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Volume 41 No 8 DECEMBER 2014

Journal of the Australian Water Association

THE BURNING QUESTION: TO DAM OR NOT TO DAM? – See page 24

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Contents regular features From the AWA President

Are We Organised Enough To Help Others? Graham Dooley

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From the AWA Chief Executive

contents

Ensuring Water Is Considered In Investment And Policy Decisions Jonathan McKeown

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My Point of View

water journal ISSN 0310-0367

MANAGING EDITOR – Anne Lawton Tel: 02 9467 8434 Email: alawton@awa.asn.au TECHNICAL EDITOR – Chris Davis Email: cdavis@awa.asn.au

Sustained Investment Vital For Australia’s Water Future Stuart Khan

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CrossCurrent

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Industry News

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Young Water Professionals

What Is Water Security Really Worth? Justin Simonis

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AWA News

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Opinion

Why Water Is An Essential Part Of The Sustainability Equation Tim Muster & Declan Page

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Water Business

New Products And Services

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Advertisers Index

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CREATIVE DIRECTOR – Mike Wallace Email: mwallace@awa.asn.au SALES & ADVERTISING MANAGER – Kirsty Muir Tel: 02 9467 8408 (Mob) 0412 077 964 Email: kmuir@awa.asn.au CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER – Jonathan McKeown EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT – Michelle Demos Email: ea@awa.asn.au EDITORIAL BOARD Frank R Bishop (Chair); Dr Andrew Bath, Water Corporation; Michael Chapman, GHD; Wilf Finn, Norton Rose Fulbright; Robert Ford, Central Highlands Water (rtd); Ted Gardner (rtd); Antony Gibson, Orica Watercare; Dr Lionel Ho, AWQC, SA Water; Dr Robbert van Oorschot, GHD; John Poon, CH2M Hill; David Power, BECA Consultants; Dr Ashok Sharma, CSIRO. PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, April, May, June, August, September, November and December. Please email journal@awa.asn.au for a copy of our 2015 Editorial Calendar.

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EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Acceptance of editorial submissions is at the discretion of the Editors and Editorial Board. • Technical Papers & Technical Features: Chris Davis, Technical Editor, email: cdavis@awa.asn.au AND journal@awa.asn.au Technical Paper Submission Guidelines Technical Papers should be 3,000–4,000 words long and accompanied by relevant graphics, tables and images. For more detailed submission guidelines please email: journal@awa.asn.au

volume 41 no 8

• General Feature Articles, Industry News, Opinion Pieces & Media Releases: Anne Lawton, Managing Editor, email: journal@awa.asn.au General Feature Submission Guidelines General Features should be 1,500–2,000 words and accompanied by relevant graphics, tables and images. For more details please email: journal@awa.asn.au

The Gordon Dam in Tasmania.

feature articles

• Water Business & Product News: Kirsty Muir, Sales & Advertising Manager, email: KMuir@awa.asn.au

Dam Hard: Water Storage Is A Historic Headache For Australia Are More Dams The Answer To Australia’s Water Security? Reprinted From The Conversation

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Is Organisational Culture A Barrier To IUWM in Adelaide?

The Challenges Of Implementing Integrated Urban Water Management Ganesh Keremane, Zhifang Wu & Jennifer McKay 27

Amazing Race A Runaway Success

A Young Water Professionals Event In Brisbane Christina Lockett

technical papers

cover The Ord River Dam at Kununurra, in the Kimberley region of WA.

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ADVERTISING Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water sector and the objectives of AWA. PUBLISHER Australian Water Association (AWA) Publishing, Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, PO Box 222, St Leonards NSW 1590; Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 or 1300 361 426, Fax: +61 2 9436 0155, Email: journal@awa.asn.au, Web: www.awa.asn.au COPYRIGHT Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without the written permission of AWA. Email: journal@awa.asn.au DISCLAIMER AWA assumes no responsibility for opinions or statements of fact expressed by contributors or advertisers. Mention of particular brands, products or processes does not constitute an endorsement.

DECEMBER 2014 water


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From the President

ARE WE ORGANISED ENOUGH TO HELP OTHERS? Graham Dooley – AWA President

The Millennium Drought may be over in the eastern states of Australia, but it seems to be a permanent state of affairs in the Perth region of Western Australia. All states and territories and their water utilities responded to this momentous drought in various ways. The Commonwealth and states and territories also responded with the National Water Initiative (2004) and the Murray-Darling Basin Plan (2012) – two transformations that were overwhelmingly successful and beneficial. An almost identical set of drought-induced challenges is currently facing California and several other states in the United States. Meanwhile, China, India and Egypt have looked closely at Australia to see how we transformed the Murray-Darling. How exactly did we do that? We got some drought responses right, but were pretty sub-optimal with some of the things we did and the money we spent in some places. Now our success over the decade of the Millennium Drought is catching the attention of Ministers, Governors, Presidents and leaders of many countries. The Governor of California, in particular, wants to learn from us. Three initiatives to address this issue are being undertaken by AWA: 1.

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A delegation of experienced and knowledgeable water industry representatives is heading to California in December 2014 to perform a “show and tell” to the Governor and his people under the ‘G’Day USA’ banner, but with an AWA sub-title;

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AWA is seeking to create and support, at the instigation of the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), an Australian Water Centre to be the gateway for all our Aussie water knowhow for the rest of the world to access. With the support of Government funding the original concept of waterAUSTRALIA will be given new momentum and the resources to succeed;

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New B2B initiatives are being rolled out by AWA under Pilllar 3 (Industry Development), including market access and innovation programs for the benefit of AWA Corporate and Individual Members. We have multiple initiatives being rolled out over the next few months.

Requests such as the one from California – and initiatives like that from DFAT – need to generate work for our people, not just for one or two distinguished individuals but a broad crosssection of our consultants, contractors, educators, researchers, centres of knowledge and suppliers. Our difficulties in getting waterAUSTRALIA up and running to the degree to which a number of our industry leaders aspired has been a personal disappointment for me over recent years. However, I think the time is right for the whole sector (companies, utilities, NGOs, Government bodies of all forms) to create an organisation that is both substantial and sustainable – one the whole sector can buy into and be proud of. Let’s get it right this time! On a personal note, I’d like to wish all our members, staff and attendees at AWA events a very Happy Christmas and New Year.


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From the CEO

ENSURING WATER IS CONSIDERED IN INVESTMENT AND POLICY DECISIONS Jonathan McKeown – AWA Chief Executive

AWA has strongly advocated that sustainable management of water remains a key priority for the Commonwealth Government as it seeks to strengthen Australia’s economic competitiveness in both domestic and international markets. Now more than ever AWA needs to represent the interests of our sector by shining light on the important role of water in major policy debates and national investment decisions. Recent examples of AWA’s advocacy work include: Inquiry into the Abolition of the National Water Commission In November, AWA appeared before the Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee Enquiry into the National Water Commission (Abolition) Bill 2014. AWA expressed the need for a strong and independent statutory authority to oversee water issues and the continued implementation of the NWI. Investment in Water Infrastructure Roundtable AWA National Manager – Communications and Policy, Amanda White, joined more than 80 water experts in Canberra in October to discuss the opportunities and barriers for investment in water infrastructure and dams in Australia. Hosted by the Minister for Agriculture, Barnaby Joyce, the meeting involved investors, representatives of irrigators, mining and power industries, financiers, state and local governments and construction companies. AWA looks forward to assessing the details of the proposals, including whether all alternative sources of water supply have been assessed and the downstream consequences of new dams. Innovation and Competitiveness Roundtable In November I attended a roundtable discussion on the Industry Innovation and Competitiveness Agenda released by the Prime Minister in October. The Roundtable included the Assistant Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, The Hon.

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Jamie Briggs MP, and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Finance, The Hon. Michael McCormack MP and was hosted by Nicolas Moore, Managing Director of Macquarie Bank. The meeting discussed market structures, regulatory regimes needed to support additional private and public investment in infrastructure, and the major infrastructure priorities needed to drive long-term productivity. ASA-100 Also in November I joined a group of business leaders under the chairmanship of Andrew Forrest to finalise the text and forward program for the Australia-Sino 100-Year Agricultural and Food Safety Partnership (ASA-100). ASA-100 has set some ambitious targets to increase two-way trade and cooperation between Australia and China, with its MoU being signed in Canberra immediately after the G20 meeting. Management of water was included in the MoU and AWA will facilitate the inclusion of our members’ water expertise in the ASA-100 activities. Trade Delegations to California and India The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and Austrade has invited AWA to lead a private sector delegation to California in December for discussions with the Governor of California on measures to alleviate the effects of the drought. More than US$7billion has been allocated by the state of California to fund the measures. In January, Trade Minister Andrew Robb will lead the largest Australian delegation ever to visit India and AWA has been asked to manage a delegation of water experts and a trade exhibition at India Water Week as part of the Australian group. Please let us know if you would like to be involved in any of these developments. Finally, I wish all members and their families a Happy Christmas and every success for the New Year.


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My Point of View

SUSTAINED INVESTMENT VITAL FOR AUSTRALIA’S WATER FUTURE Stuart Khan – Associate Professor, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales

Stuart Khan is an Associate Professor in the School of Civil & Environmental Engineering at UNSW. He leads an active research team investigating the presence, fate and implications of trace chemical contaminants in drinking water, wastewater, recycled water and urban waterways. Stuart is particularly focused on issues relating to potable and nonpotable water reuse and is the current Chair of the AWA Water Recycling Network Committee. As we approach 2015, the Australian Government’s vision for water industry research is clear. We can expect direct funding support to be tightened and increasing expectations to demonstrate commercial returns from what remaining research is undertaken. Many of the major research programs of the last decade have either finished or are in their final year of funding. Nationally significant programs that are either terminated or about to be terminated include: • The National Centre of Excellence in Desalination: funding ceases in 2015; • The Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence: funding ceases in 2015; • The National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training: funding ceased in 2014; • The Raising National Water Standards program administered by the National Water Commission: ceased in 2012 having supported 178 projects worth $250 million; • Reef Rescue Water Quality Research and Development Program: funding ceased in 2013. Water-related research through the Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) program has also been

water DECEMBER 2014

curtailed. At its peak there were five waterfocused CRCs. There are now only two active CRCs with a notable focus on water research: the CRC for Contaminant Assessment and Remediation of the Environment; and the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities. As readers of this column will be aware, cuts to the CSIRO have been deep and damaging (see the My Point Of View contribution from Chris Davis in the August 2014 issue). Federal budget cuts led to a loss of nearly 500 staff from 2013/14 to 2014/15. These cuts have particularly impacted CSIRO’s urban water research activities, including shutting up shop at the Highett Laboratories in Melbourne. Not only have the programs managed by the National Water Commission been axed – so too has the National Water Commission. We now no longer have an organisation charged with providing national oversight of water-related issues in Australia. Even core university research funding, including ARC Discovery and Linkage competitive funding programs, are set to be scaled back by $100 million over the four years to July 2017. The November announcement of Discovery grants to start in 2015 revealed an all-time low application success rate of 18 per cent. While these figures relate to all (non-medical) research generally, impacts will surely be felt within the water sector.

The reality of our supply security The lack of interest in water research is likely to be in part a consequence of broad public and political perception that current urban water supplies are secure. Certainly Australia’s largest


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My Point of View

coastal cities have invested heavily in supply security and most now have more water security than they can currently put to good use. But the reality is that urban water challenges will continue to arise and many will require focused and well-resourced research to be properly addressed. Likely important issues will include: • Climate change adaptation, including managing extreme weather events; • Managing future droughts in regional towns and cities; • Assessing and developing alternative water supply sources, including stormwater harvesting and potable reuse of municipal wastewaters; • Improving energy efficiency of all aspects of water and wastewater management; • Nutrient and other resource recovery from wastewaters; • Improved water quality risk management; • Improved understanding and management of groundwater resources; • Responsibly incorporating mining and petroleum activities in water planning; • Planning and implementing economic reform throughout the water industry; • Ensuring continued public confidence in water utility technologies and operations. In November, the Australian Government released a discussion paper titled “Boosting the Commercial Returns from Research”. While identifying that Australia (currently) performs strongly on “research excellence”, it argues that we perform poorly in translating publicly funded research into commercial outcomes. According to that paper, this is where we must lift our game. The discussion paper argues that one reason Australia has difficulty capitalising on public research investments is the insufficient transfer of knowledge between researchers and business. It cites the following evidence: • Australia ranks 29th and 30th out of 30 OECD countries on the proportion of large businesses and small-to-medium enterprises collaborating with higher education and public research institutions on innovation; • Australia ranks 23rd out of 32 countries on research publications co-authored by industry and research sectors; • Australia ranks second last of 17 OECD countries on new-to-theworld innovation, partly attributable to Australian businesses’ preferences to instead adopt existing approaches;

• The proportion of Australian researchers working in business (and mobility between sectors) is significantly lower than in other countries.

Boosting investment returns A range of strategies for boosting commercial returns from research is canvassed in the discussion paper. These include some innovative ideas to enhance research-industry collaboration. Incentives in the form of taxation advantages are proposed for business. On the research side, it is suggested that industry experience and past success in solving industry problems be captured within the metrics of academic excellence. It is proposed that added emphasis be placed on these factors when allocating funding to universities through block grants and whatever competitive grants programs may continue to be offered. Finally, it is proposed that intellectual property (IP) arrangements be “reformed” to further encourage industry collaboration. Collaboration between the industry and research sectors is important for a number of reasons. Enhancing commercial outcomes is indeed one of these. But I can’t help feeling that there are other contributions, including environmental and social outcomes from research sector activities, which could also be valued. Indeed, the research sector plays a major role in training future business employees. Some of the most productive people I know in the water industry have postgraduate research qualifications from Australian universities. Where will the next generation of these highly trained people come from if university research is slowed to a trickle? The ongoing productivity of the research sector will increasingly rely upon collaboration with industry. If industry is unable or unwilling to increase its support, the research sector will quickly dissipate. Such an outcome will have significant long-term impacts for Australian society and industry itself. I imagine a future in which the Australian Government funds scholarships for our brightest students to obtain research qualifications at universities in countries such as China, since these will be the recognised centres of water research excellence. But will these international universities provide sufficient attention to the key water management issues faced by Australia? If not, that future will be to our significant detriment. The Australian water industry knows all too well about droughts and flooding rains; but this should not be a metaphor for the way in which we fund research. It takes years to cultivate scientists and research takes decades to implement. Research needs to be carefully nurtured and this will require coherent national policy and sustained investment.

DECEMBER 2014 water


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CrossCurrent

International The California Water Quality, Supply and Infrastructure Improvement Act of 2014 (the 2014 Water Bond) will provide US$7.545 billion in funding for water-related projects and programs throughout the state of California. Recent drought in that state that has withered water supplies, endangered farms and deprived some regions of reliable drinking water placed the water bond at the top of the Legislature’s agenda this year.

Researchers from Virginia Tech and Cornell University in the US have discovered that patches of soaked soil act as hot spots for microbes, removing nitrogen from groundwater and returning it to the atmosphere – a discovery that provides insight into forest health and water quality. “The importance of these fragmented patches of saturated soil and their role in the fate of nitrogen in forested watersheds has been underappreciated until recently,” said Kevin McGuire, co-author of the article to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “Some work remains to be done, but the aim is to be able to develop a better sense of where and how nitrogen is processed in the environment and be in a position to predict how changes in climate, for example warmer and wetter conditions, affect nitrogen cycling and water quality in forested ecosystems.”

Tens of thousands of people marched in towns across Ireland in November to protest against the introduction of water charges. An estimated 120,000 people took part in a nationwide protest, with the largest demonstration in the capital of Dublin. Banners called for people not to pay the new charges, which are likely to cost the average household between 200 and 400 Euros ($570) per year. Up until now water services have been financed by general taxation.

Nestlé has expanded its dairy factory in Jalisco, Mexico, transforming it into the company’s first zero water manufacturing site in the world. The company has installed new processes and equipment at the Cero Agua factory, located in the central, waterstressed state of Jalisco, which will enable it to use recycled water from its dairy operations. The factory takes fresh cow’s milk, normally around 88% water, and heats it at low pressure to remove some of its water content. The resulting steam is then condensed and treated and used to clean the evaporating machines themselves. Once the machines have been flushed out, the water is then collected once more, purified and recycled a second time. Nestlé plans to replicate this approach in other factories globally.

National On 4 November 2014, AWA CEO, Jonathan McKeown, and National Manager – Communications and Policy, Amanda White, appeared in front of the Environment and Communications Legislation Committee in regards to the National Water Commission (Abolition) Bill 2014. You can find the transcript of the proceedings at parlinfo.aph.gov.au

water DECEMBER 2014

AWA CEO, Jonathan McKeown, attended the Better Economic Infrastructure Roundtable, held in November and hosted by Assistant Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, The Hon Jamie Briggs MP. The aim of the roundtable was to look at market structures to support additional investment in infrastructure and major infrastructure priorities needed to drive long-term productivity.

AWA National Manager – Communications and Policy, Amanda White, joined more than 80 water experts in Canberra in November 2014 to talk through the opportunities and barriers for investment in water infrastructure and dams in Australia. Minister for Agriculture, Barnaby Joyce, said the roundtable brought together everyone involved in water infrastructure from across the country, including investors, representatives of irrigators, mining and power industries, financiers, state and territory governments, local governments and construction companies.

Murray-­Darling Basin Authority chairman Craig Knowles has advised he will finish in the role when his four-year term expires in January 2015. Federal Parliamentary Secretary for the Environment, Senator Simon Birmingham, said that Mr Knowles had played an extremely valuable role in working towards a balanced and consultative approach in the development of the Basin Plan. Senator Birmingham said an appointment of a new Chair would be made in due course, consistent with the requirements of the Water Act.

The Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists has released ‘Blueprint for a Healthy Environment and a Productive Economy’. This blueprint describes the magnitude of the environmental challenges we face, establishes the case that it is possible to grow the economy and protect the environment, and describes longterm institutional and economic reforms that the group believes are essential to achieve this.

Reflecting Infrastructure Australia’s recent change in governance, focused on greater transparency and accountability, the Australian Government has provided the renewed authority with its first Statement of Expectations. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, Warren Truss, said the Australian Government’s vision for Infrastructure Australia is that it should now be free to manage its own agenda and deliver highquality advice on nationally significant infrastructure needs.

A University of Canberra team of freshwater researchers has received $2.75 million in Federal funding to monitor the effects of water delivery in a critical area within the Murray-Darling Basin. The team, led by Dr Fiona Dyer and Mr Ben Broadhurst from the University’s Institute for Applied Ecology, will use the five-year funding to examine fish and vegetation responses to the release of environmental water into the lower Lachlan River system in south-west New South Wales. Environmental water is the water needed in a river, wetland or estuary to maintain healthy, natural ecosystems. “We are excited to have the opportunity to lead a longterm project investigating ecological responses to Commonwealth environmental water,” Dr Dyer said.


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CrossCurrent The Bureau of Meteorology has released a new online groundwater data tool, providing a comprehensive picture of Australia’s groundwater resources. “The Australian Groundwater Explorer presents a uniform approach to groundwater information to support a range of sustainable water resource management decisions at both local and national levels,” said Senator Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary for the Environment.

Remote communities will benefit from the Australian Government’s announcement of $15.9 million to extend the Great Artesian Basin Sustainability Initiative (GABSI) for a further three years. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, Warren Truss, said the program provides funding support to repair uncontrolled bores that threaten the long-term viability of the Great Artesian Basin. “The Great Artesian Basin is Australia’s most significant underground water resource, directly supporting more than 180,000 people in more than 120 towns and 7,600 enterprises in regional and remote Australia,” Mr Truss said.

New South Wales A key reform that will improve the management of NSW’s water catchment and vital water infrastructure will be undertaken following the passage of legislation through the NSW Parliament to create a new state-owned corporation, Water NSW. NSW Minister for Natural Resources, Lands and Water, Kevin Humphries, said the amalgamation of Sydney Catchment Authority and State Water Corporation into one entity will deliver efficiencies in water infrastructure management and utilise the unique skills of both organisations.

Water NSW is considering potential dam sites on the Belubula River to improve water security in the Lachlan Valley, Deputy Premier, Troy Grant, and Minister for Natural Resources, Lands and Water, Kevin Humphries has said. The investigations will include consultation with key stakeholder groups in the valley, and high-level studies into the environmental, economic, engineering and community benefits and impacts. Mr Grant said the NSW Liberals & Nationals Government had made a firm commitment to deliver a feasibility study for a dam on the Belubula River in this year’s state budget.

Sydney Water and Hunter Water customers will be handed back $44 million in rebates, Minister for Natural Resources, Lands and Water Kevin Humphries has announced. Rebates will be backdated to 1 July 2014, the date the Federal Coalition repealed the tax, and will appear on customers’ water bills under the heading ‘Carbon Tax Refund’. Mr Humphries said Hunter Water and Sydney Water would refund customers for the carbon tax they are no longer paying for the November and January billing quarters.

NSW Minister for Natural Resources, Lands and Water Kevin Humphries has announced a fully funded $26 million plan to connect Wyee to Hunter Water’s sewerage system. The NSW Government will contribute $2.4 million to the project, with the remaining $23.6 million to be funded by Hunter Water. Mr Humphries said Hunter

Water’s sewer system will connect 400 lots and be built with an eye to future development, with the system large enough to transfer the sewerage flows of 1,000 lots.

Twenty-nine local infrastructure projects in regional NSW have been shortlisted for potential funding under the NSW Government’s Water Security for Regions program. Shortlisted projects include: new pipelines in the Broken Hill, Cabonne, Orange, Tweed and Upper Hunter local government areas; bore projects in Brewarrina, Conargo, Cowra, Gilgandra and Warrumbungle Shires; and water supply upgrades in Bombala, Carrathool and Upper Lachlan Shires.

The Australian and NSW Governments have announced a $350 million package of new irrigation efficiency projects across NSW. “The Australian Government is contributing an extra $125 million of funding to the revised package, bringing total Australian Government funding for NSW to nearly $1.5 billion,” said Senator Simon Birmingham, Parliamentary Secretary for the Environment.

The NSW Government has released a new Gas Plan that demonstrates a clear statement of intent to deliver a safe and productive gas industry in NSW, overseen by a clear, strong regulatory system. The plan lists five priorities: Better science and information to deliver world¹s best practice regulation; Pause, reset and recommence: Gas exploration on our terms; Strong and certain regulation; Sharing the benefits; and Securing NSW gas supply needs.

The NSW Government has ushered in a new era of competition and created the impetus for investment in new infrastructure with the passage of the Water Industry Competition Amendment (review) Bill 2014 through NSW Parliament. Minister for Natural Resources, Lands and Water, Kevin Humphries, said the Bill has created a framework for the state’s water sector to deliver more effective, efficient services and ensure real safeguards are in place to protect NSW water users.

Queensland A class action launched against the Queensland Government and its two water authorities will go ahead in 2016. The Supreme Court in Sydney struck out the class action’s statement of claim, but would allow it to be amended for the case to be heard on July 18, 2016. Law firm Maurice Blackburn is representing about 4,500 Brisbane and Ipswich flood victims in a bid to claw back more than $1 billion lost in the disaster. The class action claims too much water was released from Wivenhoe Dam at the peak of the floods to unnecessarily push up the Brisbane and Bremer rivers. Two of the three defendants – Seqwater and Sunwater – filed motions to have the claims struck out. The other defendant, the state of Queensland, did not support the motion.

South Australia SA State Parliament’s Budget and Finance Committee is investigating a series of damning allegations made by former ESCOSA Chief Executive Dr Paul Kerin regarding water pricing

DECEMBER 2014 water


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CrossCurrent policy and actions of the Labor Government. “Dr Kerin has exposed the Weatherill Government’s price gouging on the water bills of South Australian families and businesses,” said Shadow Treasurer Rob Lucas. The State Liberals moved for the inquiry at a meeting of the Committee in November 2014, and the Hon John Darley MLC indicated he would support the move.

Adaption of established and new crops to extreme temperatures will be a focus of research offered funding under Round One of the South Australian River Murray Sustainability Programme’s IndustryLed Research Sub-Programme (IRSP). Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, Warren Truss, said the Australian Government would provide $5 million in funding over four years to the SA Government to deliver the IRSP.

SA Water Minister, Ian Hunter, has said the Adelaide community has a unique opportunity to contribute to the future direction of the city’s water resource management. “South Australia has made significant advances in response to the millennium drought. We are recognised as a national leader in many aspects of stormwater management, such as harvesting and re-use and managed aquifer recharge, and we are constantly searching for ways to use our water more efficiently,” Mr Hunter said. “As we look ahead the Government is committed to building on its water management record. We want to hear from local government, water industry groups, other key stakeholders and the community about the future direction for urban water management in Adelaide.”

Western Australia Geothermal heating of an outdoor pool, promoting the economic viability of water recycling, using wave energy for desalination and sustainable parkland planning are just some of the initiatives listed as finalists in the 2014 State AWA Awards. WA Water Minister, Mia Davies, announced 22 finalists that she said displayed creative thinking and planning in the State’s water sector.

The WA Government is securing Perth’s groundwater supply for decades to come with the city’s new advanced water recycling plant. More than 18,000 cubic metres of earth will be moved, 1,000 cubic metres of concrete poured, 70 kilometres of cabling pulled and 15 kilometres of pipe laid to construct the State Government’s first $124.6 million full-scale Groundwater Replenishment Scheme.

Northern Territory The Northern Territory Government is helping to ease the cost of living for Darwin residents with a free water-smart initiative. WA Minister for Essential Services, Willem Westra van Holthe, said Living Water Smart’s latest initiative provided Darwin home and business owners with free three-star water-efficient showerheads through its SWAPIT Campaign. “Water-efficient showerheads can make a huge difference to water consumption, saving thousands of litres annually,” Mr Westra van Holthe said. “This easy to implement initiative will help residents save money on their water bill, as well as help stop water wastage.”

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Victoria Victorian Minister for Water, Peter Walsh, has announced a new $1.5 million initiative to encourage local whole-of-water-cycle management plans for communities in regional Victoria. Minister Walsh said the Living Regions initiative was part of the Victorian Government’s urban water reform program, Living Victoria.

Victorian farmers are calling for drought assistance in the face of a one-in-20-year rainfall deficiency. The Victorian Farmers Federation warned that whoever gains in Victoria must immediately get the ball rolling on delivering drought support to farmers in the state’s west and north-west. “We’ve got farmers with failed crops and others who’ve run out of stock water,” VFF President Peter Tuohey said.

The AWA Victorian Branch has hosted a workshop to consider the draft paper ‘Developing the Metropolitan Whole of Water Cycle Strategic Framework’. AWA has prepared a submission based on comments collected during the workshop and other feedback provided by members.

The $1 million Water Security for Wangaratta Project is now complete, with the final steering committee report released by Victorian Minister for Water Peter Walsh. Mr Walsh said the project had determined that additional use of groundwater was the best way to provide the Wangaratta region with a more secure water supply.

The Coalition will provide $1 million to assist in ongoing work to improve water quality in Melbourne’s Yarra River and the flow-on effect to Port Phillip Bay, while another $50,000 will be allocated to the Melbourne Down Under project to support local education about the importance of keeping the Yarra and the Bay clean. The Cleaning up the Yarra commitment is part of the Environment Plan for Victoria.

Member News Aquatec Maxcon has been awarded a design and construct contract to undertake the upgrade of the Kingaroy WWTP to a design population of 12,500 persons by South Burnett Regional Council. This project will be the first in Australia to utilise the world-leading Nereda® aerobic granular sludge technology. Water will be reclaimed for re-use on sporting fields and also meets the stringent effluent discharge standards.

Arup has appointed a new senior leader in its water infrastructure team, Australasian Dams Leader, Dr Nihal Vitharana. Joining Arup from SKM/Jacobs, where he served as Global Practice Leader for dams and water-retaining structures, Nihal has led teams on notable projects such as the Canning Dam strengthening, which features the world’s largest ground anchors, and the Millstream dam-raising in collapsible ground conditions.


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CrossCurrent Degrémont Australia has strengthened its service offering, adding the ice pigging and network solutions of Aqualogy to the portfolio of water services it provides to its Australian customers.

The International WaterCentre (IWC) is offering a partial scholarship ($7,000 towards the Master of Integrated Water Management or a $2,000 towards the Graduate Certificate in Water Planning) to each self-funded student who commences studying in Semester 1, 2015. Partial scholarships aim to cover part of the program’s tuition fees and are restricted to self-funded students who do not receive any full-tuition scholarship/grant or full-tuition funding from their employer. For more information please go to www.watercentre.org/iwc-scholarships

Organica Water has appointed Hydroflux as its exclusive Australian agent. Organica’s Food Chain Reactor is a fixed filmactivated sludge plant combining engineered bio-media with a botanic ecosystem. This more natural treatment process uses less energy, is compact and transforms the look of a treatment plant to a botanical garden.

