au/events

November Thu, 06 Nov 2014

VIC Walking Tour of City Reclamation Plants, MCG and Olympic Park, VIC

Fri, 07 Nov 2014 – Sat, 08 Nov 2014

QWater’14 Conference, Surfers Paradise, QLD

Wed, 12 Nov 2014

VIC YWP Seminar – Intelligent Water Businesses, Melbourne, VIC

Thu, 13 Nov 2014

AWA ACT Branch Lunch Session – Maximising Environmental and Social Outcomes in the Murray-Darling Basin, Canberra, ACT

Fri, 14 Nov 2014

SA Branch Annual Awards Gala Dinner, Adelaide, SA

Tue, 25 Nov 2014 – Thu, 27 Nov 2014 Water-Energy-Food Nexus Forum, Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney Thu, 27 Nov 2014 

NSW Legends of Water 2014, Sydney, NSW

Thu, 27 Nov 2014

The Galah Dinner & Debate, Sandy Bay, TAS

Fri, 28 Nov 2014

WA Water Awards Gala Dinner, Perth, WA

December Wed, 10 Dec 2014

ACT Awards Night & Debate on the Lake, Canberra, ACT

Thu, 11 Dec 2014

SA Young Water Professionals – End of Year Seminar & Christmas Networking, Adelaide, SA

February Wed, 11 Feb 2015

QLD – Seqwater Going Forward – Monthly Technical Meeting, Brisbane, QLD

Wed, 18 – Thu, 19 February 2015

Innovation Forum 2015, Sydney, NSW

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Feature Article

THE STORY OF Perth’S Water Resilience Turnaround There’s no doubt that desalination has been the saving grace for Perth’s water supplies, and the city is now also beginning to recycle sewage into groundwater recharge. Peter Newman reflects on Perth’s journey to get to its present state of a secure water future.

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esilience in water supplies has been an objective of all settlements for millennia. The collapse of cities has frequently been caused by their inability to adapt to climate change, with the subsequent collapse of their water supply having been documented by authors such as Jarrad Diamond in his book Collapse. More recently, Tim Flannery suggested that metropolitan Perth would be abandoned due to the collapse of its water supply as climate change continued to dry up our water sources. Fortunately, we can now tell the story of how this was averted using wind-powered desalination and reveal that Perth now derives more than 50 per cent of its water supply from the Indian Ocean. Perth is also beginning to recycle its sewage back into groundwater recharge, thus completing a rather remarkable turnaround in its water future.

How did this happen? What are some of the lessons for any city facing such a challenge? The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its WGIII Report in 2014 on Adaptation has assessed the challenge of climate change to freshwater supplies. The report warns that there are many areas where freshwater is threatened across the planet due to the rapidly increasing global heat load shifting patterns of rainfall. The IPCC Report has very few success stories of cities that have adapted to climate change-related water systems. They could have looked at the threat to Perth when its freshwater supply options were threatened by climate change and how it adapted to this threat.

Perth and Climate Change Figure 1 shows the changing rainfall patterns in Western Australia. This reduction was predicted by a number of global climate models used by the IPCC, due to the extra heat load from the tropics pushing the rain-giving winter lows further south. The scientific assessments indicate an increase in tropical storms coming further south and further inland, especially in the north of WA. At the same time there is a reduction in the rainfall in the south due to the westerly frontal winter systems moving further south. These changes in rainfall have consistently been interpreted to us in WA by the State Government, the CSIRO and the Indian Ocean Climate Initiative in terms of increased heat load in the planetary system and, hence, they have predicted reduced rainfall for the Perth region for many decades. Actual rainfall patterns have clearly declined over the past 40 years. Figure 2 shows annual streamflows into Perth dams. The sudden drops in rainfall coincide with what Flannery calls ‘magic gates’, i.e. where a major shift in the climate system

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Figure 1. Trend in annual total rainfall over Western Australia 1970–2013 (©Commonwealth of Australia 2014, Australian Bureau of Meteorology). happens. In 1976 the first ‘magic gate’ meant that instead of 340 gigalitres of rainfall runoff in its catchments, Perth averaged only 150 gigalitres. Then again in 1998 another ‘magic gate’ reduced the rainfall-runoff to 110 gigalitres, a drop of one-third from what it had been receiving. Climate change sceptics sound a little hollow in the Perth region. Don McFarlane of the CSIRO says: “Climatologists tell us that it is the most profoundly affected city in the world. People have accepted that it is climate change. In other parts of the world people are thinking it’s something that’s going to happen to them in the next 10 or 30 years and that they’ve got time to adjust. We’ve found we’ve been living with it for 30 years now and we’re having to adjust very quickly.” (Quoted on a BBC news item 3 May, 2007). The 40 per cent decline in rainfall runoff over this period appears to be continuing, with some years such as 2010 close to zero. Australian rainfall fluctuations are legendary, but the data on the south-west of WA suggest a much deeper cause than drought. The fact that climate change modelling showed a clear vulnerability


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Feature Article

Figure 2. Annual streamflows into Perth dams – Historical 1912–2013, Gigalitres per year. to reduced rainfall runoff led to the Water Authority of WA (WAWA) recognising this reality as far back as the 1980s. The political process within the WA State Government and the extraordinary commitments by WAWA to find a solution will no doubt become as legendary as engineer CY O’Connor. I think it is important to see how public commitment to change had considerable civil society involvement as well as political leadership.

Civil Society’s Involvement I went in and out of Government acting as a seconded advisor in 1986, 1989 and from 2001 to 2003. In each of these periods I was able to see significant public and government angst about the seriousness of our water situation. In 1986 an important public event was held in the small town of Busselton to the south of Perth. The first evidence that the

ozone hole was opening over Antarctica had appeared and suggestions were made that it may move over southern landmasses like the south-west of Western Australia. At the same time, parents of children in the south-west had begun to notice that their children were getting sunburnt very quickly and the word quickly spread that this was a human-induced impact related to ozone-depleting chemicals. The public demanded better understanding of the science of atmospheric change and the CSIRO was asked to provide speakers for a workshop in Busselton in July 1986 run by the South West Development Authority. The science of atmospheric change has often confused the public in regards to issues to do with ozone depletion and climate change; consequently the request was made to have serious presentations on both of these issues. The workshop was planned around 50 participants – however, such was the local interest that over 500 people attended, including a substantial media contingent. The results of the workshop were published in the media and were strongly influential in subsequent decisions on water supply, as there was widespread agreement that not only were we beginning to bake our skins due to the ozone hole, but the science of climate change was predicting ongoing water issues in the south-west. The CSIRO representatives went to the UN Conference on Ozone Depleting Substances at Montreal after this event and were able to explain the substantial public interest in the issues of ozone depletion and climate change at a time when scientists were looking for global political support. The subsequent Montreal Protocol was adopted globally and began the phasing out of ozone depleting chemicals, thus establishing a global mechanism for the much bigger issue of climate change.

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Feature Article The ideas concerning climate change were deeply felt by the many attendees at the Busselton Forum, who subsequently began local action groups and lobbying to achieve mitigation and adaptation goals. The Minister for the South West at the time, Julian Grill, was impressed by the depth of scientific knowledge that was presented by the experts and also grasped that the water sources for Perth and the South West were likely to challenge our creative technical ability and also our political will. He took these views to Cabinet. The need for political support became obvious when the next major water resource was examined for Perth.

Perth’s Water Supply Options The history of Perth’s water supply has been told in a series of major plans developed over the years. The most dramatic part of this history was the building of the Mundaring Dam and a 900km pipeline that linked Perth to the Goldfields in the east in 1905. This pipeline was a major engineering achievement by CY O’Connor and it remains today linking not just Kalgoorlie, but a large part of the south-west agricultural area. Perth people have grown up on this history and thus have often contemplated the need for big thinking about water. In 1989, in my second time in State Government, we developed for Premier Peter Dowding a Sustainable Development Plan and a Greenhouse Strategy. Both referred to the need for adaptation to reductions in rainfall. The Water Corporation meanwhile was beginning to make plans to expand the water supply more rapidly than expected due to climate change. This led to a series of quick ‘low-hanging fruit’ options.

The State Government took several months to respond. By the time they got around to making the decision it had been a long, dry summer and a public campaign was able to convince the community that sustainable yields from groundwater may never be achieved again. Rainfall recharge may well continue to reduce. In a highly articulate campaign the South West and the city joined together to demand a better option such as wind-powered desalination that could see us through long-term climate-related reductions in rainfall.

A Government Decision is made With the Yarragadee off the table, there was little option left other than this new technology – desalination; the technical people in WAWA hurriedly informed us that ‘desal’ was actually becoming quite cheap due to new membrane technology. A quick decision was made to go with desalination as long as it was wind-powered, due to the sensitivity to climate change issues that had driven so much of the agenda. The response was immediate and positive; the Yarragadee had been saved and an option had been found. The process of planning, procurement and building a desal plant began and the project was completed in late 2006. Today we have not one, but two, desal plants that have been relatively painlessly built and operated and now produce around 50 per cent of Perth’s water supply. Unlike the eastern states’ desal plants the Perth story of desal has been hugely popular. Water prices have risen, although not by much, and WAWA managed an $800 million profit in the past year.

Conclusion

However, by 2001, when I was again working with the Premier, Dr Geoff Gallop, a major loss of rainfall occurred across the whole year. The Premier established a Water Review Taskforce that identified a number of short-term conservation options that were announced immediately, as well as developing a range of long-term options. The major conclusion of the next water supply option was to focus on a large aquifer to the south called the Yarragadee.

The climate is likely to continue to dry out in the south-west corner of Western Australia. Dams and groundwater are going to continue to be stressed if they alone are the water sources. Windpowered desalination has enabled Perth to adapt to this climate reality. Groundwater recharge of sewage is next. If it stops raining completely the city would still survive. It is a remarkable turnaround from the dire predictions of Tim Flannery.

Mining the Yarragadee

The insights of CSIRO scientists and others who confirmed the likelihood that reduced rainfall was likely to be a permanent reality was the start of this journey. The public in the whole of Perth and the south-west region were highly sensitive to the issue and pushed the politics of resilience planning to the limit by basically saying no to using the Yarragadee aquifer as the major next source. Desalination and recycling of sewage were, therefore, the only real options remaining and the politicians moved quickly to affirm desalination and get it into the water supply system. They have been proved right.

The South West Yarragadee is a substantial deep aquifer stretching over 500km in the south-west of WA. It contains over one million gigalitres of water. For comparison, the Gnangara Mound in the Perth region contains around 20,000GL and is a major source of water for Perth, especially during major drought times. The Yarragadee was thus seen as the next major resource for Perth, although it meant piping it up from the south-west. Substantial resources were put into a Sustainability Assessment that enabled not just the detailed hydrology to be determined and the environmental impacts estimated once extraction began, but also the economic and social impacts to be placed on the agenda. The south-west community was very unsure about this proposal. They were already using the resource for Bunbury and Busselton’s water supply, but the areas further south from where it would be pumped did not want to lose ‘their groundwater’ to Perth. A contrary argument was developed by WAWA that the pipes would be able to flow both ways and that in drought times Perth could well be supplying Margaret River. The Expert Panel’s report (which I was on) concluded in 2004 that the best option was to go ahead and extract a sustainable level of water from the South West Yarragadee. Other options would not be as cheap, and it was considered manageable to look after the aquifer.

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As the Pacific Ocean moves into another El Niño drought cycle for the eastern seaboard cities, there will no doubt be a move to use the ‘mothballed’ desal plants that were built just as it started raining again. Perhaps the far-sighted politicians and their technical advisors who thought it was a good idea to buy them will be finally recognised for their resilience planning, just as they are in Perth. WJ

The Author Peter Newman (email: p.newman@curtin. edu.au) is Professor of Sustainability, Curtin University Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Curtin University, Western Australia.


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Feature article

BUILDING CAPACITY AND RESILIENCE Water Research Australia recently celebrated its sixth anniversary. Angela Gackle and Carolyn Bellamy provide this overview of the organisation’s achievements to date and its aspirations for the future.

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t’s been a tough year for the Australian water industry. Heads have rolled, belts have been tightened, research funding is diminishing, and there has been much inward-looking speculation and examination of priorities. On balance, however, on a global scale, we are still very much the lucky country. WaterRA has just celebrated its sixth year (in a quiet, not-toomuch-fanfare way) since the company’s launch in August 2008. PostCRC WQT, with a modest income, we are mindful of the need to be accountable and demonstrate investor value. Feedback from our membership consistently tells us that, apart from research, what is most highly valued (and the reason the company was formed in the first place) is networking and relationships. This is significant because relationships, trust and experience are integral to the industry and its capacity to continue delivering safe drinking water, improving the way the industry is conducted and managing the increasingly demanding operating environment and customer expectations. The Australian academic and research sectors can boast many international authorities in fields such as membranes, cyanobacteria, disinfection by-products, modelling, climate change, microbiology and epidemiology. The water industry too has leaders in operations and strategy. WaterRA is privileged to work with outstanding teams drawn from research and industry across the country and beyond. WaterRA is also fortunate to have guidance from a skilled and engaged Board, Advisory Committees and wider membership, as well as many friends who are nonmembers.

how to build caPacity A CEO asks one of his employees: “What if I invest in you and you leave us?” – to which the employee responds: “What if you don’t and I stay?”. Capacity building for the water industry is one of WaterRA’s pillars, and an implicit element in a number of regular activities. Scientific and technological literacy develop when industry employees have the opportunity to be exposed to, involved in, or gain insights into, the research and development process. WaterRA provides a range of such opportunities to its members. Paul Atherton, Manager Project Delivery – Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water, and former Education Committee Member, says: “It’s fair to say that I wasn’t the greatest student when I completed my degree 20 years ago. In fact, I had no desire to return to formal study and certainly didn’t think I was capable of doing research. “My role at Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water (GWMWater), however, exposed me to research and I found an increasing interest in pursuing further study. I was able to persuade GWMWater to endorse a policy and provide time for staff to undertake study in an area of interest to the organisation while still working. Four GWMWater staff commenced postgraduate study in fields as diverse as the impact of fire on catchment hydrology, hydraulic modelling and groundwater characteristics. With the support of the University of Ballarat, I was able to return to study and successfully complete an Honours project. The results of my investigation have influenced the Corporation’s approach to addressing provision of drinking water in small towns.

All the places where the US CDC says you can’t drink the water (vox.com 2014).

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Feature Article Gaining a greater understanding of research methodology and approaches has also helped me in my day-to-day role, and it is with greater confidence that I can review and critique research proposals within the organisation.”

Scientific and technological literacy This year saw the first public WaterRA Research Symposium held over two days in Melbourne. Taking two days to hear about research is a big ask these days, so it was hugely pleasing to see more than 100 people turn up to hear about 20 of our current and recently completed projects. Presenters included seasoned industry professionals (including Professor Karl Linden from the US, who stepped in at the last minute as a keynote) and PhD students. One afternoon comprised a hypothetical, wherein an industry panel was guided through a bushfire scenario. The task was to explore how water managers would respond at each stage of the developing crisis. The hypothetical was associated with WaterRA Project 1063 – Identify and assess the water quality risks from extreme events. The insights from this and the first hypothetical, held in Brisbane in May, will contribute industry experience and practice to the project, which seeks to enhance the ability of Australian water utilities to manage the consequences of a range of extreme weather events. Everyone benefits from the discussions and brainstorming that occurs at such events.

Education WaterRA has continued a pivotal strategy from the CRC program, which was an industry-relevant Education Program. What WaterRA offers is extra support for high-calibre students who can see the possibilities of a career in the water industry. In the past few years this program has stepped up and developed some great initiatives, not only for students but also for member employees. The Education Program is now primarily externally funded, mostly by member organisations. Sponsorship comes from organisations with a research requirement – and a student project is one option to fill that gap. Benefits to participant sponsors are both practical and reputational. Student projects need to meet a few criteria. Ideally they will fit within the research priorities of an Australian university or research organisation together with an industry partner. The win for the industry partner is that student projects can conduct research at relatively low cost, and a need is met that an organisation may not have the resources and/or staff to undertake. A student project can be part of a larger project, by investigating a specific piece of the puzzle. Students gain life skills such as budgeting, time management, relationship management and meeting expected outcomes. The WaterRA experience provides students with choices for career progression. Each project will present its own hurdles and rewards, as cited by PhD student Kalinda Watson.

Health Stream is another significant commitment by WaterRA. For nearly 20 years this quarterly publication, produced by Martha Sinclair and Pam Hayes at Monash University, has summarised the ‘world of drinking water and public health’, giving subscribers from all sectors of the industry a professional and analytical overview of drinking water-related incidents and noteworthy research papers. We have Health Stream subscribers in many countries. This year WaterRA implemented an annual subscription for Health Stream for non-members. Andrew DeGraca was our first external Health Stream subscriber. He is the Water Quality Director for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The SFPUC is a municipal water, wastewater and power utility. We asked him to tell us about how he became aware of Health Stream, and received this reply. “The SFPUC provides services to 2.6 million people; 1/3 reside in San Francisco and 2/3 reside in a few dozen suburban communities. The wastewater enterprise, a combined sewer system, primarily provides service to San Francisco. “The SFPUC is very much concerned about protecting public health, especially by preventing waterborne illness. Our major source of supply, Hetch Hetchy in Yosemite National Park, is unfiltered and we have a relatively high immune-compromised population base. We also have emergencies like the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, where water system disruptions can cause quality problems requiring a Boil Water Order. In addition, we have a highly educated and engaged customer base that is concerned about drinking water quality/health issues. “I became aware of Health Stream after meeting Martha Sinclair in San Francisco (in the late 1990s). She was engaged with Melbourne, another large unfiltered system, and decided to meet with other unfiltered utilities while on a visit to the United States. After the visit, she added me to the mailing list. “Health Stream is a highly valuable and very unique publication. I am not aware of any other international publication that surveys water health research and distills it into easily digestible information. Such distillation is especially helpful for the typical utility water quality person who has an engineering/laboratory versus public health background.”

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Kalinda Watson with her modified RO system used for NOM isolation. “It has been a challenge – I’ve had to design and build the infrastructure to enable my testing, as my research area was still being established at the Smart Water Centre when I began. Now we have a team, and the scholarship has enabled me to tap into the expertise of international experts – which has confirmed my plan to continue my career with a focus on academic research.” WaterRA works together with industry and academia to bring a student project to fruition. Collaborative projects provide great learning opportunities. Jane-Louise Lampard, who has worked her way through the Education Program, first as a Summer Student, moving to Honours and now nearing completion of her PhD at Griffith University, said: “Regular dialogue with our industry partners ensures we develop an understanding of the key challenges they are facing and gives us the opportunity to explain to them the science behind our results and the challenges we face.” It may well be that Jane-Louise remains in the University system, but if so, she will have a strong orientation to industry.


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Feature Article During 13 years of the CRC WQT, 113 students completed their Masters and PhD. Of those, 93 commenced work in the water sector. The list of former CRC PhD students contains an impressive number of current shining stars of industry and academia. WaterRA is currently supporting 24 PhD students and 15 Honours students (with six PhD students recently completed). Of the six PhD students completed, three are working in the water sector, two are overseas and one is currently applying for positions in Australia. There is no doubt that the WaterRA Education Program can be a stepping-stone, if not a fast track, into industry. A number of honours students have been awarded graduate positions, which then flowed through to employment within an industry organisation. In another instance, a recent PhD student networked very well at Ozwater events and kept in touch with her contacts. On completion, our students give a final presentation of their research results to members. It was here that the student captured the attention of an industry member and struck up a conversation. The student was pro-active and set up coffee meetings and teleconferences for the interstate contacts. The industry member, remembering the student, immediately engaged to bring her interstate for an upcoming position. After negotiation, the student packed her bags and took up her dream job in the water sector.

Mentoring and other benefits WaterRA matches all Masters and PhD students with suitable mentors for the term of their candidature, determined by their research topic. Mentors are generally from a different state than the student and their role is to provide a different perspective, be a sounding board, bounce ideas off and encourage students to think outside the square for opportunities. Mentors and mentees communicate approximately every eight weeks and meet for one face-to-face meeting each year. These meetings are generally strategically managed for maximum benefit, by backing onto an event they would not otherwise have been able to attend, or participate in site tours or a teaching session where the mentee spends a day in another organisation’s labs or workspace to learn a new technique. PhD student Kalinda Watson says: “WaterRA’s scholarship in terms of the financial support has been brilliant, but what has really made the difference is having a mentor and a field of other people to support me.” One of the conditions of a WaterRA student package is membership of AWA. We see this as an invaluable network, and yet another community of expertise and support for students to tap into. In particular, students are strongly encouraged to be involved with the Young Water Professionals networks (YWP). Some students have gained experience and growth from becoming YWP committee members in their home state, where they learn skills such as coordinating, chairing and/or hosting events. WaterRA Honours and Masters students attend at least one Ozwater Conference, while the PhD students are required to present at an Ozwater Conference. WaterRA students are also encouraged to present their findings at national and international conferences, where there is an opportunity to network with leaders in their field of research and learn more about what is going on elsewhere. These connections will be an advantage as the student progresses into a water career. Current PhD student, Rachael Aganetti from Victoria University, is preparing to attend the 19th European Biosolids and Organic Resources Conference and Exhibition in the UK, where she has been accepted for a platform presentation. Rachael’s project is “Mechanisms of spontaneous combustion in biosolids stockpiles – risk reduction and process optimisation”. While in Europe she will spend some months working in the Départment de Mécanique,

Aix-Marseille Université in France, with Professor Dominique Morvan and his research team, drawing on their expert knowledge and experience of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) package ANSYS Fluent to assist in the ongoing refinement of the model being used in Rachael’s project. What a superb opportunity for Rachael, Victoria University, and all the collaborators.

Rachael Aganetti is modelling temperatures in biosolids stockpiles.

How can we do better? Australia’s Chief Scientist, Professor Ian Chubb, has been actively promoting the need for strategic investment in science for Australia’s future prosperity. He outlines four objectives, three of which are directly relevant to WaterRA: • Education and training: We prepare a skilled and dynamic science-qualified workforce, and lay the foundations for lifelong science literacy in the community. • Research: Australian science will contribute knowledge to a world that relies on a continuous flow of new ideas and their application. • International engagement: Australian science will position Australia as a respected, important and able partner in a changing world, for both domestic and global benefit. WaterRA has gone from a Commonwealth-funded program to a membership-funded model – in a climate where research is not, in our opinion, adequately funded or valued. This means thinking laterally and working smarter, including the implementation of smart research management systems. Like most water organisations we are trying to stretch each dollar further with less staff while covering an increasing workload. If we look at this through the glass half-full lens, an advantage has been the upskilling of staff as they have had to take on additional responsibility. This should result in furthering their professional development. We would like to do more – but need the wider industry to help us achieve it. WJ

The Authors Angela Gackle (email: Angela.Gackle@waterra. com.au) is WaterRA’s Manager – MarComms. Angela has been a Science Communicator in CSIRO, State and Local Government. Carolyn Bellamy (email: Carolyn.Bellamy@ waterra.com.au) is WaterRA’s Manager – Education Program. Carolyn previously co-ordinated the CRC WQT Education and Training Program.

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Feature Article

CAPACITY BUILDING IN THE PACIFIC The small island nations in the Pacific Islands face several challenges to provide modern utility services. Cameron Smith from Hunter Water Australia explains the role of capacity-building partnerships.

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brief visit to any of Australia’s regional neighbours in the Pacific Islands area will reveal small island nations that are rich in culture and spirituality, very welcoming of visitors – both tourists and business travellers alike – and in general offer a welcome relief from the high-stress environments that so many Australians have become accustomed to in their working lives. However, these nations face significant challenges in providing modern utility services to their growing major urban areas. Centralised water and wastewater systems built over the last few decades struggle to cope with the growing demands of rapidly expanding urban centres that often have limited urban planning. Informal settlements located within and surrounding major urban areas add to the challenges facing utility providers. Over the last few years, Hunter Water Australia has participated in several capacity building partnerships with water utilities in the Pacific Islands region. These partnerships commenced as twinning agreements with the financial support of the Asian Development Bank. While the majority of twinning activities have now been completed, Hunter Water Australia is continuing to work with these water utilities on a variety of planning, operations support and technical support projects. These ongoing partnerships have a strong capacity-building focus.

Water Authority of Fiji One such partner is the Water Authority of Fiji, a water utility that provides drinking water and wastewater services to nearly 700,000 people across Fiji. The authority is responsible for the operation of 43 water treatment plants and 11 wastewater treatment plants. Hunter Water Australia has been working with the local water authority to improve the delivery of water and wastewater services to their two largest systems – Nadi Lautoka and Suva Nausori. These systems service the three largest cities (and surrounding peri-urban areas) in Fiji and have historically been subject to frequent water rationing due to a combination of bulk supply and network capacity issues, and high non-revenue water levels (around 50 per cent). While 90 to 95 per cent of the population located within these two cities has access to reticulated water that generally meets World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines for drinking water, less than 50 per cent of the population has access to reticulated wastewater services and existing wastewater treatment plants are generally significantly overloaded. Relatively high levels of poverty (around 30 per cent) and very low water and wastewater bills make it almost impossible for WAF to target full cost recovery; consequently, water and wastewater operations are financially supported by the Fiji Government and development banks when it comes to major investments in infrastructure. Over the last couple of years, engineers and operators from Hunter Water Australia have visited Fiji for training-related activities as well as operations and technical support projects. Reciprocal

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Daniel Alexander from Hunter Water Australia leading a group training session in Suva. training visits have also occurred, with Water Authority of Fiji staff visiting Hunter Water Australia’s offices in Newcastle, NSW. These training visits have allowed Hunter Water Australia staff to work alongside Water Authority of Fiji staff and develop a better understanding of local water issues and their local context including cultural influences, regulatory regimes and environments. They have also highlighted the importance of empowering staff to be able to better manage their water business themselves, rather than just instructing them on how to do things better. Hunter Water Australia has been providing assistance across a number of key focus areas. One such area is master planning and modelling. Updated master plans for water and wastewater are currently being prepared by the water authority for both systems, with Hunter Water Australia offering training and support with both the development of water and wastewater system models and the preparation of long-term master plans. Looking beyond master planning, training activities have also covered capital works planning and delivery. Business case training has been undertaken with key managers and staff to reinforce the key principles of sound investment planning, and capital works planning and delivery procedures are being modernised to reflect this.

Making Progress With the development of an in-house modelling capability over the last 18 months, particularly in water network modelling, the Water Authority of Fiji has started to put the models to good use as an effective tool for identifying and resolving water system operations problems. Water network models were initially developed for the Nadi Lautoka water supply system and, more recently, for the Suva Nausori water supply system. The model development process highlighted a common predicament for Pacific Island water authorities: while in recent years geographical information systems (GIS) have become a common tool for recording asset data, the data quality is often poor and generally not verified in the field, and operational information such


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Feature Article

Staff from Water Authority of Fiji developing modelling capabilities in Newcastle.

Seru Soderberg, Sonam Lata and Miteshwar Chand examining model results.

as current valve status is generally not updated in the GIS. Reliable high-quality GIS data is critical to the development of water network models (and the operation and management of water supply systems); therefore, the model development process presented an opportunity to improve the quality of data stored in the GIS and, over time, start to include more accurate operational information.