The Board of Watercare Services Ltd has appointed Raveen Jaduram as new CEO. Mr Jaduram’s appointment follows a national and international recruitment search. Mr Jaduram has been acting CEO since January when the previous CEO, the late Mark Ford, went on long-term sick leave. Mr Jaduram has been involved in the management of water and wastewater for 24 years.

The Barwon Water Biosolids Management Project was the winner of the Sustainable Water Management category at the Banksia Sustainability Awards. The project was delivered as a public-private partnership, developed and financed by Plenary Environment for Barwon Water. The biosolids drying facility at the heart of the project was designed, built and is now operated by Water Infrastructure Group.

WaterRA’s Board of Directors has announced the appointment of Shaun Cox as the new Chair. Shaun has extensive operational and strategic leadership experience in the water industry, and a passion for creating and adding value to organisations with which he works. Shaun has spent the last three years of his executive career as Managing Director of Melbourne Water Corporation.

Water infrastructure planning and delivery specialist Mike Axton has joined Aurecon as Technical Director, Water Services. Mike will work closely with other senior managers at Aurecon to deliver sustainable outcomes and client service excellence.

Water Journal is seeking technical papers for our April 2015 issue, which is distributed at our annual Ozwater Conference. Topics for this issue include: Innovative Technology; Water In Food & Agriculture; Climate Change & Water; Water R&D and Funding; Water Treatment; Water Governance & Regulation; Disinfection/ Disinfection By-Products. Abstracts due: 19 January, 2015. Final papers due: 16 February 2015. Submissions to cdavis@awa.asn.au

DESIGN BUILD OPERATE MAINTAIN wigroup.com.au

DECEMBER 2014 water


12

Industry News

MURRAY-DARLING BASIN WATER MINISTERS MEET IN BRISBANE The Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council met in Brisbane in October 2014 to consider a range of Basin management and water reform matters and to be updated on the progress of Basin Plan implementation. The ministers agreed to apply the historic costsharing formula for long-standing jointly funded programs in the Basin, and requested preparation of advice for their next meeting on the treatment of future Living Murray Environmental Works and Measures Program operations and maintenance costs. The ministers also confirmed the importance of stable multi-year funding arrangements for the proper management of joint assets. The ministers were briefed on the draft findings of the review into the cost efficiency of River Murray Operations. The review examined the costs of water management and delivery services by the Murray-Darling Basin Authority and State Constructing Authorities, Goulburn–Murray Water, State Water Corporation and SA Water. To improve ministerial oversight of River Murray Operations, the council agreed to establish a new River Murray Operations Committee representing all southern basin jurisdictions. This replaces and improves upon previous structures. The Ministerial Council also agreed to improve the coordination of watering activities in the southern connected Basin in order to streamline environmental watering. Ministers further agreed to look at opportunities to better integrate environmental monitoring and evaluation activities across the Basin to avoid duplication and to meet regional, state, Basin and national reporting obligations.

NEW NATIONAL WATER REFORM STRATEGY NEEDED The Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) is calling on the governments of Australia to commit to a new decadal strategy for national water management reform to lock in past achievements and prepare for future challenges. In its new position statement, National Water Management: New Reform Challenges, ATSE recognises the key role that leadership has played in the success of national water management reform in Australia over the past two decades through the 1994 Council of Australian Governments Water Reform Framework, and the subsequent 2004 National Water Initiative. It says that despite a long-running program of internationally recognised reforms, there remains significant and complex unfinished business for national water management in Australia. As one of the driest continents on Earth, water will always be scarce in Australia and the challenges of managing it efficiently will only increase in the future. ATSE describes a vision of continuing water reform to enrich all Australians that will require leadership, cooperation, and commitment from all levels of Australian government, and warns that “a plan for the next decade of water reform must be prepared now”. Priority issues for a future reform agenda include: urban water; national principles for water management in the mining and gas sectors and in northern Australia; a national strategy and priorities for water science and research; and national principles for the best use of environmental water.

Council noted progress with Basin Plan implementation and, in particular, the criticality of ensuring that the program of work to support the Northern Basin review was delivered on schedule.

GHD NAMED EMPLOYER OF CHOICE FOR GENDER EQUALITY

Progress on the forward work program for the Sustainable Diversion Limit (SDL) adjustment process was also noted by ministers and they emphasised the need for all agencies to meet the timeframes for the operation of the SDL adjustment in 2016 set out in the Intergovernmental Agreement on Implementing Water Reform in the Murray-Darling Basin.

GHD has received the Employer of Choice for Gender Equality citation from the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA) in Australia. GHD is one of only two companies in the engineering and technical consulting services sector to achieve the title. Overall, 76 organisations in Australia received the citation.

Ministers were advised that while additional flows delivered through the Basin Plan have slowed the rate of sand build-up at the Murray Mouth, connectivity between the Coorong and the sea is progressively declining. In light of low inflows expected in the system over the coming year due to drier climatic conditions, ministers agreed to an additional budget of $4 million to allow the MDBA to undertake dredging to keep the Murray Mouth open, in the event it is needed. Finally, ministers acknowledged the contribution of current MDBA Chair Craig Knowles during his four-year term, particularly in relation to his emphasis on involving local communities in the development of the Basin Plan, following his recent announcement that he will step down from the role when his term expires in January 2015. The next Ministerial Council will be held in early 2015.

WATER DECEMBER 2014

Phil Duthie, GHD’s General Manager – Australia and member of Consult Australia’s Male Champions of Change group, says, “It’s a fantastic achievement to be acknowledged as one of Australia’s leaders in promoting diversity and gender equality. The citation is based on meeting rigorous requirements, and provides important external recognition of GHD’s commitment to an inclusive workplace culture. The WGEA citation acknowledges the company’s focus on providing a culture where learning and development opportunities, flexible work arrangements, and various leave options for both men and women with family and caring responsibilities are considered essential.   Women at all levels of the business are supported by the ‘Women in GHD’ initiative, which provides networking and mentoring opportunities internally and for female clients. There are also regular forums for emerging female leaders to provide input to the business by meeting with the company’s Executive Management Group and Board.


13

Industry News Helen Conway, Director, WGEA, says, “Holders of the 2014 WGEA Employer of Choice for Gender Equality citation can be distinguished by their commitment to ‘doing’ rather than simply ‘talking’. They are driving the lasting cultural and organisational change that is essential for any organisation committed to maximising the potential of women and men.”

IDE TECHNOLOGIES OPENS NEW OFFICES IN SYDNEY AND BRISBANE IDE Technologies has announced its expansion in the Australian water treatment and coal seam gas (CSG) industries with new offices in Sydney and Brisbane. Michael Howard, appointed Australia General Manager, will head the office in Sydney, while Tory Shenstone, IDE’s Queensland Business Development Manager, will head the Brisbane office. Mr Howard brings 28 years of senior management experience across the water treatment and infrastructure industry. Prior to joining IDE, he was the Director of Chatoyer Holdings Pty Ltd, managing the company and the significant growth of its water treatment division. In addition, he held previous positions as a Director and shareholder engaged in manufacturing, engineering and construction projects, building business opportunities from small scale to multi-million dollar turnover. Ms Shenstone, a pioneer in the CSG industry, brings more than 15 years of experience growing companies such as Sunshine Gas, Bow

Energy, Blue Energy and Arrow Energy. Together, Mr. Howard and Ms Shenstone will help to expand IDE’s local presence in Australia as well as increase awareness and sales for IDE’s desalination and industrial water treatment solutions. “Australia has long been challenged with water-scarce regions all across the dry continent. We’ve helped to address this challenge for 30 years, providing water treatment solutions with low energy, minimal chemical consumption, and pre-fabricated units that can easily be installed, even in Australia’s most remote areas,” said Avshalom Felber, CEO of IDE Technologies. “With our new offices in Sydney and Brisbane, we are excited to expand our footprint in this significant market and partner with customers to deliver reliable access to fresh water. “IDE has long served the mining industry in Australia, with evaporators working continuously for 27 years. IDE understands the unique needs of the water and CSG industries in Australia, and as we keep growing in this key market we look forward to the new opportunities and challenges. Being local, we can build longterm relationships and bring added value and know-how right from the pre-planning and pre-feasibility study stages all the way through to project completion.” One of IDE’s recent installations in Australia is the Cape Preston project, which is capable of producing 140,000 m3/day of potable water for CITIC Pacific Mining’s Sino Iron ore mine. An IDE PROGREEN™ modular chemical-free desalination system has also been commissioned on Hayman Island, located off the coast of Queensland, providing potable water for the island’s visitors and residents. For more information, please visit www.ide-tech.com.

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14

Industry News

OSMOFLO ACHIEVES ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION Following a final audit in July by certification body SAI Global, Osmoflo has been awarded certification for ISO 14001. The certification is a worldwide benchmark for environmentally responsible organisations that is utilised throughout 150 countries and is the most widely adopted environmental management system in the world. “Being certified for ISO 14001, along with our existing accreditations in quality and occupational health and safety, shows the industry we are serious about achieving best practice in these areas,” says QHSE Manager, Ian Armstrong. “There has been a concerted focus for the organisation as a whole to achieve this environmental certification, extending our ongoing commitment to protecting the environment.” ISO 14001 is the third accreditation Osmoflo has received from SAI Global, with the company having already certified its Quality (ISO 9001) and Occupational Health and Safety (AS4801) Systems. The three standards assist Osmoflo in maintaining a structured management system framework that supports the organisation’s drive for continual improvement in all business practices and ultimately sustainable growth. Many of Osmoflo’s clients have extensive environmental requirements. The ISO 14001 accreditation recognises Osmoflo’s high level of understanding and commitment to these demands.

SEQWATER WELLNESS PROGRAM WINS SAFE WORK AWARD Seqwater’s wellness program has been awarded the best workplace health and wellbeing initiative at the Queensland Safe Work Awards 2014. At a ceremony at Suncorp Stadium, eight category winners were presented with Safe Work Awards for their outstanding contributions to the safety of Queensland workers. More than 130 organisations and individuals entered this year’s awards. Seqwater Chief Executive Officer Peter Dennis said he was honoured to accept the Category 7 award for Seqwater’s Be Healthy, Be Wealthy wellness program. “Be Healthy, Be Wealthy enables all staff to access information and initiatives to improve their physical, mental and emotional wellbeing, despite the challenge of our wide geographical base across South East Queensland,” Mr Dennis said. “The program is holistic in nature, aiming to increase a healthier culture and healthier bodies and minds. “This is achieved through wellness planning in consultation with employees, workplace health and safety committees and management, as well as identifying wellbeing program needs through an annual staff feedback survey and organisational results from annual health assessments.”

WATER DECEMBER 2014

Mr Dennis said the Be Healthy, Be Wealthy calendar of events featured many popular activities and initiatives. “Seqwater offers a free quit smoking program which includes 14 weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy and contact with Quitline,” he said. “We also provide workplace skin checks, flu vaccinations, discounted health insurance and gym memberships, and a free and confidential counselling program, along with various other targeted wellness initiatives and health seminars. “Through the program we are aiming to reduce employee health risks, increase physical activity, provide opportunities for staff to participate in activities which will increase their health and wellbeing knowledge, and reduce employee stress.” Mr Dennis said in addition to the award, Seqwater had been asked by Workplace Health and Safety Queensland to share the wellbeing program with other employers. For more information about Seqwater please visit www.seqwater.com.au.

CEO OF AIS WINS FOUR INTERNATIONAL STEVIE AWARDS After winning a Gold Award in the prestigious international Stevie Awards for Women in Business Elena Gosse, CEO of Australian Innovative Systems (AIS), has won a further three Silver Stevie Women in Business Awards across a range of categories. Following the November 14 awards ceremony, which was held in New York City, Elena and AIS were awarded the Gold Stevie for Most Innovative Company of the Year with more than 10 Employees, and three Silver Stevies for: Woman of the Year Industry; Female Entrepreneur of the Year in Asia, Australia or New Zealand; and Lifetime Achievement – Business. The Stevie Awards for Women in Business form one of the world’s top honours for female entrepreneurs, executives, employees and the organisations they run. The 2014 awards received more than 1,200 nominations from 22 nations and territories. More than 160 executives worldwide participated in the judging process. Reflecting on her success, Elena said that winning the awards had come after a period of intense business activity for her water disinfection and chlorinator manufacturing company, with AIS looking to launch two new products to the national and international market in the next six months. The company’s extensive range of chlorinators employs sophisticated AIS technology combined with the process of electrolysis to disinfect water inline (or offline) and onsite for residential and commercial applications. Details about the Stevie Awards for Women in Business and the list of Stevie Award winners are available at www.StevieAwards.com/Women.


15

Industry News

GOVERNMENT PLAN WON’T SAVE GREAT BARRIER REEF, SAYS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE The Academy of Science has warned that a draft plan to protect the Great Barrier Reef won’t prevent its decline and fails to address key pressures affecting the Australian icon. In its submission to the Australian and Queensland Governments’ Reef 2050 Long-Term Sustainability Plan, the Academy warns that the draft plan fails to effectively address any of the key pressures on the reef including climate change, poor water quality, coastal

“While the plan identifies targets for reducing agricultural runoff, any improvements are likely to be swamped by unprecedented amounts of dredging for coal ports and by plans by the Queensland Government to double agricultural production by 2040. The future of this national treasure, which generates over $5 billion per annum for the Australian economy, depends on less pollution from runoff and dredging, less carbon emissions from fossil fuels, and less fishing pressure. “The plan also seems overly focused on the short-term task of addressing UNESCO’s concerns about the reef’s World Heritage Listing, rather than the longer-term challenges of restoring the values of the Reef.” The submission also states that the reef is under ever-increasing pressure, arguably made worse by recent policy and legislative changes such as Australia currently having no mechanism in place to reduce carbon emissions.

development and fishing. The plan also does not address the fundamental governance issues for the reef, including conflict of interest issues and a lack of oversight. One of the submission’s contributing experts and Academy Fellow, Professor Terry Hughes, said much bolder action is required to restore the Reef. “The science is clear, the Reef is degraded and its condition is worsening. This is a plan that won’t restore the reef, it won’t even maintain it in its already diminished state,” Professor Hughes said. “It is also more than disappointing to see that the biggest threat to the reef – climate change – is virtually ignored in this plan.

MIDLANDS CONSERVATION FUND WINS BANKSIA SUSTAINABILITY AWARD Bush Heritage Australia and the Tasmanian Land Conservancy have won a prestigious Banksia Award for their work with farmers in helping to conserve the Tasmanian Midlands. The Midlands Conservation Fund has scooped the prize in the Natural Capital section of the 2014 Banksia Foundation Sustainability Awards,

CALL FOR TECHNICAL PAPERS – APRIL 2015 OZWATER ISSUE Water Journal is seeking quality, well-researched technical papers for our special bumper April 2015 issue, which is distributed at our annual Ozwater Conference & Exhibition, to be held in Adelaide. Topics for the April 2015 issue include:

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Industry News

PHOTO: MATT NEWTON

The program helps to conserve biodiversity on farms in the Tasmanian Midlands by offering stewardship agreements to farmers, paying for long-term conservation management on their land. Ten famers have signed up to the program and so far 2,636 hectares of grasslands and woodlands have been protected through the scheme.

Sustainable crop farming at Beaufront, Tasmania. recognising demonstrated leadership and innovation in the sustainable management of renewable and non-renewable resources.

PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF TAKES CENTRE STAGE AT ALGA AWARDS Parsons Brinckerhoff was recently awarded the Annual Clean-Up Project Excellence Award 2014 from the Australasian Land and Groundwater Association (ALGA). The winning project employed the innovative use of C3 TM refrigerated condensation to treat contaminated off-gas from a soil vapour extraction (SVE) system at the Huntsman Chemical Company Australia Pty Limited’s (HCCA) former chemical manufacturing site. The remediation approach was proven to be an innovative, efficient and sustainable method for treating contamination at the site and represents the first implementation of the C3TM technology in the Australian market.

The fund is a partnership between Bush Heritage Australia, the Tasmanian Land Conservancy and the farmers who safeguard the remnant native grasslands and grassy woodlands on their properties. The project was launched in 2013 with a landmark $3.3 million conservation fund supported by philanthropic individuals and government. “This award is recognition that we’re doing it right. Our stewardship agreement model has been successful because it is underpinned by a fund that can provide money for conservation in perpetuity,” says Andy Myer, MCF Chairman and Bush Heritage Australia vice-president.

The Liddell Calcine Sands project in Bendigo was also singled out for ‘honourable mention’ at the same event. The Parsons Brinckerhoff project team utilised an innovative on-site containment strategy for exposed historic mine tailings that were uncovered in Bendigo Regional Park after the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires. The project, delivered on behalf of Parks Victoria, also received a ‘Highly Commended’ in the environment category of the Engineers Australia Victorian awards for 2014.

Temperate grasslands are the world’s most endangered ecosystem,” said Gerard O¹Neill, Chief Executive of Bush Heritage Australia. “In order to protect those last pieces of remnant native grasslands and grassy woodlands, lasting conservation outcomes need to be balanced alongside livelihoods, and this has delivered on both fronts,” he said.

Ian Barnett, Parsons Brinckerhoff Regional Director of Victoria and ACT, welcomed the news of the award recognition: “This is an outstanding outcome for two innovative Victorian remediation projects and highlights the specialist land and groundwater remediation expertise that we have in the region,” he said. “In the case of the HCCA winning project, innovation and sustainability were key drivers. C3TM was selected as a treatment option as it allowed for remediation objectives to be delivered in a shorter timeframe and at a lower environmental cost than would otherwise be possible.” The ALGA 2014 awards were presented at the ALGA 4th Annual Dinner in Queensland as part of the Ecoforum Environmental Conference.

PHOTO: MATT NEWTON

TOCARDO AND EKORNERGY TO DEVELOP 28MW TIDAL ENERGY PROJECTS IN SOUTH KOREA

Guinea flower in woodland at Chiswick, Tasmania.

WATER DECEMBER 2014

Tocardo Tidal Turbines, producer of tidal and free-flow water turbines, has reached an agreement with Ekornergy, the South Korean energy company, to install tidal turbines with a total capacity of 28MW. The units will be installed in the coastal waters of the Mokpo Jeonnam region.


17

Industry News Manufacturing of the first 15 T2 kW Tocardo turbines is expected to start in late 2015 as part of a 3 MW demonstration project. In 2016, Tocardo expects to start producing its bigger T3 turbines, which are to be installed in a commercial tidal array with a total capacity of 25MW. The Mokpo Jeonnam region has one of the strongest tidal streams on the planet, with bi-directional tidal speeds of up to four metres per second. Electricity generated will be fed into South Korea’s national grid. “This is a major step towards accelerating Tocardo’s expansion into large-scale tidal energy projects across the globe,” says Hans van Breugel, CEO Tocardo. “We’re looking forward to working with Ekornergy and other Korean partners to seize this opportunity to supply the Korean grid with significant amounts of clean and reliable energy, helping reduce the country’s carbon emissions.” Tocardo and Ekornergy signed a memorandum of understanding on the projects during a ceremony in Seoul attended by Dutch King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima, who were paying a state visit. Tocardo is one of few companies in the world commercially manufacturing and marketing tidal turbines. The Netherlands-based company earlier closed deals to sell its technology in Nepal and has projects in the pipeline in Europe and North America. Please visit www.tocardo.com for more information.

PETER MACKELLAR JOINS EXECUTIVE TEAM AT SLR Former Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) EMEA Chief Operating Officer and Managing Director of SKM Enviros, Peter MacKellar, has joined SLR as a Global Director. Peter left SKM in June, following the takeover of the Australian group by Jacobs and will join his former colleague Neil Penhall, Chief Executive of the SLR Group, with whom he worked at Rust Consulting in the 1990s. Peter’s role in SLR will be as International Operations Director responsible for all operations outside of North America, including those in Australia, New Zealand, Southern Africa, UK, Ireland and France. Peter, a joint UK and New Zealand citizen, had a variety of roles at SKM in Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa over nearly 20 years. In 2009 he led SKM’s acquisition of the Enviros Group in the UK and subsequently integrated the group into SKM. SLR’s Asia Pacific Managing Director Peter Georgiou commented: “We are excited to be able to draw upon Peter’s wealth of international experience and especially his broader water and environmental consultancy expertise in the Asia Pacific region.” For more information please go to: www.slrconsulting.com

OZWATER ISSUE The April 2015 issue of Water Journal is our special bumper edition which will be distributed at Ozwater’15 in Adelaide. This is the perfect opportunity to extend your reach to thousands of water industry representatives. Bookings close MARCH 6, so don’t miss out, book your advertisement now! The April 2015 issue will feature the following topics: PRINT

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DECEMBER 2014 WATER


18

Young Water Professionals

What is Water Security Really Worth? Justin Simonis – AWA YWP National Committee President

The topic for this year’s YWP workshop at Ozwater in late April was ‘Water Security Value for Money Nexus – Increase Supply or Reduce Demand’. Given that it was only a half-day workshop this seemed an ambitious topic to cover, but with a bit of restraint and the right boundaries we managed to keep the workshop as on-topic as any other workshop I have been involved in. Of course, the flip side of remaining on topic was that there were limited opportunities to test the idea of value past a safe, high-level, triple bottom line approach. I recently watched an episode of the TV show Cities of the Underworld titled ‘Underground Apocalypse’, which uncovered some of the history that lies beneath Jerusalem. The episode extended to cover apocalyptic predictions based on the once great city of Megiddo, from which came the word Armageddon, based on the Hebrew “Har Megiddo” or Mount of Megiddo. For its various inhabitants, the city was a heavily fortified, strategic stronghold guarding the trade route between Egypt and Assyria. Because of this, it was also the site of a number of ancient historically significant battles. As well guarded as the walls made the city, it soon became apparent that its water supply, which was primarily sourced from a well that lay outside its walls, was the critical chink in the city’s armour. Necessity being the mother of invention, this realisation gave rise to an engineering masterstroke early in the 12th century BC – a shaft inside the city walls some 35 metres deep that opens into a tunnel bored through rock for 100 metres to the pool of water that fed the well.

water DECEMBER 2014

Too many people, not enough water This intriguing hour in front of the TV got me thinking back to the Ozwater workshop and how, although time-constrained, our perception of value was truly limited in that instance. It was only when I came across a EurekAlert e-article titled Too Many People, Not Enough Water: Now and 2,700 Years Ago, which discusses the hypothesis (presented by Adam Schneider of the University of California, San Diego and Selim Adalı of Koç University in Istanbul, Turkey) that overpopulation and drought led to the demise of the Assyrian Empire that it really hit home. Throughout history we are presented with compelling evidence and stark reminders of the importance of water security to the stability of nations and regions. Even now, as Margaret CatleyCarlson (former Chair and now a Patron of the Global Water Partnership) reminded the YWP during her breakfast address at Ozwater, this is a fact not lost on many developed nations as they expend national intelligence resources mapping water security across the globe as a measure of civil stability. In considering the many “drought-proofing” projects that have been constructed in Australia in the last five years or so (South-East Queensland’s Water Grid; Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide’s desalination plants; and Perth’s desalination and aquifer recharge plants), I am comforted by the relative security of supply we enjoy in Australia. So whether you agree with the prudency and efficiency of the capital cost of these projects, perhaps next time you are debating the need for these projects you can present a different perspective in the value debate for water security.


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AWA News

CALLING ALL BRIGHT SPARKS! INVITATION TO AWA WATER INNOVATION FORUM 2015 Australia has forever faced the challenge of sustainably managing its limited water resources, continually balancing the need to provide safe, secure and affordable water to both households and industry in variable climatic conditions. It is through these challenges that the Australian water, construction, food and beverage, and agricultural industries have become world leaders in the development of innovative solutions for water and wastewater management to make practices more efficient and effective. The AWA Water Innovation Forum will be a platform to share water innovation across industries, providing a showcase of best practice solutions that can be adopted in other sectors. The forum will include a two-day conference program, an extensive exhibition, a technology commercialisation and training workshop, as well as business networking through formal business-matching meetings, social events and pitch sessions. The conference program will feature leading experts in themed sessions about innovative solutions for water-smart cities, agriculture and food manufacturing, and the role of disruptive innovation in customer engagement. The important topic of financing the innovation value chain will also be covered. The building and construction sector faces challenges in optimising the urban dimension of water services and contributing to other key areas of sustainable urban development. New and costsaving innovations for smart buildings, sport and recreation areas, manufactured buildings and new housing and industrial estates will all be examined. Although the food sector has applied a range of innovative processes over the last decade, this has focused mostly on waste. With the ever-increasing pressure on clean water resources, this sector must find processes that are efficient, sustainable and cost-effective while ensuring access to a clean water supply. The forum will bring together representatives from the dairy, meat and agriculture sectors to discuss innovative solutions. Disruptive innovation can be the game changer for business success and economic growth, creating opportunities and improving customer engagement. The forum will explore the role of disruptive innovation and highlight the application of some case studies in the water sector. Additionally, technology companies will introduce their new solutions during pitch sessions and through the exhibition. Professor Ian Chubb, Australia’s Chief Scientist, will provide the keynote on what steps should be taken to create a strong and sustainable drive for innovation, referring to his 2014 report, Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics: Australia’s Future. Venture capitalists and financiers will also address the availability of public and private funding streams in a session highlighting the strong links needed between the finance and research communities. With the innovation value chain depending heavily on available funding streams, the role of finance is critical to product realisation and commercialisation.

Practical training will be provided on the second day of the conference in the Technology Commercialisation and Adoption Training session for innovators to engage with water technology end-users, investors and IP advisers. This session will provide support by reviewing pitches and offering concrete tips for improvements, while experts will share their experience to lead innovators to success. The AWA Water Innovation Forum will be held at Royal Randwick Sydney from 18–19 March, 2015.T o register for the event, please go to www.awa.asn.au /InnovationForum15

AWA AND AUSTRADE TO HOST EXHIBITION AT INDIA WATER WEEK The Australian Trade Minister the Hon. Andrew Robb will lead a large Australian business delegation to the Australian Business Week in India program, which takes place 12–15 January 2015. A component of the program will be participation in India Water Week in New Delhi, 13–15 January. Australia is the partner country at this important water event and AWA has secured exhibition space for a business matching lounge and a display of Australian water capability. There will be 20 display pods available to companies that sign up to the India Business Week program, at a cost of $2500+ GST each. All other mission costs and entry to India Water Week have been covered by DFAT. For members interested in the Indian market, but unable to join the Minister’s program, you have the opportunity to display your material and brochures on the AWA/Austrade stand for $1000+GST. Contacts and a report will be sent to you in late January This is an exciting opportunity for the Australian water sector to showcase its expertise in this huge market. Under the stewardship of Prime Minister Modi, water and sanitation are high priority programs and will receive considerable funding. Please contact Geoff Gray at ggray@awa.asn.au for more information or to book space.

OPERATORS CHALLENGE RAISES MONEY FOR WATERAID AWA’s Operations Specialist Network held its third bi-annual National Operations Conference in Cairns in October. This year’s conference included an ‘Operators Challenge’, designed to engage delegates and raise money for WaterAid, the charity that transforms lives by improving access to safe water, hygiene and sanitation. The Operators Challenge tested the delegates’ skills in the assembly of pipes and valves, which involved a team of two working together to complete the challenge in the fastest time possible. The challenge raised over $380 for WaterAid, with the winning team combination of Cheryl Marvell of Sydney Water and Murray Thompson from Engineers Australia completing the challenge in one minute and 40 seconds. A special thank you to Richard Scott from South Australian Water Corporation who designed and built the challenge.