• Improvements in the accuracy of GIS data and incorporation of up-to-date operational information;

The benefits associated with the water authority developing accurate water network models, while at the same time improving the quality of GIS data, are starting to be realised in the Nadi Lautoka water supply system. After developing a water network model for Nadi Lautoka and verifying the data through consultation with field staff and targeted network monitoring, the water authority has been successfully using the model as a key tool in investigating and resolving operational issues such as intermittent supply areas and the inability to fill and maintain levels in key reservoirs. Some water supply zones in Nadi Lautoka were only providing water at an acceptable pressure for eight hours per day (and in some cases no supply at all) due to various operational issues, including incorrect valve settings and/or placement, dependence on manual valve operation in response to customer complaints, valve failure, air locks and inadequate reservoir controls. The first step in resolving the operational issues was to use the network model to determine ideal operational controls that would optimise theoretical system performance, including establishing discrete supply zones and reservoir controls. This became a benchmark against which actual system performance was compared and operational improvements were progressively implemented. Operational improvements were implemented through changing valve settings (eliminating throttle valves and establishing permanent supply zones), repairing or replacing failed valves and eliminating pipe blockages due to air locks at high points and accumulated debris at low points. Key outcomes achieved to date by the Water Authority of Fiji in the Nadi Lautoka water supply system include: • A significant reduction in the number of intermittent supply areas across the system – the water authority is well on the way to achieving its target of a reliable, continuous supply to all customers by the end of 2014; • A significant reduction in the need for manual valve operation as an ad-hoc response to customer complaints; • Improvements in trunk main performance, which has assisted with the filling of key reservoirs and consequently improved water supply security;

• Greater understanding of the water supply system – the process has highlighted the importance of high-quality GIS data and water network models for the understanding and successful operation of complex water networks. Key staff from the Water Authority of Fiji and their trainer from Hunter Water Australia recently presented the results of the Nadi Lautoka operational modelling at the 7th Annual Pacific Water Conference and Expo hosted by the Pacific Water and Wastes Association (PWWA). It was a demonstration of how a water utility from one of Australia’s major neighbours in the Pacific could make major advances in a very short time and use advanced computer modelling to make rapid operational gains. It was also a demonstration of true capacity building.

Looking to the Future The Australian water industry is well placed to develop lasting partnerships with Pacific Island water utilities and support them with their goal of providing safe and reliable water and wastewater services. These partnerships need to focus on training and mentoring water professionals and operators, working with water utilities to educate government authorities and regional provinces on sustainable water management principles, and assisting with educating local communities on water problems and solutions. Hunter Water Australia is working alongside some of our Pacific Island neighbours, training and building the capabilities of managers, engineers and operators to better manage their utilities. Face-to-face time is critical in capacity building and is a key component in developing lasting relationships. While capacity building takes time, it is clear that this approach to capacity building is making significant gains towards Pacific Island water utilities becoming self-sufficient and capable of managing themselves in a sustainable way. WJ

The Author Cameron Smith (email: Cameron.Smith@ hwa.com.au) is a Principal Planning Engineer with Hunter Water Australia Pty Limited. He has 19 years’ experience in the water industry, predominantly in strategic planning, and has a strong focus on supporting regional water utilities in Australia and the Pacific.

November 2014 water


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Feature Article

THE FUTURE OF ASSET MANAGEMENT – HOW DO WE GET THERE? To get to where we want our asset management system to be in five years’ time, we have to learn to leverage technology, writes David Robinson from asset management solutions company, Assetic.

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ater agencies around the world aim to provide adequate and sustainable water services to their customers both now and into the future through the effective management of their assets. With the advent of the new ISO55X Asset Management System Standards we now have a standard language for asset management (building on PAS55 and the IIMM) and the industry is shifting from an asset view of the world to one of service.

-- Understanding Means different things to each department: assets to engineering, dollars to finance, administration to IT, products/services to operations.

As the industry progresses into this mode of operation we will need to focus and understand what impacts our services, how we fund these things, and how best to manage that.

-- Maintenance “That’s how it’s always been done, Bob knows why, just ask Bob. You know Bob, right?”.

In service-driven asset management the question isn’t so much “what will the asset cost me if I do X?” but more “what is the service impact if don’t do X?” This means taking a short-, medium- and longterm view of our services and decision-making to ensure we provide those services as effectively and sustainably as possible. To do this we need budgets linked to services and this is done via our assets. In a nutshell, we deliver services through our assets. Each asset behaves differently and we manage this based on the services it needs to provide. We thus define strategies and budgets for the future, to allow us to continue to provide these services sustainably, either with existing assets or new ones. To manage services in this manner we need to understand our levels of service, how they link to our assets, and what the impact will be if we change something at the asset level. In other words, we need Line of Sight in our asset management system – from our customers and services through to our assets and actions, finances and decision-making. This is a shift in how we run our businesses that will require time and resources to move into a more strategic and ‘linked up’ business model. And, while the industry is heading this way and it’s great in principle, what about all of the asset ‘stuff’ we don’t have enough time in the week to manage? How do we move beyond the current state into a more strategic approach? The answer to this question is vast and varied. We need to look at the impact of this shift and how we leverage our knowledge and capability as an industry to progress beyond the day-to-day and do more with less. If we take a look at a cross-section of the water industry now, and look at what the current scenario and future might look like, it’s something like this: What does the asset management system look like today? -- Management A buzzword at the board level but not a key driver; mid-level management focus mostly, depending on background. -- Approach Varies by organisation, depending on key people.

-- Information Silos of knowledge and data – everywhere. -- Technology Big, expensive IT systems running at 20 per cent capability, handling the day-to-day, and delivering the value we hung our $$ hat on – right? They make us smarter, don’t they?

-- Planning Our future projects are approved and in next year’s capital budget. -- Strategy We work under a company statement – finance has a strategy and we have some big capital projects underway. -- Service levels Yes, we know when we service our assets, thanks. -- Line of Sight What can I see? Get out of the way and I’ll tell you! What does the asset management system look like in five years’ time? -- Management Key input to decision-making based on regulations, budgeting and social expectations; they know what ISO55X is. -- Approach Standard core process across industry and a key skill for all asset management staff. Training is provided as part of on-boarding. -- Understanding There is a common understanding and language in asset management; we understand how what we do relates to others. -- Information The internet of asset management. Companies and practitioners connected, improving as an industry, using benchmarks and analytics to identify best practice. We grow together. -- Technology Connected, affordable, smart systems that leverage and accelerate capability across industry. Handling transactions is old news… This is the age of asset intelligence! -- Maintenance We use intelligent maintenance procedures that are benchmarked and we actively contribute to knowledge development across the industry with the internet of asset management. Maintenance is based on levels of service and risk; our maintenance managers are business-focused. -- Planning We base our planning on our future service strategy; we use tools and science to optimise our decision-making to make the best decisions for the long term. Our planning is based on the expectations and social responsibility of our customers. It’s a holistic approach across the organisation and we understand the impact of our decisions.

November 2014 water


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Feature Article -- Strategy This is what influences our decisions, drives our business and ensures we strive for our service goals for years to come. We are forward thinkers. We make smart decisions that allow us to deliver our goals and progress into the future both now and in the long-term. -- Service levels These are the core of our business and are constantly evolving. They determine what we provide and to what level we provide it; we focus on the outcomes and how best to deliver them. -- Line of Sight Yes! We know the impact to the customer if we change something in our services and service levels, and we take a ‘linked up’ approach to the asset management system and decision-making.

Driving the shift to service-focused business Two examples of why we will shift to this service-based approach, where service levels drive decision making, can be highlighted by key financial impacts in any asset intensive company – Capital Funding and Depreciation Expenses.

Asset Consumption Depreciation Expenses If we depreciate our assets in line with the asset service life cycle (which is measured by physical assessment and based on Australian Accounting Standards), as opposed to fixed straight-line depreciation, we can shift our average depreciation from 3.0 per cent to 2.5 per cent per annum across a $3B asset portfolio and save $1.5M pa in depreciation expenses. In Figure 1 we can see the difference in a single sewer main depreciation expense over a life cycle prior to a renewal point (before its end of life) using service potential-based depreciation and fixed straight-line depreciation.

Figure 2. Asset value based on service potential consumption.

Capital Funding If we optimise the way we plan renewals based on service level decision-making using analytics across the asset portfolio based on optimal intervention points from an NPV analysis, we can achieve a one per cent reduction in annual capital and still maintain services at the appropriate level, a saving of $1M pa based on a $100M capital budget. These two savings may seem high but the fact is they are realistic if we take a step back and look at how we consume and manage our assets based on the services they provide. These are measurable, repeatable, objective, tangible numbers that directly impact the bottom line.

The Internet of Asset Management To move into the world of smart decisions we need to move beyond the current day-to-day view that we have been working with for the past 10 years. If we look at how society has evolved over the past decade it’s all about information. Why can we connect with a group of people on the other side of the world to auction a website design in the time it takes to read this article, yet we still can’t connect with our peers in asset management across the world (Figure 3) to share and develop our proven science in asset management without attending a conference? This will change! Enter the Internet of Asset Management – a connected system based on standard data frameworks, search engines, benchmarks and analytics puts asset management information from other industries and companies at our fingertips at the click of a button.

Figure 1. Asset value based on a fixed rate of consumption. The rate at which the asset is consumed here is not based on the actual behaviour of the asset, or how it relates to service levels and intervention points. Infrastructure does not degrade significantly in the initial years of its life and we renew it before it’s totally consumed – so why do we depreciate it that way financially? And would we wait for asset failure to renew or reline earlier? The rate the asset is consumed in Figure 2 is based on the actual behaviour of the asset, the service levels and interventions points. In this instance we consume the asset based on our service expectations, and when we will intervene with a service improvement, which may be a partial renewal or reline, or new technology based on a gain and NPV decision.

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Figure 3. Unconnected asset management information in Australia.


CARRY MORE WATER METHODS WITH YOU WHEREVER YOU NEED THEM MOST. Figure 4. Future state: the Internet Of Asset Management. How many reliability engineers over the last five years have done the same RCM process on a piece of rotating machinery and then measured the improvements that resulted? How many maintenance planners over the last five years have developed maintenance programs with world-class procedures and measured the resulting efficiencies and safety improvements? How many asset planners have investigated alternative treatment options for infrastructure or equipment and identified huge savings in capital and outages? A great many! Now think about how powerful it would be if this information were available across industries, with benchmarked results, proven processes, practices and procedures available to every company with an internet connection. If we worked smarter (not harder) and leveraged off the best brains in the business to grow together in an accelerated fashion, imagine the results. At Assetic we believe the Internet of Asset Management is the future and we have started the journey to enable this future state, as depicted in Figure 4.

Food for thought In most other aspects of our lives we leverage off each other to improve the way we do things, and with the internet it’s now easier than ever. In the world of asset management we are about 10 years behind and still feel the need to sit face-to-face or listen to a speaker at a conference and then go back to our desks and try to replicate a similar process, from scratch, in our own environment. To move beyond the day–to-day grind we need to take a future view. The answer is at our fingertips. Leverage our peers and technology to grow exponentially! We can compare and choose health insurance based on future impacts to our family and save around $200 a year – yet we can’t compare our asset health and strategy with other organisations to possibly save millions and improve services. Time to catch up! WJ

The Author David Robinson (email: drobinson@assetic.com) is Water Business Manager at Assetic, an Australianbased asset management company specialising in future-focused asset management solutions and accelerated organisational development.

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Feature Article

WATERING THE OUTBACK A group of small and remote communities in Central West Queensland have joined together to supply essential water and sewerage services to the area. Desiré Gralton, from the Queensland Water Directorate, explains how the alliance came about. “If you do not seek out allies and helpers, then you will be isolated and weak.” Sun Tzu, “The Art of War”

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ut of sight and too often out of mind when policy and funding decisions are made, a group of small and remote communities in Central West Queensland have joined forces to supply essential water and sewerage services to a region that covers 21.1 per cent of the total area of the state, but houses less than one per cent of its population. At the heart of this outback collaboration sits the Central Western Queensland Remote Area Planning and Development Board (RAPAD), a unified local government organisation that has been successfully assisting and facilitating the growth and development of the outback region for almost two decades.

A NEED FOR CHANGE Regional collaboration was called into focus strongly in early 2011 with the release of three national reviews of the urban water industry calling on the Queensland and NSW State Governments to review institutional arrangements to seek greater economies of scale for water service providers. The Local Government Association Queensland (LGAQ) and Queensland Water Directorate (qldwater) already had in place programs encouraging regional collaboration and responded by developing an industry-led review of potential collaborative arrangements. With funding and support from the Queensland Government, the Queensland Water Regional Alliance Program (QWRAP) was set up to examine alternative models for management and governance of the urban water industry in regional Queensland. The RAPAD group of Councils was the first to sign up to the program, establishing the Outback Regional Water Group (ORWG) comprising the six local government areas of Barcaldine Regional Council, Longreach Regional Council, Barcoo Shire Council, Boulia Shire Council, Diamantina Shire Council and Winton Shire Council to take a leadership and coordination role in urban water. The region covers an area more than one-and-a-half times as large as the state of Victoria and includes 16 urban communities.

The administration and operations of the ORWA will be self-funded from its members with cost-sharing arrangements, as agreed in a Memorandum of Understanding. A Constitution

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In June 2014 the Minister for Energy and Water Supply, The Honourable Mark McArdle, selected the ORWA region to promote the release of Water Q at a showcase event in Longreach, reinforcing regional alliances as a key element of the state’s 30-year strategy. Figure 2 shows an overview of the region.

START-UP PROJECTS Joint Training Initiatives In 2013, the ORWA councils participated in a program convened by qldwater that provided an external review of water operations in several of their communities. The project was partially funded by the state and was aimed at identifying skills gaps and training needs across the region. The outputs from the independent operational investigation were reviewed by the Technical Advisory Group and found to be useful for identifying and addressing critical needs for systems in each community. This information added to and improved the operational plans for each scheme and assisted in meeting the regulatory requirement under the mandatory Drinking Water Quality Management Plans. Attracting qualified operators and tradesmen is an ongoing challenge in remote locations, and retaining and developing staff with appropriate qualifications can be difficult. The diversity of services across the region also requires a range of specialist expertise. To overcome these issues, the councils in the region have developed strong partnerships and processes for sharing Constitution

Memorandum of Understanding

Individual RAPAD Member Councils

FORMALISING THE ARRANGEMENT Following a detailed review of risks, gaps and strengths, governance arrangements and alternative business models, it was clear that a Regional Alliance was the optimal collaborative model for the Region. All Councils in the ORWG, apart from Winton Shire Council, agreed in June 2014 to proceed to trial the Outback Regional Water Alliance (ORWA).

has been developed to guide the governance of the Alliance and its Technical Advisory Group, and an annual project plan provides details of the specific projects being undertaken each year. A part-time coordinator will be appointed to oversee the activities of the Alliance.

• • • • •

Barcaldine Regional Council Barcoo Shire Council Boulia Shire Council Diamantina Shire Council Longreach Regional Council

Outback Regional Water Alliance CEO and elected delegate from each Council meet quarterly, tasked with: • Strategic planning; • Regional advocacy and inter-government relations • Sharing technical knowledge; • Developing skills; • Establishing joint procurement initiatives; • Provide strategic direction and recommend priorities to ORWTG.

Outback Regional Water Technical Group Senior Water Manager from each Council responsible for: • D  evelopment and implementation of operations and projects plan; • Reporting on benefits of the operations of the Alliance; • Making recommendations; • Providing technical advice to the ORWA. A Regional Coordinator will be appointed to extend the strategic and technical skills of the ORWTG.

Figure 1. Structure and governance of the Outback Regional Water Alliance.


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Feature article

boulia Shire Council

Area: 61,092km2 Population: 342 Water Source: Great Artesian Basin Communities: Boulia and Urandangie Connections: 137 Length of Mains: 19km Bores: 6

Connections: 109 Length of Mains: 7km Pump Stations: 2

barcaldine Regional Council

Area: 53,677km2 Population: 3,411 Water Source: Great Artesian Basin Communities: Alpha, Aramac, Barcaldine, Jericho and Muttaburra Connections: 1,630 Connections: 930 Length of Mains: 89km Length of Mains: 33km Bores: 6 GAB, 6 sub GAB Pump Stations: 13

barcoo Shire Council Area: 61,974km2 Population: 360 Water Source: Thomson River, Cooper Creek and sub-artesian Great Artesian Basin Communities: Jundah, Stonehenge, Windorah Connections: 182 Connections: 0 Length of Mains: 40km Length of Mains: 0km Pump Stations: 4 (river intake) Pump Stations: 0

Diamantina Shire Council

Area: 94,832 km2 Population: 327 Water Source: Great Artesian Basin Communities: Bedourie and Birdsville Connections: 210 Length of Mains: 21km Bores: 2

Management Planning that is fit-forpurpose for each participating council. This approach takes advantage of the regime of asset management required under Local Government legislation and the evolving Queensland water and sewerage KPI-reporting framework that has replaced the raft of statutory plans previously required by the state. This new framework was developed with strong industry input to reflect the reporting that is undertaken internally by Queensland utilities and mirrors the NPR framework for large businesses. The formation of the ORWA prior to formal commencement of this new regulatory framework provided an opportunity to develop (and negotiate) a streamlined approach across the entire region through the new SWIMLocal KPI reporting system. A group rate was negotiated, timelines aligned, and centralised coordination planned for future reporting. DRINKING WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLANS (DWQMPS)

Connections: 140 Length of Mains: 11km Pump Stations: 5

Introduced in 2009, DWQMPs have become the primary regulatory tool for the State Water Regulator and require significant expenditure on Longreach Regional Council monitoring, reporting and potentially 2 Area: 40,638 km future infrastructure upgrades. Each Population: 4,263 Water Water Source: Thomson River and GAB of the participating Councils have infrastructure Communities: Ilfracombe, Isisford, Longreach and Yaraka developed a DWQMP and are now Connections: 2,063 Connections: 1,831 Length of Mains: 99km Length of Mains: 57km in the position of assessing joint Pump Stations: 12 Pump Stations: 7 Sewerage programs for ongoing monitoring infrastructure and reporting, improving facilities and meeting regulator requirements Figure 2. An overview of the region. such as regular audits. Cost savings knowledge across the region, including joint training programs are projected from these joint activities coordinated through the Alliance to build skills of staff in each and the safety and reliability of water supplies across the region of the communities represented. has been reinforced for all communities. Apart from training, Councils also need to look at succession and contingency plans for key roles, mentoring of less experienced staff and peer support networks. This process is being developed across the region, ensuring that staff can link with other highly skilled operators when needed. The collaborative approach has also attracted state funding to support skills development. PLANNING AND REPORTING Recent state red-tape reduction initiatives have resulted in removal of several Asset Management Planning requirements under water legislation that were once required to obtain subsidies. The rationale for this change is that council utilities are now capable of managing and planning for water and sewerage assets, but the rapid removal of legislative requirements can actually leave a vacuum of information and advice for such planning in small communities. An opportunity therefore existed to combine existing expertise and plans that have been developed for schemes across the RAPAD region and create a coordinated approach to future Asset

PRICE BENCHMARKING While the provision of water services in Western Queensland has numerous hidden costs, it also has some poorly communicated savings (for example, the use of artesian water under pressure). The ORWA is conducting a price benchmarking exercise to review different approaches to pricing within each community, comparing pricing with others in the region, state and nationally. Where possible, differences in levels of service and other relevant parameters such as operating footprint will be identified. The aim is to increase transparency about cost recovery pricing.

THE FUTURE IS WHAT WE MAKE IT Where larger utilities can rely on economies of scale, greater income and growing population, many small providers – including those in the outback region – must provide safe and reliable services with fewer revenue sources and the added costs of remoteness. The QWRAP investigation showed that in this region, some of these costs can be mitigated through joint activities, bringing together the strengths of the diverse RAPAD councils.

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Feature Article The strong history of public-private partnerships in the RAPAD region must also be acknowledged as a key driver of innovation and regional collaboration. Councils too small for full-time engineering staff have developed long-term relationships with consulting engineering companies who sometimes provide semi-permanent staff sited within a council’s offices. Much of the development and innovation in water and sewerage operations in the region has been driven by this model in the past. As can be expected from an area so vast and with so many differing sources and treatment processes, there is no ‘one-size-fitsall’ strategy for safe, secure and sustainable urban water services in the region. But through innovative processes and the will to make things work for their communities, the councils now working jointly through the Outback Regional Water Alliance are proving that great things do happen – even in small and remote places. WJ Infrastructure planning is a long-term commitment, and the new water treatment plant at Longreach will serve the community for years to come. The collaboration demonstrates that, even when economies are not possible through increasing density or networking distant communities, regional models can provide some benefits of scale and improvements for customers. This has been a common finding of QWRAP across all four study regions. Although the regions vary markedly in population size and density, and have widely separated communities, collaboration has yielded benefits in each. The ORWA is the first region to complete their QWRAP investigation and others will complete their reviews early in 2015.

The Author Desiré Gralton (email: dgralton@qldwater. com.au) is Communications Manager at qldwater in Brisbane. Desiré recently coauthored Water Connections: Celebrating the Queensland Water Directorate’s First Decade, a commemorative publication that provides an overview of the events that have shaped the Queensland urban water industry over the past 10 years.

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Feature Article

Planning for Water and Land: Sustainability of Expanding Cities The recent International Conference on Peri-Urban Landscapes produced plenty of food for thought regarding the challenges faced in sustainable planning. Basant Maheshwari and Bruce Simmons from the School of Science & Health at University of Western Sydney continue the discussion.

P

eri-urban areas are zones of transition from rural to urban land uses located between the outer limits of urban and regional centres and the rural environment. The boundaries of peri-urban areas are porous and transitory as urban development extends into rural and industrial land. Irrespective of how the boundaries move, however, there will always be peri-urban zones. There are growing concerns about water and food security to meet increases in population in urban areas. For cities to be liveable and sustainable into the future there is a need to maintain the natural resource base, food production and the ecosystem services in the peri-urban areas surrounding cities. Development of peri-urban areas involves the conversion of rural lands to residential use, closer subdivision, fragmentation and a changing mix of urban and rural activities and functions. Changes within these areas can have significant impacts upon ecohydrological functions, environmental amenity and natural habitat, supply and quality of water, and water and energy consumption. These changes affect peri-urban water and land management, as well as food production.

Urbanisation is inevitable Urban expansion is accelerating with projections that cities will accommodate more than 70 per cent of the global population by 2050 (United Nations, 2011). The growth of urban areas will be dominated by vertical expansion of mega cities and horizontal expansion in surrounding areas into peri-urban zones. It is not fully appreciated that what occurs in peri-urban areas affects both the urban area and surrounding rural communities. The urbanisation process presents unprecedented complex environmental, social, economic and political challenges. Although there are diverse local conditions and scales, the problems of expanding cities have similarities worldwide. In the period up to year 2050, the growth of urban population will occur primarily in the developing countries of Asia and Africa (McGee, 2009). This region could contribute up to some 60 per cent of urban increase in this period. The growth of urban places will be dominated by two spatial processes: firstly, the growth of central cities in mega-urban regions; and secondly an ongoing process of horizontal urban expansion into surrounding hinterlands creating peri-urban regions that will contain up to 70 per cent of megaurban regions population by 2050. This latter process presents many environmental, economic, political and social challenges if the goals of achieving sustainable, liveable and productive urban regions are to be achieved.

Peri-Urban 14 International Conference The International Conference on Peri-Urban Landscapes: Water, Food and Environmental Security (www.periurban14.org) was held in Sydney from July 8–10, 2014. Various issues and challenges, including governance, were addressed at the Conference, which was attended by over 150 policy makers, researchers, planners, government officials, NGOs, private sector specialists and community groups from 16 countries. The conference concluded that peri-urban development as a consequence of urbanisation is unstoppable, and that it requires special and urgent policy and governance attention to meet the challenges of water, energy, food, environment and liveability of cities we face both now and into the future. The conference identified a number of key challenges and actions for policy and planning future urban areas. Key challenges of sustaining future urban areas • The rate and complexity of urban expansion often results in ad-hoc and fragmented policy and planning with inequitable investment across the affected landscapes and unsustainable development. • Vertical expansion of housing cannot alone meet the demand for urban expansion, and so there will be continued pressure on nonurbanised lands. • Given their transitional status and rapidity of change, peri-urban areas face unique challenges. In particular, there is a need to address multi-dimensions of poverty in emergent urban societies. • Unless governments take immediate actions to address the resulting challenges, current and future generations will suffer massive escalating economic costs, ecological degradation, political disruption and cultural dislocation.

The poster area and exhibition. Professor Ramesh Purohit from India looking at an exhibition related to KISSS irrigation system.

November 2014 water


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Feature Article

Attendees at the Opening Ceremony. Key policy and planning actions needed • Governments must address the complex challenges posed by expanding cities as an essential element of UN post-2015 sustainable development and poverty alleviation goals. We welcome the recent inclusion of a specifically urban goal in the draft list and urge further work to ensure it has practicable and appropriate content. • All levels of government need to work with the private sector and communities to develop integrated strategies and plans, based on local engagement and transparent decision-making. • Global and local investments in built and ecological infrastructure and services should be directed to ensure equity between people occupying urban and peri-urban landscapes. • Regional planning strategies and processes should be based on trans-disciplinary research and integrate perspectives from natural and social sciences, economics, government, industry and community. • National and international indices of “liveability” and “sustainability” should be developed to guide future urban planning strategies and measure effectiveness of urban development. Knowledge and capacity building actions for future cities • Governments and knowledge providers must come together to generate, maintain and enhance knowledge bases on ecological, socio-economic, political and cultural dimensions to build baseline conditions and test future development scenarios. • The education and planning sectors must address the shortcomings of existing planning processes and management

Delegates from Nigeria, Uganda, India and Sri Lanka networking. by developing innovative curricula and delivery mechanisms for professional and community actors. • Governments, R&D bodies, NGOs and donors are urged to make significant investments in research and development to support and integrate hard evidence into sound decision-making. • Emerging tools and techniques need to be customised and implemented to tackle these challenges. There should be an integrated approach, for example, the ‘Circles of Sustainability’ method used by the United Nations Global Compact Cities Programme, Metropolis and other organisations. In conclusion, at present there is insufficient policy focus on the challenges of the peri-urban areas of these growing mega-urban regions, because they are not recognised as an integral part of the functional activities that drive the growth of these urban areas. Policies tend to focus on making the central city more globally connected and internationally competitive, often absorbing a large proportion of national budgets for urban development. There is a need to create more balanced budgetary allocation so that challenges of peri-urban regions can be met. Further, there is a need for more innovative research that can be fed into the formulation of peri-urban policies that will make cities liveable and sustainable while they are secured in terms of water, food and energy. Thus, policies for peri-urban regions have to be given priority at both national and global level if “globally just urban places” are to emerge.

References McGee T (2009): The Spatiality of Urbanization: The Policy Challenges of MegaUrban and Desakota Regions of Southeast Asia. UNU-IAS Working Paper No. 161, www.as.unu.edu/resource_centre/161%20Terry%20McGee.pdf United Nations (2011): Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development: An International Perspective. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, Publication no. ESA/P/WP/223, 363 pp.

The Authors

The Hon Kevin Rozzoli, Chair of the Conference Organising Committee, at the registration desk.

water November 2014

Basant Maheshwari (email: b.maheshwari@uws.edu.au) and Bruce Simmons are Professor and Adjunct Associate Professor respectively at the School of Science & Health, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney.


technical papers

Small Water & Wastewater Systems Small Water Treatment System Upgrade For Improved Water Quality In Flood-Prone Areas

L Gao et al.

42

R Fernando et al.

47

R Wale et al.

54

S Gould et al.

63

C Moore et al.

70

M Serrano-López et al.

75

Report on the upgrade of the Gunbower WTP in northern Victoria

Decentralised Sewerage Servicing: Evaluation Of A Yellow Water, Greywater And Blackwater Trial

Review of the Kingsland West Sewerage Project by Yarra Valley Water

Decentralised Wastewater Reclamation Facilities And Network For National Trust Listed Village

The Kangaroo Valley Sewerage Scheme and advanced water reclamation facility project

Asset Management Estimation Of Remaining Physical And Economic Lifetimes For Sewer Rising Mains

Application of a risk management software tool to a large-diameter asbestos cement rising main

Using System Integrated Planning To Optimise Critical Water Main Renewal Outcomes Review of Sydney Water’s improved planning approach to ensure optimisation of its water system assets

Pipeline Maintenance Design Of Earthquake-Resistant Wastewater Pipelines In New Zealand

This icon means the paper has been refereed

Response to the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake

Disclaimer: The papers in this section have been peer reviewed for relevance, clarity and contributing constructively to the sharing of knowledge about water. It is not intended that any conclusions drawn by authors may be used as validation of the performance of a process or product; AWA expressly refutes any suggestion that publication herein implies endorsement. Although reviewers consider the credibility of data presented, it is not possible for them to vouch for the accuracy of such data.

54

Dual MBR biological process train infrastructure.

NEXT ISSUE

DECEMBER 2014 • FRESHWATER GOVERNANCE, ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS & RIVER HEALTH • OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE • WATER PRICE REGULATION • DEMAND MANAGEMENT • ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF PROJECTS • DISINFECTION


SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

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Technical Papers

SMALL WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM UPGRADE FOR IMPROVED WATER QUALITY IN FLOOD-PRONE AREAS A report on the upgrade of the Gunbower WTP in northern Victoria L Gao, K Nagalingam, D Dharmabalan, B Murray

ABSTRACT Many small water treatment systems throughout Australia using microfiltration (MF) followed by chlorine disinfection for raw water treatment experience elevated disinfection by-product levels in treated water. In some cases, this is the result of using MF systems without pre-treatment processes and the inability of MF membranes to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to required levels. If raw water DOC levels are high, subsequent chlorination can form total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAA5). Even in cases where DOC levels are relatively low, the presence and subsequent chlorination of low molecular weight DOC can result in elevated disinfection by-products. Long distribution systems with extended residence times can further exacerbate disinfection by-product formation. An additional water treatment challenge facing many small water treatment system operators is the variability of raw water quality from source waters – in particular, river systems that draw raw water from exposed flood-prone areas. The Gunbower Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is located in the north of Victoria. The raw water source (Taylor’s Creek) used for the Gunbower WTP was significantly affected by the floods in the summer of 2010/2011. Since the floods the characteristics of the raw water have changed, with high DOC, UV254 and colour levels, making water treatment difficult and compliance with existing drinking water guidelines a challenge.

INTRODUCTION The Gunbower WTP services the small town of Gunbower in northern Victoria. The town is located in the Shire of Campaspe, 272 kilometres north of Melbourne on the banks of Gunbower Creek, and has a population

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

Figure 1. Aerial view of the 2011 floods over Charlton, Victoria. of approximately 270 people. The customers in the area are residential, light industrial and semi-rural. The WTP utilises the Taylor’s Creek raw water source and has a maximum capacity of approximately 0.65 ML/d. The plant typically operates for seven days per a week, with typical daily operation of eight hours in summer and four hours in winter.

FLOODS Major regional flooding occurs somewhere in Victoria every 10–20 years. Riverine flooding has generally occurred in widespread areas of central Victoria, north-eastern Victoria and Gippsland, and there is a history of flooding along the Murray River and its tributaries. The climate change impacts of long, dry spells and flash flooding will pose a new challenge to maintain safe drinking water to small communities throughout Australia. From September 2010 to February 2011, Victoria experienced some of the worst floods in the state’s history. This was on the back of a 14-year drought. Between September 2010 and February 2011, many Victorian towns and communities were affected by floods

that caused widespread damage and loss. During that time, the Bureau of Meteorology issued more than 1,500 flood watches and warnings. Several communities experienced flooding two and three times in less than four months. The area surrounding Gunbower is prone to flood events due to the topography of the land, which is very flat, resulting in floodplains during extreme weather events. The cumulative effects of unprecedented multi-day rainfall totals quickly caused the Avoca, Campaspe, Loddon and Wimmera river systems to swell. Despite clearing conditions, flooding continued to spread during January and into February 2011, as it developed into what was described by the media as an ‘inland sea’ across agricultural north-west Victoria. Figure 1 is an example of the widespread flooding experienced by the local area surrounding the township of Charlton, Victoria. Figure 2 indicates the extent of the flooding experienced throughout the state of Victoria during January 2011.


SOUTH AWASH

3.

Enable Coliban Water customers being served by Gunbower WTP to come off water restrictions;

4.

Incorporate industry-leading technology that will deliver excellent water quality;

5.

Represent value for money to Coliban Water’s stakeholders; and

6.

Monitor the water and energy efficiency of each system.

Worst-affected towns

NSW Avoca River

On emergency alert

Swan Hill

Culgoa

Kerang

Quambatook Wimmera River

Echuca

Boort Serpentine

Charlton Donald

Bridgewater Horsham

Rochester

VIC

Bendigo

Carisbrook

Campaspe River Melbourne Flooding along bike paths and walking trails on Maribyrnong River, houses in Maribyrnong affected

Skipton Loddon River 100km Figure 2. Extent of flooding across regional Victoria.

IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY The flooding events had a negative impact on the raw water quality experienced by water treatment plants during this time. This extreme rainfall resulted in extreme raw water turbidity and “blackwater” events, which made it very difficult for conventional treatment plants to continue operation at all, let alone produce high-quality drinking water. Figure 3 charts the impact of the floods on raw water sourced from Taylor’s Creek. During the flood event, the raw water quality changed dramatically and resulted in significant increases in colour (i.e. consistently >50 Pt-Co units and up to 300 Pt-Co units). This was due to the increase in organics in the raw water as a result of the extreme rainfall, with increased river flows after a 14-year drought.

UPGRADE PROJECT Prior to the flood events, it was determined that the Gunbower WTP had been underperforming for the following reasons: 1.

Microfiltration fouling due to organics and silica, resulting in accelerated degradation of the membranes;

2.

Sub-standard disinfection system;

3.

The inability to manage periodic outbreaks of blue-green algae in Taylor’s Creek.

In early 2011, Coliban Water decided to carry out a number of upgrades and improvements to the existing treatment process. Laurie Curran Water Pty Ltd was contracted to design and construct the upgrading. Coliban Water specified a very clear outcome-based contract for the upgrade. The key objectives for the upgraded Gunbower WTP included the following: 1.

2.

Figure 3. Impact on raw water quality at Gunbower during a “blackwater” event.

Overcome the existing WTP underperformance; Ensure the ability to be operated in automatic mode for both normal treatment and frequent cleaning cycles;

WATER TREATMENT PROCESS The original treatment process at the Gunbower WTP comprised the following processes: • Raw water intake • Microfiltration (MF) membrane filtration • Chlorine gas disinfection. HISTORICAL WATER QUALITY

A review of historic treated water quality produced from the Gunbower WTP (i.e. from 2004/05 to 2010/11) indicated that the treated water had consistent relatively high levels of THMs during the year, and in some cases did not achieve 100% compliance with the drinking water quality standards. The bar chart in Figure 4 illustrates the THM levels. UPGRADED TREATMENT PROCESS

The upgrade project resulted in the addition of the following processes designed to improve the treatment process operation and treated water quality: • Provision of inline self-backwashing 200μm strainer; • Provision of an ion exchange unit (MIEX®) for reduction in raw water dissolved organics; • Installation of coagulation and clarification for removal of suspended solids; • Replacement of existing MF membrane plant with new UF membrane plant; • Provision of granular activated carbon (GAC) filter; • Replacement of the chlorine disinfection system; • Inclusion of pre-and post-pH control using caustic soda; • Minimise disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential.

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Figure 4. Historical treated water THMs levels (maximum) drinking water quality reporting. As part of the evaluation and upgrade, Coliban Water selected MIEX® technology for superior DOC removal and its ability to operate efficiently despite wide-ranging raw water quality. Figures 5 and 6 show the upgraded Gunbower WTP and the MIEX® plant. In bench testing, MIEX® Technology showed excellent DOC removal potential and was chosen for implementation as the preferred pre-treatment step to further plant upgrades, including coagulation and GAC treatment. The full treatment process is shown in Figure 7.

OUTCOMES The Gunbower WTP upgrade project was completed in April 2012. Due to a number of factors the proof-of-performance test was not finalised until late October and into early November 2012.

Figure 5. Gunbower WTP, post-upgrade.

• True colour from 180 to 5 Pt-Co units (97%).

in treated water quality due to the treatment plant upgrade.

The final drinking water was characterised by:

The treated water quality improved significantly following commissioning of the upgraded treatment plant. Figures 11 to 15 show the following:

• DOC of 3 mg/L; • UV254 of 0.037 cm-1;

• Colour reduced from 0-15 Pt-Co to less than or equal to 1 Pt-Co unit;

• True colour <2 PCU; • THM levels of 71 ug/L. TREATED WATER QUALITY – BEFORE & AFTER UPGRADE

Figures 11 to 15 show the treated water quality as sampled from the Gunbower treated water distribution network from 2009 to 2013. These charts demonstrate the overall improvement

• Turbidity reduced 40% from an average of 0.45 NTU to an average of 0.27 NTU; • Free and total chlorine residuals reduced significantly from a range of 0–3.5mg/L to a more consistent 0.5–1.5 mg/L; • Impact of the WTP upgrade on coliforms was negligible.

After full-scale start-up (in April 2012), the upgraded Gunbower WTP was able to achieve significantly improved treated water quality, despite significant deterioration in the raw water quality due to the floods (i.e. increased colour and DOC due to increased organics in the raw water supply). TREATMENT PLANT UPGRADE – PROCESS BENEFIT

Table 1 and Figures 9 and 10 demonstrate the improvement in water treatment for the individual processes of the upgraded Gunbower WTP. For management of THMs, the introduction of the MIEX® technology as a pre-treatment step improved the raw water levels as follows: • DOC from 22 to 11 mg/L (50% reduction); • UV254 from 0.772 to 0.100 cm-1 (87%);

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

Figure 6. MIEX® plant located at Gunbower WTP. Alum & NaOH

Raw Water

Backwash Return

MIEX® PreTreatment

Coagulation & Clarifier

UF Membrane

Waste Brine

Sludge

Backwash & CIP Waste

GAC Filter

UV Ozone Disinfection

Figure 7. Upgraded Gunbower WTP plant process flowsheet.

Chlorination

Clear Water Storage


Figure 8: Treated water quality – Gunbower WTP – true colour Figure 9. Treated water quality – Gunbower WTP – DOC (April 2012). (April 2012).

Figure 10. Treated Water Quality – Gunbower WTP – UV absorbance (254nm, cm) (April 2012).

Figure 11. Gunbower WTP – before and after upgrade – colour (Pt-Co).

Figure 12. Gunbower WTP – before and after upgrade – turbidity (NTU).

Figure 13. Gunbower WTP – before and after upgrade – free chlorine residual (mg/L).

Table 1. Treated Water Quality – Gunbower WTP – April 2012. Parameter

True Colour (Pt-Co)

Turbidity (NTU)

pH

TDS (mg/L)

Hardness (mg/L)

DOC (mg/L)

UV (254nm,cm)

Raw Water

180

40

6.8

170

22

22

0.772

Post MIEX

5

11

0.100

Post Clarifier

3.9

Post UF Mem Post GAC

0.073

0.1 2

0.2

THM (ug/L)

7.6

130

25

3

0.037

3

0.037

0.071

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SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

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Technical Papers

Figure 14. Gunbower WTP – before and after upgrade – total chlorine residual (mg/L).

Figure 15. Gunbower WTP – before and after upgrade – total chlorine residual (mg/L). February 2014), which was after the MIEX® Plant was shut down to reduce ongoing operational costs.

SUMMARY These results indicate that the upgraded Gunbower WTP is able to produce treated water that will consistently Figure 16. Gunbower WTP – before and after upgrade – meet the current customer complaints. Australian Drinking The data shows that coliforms Water Guidelines weren’t an issue in the distribution (ADWG) and Victoria’s Safe Drinking Water system prior to the upgrade. This is Regulation 2005 (i.e. THMs < 250ug/L). most likely due to the relatively higher These results can be achieved consistently, chlorine doses used before the plant even during worst-case raw water quality upgrade, which prevented any coliform conditions, which can be experienced due formation. It is clear from the free and to periodic flooding events. total chlorine residuals that the plant upgrade has provided better control In addition, the upgraded Gunbower of the disinfection process, resulting in WTP should also meet any potential consistently lower free chlorine residuals, future revisions to the standards as without any risks of increased coliforms the treated water produced meets the in the product water. current USEPA DBP limits (i.e. 80 ug/L). A comparision of customer complaints before and after the WTP upgrade was conducted, and results were calculated for the 12-month periods before and after the upgraded WTP was commissioned (e.g. from 1/4/2012 to 30/3/2013). Comparison of historical customer complaints shows (Figure 16) that there has been a slight reduction in customer complaints of the treated water quality after the WTP upgrade. It is important to note: a customer complaint was received during the 2013/14 period (i.e.

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

CONCLUSION The final treated water after installation of the MIEX® Technology, together with posttreatment processes, now easily complies with existing drinking water regulations and the upgraded treatment plant will ensure compliance in years to come. It is expected that the improved drinking water quality will result in increased use of water for drinking in the Gunbower township, as the water quality will be suitable for more domestic applications. Many surrounding

customers without piped water supply are reliant on unsafe rainwater tanks for drinking water; and they are now travelling to Gunbower to collect their drinking water. This paper was first presented at Ozwater’14 in Brisbane in May 2014.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of both Orica Watercare and Laurie Curran Water Pty Ltd with this project.

THE AUTHORS Li Gao (email: ligao@ coliban.com.au) is a process engineer at Coliban Water with a particular interest in water treatment process and water quality. Dr Kumaran Nagalingam has 15 years of experience in the water industry, most specifically in water network modelling, planning, process engineering and research and investigation. He currently works in Coliban Water as a Reclaimed Water Process Engineer. Dr Dharma Dharmabalan worked in the water industry in Victoria for 25 years. He is currently General Manager Works Delivery with TasWater in Tasmania. Brendan Murray is a Chemical Engineer with over 12 years experience in the water sector, and with the MIEX(R) Technology. He is currently a Business Manager for Orica Watercare.


47

Technical Papers

Review of the Kinglake West Sewerage Project by Yarra Valley Water in Victoria R Fernando, S Cook, R Narangala, F Pamminger, A Gellie, A Sharma, R Wrigley

ABSTRACT The Kinglake West Sewerage Project was undertaken by Yarra Valley Water (YVW) to determine whether it was possible to deliver a more sustainable sewerage solution in a developed, unsewered ‘backlog’ area, as identified in theoretical studies. Many innovative concepts and products were tested as part of the project including urine-diverting toilets, yellow water harvesting, greywater systems and STEP tanks. The post-implementation review found that, although environmental improvements were delivered, they were not as high as predicted and the application of new concepts came at a higher cost.

alternative solutions could offer the following benefits when compared to a conventional gravity servicing approach: • Economic savings of up to 20%; • Increased reliability in water supply from 90% to 100%; • Reduced wastewater discharges by up to 50%; • Reduced nitrogen loads to the STP by up to 80%; • Reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 30%. The aim of the Kinglake West project was to put this theory into practice in a trial. The need for the project

was also driven by the fact that it might be more economical to service small communities with decentralised approaches and also by the potential value in recovering the nutrients in wastewater for food production.

KINGLAKE WEST CASE STUDY Kinglake West is located on Melbourne’s urban fringe, approximately 45km northeast of the CBD (Figure 1). An area of 74 residences was selected for the study. These properties did not have reticulated water or sewerage and were scheduled for servicing in the future as part of the YVW Sewerage Backlog Program.

INTRODUCTION YVW serves over 1.7 million people through a water supply network of 9,500km and a sewer network of over 9,000km, with associated pumping, storage and treatment works. In addition to providing services to new developments, YVW has a significant Sewerage Backlog Program with more than 17,000 homes in suburban and peri-urban fringes that are currently serviced by septic systems. In many cases these septic systems are failing, posing an environmental and public health risk. In 2005, CSIRO and RMIT were commissioned by YVW to undertake research into more sustainable approaches for servicing these areas rather than conventional reticulated sewerage systems. The research proved that it was theoretically possible to deliver more sustainable alternate solutions (Sharma et al., 2006, Sharma et al., 2010). The results showed that

Figure 1. Kinglake West case study location.

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DECENTRALISED SEWERAGE SERVICING – EVALUATION OF A YELLOW WATER, GREYWATER AND BLACKWATER TRIAL


48

Technical Papers YELLOW WATER AND AGRONOMIC TRIAL

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

The case for recovering nutrients from urine is based on the premise that urine only constitutes 1% of domestic wastewater flow, but constitutes around 80% of the nitrogen and 45% of the phosphorus. Recovering the urine offers the following benefits (Fewless et al., 2011): • Reduced environmental contamination from nutrients; • Energy savings at the STP; • More efficient anaerobic digestion of blackwater; • Water conservation; • Reduced demand for phosphate rock fertiliser, which is a depleted and non-renewable resource (Cordell et al., 2009).

Figure 2. Kinglake West household servicing configuration. Aside from the need for better sewage management, the study area was selected because it is remote from existing infrastructure and is difficult to service conventionally. The area is adjacent to an environmentally sensitive national park that will benefit from better sewage management, and is close to agricultural areas that are potential end users for recycled water and other products. YVW sought to achieve three main objectives at Kinglake West: • Enhance the environmental, public and waterway health through innovative wastewater management; • Identify a solution with lower community cost; • Demonstrate the benefits of a sustainable alternative wastewater servicing approach for a smaller community to the wider water industry. After careful assessment of a range of options against the project objectives and a multi-criteria assessment considering economic, environmental and social impacts, the preferred servicing solution comprised the following (see Figure 2): • Greywater treatment systems on each property producing recycled water for toilet flushing, clothes washing and garden irrigation; • Urine-diverting toilets with yellow water being collected and reused for agricultural purposes; • On-site septic tanks with blackwater being transferred via a pressure sewer system utilising septic tank effluent pumps (STEP);

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

• Low energy/complexity sewage treatment plant (STP) to treat the effluent further before irrigating surrounding land.

URINE-DIVERTING TOILETS Urine-diverting toilets (UDTs) are still relatively new to Australia, having been installed at only a handful of pilot sites. Kinglake West is the first existing community to have UDTs installed. A total of 30 UDTs were installed at the 23 households that elected to participate in the trial. UDTs are designed to collect faecal matter at the back of the toilet bowl, while urine is diverted to the front. The faecal matter is either flushed to the sewer or is stored and composted. A number of UDT models were assessed during the selection process, including the Wostman Ecoflush, Dubbletten, Sealskin and Gustavsberg. The Wostman Ecoflush was selected on the basis of its similarity to existing Australian toilets, user-friendliness, ease of maintenance, appearance, flush volume and cost. However, testing against Australian standard AS 1172.1 – 2005 Water Closets later showed that the Wostman UDTs used significantly greater volumes for flushing than indicated by the manufacturer (Table 1).

At Kinglake West, yellow water was collected in a 1,100L polyethylene tank on each property, which was designed to provide about 60 days’ storage for a household of four people. In practice, the tanks were emptied at shorter intervals to guard against the potential of an overflow. Yellow water was pumped from each property into portable 1,000L plastic ‘cubes’, since these were easily transportable and could be ‘batched’ for storage. A nearby turf farm in Kinglake West agreed to trial the application of yellow water as a fertiliser substitute. Turf production is a good candidate for yellow water application since it requires high and regular rates of fertiliser application and is not a food crop, hence minimising the risks to human health. Moreover, turf grass is a resilient crop that can tolerate the higher salinity levels found in yellow water. YVW engaged agronomic scientist Roger Wrigley, of the University of Melbourne, to design and supervise the agronomic trial. In order to determine the application rate, yellow water from 40 storage cubes was sampled and analysed. This revealed low nutrient concentrations compared to expected values from a literature review (Table 2). This was largely due to the high flush volumes.

Table 1. UDT performance against specs. Performance Criteria

Manufacturer’s Specification

Actual Performance

‘Urine flush’ volume

0.2 litres

1.3 litres

Full flush volume

2.5 litres

5.1 litres


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Technical Papers

Table 2. Yellow water average nutrient concentrations versus expected concentrations. Typical Urine Values in Literature (Wrigley, 2010)

1,581

4,000–8,000

Total Phosphorus (mg/L)

102

200–500

Potassium (mg/L)

290

1,000–3,000

10,685

27,000

Total Nitrogen (mg/L)

Conductivity (uS/cm)

* Average of samples from 40 cubes, ranging in age from 4 days to >12 months

Figure 3. Configuration of yellow water turf strips. Table 3. Comparison of yellow water N:P:K with commercially available fertilisers. Liquid Fertiliser

Conductivity* (uS/cm)

N:P:K ratio (% w/v)

Blood and Bone

1,234

5.0: 0.9: 1.1

Seaweed and Fish Puree Complex

687

3.5: 0.6: 0.7

Seaweed Extract (SEASOL)

341

4.6: 1.2: 3.1

10,685

0.15: 0.01: 0.02

Kinglake Yellow Water *When diluted for application

Figure 4. Harvested turf strips (left), and test strip and irrigation system.

The agronomic trial took place over five turf strips of 8m x 315m (0.25 ha each). Yellow water was applied at two different loadings, as shown in Figure 3. The turf farm uses Seasol as a growth promotant in addition to fertilisers, and this practice was continued during the trial. Yellow water was applied using the same method as Seasol application. For the ‘low loading’ test strip, 2,500L of yellow water was applied over two months (five applications). For the ‘high loading’ strip, 5,000L was applied in total. Because of the relatively low nutrient content in the yellow water, high application rates were needed. Since the spray nozzles could only irrigate at a certain rate, the tractor had to travel at a very slow pace, and multiple passes were required. The power take-off driven spray equipment available at the turf farm had a relatively low application rate (15–20 litres per minute) and thus required a lot of operator time. It was estimated that to apply the recommended 4,000 litres of yellow water to the 0.5 ha trial plot required two hours of operator time per fortnight. This slow application rate caused concerns for the operator due to the labour required – 4,000 litres of yellow water was required to be applied per hectare each fortnight compared to five litres of Seasol. During application, a strong, unpleasant odour was reported by turf farm staff. Fortunately, the odour dissipated quickly and was not registered beyond the property boundary. Soil sampling indicated that the application of yellow water did not have a significant impact on soil chemistry. There were no visible detrimental impacts on plant health and, based on visual inspection, the yellow water was perceived to yield a grass with better visual quality (i.e. greener). However, further replicated trials at different application rates would be

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

Average Values in Kinglake Yellow Water*

Parameter

Yellow water was also compared with commercially available fertilisers in terms of nutrient content. The N:P:K ratio (nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium) is commonly used to represent the available nutrients in fertiliser by weight. It can be seen that, when compared to other fertilisers and growth promotants, the yellow water is lower in nutrients and much higher in salinity (Table 3). This highlights that the yellow water from Kinglake West could not be used to entirely replace other fertilisers without salinity being an issue.


50

Technical Papers

Table 4. Cost of yellow water and Seasol. Item

Yellow Water

Seasol

$3.8/L

Purchase price

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

Average collection costs

$650 / kL

-

$15 – 35 / kL

-

Included

$0.2/L

Not included

Not included

$0.66 / L

$4/L

Volume required per Ha

775 L*

Cost per Ha per application

$510

Transport costs Dilution and pumping costs Application (labour /equipment) Unit cost

Table 5. Recycled water production from monitored greywater system. Function of Greywater System Results

Days

Supply >80% of demand

3

Supply 50–80% of demand

4

Supply 1–50% of demand

14

5L

Supply 0% of demand

9

$20

Total days monitored

30

Times system failed (number)

2

relatively cold climate of Kinglake, affecting the biological process. The optimum operating temperature for the bio-filtration process is 18°C or greater, and efficiency is impacted at colder temperatures, particularly for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Kinglake West is located at an elevation of more than 500 metres and, during winter, regularly experiences overnight minimum temperatures below 2°C (with overnight temperatures in summer usually not exceeding 12°C). The colder climate meant that the processer speed had to be manually adjusted, reducing the daily production of greywater by around 50%. Figure 5. System configuration at house lot. needed to confirm this. Applying the yellow water as a substitute to growth promotants such as Seasol is currently not cost-effective, as illustrated in Table 4. In addition, salinity impacts would prevent the yellow water from being applied at even higher rates as a fertiliser substitute.

GREYWATER TRIAL AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Greywater is collected from bathrooms and washing machine wastewater and is transferred to a sump well. It is then pumped into the treatment system where it is pre-screened to remove lint, then undergoes bio-filtration and, ultimately, UV disinfection. The recycled water is stored in a 300L storage and pumped on demand for garden irrigation, toilet flushing and cold water laundry supply. Excess greywater and backwash water from the filter media is fed by gravity to the septic tank. The configuration of the greywater system at the household scale is shown in Figure 5.

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

A total of 20 greywater treatment units were installed at properties in Kinglake West. The systems have not performed as expected, with the two main issues being poor reliability and power consumption. There were also complaints from some householders concerning the quality of the treated greywater effluent and several odour problems. Most of the systems experienced frequent failures during and soon after commissioning. Many of the failures were caused by a poorly designed sump pump that accompanied the system. This had to be replaced with a different product. Problems were also experienced with the recycled water pump. Even after the sump and recycled water pump issues were resolved, the greywater systems continued to perform poorly. Monitoring of one system detected two failures over a 30-day period, and lower-thanexpected recycled water production most of the time (see Table 5). The low rate of recycled water production can be attributed to the

YVW commissioned an independent company to monitor the energy consumption of the water and sewerage system components, including associated pumps. This was carried out at a household occupied by two adults and a child, and reported in Water and Energy Savers (2012). The house was one year old and had WELS 4-star-rated fittings and 3-star appliances. Energy and water flows were monitored over a 30-day period at 15-minute intervals, from November to December 2011. While the monitoring period and sample size are limited, the results are indicative of the performance of the greywater systems overall, and consistent with anecdotal reports and observations. When compared to the manufacturers’ specifications, the energy consumption was over twice that stated in the EPA Victoria Certificate of Approval for the system. The high energy consumption led to some households switching off their greywater systems, further compounding reliability and performance issues (the biological process requires recommissioning after each period of non-operation).