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AWA News YWP Tour of Mundaring Water Treatment Plant

BRANCH NEWS NEW SOUTH WALES Gala Dinner & Branch Awards In 2015 we are combining the NSW Heads of Water Gala Dinner & the NSW Branch Awards Night to bring together industry leaders and water professionals for an evening of networking and to celebrate the achievements of our peers and colleagues. The event is scheduled to take place in Sydney on Friday 20 March. Please visit the AWA website for more information.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA YWP ‘My Water Career’ event On Wednesday 22 October, the AWA Young Water Professionals (YWPs) hosted the final of the ‘My Water Career’ speakers series for 2014. The event tied in nicely with this year’s National Water Week and focused on careers in mining and project management. Michael Rowe, Water Strategy Specialist at Rio Tinto, and Ian Aldridge, Asset Delivery Manager at Water Corporation, generously donated their time to share their experiences in the water industry with attendees. Michael and Ian provided us with a history of their career paths as well as the challenges they have faced, and gave us some insights into how they made the career decisions that led them to their positions today. Michael gave us an overview of his time working in various roles in government and consulting after graduation, before landing a role with SKM in Canberra to work on land and water management policy on the eastern seaboard. Company downsizing saw Michael return to Perth and obtain a position with Rio Tinto, developing strategies to manage water at existing and future mines and providing strategic advice to the business on water management challenges and opportunities. Michael credited his recent job fulfilment to his assessment of what drives him at work, which allowed him to determine what kind of positions would be most suitable and lead to job satisfaction – a strategy that interested a number of attendees. Ian provided a comprehensive summary of the numerous projects he has been involved in around the world, in his 22-year career as a project manager. Ian’s experience includes overseeing the design and construction of projects in wastewater, potable water and heavy industrial water treatment in the UK, Africa, Asia, New Zealand and Australia. Ian emphasised the need to work effectively in teams and trust individual team members to come up with the best solutions. Ian made it clear that he is very happy to have made Perth and the Water Corporation his home base over the last six years. The Water Corporation generously hosted the event and a delicious spread and drinks were provided for attendees after the presentations had concluded, allowing time to ask more detailed questions of the speakers and providing the chance for a bit of networking amongst the YWPs.

water DECEMBER 2014

The YWP My Water Career event was a good opportunity to network.

The Mundaring Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is a Public Private Partnership (the first of its kind) between Acciona and Trility Joint Venture (ATJV) and the Water Corporation. On Saturday 20 September a group of 16 people attended a tour of the Mundaring WTP organised by the YWP committee and kindly guided by Steve and Jesus from ATJV. The tour started at Pump Station C where the raw water is pumped up to the treatment plant. Next stop was the treatment plant itself, which is partially hidden from view from Mundaring Weir Road. The current WTP has a capacity of 165 MLD (expandable to 240 MLD) – quite impressive for such a small footprint. The site is set over three levels, which posed challenges for the site preparation. The plant can treat water from three sources and, as was explained by our guides, this meant that the plant needed to be designed to bypass parts of the treatment process if the source was from the integrated supply as opposed to from Mundaring Weir. The WTP uses Dissolved Air Flotation Filtration (DAFF) as a first step, providing solid and liquid separation followed by removal of organics using Biologically Activated Carbon (BAC). The water is then disinfected and fluoridated before being pumped to the Sawyer’s Valley Tank where it will be distributed to more than 100,000 people in the 530km pipeline to Kalgoorlie. The new WTP was needed to replace assets that were almost 100 years old to ensure that the Goldfields and Agriculture Supply Scheme (GAWS) can continue to meet increasing demand. Another exciting feature is that the pump station treatment plant is set up to be self-sufficient in the event of a bushfire and even has its own fire sprinkler system to protect key infrastructure on-site so that water production isn’t compromised – and this ‘irrigation’ can continue for days if required. After finishing the tour we had a quick look at the onsite control system, followed by some lunch provided by ATJV. The YWP would like to thank Steve & Jesus who graciously gave up their Saturday morning to be our tour guides and answer our many questions. Keep an eye out for future site tours organised by the YWP in the New Year.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA SA welcomes new Branch Manager After six years as Branch Manager, Alison Bowman has moved on to a role at the Goyder Institute for Water Research. SA Branch Members wish her all the best, and thank her for her hard work and support provided to our Committee. We have now welcomed Amanda Goodfellow to her role as the new South Australia/Northern Territory State Manager. Amanda has worked across a range of sectors including PR/Communications, Not for Profit, and both State and Local Government. Her most recent role was as Business Manager with JP Media, an Adelaide-based PR firm. Her experience in working within a membership organisation was gained as Program Manager at SA Great, where she delivered a range of programs and events and managed a large team of volunteers. Please join us as we welcome Amanda to AWA, and introduce yourself to her at your next AWA Event.


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AWA News

New Members AWA welcomes the following new members since the most recent issue of Water Journal.

NEW CORPORATE MEMBERS

Western Australia

New South Wales

NEW INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS

Corporate Silver Fusion

Corporate Bronze Global Valve Technology

Australian Capital Territory P Michael New South Wales M Moss, C Leah,

Queensland Corporate Bronze

K Phetsaya, I Abdi, S Singh

Reparator Pty Ltd

NEW OVERSEAS MEMBERS J Lu Jialing, Singapore; M Ganesan, Singapore; G Galjaard, The Netherlands; W Chin Oi Chue, Singapore; A Minn, Singapore; C Yap Bow Tun, Singapore; KS Fong, Singapore; S Ho, Singapore; J Wang Xiaoning, Singapore; GS Heng, Singapore

Queensland J Nant, K Jones, M Schnoor,

P Caswell, C Harpham, N Akolawala, H Cooper, M McCann, C Proud, D Hunt, D Holman, F Dubus South Australia C Vasseur, R Twine, S Spragg, F Fleuren Victoria S Mendoza, S Harbidge, D Walker, J Smart, M Lenaghan, S McMahon, C Murphy, C Colquhoun, M Mueller, P Dick, C Prosser Western Australia B Karel, AW Chua

South Australia Corporate Bronze Caprari Pumps Australia Executive Media

Victoria Corporate Bronze Cathic Pty Ltd Hychem International Pty Ltd

NEW STUDENT MEMBERS New South Wales L Liu Queensland M Shah South Australia C Chahal Tasmania G Edeson Victoria N John

AWA EVENTS CALENDAR This list is correct at the time of printing. For up-to-date listings and booking information please check the AWA online events calendar at: www.awa.asn.au/events

December Wed, 10 Dec 2014

ACT Debate on the Lake, Canberra, ACT

Thu, 11 Dec 2014

SA YWP End of Year Seminar & Christmas Networking, Adelaide, SA

January Mon, 12 Jan 2015 – Fri, 16 Jan 2015

India Water Week – Australian Pavilion, New Delhi, India

Wed, 11 Feb 2015

QLD Monthly Technical Meeting – Seqwater Going Forward, Brisbane, QLD

Fri, 20 Feb 2015 – Sat, 21 Feb 2015

VIC YWP Regional Conference, Warrnambool, VIC

February

March Wed, 18 Mar 2015 – Thu, 19 Mar 2015

Water Innovation Forum 2015, Sydney, NSW

Fri, 20 Mar 2015

NSW Heads of Water Awards Gala Dinner 2015, Sydney, NSW

Tue, 24 Mar 2015

Derwent Estuary Program 2014 Updates, Hobart, TAS

April Tue, 28 Apr 2015

Sustainable Water Management in Industry, Hobart, TAS

May Tue, 12 May 2015 – Thu, 15 May 2015

Ozwater’15, Adelaide, SA

August Thu, 06 Aug 2015

Vic Branch 53rd Annual Dinner, Melbourne, VIC

Thu, 20 Aug 2015

AWA Tasmania Annual Conference – Where the Waters Meet 2015, Sandy Bay, TAS

Thu, 20 Aug 2015

Tasmanian Water Environment Merit Award 2015 Presentation, Sandy Bay, TAS

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Opinion

WHY WATER IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE SUSTAINABILITY EQUATION In our My Point of View column in the August 2014 issue, Technical Editor Chris Davis wrote of concerns regarding funding cuts to the CSIRO. Tim Muster and Declan Page wrote this article in response. It’s easy to see why our cities are the economic powerhouse of Australia – and, hence, why effective urban water management is still vital for the future productivity of Australia. Australia is the most highly urbanised continent in the world, with >75% of people living in cities > 100,000 people, which together generate 77% of GDP economic activity1 while covering only 0.2% of the land surface. The CBDs of Sydney and Melbourne alone – just 7.1km2 – generated $118 billion in 2011–12 (~10% of all economic activity in Australia), and triple the contribution of the entire agriculture sector. It is, therefore, vital that our urban centres are well placed to cope with the uncertainties and risks of the 21st century. The CSIRO has adopted a systems-based approach to planning for, and management of, these uncertainties, and water remains a vital issue in this context. We see water as inseparable from – and no less important than – energy, food production, human health and the other pillars upon which cities depend. In response to this challenge, CSIRO has formed a new (approximately $10 million) Research Program called the Liveable, Sustainable & Resilient (LSR) Cities Program, led by Dr Simon Toze, which incorporates CSIRO’s world-class expertise in urban water science, formerly deployed through the old Urban Water Theme. In short, CSIRO is taking steps to enable its science to interrogate urban challenges beyond individual research domains such as water, thus seeking to provide easier answers to more complex questions that often require cross-sector trade-offs. The truly multi-disciplinary nature of the Cities Program enables exploration of liveability, sustainability and resilience2 with more deliberate scientific vigour than was previously possible.

In short, CSIRO is taking steps to enable its science to interrogate urban challenges beyond individual research domains such as water, thus seeking to provide easier answers to more complex questions that often require cross-sector trade-offs. The Program will focus on improving the understanding of issues such as extreme events like floods and droughts, infrastructure (for example, roads, buildings, water, gas and electricity), and environmental vulnerabilities (such as ecosystems, water quality and so on), which together impact on population health, energy, water, productivity, transport and food supply. Strategies for managing these issues will create enormous research opportunities and outcomes internationally as well as for Australia. The new LSR Cities program aims to be Australia’s pre-eminent provider of systems-based research to enable resilience of 21st century cities. The program has several goals related to urban water research, including to: • Develop integrated water cycle resilience options for cities using innovative systemsbased research and targeted science. Examples of these include continuation of the worldleading research into managed aquifer recharge (MAR), recycling of wastewater and stormwater harvesting. It has been estimated that national uptake of 320 GL/year of rainwater, urban stormwater, recycled water for potable or value adding substitution of supplies by 2030, could save Australia $480 million pa in supply costs and $4 billion in capital costs.

1 grattan.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/814-mapping-australia-economy.pdf 2 Walker B and Salt S (2006): Resilient Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World. Island Press, USA.

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Stormwater harvesting is a critical element in sustainable urban water design and could save millions of dollars in costs. • Identify and manage the critical synergies and trade-offs in complex urban systems. Examples include all related research into the food-energy-water-ecosystems nexus.

CARRY MOREOpinion23 WATER METHODS WITH YOU WHEREVER YOU NEED THEM MOST.

• Understand how priorities may differ for population centres with different characteristics and contexts. Examples include differences in urban water management in Australian capital cities compared to smaller urban centres and near neighbours in Asia. • Improve asset investment and recycling by taking a resilient urban systems-based approach, with the aim of improving and safeguarding networks for water, electricity, gas, telecommunications and transport. Maintenance of these assets is currently valued at more than $11 billion annually and will continue to grow unless more productive approaches are developed, and importantly, the potential value of assets that can be recycled is at least $100 billion. It is vital that we continue to sustainably invest in maintaining adequate and reliable critical infrastructure and services, and water remains an essential part of this equation.

The Authors Dr Tim Muster (email: tim.muster@csiro.au) is a Senior Research Scientist at the CSIRO, most recently filling the role of Leader of Urban Water Technologies, overseeing projects in the fields of Intelligent Water Networks and Advanced Wastewater Treatment. He has over 20 years of research experience in the scientific disciplines of colloid, surface and electro-chemistry, with over 65 refereed journal publications and has led numerous collaborative projects with the Water Research Foundation, The Boeing Company and Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence. In 2007 Dr Muster was the recipient of the CSIRO Young Scientist John Philip Award and has twice won the Marshall Fordham Best Research Paper of the Australasian Corrosion Association (2003 and 2005). More recently, Dr Muster was the recipient of a CSIRO Julius Career Award for nutrient recovery from wastewater. Dr Declan Page is an Environmental Chemist and a Group Leader in the Liveable, Sustainable and Resilient Cities research program in the CSIRO Land and Water Research Flagship. He has a broad range of expertise relating to the water cycle, including catchment management, stormwater harvesting and wastewater reuse, managed aquifer recharge, water treatment technology and quantitative human health risk assessment. Prior to his appointment at CSIRO, he worked in the private sector for five years. He has experience in utilities, environmental consulting and international development.

The DR 1900 Portable Spectrophotometer features over 220 of the most commonly tested water methods. 1300 887 735 | hachpacific.com.au

DECEMBER 2014 water


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Feature article

feature article

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Feature Article

DAM HARD: WATER STORAGE IS A HISTORIC HEADACHE FOR AUSTRALIA Are more dams the answer to Australia’s water security? Some say yes, while others adamantly disagree. Joshua Larsen, Badin Gibbes and John Quiggin, from The University of Queensland, addressed this contentious issue in this article published in The Conversation.

Joyce also implied that dam-building has hit a slump, blaming the environmental movement’s hostility to dams. But how do the new projects stack up to Australia’s dam-building past? And are they what Australia needs in the future? The proposed dam and irrigation projects are divided into three categories: six projects being considered for capital investment in the next 12 months; four more being considered for later investment; and the remaining 17 whose feasibility is yet to be confirmed. Only 14 of these 27 have storage capacity estimates, and at least two are expansions of existing dams. The future for dams is far from clear, but in the meantime perhaps we can learn some lessons by looking to the past.

Dam useful We have always needed to store water beyond what can be naturally sourced at any one time, and stopping the natural flow of a river has proven to be the most effective way to do this. From ancient structures, to improved medieval designs, to today’s massive structures, the science has grown ever more sophisticated. Regardless of their design, the purpose of dams is usually a

No. of Large Dams

15

1,000,000 Water storage capacity (millions of m3)

T

he Agricultural Green Paper released in October 2014 proposes 27 new water and irrigation projects, which the government claims will be necessary for Australia’s agricultural expansion. The emphasis is firmly on dams, with Federal Agriculture Minister Barnaby Joyce arguing that “water is wealth and stored water is a bank”.

Storage capacity of large dams (1900-2010) Global Dams Australian Dams

10,000

100

1

1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year of completion

Capacity of dams constructed by year (note logarithmic scale on the y-axis). Divide megalitre units by 1,000 to compare with the units used here. Source: Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) Database – Badin Gibbes. combination of agricultural, industrial, or domestic water supply; hydroelectric power generation; and flood mitigation. Stopping or impeding the natural run of a river can create social, economic and environmental impacts. That means that any touted benefits must have a clear economic and water-management rationale.

Australia’s dams: a potted history Australia has a long history of dam building, albeit with considerable variation in intensity. Our biggest single effort was the Snowy Mountains scheme, one of the largest hydraulic engineering projects of its day.

Large dam construciton in Australia (1900-2010)

10

5

0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year of completion

No. of Large Dams

200

Global large dam construction (1900-2010)

150 100 50 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year of completion

Number of dams constructed by year. Source: Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) Database – Badin Gibbes.

Elsewhere, projects have been more modest. Dams need reliable water inflows, suitable landscapes to create a reservoir, and water users either near the dam or downstream. Australia has plenty of potential water users, but has typically fallen down on the first two considerations. As a result, Australia’s rapid rise in dam construction from the 1960s to the 1980s petered out in the 1990s (although so did the worldwide trend). As dam construction has faltered, overall water storage capacity has flat-lined, within Australia and elsewhere. This is not necessarily through a lack of will. It may be that given the ingredients required for success (inflow, landscape and customers), Australia is simply running out of feasible locations for new dams.

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Feature Article

Tasmania’s Gordon Dam is the biggest dam in Australia. Building dams in areas with marginal water inflow risks even greater storage variability than experienced by the current water storage network. Extending into areas with less-than-ideal landscapes increases the risk of construction cost blowouts or excessive water loss through evaporation.

intense scientific debate. The dam’s surface area determines how sensitive the storage is to evaporation, although the actual evaporation rate depends on the local climatic conditions. If evaporation increases, this will increase the amount of water given to the atmosphere at the expense of use by agriculture or the environment.

It is probably no coincidence, then, that of the six dams to be considered for capital investment in the next 12 months, five are in Tasmania, a state rich in the essential physical (but not necessarily economic) characteristics.

Australia, therefore, needs a dam-planning strategy that accounts for the whole water cycle, including the possible impacts of climate change.

Do the new plans hold water? Most of the dams proposed for investment in the next 12 months are relatively small, with the 23,400-megalitre Circular Head in Tasmania being the largest of these. Looking ahead, there are two dams to be considered for further investment with storage estimates, including Queensland’s 880,000-megalitre Nathan Dam proposal. The largest of the 14 dams is by far Urannah Dam at 1.5 million megalitres, but it is lower down on the feasibility consideration list. These 14 dams all have considerably less capacity than existing dams in Australia, the biggest of which is Gordon Dam in Tasmania, which stores 12.5 million megalitres. There is also the question of who will pay to build them. Historically, most major Australian irrigation dam projects have been constructed by the public, and there has been little or no attempt to secure a return on the investment. For much of the 20th century, water charges for irrigation did not even cover the costs of dam operation and maintenance. It seems unlikely that many existing projects would have been economically feasible if users had been required to bear the full cost. The Ord River Scheme in Western Australia provides a good (if somewhat extreme) example. According to an official analysis, between 1958 and 1991 the government invested A$613 million in the scheme, but the benefits were just A$102 million. Yet the expansion of the project has continued (and is mentioned in the new green paper), with mounting net losses.

An uncertain future Dams are inevitably linked to the climate in which they are constructed. Rainfall supplies the streams that flow into the dams, and how this relationship might respond to a changing climate is the subject of

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Whether or not new dams can sustain the proposed agricultural expansions in the face of these climate-related uncertainties is a critical question, especially in northern Australia where conditions are already highly variable. A useful starting point is to acknowledge that a mix of both dam and non-dam infrastructure (such as groundwater, desalination, and water recycling systems) are likely to be needed, along with water-use efficiency measures, to meet any expansion in agricultural water demand. In terms of economics, it is unlikely that future schemes will do any better than the poor return on investment garnered from Australia’s existing dams. A century of development has exhausted most of the best dam sites, and new projects will face constraints that were less acute (or disregarded) during the expansionary period of the 20th century. Moreover, while the real price of agricultural commodities has fluctuated about a stable or declining trend, the cost of large-scale construction of all kinds has increased – one of the few certainties in this entire issue. WJ This article has been reprinted from The Conversation (theconversation.com/dam-hard-water-storage-is-a-historicheadache-for-australia-33397)

The Authors Joshua Larsen is a Lecturer, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, at The University of Queensland. Badin Gibbes is a Lecturer, School of Civil Engineering, at The University of Queensland. John Quiggin is a Professor, School of Economics, at The University of Queensland.


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Feature Article

IS ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE A BARRIER TO IMPLEMENTING INTEGRATED URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT IN ADELAIDE? Ganesh Keremane, Zhifang Wu and Jennifer McKay from the Centre for Comparative Water Policies and Laws explore the challenges and barriers to implementing an IUWM strategy in Adelaide.

T

his article discusses some aspects of a larger study conducted to explore the challenges and barriers to implementing an integrated urban water management (IUWM) strategy in Adelaide. It is based on an internet survey of 55 key actors representing various stakeholder groups from both the public and private sectors. While the key actors identified several challenges and barriers, this paper focuses on two factors: organisational culture and institutional capacity. Clearly the stakeholders perceived these as barriers to implementing IUWM and clarified that some of the other challenges, such as ownership and access rights, are related to the ‘new’ water sources such as stormwater and recycled wastewater. The National Water Initiative (NWI) suggests identifying and developing innovative ways of managing and achieving more efficient water use in its cities, and IUWM aims to achieve this by enabling multi-functionality of urban water services. Consequently, many of Australia’s state governments and their agencies have moved to better align planning and development requirements with an integrated approach to the management of the urban water cycle. While the objectives of the NWI 2004 were agreed by the Australian states and territories, implementation of IUWM remains a challenge for the individual states and territories, mostly owing to the presence of different institutional models to manage urban water supplies (Keremane et al., 2014). With the inclusion of ‘new sources’ of water (e.g. stormwater, recycled wastewater) into the supply mix, the situation became more complicated. Addition of these sources has resulted in a complex entitlements regime and related issues about access rights because the current entitlement arrangements governing these sources of water within the urban water supply are not clearly defined. In line with this, a study sponsored by the Goyder Institute for Water Research was carried out to identify the legal and policy challenges to implementing IUWM in Adelaide, and also to explore potential solutions to overcome these challenges. To do so, the project team used mixed methods, but this article discusses some findings of an online survey of 55 senior urban water managers and planners representing various stakeholder groups. While the study is expected to provide suggestions on potential solutions that will assist urban water managers and strategists to develop better targeted legal, policy and institutional programs, this article highlights some of the barriers identified during the study. A more detailed outline with some potential strategies to overcome the challenges will be presented in a follow-up paper in coming months.

Research Context and Method Historically Adelaide relies on its traditional water sources – the River Murray, catchments in the Adelaide Hills and groundwater – for its drinking water supply. However, the prolonged drought in recent years forced Adelaide to introduce non-conventional sources of water such as treated stormwater, recycled wastewater, desalinated water and rainwater tank water to supplement these resources. In 2009 the South Australian Government released Water for Good, a statewide water plan that outlined the actions to ensure water security for South Australia into the future, which among others included diversification of water supply sources (OWS, 2010). As a result of these initiatives, South Australia today leads the country in the areas of stormwater capture and reuse and wastewater recycling. While expanded access to a wide range of water sources can provide a reliable and secure cost-effective water supply, integration of water sources (catchments, groundwater, desalination, recycled wastewater and harvested stormwater) in urban water supply requires sophisticated risk management and water quality monitoring strategies to ensure the primacy of public health (Spies and Dandy, 2012). Furthermore, review of published literature on institutional issues relating to IUWM and water-sensitive urban design highlights the major challenges summed up in five key areas by Mukheibir et al., (2014): legislation and regulations; economics and finance; planning and collaboration; culture and capacity; and citizen engagement. Similarly, Brown and Farrelly (2009) have produced a comprehensive list of barriers to delivering sustainable urban water management and argue that “these barriers are socioinstitutional rather than technical” (p. 842). In literatures there is an agreement about the hurdles we face in implementing an IUWM strategy and two factors – organisational culture and institutional capacity – emerge as the important elements that influence this change, particularly with respect to source diversification. This is mostly because developing and implementing ‘new’ water projects requires significant community engagement (Marsden Jacob, 2013). Also, within the water industry, as Mukheibir et al. (2014, p. 71) argue, “the rigid cultural norms of organisations, professionals and academics… and capacity development, are barriers to integrated and innovative water management”. In this regard we wanted to examine the perceptions of the key stakeholders in South Australian urban water sector about these barriers.

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Feature Article its field. Therefore, the survey asked the participants to indicate their agreement/ disagreement about the following statements:

Figure 1. Key stakeholder perceptions on organisational culture and institutional capacity as barriers.

• Organisational/ corporate culture within the water sector is a barrier to implementing integrated urban water management strategy in Adelaide; • Institutional capacity is a barrier to implementing integrated urban water management strategy in Adelaide.

Organisational culture within Figure 2. Key stakeholder perceptions on institutional uncertainty about ownership and access rights as barriers. the water sector, Survey respondents include, among others, local government particularly within officers, consultants, engineers, planners, policy/strategy officers Government departments and SA Water, was considered a major scientists, land developers and economists. Overall, there was a barrier to implementing IUWM in Adelaide. More than 68 per cent good representation from the breadth of organisations involved in of respondents perceived organisational/corporate culture as a barrier to implementing IUWM (see Figure 1). The respondents Adelaide’s urban water management. (around 62 per cent) also indicated that institutional capacity was a The areas in which the participants primarily worked included barrier, and pointed out that this was mostly due to limited resources stormwater and wastewater management, integrated water and fragmented roles and responsibilities (Brown & Farrelly, 2009; management, water governance, strategy and policy, design and Mukheibir et al., 2014). planning, and capacity building. About 70 per cent of participants Institutional uncertainty had more than 10 years’ experience working in the area of urban about access and ownership water management, thus providing outstanding support for the With urban water supply sources now including ‘new’ sources reliability and validity of survey results. such as stormwater and recycled wastewater, clarifying entitlement Results and Discussion arrangements is a complex task. The current entitlement arrangements governing these sources of water are not clearly While the survey asked participants various questions on defined and this would need to be done by legislation, especially institutional issues related to implementing an IUWM strategy for stormwater. Similarly, there may be issues when storing either of in Adelaide, in this article we focus on some of the challenges these resources using Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), because related to the ‘new’ water sources. These challenges include when these resources are stored in an aquifer, generally the person organisational/corporate culture within the water sector; institutional or entity injecting the water does not retain legal ownership rights, capacity; institutional uncertainty about access rights; institutional or have any guarantee that they can recover their water. These rights uncertainty about ownership of water; and compliance with and guarantees need to be established. Furthermore, the complex environmental and health regulations. entitlements regime and related issues about security to access may create a barrier to future investment in a range of ‘new’ sources Organisational culture that potentially substitute potable supply. So what do the key and institutional capacity stakeholders in the South Australian urban water sector think Organisational culture is defined in many different ways in the about these barriers? culture literature. However, the most commonly known definition As illustrated in Figure 2, around 50 per cent of the key of organisational culture is “the way we do things around here” stakeholders surveyed agreed that institutional uncertainty about (Lundy & Cowling, 1996, p. 168). Another important issue related to access rights and ownership of water was a barrier to diversifying implementing the ‘new’ water projects is institutional capacity, and supply portfolio and implementing an integrated urban water building institutional capacity is important to encourage institutional management strategy. They also elucidated that access rights and change (Brown and Farrelly, 2009); also as Wakely (1997) argues, ownership issues depended on the source and are mostly related institutional capacity determines the ability of an institution to to the non-prescribed sources. Some also suggested these barriers perform effectively at its own tasks and coordinate with others in were more evident in case of stormwater reuse and MAR schemes.

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Feature Article and desalinated water. While there is a growing support for implementing a portfolio of water supply sources, it is also true there are challenges and barriers to implementing this approach. Mostly, the impediments are Figure 3. Key stakeholder perceptions on compliance with environment and public health regulations as barriers. socio-institutional and at policy and Compliance with environment legal areas, and are and public health regulations predominantly related to the ‘new’ water sources. Addressing these In Australia, lack of coordination of policies and regulations issues and achieving sustainable urban water management may that govern conservation and reuse and legal fragmentation require institutional change and extensive redesign of organisations are significant barriers to sustainable urban water management. and their basic operating practices (Brown, 2008). The study wanted to know how the key stakeholders in Adelaide This implies two factors – organisational culture and institutional perceived these issues; accordingly the survey asked the capacity – are important to achieving organisational transformation. respondents to indicate their agreement/disagreement with But achieving (cultural) transformations to encourage institutional two statements related to compliance with the regulations change for implementation of an integrated urban water governing water reuse (see Figure 3). Around 35 per cent agreed management approach may take several years and, therefore, with the findings of the study and perceived full compliance planners and policy makers must have a long-term framework with environmental and public health regulations as a barrier for addressing these issues. WJ to implementing IUWM. Interestingly, more respondents (around 43 per cent) disagreed with the statement and perceived this was not a barrier; instead, they believed full compliance to be ‘necessary’ and that it can be a driver because more wastewater and stormwater reuse means less environmental impact. Marsden Jacobs (2013) agree and argue that with legislative environment in Australia continuously evolving “the environmental, health and economic regulation in each jurisdiction is relatively clear and understood by most water service providers” (p. 13).

Conclusion Urbanisation, growing population, economic growth and climate change have all placed increasing pressure on the existing water supplies and raised concerns about environmental impacts. As a result, it is crucial to adapt an integrated approach to urban water management, which includes diversifying urban water supplies and including new sources of water, e.g. stormwater, recycled wastewater

The Authors Dr Ganesh Keremane (email: ganesh. keremane@unisa.edu.au) is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Comparative Water Policies and Laws, School of Law, University of South Australia. Dr Zhifang Wu (email: zhifang.wu@unisa.edu. au) is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Comparative Water Policies and Laws, School of Law, University of South Australia. Professor Jennifer McKay (email: jennifer. mckay@unisa.edu.au) is Professor of Business Law and foundation Director of the Centre for Comparative Water Policies and Laws, School of Law, University of South Australia.

Acknowledgement This study acknowledges the sponsorship by the Goyder Institute for Water Research, South Australia. The Authors are also grateful to the participants for their time and effort. The Authors also thank Kathryn Bellette for assisting in the stakeholder identification process.