51

Technical Papers STEP TANKS AND BLACKWATER TRIAL

The alternatives to a STEP system were gravity sewers leading to a sewage pumping station, or a pressure sewer system with on-property grinder pumps. STEP offered a number of benefits compared to these alternatives. These included: • Capital and operating cost savings; • An interim sewerage solution for households (the STEP tanks could function as septic tanks with effluent being dispersed onsite until a sewerage connection was available); • Low odour risk (most of the anaerobic breakdown occurs in the septic tank); • Smaller STP (the STP influent would be lower in BOD and nutrients. This meant that the STP could be designed with lower organic and hydraulic capacity). The use of household septic tanks effluent pump (STEP) systems was found to have a number of benefits. In particular, it allowed a staged approach to providing wastewater services. This can assist in transitioning from household

Table 6 compares the blackwater from Kinglake West with the characteristics of typical domestic wastewater from Metcalf & Eddy (2003). It shows the impact that urine diversion (in combination with greywater reuse and primary treatment in the septic tank) has on the wastewater composition.

EVALUATION AGAINST PREDICTED BENEFITS Economic savings of up to 20% The project cost was found to be in the order of 60% more expensive than a conventional approach to providing sewerage services in backlog areas. This is in contrast to the original estimate (based on a desktop analysis) that it would be 20% cheaper. The main reason for the difference was the higher capital

costs above what was forecast, as shown in Table 7. Increased reliability in water supply from 90% to 100% The Kinglake West area does not have reticulated mains water supply, so houses rely on rainwater tanks and groundwater. It was found that previous to this project during low rainfall periods many houses had to have water trucked in to ensure supply. Therefore, a major objective for the project was to implement measures that would improve water efficiency (such as low-flush toilets) and also augment the primary supply from rainwater tanks (greywater recycling). The CSIRO study by Sharma et al. (2006) found that the preferred option should increase residents’ volumetric reliability of water supply to 100%, compared to 90% for options without onsite initiatives. Although there have been no reports of residents having to truck water in, meeting this objective was heavily influenced by the postbushfire rebuilding, where much larger rainwater tanks were installed. The assumed tank volume for estimating reliability was 25kL, while a survey of rebuilt houses found an average of 45kL, with many having much larger rainwater storages. Around 10kL of the storage is quarantined for fire-fighting. Reduce wastewater discharges by up to 50% The use of greywater systems, UDTs, and low-flush toilets was estimated

Table 6. Comparison of untreated wastewater composition. Kinglake West Blackwater

Typical Domestic Wastewater (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)*

Total nitrogen

57

70

Phosphorus

8.3

14

BOD 5-day

150

350

Parameter (mg/L)

* Typical ‘high strength’ domestic wastewater based on 240L/capita-day (the most similar to Kinglake West flow rates). Table 7. Comparison between estimated and realised costs. Capital cost ($) UDTs

Actual Cost (Feb 2012)

Difference

182,850

322,858

77%

414,000

666,942

61%

STP

1,482,458

2,924,575

97%

STEP and pressure sewer system

1,169,064

1,947,067

67%

Community engagement

760,000

306,530

-60%

Design

290,837

880,899

203%

$4.3 million

$7 million

64%

Greywater systems

Figure 6. Installation of a STEP tank.

Original Estimate (Sept 2009)

Total

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

Each property at Kinglake West has a septic tank that collects blackwater from toilets as well as excess greywater. The blackwater undergoes primary treatment, before being pumped via a pressurised sewer to the STP site. This type of system is also known as a common effluent sewer, or septic tank effluent pumped/ gravity (STEP/STEG – although in this case all connections are pumped).

scale septics, which can then be connected to sewerage at a later date. Also, the effluent from a septic tank is of consistent strength and the biosolids are substantially reduced through anaerobic treatment. STEPs offer a number of advantages for decentralised wastewater systems relative to other configurations. They reduce the land footprint required relative to septic tanks that use dispersal fields, while reducing public health and environmental risks. Also, when compared to conveying all wastewater directly to a STP, the use of STEPs can provide direct benefits in reduced capital and operating costs for the sewer collection and STP (Saunders et al., 2010).


52

Technical Papers

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

to reduce the volume of wastewater generated at Kinglake West. The capacity of the greywater systems to deliver the benefits intended was impeded by the performance and reliability of these systems in the Kinglake West setting. Wastewater volumes generated at Kinglake West were around 11.4kL a day for the 32 households connected. This equates to around 130kL of wastewater for each household per year. This is a 28% reduction on the YVW average sewage collected per property of 18 kL/year (2009/10 value). Reduce nitrogen loads to the STP by up to 80% The analysis of blackwater demonstrated that the source separation of wastewater using urine separating toilets at the household level reduced the nitrogen loads delivered to the STP. It was found that the blackwater concentration and load of nitrogen and phosphorus in Kinglake West influent was substantially less than typical composition of blackwater, based on values in Metcalf and Eddy (2003). The reduction in total nitrogen loads was estimated at 56%, compared to a base case, which meant the original target was not achieved. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% The target for greenhouse gas reduction was related to those emissions associated with power generation and supply. This performance objective for the Kinglake West scheme is unable to be evaluated at present as the STP only became fully operational as of December 2013. The assumptions for the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to the base case included the impact of the UDT on reducing the nitrogen loads to the STP. However, as the treatment process selected does not include nitrification, it is not expected that, even if the UDT were operational, diverting the urine (and most of the nitrogen loads) from the wastewater influent would substantially reduce energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The monitoring of the greywater system trial did show that energy demand for these systems was much higher than manufacturers’ specifications. So although the STP performance is yet to be assessed, it is anticipated that predicted greenhouse gas emission reductions will not be achieved.

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

KEY LESSONS LEARNT • STEP tanks are a good way of extending wastewater services to small communities. They enable a staged approach to providing the service, while also reducing capital and operating costs for the collection and treatment systems. The connection of septic tanks to a collection network and treatment plant reduces the likelihood of discharge of wastewater contaminants to the environment. • There is a need to consider the feasibility of alternative water sources on a site-specific basis. If there is insufficient demand for the alternative water source it is unlikely that the costs and management complexity can be justified on other grounds, such as reduced wastewater volumes. • Technology selection and installation should be staged. Novel approaches such as urine diversion and greywater recycling are immature technologies so there is uncertainty in their performance, maintenance requirements and operating costs. • Having a streamlined approach with a single party responsible for the installation, supply and maintenance of household systems, such as greywater recycling units, is critical. This would clarify responsibilities for addressing any problems with the systems, be easier for YVW to manage, and provide better customer service. • Where possible, the technologies associated with source separation of wastewater should be designed and configured to minimise the behavioural change required by households. • The high establishment costs of household greywater recycling systems, and the complexity of devolving some management and O&M responsibilities to householders, means that these systems may be better suited to higher- or mediumdensity developments. In this setting a cluster scale approach could be implemented where a single system serves a number of households. • The innovative wastewater services approaches trialled at Kinglake West are likely to come at a financial premium when compared to servicing with a conventional gravity sewer system.

• UDT would be better suited to particular contexts where there is less likely to be dilution of yellow water, possibly using waterless urinals in commercial or public buildings. However, the financial feasibility of recovering costs by using yellow water for crop production was found to be limited by heterogeneity of yellow water, current costs of commercial fertiliser, and costs of collecting and transporting yellow water. Investigations into alternative configurations of using yellow water as a crop fertiliser supplement showed that it was not financially feasible, even if the yellow water was more concentrated. • The project has demonstrated that it is possible to undertake applied research in the community with the co-operation and development of partnerships. This project developed strong partnerships among the involved parties, which included: YVW, households, local government, regulatory authorities, a turf farmer and research organisations (Mitchell et al., 2011). • In exploring innovative approaches to wastewater servicing there is a need for post-implementation assessment and monitoring, such as occurred in this project. This ensures that lessons can be used for refining the approach for future YVW projects, while also providing the broader urban water sector with important knowledge that can help facilitate increased adoption of more sustainable approaches.

CONCLUSION This project has provided empirical evidence for the benefits and challenges associated with implementing source separation of wastewater to improve sustainability outcomes in servicing sewerage backlog areas. In particular, it has quantified the costs, operational issues and feasibility of concepts such as nutrient recovery from urine in a small community for agronomic production. This paper was first presented at Ozwater’14 in Brisbane in May 2014.

THE AUTHORS Ranga Fernando (email: Ranga.Fernando@yvw.com. au) is Manager of Hydraulic Modelling at Yarra Valley Water. He has 12 years of experience in water supply, sewerage and other infrastructure in Australia, Singapore and Sri Lanka.


53

Technical Papers Stephen Cook (email: Stephen.cook@csiro.au) is an environmental scientist at the CSIRO’s Land and Water Flagship.

Francis Pamminger (email: Francis.Pamminger@yvw. com.au) is the Manager of Research and Innovation at Yarra Valley Water. Andrew Gellie (email: Andrew.Gellie@yvw.com. au) is Manager of Backlog Planning at Yarra Valley Water. Dr Ashok Sharma (email: asharma2006@gmail.com and ashok.sharma@csiro. au) is a Principal Research Engineer with CSIRO Land and Water and also an Adjunct Professor at Victoria University.

Roger Wrigley (email: rwrigley@unimelb.edu.au) is Associate Professor and Honorary Fellow University of Melbourne, Adjunct Research Fellow Monash University and Adjunct Professor RMIT University. Geotechnical engineer and soil scientist based at Dookie College. Currently undertaking research into the physico-chemical impact of recycled water on soils, the amelioration of sites impacted by recycled water and the properties of soil receiving biosolids.

REFERENCES Cordell D, Drangert J & White S (2009): The Story of Phosphorus: Global Food Security and Food for Thought, Global Environmental Change. Fewless K, Sharvelle S & Roesner LA (2011): Source Separation and Treatment of Anthropogenic Urine, Water Environment Research Foundation.

Metcalf & Eddy Inc & Tchobanoglous G (2003): Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, McGraw Hill.Mitchell C, Fam D & Abeysuriya K (2011): Mutual Learning for Social Change: Using Social Research to Support the Introduction of Urine Diverting Toilets in the Kinglake West Sewerage Project. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney. Saunders M, Denn G & Molatore T (2010): Septic Tank Effluent Pump and Gravity Collection Systems. Proceeding of the Water Environment Federation 2010, Session 91 through Session 100: 7020–7027. Sharma A, Grant A, Tjandraatmadja G & Gray S (2006): Sustainability of Alternative Sewerage Servicing Options – Yarra Valley Water Stage 2 – Backlog Areas. CSIRO. Sharma A, Tjandraatmadja G, Grant A, Grant T & Pamminger F (2010): Sustainable Sewerage Servicing Options for Peri-urban Areas with Failing Septic Systems, Water Science and Technology, 62, 3, pp 570-585.

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

Rita Narangala (email: rita.narangala@yvw.com.au) is the Manager of Quality Yarra Valley Water.

He has 25 years of research, teaching and industry experience in centralised/ decentralised urban water systems planning and design.

Water and Energy Savers (2012): Monitoring of Sewerage System Energy Consumption, Kinglake West. Wrigley RJ & HJ (2010): Kinglake West Sewerage Project – Research Project Design for Agricultural Trial Yellow Water as a Plant Nutrient Source.

WATER-ENERGY-FOOD NEXUS IN PRACTICE ADVOCATING A MORE COHERENT APPROACH ACROSS INDUSTRY ONE DAY FORUM IN MELBOURNE, BRISBANE AND SYDNEY The demand on water resources across the energy, agricultural and urban water sectors is ever increasing, and is a constant challenge in managing sustainable water supply. Instead of working independently, a more coherent approach is needed to develop workable solutions to the myriad challenges faced by these industries. Businesses together with government, NGOs, academia and civil society can and should play a role in this new understanding. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus Forum will bring together some of Australia’s most influential and engaging leaders from the water, agricultural and energy sectors to share inter-related expertise. Topics will focus on responsible governance of natural resources, collaborative policy and practice, economic growth and the way forward.

SPEAKERS INCLUDE: Dr Steven Kenway, Research Group Leader, Water-Energy-Carbon, UQ Michael Spencer, Secretary, Alliance for Water Stewardship Australia Greg Appleby, Energy Manager, Sydney Water Dr Darryl Low Choy, CRC for Water Sensitive Cities Dr Karen Hussey, Australian National University Prof. Neil McIntyre, Director, Centre for Water in the Minerals Industry Dr Jamie Pittock, ANU Water Initiative/UNESCO Douglas McNicholl, Program Manager: Environment & Sustainability, Australian Meat Processor Corporation

REGISTER NOW

25 November, Melbourne 26 November, Brisbane (+ QLD Branch dinner) 27 November, Sydney (+ NSW Branch dinner)

www.awa.asn.au/waterenergyfoodnexus

Organised by


54

Technical Papers

DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER RECLAMATION FACILITIES AND NETWORK FOR NATIONAL TRUST LISTED VILLAGE A review of the Kangaroo Valley Sewerage Scheme and advanced water reclamation facility project

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

R Wale, S Nayak, G James

ABSTRACT Kangaroo Valley Village is located within Shoalhaven City on the south coast of New South Wales. Historically the village had no reticulated sewerage collection system. Shoalhaven Water (SW) facilitated the Kangaroo Valley Sewerage Scheme (KVSS), consisting of a pressure sewer system (for 250 lots) and a new advanced water reclamation facility. This paper reviews the GHD design options (and economics) for connecting to the existing centralised wastewater facility versus a new decentralised reclaimed water facility, as well as design considerations for selection of the dual biological and membrane bioreactor process configuration to meet large variations for high seasonal tourist influx (i.e. 530 kL/Day) down to normal residential capacity (i.e.100 kL/Day). Data provided demonstrates the large reduction in nutrients and pathogens that enable the wastewater to be beneficially reused, as well as meet Sydney Water Catchment Authority’s license requirements.

for treatment to spray irrigation facilities. The community was able to be connected progressively over a six-month period with minimal inconvenience, no disruptions to other services, and with new advanced WRF capacity being commissioned with no requirement to bring in additional effluent other than the original plant seeding.

CONCEPT AND INNOVATION Shoalhaven Water in conjunction with the Department of Energy, Utilities and Sustainability (formerly the Department of Land and Water Conservation) and the Sydney Catchment Authority (SCA) investigated options for providing sewerage services to Kangaroo Valley Village. The village has a permanent population of about 340 persons; however, this increases during peak holiday periods to approximately 1,400. A Strategy Study was completed in 1999; it considered a wide range of

wastewater collection, treatment and reclaimed water management options. These options were reviewed and then the preferred strategy of providing a centralised wastewater collection and treatment scheme for the whole village was selected. A scheme objective is to maximise beneficial reclaimed water reuse for agricultural production, with any wet weather surplus being directed to Kangaroo Valley River. The project managers, Department of Commerce, engaged consultants to prepare an Option Development Report to recommend a preferred option for delivering the scheme strategy – a sewerage system comprising three principal components: • A collection system; • A treatment process; • A reclaimed water management system.

OVERVIEW Key aspects of this rural project were enabling the sequential and successful connection of each pressure sewer unit, including decommissioning of existing septic tanks and pipelines. The management of the community’s expectations, installation risk and quality were major objectives of this project. The contractor was responsible for the execution of all the reticulation and pressure unit installations, with SW issuing the pressure sewer units and managing the client inter-phase for each connection. GHD contract management enabled the appropriate staging of effluent delivery from the pressure sewer network to the new Water Reclamation Facility (WRF)

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

Historical Hampden Bridge over the Kangaroo Valley opened in 1898 at a cost of £8392, with connection sewerage transfer pipeline fixed underneath.


55

Technical Papers There were several potentially viable technologies and alternatives available for each of these components. The Option Development Report reviewed these and, based on engineering, environmental, community and cost considerations, recommended a preferred option. The collection system options investigated were: • Gravity sewerage system • Pressure sewerage system • Vacuum sewerage system.

• Identification of suitable reuse areas and river release sites; • Identification of suitable reclaimed water-balancing storage sites; • Storage necessary to allow reclaimed water reuse to be maximised at times when weather conditions do not permit irrigation (i.e. wet and/or cold weather). Design criteria for the option development were agreed by the scheme partners and relevant government agencies (e.g. Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources, Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW Agriculture, NSW Fisheries and NSW Health).

PRESSURE SEWER SYSTEM NETWORK Shoalhaven Water commissioned a concept design to provide a solution for management of wastewater derived from residential sources, a bowling club, two caravan parks, a school, a motel, a pub and a petrol station (i.e. a typical small rural community). Design included keeping sewerage retention time in the network to less than 13 hours to minimise odour generation.

All existing on-site treatment systems were required to be de-sludged, and tanks disinfected, by the property owner and were then inspected for compliance. On a number of properties these cleaned septic tanks were to be used for garden water. Some others had the Pod installed in the tank and backfilled. Shoalhaven Water continues to own, maintain and repair the Pods. The owner is trained to be able to conduct initial troubleshooting and the process to follow in time of alarm or system failure. An independent Community Liaison Officer was engaged to communicate with residents, as well as manage heritage and cultural sensitivities. Consultation methods used included newsletters, public information sessions, updates in local newspaper, website (www.kangaroovalleysewerage.com.au), direct contact with community groups and by providing written notifications to households and businesses when work was due to occur. The contractor also had direct phone and emails for residents if there were any construction issues. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Raw sewage is collected via a combination of pressure and gravity sewers, with the majority of homes around the area being equipped with a new sewage Pod that directs sewage to the new WRF. At each of the 220 residential sites (and a few commercial enterprises) there are pressurised sewer unit(s) installed, consisting of a fibreglass Pod with a grinder pump, boundary kit (i.e. keyed isolation ball valve, swing check valve and an inspection tee) and external control box. Sewerage from each Pod is then transferred through small-diameter pipes [i.e. 9.5km total length; PE100 PN16, 50–140mm Dia.) into a common rising main that will convey all flows to new WRF.

TESTING REGIME

Cleaning and flushing of the reticulation pipes (i.e. with potable water at 1.0m/s and a water volume three times of pipe volume) was undertaken to ensure that all connections and fittings were integral. This also removed any foreign materials that accumulated during construction, reducing the load on WRF intake screens.

WATER RECLAMATION FACILITY PLANNING

Shoalhaven Water and the NSW Office of Water, with the assistance of the Sydney Catchment Authority, reviewed the various options and, following the environmental assessment, decided on the construction of a 1.45km sewerage pipeline [140mm Dia.] utilising trenchless techniques to minimise environmental impact to connect reticulation network to WRF. The WRF is designed to provide treatment for a population range of 340 (permanent residents) to in excess of 1,400 during summer vacation periods. DESIGN PROTOCOL

SW reviewed its existing 12 wastewater treatment facilities [Berry, Shoalhaven Heads, Bomaderry, Nowra, Culburra, Callala, Vincentia, St Georges Basin, Sussex Inlet, Bendalong, Conjola and Ulladulla) as well as its Northern Reclaimed Water Management scheme operation. These facilities all use conventional secondary and tertiary treatment processes. SW decided through an independent design options study that, as Kangaroo Valley was in a sensitive environment as well as being a National Trust listed village, a higher degree of effluent treatment and process reliability would be required to meet community expectations and licence requirements. Concept design and specifications were developed by GHD, with overall detail design and process warranty the responsibility of the main contractor Lucas Engineering & Construction (LEC). The process design protocol for a Membrane Bioreactor followed by LEC was as follows: • Initial design parameters developed and reviewed through software (with a number of factors modified to suit Australian conditions);

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

The proposed Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) was required to provide treatment to a tertiary standard. The treatment process needed to be able to handle the wide range of seasonal flows during peak and off-peak periods. The development of the treatment process entailed a preferred secondary treatment technology including the process configuration, a biosolids management system, and a preferred tertiary treatment process for both land application and potential release of surplus wet weather flow to the Kangaroo Valley River. Investigations undertaken for the reclaimed water management system included:

The specialist contractor also carried out design of all pressure sewer systems reticulation (street mains) for the scheme, as well as conducting design of onproperty infrastructure including existing properties’ electrical, internal sewer drains and septic tanks. Council provided each property with a standard boundary kit, Pod (pressure sewer unit), control panel and connection to domestic sewer lines. Property audits were conducted by the contractor, and the property owner was responsible for all rectification work before each Pod was installed.


56

Technical Papers alkalinity. In addition, ferric chloride is dosed to precipitate and reduce phosphorous. Ferric chloride was chosen as it could also be used to control odour in the sewer network. From the postanoxic tank mixed liquor is pumped to the Membrane Operating System (MOS).

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

The MOS unit consists of two membrane (ultrafiltration) tanks, complete with internal chlorine maintenance cleaning system (for organic foulants) and citric acid clean-in-place system (for inorganic foulants). Air blowers are used to provide low-pressure air scouring of these membranes. Filtered wastewater (filtrate) is then disinfected by an ultraviolet irradiation [UV] unit.

Dual MBR biological process train infrastructure. • Industry MBR process suppliers submitted detailed proposals and the Evoqua BIONUTRETM MBR process was selected.

WASTEWATER RECLAMATION FACILITY PROCESS DESIGN SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The system consists of inlet works with inlet splitter box, two rotary drum screens with screw conveyors, one grit separator, outlet splitter box, overflow storage and open-topped storage.

process tanks overflow are drained to a sewage lift pump station where additional raw sewage (from remote residences) is delivered by tanker through a manual bar screen. The screened sewage is split and flows into two bioreactor trains (in parallel). These bioreactors consist of a preanoxic (DO =~0.1 mg/L), two-stage aeration process that includes aerobic tank zone #1 (DO = ~1 mg/L), #2 (DO = ~2.0 mg/L), and a post-anoxic reactor (DO = ~0.5 mg/L). If required, sodium hydroxide is dosed to maintain process

The UV has a cooling system and automatic mechanical wiping system. The filtrate is discharged by gravity from the filtrate tank to the reclaimed water storage dam. Prior to usage the treated wastewater is disinfected via online sodium hypochlorite dosage to provide chlorinated recycled water to plant site. Dewatering of sludge is by belt filter press, with polymer dosing upstream of the flocculator feeding into the belt press. BIOLOGICAL OPERATING SYSTEM

The biological system was designed using the Evoqua BIONUTRE™ process design model. This design was then used as a basis for inputs into a BioWin® model of the plant and final design parameters defined. The BioWin inputs and outputs are shown in Tables 1 and 2.

The main process consists of two bioreactor and membrane process trains, running in parallel. The two bioreactor trains consist of pre-anoxic tank, first-stage aerobic tank, secondstage aerobic tank, post-anoxic tank with supplementary carbon feed (acetic acid) and anoxic recycle, two membrane tanks, mixed liquor recycle, ultraviolet effluent disinfection, effluent storage and effluent disposal via land irrigation. PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Inlet flow of raw sewage (from the pressure sewer system) enters the inlet work system (for screening, grit and sand removal) through rotating drums and then a grit classifier. Material collected is transported to collection bins via screw conveyors. In addition to inflows from the pressure sewer an additional influent stream flows to the inlet works. Wastewater from amenities building, wash down, belt press, odour filter and

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

Kangaroo Valley WRF inlet works and odour control facilities.


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Technical Papers

FERROUS CHLORIDE SODIUM HYDROXIDE

ACETIC ACID

SWALE

MEMBRANE SULPHURIC ACID (OPTIONAL) CLEANING CITRIC ACID CHEMICALS SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

A-RECYCLE ODOUR CONTROL UNIT FERROUS CHLORIDE

8.6 LPS

GRIT CLASSIFIER FINE SCREENS

FLOW DIVIDER MAX. 4.3 LPS

AEROBIC ZONE 1

POST ANOXIC TANK

AEROBIC ZONE 2

MAX. 4.3 LPS FILTRATE PUMP

MAX. 8.6 LPS 740 KLD FILTRATE

OVER FLOW

MAX. 4.3 LPS

STORAGE TANK

INLINE UV DISINFECTION FACILITY

MEMBRANE CELL

OVERFLOW BY-PASS

FROM SEWAGE COLLECTION SYSTEM

FINE SCREENS

NOTE 1 GREATER THAN 8.6 LPS

FLOW SPLITTER BOX

EMERGENCY SPILLWAY

MEMBRANE CELL PRE ANOXIC TANK

PRE ANOXIC TANK

AEROBIC ZONE 1

POST ANOXIC TANK

AEROBIC ZONE 2

RECLAIMED WATER STORAGE DAM

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

MAX. 4.3 LPS A-RECYCLE

TO IRRIGATION AREA

ML RETURN

EMERGENCY STORAGE TANK 120 KL

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

SPEM / WAS & CIP WASTE RW FOR WRF SITE USE OUT OF SPECIFICATION STREAM

AEROBIC DIGESTER

FEED AVERAGING TANK

POLYMER TANK & PUMP

BFP

SUPERNATANT

SITE SEWAGE PUMP STATION

AIR

AEROBIC DIGESTER

MOS AIR SCOUR

WATER

WATER

AERATION AIR COMPRESSED AIR

POLYMER

CIP WASTE AFTER NEUTRALISE

FILTRATE TO SITE SEWAGE PS

SLUDGE

SLUDGE THICKENING & DEWATERING

BFP

TO BENEFICIAL USE SITE SKIP

BELT FILTER PRESS

Total Wastewater Reclamation Facility process diagram. BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OPERATION AND REACTIONS

Table 1. Design input parameters from BioWin. Parameter

Units

Anoxic Total

Dissolved oxygen

mg/L

0

Aeration AOR

kg/h

0.14

-

0.614

kg/h

0.23

%

10.3

Diffused Air FCF SOR delivered No. diffusers Diffuser SOTE

0

Scfm/diffuser

0

Air flow Scfm

4

Discharge pressure Mixing

The modified biological process is a field-proven, activated sludge, biological wastewater treatment technology. The key component to the modified biological process is its multi-reactor configuration, which provides two central benefits. The first is reliability. A multi-reactor configuration eliminates short-circuiting that can result in discharge of partially treated effluent. The second benefit is process efficiency. The multi-reactor configuration enables precise control of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels from zone to zone, resulting in energy-saving simultaneous nitrification/denitrification.

kpa Nm3/hr/ m3

358.5

The Modified biological process configuration for Kangaroo WRF consists of a three-stage aeration process

136

Table 2. Process split (based on BioWin output). Parameter Anoxic

RAS [kg/h]

Aeration [kg/h]

Total [kg/h]

Total [%]

BioWin AOR [kg/h]

BioWin AOR [%]

0.13

0

0.13

4.10%

0

0

Fine Bubble 1

0

1.27

1.27

39.40%

1.27

41.1

Fine Bubble 2

0

1.42

1.42

44.10%

1.42

46

Post-Anoxic

0

0

0

0.00%

0

0

MOS

0

0.4

0.4

12.40%

0.4

12.9

Total

0.13

3.08

3.22

100.00%

3.08

100.00%

followed by a post-anoxic reactor. The three-stage aeration process allows for 0-1-2 operation. This means dissolved oxygen levels are maintained at zero mg/l in the first aeration stage; between 0.5 and 1 mg/l in the second aeration stage and 2 mg/l in the third aeration stage. The 0-1-2 operation promotes simultaneous nitrification/denitrification for efficient nitrogen and BOD removal. The post-anoxic reactor on the end of the process is a nitrate polishing zone for additional total nitrogen removal. Nitrification is a process through which ammonia is oxidised to nitrite then nitrate by autotrophic bacteria as follows: NH4 + -* NO2 - -* NO3Denitrification is a process where nitrates are subsequently converted to gaseous end products, primarily nitrogen gas, by heterotrophic organisms as follows: NO3- -* NO2- -* NO -* N2O -* N2 Conventional wisdom indicates that nitrification will only occur in high DO environments (> 2 mg/L). However, experience has proven that nitrification and denitrification can simultaneously occur in low or near zero DO environments. This is accomplished by designing and operating a system that allows for varying DO conditions where upfront zones are operated at low DO

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

OPEN STORAGE FACILITY


58

Technical Papers

A-RECYCLE

S-RECYCLE

MEMBRANE TANK PRE ANOXIC ZONE

AEROBIC

AEROBIC

ZONE-1

ZONE-2

POST ANOXIC ZONE

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

Figure 1. S-Pre Recycle Flow Diagram. and downstream reactors are operated at higher DO. With this configuration the system can create an upfront environment where oxygen supply is less than oxygen demand, resulting in an oxygen-deficient condition where both nitrification and denitrification can occur simultaneously. The S-Pre recycle process is an addon feature of the modified biological process; when included it has two major functions. The primary function is to further enhance the overall denitrification efficiency of the modified biological process. By incorporating the S-Pre recycle the modified biological process not only remove nitrates through upfront simultaneous nitrification/denitrification, but will also remove nitrates generated downstream in the Aerobic Zone 1 and Aerobic Zone 2. The secondary purpose of the S-Pre recycle process is to recycle biomass to the Pre-Anoxic Zone. This function of the S-Pre recycle becomes very important during conditions when the RAS overflow from the membrane system is being diverted to Aerobic Zone 1. The modified biological process for the Kangaroo WRF consists of two treatment trains. Figure 1 is a process flow diagram of the Kangaroo WRF modified biological process. The following sections provide a brief description of the function of each zone as well as tank dimensions. The main function of the Pre-Anoxic Zone is to achieve BOD removal, nitrification of influent ammonia and denitrification of nitrates generated in the Pre-Anoxic Zone and nitrates recycled through the S-Pre process. This function is optimised by controlling the following two processes: • Oxygen input via the RAS overflow from membrane system;

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

• S-Pre recycle process flow rate. Oxygen input via the RAS overflow is a manual function that uses manual open/close valves to direct the RAS to either the Pre-Anoxic Zone or Aerobic Zone 1. To determine if the RAS overflow should go to Pre-Anoxic Zone, the operator must monitor the ORP trends as well as monitor effluent total nitrogen levels. If the following conditions are true, it’s likely the RAS overflow is adding too much oxygen to the tank: • ORP trend is consistently above the set point; and • Effluent total nitrogen level is consistently high. The operator can reduce oxygen input from the RAS overflow by closing the RAS inlet valve to Pre-Anoxic Zone and redirecting the RAS overflow to Aerobic Zone 1. This scenario is typical of low-flow conditions where the influent load is low and, therefore, the oxygen demand in the Pre-Anoxic Zone is low. The S-Pre recycle process flow rate is automatically controlled by the PLC to maintain a target ratio that is proportional to the influent flow to the plant. The system will come pre-configured with a default target ratio; however, the operator will be responsible for adjusting the target ratio to meet the site-specific conditions of the plant.