References Brown R (2008): Local Institutional Development and Organizational Change for Advancing Sustainable Urban Water Futures. Environmental Management, 41, 2, pp 221–233. Brown R & Farrelly M (2009): Delivering Sustainable Urban Water Management – A Review of the Hurdles We Face. Water Science and Technology, 59, 5, pp 839–846. Keremane G, Wu Z & McKay J (2014): Institutional Arrangements for Implementing Diverse Water Supply Portfolio in Metropolitan Adelaide – Scoping Study. Goyder Institute for Water Research Technical Report Series No. 14/14, Adelaide, South Australia. ISSN: 1839–2725. Lundy O & Cowling A (1996): Strategic Human Resource Management. London: Routledge. Marsden Jacob Associates (2013): Economic Viability of Recycled Water Schemes. Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, Brisbane, Queensland. ISBN 66 663 324 657. Mukheibir P, Howe C & Gallet D (2014): What’s Getting in the Way of a ‘One Water’ Approach to Water Services Planning and Management? An Analysis of the Challenges and Barriers to an Integrated Approach to Water. AWA Water Journal, 41, 3, pp 67–73. Office for Water Security (2009): Water for Good: A Plan to Ensure Our Water Future to 2050. OWS, Adelaide. Spies B & Dandy G (2012): Sustainable Water Management: Securing Australia’s Future in a Green Economy, Report of a study by the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE). ISBN 978 1 921388 20 0. Wakely P (1997): Capacity Building for Better Cities. Journal of the Development Planning Unit, University College London. www.gdrc.org/ uem/capacity-build.html (accessed 7 November 2014).

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Feature Article

Amazing Race A Runaway Success In October the inaugural Queensland Young Water Professionals Amazing Race took place in Brisbane. Twenty-three participants signed up and lots of fun was had by all. Christina Lockett reports.

I

t all started when the Queensland YWP Committee set out to hold a fun and informative event for Young Water Professionals in the Brisbane region. Given the popularity of the ‘Amazing Race’ TV series, a ‘water’ themed version of the same seemed like a great opportunity for teambuilding, networking and exploring the different aspects of the water industry in our region. To facilitate the event, the committee established a dedicated planning group to organise it. Charlotte Spliethoff, Alycia Moore, Hannah Shaw, Christina Lockett, Robert Goedecke, Betty Alegria and Elena Mejia Likosova all gave their time and resources towards making the day a success. Many long evenings were spent discussing route options, figuring out activities, and devising cryptic clues to keep the event fun and challenging. None of the group had ever organised an event like this before, so the pressure was on and we learned plenty of valuable lessons along the way. On Saturday 18 October, the big day was finally upon us. Young professionals from throughout the water industry spent an intense afternoon competing for the much-coveted perpetual trophy.

A total of 23 YWPs had signed up for the event, with the aspiring athletes assembling into four teams to take on the race. It was great to see competitors from such a wide range of backgrounds, including students, higher degree candidates, recent graduates and other young professionals from within the water sector. All four teams – Team AWMC (Advanced Water Management Centre from the University of Queensland), Team Seqwater, Team Aqua and The Barramundis – were tough contenders and it looked certain to be a tight competition.

in water-themed charades at Southbank one minute, and completing a crash course in local history the next. Creativity under pressure also became an essential skill, as teams were asked to compose themed Haikus while on the run. In Roma Street Parklands, some competitors were to be found getting splashed in a watercarrying sponge relay, while others Team Barramundi charging were hunting down elusive water through the ‘Flying Sponge dragons for photo opportunities. Duck Relay’. Their people skills were tested to the limits in King George Square, where they persuaded strangers to pose for group photos in front of the ‘Green Wall’, and their problemsolving abilities were called upon to follow riddles and clues to various secret locations, such as Brisbane’s historic ‘Old Windmill’.

ADAPTING TO THE CHALLENGES The Amazing Race required communication and cooperation, and overall was a great team-building experience. Seqwater competitor Alysha di Martino described the event as “a really great afternoon – I’m already looking forward to next year. We could have spent all day doing this race, it was so much fun!”. The event was also a success on social media: in the week of the race, the AWA Young Water Professionals’ Facebook page was viewed by 850 people and over 100 people ‘liked’ the updates and photos. Because it was a race against the clock, it was essential for teams to multi-task and prioritise the challenges they faced in order to earn the most points in the shortest time. As pressure mounted, several teams took to running between challenge locations in order to meet the deadline. At 5:15pm sharp, the race ended, with teams assembling at a popular watering hole on Roma Street to quench their thirst and determine the victor.

The competitors pose for a friendly group photograph before the race begins.

The Race Is On! Anticipation built as the teams assembled at the starting line. Maps and clues were distributed, the final briefing was given, and they were off! Much like the TV series, the YWP Amazing Race involved following clues to find specific locations, solve puzzles and complete challenges, all to a watery theme. Strategies varied, with some teams staying in the Brisbane CBD while others raced directly to the Roma Street Parklands or across the river to Southbank. Regardless of the route, one thing was certain: the clock was ticking! The array of different challenges kept the teams on their toes throughout the afternoon. They could be seen guessing clues

water DECEMBER 2014

Tension was high as points were tallied, selfies judged and Haikus recited. All teams fought valiantly, but there was a clear winner. With a whopping 87points, Team Seqwater took out first place, gaining custody of the perpetual trophy, along with bonus drinks and vouchers towards an upcoming AWA event of their choice. Enthusiasm for a repeat event next year was high and there was a great vibe among the competitors. The victors! Team Seqwater This was an excellent introduction took home the Amazing Race trophy for 2014. From left: to AWA for these Young Water Alysha Di Martino, Katie Professionals, and they’re looking Jones, Rees Davies, Helena forward to our next event! WJ Sutherland and Steph Pruss.


technical papers

Disinfection Comparison Of Single And Multiple Dosing Of Chlorine For Water Distribution Systems

I Fisher et al.

32

Y Gruchlik et al.

38

M Young

44

M Griffith & P Tate

51

Comparing dosing alternatives with an accurate chlorine decay model

Impact Of Bromide And Iodide During Drinking Water Disinfection And Potential Treatment Processes

A study to evaluate distributed water from two Western Australian drinking water sources

Water In Agriculture Designing Water Abstraction Regimes For An Ever-Changing Future

Addressing a range of issues in the management of scarce water resources

River Health Hawkesbury Nepean River And South Creek Model A review of a new tool to inform management decisions in the Hawkesbury Nepean Catchment

Operations & Maintenance Optimisation Of Non-Ionic Polymer To Address Issues With High-Colour Low-Turbidity Raw Water

A report of five events at Sydney Water’s Nepean Water Filtration Plant

A Mohiuddin et al.

58

W Barber et al.

64

M Black

68

Biosolids Codigestion Of Glycerol With Primary Sludge

This icon means the paper has been refereed

Results of stoichiometry calculations to provide additional insight into results from pilot glycerol trials

Water Pricing Urban Water Regulation In Australia: Where Are We Now?

A summary of the current status of urban water regulation

Disclaimer: The papers in this section have been peer reviewed for relevance, clarity and contributing constructively to the sharing of knowledge about water. It is not intended that any conclusions drawn by authors may be used as validation of the performance of a process or product; AWA expressly refutes any suggestion that publication herein implies endorsement. Although reviewers consider the credibility of data presented, it is not possible for them to vouch for the accuracy of such data.

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Lettuce crops in California, US.

NEXT ISSUE

FEBRUARY 2015 • FINANCING INFRASTRUCTURE • WATER IN MINING & ENERGY • WATER-SENSITIVE CITIES • RESOURCE RECOVERY • DECENTRALISED WATER SYSTEMS • INTEGRATED CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT


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Technical Papers

COMPARISON OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE DOSING OF CHLORINE FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Comparing dosing alternatives with an accurate chlorine decay model is better than by constructing chlorine demand curves from decay test data I Fisher, G Kastl, A Sathasivan

ABSTRACT Single and multiple chlorine dosing in drinking water systems were compared using chlorine decay and THM formation models. Previously published data were re-analysed and it was concluded, after fitting an accurate two-reactant model of bulk-water decay, that multiple dosing of chlorine should provide better quality in a distribution system than does a single dose. This result is consistent with the accepted kinetics of chlorine reacting with organic compounds dissolved in water, but contrasts with the conclusions previously published with the data. This suggests that use of the tworeactant model for interpretation of even seemingly straightforward experiments is needed to make sound conclusions. It was also verified that the two-reactant model realistically describes chlorine decay curves for surface water and its blends with desalinated water. This whole modelling approach is also shown to be suitable to simulate chlorine and THM profiles in a distribution system supplied from one water source or blends with desalinated water, under either single or multiple chlorine dosing.

INTRODUCTION Many water supply systems use chlorine for primary disinfection to inactivate pathogens after filtration at the treatment plant. The system operator subsequently attempts to maintain some minimum (target) free chlorine level in the water until it reaches any exit point (secondary disinfection). Maintaining this target concentration often requires the selection of one or more re-chlorination points and their corresponding doses. However, the amount of undesirable by-products (such as trihalomethanes – THMs) that are generated due to this

WATER DECEMBER 2014

series of chlorine doses is proportional to the total chlorine consumed (largely by reaction with dissolved organic matter – DOM) during the travel time (Clark, 1998; Courtis et al., 2009). Additionally, elevated chlorine levels generate taste and odour complaints from consumers. If drinking water quality is characterised by a desirable range of free chlorine and THMs (e.g., chlorine concentration 0.2–0.6 mg/L and THMs<0.08 mg/L), then better water quality within a system should be achievable with multiple dosing. Such a dosing strategy should not only maintain concentration of free chlorine in the desirable range, but should also result in lower chlorine consumption and, therefore, lower THM concentrations. Byrne et al. (2013) carried out decay tests on settled water from Happy Valley Water Treatment Plant and on three blends containing different proportions of desalinated water. Each water was subjected to single and multiple dosing of free chlorine. For settled Happy Valley (HV) water alone, the total doses applied in each scenario were almost equal. They compared average decay rates for each scenario, subsequent to the last of the multiple doses, but concluded that the data was insufficient to calculate similar rates for the period prior to the last dose. However, from inspection of their Figure 3, the chlorine concentration immediately after the third (final) dose was greater than the corresponding concentration in the single-dose scenario; i.e., less chlorine was consumed beforehand. Consequently, the average decay rate prior to the third dose must have been lower than that for the single dose.

A clear comparison can also be made between the decay rate histories of the two dosing scenarios by constructing chlorine demand (consumption) curves from the decay test data. However, this analysis is not applicable when the total (multiple) dose substantially exceeds that for the single dose, if classical chemical kinetics applies to the reactions of chlorine with its reducing agents. (Under that assumption, the decay rate is directly related to the concentrations of both chlorine and the reducing agents.) Then the higher total dose may be responsible for the measured decay rate being higher than that for the single dose, for some of the time. To provide a general quantitative comparison of the two dosing alternatives, an accurate model of chlorine decay needs to be fitted to the test data. Then the decay curve can be generated for a single-dose test, which commences at the same (total) dose as the multiple-dosing test. The decay rate histories for this and the multiple-dose decay test can then be compared, as previously. Furthermore, by considering slow and fast decay rate coefficients, rather than decay rates per se, the limitations of arbitrary periods for comparison of chlorine demand (such as the 3-day test) can be avoided. An accurate decay/THM formation model of the single- and multipledose data is a stronger and more comprehensive basis than any laboratory assay for assessing the impact of such strategies in real distribution systems. Fisher et al. (2004) demonstrated that such a decay model can be incorporated into system modelling software to make predictions of chlorine residual under fluctuating demand, temperatures and dosing set-points. Fisher and Kastl (2013)


33

extended this approach to multiple sources supplying a distribution system. It should, therefore, apply to blends of desalinated and surface waters. The aims of this paper are therefore to: • Make a clear comparison between the decay rate histories of the two dosing alternatives by constructing chlorine demand (consumption) curves from the decay-test data; • Provide a general method of modelling chlorine decay and THMs, which is applicable to single sources and their blends with desalinated water, and which can be used to rigorously compare chlorine-dosing alternatives; • Extend the application of this chlorine decay/THM model to real distribution systems, by incorporating it within a distribution system software package, which can then also account for dynamic variation in blend proportions, demand, reservoir operations etc.

METHODOLOGY The data published by Byrne et al. (2013) comprised decay tests for singleand multiple-dosing of settled HV water and similar tests of three blends with 25%, 50% and 75% desalinated (DS) water. Details of the water sources and their analytical and experimental methods are given in their paper. The data were read from their Figure 3, using digitising software. The chlorine concentration over time obtained from a multiple-dose decay test was transformed into a cumulative chlorine demand (or consumption) curve as shown in Figure 1. The magnitude of the decay rate is approximated by the slope of the curve at any specified time.

CHLORINE DECAY/ THM MODELLING

The parallel two-reactant (2R) model comprises two notional groups of compounds (slow and fast reactants, S and F mg/L respectively) that each reacts simultaneously with chlorine according to classical chemical kinetics; i.e. at a rate proportional to the concentration of the reactant and of chlorine (Fisher et al., 2011). i.e.

dF/dt = -kF×F×Cl

(1)

dS/dt = -kS×S×Cl and

(2)

dCl/dt = dF/dt + dS/dt

(3)

where Cl mg/L is the concentration of free chlorine and kF and kS L/mg/h are the second-order decay coefficients. Note that the reactant concentrations are defined in terms of equivalent chlorine concentration demanded (mg-Cleq/L), rather than concentrations of individual compounds, so that no stoichiometric ratios among compounds need to be assumed. For model calibration purposes, the decay tests were assumed to have been conducted at a constant temperature, as they were conducted in an air-conditioned laboratory. However, parameter estimates can be substantially in error if temperature is not well controlled. THM concentration can be readily added to the 2R model, by using the linear relationship between THM formation and chlorine consumed (Clark, 1998; Courtis et al., 2009); i.e. dTHM/dt = -Y×dCl/dt

(4)

where THM is the concentration of THMs and Y is the yield (mg THM/mg chlorine consumed).

Figure 1. Construction of chlorine demand (consumption) curve for multi-dose data.

Free chlorine and THM concentrations over time are obtained by numerical integration of the above differential equations, commencing from an initial chlorine concentration (ICC) of Cl0 mg/L at t=0, with initial reactant concentrations F0 and S0 mg-Cleq/L. The 2R model therefore has four parameters (F0, S0, kF and kS), which were estimated from decay test data

using the AQUASIM software package for model parameter estimation and simulation (Reichert, 1995, 1998). The 2R model may seem complex compared with the well-known exponential (first-order) decay model, which requires estimation of only a single decay coefficient. However, a single set of parameter values in the 2R model accurately describes chlorine decay over the full operating range of ICCs (Fisher et al., 2011) and can account for the slowing of decay after successive re-chlorinations, which the exponential decay model does not. On the same grounds, the performance of the 2R model is superior to that of another “second-order” model, in which decay rate is proportional to the square of chlorine concentration only. The 2R model is also readily extended to represent decay in blends of source waters in any proportions, using only the coefficients in the single-source models as additional information. To represent decay in blends of HV and desalinated waters, it was assumed that decay due to the desalinated water fraction was negligible; i.e. the reactants in the HV fraction were simply diluted by the desalinated water, as it contained no chlorine-demanding material. A single set of parameter values was first found, which enabled the 2R model to best fit the single- and multi-dose decay tests on HV water alone. Optimal values of the ICCs for these tests were estimated concurrently because the ICCs are more prone to error than any other test measurement, being on the most rapidly decreasing part of the decay curve. This 2R model was then used to predict the chlorine decay in all blends of HV with desalinated water, while their optimal ICCs were also estimated concurrently. Cumulative chlorine consumption curves for single-and multidosing scenarios were also generated from the 2R model. The demand curve for a single dose exactly equal to the total for each multi-dosing scenario was also generated, to provide an appropriate comparison of decay rates over the entire test period. The 2R model has also been incorporated by Fisher and Kastl (2013) into distribution system simulation software H2OMAP MSX, which includes the EPANET multi-species extension (Shang et al., 2008). Consequently, the resulting system model provides a sound basis for testing alternative

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Technical Papers

Figure 2. Single- (brown) and multiple-dose (blue) decay test data for: A – HV water alone; and B – HV blended with 50% DS water. Data source: Byrne et al. (2013). Corresponding demand curves (yellow and grey respectively) were constructed as shown in Figure 1. system disinfection strategies, such as single vs. multiple dosing, while also accounting for the influence of fluctuating demand patterns, reservoir retention (and possibly mixing), pipe hydraulics and wall interaction. This combined software was used to compare single-and multiple-dosing scenarios within a simple distribution system supplied by water with the same decay characteristics as HV water.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION DATA ANALYSIS

Comparison of decay rates via chlorine consumed in the two dosing scenarios should be confined to the period when there is still some measurable chlorine remaining; i.e. above 0.2 mg/L which is usually regarded as the minimum desirable residual. For these tests, a cutoff of 150h is appropriate. Transforming the decay-test data for HV water to chlorine consumed (as described in Methodology) confirmed that the decay rate under multiple dosing (slope of consumption curve) was lower than that for single dosing throughout this period (Figure 2A). The slight convergence between the last two data points of the single-dose curve is probably due to chlorine concentration approaching zero. It is also evident that, with increasing time, the average reaction rate is converging as all chlorine becomes reacted for both single and multiple doses. If the total of the multiple doses sufficiently exceeds the single dose, the decay rate resulting from multiple dosing may exceed that from the single dose. Similarly, if the total of the multiple doses is lower than the single dose, the apparent chlorine decay rate from multiple dosing would be even lower than that for the case of equal doses.

WATER DECEMBER 2014

The transformation described in Methodology was also applied to the decay test data from the blends to obtain chlorine consumed. The case of the 25%DS blend is similar to that for HV water alone, but less clear-cut, as the total multiple dose was 0.2mg/L greater than the single dose. For the other two blended waters tested, the total of the multiple doses substantially exceeded the single dose. This led to the demand curves for the single doses lying below those for multiple dosing (Figure 2B shows the 50%DS data), implying that the decay rate under multiple-dosing was initially greater than that for the single dose. This is questionable, because the 75%DS scenarios both commence from the same ICC, yet the decay is considerably faster in the multi-dose scenario, before any rechlorination occurs.

PARALLEL TWO-REACTANT MODELLING OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE-DOSE DECAY TESTS

The 2R model (Fisher et al., 2011) was fitted to the HV decay test data from both dosing scenarios, using the AQUASIM software package. ICCs for both decay tests were also determined concurrently. Optimised coefficients are given in Table 1. The initial concentration of slow reactant was almost seven times that of the fast reactant, while together they were more than three times the maximum single chlorine dose applied (4.7 mg/L). These parameters are large compared with those for filtered waters, whereas the decay coefficients are similar to their filtered counterparts (Fisher et al., 2011), which is consistent with HV being a settled water. The 2R model was then used to predict decay in single-dose decay tests of the three blends, after optimising their ICCs, which were all within 0.13 mg/L of the measured values (Table 1). The predictions were excellent (Figure 3), confirming the assumption that there was negligible decay in the blends due to the desalinated water fraction. The same model was then used to predict decay in the multiple-dose blend tests, after optimising their ICCs. Rechlorination doses were set to those specified in Byrne’s Table 1. Predictions of decay in all blends were generally accurate, even during the period of rapidly varying

In contrast, the initial doses for the 50 and 75%DS multi-dose scenarios in Table 1 of Byrne et al. (2013) are considerably lower than those read from their Figure 3, but the rechlorination doses are consistent. It is suggested that chlorine concentration should be measured under identical dosing of a blank sample to avoid such inconsistencies. To resolve the uncertainty surrounding the initial doses, an accurate 2R decay model was fitted to the data and used to optimise the Table 1. Optimal parameter values for the 2R model of Happy Valley water and optimised ICCs (mg/L)for all decay tests ICCs for both compared with measured values (in brackets). scenarios, Parameter F0 mg/L S0 mg/L kF L/mg/h kS L/mg/h while 2.26 14.4 0.444 0.00210 holding the rechlorination Water HV water 25% DS 50% DS 75% DS doses at the Single-dose 4.64 (4.72) 3.75 (3.62) 2.48 (2.42) 1.70 (1.61) measured Multi-dose 1.89 (2.0) 1.66 (1.5) 1.31 (1.5) 0.925 (1.0) values.


35

Figure 3. Two-reactant chlorine decay (2R) model results (thick lines) and corresponding demand curves (thin lines). A – 2R model estimates for HV water only (calibration data); B, C and D – model predictions for 25%, 50% and 75% DS blend with HV water, respectively. Chlorine decay data (points) are from Byrne et al. (2013). chlorine concentration in the multi-dosing scenarios. Optimised values of these ICCs were within 0.19 mg/L of those given in Byrne’s dosing table (and Table 1), rather than those read from their Figure 3. Finding a single set of parameters for the 2R model, with which chlorine decay in HV water and all its blends with DS water could be accurately predicted, supports the hypothesis (following classical kinetics) that decay rates are proportional to the concentration of both chlorine and its reactants. There is no evidence from this data to suggest a higher initial decay rate under multiple dosing. The 2R model also provides a firm basis for detailed comparison of decay rates for different dosing scenarios over more than 150h. Cumulative chlorine consumption curves generated by the model for each dosing scenario are also shown in Figure 3. Consumption curves for single doses exactly equal to the total of multiple doses in each blend are shown dotted in Figure 3. That the same fast and slow decay rate coefficients apply to both dosing scenarios implies that a lower dose of chlorine initially (as in multiple-dosing) will result in a lower decay rate, as the initial concentration of

reactants is the same in both scenarios. This can be seen from the consumption curves in all cases in Figure 3. When the second dose is applied, the decay rate may temporarily exceed the single-dose decay rate, as the increase in chlorine concentration may outweigh the greater reactant concentration remaining in the multiple-dose scenario. The multidose decay rate soon decreases below that for the single dose, as indicated by the consumption curves diverging in all cases, up to the time of the final dose. Immediately after the final dose, the multi-dose decay rate does not exceed the single-dose rate in any of the four cases; i.e. it increases, but remains slower than the single-dose rate, until eventually chlorine in the single-dose case approaches zero and the multi-dose decay is greater for the remainder of the period. In summary, the cumulative chlorine consumption is always lower for the multidose case, but it converges given sufficient time, as chlorine will be fully consumed for both cases. Consequently, the potential benefit from multi-dosing occurs at times when a single dose of chlorine would be practically exhausted, but multi-dosing would still provide an acceptable residual.

APPLICATION TO REAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

Dosing strategies were compared within a simple distribution system using the H2OMAP MSX software. The system consisted of a fixed-head reservoir (representing the HV treatment plant), which supplied an area A downstream via two intermediate tanks (Figure 4). Each tank could operate between specified water levels. The (only) demand at node 10 was constant, so that after some spin-up time, the levels in the tanks reached equilibrium and system retention time was 125 h. The 2R model was also set up within the same software. Parameters derived from the AQUASIM software for HV water (Table 1) were adopted. For the single-dose scenario, the plant outflow was dosed to 4 mg/L. In the multi-dose scenario, the plant outflow was dosed to 2 mg/L and each tank was dosed (flow-paced) to 1 mg/L. Yield of THMs was assumed to be 0.04 mg/mg of chlorine consumed. The species’ concentrations also attained equilibrium values throughout the system, just as the flows and tank levels did, as shown for chlorine at node 10 in Figure 5.

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Technical Papers


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36

Technical Papers of the particulate reactants present in settled water, as they are removed during filtration. WATER QUALITY INDEX

Figure 4. Simple distribution schematic from H2OMAP MSX. The equilibrium values attained under each dosing scenario are plotted against distance from the plant in Figure 6. Clear differences between scenarios can be seen for such a simple system. Chlorine decays to 0.11 mg/L at node 10 in the single-dose scenario, which is below the target of 0.2 mg/L. In contrast, for the same total dose, it decays to 0.40 mg/L in the multi-dose scenario – well above the target. This indicates that multiple dosing can deliver better water quality for the same total chlorine dose. However, both scenarios generate about the same concentration of THMs (0.15 and 0.14 mg/L respectively) at node 10 because almost the same amount of chlorine was consumed in the time taken for water to reach that point. Although multi-dosing is clearly superior in achieving the chlorine target, it requires two more dosing plants than does the single-dose scenario. The model could be used further to determine whether dosing only one tank could achieve the target and, hence, reduce the cost involved. Evidently, the single dose can be increased to deliver the same resulting chlorine concentration as multiple dosing, but that would have the undesirable side effects of higher initial concentration at the start of the system and higher resulting concentration of THMs. This simple example was chosen

to make a clear comparison of dosing strategies. However, the same software (with embedded 2R model) can be applied to any real distribution system comprising complex pipe/reservoir arrangements, reservoir windows, control valves, pumps, time-varying demands and temperatures etc. Decay due to the reaction of chlorine with the pipe wall and attached biofilm would also need to be added, along wellestablished lines (as discussed by Brown et al., 2011). It is in such complex situations that using a chlorine decay/THM model with invariant coefficients is essential for efficient and accurate searching for improved disinfection strategies. The conclusions derived for the system from this study should be used very cautiously. The data provide a good example with which to test a more general means of comparing single- and multiple-dose performance in single waters and their blends with desalinated water. However, this decay test data would not provide a good guide to the dosing required post-filtration to achieve optimal disinfection/THM formation in the Happy Valley distribution system. To base a disinfection strategy on the study, the samples for the experiments need to be collected post-filtration. Post-filtration samples contain reactants that will react post-chlorination, but do not contain most

In real distribution systems, it is difficult to compare the performance of different strategies when the modelling results (e.g. chlorine and THM concentrations) vary markedly over both time and space. This can be overcome by defining a water quality index that can be calculated for each segment of consumers based on their location in the distribution system. If d(t) is demand in time period t of a demand cycle of duration T periods, at node n of a system with N demand nodes, then: For a single node T DIn = ∑ [P×d(t)/D] t=1

where DI is the disinfection index; cycle demand D = ∑Tt=1 d(t), and P is the penalty incurred in period t, which depends on how well the water delivered in period t meets the desirable level (e.g. of chlorine). A plausible set of penalties (P1), which addresses the disinfection efficacy and aesthetic (taste and odour) issues, is given in Table 2. The penalty for inadequate disinfection outweighs the worst aesthetics. A similar penalty scheme (P2) is also proposed in Table 2 for THM formation, which is based on the limit for THMs required by the USEPA (0.08 mg/L) and the Australian guidelines for drinking water (0.25 mg/L). A penalty function that combines the penalties incurred for disinfection efficacy, aesthetics and THMs can then be obtained by simply summing P1 and P2 values. The values are chosen so that the worst combination of aesthetics and

Figure 5. Free chlorine at demand point (node 10) for single Figure 6. Steady free chlorine profile in the distribution and multiple dosing. system for single and multiple dosing.

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(5)


37

Table 2. Penalty functions for disinfection (efficacy, aesthetics and THMs). Cl concentration mg/L <0.2

Penalty P1

Reason for P1

THM concentration mg/L

Penalty P2

-2.5

Inadequate disinfection

0

Desirable – good disinfection and aesthetics

<0.08

0

>0.6 to 1.0

-0.5

Cl marginally high – some consumers notice

0.08 to <0.25

-0.5

>1.0 to 1.5

-1

Excellent disinfection but majority notice taste/odour

≥0.25

-1

-1.5

Poor aesthetics, but does not outweigh poor disinfection

0.2 to 0.6

>1.5

Note: To impose a combined penalty, substitute P = P1 + P2 in Eq (5). THM penalties does not exceed that for inadequate disinfection. The cause(s) of high values of the DI at particular locations (nodes) can be identified by examining the contributing values of chlorine concentration and THMs. For the whole system: N DIs = ∑ DIn/N (6) n=1 The overall optimum strategy for the distribution system, from the point of view of chlorine dosing, can be identified by finding the strategy that minimises the system disinfection index, (DIs), defined by Eq (6).

CONCLUSIONS A simple transformation of the singleand multi-dose chlorine decay-test data from settled Happy Valley (HV) water, and its blends with desalinated water, showed that the multi-dose decay rate was always less than the single-dose rate, provided the total dose was the same for each dosing scenario. Comparing scenario decay rates over arbitrary periods, such as the first 20 hours or the following three days, should be avoided because the slow and fast chemical reactions that constitute chlorine decay occur simultaneously, and their rates depend on the concentration of both the reactants and chlorine. Consequently, conclusions may be dependent on where the arbitrary cut-offs are placed. Accurate estimates of the data for HV water alone were obtained from the two-reactant (2R) chlorine decay model, after deriving a single set of four model parameters (coefficients) from both dosing scenarios simultaneously. This model then accurately predicted the decay in all blends and dosing scenarios, with the assumption that there were

negligible chlorine-reducing agents in the desalinated water; i.e., the initial reactant concentrations in the HV blend fraction were simply diluted by the desalinated fraction. That the same model predicted the multi-dose behaviour implies that the decay rate (at a given chlorine concentration) is reduced by successive re-chlorinations, as long recognised by others; e.g. Hua (1999). There was no indication from either data analysis or modelling that chlorine decay during or after multiple dosing was faster than that following an equivalent single dose. As the 2R chlorine decay model could be fitted to all decay test data with a single set of coefficients, it provides a sound generic and efficient basis within a broader system modelling software environment (MSX) to search for improved system disinfection strategies. A simple distribution system model was developed, incorporating the 2R model within H2OMAP MSX, to show that single and multiple dosing could be rigorously compared under specified system characteristics and objectives. A water quality index was also proposed, with which the issue of appropriate evaluation of the performance at multiple nodes could be addressed.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

George Kastl is a Chemical Engineer with over 30 years’ experience, mainly in the water industry with Sydney Water, WorleyParsons and MWH. Dr Arumugam Sathasivan is an Associate Professor in the School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney.