Table 3 is a summary of the tank dimensions and volume of the PreAnoxic Zone. Table 3. Tank dimensions and volume of the Pre-Anoxic Zones. Total Number of Pre-Anoxic Zones

1

per train

Total Number of Trains

2

#

Volume (per tank)

40.5

m3

Basic Length (inside dimension)

4.3

m

Basic Width (inside dimension)

2.1

m

Basin Side Water Depth

4.5

m

The main function of the Aerobic Zone 1 is to achieve additional BOD removal, additional nitrification of influent ammonia and additional denitrification of nitrates. This is achieved by controlling the following processes: • Oxygen input via the fine bubble diffuser system; • Oxygen input via the RAS overflow from membrane system.

• RAS has already been redirected to Aerobic Zone 1;

Oxygen input via the fine bubble diffuser system will be automatically controlled to maintain a real-time DO reading to a DO set point. The system will come pre-configured with a default DO set point; however, the operator will be responsible for adjusting the DO set point to meet the site-specific conditions of the plant. To determine the optimal DO set point the operator will need to monitor the DO trends and effluent BOD, and ammonia levels. If the following conditions are true, the DO set point may need to be increased:

• ORP trend is consistently above the set point;

• DO trends are consistently maintained at the set point;

• Effluent total nitrogen level is consistently high.

• Effluent BOD, and/or ammonia levels are consistently high.

To determine the optimal ratio the operator will need to monitor ORP trends and effluent total nitrogen levels. If the following conditions are true, the target ratio may need to be decreased:


59

Technical Papers Table 4 is a summary of the tank dimensions and volume of the Aerobic Zone 1. Table 4. Tank dimensions and volume of the Aerobic Zone 1. Total Number of Aerobic Zone 1 Zones

2

per train (parallel)

Volume (per tank)

40.5

m3

Basic Length (inside dimension)

4.3

m

Basic Width (inside dimension)

2.1

m

Basin Side Water Depth

4.5

m

Oxygen input via the fine bubble diffuser system will be automatically controlled to maintain a real-time DO reading to a DO set point. The system will come pre-configured with a default DO set point; however, the operator will be responsible for adjusting the DO set point to meet the site-specific conditions of the plant. To determine the optimal DO set point the operator will need to monitor the DO trends and effluent BOD, and ammonia levels. If the following conditions are true, the DO set point may need to be increased: • DO trends are consistently maintained at the set point; • Effluent BOD, and/or ammonia levels are consistently high.

The main function of the Post-Anoxic Zone is to polish any remaining nitrates not removed in the first two stages of the modified biological process. Nitrate removal in the Post-Anoxic Zone is driven by endogenous denitrification. The difference between endogenous denitrification and denitrification in the Pre-Anoxic Zone is the carbon source. Upfront denitrification in the Pre-Anoxic Zone uses influent BOD as a carbon source. The Post-Anoxic Zone must use an alternate carbon source, since all the BOD has been consumed by the time it reaches the Post-Anoxic Zone. The alternate carbon source used in the Post-Anoxic Zone is carbon generated from biomass decay. As an additional backup, an external carbon source may be added to the Post-Anoxic Zone in the form of acetic acid. The Post-Anoxic Zone is also used for chemical phosphorus removal. Metal salts can be dosed to the Post-Anoxic Zone to transform soluble phosphorus to a particulate form, which can then be removed from the treatment process through regular wasting of activated sludge. Table 6 is a summary of the tank dimensions and volume of the PostAnoxic Zone. CHEMICAL PROCESS OPERATION AND REACTIONS

There are three main chemical addition systems used as part of the overall modified biological process: • Metal salt dosing for phosphorous removal A metal salt-dosing system is used as part of the modified biological

Table 5. Tank dimensions and volume of the Aerobic Zone 2. Total Number of Aerobic Zone 2 Zones

2

per train (parallel)

Volume (per tank)

40.5

m3

Basic Length (inside dimension)

4.3

m

Basic Width (inside dimension)

2.1

m

Basin Side Water Depth

4.5

m

Table 6. Tank dimensions and volume of the Post-Anoxic Zone. Total Number of Post-Anoxic Zones

1

per train

Volume (per tank)

16.3

m3

Basic Length (inside dimension)

1.7

m

Basic Width (inside dimension)

2.1

m

Basin Side Water Depth

4.5

m

process to remove total phosphorus through precipitation. The form of metal salt added is ferrous chloride, also known as Ferric. The basic reaction involved in the precipitation of phosphorus with ferrous chloride is as follows: Fe3+ + H2PO4- Æ AlPO4(s) + 2H+ The precipitate formed by this reaction is larger than the pore size of the membrane filters, effectively removing it from the effluent. This mineral salt is subsequently removed from the process by the wasting of activated sludge. • Caustic dosing for pH and/or alkalinity adjustment A caustic dosing system is used as part of the modified biological process to help buffer against a reduction in pH. Processes such as nitrification and chemical phosphorus removal consume alkalinity, which can cause the pH to drop if insufficient alkalinity is present in the incoming wastewater. A pH probe will continuously monitor pH conditions of the modified biological process and automatically trigger the caustic dosing system if the pH drops below target conditions. • Acetic acid for post-anoxic denitrification Acetic acid dosing system is used as part of the modified biological process to provide supplemental carbon to the PostAnoxic Zone for denitrification. The dose rate must be carefully monitored by the operator, based on the effluent quality lab results. Excessive supplemental carbon may increase the effluent BOD above permit limits; too little supplemental carbon may yield increased total nitrogen (TN) effluent. Membrane Operating System A critical component of the Membrane Operating System is the Membrane Filtration Modules. Each Membrane Filtration Module contains thousands of fibres, which are partitioned or “layered” into thin fibre bundles. Fibres are sealed with polyurethane “pots” at each end of the module and supported in a frame. The upper pot allows filtered water to pass from the hollow inner core, or lumen, of all the membrane fibres into the filtrate manifold. The lower pot seals the ends of all the fibres but allows the two-phase mixed liquor and low-pressure process air to pass from the Air SubManifold through a series of openings to the outside surfaces of the membranes within the fibre bundle.

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

The main function of the Aerobic Zone 2 is to polish any remaining BOD and ammonia that was not oxidised in the first two stages. This is achieved by controlling the oxygen input via the fine bubble diffuser system.

Table 5 is a summary of the tank dimensions and volume of the Aerobic Zone 2.


60

Technical Papers

Table 7. Biological Feed Specification. Parameter

Units

Average

Max or Range

Average Dry Weather Flow (ADWF)

kL/d

296

Peak Dry Weather Flow (PDWF)

kL/d

531

Peak Wet Weather Flow (PWWF)

kL/d

888

L/s

8.6

Maximum Reclaimed Water Discharge Flow

kL/d

740

Total BOD5 (28-day average)

mg/L

300

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

Design Flow

TSS (28-day average)

mg/L

300

TKN (28-day average)

mg/L

70

NH3-N (28-day average)

mg/L

55

TP (28-day average)

mg/L

13

BOD/TKN

>4

BOD/COD

0.45–0.49

Alkalinity as CaCO3

mg/L

250

Maximum Sulphate

mg/L as S04

100

mg/L

80

Oil and Grease (FOG) FreonSoluble During operation, mixed liquor is fed from the biological treatment process into the tank and is distributed along the tank. Sludge flows upwards through the membrane modules before overflowing the tank. MemPulse™ technology uses a simple non-mechanical device at the base of each membrane module to achieve significant energy reduction and lower maintenance costs, while maintaining the effectiveness of this proven two-phase flow concept. The upward airflow generates an airlift effect causing two-phase (air-liquid) fluid to flow upward through the membrane filtration modules. This flow creates crossflow dynamics across the membrane surface. This crossflow continuously scours the membrane surfaces to prevent accumulation or dehydration of solids. The system is designed to eliminate polarisation (concentration) of suspended solids around the membrane fibres, with a device below each membrane module, pumping mixed liquor directly into the membrane fibres. The system provides even distribution of mixed liquor to each membrane module, critical so that all membranes see the same process conditions. At the same time, the filtrate pump draws filtrate from inside each membrane fibre and discharges this liquid to the next treatment process step. Due to the pore

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

size of the membrane (0.04 µm) virtually all solids are rejected at the membrane surface and retained in the mixed liquor, which continuously overflows from the tank back to the biological process system. Mixed liquor recirculation is typically at a rate of about five times the rate of filtrate extraction. The integrated cleaning system allows the membrane modules to be automatically cleaned in place. The cleanin-place procedure eliminates the need for membrane removal from the tank, improving plant operator safety and reducing the risk of damage to membranes and other system components. Typical MBR operation will include a maintenance clean (sometimes referred to as a chemical backwash (CBW) or a maintenance wash) every one to two weeks of operation. A maintenance clean is usually performed automatically after a pre-set total time in filtration. During a maintenance clean, chlorinated filtrate is passed in the reverse direction through the membrane filtration modules to inhibit biological growth and reduce fouling on the membranes and in filtrate pipework. During this process, membrane aeration continues and the tank remains full of mixed liquor, although mixed liquor feed is turned off. The whole cycle typically lasts for about 60 minutes, after which the tank can be returned to service.

RAW SEWERAGE SPECIFICATIONS In order to successfully integrate the new pressure sewer network with the new wastewater reclamation facility, the biological feed specification shown in Table 7 was developed from similar local STPs and review of local septic systems from residents and commercial enterprises. COMMISSIONING

Seeding of the WRP utilised a combination of sewerage from Kangaroo Valley’s new pressure sewer network (as each Pod installed was connected to network), as well as suitable sludge being sourced from STPs in Bomaderry and Nowra facilities. The progressive connection of each Pod to network over three months, together with the minimal imported sludge, made the WRP commissioning process extremely efficient and provided a successful outcome to the performance testing stage. The final effluent quality produced by the WRF has met and exceeded the specified parameters set out in Table 8.

PLANT OPERATIONAL DATA (Period: September 2013 to June 2014) Over this period the STP performance was in compliancy for the majority of the time and only had six excursions out of compliance due to minor mechanical and instrumentation issues. These are highlighted in red in Table 8 and described at the bottom of the table.

RECLAIMED WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SYSTEM OVERVIEW

Reclaimed water management forms an integral part of the Kangaroo Valley Sewerage Scheme (KVSS). Sewage will be collected from individual premises within the Kangaroo Valley region and transferred to the WRF for treatment. The WRF will produce reclaimed water that will be managed via the components of the reclaimed water management system including: site pump station, 300kL emergency storage dam, a 50ML reclaimed water storage dam, an irrigation system and facilities for the discharge of excess reclaimed water. The reclaimed water will be used primarily for irrigation of pasture. Reclaimed water will be transferred from the WRF to the storage dam. The irrigation system will extract water from the dam and deliver water to a centre


61

Technical Papers

4/06/14

7.28

6.13

7.16

TOTAL S S

306

204

270

137

144

263

<5

508

304

365

561

TOTAL D S

316

347

382

362

440

404

342

395

376

499

BOD 5

311

235

223

326

117

269

243

294

197

492

402

COD

4500

554

669

509

777

1120

1040

921

819

1760

1460

AMMONIA as N

1&3

0.04

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.02

<0.01

0.01

0.03

3.97

0.02

0.01

NITRATE as N

1.47

4.35

1.88

3.72

0.53

4.18

7.73

0.21

0.74

0.31

2.8

0.18

NITRITE as N

<.01

0.02

<0.01

<0.01

<.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.01

0.01

TOTAL N

5 & 7.5

3.1

18.9

3.2

5.3

1.3

6.2

8.9

1

1.5

4.6

3.5

0.7

TOTAL P

0.3 &1

0.03

0.01

0.03

2.11

0.13

0.36

0.04

0.06

0.88

0.42

0.3

0.06

PH

6.5 & 8

8.38

8.26

7.74

7.56

7.78

7.59

7.97

8.13

7.05

7.88

7.67

7.81

TURBIDITY

0.5 & 1

1

3.9

0.1

0.1

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.6

0.5

0.1

TOTAL S S

5 & 10

2

6

1

5

1

1

5

1

1

1

1

5

BOD 5

5 & 10

2

2

2

2

2

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

COD

18

290

10

18

14

16

19

21

22

28

17

TOTAL D S

313

282

284

301

417

407

435

370

278

284

NB Operator’s Log 9/09/2013

High turbidity reading due to incorrect sampling procedure

23/09/2013

Acetic acid dosing had been turned off due to broken dosing line, causing high nitrates; high turbidity reading due to incorrect sampling procedure

16/10/2013

Due to mechanical problem with pump/mixer set after high levels of ferrous chloride dosing

15/01/2014 3/04/2014

Acetic acid dosing pipework leak and problems with MLSS meters that lead to over-aeration and high nitrate levels resulting PLC operational issues caused inconsistent process operation and nutrient removal resulting in high ammonia levels pivot irrigator for beneficial use over 16.4 hectares. The irrigation system will have provision for sodium hypochlorite dosing. Under normal operation, reclaimed water will be piped to the reclaimed water storage dam.

Test tubes showing raw influent and optical of clarity treated reclaimed water from MBR process.

During wet weather or periods of low demand for water the reclaimed water storage dam may fill, and flow to the dam will be stopped by closure of a valve on the pipeline to the dam. Water will then overflow from the permeate tank and be piped to a discharge structure immediately to the west of the centre pivot irrigator. Water released from the discharge structure will flow overland in

an existing swale to the Kangaroo River. The permeate tank at the WRF will also have provision for the withdrawal of reclaimed water for use onsite. Reclaimed water will be used around the site for process purposes such as washing and cleaning, and chemical dilution. The operation of the Reclaimed Water Storage Dam involves Shoalhaven City Council (SCC) and the participating land manager (PLM). The initial PLM will be able to draw water directly from the Reclaimed Water Storage Dam via the SCC irrigation system. The irrigation system is to be operated by the PLM and maintained by SCC.

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

SMALL WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

EFFLUENT

Licence Value [50% & 90%]

4/06/14

7/05/14

7.36

7/05/14

3/04/14

7.52

3/04/14

4/03/14

7.26

4/03/14

20/02/14

7.08

20/02/14

15/01/14

7.3

15/01/14

4/12/13

7.54

4/12/13

20/11/13

7.94

20/11/13

16/10/13

7.82

16/10/13

2/10/13

2/10/13

23/09/13

PH

23/0913

9/09/13

INFLUENT

9/09/13

Table 8. STP operational data.


62

Technical Papers IMPACTS AND CONCERNS The residents are protective of their village and heritage aspects, and the engagement of an experienced community/public relations manager before the start of construction enabled the majority of their concerns to be addressed, as well as those of commercial premises owners. Regular community information helped maintain a good relationship between contractors, residents and Shoalhaven Water officers. Initial option studies and environmental management planning identified a number of key concerns; these were addressed by maximising horizontal directional drillings (under boring) in the main street.

CONCLUSION MBR PROCESS DESIGN STRATEGY

SW reviewed its existing 12 wastewater treatment facilities and determined that a higher degree of effluent treatment was required for Kangaroo Valley, and process reliability, to meet licence requirements and community expectations. Concept design and specifications were then developed by GHD and SW. Detailed design and process warranty were the responsibility of the main contractor.

The process design protocol for the membrane bioreactor was as follows: • Initial design parameters developed and reviewed through BioWin® process simulation; • Evoqua Water`s BIONUTRETM process was selected, with full process warranty; • Final complete process design check was carried out by an independent consultant. PROJECT OUTCOMES

Overall the project provided a positive outcome for SW, as the scheme now includes a fully operating pressure sewer network, membrane bioreactor treatment facility and reclaimed water management system (RWMS) that meets the contracted specifications. • High-quality treated effluent is now being delivered to RWMS for reuse; • All relevant regulations and guidelines have been achieved; • The community engaged in a positive manner and fully supported the final outcomes.

THE AUTHORS Robert Wale (email: Robert.wale@bigpond. com) is Managing Director at BlueSand Consulting Pty Ltd. Robert has had over 30 years’ experience in Australia and in international water projects. Sri Nayak (email: sri. nayak@ausprowater.com. au) is Technical Director/ Engineer at Auspro Water Technologies. Sri has over 24 years’ experience working in Australia and Asia, in multidisciplinary consulting firms specialising in design, supply and commissioning of water and wastewater projects. Gerin James (email: gerin. james@evoqua.com) is Product Manager MBR at Evoqua Water Technologies. Gerin has 10 years’ experience in the water and wastewater field in Australia, Asia and North America in a variety of roles encompassing: R&D, design, supply, commissioning and technical sales.

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63

Technical Papers

ESTIMATION OF REMAINING PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC LIFETIMES FOR SEWER RISING MAINS A case study of the application of a risk management software tool to a large-diameter asbestos cement rising main S Gould, D Marlow, P Davis, B Lane, J Hicks

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION Sewer rising mains are an integral part of the wastewater networks that service our cities, conveying sewage under pressure from a pumping station to a point of discharge such as a gravity sewer or a sewage treatment works. Rising mains are commonly constructed from plastic or ferrous materials, although older assets were constructed from asbestos cement. Rising mains can be exposed to highly corrosive environments (Walski et al., 1994) and must resist static, dynamic and transient (surge) pressures over their lifetime (Gould et al., 2013b). Design, construction and operational practices also have an impact on rising main life and performance (Marlow et al., 2013). In comparison to other linear assets the number of rising mains within a utilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s asset registry is relatively small. However, these assets are of critical importance due to the consequences of failure and need to be managed in a risk-informed manner. Any rising main failure has a significant likelihood of resulting in a pollution incident due to the type of fluid they transport, i.e. raw

The management of rising mains in a proactive manner requires utilities to have an understanding of both the likelihood and consequence of failure. In this paper we present a risk management software tool to model a rising main to predict the remaining lifetime, from both structural and economic perspectives. A hypothetical case study is presented applying the risk management tool to a large-diameter asbestos cement (AC) rising main.

MODELLING The risk management tool uses physical probabilistic models specific to different materials to estimate the probability of pipe structural failure over the analysis period and then provide an insight into remaining economic life by considering the relative cost and benefits associated with renewal. It should be noted that for the purposes of this paper a pipe is defined as a single pipe unit, i.e. joint to joint, and a pipeline is a continuous series of pipe lengths. For example, a pipeline may be 400m long and consist of 100 x 4m pipes with a bell at one end and a spigot at the other. STRUCTURAL FAILURE MODELLING

The modelling of rising main structural failure is undertaken using physical probabilistic models (PPMs) that consider deterioration, structural capacity and imposed loads within a Monte Carlo simulation framework. PPMs are available for the most common material types in the Australian water and sewer networks

(Gould et al., 2013a); specifically AC (Davis et al., 2008b), cast iron (CI) (Schlick, 1940), ductile iron (DI), steel, polyethylene (PE) (Davis et al., 2008a) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (Davis et al., 2007), to estimate the remaining physical life of an asset. The application of the PPMs is similar for all materials; however, as the PPMs are material-specific, differences do exist. The PPM process described here is relevant to AC pipes. Measurements of remaining wall thickness and material residual strength are obtained from condition assessment of the pipeline (see Condition Assessment in Case Study for more information on sampling and testing). Condition assessment is undertaken at several locations to enable probabilistic distributions of material strength loss rate (MPa/year) and wall thickness erosion rate (mm/year) to be created. The number of condition assessment locations is generally dictated by three competing drivers: 1.

Cost

2.

Variability in relevant deterioration factors or risk factors (Marlow et al., 2013)

3.

Acceptable uncertainty.

The relevant pipe attributes and loading conditions, e.g. diameter, pressure and burial depth, are entered to allow application of the PPM. Simulations are then run using a large number of realisations of both probability distributions, i.e. for strength loss and erosion rates, under the specified pipe attributes and loading conditions to forecast the time to pipe failure. The output of the Monte Carlo simulations is used to produce a pipe failure frequency (failure probability) vs. time (age) distribution.

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

ASSET MANAGEMENT

Sewer rising mains are an integral part of the wastewater networks that service our cities and their management is crucial. The effective management of these assets is of critical importance due to the consequences of failure. The management of rising mains in a proactive manner requires complex analysis of their remaining lifetime, both physical and economic, and an understanding of both the likelihood and consequence of failure along a pipeline. This paper presents a risk management software tool that facilitates these analyses. An example application of the software tool to a large-diameter AC rising main is presented as a case study.

sewage. In addition, it is not uncommon for these assets to be situated in or near areas that are maintained for recreation, or which are environmentally sensitive (e.g. wetlands) and, as such, have severe consequences beyond the direct costs (Buckland, 2011).


64

Technical Papers The pipe failure frequency distribution is used to calculate the cumulative pipe failure frequency, pipeline failure rate, pipeline failure number and cumulative pipeline failure number. Note that pipeline data is extrapolated from the pipe data using the number of pipes in the pipeline. Optimistic, pessimistic and expected lifetimes for pipes are also calculated where the expected lifetime of a pipe is the time for 50% of modelled pipes to fail. The optimistic and pessimistic lifetimes are the times for 75% and 25% of modelled pipes to fail respectively. AC PPM

The AC PPM models the failure of AC pipe for brittle pipe exposed to combined external loading and internal pressure. Failure is deemed to have occurred when the failure criterion in Equation 1 is satisfied.

ASSET MANAGEMENT

1) p is the actual applied internal pressure; pc is the critical pressure that would cause failure in the absence of any external loading; w is the actual applied external load (N/m) and wc (N/m) is the critical load that would cause failure from external load with no internal pressure. For a buried pipe in service, the actual applied external load comprises an earth load from the surrounding soil and a live surface load from overhead traffic (see Equation 2). The actual applied internal pressure is the maximum pressure experienced by the pipe, including any pressure transients (surge pressure or water hammer). 2) Where y is the soil unit weight (kN/m3), H is the burial depth (m), Ps is the surface (live) pressure (kPa), D is the pipe mean diameter and bf is the pipe wall thickness. To allow Equation 1 to be used for failure prediction, values for critical pressure and critical external load need to be calculated. The critical pressure and critical external load can be written in terms of the current residual tensile strength and current wall thickness of the pipe wall as in Equation 3.

and surrounds and 1.5 for other soil surrounds (Olliff and Rolfe, 2002). The effects of material strength loss and wall thickness erosion can now be incorporated using Equation 4. Equation 4 assumes linear rates of strength loss and erosion, as data for a number of ages would be required for fitting of more complex forms. The linear rate uses measure of original material strength and wall thickness from the literature, standards or manufactures specifications. 4) Where sr is the rate of material strength loss, so is the original material strength, br is the rate of wall thickness erosion, bo is the original wall thickness and t is time (or pipe age). To account for uncertainty in the predicted service lifetime due to uncertainty in the rates of material strength loss and wall thickness erosion, Monte Carlo simulation is used. Within the Monte Carlo simulation the model described is run repeatedly using values for material strength loss and wall thickness erosion generated from probability distributions. The risk management software tool currently applies the Weibull probability distribution. The standard error of the mean (SEM) is used to determine if the number of pipes included in simulation is sufficient (Equation 5). 5) Where σ is the standard deviation of the variable of interest and N is the number of trials in the simulation. The following steps were applied in the Monte Carlo simulations: 1.

Create hypothetical pipe

2.

Randomly assign degradation and erosion rates based on the Weibull probability distribution function

3.

Calculate operating loads (Equation 2).

Time marching loop (yearly steps) 4.

Increment time

5.

Calculate critical pressure and critical loads (Equation 3)

6.

Calculate reduction in material strength and wall thickness (Equation 4)

7.