REFERENCES Byrne A, Dharmasena G, Cook D, Chow C, van Leeuwen J & Drikas M (2013): A Modified Laboratory Chlorine Decay Test to Assess the Impact of Multi-Point Chlorine Dosing. Water Journal, 40, 8, pp 51–55. Clark R (1998): Chlorine Demand and TTHM Formation Kinetics: A Second Order Model. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 124, 1, pp 16–23. Courtis B, West J & Bridgeman J (2009): Chlorine Demand-Based Predictive Modelling of THM Formation in Water Distribution Networks. Urban Water Journal, 6, 6, pp 407–415. Fisher I, Kastl G, Sathasivan A, Chen P, van Leeuwen J, Daly R & Holmes M (2004): Tuning the Enhanced Coagulation Process to Obtain Best Chlorine and THM Profiles in the Distribution System. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 4, 4, pp 235–243. Fisher I, Kastl G & Sathasivan A (2011): Evaluation of Suitable Chlorine Bulk-Decay Models for Water Distribution Systems. Water Research, 45, 16, pp 4896–4908. Fisher I, Kastl G & Sathasivan A (2012): A Suitable Model of Combined Effects of Temperature and Initial Condition on Chlorine Bulk Decay in Water Distribution Systems. Water Research, 46, 10, pp 3293–3303. Fisher I & Kastl G (2013): Impact of Hydraulic Calibration on Disinfectant Decay Modelling in Distribution Systems. 2013 Asia Pacific Water Industry Modelling Conference, Brisbane, Australia. blog.innovyze.com/wp-content/ uploads/2013/09/1140.Impact-of-hydrauliccalibration.pdf accessed February 2014.

The Authors thank Innovyze for providing free access to the H2OMAP MSX software, within which they conducted the distribution system simulations.

Hua F, West J, Barker R & Forster CF (1999): Modelling of Chlorine Decay in Municipal Supplies. Water Research, 43, 12, pp 2735–2746.

THE AUTHORS

Reichert P (1995): Design Techniques of a Computer Program for the Identification of Processes and the Simulation of Water Quality in Aquatic Systems. Environmental Software, 10, 3, pp 199–210.

Dr Ian Fisher (email: ianfishau@gmail.com) is a Director of Watervale Systems, a company specialising in modelling and measurement of water quality in distribution systems. He was formerly Principal Scientist for Drinking Water, Sydney Water.

Reichert P (1998): AQUASIM 2.0 – User Manual. EAWAG, Dübendorf, Switzerland. Shang F, Uber J & Rossman L (2008): Modeling Reaction and Transport of Multiple Species in Water Distribution Systems. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 3, pp 808–14.

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IMPACT OF BROMIDE AND IODIDE DURING DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION AND POTENTIAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR THEIR REMOVAL OR MITIGATION A study to evaluate distributed water from two Western Australian drinking water sources Y Gruchlik, J Tan, S Allard, A Heitz, M Bowman, D Halliwell, U von Gunten, J Criquet, C Joll

ABSTRACT In this study, the impact of bromide and iodide on disinfected waters was examined and potential treatment technologies for their removal or mitigation were investigated. Distributed waters from two Western Australian drinking water sources were evaluated in terms of their bromide and iodide concentrations, disinfection by-product (DBP) formation, halogen-specific adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) formation and chlorinous odours after disinfection. In both systems, the brominated DBPs dominated the measured DBPs and, in both cases, the known DBPs accounted for only 30% of total organohalogens. Chloramination with a sufficient free chlorine contact time followed by ammonia addition, rather than preformed monochloramine, may be a viable mitigation strategy for the minimisation of I-DBPs, since exposure to free chlorine should promote the conversion of iodide to iodate, a safe form of iodine. This study has shown that bromide plays an important role in this process, mainly by enhancing the preferred conversion of iodide to iodate. Ozone pre-treatment selectively oxidised iodide to iodate and minimised the formation of I-DBPs. Complete conversion of iodide to iodate, while minimising the bromate formation to below the guideline value of 10 µg L-1, was achieved for a wide range of ozone concentrations in raw waters, including raw waters with high bromide concentrations.

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Keywords: bromide, iodide, disinfection by-products, halogen-specific AOX, ozonation, pre-chlorination.

INTRODUCTION Some Australian drinking water source waters, particularly those in Western Australia, contain high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), as well as elevated concentrations of bromide (Brˉ) and/or iodide (Iˉ). These waters have the potential to form bromo- and iodo-organic disinfection by-products (DBPs) upon disinfection, which are thought to be generally more hazardous to health than the chlorinated analogues (Richardson et al., 2008), highlighting the importance of managing the inorganic precursors in source waters, in addition to NOM removal. In addition to being more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, the bromo- and iodo-organic DBPs can induce taste and odour issues in the

finished waters (Hansson et al., 1987; McDonald et al., 2013). For example, iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), especially iodoform (CHI3), have been associated with a characteristic medicinal taste and odour that may appear in finished drinking water (Hansson et al., 1987). These compounds have low organoleptic threshold concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 8.9 μg L-1, with the lowest concentration being for CHI3 (Cancho et al., 2001). Bromide and iodide present in source waters react differently with different disinfectants. The fate of bromide and iodide during oxidative drinking water treatment processes is shown in Figure 1. During chlorination, bromide reacts with the free chlorine (HOCl) to produce hypobromous acid (HOBr), which may then react with NOM to form bromoorganic DBPs (Br-Org DBPs).

Figure 1. The fate of bromide and iodide during oxidative drinking water treatment processes (modified from Bichsel and von Gunten, 1999).


39

or competition from other ions present at higher concentrations (Watson et al., 2012 and references therein).

Figure 2. Formation of AOX in chlorinated waters. When ozone (O3) is used as the disinfectant, HOBr is further oxidised to bromate (BrO3ˉ), a potential human carcinogen; hence ozone application is often limited in bromide-containing waters (von Gunten, 2003b; Allard et al., 2013). Iodide also reacts quickly with free chlorine to form hypoiodous acid (HOI), which can then react with NOM to form the more toxic iodo-organic DBPs (I-Org DBPs). In the presence of excess free chlorine or during ozonation, HOI is further oxidised to iodate (IO3ˉ), a non-toxic, and thus preferred, sink for iodine (Bichsel and von Gunten, 1999; Allard et al., 2013). Unlike chlorine and ozone, monochloramine (NH2Cl) is not able to oxidise HOI to iodate and thus formation of iodo-organic DBPs occurs during chloramination of iodide-containing waters (Bichsel and von Gunten, 1999). Halogenated DBPs can be measured as individual species, e.g. trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and haloacetonitriles (HANs), or in a bulk measurement such as halogen-specific adsorbable organic halogen (AOX). Halogen-specific AOX provides a measure of all of the individual halogens (Cl, Br, I) incorporated into organic compounds in a sample. The measurement of halogen-specific AOX in drinking water is an alternative to the analysis of individual DBPs, since analytical methods do not exist for many of the individual compounds that comprise AOX. The formation of AOX in chlorinated waters is illustrated in Figure 2, where AOX consists of the halogen incorporation (AOCl, AOBr and AOI) into known and unknown DBPs. The formation of organic DBPs can be minimised by removal of their precursors (NOM and halides) and optimisation of the disinfection parameters to minimise

their formation or removal of DBPs after their formation. Treatment of water to remove DBP precursors (NOM, bromide and iodide) prior to disinfection and distribution is by far the most effective approach to solving the dual problems of disinfectant loss and DBP formation. Different disinfection methods can produce different known and unknown DBPs, however, minimising the availability of precursors for their formation is applicable regardless of the disinfection process used, thereby minimising the formation of all DBPs (Watson et al., 2012). While there are several treatment processes for effective removal of NOM (e.g. Hammes et al., 2006; Warton et al., 2007), currently there are no economical and effective methods for the removal of bromide and iodide from natural waters. Methods for bromide and iodide removal that have been studied previously include: membrane, electrochemical and adsorptive techniques (Watson et al., 2012). Membrane techniques, particularly reverse osmosis, have proven to be effective in the removal of both halides and NOM (Magara et al., 1996; Xu et al., 2008), however, these techniques can be expensive and not energy efficient (Watson et al., 2012). Electrochemical techniques have also been shown to have good halide removal capabilities, however, they do not efficiently remove NOM, which is also vital for minimising formation of DBPs (Watson et al., 2012). Studies on bromide and/or iodide removal using adsorption techniques (e.g. silver-impregnated activated carbon and carbon aerogels, ion-exchange resins and alum coagulation) have shown that most of these methods can reduce the concentrations of these ions to varying extents, however, their efficiency was limited by interference from NOM and/

The aims of this study were to: (a) better understand the impact and occurrence of high concentrations of bromide and iodide in source waters on the quality of distributed waters; and (b) develop innovative water treatment processes for the removal/mitigation of both bromide and iodide in drinking water source waters. The potential technologies for the mitigation of bromide and/or iodide in source waters investigated in this study included: (i) chlorine followed by ammonia addition for chloramination and (ii) selective oxidation by ozone.

METHODOLOGY WATER SAMPLES

Samples of raw and distributed waters were collected from various drinking water source waters in Western Australia. The waters were analysed for iodide, bromide, bromate, iodate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Selected samples of distributed waters were analysed for the formation of a suite of DBPs (regulated THMs (THM4), I-THMs, HAAs and HANs) and halogen-specific AOX, and for the presence of chlorinous odours. REAGENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Experimental, reagent and analytical protocols were all rigorous and based on published sources, but space does not permit inclusion in this paper.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SURVEY OF BROMIDE AND IODIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN WA DRINKING WATER SOURCE WATERS

In a survey of the concentrations of bromide, iodide and DOC in many Western Australian drinking water source waters, the bromide concentrations were found to range from 400 µg L-1 to 8450 µg L-1, while the iodide concentrations ranged from less than 5 µg L-1 to 593 µg L-1 (Table 1). DOC concentrations ranged from 0.4 mg L-1 to 16 mg L-1 (Table 1). Bromide concentrations of < 50 µg L-1 in natural drinking water supplies have been reported as low by Gillogly et al. (2001). Moderate bromide concentrations have been reported at approximately 110 µg L-1 (Ates et al., 2007). Bromide concentrations ranging from 76–540 µg L-1 have been referred to as moderate to high (Boyer and Singer, 2005), and concentrations

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Table 1. Concentrations of bromide, iodide and DOC in some Western Australian raw source waters (E = eastern; GW = groundwater; GWTP = groundwater treatment plant; SW= surface water; W = western). Sample North-West Coastal GW

Bromide Concentration (µg L-1)

Iodide Concentration (µg L-1)

DOC Concentration (mg L-1)

8,455

594

0.8

Great Southern SW1

847

17

10.2

South-East GW

754

72

1.2

North-West SW

448

31

4.3

South-West SW

400

90

3.5

Perth Metro GWTP raw water

743

31

7.6

1,460

< LOD*

0.6

Goldfields GW bore 1

977

< LOD

0.8

Goldfields GW bore 2

1,385

26

1.2

Goldfields GW bore 3

817

< LOD

0.7

Goldfields GW bore 4

868

< LOD

0.9

Goldfields GW bore 5

717

< LOD

0.9

Mid-West E GW bore

Perth South Coastal GW bore 1

1,483

23

1.0

Perth South Coastal GW bore 2

479

< LOD

2.6

Perth South Coastal GW bore 3

1,307

25

1.2

561

6

16.2

Mid-West W GW bore 1

2,249

215

0.5

Mid-West W GW bore 2

1,908

128

0.4

Mid-West W GW bore 3

2,807

493

0.6

Perth Northern GW bore

567

36

2.2

Perth Metro artesian GW

2,261

37

1.0

Great Southern SW2

*Limit of detection (LOD) = 5 µg L-1 around 700 µg L-1 have been described as very high (Hansson et al., 1987). Iodide concentrations in natural waters are generally fairly low (< 10 µg L-1) and are usually lower than chloride and bromide concentrations (von Gunten, 2003b). However, in some cases, iodide concentrations can reach levels of ≥ 50 µg L-1 due to special geological formations or seawater intrusion (von Gunten, 2003b). Based on these previously reported classifications, it is apparent from the results in Table 1 that all of the surveyed sites contain high to very high bromide concentrations, with many of the sites also containing high iodide concentrations. Two of the surveyed source waters contained high DOC concentrations, while the majority of sites had low to moderate DOC concentrations compared to other drinking water sources in Australia. For example, DOC concentrations of 10 to 13 mg L-1 have previously been reported as high, while DOC concentrations of 5 mg L-1 have been described as moderate (Fabris et al., 2008).

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THE IMPACT OF HIGH BROMIDE AND IODIDE CONCENTRATIONS ON DISINFECTED WATERS

A preliminary study to understand the impact of high bromide and iodide concentrations in drinking water source waters on disinfected waters was conducted. Distributed waters from selected water resources were examined in terms of their bromide and iodide concentrations, DBP formation, halogenspecific AOX formation and chlorinous odours after disinfection. To minimise precursor removal and understand the process of DBP formation, source waters with minimal treatment (i.e. disinfection only) prior to distribution were chosen. Two such source waters were selected for this study. The first source water was a groundwater (GW) containing high bromide (750 µg L-1) and iodide (70 µg L-1) concentrations and a relatively low DOC (1.2 mg L-1) concentration. The second water was a surface water (SW) containing a moderate DOC (3.5 mg L-1) concentration and high bromide (400 µg L-1) and iodide (90 µg L-1) concentrations. Both source waters were disinfected using chlorine prior to distribution.

Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) In both the GW and the SW systems, the more toxic brominated DBPs dominated the measured DBPs in the distribution system samples, as bromine is more reactive than chlorine, and thus can lead to higher formation of brominated DBPs than chlorinated DBPs, even when the chlorine concentration is much higher than the bromine concentration. Most of the DBPs detected in the GW system were the regulated THMs (33%) and HAAs (65%), with only minor concentrations of HANs (1%) detected. All 10 species of THMs were detected in the SW distributed waters. In this distribution system, the regulated THMs and HAAs also formed the largest proportion of DBPs (46% and 51%, respectively) followed by a small percentage of HANs (3%) and a minor quantity of I-THMs (less than 1%). The DBPs detected are reported as a percentage of the total molar concentrations. In the SW system, the concentrations of most of the DBPs increased further into the distribution system, with greater increases observed for the


41

concentrations of Cl-DBPs due to a longer contact time with chlorine. The bulk of the initial iodide concentration present in the raw water appeared to be converted to iodate after chlorination, with only low concentrations of I-THMs being detected in the SW distribution system. The regulated THMs and HAAs detected were present at concentrations below the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (250 µg L-1 for THM4, 100 µg L-1 for dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, and 150 µg L-1 for chloroacetic acid) (NHMRC, 2011) in both the GW and SW distribution systems. Halogen-specific adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) formation The halogen-specific AOX was determined for the chlorinated GW and SW distribution systems, with AOBr dominating the formation of total AOX in both systems. In both systems, the known AOX (sum of halogen incorporation into the measured THMs, HAAs and HANs) only accounted for approximately 30% of the total AOX, illustrating the importance of AOX measurements in understanding the full formation of halogenated DBPs. Chlorinous odours A chlorinous odour was detected by more than 50% of the panellists in all distributed waters when the free chlorine equivalent concentration was above the odour threshold concentration (OTC) of 0.1 mg L-1 for free chlorine. When the free chlorine equivalent concentration was below the OTC for free chlorine, a chlorinous odour was still detected in both the GW and SW distributed waters. The chlorinous odour detected when the free chlorine equivalent concentration was below the OTC for free chlorine in these distributed waters could have been caused by the presence of bromine (McDonald et al., 2013), highlighting the occurrence of potential aesthetic issues due to the presence of bromide in source waters. INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MITIGATION OF HALOGENATED DBPS

Pre-chlorination followed by ammonia addition for mitigation of I-organic DBPs in chloramination A chloramination process, based on a free chlorine contact time followed by ammonia addition, instead of addition of pre-formed monochloramine, was investigated for reduction of I-organic DBP formation, since exposure to free

Figure 3. Iodine incorporation into I-THMs (bars) and iodate yield (lines) (Reprinted with permission from Criquet et al., 2012. Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society). chlorine should promote the formation of non-toxic iodate, thereby minimising formation of I-DBPs (Criquet et al., 2012). The role of bromide in this process was also investigated. The formation and the speciation of iodinated THMs was found to depend on the free chlorine contact time and the bromide concentration (Criquet et al., 2012). The presence of bromide was found to be beneficial, favouring the formation of iodate and decreasing the formation of highly iodinated THMs (Criquet et al., 2012). Figure 3 shows iodine incorporation into I-THMs (bars) and iodate yield (lines) for different pre-chlorination times and varying bromide concentrations for chloramination of a Western Australian river water (initial concentrations after dilution and additions: [Iˉ] = 50 µg L-1, pH 8, DOC = 1.2 mgC L-1). Initial chlorine concentration was 1 mg Cl2 L-1 (15 µM); ammonia addition: 75 µM. At t = 0 min, ammonia was added before the addition of chlorine. I-THMs were analysed after 24 h to simulate contact times in distribution systems. The chlorine concentration was an important parameter and the pre-chlorination time needs to be long enough to transform the iodide to iodate. A longer chlorine contact time was needed when the bromide concentration was lower. The concentrations of highly iodinated compounds, especially iodoform, were significantly reduced by this process, indicating that this is a valuable process

option for mitigation of I-organic DBP formation (Criquet et al., 2012). Selective pre-oxidation of iodide to iodate using ozone with mitigation of I-organic DBP formation in postchloramination The possibility of oxidising iodide to iodate by ozone, while keeping the bromate concentration below the Australian drinking water guideline value of 10 µg L-1 (NHMRC, 2011), was investigated (Allard et al., 2013). To elucidate the factors affecting iodate and bromate formation, experiments were performed with various waters under different ozonation conditions. Ozone pre-treatment selectively oxidised iodide to iodate and minimised the formation of I-DBPs (Allard et al., 2013). Complete conversion of iodide to iodate, while minimising the bromate formation to below 10 µg L-1, was achieved for a wide range of initial ozone concentrations in several source waters (Figure 4). Iodide was completely oxidised to iodate for ozone doses of 8–14 µM (0.38–0.67 mg L-1) depending on the water quality (Allard et al., 2013). Bromate formation followed a different pattern, with no bromate formation for ozone doses below 14 µM, followed by a linear increase in bromate concentrations for increasing ozone doses (Figure 4) (Allard et al., 2013). Bromate formation increased as the alkalinity increased and the consumption of ozone increased with the aromaticity

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Technical Papers the pH effectively reduced bromate formation and had no impact on the extent of iodate and bromoform formation (Allard et al., 2013). Concentrations of most of the regular THMs were unaffected by the ozonation process, since these THMs do not react Figure 4. Schematic representation of iodate and with ozone (von bromate formation as a function of the ozone dose (adapted from Allard et al., 2013). Gunten, 2003a); however, the of the NOM. As expected, since HOBr concentration of bromoform increased was the sole halogenating agent in the with increasing ozone dose (Allard et al., pre-ozonation step, the major THM 2013). It was also demonstrated that all formed during ozonation was bromoform, but traces of CHBr2Cl and CHBr2I were the I-THMs present in the water were also detected (Allard et al., 2013). efficiently oxidised during ozonation (Figure 5) of chlorinated and postTo investigate the behaviour of clarified water. Experimental conditions: bromine and iodine species under 2 µg L-1 of each I-THM added, [Iˉ] = 15 more realistic conditions, ozonation µg L-1, [Brˉ] = 940 µg L-1, [O3] = 104 µM experiments were performed with (5 mg L-1), [DOC] = 3.5 mgC L-1 (Allard water samples collected from a Perth et al., 2013). Metropolitan Water Treatment Plant after a pre-chlorination step followed by coagulation, flocculation and clarification (i.e. post-clarifier).

Thus, pre-ozonation provides several benefits for drinking water treatment of iodide-containing source waters, as it can selectively oxidise iodide to iodate, thereby minimising the formation of the more toxic I-DBPs in a subsequent

In these water samples, THMs were already present due to the pre-chlorination step. Decreasing

100 CHCl2I CHBrClI CHBr2I CHClI2 CHBrI2 CHI3

80

% removal I-THMs

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60 40

0

5

10

15

O3 exposure mg.L-1*min Figure 5. Oxidation of I-THMs (Reprinted with permission from Allard et al., 2013. Copyright 2013 Elsevier).

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20

CONCLUSIONS The impact of high bromide and iodide concentrations on distributed waters from two Western Australian drinking water source waters was investigated. In both systems, the brominated DBPs dominated the measured DBPs (THM4, I-THMs, HAAs and HANs). However, in both distribution systems, the measured DBPs accounted for only 30% of total organohalogens, demonstrating that AOX measurements are important in providing an understanding of the full formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking water. The primary fate of iodide after chlorination was a conversion to iodate, with only minor concentrations of iodo-THMs formed. Two processes based on the selective oxidation of iodide to iodate, the nontoxic and thus preferred sink for iodine, were investigated for the mitigation of I-DBP formation in post-chloramination. The first process was based on using chloramination with addition of free chlorine, followed by ammonia, while the second process involved a pre-ozonation step before chloramination. Bromide was found to play an important role in the chlorination/ammonia addition process by promoting the preferred conversion of iodide to iodate. This process reduced the formation of iodo-organic DBPs, provided that the free chlorine contact time was sufficient for full conversion of iodide to iodate. Selective oxidation of iodide to iodate without significant bromate formation was achieved under certain ozonation conditions, confirming that ozonation is a viable pre-treatment option for mitigation of I-organic DBP formation in post-chloramination.

20 0

disinfection step, and it can also oxidise I-THMs if they are already present in the water. Furthermore, by carefully controlling the ozone dose, it is possible to keep the bromate concentration below the Australian drinking water guideline (10 µg L-1), even for source waters with high bromide concentrations.

25

While potential solutions for the mitigation of I-organic DBP formation during chloramination are now available, options for actual removal of bromide and iodide from source waters need further investigation and development. The use of silver-based materials and polyphenolic materials for the removal of bromide and/ or iodide is currently under investigation.


43

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors acknowledge funding and support from the Australian Research Council (ARC LP100100285), Water Corporation of Western Australia, Curtin University, the Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Sciences and Technology, and Water Research Australia.

THE AUTHORS Dr Yolanta Gruchlik (email: Y.Gruchlik@curtin.edu.au) is a Research Fellow with the Curtin Water Quality Research Centre (CWQRC) at Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. She has several years’ experience in wastewater projects and has also been involved in a number of drinking water projects. Jace Tan (email: Jace.Tan@curtin.edu. au) is a Senior Research Officer at the CWQRC. She has a Masters degree in Materials Engineering and several years’ experience in water quality. Dr Sébastien Allard (email: S.Allard@ curtin.edu.au) is a Research Fellow at the CWQRC. He has a PhD in Environmental Chemistry and several years’ experience in water treatment. Associate Professor Anna Heitz (email: A.Heitz@ curtin.edu.au) Department of Civil Engineering at Curtin University and a former Director of the CWQRC. She has over 25 years’ experience in research to solve industry-related water quality problems spanning a wide range of issues. Matthew Bowman (email: Matthew. Bowman@watercorporation.com.au) is Treatment Manager in the Drinking Water Quality Branch at the Water Corporation of Western Australia. He has over 15 years’ experience in drinking water and wastewater quality management. Dr David Halliwell (email: David. Halliwell@waterra.com.au) is CEO of Water Research Australia. He has significant experience in the administration of research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; science; finance and business management; and public administration.

Professor Urs von Gunten (email: Urs. VonGunten@eawag.ch) is the Head of Competence Centre for Drinking Water (Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Sciences and Technology) and Director, Laboratory for Water Quality and Treatment at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland. He has over 20 years’ experience in water science. Dr Justine Criquet (email: Justine.Criquet@univ-lille1. fr) is an Assistant Professor at the University of Lille in France. She has a PhD in Environmental Chemistry and is an expert in photochemistry. She has experience in various aspects of water science. Associate Professor Cynthia Joll (email: C.Joll@ curtin.edu.au) is Deputy Director of CWQRC. She has over 15 years of research experience in many aspects of water science, including isolation and characterisation of NOM, aesthetic water quality, DBPs, micropollutants and bromide and iodide.

REFERENCES Allard S, Nottle CE, Chan A, Joll C, von Gunten U (2013): Ozonation of Iodide-Containing Waters: Selective Oxidation of Iodide to Iodate with Simultaneous Minimization of Bromate and I-THMs. Water Research, 47, pp 1953–1960. Ates N, Yetis U & Kitis M (2007): Effects of Bromide Ion and Natural Organic Matter Fractions on the Formation and Speciation of Chlorination By-Products. Journal of Environmental Engineering – ASCE, 133, 10, pp 947–954. Bichsel Y & von Gunten U (1999): Oxidation of Iodide and Hypoiodous Acid in the Disinfection of Natural Waters. Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 22, pp 4040–4045. Boyer TH & Singer PC (2005): Bench-Scale Testing of a Magnetic Ion Exchange Resin for Removal of Disinfection By-Product Precursors. Water Research, 39, 7, pp 1265–1276.

Gillogly T, Najm I, Minear R, Marinas B, Urban M, Kim JH, Echigo S, Amy G, Douville C, Daw B, Andrews R, Hofman R & Croue JP (2001): Bromate Formation and Control During Ozonation of Low Bromide Waters. AWWA Research Foundation (Now Water Research Foundation), CO, USA. Hammes F, Salhi E, Koster O, Kaiser HP, Egli T & von Gunten U (2006): Mechanistic and Kinetic Evaluation of Organic Disinfection By-Product and Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) Formation During the Ozonation of Drinking Water, Water Research, 40, 12, pp 2275–2286. Hansson RC, Henderson MJ, Jack P & Taylor RD (1987): Iodoform Taste Complaints in Chloramination. Water Research, 21, 10, pp 1265–1271. Magara Y, Aizawa T, Kunikane S, Itoh M, Kohki M, Kawasaki M & Takeuti H (1996): The Behavior of Inorganic Constituents and Disinfection By Products in Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Process. Water Science and Technology, 34, pp 141–148. McDonald S, Joll CA, Lethorn A, Loi C & Heitz A (2013): Drinking Water: The Problem of Chlorinous Odours. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology AQUA, 62, 2, pp 86–96. NHMRC (2011): Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), National Resource Management Ministerial Council, Australian Government, Australia. www.nhmrc.gov. au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/ eh52_aust_drinking_water_guidelines_ update_131216.pdf Richardson SD, Fasano F, Ellington JJ, Crumley GF, Buettner KM, Evans JJ, Blount BC, Silva LK, Waite TJ, Luther GW, McKague BA, Miltner RJ, Wagner ED & Plewa MJ (2008): Occurrence and Mammalian Cell Toxicity of Iodinated Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 22, pp 8330–8338. von Gunten U (2003a): Ozonation of Drinking Water: Part I. Oxidation Kinetics and Product Formation. Water Research, 37, 7, pp 1443–1467. von Gunten U (2003b): Ozonation of Drinking Water: Part II. Disinfection and By-Product Formation in Presence of Bromide, Iodide or Chlorine. Water Research, 37, 7, pp 1469–1487.

Cancho B, Fabrellas C, Diaz A & Ventura F (2001): Determination of the Odour Threshold Concentrations of Iodinated Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, pp 1881–1884.

Warton B, Heitz A, Zappia LR, Franzmann PD, Masters D, Joll CA, Alessandrino M, Allpike B, O’Leary B & Kagi RI (2007): Magnetic Ion Exchange Drinking Water Treatment in a Large-Scale Facility. Journal American Water Works Association, 99, 1, pp 89–101.

Criquet J, Allard S, Sahli E, Joll CA, Heitz A & von Gunten U (2012): Iodate and Iodo-Trihalomethanes Formation During Chlorination of Iodide-Containing Waters. Role of Bromide. Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 13, pp 7350–7357.

Watson K, Farré MJ & Knight N (2012): Strategies for the Removal of Halides from Drinking Water Sources, and their Applicability in Disinfection By-Product Formation: A Critical Review. Journal of Environmental Management, 110, pp 276–298.

Fabris R, Chowa CWK, Drikas M & Eikebrokk B (2008): Comparison of NOM Character in Selected Australian and Norwegian Drinking Waters. Water Research, 42, 15, pp 4188–4196.

Xu P, Drewes JE & Heil D (2008): Beneficial Use of Co-Produced Water Through Membrane Treatment: Technical-Economic Assessment. Desalination, 225, 1–3, pp 139–155.

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DESIGNING WATER ABSTRACTION REGIMES FOR AN EVER-CHANGING AND EVER-VARYING FUTURE M Young

ABSTRACT Most of the world’s water entitlement and allocation regimes evolved during periods of abundance and, hence, are not well suited to the management of water scarcity. Development of the institutional arrangements necessary to manage changing demands and supplies is in its infancy. Design criteria for the development of a set of institutional arrangements for the robust management of scarce water resources is offered and then used to develop a generic framework for the allocation and use of water. Variations to account for differences in ground, regulated and unregulated water resources are offered. The question of how best to sequence reform of existing water entitlement and allocation regimes is also addressed. The result is a recommendation for the use of water-sharing plans to determine how much water may be used at any point in time and an unbundled suite of arrangements that enable efficient but separated management of long-term and short-term considerations and, also, the control of externalities. System-wide adjustment is facilitated through the periodic revision of watersharing plans. Individual adjustment to changing circumstances is facilitated through trade in entitlements and allocations. Before the introduction of institutional arrangements that encourage adjustment through trade, it is recommended that the abstraction regime used be converted into one that accounts for return flows and allocates water according to shareholder entitlement. Seniority, beneficial-use criteria and opportunities to third parties to prevent adjustment according to pre-specified rules should be repealed. Well-designed regimes can be extended to include dam-capacity shares and allow

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the use of market-based instruments in delivery of water-quality objectives. Pooling can be used to lower the costs of risk management.

INTRODUCTION If there is anything that is certain about water, it is that demand for access to it and the maximum amount that can be taken sustainably at any point in time must be expected to change. The search for the most appropriate way to supply access to scarce water is now part of the global water agenda. As the clock ticks on, an increasing number of nations are becoming aware of the pressures that ever-changing economic conditions, ever-changing technologies, population growth and ongoing climatic change are placing on their water management regimes. In many countries, social preferences for arrangements that return health to degraded wetlands, rivers and aquifers are on the increase (Young, 2013). With a James Bond-like wit, CatleyCarlson (2009) describes this suite of pressures and challenges as a cocktail to be stirred carefully. “Take one world already being exhausted by 6 billion people. Find the ingredients to feed another 2 billion people. Add demand for more food, more animal feed and more fuel. Use only the same amount of water the planet has had since creation. And don’t forget to restore the environment that sustains us. Stir very carefully.” (Catley-Carlson, 2009, p.2) Drawing attention to the global importance of preparing to deal with these challenges, the OECD (2009) warns that by 2030 over half the people living in the world will be reliant upon access to stressed water resources. At any point in time and place, the bottom line is that administrators should expect that, even if the water use they

are responsible for looks “very right” today, in a few decades’ time the way this water is used will be very different. Given the reality of changing supply and demand conditions, how should one think about the design of a regime that determines who is entitled to access water and, in times of scarcity, how access is to be rationed?

PROPOSITION The main proposition put forward in this paper is the observation that in order to manage this forthcoming cocktail of challenges, most countries will need to revise the ways that water entitlements, water allocations, use permits, etc, are defined. Almost all abstraction regimes that one can find around the world evolved during periods of relative water abundance and where rapid changes in technology were not common. When viewed from this perspective, in many cases it will be more efficient to replace the existing abstraction management regime with one that is designed specifically to enable the cost-effective management of the many challenges that increasing water scarcity brings to a region. Meinzen-Dick (2013) reviews abstraction reform challenges for developing countries.

WATER ENTITLEMENT REGIMES In this paper, the term “abstraction management regime” is used in preference to the more common “water-right” terminology (see Box 1). See Grafton and Horne (2014) for more detail on water rights terminology, especially for Australia. The waterright literature is complex and built on legal traditions that discourage the development of new precedents. When one uses baggage-free language, discussion focuses on the concept and tends to leave preconceived notions behind.


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BOX 1. DEFINITIONS System: A connected set of water bodies which may include streams, lakes, rivers and aquifers. Regulated water system: A system where the flow of water can be controlled by determining when and how much water is released from dams and/or allowed to flow over control weirs and other similar structures.

Abstraction regime: The constellation of mechanisms (entitlements, allocations licenses, permits, etc.) used to determine who, when, how and how much water may be abstracted from a water resource pool. Entitlement: A long-term interest in or entitlement to receive allocations or be allowed to abstract water from a water body. Allocation: A defined one-off opportunity to take water from a water body. Usually defined as a volume. Sometimes defined as a maximum rate per hour when flow conditions allow abstraction. Return flow: The water physically withdrawn from a system and returned back to the same or a different water body following use. Many towns abstract water for drinking, washing and flushing purposes and return the majority of this water to a water body following use. Similarly, many industries abstract water for cooling purposes and then return it back to a river after use. Irrigation is often associated with the return of a significant proportion of abstracted water back to a river or aquifer. Overallocated: A water body with entitlements which, if fully exercised, would result in a rate of abstraction that is greater than that which can be sustained. Overused: A water body where the quantity being abstracted is greater than that which can be sustained. In most countries, abstraction management regimes used have their roots in century-old traditions and in laws that are regarded as sacrosanct (Meinzen-Dick, 2013). In recent years, however, a few countries have chosen to totally re-specify the way entitlements to access water are specified. Examples include Australia (Young, 2010), Chile (Bauer, 1998) and South Africa (Nieuwoudt and Backeberger, 2010). From 1994 onwards, Australia has been replacing its traditional water licensing regimes with a new suite of water-sharing regimes (COAG, 2004) that have enabled entitlement and allocation markets to emerge (NWC, 2011). In 1981, Chile introduced a new market-based framework for the allocation and management of water (Bauer, 2012). Other countries, like China and the UK, are contemplating changing their entitlement regimes and, in particular, making them more conducive to the emergence of markets that enable people to take advantage of the opportunities that change creates (DEFRA, 2011; Young, 2012a). Wu et al. (2014) describe a new approach to basin-scale water resources management based on an evapotranspiration management approach.

The reasons for pursuing each of these reforms involve a mix of economic, environmental and social considerations. Australia began with an economic reform agenda that was quickly coupled with recognition of the need to resolve a suite of environmental problems. Chile, too, began with a focus on the role of water in economic development. South Africa recognised the need to include water entitlement reform in the arrangements needed to escape from a socially repressive apartheid regime. When one reviews the experience of these countries, it quickly becomes clear that no country got the sequence of reforms right. In each of the cases outlined, countries have made serious mistakes from which other countries can learn (see, for example, Bauer, 2004, 2012; Young, 2010, 2012b; Bjornlund et al., 2012; Grafton et al., 2011). The UK has recognised that it needs to include entitlement reform in the suite of arrangements needed for it to comply with the European Community water framework directives for it to improve the health of many of its water systems without adverse economic impacts (DEFRA, 2011). China has recognised that water markets and very different management arrangements will be needed if it is to avoid massive water scarcity problems that would be politically unacceptable, and has introduced legislation that will enable

trading to emerge as a means to manage water scarcity (Liu and Bin, 2003; Huaixi and Luo, 2009).

CONCEPTS From first principles, how should one think about designing an administrative regime that specifies entitlements, makes allocations and controls water use? The first design clue comes from the Tinbergen Principle. Tinbergen (1952), who among other things was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Economics, was interested in policy arrangements that would produce outcomes that are dynamically efficient. That is, the constellation of instruments used would produce efficient and equitable outcomes through time and across space AND do this continuously without a need to revise them. Focusing on this idealised state, he observed that the number of instruments used to pursue policy targets matters. If one wishes to use a market to deliver efficient outcomes through time, there should be as many instruments as there are targets (objectives). Applied to water, this means that water access arrangements need to be separated into their component parts. Rather than a single abstraction licence, a bundle of licence, permitting and planning arrangements are needed. Each of these instruments can then be used to pursue different objectives and, where

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Unregulated water system: A stream or river where there is little or no opportunity to control the rate of flow. Unregulated streams and rivers typically have no dams, weirs or locks that enable the rate of flow from one reach to another to be manipulated.


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Technical Papers appropriate, operate at different scales. Drawing from the notion that a property right is usually best described as a bundle of opportunities and obligations, the process of separating an authorisation to abstract water at a specific location, for a specific use and in a specified manner is often called “unbundling”. In unbundled regimes, as are now used widely in Australia, separate instruments and separate institutional arrangements are used to pursue separate targets (NWC, 2011). In the best of these unbundled regimes, water licences have been replaced with shares that entitle their holder to a proportion of any allocations made to a defined pool of water (Young and McColl, 2003a). Allocations are made to this pool and distributed to shareholders if and only when water is available for allocation. The result is an arrangement that provides security by assigning 100% of the investment risk to share-holders and thereby encourages them to make efficient investment decisions. In order to ensure efficient use on a day-to-day basis, volumetric allocations made to shareholders are tradeable. There is no obligation to use an allocation. In such a regime, the opportunity to trade allocations encourages users to make efficient short-term water use decisions and the opportunity to trade shares (entitlements) encourages users to make efficient long-term investment decisions. In Australia, shares are issued in perpetuity and defined so that all water users, including aspiring ones, can increase their entitlement to a share of a water resource pool only by acquiring shares from an existing shareholder. In parallel with these arrangements and in order to enable efficient management of local externalities, a “water-use” approval must be held and, in some supply systems, a delivery entitlement held. While the resultant constellation of arrangements may seem much more complicated than the issuance of a single licence, unbundled regimes have induced considerable innovation. In Australia, the economic efficiency of water use has increased dramatically. The second design clue comes from one of the Tinbergen’s students – Robert Mundell – who was awarded a Nobel Prize in Economics for the development of what has become known as the Assignment Principle.

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Irrigation system for commercial lettuce crops in California. In essence, the Assignment Principle states that in order to maximise their capacity to deliver on an objective, policy makers should assign an instrument exclusively to the pursuit of a policy target to which it is best suited and then never use that instrument to pursue another target. In a well-designed administrative regime, there is no instrument switching. Instead, each instrument has a specific purpose and is used only to pursue that purpose. Each instrument plays its role in assisting all in the search for the optimal trade-off to be made between competing objectives or targets to be pursued. Instruments that operate at different scales are administered at different scales. On a daily basis, the right hand does not have to know what the left hand is doing. Each can be trusted to get on with the job (Mundell, 1960, 1962). By way of example, in Australia’s southern connected River Murray System, entitlement trading is used to encourage efficient investment and to maintain equity. Similarly, allocation trading is used to ensure that water use is efficient at any point in time. Allocations are defined by volume and readily tradeable at low cost. An allocation trade (temporary trade) from the state of Victoria to the state of South Australia can usually be completed within two days (NWC, 2013) and, as a result, prices now respond to climatic conditions on a daily basis. This degree of temporal and spatial efficiency in the use of resources is possible, if and only if administrators can be trusted not to interfere with allocation trading rules, for example, to pursue an environmental or regional development objective.

Derived from attempts to reduce the number of mistakes made in the pursuit of optimal monetary policy, Mundell’s insight focuses on the importance of deciding which instrument should be used for which purpose and then neither changing one’s mind nor being tempted to use it for two simultaneous objectives. In particular, these principles challenge the call for the development of so-called “integrated water resource management”. Integration is done in the market place by individual water users operating in an environment designed to influence the decisions they make. The use of market mechanisms, however, is possible if and only if this does not produce perverse outcomes – especially perverse hydrological outcomes. In the world of water, failures to adequately account for return flows, connectivity between ground and surface water systems and the capture of overland flows are classic perverse outcomes. The third design clue comes from the notion that in an ever-changing world, abstraction arrangements must be defined with hydrological integrity. That is, the arrangements must be defined in a manner that is consistent with the way water is stored, and how it flows across and flows through landscapes. In particular, it is critical that the regime take full account of return flows, connectivity between water resource pools and unregulated uses. Unbundled abstraction regimes, if specified in a manner that have hydrological integrity, incentivise innovation. If specified without hydrological integrity, however,


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Technical Papers administrators need to intervene continuously to prevent entitlement holders from investing in ways that seek to increase their share of the system by accessing water that was previously taken by others.

The fourth design clue comes from another winner of a Nobel Prize in Economics – Ronald Coase. Coase, like Tinbergen and Mundell, was interested in dynamically efficient outcomes. Applied to water, the guidance that emerges from consideration of the Coase Theorem is that transaction costs need to be as low as possible (Coase, 1960).

• entitlements need to be specified as a net entitlement – an entitlement to take a specified amount on the condition that a nominated proportion is returned back to the system; or

When transaction costs are high, equity and economic efficiency issues become tangled with one another. The Coase theorem makes the observation that when property rights are fully specified and the transaction costs associated with their redistribution are zero, then markets can be relied upon to produce efficiently without impinging on the equity considerations.

• the administrative regime used must require a periodic across the board reduction in allocations per share as return flows are reduced and/or interception increases.

Applied to water resources, the resultant design guideline is that administrators should do everything possible to get the costs of changing the way water is used as close to zero as possible.

In the western United States of America, where prior appropriation abstraction regimes are used, return flows are specified and transfer of an abstraction entitlement to another entity allowed only in ways that have no adverse return flow and other implications (Lane-Miller et al., 2013).

In practice, get your transaction costs down. Audit them, bench-mark them and assign decision-making responsibility so that “recommendations” can be replaced with “binding” decisions. In particular, find a way to prevent third parties from interfering with decisions made by individuals. In a democracy, this is possible if, and only if, the processes involved in determining the quantity of water that may be taken from a system and where this water may be taken are specified using arrangements that are separated (unbundled) from the instruments used to specify entitlements and allocations.

Australia, however, failed to learn from US attempts to manage return flows and has found to its immense cost that reductions in return flows and increases in the interception of overland flows have to be fixed. Failure to do this is one of the reasons that so much money has had to be spent fixing up the abstraction regime used in the Murray-Darling

The fifth design clue comes from the observation that it is more efficient to

Cooby Dam at Toowoomba at the height of the recent drought.

specify entitlements so that 100% of each element of risk is assigned to one interest group. Risk assignment may vary from element to element, but for dynamically efficient outcomes it is necessary always to assign 100% of that risk to one interest group. That interest group can then be made totally and completely responsible and accountable for management of that risk. If, for example, a water user is responsible totally for managing supply risk, then their success will be dependent upon how well they manage that risk. Risk can also arise simply because it can be administratively expensive to design an allocation system that is perfect in every dimension. To this end, the so-called 80/20 principle (Koch, 1998) can be useful. When it comes, for example, to the specification of exchange rates as allocations are traded from one location to another, some approximation is needed in order to keep transaction costs low. When risk assignment is vague then inefficient resource use results. If, for example, a government has a policy of providing payments to those people who do not plan adequately for a drought, then that government must expect these people not to plan for a drought and, as a result, the adverse impacts of the drought on the landscape will be worse than otherwise would have been the case (McColl and Young, 2006, 2007). The sixth and last design clue comes from theories about robustness. Robust regimes tend to be elegant in their design and can be expected to withstand the test of time because, under duress, they work elegantly and can be expected autonomously to produce efficient, socially-acceptable outcomes (Young and McColl, 2003a, 2003b, 2005). Examples of robust arrangements include the definition of entitlements as shares that ensure that the only way one person’s entitlement share can be increased is either to convince someone else to reduce their shareholding or introduce a new resource into the system so that no-one is worse off as a result of a change in the number of shares held. Another example of a robust allocation regime is the use of double entry accounting arrangements so that allocations are first credited to an account and then debited from the account as they are either used or transferred to someone else.

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Australia, for example, has found to its immense cost that if reductions in return flows and increases in the interception of overland flows are not included fully in the entitlement regime, a raft of social, economic and environmental problems can be expected to emerge as people take advantage of opportunities to reduce return flows and increase interception (Young and McColl, 2003b, 2008, 2009a). The solution is simple – either:

Basin. The cost of fixing these and a number of other regime design mistakes has exceeded $750,000 per irrigation business (Young, 2014).


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BOX 2. PRINCIPLES FOR THE DESIGN OF AN ABSTRACTION REGIME

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1. Unbundle: Have at least as many instruments as there are objectives and use a separate instrument for the pursuit of each objective. 2. Certainty: Once an instrument has been assigned for pursuit of one objective, never allow it to be used to pursue another objective. 3. Hydrological integrity: Define all entitlements and allocations in a manner that is consistent with the way that water is stored, flows across and through land. 4. Facilitate trading: Keep the transaction costs associated with the transfer of entitlements, allocations, etc, as low as possible. 5. Efficient investment: Fully assign all the risks associated with an entitlement, allocation, etc. to one entity. 6. Robustness: Ensure that the constellation of interacting instruments and administrative arrangements is robust enough to withstand the test of time.

AN EMERGING FRAMEWORK When viewed collectively and as summarised in Box 2, these design clues can be drawn together into the elements of a guiding framework for the design of any abstraction regime. If these design clues are accepted then the first challenge is to separate system-wide instruments from those used to man-age individual decisions. At least three groups of instruments are needed, namely: 1.

Instruments for managing system-wide issues: like specifying the total amount of water that may be taken from a water body at any point in time;

2.

Instruments for defining each user’s interest: including the nature of each entitlement and allocations made; and

3.

Instruments for managing the impacts and consequences of use: such as, for example, a requirement to meter abstractions, not to pollute, etc.

At the system scale, catchment plans can be used to define the nature of each water resource pool and the abstraction regime used to determine how water will be distributed among shareholders in that pool. This same plan, or for large systems a basin plan, can be used to determine how connections among water resource pools will be managed. In practice, planning documents are used to determine the nature of systemwide opportunities and, once these have been prepared the abstraction regime is then used to share these opportunities among entitlement holders and other users. For this approach to work, it is critical that the wording used is consistent with, and is nested under, the planning document.

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This means that entitlements should be specified in a manner that, in effect, is used to partition or share opportunities to access water in a river or an aquifer. No entitlement should ever guarantee that a volume of water will always be available. Instead, the water-sharing plan should be used to define how much water is to be allocated to entitlement holders and when these allocations will be made. Pulling all these concepts together and drawing on experience in Australia and in the success of the Falaj irrigation regimes developed many centuries ago, the state of the art in the robust design of abstraction regimes appears to involve the definition of entitlements as shares (Young, 2012a; al-Ghafri et al., 2013). Allocations in terms of volume or access time can then be made in proportion to the number of shares held by each entitlement holder. Building upon corporate experience, shares should be defined as unit shares so that it is possible to split and amalgamate a defined water resource. In practice, the resulting arrangements should be made as fungible as possible. That is, each sharing pool and all allocation pools should be made as large as possible so that costs associated with administering the regime can be kept as low as possible. Shares can be defined in one of two ways. As already mentioned, the first option is to define them as a “net” entitlement to the amount of water that can be used. In “net” entitlement regimes, account is taken of return flows and, using estimates contained in water-sharing plans, assumptions are made about the proportion of water that is returned following use. Flood irrigation over a light soil, for example, can result in as much as 50% of the water taken draining back

to an unconfined aquifer. In contrast, almost all drip irrigation tends to be lost in evapotranspiration with less than 10% return-flow. The main disadvantage of this user-by-user approach is that the cost of monitoring irrigation practice and adjusting each water account for return flow is expensive. The alternative approach, which is administratively cheaper, is to define the entitlements as a “gross” entitlement. Under robust “gross” entitlement regimes, the size of the consumptive pool is reduced as the technical efficiency of water use increases. This approach is much simpler and gives a first-mover advantage to those who are among the first to improve the technical efficiency of water use. Both approaches have hydrological integrity. Which of the two approaches – a gross or net entitlement regime – is more appropriate depends upon the merits of encouraging the rapid adoption of technically efficient technology and the costs of monitoring use. Under a net-entitlement regime, the individual incentive to become more efficient is less than is the case when the grossentitlement regime is used and allocations per share decreased as the mean technical efficiency of water use increases. A second question – which also lacks adequate theory – is the question of how best to sequence water reforms. Transitional arrangements are important. If, for example, a volumetric allocation regime is to be used to manage scarcity, then there is a need first to introduce meters and establish an administrative regime that ensures meters are rarely tampered with and that overuse is so heavily penalised that meter tampering is a rare event (Young, 2010). Careful consideration of governance


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One of the easiest and most robust ways to lock in such a suite of incentives is to issue entitlement shares in perpetuity. The result, as already explained, is an arrangement that ensures that any increase in the amount of water taken by one person is accompanied by an arrangement that decreases use by an equivalent amount elsewhere. Beneficial use concepts like “use it or lose it” are replaced with an arrangement that incentivises and rewards more efficient water use.

SYSTEM SPECIFICITY In the real world there are many types of water supply systems. Some involve large dams, while others involve the capture and, possibly, local storage of water as it flows past a farm or town. Groundwater systems involve different considerations. In Australia, abstraction regimes that involve large dams and many control structures are called “regulated systems” because the rate of flow of water through these systems can be controlled (regulated). At the other end of the spectrum are systems that are, in essence, “unregulated” because the rate of flow depends upon rainfall and the degree of abstraction. No matter what the nature of the system, and in order to facilitate low-cost trading, the challenge is to find a way to make entitlements and allocations as fungible as possible. That is, the unbundling process should be used to make each element in the administrative regime similar in form and structure. That is, every effort should be made to standardise each part of the entitlement

In regulated systems, and if the market is deepening, benefits of fungibility are to be pursued; this means that all seniority allocation regimes should be converted into share regimes and each allocation pool made as large as possible. In regulated rivers, the share pool should be at least at the scale of a river reach and, in many cases, is more appropriately defined by reference to a dam or collection of dams. Allocation exchange rates can be used to adjust for transmission losses, etc. In regulated systems the carry-forward of unused water from one allocation period to the next should be possible so that regime encourages optimal management of supply risk as well as scarcity. That is, with adjustment for storage losses and subject to storage capacity, it should be possible to carry forward unused water allocations from one period to the next so that water users have to think about when as well as where water should be used. In unregulated systems entitlements can still be defined as shares of a defined resource pool. In these systems, if allocations are defined by reference to the flow at the top of a reach, then volumetric conversion tables can be used to determine how much water may be taken at any point along that reach. Lowcost within-reach trading then becomes possible (Young and McColl, 2009b). There is also an issue related to the degree of administrative complexity that is appropriate. In systems where a very small proportion of water is being taken, the regime used can be simple and inexpensive to administer. As more and more water is taken, and if one does not wish to compromise environmental objectives, more complexity is needed. In addition, one must be mindful of the costs of administering any regime (Young, 2012a). In small systems, the fixed costs of running a fully unbundled share regime may not be justified. In large systems, there can be an advantage in splitting each water pool into two or more priority sub-pools. A high-security, general security and lowsecurity share pool can then be set up so that supply risk can be managed at less cost to the investor. Finally, and because transaction costs need to be kept low, early effort and investment in the development of

centralised entitlement registers and water accounting regimes is critical. The most efficient regimes that I am aware of rely on the creation of centralised entitlement registers that define “who” owns “what” entitlement. Under such a regime, if anyone wants to secure an entitlement to access water, the only way they can do this is to enter into a contract with an existing entitlement holder to change that register. Similarly, if a person wishes to record a financial interest in that entitlement – for example, by registering a mortgage – the regime should provide that the only way to do this is to record that interest on the register. In parallel with this arrangement, the regime should make it impossible to record a third party interest in an allocation so that allocation trades can occur instantaneously.

CONCLUDING REMARKS In the past, most water economists and others have been wary of recommending a fundamental redesign of water abstraction regimes and, instead, have opted to focus on opportunities to make marginal improvements by, for example, recommending the introduction of arrangements that allow trade in water allocations. In this paper it is suggested that, in most if not all instances, there is a strong case for including the re-specification of abstraction licensing arrangements in the suite of options to be considered. Implementation of transformation reforms requires careful attention to detail. Upfront investment in the development of new administrative capabilities is necessary and careful communication with stakeholders essential. When the case for change is well thought through and well communicated, however, the returns can be significant. Abstraction regime revision is not an easy process. Without great care, massive mistake can be made, and those with a vested interest in the existing regime can be expected to oppose change at every step in the process. Further research on reform sequencing and implementation is needed (Young, 2014a). This article was first published in Agricultural Water Management, 145 (2014) pp 32–38 (Young, 2014b) and has been reprinted with permission.

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As a regime consistent with the above framework is developed, it soon becomes clear that the role of a catchment or basin plan is to establish the rules by which water use decisions and investment decisions associated with water are made, but NOT define how and where water is used. Among other things this means that there should be no restriction in the way water is used. Water entitlements (shares) can then be made freely transferable and as a result those who find more efficient ways to manage water use can be rewarded through the marketplace.

and allocation regime and thereby deepen the opportunity for low-cost trading arrangements to emerge.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper has benefited from the opportunity to work closely with the late Jim McColl. Jim had an outstanding mind that could cut through detail and help find robust solutions to complex problems. His contribution to the development of more robust ways to manage natural resources in Australia will be missed. The paper has benefited also from the opportunity to prepare reports for, and work closely with, those responsible for the development of options for reform of water management in Australia, Canada, the UK, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the OECD. The contribution of these people to the framework set out in this paper is acknowledged with appreciation. As always, responsibility for the content of this paper remains with the Author.

THE AUTHOR Professor Michael D. Young (email: Mike. Young@adelaide.edu.au) holds a Research Chair in Water and Environmental Policy at the University of Adelaide. He was Founding Executive Director of its Environment Institute, is a fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia and a Distinguished Fellow of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society. He has just completed a year at Harvard University in the Gough Whitlam and Malcolm Fraser Chair in Australian Studies at Harvard University, where he developed a course on the Dynamics of Transformational Environmental Policy Reforms.

REFERENCES al-Ghafri A, Nash H & al-Sarmi M (2013): Timing Water Shares in Wādī Banī KharūB, Sultanate of Oman. In: Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 2013, 43, pp 1–10. Bauer CJ (1998): Against the Current: Privatization, Water Markets and the State in Chile. Kluwer, Boston. Bauer CJ (2004): The Siren Song: Chilean Water Law as a Model for International Reform. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC. Bauer CJ (2012): The Experience of Water Markets and the Market Model in Chile. In: Maestu J (Ed), Water Trading and Global Water Scarcity. International Experiences. RFF Press/Taylor and Francis/Routledge, UK, pp 130–143. Bjornlund H, Wheeler S & Rossini P (2012): Water Markets and Their Environmental, Social and Economic Impact in Australia. In: Maestu J (Ed), Water Trading and Global Water Scarcity. International Experiences. RFF Press/Taylor and Fran-cis/Routledge, UK, pp 68–93. Catley-Carlson M (2009): The Bubble is Close to Bursting: A Forecast of the Main Economic and

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Geopolitical Water Issues Likely to Arise in the World During the Next Two Decades. In: Draft for Discussion at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2009, Available at: www. weforum.org/reports/bubble-close-bursting COAG (Council of Australian Governments) (2004): Intergovernmental Agreement on a National Water Initiative between the Commonwealth of Australia and the Governments of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Coase RF (1960): The Problem of Social Cost. Journal of Law and Economics 3, 1–44. DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs), 2011. Water for Life: Market Reform Proposals. DEFRA, London. Grafton RQ & Horne J (2014): Water Markets in the Murray-Darling Basin. Agricultural Water Management, 145, pp 61–71. Grafton R, Libecap G, Landy C, O’Brien B (2011): An Integrated Assessment of Water Markets: A Cross-Country Comparison. Review of Environmental and Economic Policy 5, 2, pp 219–239. Huaixi Luo (2009): Water Trading, What Can We Learn From Each Other?, Available at www. ilsac.gov.au/InternationalLegalCooperation/ AustraliaChinaLegalProfession Development Program/ACLPDProgram2009/ Documents/ Water-Trading-What-Can-We-Learn-From-EachOther-Luo-Huaixi-Report.pdf Koch R (1998): The 80–20 Principle: The Secret to Success by Achieving More with Less. DoubleDay, New York. Lane-Miller C, Wheeler S, Bjornlund H & Connor J (2013): Acquiring Water for the Environment: Lessons from Natural Resources Management. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, dx.doi.org/10.1080/1523908X. 2013.807210. Liu Bin (2003): Water Rights in China. In: International Working Conference on Water Rights: Institutional Options for Improving Water Allocation, February 12–15, 2003, Hanoi, Vietnam, Available at citeseerx.ist.psu. edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.195.3157& rep=rep1&type=pdf McColl J & Young M (2006): Drought and Structural adjustment. Farm Policy Journal, 3, 2, pp 13–21. McColl JC & Young MD (2007: Managing Change: Australian Structural Adjustment Lessons for Water. CSIRO Land and Water Report No. 16/05.