Check failure criterion (Equation 1)

3) Where sf is the tensile strength of the pipe wall and Fm is a ‘bedding factor’ which is equal to 2.5 for gravel beds

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

8.

a. Failure – Record time to failure b. No failure – Return to Step 3

Determine number SEM (Equation 4) a. SEM ≤ requirement – Exit Monte Carlo simulation

9.

Determine if the number of pipes modelled is ≥ the limit a. Yes – Exit Monte Carlo simulation b. No – Return to Step 1.

Further details on the AC PPM can be found in Davis et al. (2008b). ECONOMIC LIFETIME MODELLING

Following estimation of remaining physical life of the rising main the remaining economic lifetime of an asset is calculated (Davis and Marlow, 2008). Economic lifetime calculations incorporate both the tangible and intangible costs of failure, repair and replacement. Intangible costs are quantified for incorporation into the analysis using the Intangible Consequence Assessment Tool (ICAT) (Marlow et al., 2013). The remaining economic life is determined by considering the relative cost and benefits associated with renewal. The benefits associated with the service provision capacity of both the old and new pipe are assumed to be the same and are thus not considered in the economic analysis. The benefits of pipeline renewal are considered to be associated with the avoidance of future failures. The costs of pipe renewal are the costs of pipeline renewal and of any failures prior to renewal. All costs and benefits are calculated within a defined economic analysis period. This calculation is illustrated in Figure 1, which shows a timeline from the current time (t) to the end of the economic analysis period (TMAX). At any time between these extremes, the asset could be replaced by scheduled renewal. As shown, replacing an asset at any time after the current time (t) incurs costs associated with potential failures, probabilistic failures rather than actual failure events (shown as red star shapes in Figure 1), up until the time of renewal (time t). The costs associated with potential failures following renewal will be avoided and viewed as benefits of renewal. The NPV is calculated for renewal in each year of the economic analysis period and the remaining economic lifetime is defined as the year when pipe replacement has the highest net present value (NPV).


65

Technical Papers

Figure 1. Economic analysis illustration (adapted from Davis and Marlow, 2008).

The lifetime modelling sub-section incorporates the data required for the PPM, pipeline details and runs the Monte Carlo simulation. The scenario details sub-section incorporates input for both direct and indirect costs of pipeline repair and replacement, and the discount rate. The consequence selection subsection allows the output from ICAT to be applied. Specifically, it allows the relevant consequences identified and costed (semi-quantitatively) within ICAT to be selected and the likelihood of each consequence to be input.

Figure 2. Risk management software tool screenshot. The cost of pipe failure and renewal includes tangible costs, both direct and indirect, and intangible costs. Direct and indirect costs are included for both repair and replacement of pipes/ pipelines. Intangible costs are only included for repair costs as intangible consequences are considered to only relate to pipe failure. Intangible costs are calculated using ICAT. The failure of a rising main asset can generate a range of intangible consequences, including reputational impacts, community disruption and distress, and environmental impacts. The inclusion of intangibles is not straightforward and while quantitative studies can be undertaken, there are many instances where a semi-quantitative approach is justifiable. ICAT facilitates a semi-quantitative approach that allows notional monetary values to be assigned to potential failure consequences via a pairwise comparison process (Marlow et al., 2013).

SOFTWARE APPLICATION

The structural failure models, economic model and ICAT have been implemented within a single software tool. The risk management software tool allows userfriendly application of the PPMs and economic model, and allows scenario investigation. The software is divided into three sections â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the main screen, the analysis properties and ICAT. A screenshot of the software tool main screen is shown in Figure 2. The main screen is used to create a new analysis (and select the PPM used), select from existing analyses, review the properties of each analysis and view the outputs of analyses. The analysis properties section is used to define the inputs used in each stage of an analysis in three sub-sections, incorporating inputs for lifetime modelling (structural modelling), scenario details (economic modelling) and consequence selection (ICAT).

To generate quantitative values for each intangible consequence the user is prompted by a series of pair-wise comparisons for each criterion (both explicit and implicit), e.g. what has more impact on your business; a failure causes a major public health incident or a failure results in major restricted public use of watercourse or beach. As each question is posed and answered ICAT is able to produce an ordered list of criteria. To save time, redundant questions are not asked, i.e. if A<B and B<C a comparison of A and C is not posed. Similarly explicit criteria are not compared. Following the pairwise comparison the user can further modify the raw calculated costs to produce refined costs that are used in modelling.

CASE STUDY The use of the risk management tool is demonstrated here via a case study application to a hypothetical DN600 AC rising main. Details of the rising main are given in Table 1. Assessment of the pipeline was initiated as the pipeline was considered to be a critical â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;no fail assetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and the pipeline age exceeded the utility nominated service life.

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ASSET MANAGEMENT

As noted, ICAT facilitates a semiquantitative approach that allows notional monetary values to be assigned to potential failure consequences via a pairwise comparison process (Marlow et al., 2013). This is done by first defining five explicit and up to 12 implicit criteria. Explicit criteria are quantitative values ranging from a minimum value of $1,000 to a maximum value of $500,000. The explicit criteria are used as the basis for providing quantitative values for intangible consequences. Implicit criteria are the intangible consequences to be quantified. All implicit criteria are assumed to be valued between the highest and lowest explicit criteria.


66

Technical Papers

Table 1. Case study pipeline details. Parameter

Value

Material Diameter

Comment

Asbestos cement DN 600mm

Inside diameter

586.8mm

Standards Australia (1975)

Outside diameter

650.2mm

Standards Australia (1975)

Original wall thickness

31.7mm

Assumed Class B based on measure wall thickness (Standards Australia, 1975)

Installation year

Property

Scale

Shape

sr

0.185

5.000

br

0.029

1.100

1976

Current age

37 years

Pipeline length

3.1km

Pipe length

4m

Pipe depth

1.5m

Internal pressure

Table 2. Weibull probability distribution parameters.

(Standards Australia, 1975)

0.217 MPa

Subject to surface loads

No

Discount rate

6%

Direct repair costs

$10.0k

Direct replacement cost

$9.0M

Indirect repair costs

$5.0k

Indirect replacement cost Intangible repair cost

Based on cost per metre

$0 $25k

Intangible costs only relate to pipe failure

ASSET MANAGEMENT

Table 3. Criteria for sub-dividing AC pipeline (adapted from Marlow et al., 2013). External sub-division criteria*

Internal sub-division criteria

pH < 6

Location and extent of occluded air pockets

Sulphates > 2000 ppm

(Surrogate indicator of potential for sulphuric acid formation)

* related to soil aggressiveness

CONDITION ASSESSMENT

To ensure that the maximum benefit is obtained from condition assessment it is vital to select locations for inspection/ sampling that are most likely to produce valuable and relevant data. The challenge, therefore, is to identify which sections of pipe to inspect and how many. This decision was dictated by changes in risk factors along the main, with consideration of cost and of each inspection. This pipeline did not have a constant risk along its entire length and it was necessary to subdivide the pipeline into several shorter sections. The length of each subdivision will be dictated by significant changes in the asset attributes, local environment and other risk factors. A list of potential characteristics is provided in Table 2. The criteria used to identify subsections of the pipeline are given in Table 3. Occluded air is expected to produce relatively aggressive internal environments at the obvert, leading to

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

internal corrosion, loss of wall thickness and material strength. Increasing soil aggressiveness influences external corrosion, loss of material strength. Due to previous failure history and cause identification (from root cause analyses) the location and extent of occluded air pockets was deemed as the most important criteria to base selection of sampling locations. In total, three sampling locations were selected for sample collection. To establish deterioration parameters, cylindrical core samples were extracted from the pipeline at each sampling location, as shown in Figure 3. Laboratory testing of these cores was undertaken to provide data to develop Weibull probability distributions for wall thickness erosion rate and material strength loss rate. Photos of the extracted cores before testing are shown in Figure 3. Each core was subject to dimensional assessment to determine the wall thickness erosion rate (see Equation 6)

Figure 3. Extracted AC cores prior to laboratory testing. and to provide data required for residual strength testing. 6) Where: bR is the wall thickness erosion rate (m), b0 is the original wall thickness (m), bf is the measured wall thickness (m) and Age is the pipe age (years). Following dimensional assessment the residual strength of each core was determined by indirect tensile strength testing (Standards Australia, 1972) to determine the rate of strength loss. Indirect tensile strength testing is undertaken by compressing core samples with a uniformly distributed load while constraining the core ends, the inside and outside of the pipe wall, as shown in Figure 4. For a cylindrical core an indirect tensile stress Ď&#x192;xx is generated in the direction shown. At failure, this


67

Technical Papers cannot be extrapolated to the entire pipeline. Those portions of the pipeline with lower failure risk would be expected to exhibit lower failure frequencies than those predicted by the model.

Core height = pipe wall th tthickness ickness! z x

APPLICATION OF PPM

y

Figure 4. Alignment of cores extracted from AC pipe samples.

Uniformly distributed load F/L

The AC PPM within was run with a maximum simulation time of 100 years. The number of simulations run was determined as using the standard error of the mean (SEM). Simulations were run, in stages of 10,000 pipes, until the SEM was less than 5%. In total 80,000 pipes were simulated. The resulting pipe failure frequency is shown in Figure 6. Review of the cumulative number of failures figure (not shown) indicates that the first failure on this pipeline would be expected to have occurred after 28 years. Therefore, the modelling indicates that this asset is likely to have already experienced a failure.

y x

z

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

The economic lifetime of the pipeline is calculated under three scenarios:

yy

zz

xx

Cylinder length L

Figure 5. Indirect tensile strength test schematic.

Figure 6. Physical lifetime of the modelled pipe length. corresponds to the residual tensile strength of the core (and hence the pipe wall) sf. Material strength loss rate is calculated as shown in Equation 7. 7) Where: sr is the material strength loss rate (MPa/year), s0 is the original material strength (MPa), sf is the measured residual tensile strength of the core (MPa) and Age is the pipe age (years). s0 is assumed to be 27 MPa after (Katz, 1996).

The results of testing were fitted to the Weibull probability distributions using the procedure detailed by Crowder (1991). The parameters determined for the probability distributions are given in Table 2. It is important to note that the condition assessment focused on locations of highest failure risk. As such, the results of modelling will be related to those high-risk sections, and the results

Direct costs only

2.

Direct and indirect costs only

3.

Direct, indirect and intangible costs

The results of the economic analysis under each scenario are shown in Figures 7, 8 and 9. It can be seen that under scenario 1 no economic lifetime of the pipeline is calculated, i.e. the economic lifetime is beyond the economic time horizon. This occurred as based on the direct costs alone no maximum NPV for pipeline replacement is determined within the economic analysis period. A maximum NPV was never calculated as the cost of pipeline replacement was sufficiently high to outweigh the costs of pipe failure. Under Scenario 2 the economic lifetime is nine years from the time of analysis. This means that the pipeline is most economically replaced at 46 years of age. The difference between Scenarios 1 and 2 is related to the inclusion of indirect costs. The inclusion of indirect costs changes the relation between the costs of pipleine failure and replacement. The costs of pipe failure are now sufficiently high to produce a maximum in the NPV calculation within the economic time horizon; however, the NPV is negative. A negative NPV means that the benefit of pipeline replacement does not exceed the cost. Scenario 3 introduces a third category of pipe failure costs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; intangible costs.

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ASSET MANAGEMENT

Cylinder diameter D (constrained in axial z direction

1.


68

Technical Papers analysis to identify the remaining economic lifetime of the pipeline. A hypothetical case study application of the risk management software tool was presented based on an existing large-diameter AC rising main. The outputs of the failure prediction modelling and economic model are presented for three economic modelling scenarios that use different failure cost structures for the same pipeline, direct costs only, direct and indirect costs and, direct, indirect and intangible costs. Figure 7. NPV of pipeline replacement – direct costs only.

This paper was first presented at Ozwater’14 in Brisbane in May 2014.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors gratefully acknowledge WSAA and Water for a Healthy Country Flagship, which provided funding and support throughout this research.

THE AUTHORS

ASSET MANAGEMENT

Figure 8. NPV of pipeline replacement – direct and indirect costs.

Figure 9. NPV of pipeline replacement – direct, indirect and intangible costs. The inclusion of intangible costs reduces the economic lifetime to two years from the time of analysis. The use of all three cost categories also results in a positive NPV, meaning that unlike for Scenario 2 the benefit of pipeline replacement does exceed the cost.

CONCLUSION The analysis of remaining lifetime, both physical and economic, of high-risk assets such as sewer rising mains is complex and requires understanding of both likelihood and consequence of failure, and how this varies along a pipeline. Analyses of this type can be supported through the use of physical and economic

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

models. This paper has presented a risk management software tool that facilitates these analyses. The risk management software tool incorporates physical probabilistic models (PPMs) for the most common material types in the Australian water and sewer networks (Gould et al., 2013a). These PPMs allow failure prediction modelling within a Monte Carlo simulation framework using probabilistically described deterioration parameters, e.g. corrosion rate. The output of the Monte Carlo simulation is then used as an input into an economic

Dr Scott Gould (email: scott.gould@wiseranalysis. com) is a Director at WISER Analysis, specialising in the application of best practice analytical approaches and business engineering applied to infrastructure asset management, asset performance optimisation and investment planning. Scott previously worked at CSIRO for 13 years working in the pipeline deterioration modelling and asset management areas. Dr David Marlow (email: david.marlow@ wiseranalysis.com) is a Director at WISER Analysis, specialising in the development of best practice management principles, decision support and business engineering for urban water utilities. David has spent more than 18 years successfully delivering R&D and consulting projects for the urban water sectors of Australia, the UK and North America. David previously worked at CSIRO for nine years researching issues related to the transition of urban water systems, sustainability and infrastructure asset management. Dr Paul Davis works in the areas of pipeline deterioration modelling and asset management. Paul has over 15 years’ experience in the urban water industry as a researcher and consultant in Australia and the UK.


69

Technical Papers Bradley Lane (email: bradley.lane@csiro.au) is a Software Engineer working for CSIRO developing bespoke solutions for a range of industries, including urban water, bush fire and agriculture, to support effective operations. Dr Jaimie Hicks (email: jaimie.hicks@wsaa.asn.au) is the Customer Development Manager for the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA). Jaimie also looks after the WSAA Asset Management Program liaising with specialist networks and the WSAA Board Asset Management Committee in order to gather knowledge, identify collaboration opportunities, facilitate networking, share information and deliver outcomes that meet the urban water industry’s asset management needs. Jaimie joined the WSAA asset management team in 2009 and was previously at Asahi Glass Fluoropolymers Europe in a technical services role.

REFERENCES Buckland P (2011): The Business Case Involving Intangibles. ICOMS Asset Management Conference, Gold Coast. Crowder MJ (1991): Statistical Analysis of Reliability Data. 1st Edition, London; New York, Chapman & Hall. Davis P, Burn S & Gould S (2008a): Fracture Prediction in Tough Polyethylene Pipes Using Measured Craze Strength. Polymer Engineering and Science, 48, 5, pp 843–852. Davis P, Burn S, Moglia M & Gould S (2007): A Physical Probabilistic Model to Predict Failure Rates in Buried PVC Pipelines. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 92, 9, pp 1258–1266. Davis P, De Silva D, Marlow D, Moglia M, Gould S & Burn S (2008b): Failure Prediction and Optimal Scheduling of Replacements in Asbestos Cement Water Pipes. Journal of Water Supply Research and TechnologyAqua, 57, 4, pp 239–252. Davis P & Marlow D (2008): Asset Management: Quantifying Economic Lifetime of Large-Diameter Pipelines. Journal AWWA, 100, 7, pp 110–119. Gould SJF, Beale DJ, Davis P, Marlow DR & Hicks J (2013a): National Investigation of Failure Rates from Australian Water Supply Pipes. LESAM, Sydney, September 10–12. Gould SJF, Davis P, Beale DJ & Marlow DR

(2013b): Failure Analysis of a PVC Sewer Pipeline by Fractography and Materials Characterization. Engineering Failure Analysis, 34, pp 41–50. Katz A (1996): Effect of Fiber Modulus of Elasticity on the Long Term Properties of Micro-Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites. Cement and Concrete Composites, 18, pp 389–399. Marlow D, Davis P, Cook S, Lane B & Gould SJF (2013): Condition Assessment and Risk Management Guidelines: Rising Main Subsystems, CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country Flagship. Olliff J & Rolfe S (2002): Condition Assessment: The Essential Basis for Best Rehabilitation Practice. Proceedings of NO-DIG 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark. Schlick W (1940): Supporting Strength of Cast Iron Pipe for Gas and Water Services. Bulletin 146. Standards Australia (1972): AS1012 Part 10, Method for Determination of Indirect Tensile Strength of Concrete Cylinders. Sydney, Australia, Standards Australia. Standards Australia (1975): AS1711 Asbestos Cement Pipe. Sydney, Australia, Standards Australia. NT

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Technical Papers

USING SYSTEM INTEGRATED PLANNING TO OPTIMISE CRITICAL WATER MAIN RENEWAL OUTCOMES A review of Sydney Water’s improved planning approach to ensure optimisation of its water system assets C Moore, F Rifat, T Cartwright

ABSTRACT Sydney Water recently improved its planning approach to ensure that its water system assets are optimised, including the planning for critical water main renewals. The new approach is called System Integrated Planning (SIP), where synergies within and between drivers such as growth, renewals and reliability are identified and addressed. This paper reviews how System Integrated Planning, including the use of risk cost analyses, can be used for planning for critical water main renewals. It also contains two examples of renewals that have been planned in the past three years.

ASSET MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION Starting around the 1880s, new sources of supply south and west of Sydney created the original route alignments for critical water mains. As growth occurred across Sydney, further changes such as the construction of major tunnels and the introduction of new reservoir zones meant that the network configuration to supply customers became a complex system of old and new route alignments. This meant that the function of the older watermains had changed and thus, if renewed, would retain a sub-optimal system configuration. Up until about the 1990s, critical water main renewals were only a minor contributor to overall capital expenditure. Lately, expenditure for critical water mains has increased as many old water mains approached their end of life, which may exceed 100 years. Additionally, Cast Iron Cement Lined (CICL) water mains laid in the 1950s and 1960s are already reaching their end of life and make up a considerable volume of work. From about 2005 to 2010, the planning approach for the renewal of these assets

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

was to do a simple growth study that focused on sizing the main, without placing too much attention on reliability and maintainability in the system or the necessity to deal with possible future renewals in the local area. This meant that the existing network configuration would not change and evolve to become optimal. From 2010 to 2013, a review of the planning approach for the critical water mains renewal program was undertaken. About 42 candidates for renewals were planned during this time. From this review, an improved planning approach was developed, which Sydney Water has named System Integrated Planning (SIP). The context for the introduction of SIP was, therefore, the need to: • Change the focus from replacing the asset to optimising the system; • Identify when to change the system configuration, rather than just sizing the asset; • Ensure that all aspects of growth, renewals and reliability were considered in the planning. To aid in the decision making of value for money for reliability the concept of risk cost was introduced. This is used to complement the current qualitative risk assessment.

THE APPROACH AND EXAMPLES System Integrated Planning is where synergies within and between the drivers in the water system are identified and addressed in planning. The main drivers are: • Growth (capacity to meet future demands); • Renewals (need to replace all or some of the existing asset or facility that has reached the end of its useful life);

• Reliability (ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time), including the maintainability of critical assets. This approach to planning involves a review of the drivers around a particular problem, developing options and then determining the optimal result for the system. The following information provides further detail on the approach. GROWTH

The growth driver requires analysing the system for current and future demand requirements. RENEWALS

The renewals driver requires a review of existing critical assets in the area where a renewal candidate is nominated. It aims at ensuring critical assets that are to be renewed within the planning horizon (say 25 years) are identified and taken into account using a sensitivity analysis. This should include older assets, with information required being items such as remaining life, planned renewal cost and maintenance expenditure, where information is available. Facilities such as reservoirs and pumping stations should also be considered. RELIABILITY

The reliability driver requires assessing the major risks to ensure continuity, pressure and water quality requirements in the system of interest and surrounding water supply systems. It reviews failure points, using shutdown block analyses, as well as planned and unplanned maintenance of critical assets such as tunnels and reservoirs. RECONFIGURATION

Further to the above three drivers, resizing and/or reconfiguration of the system may be required as many older


71

Technical Papers

Table 1. Risk cost and risk score of each shutdown block element. Shutdown Block Analysis

Qualitative Risk Assessment Consequence

Risk Score

Severe

4

$289,950 $3,760,652 Very Unlikely

Moderate

5

BD

250

421

CICL

30

0.051 19.8 1000 500 0.25

250

$125,000

$6,315

$81,906

Very Unlikely

Minor

6

CF

375

860

CICL

30

0.069 14.5 1000 500 0.50

500

$250,000

$17,200

$223,084

Very Unlikely

Moderate

5

DF

200

2100 CICL

30

0.315

250

$125,000

$39,375

$510,694

Unlikely

Minor

5

3.2

1000 500 0.25

Likelihood

$220,500 $2,859,885 Very Unlikely

$3,000,000

Risk Cost $ NPV

Community Consequence Cost ($) $6,000,000

6,000

Risk Cost $p.a.

Customer Days 12,000

0.097 10.3 3000 500 2.00

Downtime (Days)

0.037 27.2 6000 500 2.00

30

$/dw/day

30

Number of Customers

CICL

(1 in X) p.a.

Failure Rate /100km (100mm)

735

1933 CICL

Mean Failure Rate

Material

600 600

Diameter (mm)

AB BC

Section

Length (m)

Penrith North Renewal

existing system is reconfigured and the risk of failure has changed. In simple terms, risk cost is developed from a quantitative risk assessment using failure rates (likelihood) and community costs (consequence) to determine the economic value of expenditure on mitigation solutions (redundancy). More information is contained in Figures 3, 4 and 5. Moore et al. (2013) contains examples of how risk cost is used for analysing reliability projects. IMPROVING ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS

Given the complex nature of changing the system, a number of questions and perspectives were developed to help improve alternative options. Methods to do this include: Figure 1. Schematic of the renewal of a critical watermain in Penrith.

Because of this, a review of the current assets in the area where growth and/ or renewals are proposed is warranted. Existing critical assets, especially those nominated for renewals, may be able to be: a.

Decommissioned (fully or partial);

b.

Decommissioned in conjunction with the creation of a new asset/facility elsewhere in the network;

c.

Rerouted (new alignment);

d.

Relocated;

e.

Upsized (insufficient capacity);

f.

Downsized (over capacity);

g.

Consolidated (e.g. three mains reduced to two or one).

Once the resized and/or reconfigured assets are obtained, it is then required to check if it is possible to transition from the existing system to the future one in a staged manner without considerable impact on customers. RISK

A review of the risk requirements for reliability highlighted that a quantitative risk assessment, in addition to the standard qualitative risk assessment that Sydney Water uses (see Figure 6), would prove beneficial. The quantitative risk assessment developed includes the concept of risk cost. This has been introduced to determine value for money for redundancy measures. This is important where an

• Forcing – examining what would happen elsewhere in the system when forced to accept that the renewal could not occur;

Figure 2. Critical watermain results.

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ASSET MANAGEMENT

systems have assets and facilities in service that could be better utilised, or no longer serve the purpose for which they were built.

• Seeking opportunities – proactively searching for other problems in the system so that a single solution developed may solve many problems;


72

Technical Papers analysis for the preferred main CF also showed that opening the dividing valve at F would be a suitable mitigation solution.

Risk Cost ($NPV) = Risk Cost ($p.a) x 12.97 Where: 12.97 = 1/1.0751 + 1/1.0752 + ….1/1.07550 (Present Value). 0.075 is equal to the current discount rate (7.5%). 50 is the assumed number of years of asset life. Risk Cost ($p.a) = Mean Failure Rate (MFR) x Community Consequence Cost Mean Failure Rate (MFR) = [30 failures / 100 km]* x [100 mm / actual diameter (mm)] x L (km) * Differs for different materials – see Figure 4.

Figure 3. Risk cost formulae used for random failures. Failure Rate Assumptions: For DICL, Failure Rate /100 km = 5 failures (for equivalent 100 mm water main) For CICL, Failure Rate /100 km = 30 failures (for equivalent 100 mm water main)

Figure 4. Failure rate assumptions for critical watermains. Community Consequence Cost = Number of customer days x $500/dwelling/day* *This is derived from Gross Regional Product of Sydney ($280 billion per year) and then evenly distributed to all customers.

Figure 5. Community consequence cost assumptions.

• Challenge assumptions and boundary conditions. OPTIMISATION

As there are three main drivers for the assessment (growth, renewals and reliability), developing options for these may require some form of iteration until an optimal solution is developed.

ASSET MANAGEMENT

Upon completion of a project, a new system definition (baseline) is created. Example 1. Renewal of 375mm water main ED in Penrith – see Figure 1. All the mains in the area are CICL. GROWTH

The first step was to develop a growth model that contained the estimated demands for 2031. The next step was to determine if the main could be decommissioned (especially as there were no customers connected to the main); however, the hydraulic analysis found that about 4,000 customers downstream would not obtain an adequate supply pressure at ‘F’. An analysis showed that if section DE was renewed, it would be economically viable. However, expanding the boundaries of planning from the immediate surrounds, it was found that

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amplifying the main CF on Figure 1 from 200mm to 375mm would compensate for the decommissioning of DE and also would be economically viable. As the saving for the amplification of CF compared to the renewal of DE was about $1.5M or 50%, the amplification of CF became the new preferred configuration for growth. RENEWALS

There were no other proposed renewals in the nearby area, so other renewals are not an issue in this example. RELIABILITY

The last column in Table 1 shows the results of the qualitative risk assessment using Sydney Water’s corporate risk matrix (see Figure 6). All risks are 4 or lower. This means that the risk is somewhat acceptable with a contingency plan, unless value for money can be achieved by a capital solution. For the reliability analysis, the question then becomes, what combination of mitigation solutions can provide value for money to mitigate each shutdown block? Table 2 provides benefit-to-cost ratios (B/C ratios) for the cost of two solutions (limited to two in this example). The two solutions are the ‘Renewal of DE’ (this is used to see if it has benefits for reliability, even though it is not the preferred option for growth) and the ‘Open DV Bringelly Road’ (an operational solution). The results show that the Open DV Bringelly Road solution is the preferred solution for each shutdown block, as the B/C ratios are much higher. Hence the Renewal of DE does not provide value for money in providing reliability to customers (and also is not the preferred solution for growth). OPTIMISATION

The final solution chosen is the amplification of the main CF, as it is the best solution for growth and also improves system reliability when nearby shutdown blocks are analysed. In this case, a reconfiguration of the system has occurred.

For the preferred configuration, running shutdown block analyses for the 600mm mains AB and BC, the major feeds from Penrith North reservoir, also highlighted the Likelihood % in the next year benefits of amplifying the Very Very Likely Unlikely main CF. If any of AB or Likely Unlikely BC is out of commission, >90% 50-90% 10-50% <10% a reasonable supply of >200,000 1 1 2 3 water (about average day demand) can be supplied >10,000 1 2 3 4 in emergency situations >500 2 3 4 5 to customers north of >50 3 4 5 6 C through CF from the adjacent zone (Bringelly <50 4 5 6 6 Road) via a dividing valve Figure 6. Sydney Water Operational Risk Matrix at F. A shutdown block (QMAF0021) (Sydney Water, 2010). Consequence Customer Days

• Partial risk reduction/increase;

Table 1 shows an economic evaluation of each shutdown block from Figure 1. It uses the risk cost formulae for each shutdown block to calculate the risk cost ($NPV). The results show that the risk cost for sections AB and BC are $2.8M and $3.7M respectively. This indicates that provision of redundancy up to these amounts would be economical.


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Table 2. Comparison of solution/s benefit to cost ratios for shutdown block analysis. Solutions and Cost Open DV Renewal of DE Bringelly Rd $3,000,000 $10,000 Shutdown Diameter Length Material Block Sections (mm) (m)

Risk Cost $ NPV

B/C Ratio

B/C Ratio

AB

600

735

CICL

$2,859,885

-

86.0

BC

600

1933

CICL

$3,760,652

1.3

376.1

BD

250

421

CICL

$81,906

-

-

CF

375

860

CICL

$223,084

-

-

DF

200

2100

CICL

$510,694

0.2

51.1

Preferred B/C

0.0

713.1

Outcome

Not economical

Economical

Example 2. Renewal of 2 x 500mm rising mains (Rookwood Rd) in Bankstown reservoir zone. This was a complicated planning exercise involving analysing future growth, multiple proposed renewals, and improvements to reliability in the Bankstown reservoir zone. To simplify matters, discussion here is limited to the results and benefits. The two 500mm rising mains (Rookwood Rd) to the reservoir were renewed as one larger 750mm main (change of the network configuration). The main was rerouted from a main arterial road to reduce cost. Overall, this led to a $14M saving. The major cost savings were due to avoiding concrete panel road restoration.

The following benefits are expected from the renewal project: • Improved reservoir balancing between an elevated and standpipe reservoir that are 1.5km apart; • A 30% reduction in starts/stops at the pumping station; • Improved water quality; • Better utilisation of reserve storage during incidents; • Improved arrangement and removal of negative pressure risks for taking reservoirs offline for maintenance;

• Knowledge due to the sensitivity analysis that if the other critical watermains are renewal candidates into the near future, that the major road restoration costs, estimated at $10 to 20M, are avoided and system performance and reliability are maintained.

DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS System Integrated Planning has evolved through planning the 42 water main renewal candidates over the past three years. The final planning solutions developed from these candidates were analysed in the following categories (see Figure 2): • Like for like • Downsizing (over capacity) • Upsizing (insufficient capacity) • Rerouting (new alignment) • Decommissioning (fully or partial) • Deferred. The results shown in Figure 2 indicate that only 25% were like-for-like replacement. The remaining 75% were either a change to the system or were deferred mainly due to high planning complexity. Downsizing of water mains accounted for 25%. In these cases most candidates were slip-lined and the internal diameter reduced usually by two nominal sizes. Extensive savings can be gained from slip-lining mains in major arterial roads where concrete panel is used.

Rerouting mains accounted for the smallest portion of 8%. This generally occurs to avoid the high cost of certain types of restoration, such as for concrete panels in heavy trafficable roads. In one case the rerouting was intentional so that existing reliability problems for maintenance of a large underground tunnel could be improved, without additional cost to the project. Decommissioning accounted for 19%. This highlights that the function of some older assets has changed so much that they are no longer required – this result was much higher than originally thought. It has led to questioning whether spending on condition assessment of mains should occur before planning, as now, or after planning. The remaining 13% are deferred projects. These projects were considered high complexity and cost and require a strategic review. These projects are usually then combined with other major planning studies for the development of an optimal solution. These studies may take up to two to three years to complete. Overall, what the results don’t show is the improved system performance, reliability and capacity to customers through reconfiguration of the network. It is difficult to find a good indicator to measure this improvement, however; this is one aspect that requires further work. Example 1 highlighted the use of risk cost in the shutdown block analysis. Although the assumptions used are in their infancy, risk cost shows how value for money can be calculated and then used to compare multiple risks and multiple solutions in a trade-off analysis that compares benefit-to-cost ratios. This is important, as it provides consistency between projects and other programs. From the results in Table 1, the qualitative risk score of 4 or lower would usually indicate an acceptable risk and no further action is required. But the risk-cost method highlights that low-cost solutions can provide very high value for medium to low risk scores. This is also beneficial when many smaller risks are combined together and whether a

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The new alignment also provided an opportunity as there was an existing reliability project, relating to limited back-up supplies for this zone, running concurrently with this project. This opportunity is expected to lead to a $2.5M saving in the reliability project.

• Future storage can be added at either reservoir based on hydraulic analysis and balancing;

Upsizing candidates accounted for 10%. These occur to cater for future growth, or where the condition and remaining life of two watermains is known, with the possibility of both mains being consolidated into one larger main.


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Technical Papers single solution can be found to mitigate multiple risks. Other issues worth noting were: • More information about the assets and surrounding systems were required at the start of the project; • It is very difficult at the start of a project to accurately define the boundary limits of planning; • More planning effort is required; • Improvement in the ability to easily map all proposed works for each of the drivers is required. An overlay of proposed works in a Geographical Information System (GIS) would provide a visual aid to assist all parties involved in planning.

CONCLUSIONS In the last three years, it was found that the existing water system network is generally not optimal and is extremely complex, mainly due to many system changes that have occurred over time since the 1880s.

ASSET MANAGEMENT

By implementing System Integrated Planning, it was found that the number of system improvements that were able to be made, and the number of mains that were not required, was more than expected. It was found that System Integrated Planning requires significantly more input information before starting the renewal and also more planning effort. It was found that it is difficult at the start of a project to accurately define the boundary of a project, mainly due to the complex nature of the water systems. It requires an appreciation of the system of interest and the surrounding systems to understand the interconnectivity and, thus, the intended and unintended consequences of making a change to the system. It was found that the increased focus on reliability aims at providing a consistent approach to all customers when failures occur. The implementation of a quantitative risk assessment using risk cost is new and has shown to provide consistency across projects. It is also a useful method for combining risks and improving decision-making. System Integrated Planning has achieved many benefits, including considerable cost savings, especially by reconfiguration of the network. It was found that slip-lining can be very cost effective. So, if a main is required to be renewed in busy roads, one option

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

that should be investigated is reducing the size of the main to enable slip-lining, and then trying to develop another solution elsewhere in the system to cope with any system performance deficiency. Improvement areas are: • Obtaining better data to improve assumptions in risk cost calculations; • Obtaining more information on condition and/or life expectancy of all critical assets in the system, not just the candidate renewal; • Creating an overlay of proposed works in a Geographical Information System to help improve visual identification of future renewals, growth and reliability synergies for grouping and resourcing planning projects; • Finding a good indicator to measure the value added to the system when planning is optimised (hard to define in numerical terms). The aim of System Integrated Planning is to optimise the system. It was found that this aim has been achieved as improvements to the system have been obtained in the planning for many of the 42 critical water main renewal candidates. The next steps are to: • Further develop the System Integration Planning framework around how renewals are planned with future capacity and reliability requirements; • Explore and consider Brownfield Systems Engineering principles and how to evolve legacy systems to water supply systems; • Develop a change management process to change people’s perception that planning for renewals can be done quite quickly, with relatively limited effort; • Change Sydney Water’s water planning guideline to incorporate the new approach; • Develop a training program for planners, especially on risk cost. In the interim, it is intended to keep reviewing and fine-tuning the current approach. As Sydney Water is still in the learning phase regarding System Integrated Planning, discussions between other water planners in other organisations about the implementation of better

planning approaches would, therefore, be highly beneficial. The information in this paper is provided to assist in any discussions. This paper was first presented at Ozwater’14 in Brisbane in May 2014.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors wish to thank Jivir Viyakesparan – Principal Engineer Network Alliance (Parsons Brickenhoff) for assisting with changes to the planning guideline and implementing the change. and Network Alliance (NWA) staff involved in the critical water mains program.

THE AUTHORS Christopher Moore (email: christopherjoseph.moore@ sydneywater.com.au) is a Senior Analyst with the Liveable City Solutions division at Sydney Water. He is currently involved in strategic asset management with the Servicing & Asset Strategy team. Chris is a Civil Engineer with more than 15 years’ experience in water supply operations, planning and strategic asset management. Farhana Rifat (email:farhana. rifat@sydneywater.com. au) is an Analyst with the Liveable City Solutions division at Sydney Water. She is currently involved in strategic asset management and planning with the Servicing & Asset Strategy team. Farhana is a Civil Engineer with more than 10 years’ experience in water and wastewater in Australia and Bangladesh. Tony Cartwright (email: anthony.cartwright3@ bigpond.com) has recently left Sydney Water. He was a Strategist with the Liveable City Solutions division. His recent work involved strategic asset management and development of the guidelines for System Integrated Planning. Tony is a Civil Engineer with more than 30 years’ experience on water and recycled water projects in Australia.

REFERENCES Moore C & Cartwright T (2013) Helping Managers Spend Money Wisely On System Reliability. Asset Management Conference, Asset Management Council. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Sydney Water (2010): Risk Management – Operational Risks – QMAF0021. Sydney Water Procedure, June 2010.


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DESIGN OF EARTHQUAKERESILIENT WASTEWATER PIPELINES IN NEW ZEALAND Response to the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake and formation of the Stronger Christchurch Infrastructure Rebuild Team M Serrano-López, I García-Sampedro, P Carter

ABSTRACT Between 2010 and 2011 Christchurch, which is the second biggest city in New Zealand, has faced incredible challenges. The 6.3 magnitude earthquake that ripped through the city in February 2011 was the most destructive to strike a New Zealand city in 80 years. In addition to the visible damage, about 30% of the city’s sewerage was also significantly damaged. SCIRT (Stronger Christchurch Infrastructure Rebuild Team) is responsible for rebuilding the horizontal infrastructure damaged during the earthquakes. SCIRT is an alliance made up of asset owner organisations, the central government recovery agency (CERA) and five construction companies. This paper summarises the design process within SCIRT for the rebuild of the damaged sewerage, and why creation of resilient infrastructure is considered one of the most important goals.

at shallow depths and on previously unidentified faults, at varying distances from the Christchurch CBD. Figure 1 presents a map of the Canterbury region with causative faults and epicentre locations for: • 4 September 2010, Darfield: magnitude 7.1 (Mw), depth of 10km, peak acceleration 1.26g (located 40km west of Christchurch), Mercalli intensity: X; • 22 February 2011, Christchurch: magnitude 6.2 (Mw), depth of 5km, peak acceleration 1.88g (located 7km from city centre); 2.2g (epicentre), Mercalli intensity: VIII, 182 deaths; • 13 June 2011, Christchurch: magnitude 6.0 (Mw), depth of 6.0km, peak acceleration 0.78g (located 9km from city centre); 2.13g (epicentre), Mercalli intensity: VIII;

• 23 December 2001, Christchurch: magnitude 6.0 (Mw), depth 6.0km, located 10km north of Christchurch, Mercalli intensity VIII. Each earthquake was accompanied by widespread liquefaction with resulting damage to sewerage, water and stormwater pipelines. The February 2011 earthquake caused considerable damage to the sewerage, approximately 30% of which was damaged causing loss of service to large parts of Christchurch, in particular the eastern suburbs where there are large areas of liquefiable soils. Some 2,900 portable toilets were placed on streets and 30,000 chemical toilets distributed to homes as temporary facilities. Damage to trunk and collection mains was caused by slumping, liquefaction (including lateral spreading adjacent to rivers), and differential settlement.

The rebuild provides the opportunity to consider alternative technologies that provide cost-effective solutions and, at the same time, build additional resilience into the system. Keywords: Asset management; pipelines maintenance; sewer & drains; resilient design.

INTRODUCTION CHRISTCHURCH EARTHQUAKES

The 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence included a mixture of strike-slip and reverse faulting,

Figure 1. Principal earthquakes of the Canterbury earthquake sequence (www.gns.cri.nz).

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

New Zealand has a long history of earthquakes, ranging from tiny tremors detectable only by sensitive instruments to violent earthquakes causing major damage and many fatalities.


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Technical Papers Programme funded by

Stormwater Wastewater

Property bounda ry

Fresh water

Stormwater pipe

l ve le r te wa nd ou Gr << To river

Wastewater pipe

Manhole

Broken & blocked pipes Retaining wall

Water main ta & da one leph Te

<< To treatm ent pla nt

The Foundations Of Our City

Figure 2. SCIRT graphic to explain to the community what rebuilding horizontal infrastructure means (strongerchristchurch.govt.nz). UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE

All rebuild work on CCC assets, within the SCIRT scope of work, is carried out in accordance with the Infrastructure Recovery Technical Standards and Guidelines (IRTSG). The IRTSG sets out the levels of service and the asset condition thresholds that trigger repair or rebuild of damaged assets. Additional design guidelines have been produced that provide guidance on specific parts of the assessment and design process. New design guidelines are produced and existing guidelines updated as new or revised processes are developed. Project work areas have been prioritised, with work in general progressing from more to less damaged areas of Christchurch. The project boundaries are usually defined by the sewerage catchment boundaries. An interactive SCIRT five-year Work Schedule and Rebuild Map (Figure 4) gives an indication of when works will be carried out across the city.

ASSET ASSESSMENT INTRODUCTION

The primary objective of the rebuild is “to return the infrastructure network to a condition that meets the levels of service that existed prior to the 4 September 2010 earthquake”. Approximately 1,800km of the sewer network requires condition assessment to identify damage needing repair.

Figure 3. Structure of the Stronger Christchurch Infrastructure Rebuild Team (SCIRT) (strongerchristchurch.govt.nz). Ground movement opened fissures and caused large potholes to develop.

PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE

The extent of the damage and the large volume of rebuild work required led to the formation of an alliance (the Stronger Christchurch Infrastructure Rebuild Team, or SCIRT) to co-ordinate and deliver the rebuild of infrastructure including roads, bridges, retaining walls, water supply, wastewater and stormwater networks (see Figure 2). The rebuild of the infrastructure has a budget of approximately NZ$2.2 billion.

comprises approximately 300 people located together and includes a management team, four design teams of approximately 44 people (seconded from 18 professional services consultancies and alliance partners), estimators, delivery team coordinators and other support personal, including planning and environmental specialists. The Delivery Teams include approximately 1,200 construction personnel.

The SCIRT alliance structure is shown in Figure 3.

This alliance structure has resulted in a one-team culture with the overall SCIRT goal of: “creating resilient infrastructure that gives people security and confidence in the future of Christchurch”.

An Integrated Services Team (IST) provides the co-ordination, planning and design for the rebuild, to be delivered by the Delivery Teams. IST

A number of technical standards and guidelines have been produced to guide the assessment of damage and the design of the rebuild work.

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

The primary tool for identifying damage in gravity sewers is Closed Circuit Television Inspection (CCTV). SCIRT manages a program of CCTV inspection and assessment that identifies the repairs necessary to re-establish the level of service in the project area. CCTV inspections are carried out in accordance with the New Zealand Pipe Inspection Manual 3rd edition (NZPIM) and the CCC specification: CCTV for CCC Earthquake Recovery. The inspection process involves a camera that travels through the pipeline and transfers images to a screen on the surface where they can be viewed by an operator and recorded. The operator records observations, damage and faults, captures images and/or produces sketches. All defects and features identified during the CCTV inspection are recorded. Distance measurements are accurately recorded to enable defects or features to be located. Figure 5 shows examples of pipe faults found in Christchurch.


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Figure 4. SCIRT Rebuild Works Schedule (strongerchristchurch.govt.nz).

Pipe broken, infiltration and Tomo

Pipe collapse

Surface damage (rebar exposed) displacement

Joint displaced

Silt

Figure 5. Examples of pipe faults detected by CCTV operators.

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Crack multiple


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Figure 6. Liquefaction Resistance Index (Zoning) of Christchurch at water table (Cubrinovski et al.). ANALYSIS OF CCTV

LEVEL SURVEY AND

A scoring analysis is used to evaluate the general condition of pipelines from CCTV inspections. The process involves assigning weighted scores and severity ratings to defects on the basis of their influence on the structural integrity and serviceability of the pipeline. Mean and peak scores for pipelines are calculated and compared against grading thresholds to provide a general indication of the condition of the pipe.

DAMAGE PREDICTION

PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

IRTSG decision criteria that determine whether to repair or renew a pipe from manhole to manhole are:

In addition to CCTV inspection of pipes, a level survey is carried out to determine the effect of the earthquakes on the level and grade of pipelines and obtain existing levels for the design of pipe renewals. A desktop assessment tool that predicts pipe condition is used to assist the assessment of gravity sewers at the scoping stage. The tool predicts damage based on the observed damage to pipes of similar composition (e.g. earthenware) and age, installed in similar ground conditions.

• Investigating damage trends for different pipe materials and asset ages across the city; • Comparing CCTV and level surveys taken at different times; • Undertaking initial pipe capacity calculations to determine minimum design pipe grades.

REPORTING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT USING

CHRISTCHURCH CONDITIONS

PRIORITISING AND

• For pipes < 1.5m deep, where there are five or more dig-up repairs, it is more economical to relay the entire manhole-to-manhole length;

InfoNet was selected as the primary tool to manage the wastewater and stormwater pipe surveys and assessments. InfoNet is a purpose-built Infrastructure Management System (IMS) for water, wastewater and stormwater networks used for day-to-day operational management and long-term network planning.

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

• Assessing the impact of changes to repair/renewal thresholds in the IRTSG;

EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT IN CHRISTCHURCH

• A ratio of the total structural score over pipe length equal or greater than three indicates a complete manholeto-manhole pipe renewal;

• For pipes > 1.5m deep, where there are six or more dig-up repairs it is more economical to relay the entire manhole to manhole length.

InfoNet is used to undertake analysis of CCTV and level data, including:

INFONET

The damage to the sewerage in Christchurch was exacerbated by a number of conditions including liquefiable soils, high groundwater level, deep sewers laid on flat grades, and the age and condition of pipes. These factors affected the slow post-earthquake return of service. The above factors meant that the wastewater infrastructure was more


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Technical Papers severely affected than the water and stormwater infrastructure. After earthquakes, the sewers in liquefiable ground often require high pressure jetting and suction trucks to remove liquefaction material that entered pipes through pipe and manhole defects and overflowing gulley traps. Pipes often required repeated jetting and CCTV inspection to find faults and return the pipes to service. Christchurch sewers have historically been installed at flatter than normal grades; 1:450 grade for DN150 pipes and 1:700 grade for DN225 pipes are common in older pipes. Liquefaction and settlement caused by earthquakes can significantly impact on the grade of flat sewers, leading to reverse grades and pipe dips. Brittle pipes suffered the most structural damage, especially earthenware, which often failed catastrophically. There was also a high damage rate in concrete pipes, especially at joints, often exacerbated by pipe corrosion due to high H2S levels in the flat sewers.

Figure 7. SCIRT Design Process. FAILURE MODES IN THE SEWERAGE

The sewerage in Christchurch can be

• Earthenware (EW): generally DN150 to DN300mm diameter, spigot and socket joints;

mainly divided into:

• PVC-U: Commonly used DN100 to DN375mm diameter;

• Reinforced Concrete: RCRRJ pipes

• Asbestos Cement (AC);

generally larger than DN150mm diameter;

• Polyethylene (PE): generally used for trenchless applications.

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PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

Figure 8. SCIRT Detail Design Process.


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Figure 9. SCIRT types of sewerage (strongerchristchurch.govt.nz). The predominant pipe diameter in the sewerage is DN150mm, comprising 56% of the total. The principal failure modes are: • Longitudinal joint movement, resulting in over-insertion, joint pull-out or failure of “flexible” joints; • Vertical movement of pipe (off-grade) or manhole (flotation, tilting or subsidence); • Differential movement and consequent pipe shear or damage to structures; • Structural failure of earthenware, asbestos cement and old steel pipes. LAND DAMAGE AND LIQUEFACTION RESISTANCE INDEX

Geotechnical investigation following the September 2010 and February 2011 earthquakes catalysed the production of two classification systems that categorise the potential land damage that may occur during future earthquakes.

PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

The New Zealand Department of Building and Housing (DBH) divided residential land into either green or red zones. Red zone land is unsuitable for residential development. Green zone land was further divided based on the likelihood of land damage from liquefaction in future earthquakes. These categories are: • TC1 – Future land damage from liquefaction is unlikely; • TC2 – Minor to moderate land damage from liquefaction is possible in future significant earthquakes; • TC3 – Moderate to significant land damage from liquefaction is possible in future significant earthquakes.

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The Liquefaction Resistance Index (Zoning) (Figure 6) indicates likely seismically generated settlements and displacements affecting underground reticulation, based on observed liquefaction and groundwater levels. These zones are applicable to infrastructure installed between 0–5m below the water table and exclude lateral displacement. The zones show the seismic impact on the underground reticulation and indicate liquefaction resistance relative to Zone 1 – i.e. Zone 3 has a liquefaction resistance three times that of Zone 1.

DESIGN PROCESS AND RESILIENCE SCIRT DESIGN PROCESS

A structured design process was implemented at the start of the SCIRT alliance, which includes project definition and prioritisation, concept design, detail design, TOC and delivery phases (Figure 7). The design phases are mapped in more detail in separate sheets (see Figure 8 for Detail Design). The design phases include technical reviews, ECI/constructability workshops (which include discussion on different options and construction methodologies), risk and safety in design workshops, and hazard and operability (HAZOP) workshops. Formal peer reviews and HAZOPS may be carried out, depending on the type of project and the project risks. A risk register is prepared with proposed mitigating actions, which is carried through the design and delivery phases. A residual risk register is handed over to the asset owner following construction.

DETAILED DESIGN The sewerage rebuild requires repair or renewal to the pipe assets where damage exceeding thresholds in the IRTSG is identified through condition assessment and/or survey of grades. The approach taken for the rebuild of the wastewater network is based on: • Repair pipes where practical; • Line pipes where the grade and damage allows; • Pipes that are unable to be repaired or lined are replaced, where practical, in accordance with the current CCC design standard, which includes revisions for resilient design. LEVEL OF SERVICE

Once the individual earthquake damage defects are identified, the aggregated effect of the defects on the level of service in the project area is assessed. Where the defects do not significantly contribute to a reduced level of service or reduce the remaining life of the asset, the repairs can be deferred as ‘no action for non-critical defects’. RESILIENT DESIGN

Resilience is defined in the IRSTG as the ability of a system to withstand or quickly recover from significant disruption. Included in the concepts are: • Service interruptions are expected; • Quick restoration of service is required; • Infrastructure networks must be robust; • Infrastructure networks must be flexible.


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Technical Papers Modern infrastructure constructed to current standards and including the use of the natural advances in materials, design and construction techniques will provide greater resilience than older infrastructure. Improved resilience can also be achieved by adopting better materials and higher construction standards and eliminating, isolating or minimising hazards. Methods adopted in Christchurch to improve the resilience of the sewerage include: • Design using tractive force theory, which provides steeper grades, more resilient to settlement and loss of grade; • Limiting the depth of pipelines to 3.5m and including lift pump stations in the network; • Limiting new laterals to a maximum depth of 2.5m; • Using collector pipelines at shallow depths, connected at access chambers, where existing trunk mains are deeper than 2.5m; • Preventing silt entering into pipes through gully traps and private laterals; • Designing laterals to the same standard as the mains; • Adopting pressure or vacuum sewer systems (which are more resilient to changes in grade) in areas identified as being at high risk of liquefaction and/or land subsidence in future earthquakes; • Using ductile/flexible pipe materials where possible; • Detailing flexible pipe connections at access chambers, pump stations and other structures including long socket connections;

• Designing new pump stations slightly deeper to incorporate a steeper inlet pipe grade; • Implementing ground improvement at critical structures such as terminal pump stations.

radiates out from the station. The main benefits of this option are:

The hydraulic design of sewers has changed from requiring a dry weather flushing velocity of greater than 0.65m/s to requiring a self-cleansing flow at least once per day calculated by ‘tractive force’ theory.

• Shallow installation depth of 1.2m to 1.8m for pipelines, 2m deep for vacuum pits. Initial installation of the vacuum pipes needs to be done with reasonable precision as the gradient of the pipe is important to the performance of the system;

The tractive force method is widely used in the design of open channels. Like the minimum velocity design method, it is based on the concept of “threshold of movement” and makes use of the minimum force required to move a certain size of settled particle (Minimum shear stress min= 1 N/m2, ). The tractive force theory provides steeper grades than those that were previously constructed and found to be workable, albeit with more frequent cleaning.

ALTERNATIVE COLLECTION SYSTEMS Three collection systems are identified as alternatives to straight “like for like” reinstatement of the existing gravity system: • Vacuum systems: considered on a case-by-case basis when the others are considered inappropriate (IDS), Zones LRI 2; • Pressure sewer systems: for areas where the ground conditions pose high risk of further infrastructure damage during earthquakes, Zones LRI 0,1; • Enhanced gravity sewers (steeper gravity pipelines with lift pump stations) are considered the preferred option in all types of zones if practical. The economics of retaining existing gravity assets is dependent on a large number of factors including pipe depth, type of pipe, groundwater levels, susceptibility to liquefaction etc. A technical and financial analysis is carried out on a case-by-case basis to determine the best option for individual areas. The analysis includes allowance for the cost of recovery and repairs to infrastructure following future earthquakes. VACUUM SEWERAGE

Vacuum systems best suit a catchment that is of roughly equal dimensions in each direction where the main vacuum pump station can be located near the centre of the area. The vacuum pumping station is a significant structure both above and below ground and provides the “suck” on the network of pipes that

• Reduced inflow and infiltration compared to gravity system (for the vacuum areas); • No work required on private property (private drainage repairs may still be necessary); • Minimal odour when compared to conventional sewerage. The pipes are laid on grade, but at shallow depth, and the pipeline steps in a “saw-tooth” fashion like a long series of “lift” stations; the vacuum “suck” provides a lift of 30mm in the saw-tooth before the flow then travels by gravity, assisted by the drag of the air flow created by the vacuum to be lifted again at the next saw tooth. While the vacuum pumping station is more expensive than a conventional deep gravity pumping system of similar capacity, the clear advantage is that the fully welded pipes are laid at much shallower depths, at much lower cost than conventional gravity sewers. Maintenance costs are expected to be slightly higher due to more complex vacuum and pumping equipment and the additional maintenance of a large number of vacuum valves. PRESSURE SEWERS

Pressure sewers are suited to very flat, low-lying land in any shaped catchment. They consist of a small pump and pump chamber on each property, located in a position agreed with the property owner and preferably close to the dwelling to minimise the length of the gravity lateral and potential groundwater leakage into that lateral. The pressure main in the street increases in size in proportion to the number of properties connected to it. The main benefits of this option are: • Shallow installation depth of typically 1m or less for pipelines, 2m deep for pump stations. The pressure pipes do not have to be laid at any particular depth or grade; • Pressure sewers have high resilience to ground movement and pipe dips;

NOVEMBER 2014 WATER

PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

• Using flexible inlet pipes at steeper grades between a manhole and pump station;

CHANGE IN DESIGN PHILOSOPHY: TRACTIVE FORCE GRADE


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Technical Papers • Minimises traffic disruption due to directional drilling of pressure lines;

TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES

• Reduced inflow and infiltration compared to gravity system;

Trenchless techniques being used for the renewal of wastewater pipes in the rebuild include: pipe bursting; cured inplace pipe lining; expanded spiral-wound PVC liner; horizontal directional drilling; and pilot-tube augur boring. These all have special attributes and should be considered for problematic locations.

• Reduced length of private laterals and increased resilience in future earthquakes. These systems are relatively cheap and quick to install, very resilient to ground movement, simple to repair, and the best system available for eliminating groundwater and stormwater entry into the sewer system. The pressure sewer system also reduces downstream peak flows due to the available storage on site, which also acts as a buffer in the event of a power failure. ENHANCED GRAVITY SEWER SYSTEMS

The concept of an enhanced gravity sewer system is to reduce the depth of the replacement pipes laid in the damaged areas to less than 3.5m, and provide a greater number of smaller pumping stations at closer intervals than previously. These systems significantly reduce the number of household laterals connected to deep mains, which were the source of many repairs needed and which have been a major source of damage and loss of service in the recent earthquake events. The main considerations of this option are: • Enhanced gravity system has a lower resilience to future ground movement caused by seismic events compared to vacuum or pressure sewers; • Construction of the new gravity pipelines would result in considerable disruption to the neighbourhood;

PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

• High initial construction cost due to sheet piling, dewatering and restoration works. The cheaper capital cost to install is offset by some additional operating and maintenance costs for the pumping stations. The clear advantage is the resilience of shallower pipes that are easier to repair or replace in future events. These pipes are generally laid at a steeper grade and are less susceptible to service failure (e.g. blockage). In most installations these enhanced gravity systems can be designed to overflow at a high level into the next gravity pipe without the need for the usual standby pumping arrangements. This simplifies the pumping control system and reduces the number of pumps required.

WATER NOVEMBER 2014

CONCLUSIONS Creating the SCIRT alliance to rebuild the Christchurch sewer system has generated a large number of challenges for all involved. The goal to incorporate resilience into all aspects of the rebuild has led to changes in design and specification standards to improve the resilience of the sewerage. Guidelines, specifications and standard details have been developed that will provide a legacy of resilient design practices in a city built on difficult ground conditions where there is a high probability of damaging future earthquakes. Other legacies include the development of collaborative relationships across the industry and an upskilled workforce. Alternative technologies that provide cost-effective solutions and, at the same time, build additional resilience into the network have been identified and are being implemented. The improved resilience of the wastewater infrastructure helps to fulfil the overall goal of the SCIRT alliance, which is to create resilient infrastructure that gives people security and confidence in the future of Christchurch. Another goal of SCIRT is to provide a successful model that can be adopted and adapted as a disaster infrastructure rebuild blueprint in New Zealand and be recognised globally. The award of the ICE (Institute of Civil Engineers) Brunel Medal to SCIRT recognises the progress towards the achievement of that goal. ICE noted: “This project highlights the scale of the task and the number of people involved, showing outstanding teamwork and collaboration. This was a natural disaster of great magnitude and shows the dedication to a project of immense scale. It has placed civil engineering in the forefront of people’s minds.”

SCIRT has also achieved at a local level with official recognition at the Champion Canterbury Business Awards. The SCIRT alliance won the Infrastructure award and also the supreme award for medium to large businesses in Canterbury.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors would like to acknowledge the contribution made by the entire Stronger Christchurch Infrastructure Rebuild Team (SCIRT), which is working on developing a more resilient design and creating new standards and new ways of designing. The innovations that are outlined in this paper are a direct result of a successful alliance relationship and achieving the SCIRT goal: “creating resilient infrastructure that gives people security and confidence in the future of Christchurch”. Figures are courtesy of SCIRT unless otherwise stated.

THE AUTHORS Mar Serrano-López (email: Mar.SerranoLopez@ ghd.com) is Service Group Manager and Principal Water Engineer at GHD in Darwin, Australia. In her former position as a Water Team Leader in SCIRT (Stronger Christchurch Rebuild Team), her functions were to act as Project Manager and Technical Leader for Concept and Details Design, including the development and design of specific recommendations for replacement, repair or additional studies for the water supply, wastewater and stormwater networks within the Christchurch rebuild infrastructure. Irmana GarcíaSampedro (email: Irmana. GarciaSampedro@scirt. com) is a Data Assessment Engineer with City Care Ltd, seconded to SCIRT (Stronger Christchurch Infrastructure Rebuild Team), Christchurch, New Zealand. She is currently undertaking analysis of asset condition and performance data collected by the Asset Assessment team and complete defendable asset assessment against recognised damage thresholds. She is also making asset condition information available to the Asset Assessment Team, Project Definition Team, Design Teams, CCC and funders.


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Technical Papers Peter Carter (email: Peter.Carter@ghd.com) is a Senior Civil and Environmental Engineer currently seconded to SCIRT alliance. He is an Infrastructure Recovery Engineer carrying out assessment and design for rebuild of wastewater, water, stormwater and road infrastructure in Christchurch following the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. Projects have included repair and rehabilitation of Terminal Wastewater Pump Station 15 in Woolston, for which work included ground improvement, civil, structural, mechanical and electrical repairs, and rebuild to provide a resilient pump station capable of surviving future earthquakes.

REFERENCES Alexander B, Albert W, Richard O & Jose D (1994): Simplified Sewerage: Design Guidelines. UNDP World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, pp 27–28, Washington, USA. CCC Christchurch City Council (2003): Waterways, Wetlands and Drainage Guide, Ko Te Anga Whakaora mö Ngä Arawai Rëpo 2003 (WWDG). www.ccc.govt.nz/cityleisure/ parkswalkways/environmentecology/ waterwayswetlandsdrainageguide/index.aspx

CCC Christchurch City Council (2011): Central City Plan, Draft Central City Recovery Plan for Ministerial Approval. Christchurch City. www.ccc.govt.nz/homeliving/civildefence/ chchearthquake/centralcityplan.aspxw (accessed 05/05/2013). CCC Christchurch City Council (2011): Option for Sewer Rebuild in Christchurch. Council Agenda 27 October 2011. www1.ccc.govt. nz/council/proceedings/2011/october/ cnclcover27th/22.optionssewerrebuild. pdf (accessed 08/06/2013). CCC Christchurch City Council (2012): CCTV for Christchurch City Council Earthquake Recovery. www.ccc.govt. nz/business/constructiondevelopment/ constructionstandardspecification.aspx (accessed 14/07/2013). CCC Christchurch City Council (2012): Civil Engineering Construction Standard Specifications Part 1–7 (CSS). www.ccc. govt.nz/business/constructiondevelopment/ constructionstandardspecification.aspx (accessed 14/07/2013). CCC Christchurch City Council (2012): Infrastructure Design Standard (IDS). www.ccc. govt.nz/business/constructiondevelopment/ constructionstandardspecification.aspx (accessed 14/07/2013). CCC, NZTA & CERA (2012): Infrastructure Recovery Technical Standards and Guideline

(IRTSG). Christchurch City Council, NZ Transport Agency, Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority, NZ. Cubrinovski M, Hughes M, Bradley B, McCahon I, McDonald Y, Simpson H, Cameron R, Christison M, Henderson B, Orense R & O’Rourke T (2011): Liquefaction Impacts on Pipe Networks. Recovery Project No. 6, Natural Hazards Research Platform, University of Canterbury, NZ. Cubrinovski M, Hughes MW & McCahon I (2011): Liquefaction Resistance Index (Zoning) of Christchurch at Water Table Depth Based on Liquefaction Observations from the 2010– 2011 Earthquakes and Water Table Depth Information. December 2011. University of Canterbury, NZ. Department of Building and Housing (DHB) (2011): Guidelines for the Investigation and Assessment of Subdivisions (2011). Department of Building and Housing. www.dbh.govt.nz/canterbury-earthquakeresidential-building (accessed 05/05/2013). GNS Science – Webb TH (Compiler) (2011): The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence and Implications for Seismic Design Levels, GNS Science Consultancy Report 2011/183, commissioned by the Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission, NZ. NZWWA (2006): New Zealand Pipe Inspection Manual 3rd Edition (NZPIM). New Zealand Water and Wastes Association Inc, NZ.

PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

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Water Business

water business HACH BIOTECTOR B7000 TOC ANALYSER Hach BioTector TOC Analysers provide maximum uptime and reliability due to a patented self-cleaning oxidation technology that easily handles difficult samples and significantly reduces maintenance. Unlike traditional TOC analysers, the BioTector eliminates build-up issues from salts, particulates, fats, oils and greases that lead to drift and high maintenance. With reliable, continuous monitoring and real-time process control, plant operators can optimise their processes to lower overall plant operating costs. The most advanced system in its class, BioTector products achieve precise results from the simplest to the most demanding applications. With patented two-stage advanced oxidation technology, the Biotector handles even the most challenging applications involving fats, oils, greases, salts, sludge, and particulates. Oversized tubing eliminates filtration and sample contamination. There’s minimal maintenance, no calibration or operator intervention is required between service intervals, and it provides a quick pay-back with cost savings in chemical dosing, waste reduction and optimised processes. Configurations are available for TOC, TOC/TN, and TOC/TN/TP. Please see your local Hach representative for details.

BIOFILTRATION FOR EMISSION AND ODOUR CONTROL “Odours constitute the largest area of air quality-related complaints for all Australian and New Zealand regulatory authorities.” (Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand). It is generally accepted that there is no single panacea odour control technology. However, biofiltration is emerging as a versatile solution due to its ability to adapt to a wide variety of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in that appropriate bacteria will naturally colonise biofilter media in response to the VOCs that are introduced. Early biofilters were open bed (soil bed) type facilities. They were often poorly designed, had limited media options, required high-maintenance and subsequently often delivered poor performance. Over time, soil beds evolved and improved but were still constrained by their fundamental design.

The biofilter concept evolved further and was configured as a “packaged biofilter”, with the media contained within a vessel. There has now been a specific development of packaged biofilter technology - FiltaOdor. The principal of biofiltration Bio-filtration is the removal and oxidation of VOCs by microorganisms. The air flows through a packed bed and the pollutant transfers into a material that is biologically active, the biomass. Microorganisms, including a consortium of bacteria and fungi, are immobilised in the biofilm and degrade the pollutant. An ideal environment must be maintained to ensure a robust biomass. Comparison of soil beds with FiltaOdor Following is a comparison of soil beds with the FiltaOdor biofilter in terms of the Key Operating Parameters. It is acknowledged that many packaged biofilter designs have addressed some of the shortcomings of soil beds to varying degrees; however, the FiltaOdor design comprehensively addresses all shortcomings. Biofiltration provides effective odour control by a natural process. FiltaOdor

Flow velocity and rate SOIL BED

FILTAODOR

Airflow resistance of media restricts media depth, resulting in a large footprint to achieve the necessary media volume, and limiting where on site the soil bed can be positioned.

Very low airflow resistance of media allows a deep bed and small footprint, thus providing greater flexibility for positioning on-site.

Humidification SOIL BED

FILTAODOR

It is common for soil beds to rely on irrigation alone to maintain media moisture levels.

Integrated humidifier/irrigation system. Media moisture level is maintained at equilibrium via a process that allows excess moisture to fall out for recovery and recirculation. The media is not exposed to weather.

Irrigation SOIL BED

FILTAODOR

Typically rely on timer-based systems with lawn watering type sprinkler heads. No automated control of media moisture content.

Incorporates a “wobbler” sprayer, creating heavy droplets and an irregular spray pattern to provide even coverage. Excess moisture freely drains from the media so that saturation is avoided and optimum moisture content is maintained.

Diffusion

water November 2014

SOIL BED

FILTAODOR

Typically have slotted pipes in granular bedding, subject to blocking with degraded organic media. Bark/woodchip-based media is highly bioavailable and degrades rapidly, becoming compacted and restricting air flow. Also subject to weed growth, with roots interfering with air flow and often penetrating the slotted pipes.

Airflow introduced via an unrestricted void space (plenum). Media is a combination of an organic fibre and a mineral media working cohesively to create even diffusion and moisture retention. The media has very low biodegradability.


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water Business

media Interface SOIL BED

FILTAODOR

If media is in direct contact with the granular bedding of the diffuser pipes, material migrates through and blocks the pipes. If a separation layer such as geofabric is used to prevent this, the geofabric itself restricts airflow.

Incorporates a cored deck separating the media from the plenum. The deck has a specific aperture size and number to ensure there is no restriction or increase in airflow velocity. The media is placed directly on the deck with no need for any other separation layer. The media does not break down and allow migration of material through the deck.

venting SOIL BED

FILTAODOR

Emission capacity of the slotted diffuser pipes needs to be tuned to match the inlet ducting capacity. It also needs to be tuned for even distribution across the diffuser pipe layout.

Inlet ducting size is designed for optimum airflow, open plenum allows even distribution, exhaust is via a correctly sized exhaust vent.

managing environmental variances SOIL BED

FILTAODOR

Open beds are exposed to seasonal temperature conditions. Wind causes variable evaporation rates that auto irrigation cannot accommodate.

The enclosed vessel facilitates a more consistent temperature average. Optimal moisture content is maintained. There is minimal seasonal impact. There is no weed or vermin infestation.

Media is subject to weed and vermin infestation.

ONSITE WATER BIOMASS TESTING Poor control of biofilms creates a range of problems in various industries such as drinking water, wastewater and water for power generation. Many of the problems occur due to corrosion, odours, clogged valves and filters, and reduced cooling efficiencies.

resolves the practical issues – all vital parameters are controlled with little maintenance and consistent results are achieved long term. For more information on FiltaOdor please email: tonyryan@odours.com.au

Control of biofilms with biocides is difficult and expensive. Underuse can lead to the problems caused by biofilm formation, and overuse can be costly and create other problems with corrosion or excessive wastewater generation. To achieve optimum results you will need to sample and test to determine when to take action. However, traditional methods can take days to return results.

Based on ATP Bioluminescence, the system can provide a rapid indication of Total and Viable Biomass, which indicates the risk of biofilm formation. The Field Tester includes a luminometer, shaker and power supply, and fits into a compact, easily transportable case. Extra kits to replace reagents and plastic-ware are also available. Biocide usage can now be optimised for better control of biofilms, on-site and in real-time. For more information please email aodd@amsl.com.au

STRUVITE PUMP CHOKING PROBLEMS SOLVED AT STP The operators at the Somers STP, on the eastern outskirts of Melbourne, were having maintenance issues with their pumps, caused by struvite build-up in them. It would

Now, the portable Biomass Field Tester from Promicol can provide a solution to your problems of biofilm control in minutes, without the need for laboratory facilities.

Field • Laboratory • Process

• Chlorine • Turbidity

Automatic Titrators

Instruments for up to 40 Other Parameters

• pH • DO • EC • Turbidity

Chlorine Analysers

pH/ORP/EC Controllers & Probes

For more information call 03 9769 0666 Fax: 03 9769 0699

Email: sales@hannainst.com.au

Web: www.hannainst.com.au & www.hannachecker.com.au

November 2014 water


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water Business

take struvite as little as 30 days to build up enough to trigger maintenance events. Struvite is magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH4PO4. 6H2O). It is white, yellowish white or brownish in colour and is insoluble in water. Anaerobic sludge digestion releases ammonium, magnesium and phosphate, which can form struvite in digesters and downstream dewatering facilities. Struvite formation occurs when the conditions are such that the concentration product exceeds the struvite conditional solubility product and can result in scaling in pipelines and on the walls of process equipment (such as pumps).

Struvite forms in the supernatant liquid and adheres to exposed metals within pumps and pipes, which was the problem being experienced at Somers. Submersible pumps used to transfer the supernatant needed constant and continuous attention to keep them running. Lale Rogeon, Operation & Maintenance Coordinator, said that the plant had tried coating pump internals, which extended pump life, but after a month, they still needed to be removed from service and cleaned. See photos showing the amount of struvite needing to be cleaned to get pumps back into operation. Lale said that the continuous need to clean the pumps was costing the plant between $3,000 and $4,000 per month. Having to comply with the OH&S regulations associated with working in confined spaces (on the submersible pumps), was adding to costs because of the additional personnel needed to complete the operation. The plant operators thought there should be a better way and were ready to investigate an alternative.

ODOUR COMPLAINTS? ODOUR COMPLAINTS? IT’S NEVER BEEN EASIER TO STOP IT’S NEVER COMPLAINTS? BEEN EASIER TO STOP ODOUR IT’S NEVER BEEN EASIER TO STOP OMPLAINTS?

After discussions with Hydro Innovations (authorised Gorman-Rupp pump distributors in Australia), selfpriming pumps were believed to hold the key to at least part of the solution. Whereas submersible pumps needed a minimum Expert consultation on Biofiltration – Activated Carbon Systems of three persons Expert consultation on Biofiltration – Activated Carbon Systems to execute a pump ––Vent Filters – Dosing Systems – Neutralising Spray Systems Vent Filters – Dosing Systems – Neutralising Spray Systems removal, GormanExpert consultation on Biofiltration – Activated Carbon Systems Eliminate odourSystems complaints Reduce corrosion Rupp self-primers  Eliminate odour complaints Reduce – Vent Filters – Dosing – Neutralising Spraycorrosion Systems would not need to ofiltration – Activated Carbon Systems  infrastructure life Low Low maintenancebe removed, and  Extend Extend infrastructure life maintenance  Eliminate odour complaints  Reduce corrosion stems – Neutralising Spray Systems only one operator  Custom Custom modular  modulardesigns designs  Extend infrastructure life  Low maintenance would be needed omplaints   Custom Reducemodular corrosion to clean pumps designs of struvite build Low maintenance ure life “Carey Constructions have Odour Control Systems for for “Carey Constructions havebeen beenusing using Odour Control Systems up. So if struvite many years. years. II find professional andand extremely many findthem themtotobebehighly highly professional extremely growth could not esigns reliable, especially with aftermarket andControl supportSystems of clients.” “Carey Constructions have been usingcare Odour for reliable, especially with aftermarket care and support of clients.” be slowed, at least – Ian years. Fenny BE (Civil) TMIE Aust, Careyprofessional Constructionsand extremely many I find them to be highly labour costs would – Ian Fenny BE (Civil) TMIE Aust, Carey Constructions reliable, especially with aftermarket care and support of clients.” be reduced by been using Odour Systems for Aust, Carey Constructions – IanControl Fenny BE (Civil) TMIE two-thirds.

EEN EASIER TO STOP

1300 764 479 1300 764 479

Call today your be highly professional andfor extremely for your odour health ermarket careCall and today support ofcheck clients.” odour health check Aust, Carey Constructions Call today for your

1300 764 479 odour health check 1300 764 479 1300 764 479 www.odours.com.au water November 2014

the liquid (high and dry) to enable operators to easily access and monitor at ground level. They have a large removable cover-plate to enable inspection and repair in minutes. Since installation, operators have not had to perform any de-scaling operations. The “experiment” was a complete success, delivering enormous savings as well as improving OH&S conditions associated with keeping these pumps operational. For more information please visit www.hydroinnovations.com.au

NEW UV SYSTEM FOR DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION TrojanUV has launched the TrojanUVTelos™, a UV system that sets a new standard for ultraviolet (UV) disinfection for small communities. The system combines TrojanUV Solo Lamp™ Technology and the revolutionary TrojanUV Flow Integration (FIN™) Technology to deliver the lowest lamp count, lowest energy, and easiest-tomaintain UV disinfection system available. No compromises are needed with the compact and efficient TrojanUVTelos™. “In the world’s communities, providing safe drinking water without the overuse of chemicals and without creating disinfection by-products is a continual challenge,” says Marv DeVries, president of Trojan Technologies. “Our goal with TrojanUVTelos™ is to make UV disinfection easier and more cost effective.” These cost savings are driven by FIN, a new hydraulic optimisation technology developed by TrojanUV. FIN advances the science of mixing and light distribution inside a closed vessel UV system to never-before-achieved levels. Inside the TrojanUVTelos™, FIN uses patent-pending flow modifiers distributed throughout the length of the UV chamber to ensure the highest possible UV disinfection performance, reducing lamp counts, energy requirements and overall operational costs. “Our customers correctly demand lower energy consumption and lower lamp count. We created the TrojanUVTelos™ to address the needs of the energy- and maintenance-conscious buyer,” states Adam Festger, Drinking Water Market Manager www.odours.com.au at TrojanUV. “The Solo Lamp and UV www.odours.com.au system design advancements are allowing us to design higher efficiency and lower www.odours.com.au maintenance UV systems than ever before.”

SE Water decided to go with Gorman-Rupp Super T Series selfpriming pumps with an internal coating Even in developed countries, water to attempt to slow www.odours.com.au can act as a vehicle for illness. The USEPA the struvite growth. reports that in the United States, tens of These pumps can thousands of public water systems, the be installed above


87

water Business bacteria, viruses and chlorine-resistant protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

majority of which extract groundwater, provide water without disinfection. A recent report on European drinking water identified that approximately 12 per cent of European drinking water is also not disinfected. The TrojanUVTelos is designed to simplify implementation of drinking water disinfection and protect communities from a wide range of pathogens including

With TrojanUVTelos™, SCADA connection is standard, as is remote online monitoring and enhanced regulatory reporting capability. Drivers and controls are pre-assembled and mounted on the UV chamber, which eliminates the need for a separate wallor stand-mounted cabinet. This greatly simplifies installation and reduces footprint. DVGW certification is in progress, will be completed in early 2015, and will equip the TrojanUVTelos™ to meet the latest drinking water disinfection regulations globally. Please visit www.trojanuv.com/Water for more information.

HYDROVAR®, the modern variable speed pump drive is taking pumping to a new level of flexibility and efficiency.

SOUTH WEST WATER TAKES MAJOR STEP TOWARDS NEW ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT PLANT South West Water, the water utility that serves customers and visitors in the South West of England, has taken the next step in the building of a 90 MLD combined ion exchange and ceramic microfiltration plant by engaging PWN Technologies for the design of their new North Plymouth Water Treatment Works. The new Water Treatment Works will replace the existing Crownhill Water Treatment Works. The new combined Suspended Ion eXchange (SIX®) and ceramic microfiltration (CeraMac®) plant will result in lower operational cost and higher finished water quality. The new plant needs to treat Burrator reservoir water and water from the rivers Tavy and Tamar. The water has a high content of humic substances. The SIX®, In Iine Coagulation Absorption (ILCA®) and CeraMac® technologies will form the core of the new treatment train, which will also consist of GAC and UV treatment. The new treatment plant will be integrated into the existing drinking water infrastructure.

MECHANICAL PIPE SEAL PREFFERED BY ENGINEERS

Call us to discuss your applications: Melbourne 03 9793 9999 Sydney 02 9671 3666 Brisbane 07 3200 6488

No downtime on curing! Resistant to: Email: info@brownbros.com.au Chemicals, Oil, Gas, Water, Fire Web: www.brownbros.com.au

DELIVERING PUMPING SOLUTIONS

www.projex.com.au (02) 8336 1666

mail@projex.com.au

November 2014 water


88

Water Business South West Water has requested PWN Technologies to cooperate with H5O, its capital delivery alliance, to prepare a design for this project. PWN Technologies will be responsible for the design of its proprietary treatment steps. Chris Rockey, South West Water’s Science and Water Quality Manager, said: “South West Water’s aim is to continue to provide good, safe drinking water that has the trust of our customers, while minimising the cost of water treatment and our impact on the environment. “The processes required to produce high-quality drinking water have traditionally been both energy and chemical-intensive and produce a lot of waste. Advances in drinking water technology and new approaches to the management of raw water supplies are beginning to offer more cost-effective and sustainable alternatives to how drinking water is produced.” Jonathan Clement, CEO of PWN Technologies said, “We have always been convinced of the advantages of our technologies. We are very pleased that South West Water has recognised these advantages of our technology and we are looking forward to working together with the South West Water team and partner H5O.” Since April 2013 a pilot plant has been built and operated where the treatment steps are undergoing pilot testing to confirm feasibility and to establish operating and design criteria. The finalisation of the advanced design is targeted for midDecember 2014.

AUSSIE’S MOBILE PUMP A WINNER A new heavy duty, trolley-mounted 4” trash pump has won Power Equipment Australia’s ‘Hire Product of the Year’. Called the “Aussie Site Boss” the pump is designed for tough dewatering and water supply applications in the hire, construction, mine and quarry markets. The new trolley-mounted machine was designed by Australian Pump to align with new OH & S rules relating to the movement of equipment on site. “Traditionally pumps of this size would be moved around by two or three site workers or lifted by an excavator if it happened to be available,” said Product Manager, Brad Farrugia. The new trolley mount machine means it can be moved safely on site without personal risk or tying-up expensive lifting plant. The big 4” trash pump won PEA “Hire Product of the Year” for the year ending

water November 2014

Aussie Pump’s mobile Site Boss 4” trash pump was awarded Hire Product of the Year by PEA. Its robust design makes it suitable for the toughest of dewatering duties on construction sites. 2013 against a tough line-up of products from companies such as Husqvarna, Hyundai, Makita and Powerlite. The heart of the system is a big 4” selfpriming centrifugal pump designed to pass solids in suspension. It is powered by a 10 hp Yanmar electric-start air-cooled diesel engine and built into a super heavy duty 38mm galvanised steel frame. The frame has a lifting bar and the base incorporates a bunded tray to capture engine oil or fuel spills. That base is also a platform for the trolley with four big pneumatic tyres and 13” wheels. These enable the pump to be easily moved on site. Chocks are standard equipment for security during operation. With a maximum flow of 1800 litres per minute and a maximum head of 24 metres head, the big 4” Aussie is ready to take on just about any quarry or construction dewatering task. It can also be used to fast-fill tankers or water carts for dust suppression!

The pump features excellent self-priming characteristics with a vertical suction lift of 7.6 metres. Battery isolation, emergency stop, integrated fire extinguisher and safety tags are all standard equipment. The Site Boss is designed with safety and operator convenience in mind. It is a world first and has already been successfully marketed outside of Australia with sales to Europe and the Middle East! “We are proud of having won The Product of the Year in the hire category from Power Equipment Australia. It is a great endorsement of our design team and our belief in Australian companies being able to innovate to build better products and win international market share,” said Farrugia. Further information on this pump is available from Aussie Pump Gold Distributors around the country, or on the Australian Pump website, www.aussiepumps.com.au.

Advertisers Index Bintech 15

Hach Pacific

35

Brown Brothers Engineering

Hanna Instruments

85

87

Bulbeck 86 Comdain IFC

International Water Centre James Cummings

Cromarty SCADA & Automation Systems

38

Evoqua Water Technologies

17

Projex Group

For Earth

13

Urban Water Cycle Solutions

Grundfos OBC

NOV Mono

7 65 5 87 3

Zetco IBC


Profile for australianwater

Water Journal November 2014  

Our cover story this issue is on the theme of Water Resources and focuses on Perth’s journey towards becoming water-resilient. This issue al...

Water Journal November 2014  

Our cover story this issue is on the theme of Water Resources and focuses on Perth’s journey towards becoming water-resilient. This issue al...