Nieuwoudt W & Backeberger G (2010): Application of Economic Instruments, Tradable Licences and Good Governance for Sustainable Irrigation Water Conservation in South Africa. In: Bjornlund H (Ed), Incentives and Instruments for Sustainable Irrigation. WIT Press, Southampton, UK. NWC (2011): Water Markets in Australia: A Short History. National Water Commission, Canberra. NWC (2013): Australian Water Markets: Trends and Drivers 2007–08 to 2011–12. National Water Commission, Canberra. OECD (2009): Managing Water for All: An OECD Perspective on Pricing and Financing. OECD, Paris. Tinbergen J (1952): On the Theory of Economic Policy. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam. Wikipedia (2013): Pareto principle, Available at: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto principle. Young MD (2010): Environmental Effectiveness and Economic Efficiency of Water Use in Agriculture, The Experience of and Lessons from the Australian Water Reform Programme. Background report prepared for OECD study, 2010. Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture. Available at: www. oecd.org/water Young M (2014a): Trading Into Trouble? Lessons from Australia’s Mistakes in Water Policy Reform Sequencing. Chapter 11 in Easter, W and Huang Q. (Eds). Water Markets for the 21st Century: What We Have Learned? Westview Press, Boulder. Young M (2014b): Designing Water Abstraction regimes for an ever-changing and ever-varying future. Agricultural Water Management 145, pp 32–38. Young MD (2013): Investing in Water Services, Infrastructure, Policies and Management. In Young M & Esau C (Eds) Investing in Water for a Green Economy – Services, Infrastructure, Policies and Management. Routledge, Milton Park and New York, 319 pages. Young MD (2012a): A Framework for the Allocation and Management of Water in England and Wales. UCL Environment Institute and The University of Adelaide. Young MD (2012b): Trading into and out of Trouble. Australian’s Water Allocation and Trading Experience, in: Maestu J (Ed), Water Trading and Global Water Scarcity. International Experiences. RFF Press/Taylor and Francis/Routledge, UK, pp 94–112.

Meinzen-Dick R (2013) Property Rights and Sustainable Irrigation: A Developing Country Perspective, IFPRI working paper.

Young MD & McColl JC (2009a): Double Trouble: The Importance of Accounting for and Defining Water Entitlements Consistent with Hydrological Realities. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 53, 1, pp 19–35.

Mundell RA (1960): The Monetary Dynamics of International Adjustment Under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 74, pp 227–257.

Young MD & McColl JC (2009b): Shepherding Water: Unregulated Water Allocation and Management. Droplet 15. Available at www.myoung.net.au

Mundell RA (1962): The Appropriate Use of Monetary and Fiscal Policy for Internal and External Stability. Staff Papers – International Monetary Fund 9, 1, pp 70–79.

Young MD & McColl JC (2008): Grounding Connectivity: Do Rivers have Aquifer Rights? Droplet 13. Available at: www.myoung.net. au/water.


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HAWKESBURY NEPEAN RIVER AND SOUTH CREEK MODEL A review of a new tool to inform management decisions in the Hawkesbury Nepean catchment M Griffith, P Tate

ABSTRACT

Considerable urban growth is planned for the Hawkesbury Nepean catchment over the next 30 years to accommodate Sydney’s growing population, which means new water and wastewater services will be required. To plan for the most efficient and effective service for customers while protecting the environment requires a holistic understanding of the various impacts on the waterway and the interrelationships between them.

The model extends from Warragamba Dam on the Warragamba River, and Pheasants Nest and Broughton Pass weirs downstream of the Upper Nepean dams, to the ocean, covering an area of 12,000km2. A map showing the model domain is presented in Figure 1.

Sydney Water’s main objectives in developing the model were to: • Provide science-based evidence to inform discussions about Sydney Water’s environment protection licence requirements with the Environment Protection Authority; • Inform the planning process for the North West and South West growth sectors (a future investment of $2 billion). Other NSW government agencies also have a vested interest in the model. Their drivers are to inform the Warragamba Dam environmental flow decision and the 2015 Metropolitan Water Plan review.

To address this knowledge gap, a water quality and hydrodynamic model of the Hawkesbury Nepean catchment has been developed. The model provides guidance on likely changes in water quality and quantity when testing different catchment, environmental flow, wastewater and land-use options over time. It provides the ability to differentiate between diffuse and point sources of pollution, and to better understand the impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge in wet compared to dry weather conditions, and the complex interactions within such a large river system. This understanding will guide future expenditure to provide the maximum benefits to both the community and the environment.The Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek Model will provide scientific evidence to support future management and investment decisions for river managers, regulators and users.

INTRODUCTION The Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek Model (the model) was built to provide Sydney Water with

Figure 1. Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek model domain (shaded area) (SKM, 2014b).

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Sydney Water operates 15 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the Hawkesbury Nepean River system, one of the largest river/estuary systems in NSW. With this comes a responsibility to minimise impact on the environment, while maintaining an affordable, highquality service for customers.

the ability to compare and interpret different options for urban development and wastewater treatment plant discharges to the Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek waterways. The model simulates hydrology, hydrodynamics and biogeochemical processes to examine water quality benefits (or impacts) resulting from different scenarios across broad spatial and temporal scales.


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The Hawkesbury Nepean River is an iconic waterway of Sydney, with the catchment supporting a population of 800,000 people and providing nearly all of the drinking water to four million people living in Sydney, the Illawarra and the Blue Mountains. It has high economic value in terms of its recreational opportunities, agricultural and fisheries produce, as well as tourism and mining resources for the Sydney Metropolitan area (DECCW, 2010). However, these activities place considerable pressure on the Hawkesbury Nepean River system and need to be managed effectively if river health is to be protected and/or enhanced (HRC, 1998). In addition to these pressures, major urban growth has been planned for the Hawkesbury Nepean catchment over the next 30 years. This is expected to place further demand on the river’s resources.

BACKGROUND The previous in-stream water quality model for the Hawkesbury Nepean River system (SALMON-Q) was developed for Sydney Water in the 1990s. This one-dimensional longitudinal model had a basic water quality functionality, with some in-stream microbiological capability (related to primary productivity of benthic and planktonic algae). The key driver for the model at the time was high wastewater treatment plant nutrient discharges and prevalent algal blooms in the Hawkesbury Nepean River. Based in part from the output from SALMON-Q, an extensive upgrade program for all inland wastewater treatment plants resulted.Following implementation of the major upgrades, the SALMON-Q platform was used infrequently, and the quality of model output was questionable as the calibration became outdated. SALMON-Q was also restricted in its spatial extent and not applicable to the estuarine section of the river. In 2008, the need for a water quality and quantity model of the Hawkesbury Nepean River resurfaced. This time the drivers were to assess the impacts of various activities planned for the Hawkesbury Nepean River catchment, such as: • Implementation of Metropolitan Water Plan initiatives, particularly environmental flow releases; • Understanding the impacts of discharges from wastewater treatment plants and the benefits of treatment upgrades; • Planning for growth and service delivery in the North West and South West sectors;

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• Understanding the impacts of point source discharges and catchment runoff, as well as the effects of improvement activities to both; • Ensuring the benefits of past investments are verified and recognised in the longer term. Model build commenced in 2011, taking over three years to complete. This included extensive data collection (collating existing data and undertaking targeted campaign monitoring programs), as well as model calibration/ validation. The Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek Model was installed on Sydney Water computers in early 2014. The model was developed for Sydney Water by Sinclair Knight Merz Pty Ltd (SKM) in partnership with BMT WBM, eWater, UWA and Yorb, and was reviewed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Extensive data sets were provided by the NSW Office of Water, Office of Environment and Heritage, Sydney Catchment Authority, Manly Hydraulics Laboratory, Land and Property Information, Bureau of Meteorology, Hornsby Shire Council, Penrith City Council, The Hills Shire Council, Blacktown Council and Camden Council. These data were critical for model build and calibration.

CAMPAIGN MONITORING PROGRAMS An assessment of existing data and their suitability for the calibration, validation and running of the numerical models was undertaken prior to model build. The existing data was collated from Sydney Water’s extensive dataset as well as from other NSW state and local government agencies. Critical data gaps were identified. Targeted campaign monitoring programs were established to fill these critical data gaps. They included: • Bathymetry surveys; • Water current velocity profiles; • Wet-weather event water-quality monitoring using autosamplers; • Baseline dry-weather water-quality monitoring; • Total and dissolved organic carbon measurements; • Macrophyte surveys. Bathymetry surveys of the riverbed shape and depth were required to

build the model mesh. Over 210km of river was surveyed by Sydney Water between the Upper Nepean catchment and Spencer, and in South and Eastern creeks between January 2011 and March 2012. Bathymetry data was also obtained from other NSW government agencies. Historical bathymetry data was used for the estuary. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profile (ADCP) study was undertaken to capture water velocity profiles at six sites between Wilberforce and the lower estuary. This study was critical to inform the advection and dispersion coefficients in the hydrodynamic model and, in turn, allow better replication of the physical processes that influence water quality. Two surveys were conducted – one on a spring tide (November 2011) and one on a neap tide (December 2011). Each survey was conducted continuously over a full ebb-flood tide cycle (~14 hours). Physico-chemical water quality profiles were measured along the thalweg during the surveys. Autosamplers were set up at six locations in the Hawkesbury Nepean River catchment to measure stormwater runoff concentrations. The specific landuse types targeted were forested, rural/ peri-urban and urban. This study aimed to better understand the variability in water quality during a high-flow event. Higher concentrations tend to occur early in an event (on the rising limb, often referred to as the “first flush”). This variability is vital for deriving accurate loads of water quality constituents from the model. Flow was recorded at each site to understand the relationship between water quality and flow related to each land-use. Dry weather data at the two forested catchment sites on the Colo and Grose rivers were limited and additional sampling was undertaken to supplement the data. Total and dissolved organic carbon data was required as a precursor to processes such as nitrification and denitrification in the water quality model. Due to the general lack of carbon data, an intensive monitoring program was established involving the collection of 220 samples from 28 sites over a six-month period. This data was critical to inform the calibration of the water quality model for the tidal and non-tidal reaches of the river system.


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Technical Papers depth, salinity and temperature across the river system. Wastewater treatment plant discharge and irrigation extractions from the mainstream Hawkesbury Nepean River also occur directly from the TUFLOW FV Model (SKM, 2014a). The results from TUFLOW FV are incorporated into the AED water quality model to simulate concentrations of sediment, nutrients, algae and bacteria in the river system over time (BMT WBM, 2014). There are 30 variables in the TUFLOW FV/AED linked model.

Figure 2. Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek model schematic (modified from BMT WBM, 2014).

MODEL CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE The Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek Model comprises four linked models: Source Catchment Model; TUFLOW FV (Three-Dimensional, Unsteady FLOW, Finite Volume) Hydrodynamic Model; Aquatic EcoDynamics (AED) Water Quality Model; and Eco Modeller Macrophyte Model. A conceptual diagram of how the models work together is shown in Figure 2. A subset of the model output is stored in a custom-built database known as Hawkeye. Hawkeye allows for an easy comparison between scenarios at 52 locations. The Source Catchment Model is used to simulate the generation of flows and water quality constituent loads from the catchments that feed into the Hawkesbury Nepean River. It works by modelling the catchment as a series of nodes interconnected with links. This sequence of nodes and links forms a network in which water and materials are

transported. The Source Model also uses the concept of functional units. Functional units are areas within a subcatchment that have similar behaviour in terms of runoff and/or constituent generation. Functional units are based on combinations of land-use or cover (e.g. forest, crops and urban areas), management activities, position in the landscape (flat, hillslope and ridge) and/or soil type. There are 555 subcatchments in the Source Model, each of which comprises one or more functional units (SKM, 2014a). Other inputs into the Source Model include tributary stream flow and water quality data, rainfall data from 478 rainfall stations, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and irrigation extraction (SKM, 2014a). The daily time series of flows and water quality loads generated at the end of each of the tributary catchments in the Source Model are inputs into the TUFLOW FV/AED Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model. The TUFLOW FV Hydrodynamic Model solves non-linear, shallow water equations on a flexible mesh using a finite volume numerical scheme (BMT WBM, 2014). TUFLOW FV uses the flows generated by the Source Model and discharged from the dams (Warragamba Dam and the Upper Nepean dams, as represented by flow passing through Pheasants Nest and Broughton Pass weirs) to simulate the hydrodynamics of the river in three dimensions. Other key components of the TUFLOW FV Model include tidal levels, flows, salinity and meteorological data to produce velocity,

The calibration and validation of the full Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek Model used a combination of data from historical sources and from targeted campaign monitoring programs. Thousands of measured data points were used to calibrate and validate the model. The model has been independently peer reviewed by the CSIRO for design and technical quality.

SCENARIOS The model has been built to provide guidance on the likely quantitative differences in water quality and quantity when contrasting different catchment and environmental flow, wastewater and land-use scenarios over time. Overall differences in flow and constituent concentrations between scenarios can be inferred by comparing scenarios. This includes differences between mean values, or differences between values that may be exceeded for a given proportion of time. It enables the assessment of the overall outcomes of a particular suite of management actions across a broad spatial and temporal domain, compared to an alternative suite of actions or a â&#x20AC;&#x153;do nothingâ&#x20AC;? scenario (SKM, 2014b). These management actions are incorporated in the model as scenarios. The model has been set up to be scenario-based. That is, the same weather sequence is used for all model

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A macrophyte campaign monitoring program was implemented to assess spatial and temporal attributes of key macrophytes at four locations on the Hawkesbury Nepean River between Penrith Weir and North Richmond. The program also aimed to provide a better understanding of the relationship between macrophyte assemblages and hydraulic processes at these locations. One of the key macrophyte studied was Egeria densa, an introduced species that is rapidly spreading throughout the Hawkesbury Nepean River. Seven surveys were undertaken between November 2011 and January 2013. The data was used to inform the macrophyte ecological model.

The Macrophyte Model is a plug-in model for the eWater Eco Modeller platform. The Macrophyte Model generates a relative cover score for Egeria densa. The model structure is based on the growth of Egeria densa potentially being limited by temperature and nutrients, and through periodic removal/pruning through high-velocity conditions (SKM, 2014b). The Egeria densa model requires daily inputs of velocity, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus. These are generated from TUFLOW/AED.


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Technical Papers runs. The weather sequence chosen was the 1985–94 period as it includes a mixture of wet, dry and average years, and is the period frequently used for government modelling projects. A scenario model enables direct comparison of different outputs and, hence, the benefits of implementing different options. However, this approach precludes comparing scenario model outputs with observations because the timeframes of the model runs and data collection are different (SKM, 2014c). The model has not been established to predict conditions at a particular time in the future. Predictive modelling requires input of accurate future conditions such as rainfall at specific locations in the model domain. The uncertainty associated with future climate models would create uncertainty in the Hawkesbury Nepean River model output, such that it would not be possible to discriminate among scenarios. Initially, 100 scenarios were run to test different combinations of urban development, environmental flow, wastewater treatment and stormwater management measures over time. These combinations explore the system in its existing state (2011) and in 2020, 2030 and 2050 if the weather sequence between 1985 and 1994 was repeated. The scenarios investigated included: • Environmental flows: Represented as changes in the input time series for flow from Warragamba Dam to the TUFLOW/AED Model. Five different dam release regimes were used within the scenarios: measured and base-case releases, and 80/20, 95/20 and 90/10 transparent/translucent environmental flow releases from Warragamba Dam. • Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge: Changes to the discharge from 26 wastewater treatment plants (existing and future proposed) were modelled within the Hawkesbury Nepean River catchment. The treatment plants were altered to represent changes in discharge locations (local tributary, Hawkesbury Nepean River or out of the catchment), volume and quality, as well as commissioning and decommissioning. • Advanced water treatment plant (AWTP): Changes to the operation of the AWTP at St Marys. The AWTP is part of the St Marys Water Recycling Program and applies reverse osmosis to tertiary-treated

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wastewater from Penrith, St Marys and Quakers Hill treatment plants. The result of this process is the discharge of high-quality recycled water into the Nepean River, near Penrith. The options modelled were the operation of the water recycling plant at full capacity (50 ML/d recycled water return to catchment), partial capacity (25 ML/d recycled water return to catchment), and no capacity (0 ML/d recycled water return to catchment). • Population growth/land-use change: Population growth was represented by changes in land-use in the catchment model and increased wastewater flows from the WWTPs. There are three landuse options that have been modelled as part of the scenarios – 2011, 2030 and 2050. The years represent extensions of the growth boundaries and urban consolidation. • Water-sensitive urban design (WSUD): Implementation of WSUD in “green field” or new urban areas to limit the loads of sediment and nutrients generated from these areas. WSUD effects were modelled as a reduction in concentration of suspended solids, nitrogen species (total nitrogen, oxidised nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium) and phosphorus species (total phosphorus and filterable reactive phosphorus) in the runoff from the new urban regions within the 2030 and 2050 land-uses. The percentage reductions applied were 85% suspended solids, 65% phosphorus species and 45% nitrogen species. • Rehabilitation of sections of South Creek: Assimilation of nutrients in South Creek was incorporated as a decay function within the catchment model. It represents an option to manage activities that reduce nutrient loads into streams. The management activities include revegetation of stream banks or installation of silt traps. The removal efficiency for each nutrient constituent is based on grass buffers at least 7m wide and restricted stock access to protect the riparian vegetation and stream bank. • Climate change: Climate change scenarios were incorporated by using the NSW and ACT Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) downscaling project, and changed rainfall-runoff parameterisation of the catchment model. The 2050 scenario was based on a subset of the NARCliM data,

where the 1985 to 1994 results were adjusted to represent 2050 conditions. Climate change was only applied downstream of the dams. Model boundaries were adjusted to include sea level rise (0.7m). Climate change scenarios are included in the model as proof of concept only, due to the limited subset of NARCliM data available at the time.

THE HAWKEYE DATABASE Hawkeye is an SQLServer database and associated interface that allows sitebased interrogation of the model results. Multiple scenarios can be simultaneously compared. There are 52 sites uploaded into Hawkeye, a small subset of the >40,000 sites in the model. To include all sites for the 100 scenarios is approximately 1.7 petabytes of modelled output, which is impractical to handle. The model output is stored in Hawkeye at daily time-steps for each constituent for each site and scenario. A screen shot of the Hawkeye interface is presented in Figure 3.

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS Sydney Water is currently analysing the scenarios outputs. Due to the sheer volume of modelled output from the full suite of 100 scenarios, a subset of 19 scenarios and 10 sites has been chosen for these initial analyses. These investigate a range of servicing options to manage future challenges including: future urban growth; wastewater treatment plant discharge location; Sydney Water’s contribution/influence on water quality; diffuse source management; treatment of discharge to recycled water quality standard; St Marys AWTP options under current and future conditions; and extreme options – i.e. no discharge or all discharge of recycled water quality. The extreme options, while unrealistic in terms of cost, were chosen to better understand contributions from other sources (point and diffuse), and the extent to which Sydney Water could influence water quality with the discharge of very low-nutrient water. Three variables – total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll a – have been analysed in ‘all-weather’ and ‘dry-weather’ conditions. This is the ‘initial cut’ of analysis that will prompt further analyses. Additional scenarios, variables and sites will be analysed as new questions arise.


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Scenario manager

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Figure 3. Screenshot of Hawkeye. The statistical analysis of the modelled output incorporated two indicators to assess the relative performance of the selected scenarios: • Integration of the cumulative distribution function of each variable; • Comparison of the model output with Healthy Rivers Commission objectives (HRC, 1998).

sensitivity to the management options tested (the red ellipses in Figure 5): • The upper Hawkesbury Nepean system (upstream of the South Creek inflow) was found to be relatively insensitive to change, with the exception of increased total nitrogen with urban growth.

• South Creek and the region below the junction with the Hawkesbury Nepean River were sensitive to most scenarios tested. This zone is the main area where Sydney Water has the opportunity to improve water quality outcomes through wastewater infrastructure and treatment choices.

The metrics are presented in graphical form (as in Figure 5, Figure 6 and Figure 7). The graphs include site locations on the x axis from the uppermost site, (N75, Nepean River near Camden), to the furthermost downstream site, (N04, Hawkesbury River at Brooklyn). In the centre of the plot, between the dashed lines, are two sites located in South Creek (NS35 and NS04). South Creek is an important tributary in the Hawkesbury Nepean River catchment as it will house much of Sydney’s growth in the next 30 years. The graph has two y axes. The left-hand side y axis is the integral metric as represented by the bar graph; the longer the bar, the poorer the performance. The right-hand y axis is for the percentage of scenario-variable records within the Healthy Rivers Commission objectives; the lower the line the poorer the performance. Preliminary analysis indicates there are three key zones in the Hawkesbury Nepean system that show differing

Figure 4. The 10 sites (in red) chosen for initial scenario analysis.

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RIVER HEALTH

Figure 5. Three zones in the Hawkesbury Nepean system (Sc5=2011; Sc6=2020; Sc7=2030; Sc15=2050). • The lower Hawkesbury Nepean River near Brooklyn (N04), which showed little change among scenarios. A second key finding is the importance of flow as a critical factor for managing river health. Sydney Water’s discharge has been found overall to reduce or have a neutral impact on concentrations of total phosphorus and chlorophyll a in the waterways, while generally contributing to increased nitrogen levels (Figure 5, Figure 6 and Figure 7). The examples provided are highlevel findings to show how the model can be used in the management of the Hawkesbury Nepean River. Scenarios, variables and sites are being further refined and interrogated to answer specific questions. This understanding will enable Sydney Water to plan for an improved environmental outcome when considering future management options in the Hawkesbury Nepean River catchment.

MODEL LIMITATIONS While the model is based on the best available scientific information specifically tailored for the Hawkesbury Nepean River catchment, as with all models, it is not without its limitations. It is important to be aware of these limitations when using the model and analysing the output. Model limitations include: • The extent of the model mesh is limited to the main stem of the river and does not include the broader floodplain (except south of Penrith Lakes); • The hydraulic performance of the weirs exceeded the weir rating curves during high-flow events on eight occasions

WATER DECEMBER 2014

during the 10year simulation; • Differences between spatial and temporal sampling of the field data and the predictions produced by the models may result in the modelled and measured concentrations for a constituent varying considerably during the calibration/ validation period;

Figure 6. Influence of increased flow with population growth on total phosphorus in the Hawkesbury Nepean River system (Sc5=2011; Sc6=2020; Sc7=2030; Sc15=2050).

Figure 7. Influence of increased flow with population growth on total nitrogen in the Hawkesbury Nepean River system (Sc5=2011; Sc6=2020; Sc7=2030; Sc15=2050).

• The TUFLOW FV/AED Model runs at a sub-daily time step, while the input time series from the Source Model are daily; this may over-represent the scatter between observed and modelled concentrations during the calibration/ validation period and may not necessarily reflect the performance of the model; • Flow extractions for irrigation in South Creek during low flows had to be estimated as there were no measured extractions; • Environmental flow releases from the Upper Nepean dams had to be estimated as there was no measured data to verify how much flow was actually released;

• Macrophyte beds influence both hydraulic and water quality behaviour upstream of South Creek, but macrophyte behaviour was not directly incorporated into TUFLOW FV. Finally, it is important to note that the model has been based on the system as it is currently configured, such as land-use, weir location and the bathymetry of the river. In the future, as the catchment, river bathymetry and climate change, it will be necessary to review the status of the model and update it with current data.

CONCLUSION Water quality and quantity modelling is a key planning tool for understanding environmental impacts under different scenarios. It provides a means for guiding capital works programs, by allowing


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Technical Papers objective comparisons of likely water quality benefits against expenditure under different management options. The Hawkesbury Nepean River and South Creek Model enables robust assessment of whole of system impacts of changes in the river system, such as those from wastewater treatment plant discharges, irrigation, catchment runoff and environmental flows. The model will enable Sydney Water and other river managers to develop affordable and cost-effective management decisions that achieve environmental outcomes, consider different pollutant sources, are site-specific, consider community goals and contribute to liveability.

THE AUTHORS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sydney Water would like to acknowledge Jacobs (previously known as Sinclair Knight Merz), BMT WBM, eWater, Yorb and UWA for the development of the model, the CSIRO for the review of the model, and Daniel Large for the analysis of the scenarios. Extensive data sets were provided by the NSW Office of Water, Office of Environment and Heritage, Sydney Catchment Authority, Manly Hydraulics Laboratory, Land and Property Information, Bureau of Meteorology, Hornsby Shire Council, Penrith City Council, The Hills Shire Council, Blacktown Council and Camden Council. This data was critical for model build and calibration.

REFERENCES BMT WBM (2014:) Water Quality Modelling of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River System: Hawkesbury-Nepean and South Creek Model TUFLOW FV and AED User Manual. May 2014. Prepared for Sydney Water Corporation. Healthy Rivers Commission (HRC) (1998): Independent Inquiry into the Hawkesbury Nepean River System. Final Report August 1998. Healthy Rivers Commission of NSW. NSW and Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW) (2010): Lower Hawkesbury-Nepean River Nutrient Management Strategy. www.environment.nsw. gov.au/resources/water/10225hnnms.pdf SKM (2014a): Water Quality Modelling of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River System – Hawkesbury-Nepean and South Creek Model Final Calibration Report. Prepared for Sydney Water Corporation. SKM (2014b): Water Quality Modelling of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River System – Hawkesbury-Nepean and South Creek Model Summary Report. Prepared for Sydney Water Corporation. SKM (2014c): Water Quality Modelling of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River System – Hawkesbury-Nepean and South Creek Model Scenario Report. Prepared for Sydney Water Corporation.

DECEMBER 2014 WATER

RIVER HEALTH

Merran Griffith (email: merran.griffith@ sydneywater.com.au) is the Principal Advisor, Waterway Health in the Business Strategy and Resilience Division at Sydney Water. Merran has worked in the water industry for over 20 years, with a strong focus on water quality and environmental monitoring.

Peter Tate (email: peter. tate@sydneywater.com.au) is an Analytics Strategist with Sydney Water. He has over 30 years’ experience in the wastewater industry, focussing on modelling and monitoring of environmental impacts.


58

Technical Papers

OPTIMISATION OF NON-IONIC POLYMER TO ADDRESS PRODUCTION ISSUES WITH HIGH-COLOUR LOW-TURBIDITY RAW WATER A report of five events at Sydney Water’s Nepean Water Filtration Plant to compare plant performance before and after optimisation A Mohiuddin, C Rajanayagam, C Kearney

ABSTRACT

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Sydney Water owns and operates the Nepean Water Filtration Plant. Historically this plant has been operating at 230–240 L/s under normal raw water turbidity 1–5 NTU and true colour (@400 nm) 10–18 HU. At this treatment facility, raw water is first pre-treated then coagulated and filtered in two stages: first-stage clarification in roughing filters (microfloc adsorption clarifier), followed by final-stage filtration in dual media gravity filters. In the last few years there were events when the raw water true colour was much higher than historical values, resulting in significantly reduced floc strength. As a consequence, the treatment process was stressed to maintain filter peformance and so the plant’s production rate was reduced to 140–150 L/s. Optimisation of the non-ionic polymer dose rate upstream of the roughing filters increased the floc strength, which improved the performances of both the roughing filter and dual media gravity filter during higher-colour events. With an optimum average non-ionic polymer dose rate of 0.19–0.32 mg/L, for variable nature of raw water in the true colour range 25–30 HU, the plant production rate improved from 140–150 L/s to 210–236 L/s.

INTRODUCTION Sydney Water’s Nepean Water Filtration Plant (WFP) treats raw water from the Nepean Dam situated 100km south-west of Sydney. The process train at Nepean WFP consists of raw water pre-treatment with chlorine, lime, carbon dioxide (CO2) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) dosing followed by coagulationflocculation with ferric chloride, cationic

WATER DECEMBER 2014

polymer (poly-DADMAC) and non-ionic polymer (polyacrylamides) dosing; then first-stage clarification by roughing filters (microfloc adsorption clarifier); and finalstage filtration by dual media gravity filters; followed by post-treatment using chlorine, fluoride and CO2. The designated design capacity of Nepean WFP is 417 L/s, but historically this plant has been operating at 230–240 L/s, running one of the three fixed-speed raw water pumps under normal raw water turbidity 1–5 NTU and true colour 10–18 HU. For such raw water quality, historically the plant was dosing 10–11 mg/L ferric chloride (primary coagulant), 1.0–1.2 mg/L cationic polymer (secondary coagulant) and 0.05–0.06 mg/L non-ionic polymer (flocculation aid). In March 2012, following a wet weather event, raw water true colour increased, quickly reaching 40–45 HU, then gradually declined over the next 12 months. Another increase in true colour was then observed in April 2013. These events of higher colour in the raw water over the last number of years have also been complicated by historically lower turbidity over the same period. This higher colour and lower turbidity source water has presented considerable challenges to Sydney Water in maintaining filter performance to meet a filtered water quality target of turbidity ≤0.1 NTU and usual true colour <5 HU, thus restricting water production to 140– 150 L/s in the periods March–August 2012 and July–September 2013. In order to address this problem, the plant operators sought to optimise chemicals dosing. In this report, five events have been selected to compare the plant performance before and after

this optimisation. Event A is for historical average values, Events B and C are for higher colour 25–30 HU events prior to optimisation, and Events D and E are for the same higher colour 25–30 HU events after optimisation.

HISTORICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE PLANT Event A represents historical average parameters for the period 1 January 2011 to 28 February 2012 and is presented in Table 1. During this period raw water average true colour and turbidity were 14.65 HU and 1.39 NTU respectively. For the period 1 January 2012 to 28 February 2012 plant average production rate was 232 L/s, run-times of dual media filters (DMF) were 18–29 h, head-loss before backwash of the DMFs was 1.26–1.72 m and unit filter run volume (UFRV) of DMFs were 3.54 to 5.49m3/m2.

HIGH-COLOUR EVENTS BEFORE OPTIMISATION Event B is the high colour (25–30 HU) event in 2012 for the period 14 May to 30 June 2012, and Event C is the high-colour (25–30 HU) event in 2013 for the period 11 July to 24 September 2013. Event B represents plant operation with higher ferric chloride and nonionic polymer dosages, and Event C represents operation with higher cationic polymer and non-ionic polymer dosages. Table 1 presents the comparison of historical average values of Event A with high-colour events, Event B and Event C. Compared to historical average parameters (Event A), both the highcolour events (Event B and C) represent an 86–90% increase in average raw water true colour, which resulted in a 35–39%


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Technical Papers

Table 1. Historical parameters and high-colour (25-30 CU) events. Historical Value

Chemical dose rate Plant performance

Filter run time*

Filter performance

Filter head-loss before backwash*

27.26

% variation from Event A

14.65

86%

27.84

90%

Turbidity

NTU

1.39

3.37

143%

5.38

288%

Ferric chloride dose rate

mg/L

10.51

26.08

148%

14.35

36%

Cationic polymer dose rate

mg/L

1.17

1.20

3%

2.31

97%

Non-ionic polymer dose rate

mg/L

0.06

0.10

49%

0.16

148%

Plant production rate

L/s

232.11

141.48

-39%

151.40

-35%

Filter 1 run time

hr

29

16

-47%

12

-59%

Filter 2 run time

hr

18

18

-3%

13

-27%

Filter 3 run time

hr

22

29

35%

21

-1%

Filter 4 run time

hr

23

16

-29%

14

-37%

Filter 5 run time

hr

19

21

9%

21

12%

Filter 1 head-loss

m

1.56

0.38

-76%

0.24

-85%

Filter 2 head-loss

m

1.65

0.63

-62%

0.49

-70%

Filter 3 head-loss

m

1.49

1.24

-17%

0.74

-51%

Filter 4 head-loss

m

1.26

0.40

-68%

0.29

-77%

Filter 5 head-loss

UFRV*

HU

Average

Event C 11th July’13 to 24th Sept’13

% variation from Event A

Event B 14th May’12 to 30th Jun’12 Average

Event A 1st Jan’11 to 28th Feb’12 Average True Colour @400nm

Raw water quality

High-Colour Events

1.72

0.59

-66%

0.47

-73%

m3/m2

5.49

1.65

-70%

1.49

-73%

Filter 2 UFRV

m3/m2

3.55

1.87

-47%

1.67

-53%

Filter 3 UFRV

m3/m2

4.05

3.06

-25%

2.66

-34%

Filter 4 UFRV

m3/m2

4.15

1.73

-58%

1.77

-57%

Filter 5 UFRV

m /m

3.54

2.10

-41%

2.52

-29%

3

2

Note: *Data is for the period 01/01/2012 to 28/02/2012

reduction in plant production rate and, for most of the dual media gravity filters, there were 27–59% reductions in run time, 41–73% reductions in unit filter run volume (UFRV) and 62–85% reductions in head-loss before backwash. Figures 1 to 4 present the plant production rate and filter perormances during these events.

METHODOLOGY This report presents the extensive work carried out from August 2013 to optimise the process to deal with production issues with high-colour, low-turbidity raw water. The methodology of the work was as follows: • Optimise ferric chloride (primary coagulant) and cationic polymer (secondary coagulant) dosages to obtain pin-point floc; • Optimise non-ionic polymer (flocculation aid) dose to increase floc strength; • Optimise time in backwash stages of roughing filters to improve performance.

COAGULANTS DOSE OPTIMISATION Initially during the 2012 higher-colour event, a number of jar tests were conducted to identify the optimal coagulation chemicals dosages. This demonstrated that 10–14 mg/L ferric chloride and 2–3 mg/L cationic polymer dosages were the optimal combination to coagulate raw water producing pinpoint flocs having a true colour in the range of 20–35 HU. In August–September 2013, while raw water true colour was 25–30 HU, a series of jar tests were conducted and, accordingly, plant chemicals were optimised to 12–14 mg/L ferric chloride and 2.5–3.0 mg/L cationic polymer to produce pin-point flocs (floc size optimisation). However, it was evident from filter operational data that the dual media gravity filters were having turbidity breakthrough, even though the optimal coagulant dosages from jar test were applied in the field.

Visual inspections of the water discharged from the roughing filters revealed that the clarity deteriorated with these higher-colour events. This was predominantly due to less solids adsorption at lower floc strength, which caused elevated turbidity water to be discharged from the roughing filters, contributing to further reduction in the performance of dual media gravity filters. It was evident that floc strength is the key issue with higher-colour raw water at Nepean WFP, which was causing poor performance of roughing filters (lower solids adsorption in microfloc adsorption clarifier) and turbidity breakthrough in dual media gravity filters, leading to lower filter performances (run time, head-loss before backwash, unit filter run volume) and lower production rate. Finally, it was decided that non-ionic polymer dose rate needed to be optimised to increase floc strength.

DECEMBER 2014 WATER

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

m

Filter 1 UFRV


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Technical Papers

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Figure 1. Plant production rate (L/s) with raw water true colour (HU) and chemical dosages.

Figure 2. Dual media filters run time, hr (Source: SCADA).

NON-IONIC POLYMER DOSE OPTIMISATION At Nepean WFP immediately after coagulation, non-ionic polymer is dosed in the pipeline upstream of the roughing filters. Trials were conducted to optimise non-ionic polymer dosing to improve the floc strength. This was carried out from September 2013 while having raw water higher true colour. Eventually, non-ionic polymer dose rate was optimised to an average of 0.32 mg/L (maximum 0.35 mg/L) in September–October 2013 for the raw water true colour 25–30 HU, and 0.19 mg/L in March–May 2014 for the raw water, also with true colour 25–30 HU. Optimisation of non-ionic polymer dose rate depended on the variability of

WATER DECEMBER 2014

the nature of raw water (variation of floc strength) in the same colour range and optimum dose rate of two coagulants (floc size optimisation). The result of nonionic polymer dose increase was positive; better floc strength was achieved, which improved performances of both the roughing filter (higher solids adsorption) and dual media gravity filter (run time, head-loss before backwash and UFRV).

ROUGHING FILTERS BACKWASH TIME OPTIMISATION After non-ionic polymer dose optimisation backwash water from the roughing filters contained higher solids, which proved higher solids holding in the roughing filters during operation

with increased floc strength. To improve roughing filter media regeneration, air– water wash time was increased from 360 sec to 420 sec in mid-October 2013 and then to 540 sec in January 2014. Water wash time was also increased from 15 min to 20 min in January 2014. The combined effect of increased non-ionic polymer dose and increased air-water and water wash time improved the roughing filters’ solids adsorption performance, improved the water clarity of roughing filter discharge, reduced solid loading to dual media gravity filters (DMF), and further improved the performance of the DMF.


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Technical Papers

Figure 3. Unit filter run volume (UFRV) of dual media filters (Source: SCADA).

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Figure 4. Dual media filters head-loss before backwash, m (Source: SCADA).

RESULTS After the optimisation work carried out in August–September 2013, two similar high-colour events were selected with raw water true colour 25–30 HU, Event D (25 September 2013 to 18 October 2013) and Event E (27 March 2014 to 25 May 2014), and were compared to Event B and Event C (prior to optimisation). Table 2 presents the comparison of parameters among Event C, D and E. As compared to Event C (before optimisation), in Event D (after

optimisation) there was a 9% reduction in ferric chloride dose, 5% increase in cationic polymer dose and a 100% increase in non-ionic polymer dose rate (optimised to average 0.32 mg/L). As a result, in Event D the average production rate increased from 151 L/s (Event C) to 181 L/s (20%) and the maximum production rate achieved was 211 L/s (40% increase), and there were 13–36% increases in dual media filter run time, 37–89% increases in dual media filters head-loss before backwash, and 25–51% increases in UFRV of dual media filters.

Comparison of Event C (before optimisation) with Event E (after optimisation) showed that, in Event E, ferric chloride was reduced by 33%, cationic polymer was reduced by 24% and non-ionic polymer was increased by 19%. As a result, in Event E the average production rate improved from 151 L/s (Event C) to 215 L/s (42%), and the maximum production rate achieved was 236 L/s (56% increase), and there were 25–119% increase in dual media filter run times, 87–514% increases in dual media filters head-loss before

DECEMBER 2014 WATER


62

Technical Papers

Table 2. Non-ionic polymer optimisation and comparision with high-colour event 2013. Before

35.00

2.08

7.00

NTU

5.38

3.19

mg/L

14.35

13.03

-9%

9.64

-33%

Cationic polymer dose rate

mg/L

2.31

2.43

5%

1.74

-24%

Non-ionic polymer dose rate

mg/L

0.16

0.32

100%

0.19

19%

Plant production rate

L/s

151

181

20%

215

Filter 1 run time

hr

12

16

36%

26

119%

Filter 2 run time

hr

13

15

13%

23

69%

Filter 3 run time

hr

21

26

23%

27

25%

Filter 4 run time

hr

14

17

21%

30

112%

Filter 5 run time

hr

21

27

24%

27

27%

Filter 1 head-loss

m

0.24

0.35

47%

1.46

514%

Filter 2 head-loss Filter head-loss Filter 3 head-loss before backwash Filter 4 head-loss

m

0.49

0.47

-3%

1.70

248%

m

0.74

1.39

89%

1.59

116%

m

0.29

0.39

37%

1.10

285%

Filter run time

Filter 5 head-loss

UFRV

211

236

42%

m

0.47

0.85

82%

0.87

87%

Filter 1 UFRV

m3/m2

1.49

2.25

51%

4.56

207%

Filter 2 UFRV

m3/m2

1.67

2.09

25%

3.81

128%

Filter 3 UFRV

m3/m2

2.66

3.60

35%

4.38

65%

Filter 4 UFRV

m3/m2

1.77

2.37

34%

5.10

189%

Filter 5 UFRV

m3/m2

2.52

3.61

44%

4.47

78%

backwash, and 65–207% increases in UFRV of dual media filters. Table 3 presents the comparison of parameters among Event B, D and E. Comparison of Event B (before optimisation) with Event D (after optimisation) reveals that, in Event D, there was a 50% reduction in ferric chloride dose, a 102% increase in cationic polymer dose and a 233% increase in nonionic polymer dose (optimised to average 0.32 mg/L). As a result, in Event D the average production rate improved from 141 L/s (Event B) to 181 L/s (28%) and the maximum production rate achieved was 211 L/s (50% increase), and there was a slight increase in dual media filters run-time and dual media filters head-loss before backwash, and a 12–72% increase in UFRV of dual media filters. Comparison of Event B (before optimisation) with Event E (after optimisation) shows that, in Event E, ferric chloride was reduced by 63%, cationic polymer was increased by 45% and non-ionic polymer was increased by

WATER DECEMBER 2014

3.70

25.37

% Variation from Event C (Average)

Average

25.80 28.00

Ferric chloride dose rate

Plant performance

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

27.84

Turbidity

Chemical dose rate

Filter performance

HU

Maximum

27th Mar’14 to 25th May’14

% Variation from Event C (Average)

Event E

25th Sep’13 to 18th Oct’13 Maximum

Event D

11th Jul’13 to 24th Sep’13

Average

True Colour @400nm

Raw water quality

After Non-Ionic Polymer Optimisation

Event C

Average

Colour 25-30 CU

98%. As a result, in Event E the average production rate improved from 141 L/s (Event B) to 215 L/s (52%), and the maximum production rate achieved was 236 L/s (67% increase), and there were 28–87% increases in dual media filters run time, 29–283% increases in dual media filter head-loss before backwash and 43–194% increases in UFRV of dual media filters. This work has clearly demonstrated that maintaining the floc strength using a higher dose of non-ionic polymer was the key to achieving a higher production rate at the Nepean WFP. This is evident from increases in dual media gravity filter run times, improvement in head-loss before backwash and UFRV as discussed above. Figures 1 to 4 present the plant production rate, chemical dose rates and filter performance during the events, and indicate the improvement through optimisation of non-ionic polymer dose rate. It is important to note that overdosing of non-ionic polymer can blind the filters and cause mudballs. Visual inspections of the filter backwash and

non-ionic polymer dose adjustment within the optimal range based on change in raw water quality are routinely conducted to ensure this impact is avoided.

CONCLUSION At Nepean WFP during raw water highercolour events, floc strength was found to be the predominant factor that reduced filter performance, leading to a significant reduction in plant production rate from 230–240 L/s to 140–150 L/s. Raw water true colour has been used as a surrogate measure to address floc strength issue and production loss at Nepean and to compare the plant performance before and after the optimisation. A comparison of historical parameters of Event A (Table 1) with high-colour Event D and E (after optimisation) (Table 2) shows that non-ionic polymer average dose rate was increased from 0.06 mg/L (Event A) to 0.32 mg/L (Event D) and 0.19 mg/L (Event E). This increase of non-ionic polymer dose rate upstream of roughing filters (micro-floc adsorption clarifier) increased


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Technical Papers

Table 3. Non-ionic polymer optimisation and comparision with high-colour event 2012. Before

After Non-Ionic Polymer Optimisation Event E

25th Sep’13 to 18th Oct’13

27th Mar’14 to 25th May’14 Maximum

27.26

25.80 28.00

25.37

35.00

3.37

3.19

2.08

7.00

Ferric chloride dose rate

mg/L

26.08

13.03

-50%

9.64

-63%

Chemical dose rate

Cationic polymer dose rate

mg/L

1.20

2.43

102%

1.74

45%

Non-ionic polymer dose rate

mg/L

0.10

0.32

233%

0.19

Plant performance

Plant production rate

L/s

141

181

28%

215

Filter 1 run time

hr

16

16

4%

26

67%

Filter 2 run time

hr

18

15

-15%

23

28%

True Colour @400nm

Raw water quality

Turbidity

Filter run time

Filter performance

Average

HU NTU

Average

Average

% Variation from Event B (Average)

Event D

14th May’12 to 30th Jun’12

% Variation from Event B (Average)

Event B

Maximum

Colour 25-30 CU

3.70

211

98% 236

52%

Filter 3 run time

hr

29

26

-10%

27

-8%

Filter 4 run time

hr

16

17

7%

30

87%

Filter 5 run time

hr

21

27

28%

27

30%

Filter 1 head-loss

m

0.38

0.35

-8%

1.46

283%

Filter 2 head-loss Filter head-loss Filter 3 head-loss before backwash Filter 4 head-loss

m

0.63

0.47

-24%

1.70

171%

m

1.24

1.39

13%

1.59

29%

m

0.40

0.39

-3%

1.10

172%

Filter 5 head-loss

UFRV

0.85

44%

0.87

48%

Filter 1 UFRV

m /m

1.65

2.25

36%

4.56

176%

Filter 2 UFRV

m3/m2

1.87

2.09

12%

3.81

104%

Filter 3 UFRV

m3/m2

3.06

3.60

18%

4.38

43%

Filter 4 UFRV

m3/m2

1.73

2.37

37%

5.10

194%

Filter 5 UFRV

m3/m2

2.10

3.61

72%

4.47

113%

There was also a corresponding change in primary and secondary coagulant dosages, which assisted nonionic polymer optimisation above where: ferric chloride dose rate was changed from 10.51 mg/L (Event A) to 13.03 mg/L (Event D) and 9.64 mg/L (Event E); and cationic polymer dose rate was changed from 1.17 mg/L (Event A) to 2.43 mg/L (Event D) and 1.74 mg/L (Event E). Colour is a reflection of various compounds in the raw water, mainly the organic fractions, and hence is used as a surrogate parameter to reflect organic matter in water. It can be hypothesised

that there are certain chemical fractions, possibly organic fractions that contribute to the floc structure and strength. Currently we are not able to identify the key compounds that contribute to the floc strength. Further work is necessary to identify the compounds that contribute to floc strength.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Authors acknowledge the significant support provided by the Nepean WFP team while carrying out this optimisation and the team’s active role in optimising parameters during high colour events. The Authors are especially thankful to Bill Katon, Adrian Smart and Gilberto Magat for their valuable contribution to this optimisation work.

THE AUTHORS ASM Mohiuddin (email: asm.mohiuddin@ sydneywater.com.au) is the Water Treatment Specialist in the Treatment, Service Delivery Division of Sydney Water. He has a Bachelors degree in Chemical Engineering, MBA and a

Masters degree in Water, Wastewater and Waste Engineering. He has over 13 years’ experience in process engineering, with the last five years in the water industry. Castor Rajanayagam (email: castor.rajanayagam@ sydneywater.com.au) is the Treatment Product Program Manager in the Service Delivery Division of Sydney Water. He has a Bachelors degree in Chemical Engineering and a Masters degree in Industrial Engineering and Management. He has been working at Sydney Water for the last 19 years. Colum Kearney (email: colum.kearney@ sydneywater.com.au) is a Plant Manager at Sydney Water. He manages a number of Water Filtration Plants in South West Sydney and has over 12 years’ experience in the operation and management of water and wastewater facilities.

DECEMBER 2014 WATER

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

0.59 2

the floc strength during raw water high true colour, which thereby increased solids adsorption in roughing filters and reduced turbidity breakthroughs of dual media gravity filters. As a result, during high-colour events (Event D and E) the plant achieved an increase in production rate from 140–150 L/s to 210–236 L/s and regained the historical filters performances (run time, head-loss before backwash and UFRV) (Tables 2 and 3).

m 3


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Technical Papers

CO-DIGESTION OF GLYCEROL WITH PRIMARY SLUDGE Results of stoichiometry calculations to provide additional insight into the results from pilot glycerol trials W Barber, S Fitzgerald, M Dawson, S Vierboom

INTRODUCTION Increasing energy prices, incentives for production of renewable energy and energy security are encouraging the search for alternative fuel sources. Anaerobic digestion has been identified as a means to produce renewable energy and the addition of high-strength organic materials to municipal sludge digesters has, accordingly, attracted much attention recently.

BIOSOLIDS

One such organic material that has gained specific attention is glycerol. Glycerol is already present within an anaerobic digester as it is generated as an intermediate product of the breakdown of high molecular weight fatty acids (Weng and Jeris, 1976). Glycerol is then further broken down to acetate, which is converted to methane. The recent interest in glycerol addition comes from its sudden abundance as a high-energy by-product of biodiesel production, with a yield of 0.1 tonne/ tonne biodiesel manufactured (Viana et al., 2012). As biodiesel production is being heavily incentivised, biodiesel glycerol availability has increased from 7% of the total glycerol market in 1999 to over 19% by 2004 (Frost and Sullivan, quoted by Winter et al., 2008). This has led to a fall in the commodity price of glycerol from around €1,500/t (in 1995) to under €500/tonne in 2005. However, biodiesel-derived glycerol is defined as a waste in Europe (Lee et al., 2008), therefore requiring waste management controls in place. Ironically, as pure glycerol prices fall, waste glycerol prices are increasing and have doubled recently as its demand continues to rise (Andersons, 2008). There are over 1,200 uses for glycerol, most of which are able to pay more than processing via anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, should a supply become available, it will probably be unprocessed,

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meaning it may still contain impurities such as methanol, sodium, potassium, heavy metals, soap, water and other organics (Viana et al., 2012; Andersons, 2008). Numerous researchers have studied the impacts of glycerol addition to anaerobic digesters processing municipal sludge and have found optimal addition rates of between 1–5% by volume regarding biogas increases (Lee et al., 2008). Levels higher than these have been found to be inhibitory (Fountoulakis et al., 2010). In some studies the dilution of glycerol has been used to avoid problems of inhibition due to the presence of inorganic salts of chloride and sulphates (Viana et al., 2012). While these studies have quoted biogas production rates, none has attempted to identify where the biogas evolved from, that is, from the glycerol or from the sludge itself. THEORETICAL BIOGAS PRODUCTION

With knowledge of molecular formulae it is possible to determine the quantity and composition of biogas generated from anaerobic digestion of a particular material from stoichiometry. The molecular formula for primary sludge of C23H35O8N was taken from a previous study (Barber, 2014). The molecular formula for glycerol is C3H5(OH)3. This was assumed for the waste glycerol used in the study in spite of its origin as a biodiesel waste product. Performing the calculations, theory predicts a gas yield of 0.826m3 biogas per kg COD equivalence of glycerol digested at 35°C, 1 atm, containing 58% methane. This is equivalent to 1.00m3 biogas/kg glycerol consumed, or approximately 0.4kg methane/ kg glycerol. The calculations were repeated for primary sludge and gave the following results: biogas yield 1.193m3 biogas per kg COD equivalence of primary sludge digested at 35°C, 1 atm, containing 63% methane. This

information was used during the study to attempt to identify the source of the biogas produced. SYDNEY WATER’S PILOT GLYCEROL CO-DIGESTION TRIALS

For Sydney Water, glycerol co-digestion provides an opportunity to increase renewable energy generation using existing infrastructure. The high-energy content of glycerol means that only small volumes need to be added to the anaerobic digestion process to significantly increase biogas production. This paper presents the results of the stoichiometry calculations that were completed to provide additional insight into the results from the pilot glycerol trials. These calculations aim to identify the real source of the additional biogas generated during the experiments conducted in collaboration with the University of Wollongong as part of Sydney Water’s broader Energy R&D Program.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Two 50-litre pilot-scale anaerobic mesophilic digesters were set up at Bondi WWTP. The schematic of the test rig is shown in Figure 1. The digester was inoculated with digested sludge taken from the Bondi Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), which consists of primary sludge only. The pilot plant was fed 2.5L per day of feed sludge, resulting in a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. Based on inlet dry solids, this was equivalent to a loading rate of 1.5kg VS/m3.d in the control digester. Prior to the addition of glycerol as a co-substrate, the digestion process was operated for 1–2 weeks until a stable biogas flow rate was achieved. After this point, glycerol waste generated from biodiesel production with COD of 1.67 million mg/L was added in


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Figure 1. Schematic of pilot-scale digester to determine impacts of glycerol addition on anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. three aliquots by volume: 1%, 2% and 3% of input volume. Based on COD measurements, these figures were equivalent to 28%, 43% and 54% by load for 1, 2 and 3% volume addition respectively. The entire unit was automatically controlled and data was recorded by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

RESULTS

A linear relationship was noted for biogas production in the test digesters with approximately twice as much gas increase noted in the digester fed 2% glycerol compared to the one fed only 1%. In order to determine the source of the biogas a COD balance was conducted and biogas production

At face value, the addition of glycerol at these levels has a significant positive impact on biogas production. Methane levels were also measured at 58%, which is consistent with the theoretical figure for glycerol. However, calculations based on COD balance suggest that the gas production could have been even higher than recorded. In order to identify the Figure 2. Response to glycerol addition: a) 1% added; reason for the b) 2% added; c) 3% added. Key: red line = test digester; discrepancy, blue = control digester. biogas production was assumed that the level of COD was determined in a number of destruction for both sludge and glycerol ways to see if various phenomena were was identical (this was checked later). influencing the results. In the first set of Biogas production was, therefore, calculations a level of COD destruction calculated by determining the load of was determined by the difference primary sludge entering and multiplying between input and output values. For that load by the product of overall COD the purpose of these calculations it

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BIOSOLIDS

The response to adding 1, 2% and 3% input volume of glycerol is shown in Figure 2 a) 1%, b) 2% and c) 3%. Addition of 1% and 2% glycerol by volume increased biogas production by approximately 50 and 90%. However, after an initial boost in biogas production of 150%â&#x20AC;&#x201C;200%, addition of 3% glycerol to the test digester resulted in failure within 20 days (1 HRT). This is consistent with previous studies (Fountoulakis et al., 2010), which found reactor failure at 3% glycerol addition with a concomitant drop in pH at laboratory scale. The breakdown of glycerol into intermediate products by acidogens occurs at a much faster rate than consumption by methanogens and acetogens (Pavlostathis and GiraldoGomez, 1991), meaning that overloading by glycerol will result in a build-up of intermediate acid products.

calculated based on theoretical considerations. The results of this analysis are shown in Figure 3.


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Technical Papers may be due to chloride content (which can be five times higher than required to inhibit gas production), sulphate contamination (from the use of sulphuric acid in the transesterification process), or the production of long-chain fatty acid intermediates (LCFA). These materials cause inhibition by adhering to bacterial cells, thus preventing passage of nutrients, and by having low density, causing the biomass to float (Viana et al., 2012).

Figure 3. Impact of glycerol addition on biogas production. Blue bars = measured biogas; red bars = theoretical biogas production based on COD destroyed. destroyed and theoretical biogas yield per kg COD equivalents from primary sludge (determined from stoichiometry), and adding that figure to an equivalent calculation for the glycerol. The COD of the glycerol was 1.67 million mg/L. These calculations predicted biogas increases of 80% and 110% for 1% and 2% glycerol added respectively, compared to the measured values of 50% and 90% increase.

Another attempt to address the inconsistencies was to make the COD results balance by adjusting the feed glycerol COD concentration as, unlike the sludge, this was not measured during the tests. In order to make the results match, the feed glycerol concentration would have to reduce to 316,000 and 258,000 mg/L for 1% and 2% addition rates respectively. These reductions were not considered realistic, so this hypothesis was rejected.

The first assumption was that the theoretical biogas yields for sludge were incorrect. The glycerol figure was considered correct as it was pure and the figure calculated from stoichiometry. The figure for primary sludge was determined as 1.19 m3/kg VS destroyed. This figure was recalculated in order to make the gas data fit. The new yields dropped by 25% to 40% for tests 1 and 2 respectively to make the biogas data coincide. However, adjusting the yield figures did not account for the large discrepancies noted in the results.

Another calculation set was based on the assumption that not all the glycerol was being degraded, which could explain why measured biogas production was lower than predicted values. To check this proposal, COD destruction was determined for sludge alone based on the control digester. The COD destruction rates were 42% for the first, and 53% for the second control. These results were then used in the test digesters to determine the fraction of biogas attributable to the sludge.

Secondly, it was proposed that there were issues with the actual measurements of the biogas. In all instances theoretical determinations were higher than measured data. However, the differences in measured versus predicted results were inconsistent. If there were an issue with measurement, it is assumed that the measurements would be consistently different. Also, biogas measuring equipment was calibrated during the experiment. Therefore, it was assumed that biogas measurements were not the cause of the mismatch.

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The COD destruction of the glycerol was then back-calculated so that the theoretical total biogas production was identical to the measured results. If the assumption is that the sludge degradation is identical in both control and test, then the backcalculation implies that only approximately 60% of the COD due to glycerol was being degraded. This figure aligns with work reviewed by Viana and co-workers (2012), who found waste glycerol degradation rates between 60% and 85% depending on the source of the glycerol. Potential reasons for incomplete degradation

Another potential reason to explain the anomalies was that the glycerol was inhibiting the biogas production from the sludge. Based on the previous calculations it was possible to determine the fraction of biogas attributable to sludge and glycerol separately. As the conversion of COD to biogas is fixed, the quantity of biogas from each component entering the digester should be consistent with its load. Calculations showed that, for 1% glycerol addition, the sludge contributed 72% of the load into the digester but only accounted for 63% of the biogas. When repeated for 2% glycerol, the sludge contributed 60% of the load but only half of the gas. These results imply that the addition of glycerol is reducing the biogas production from the sludge itself, even though not all of the glycerol appears to be consumed. This could be due to the production of LCFAs as described above. Additionally, analysis of alkalinity data showed a linear decrease with increasing glycerol addition. Reduction rates of approximately 220 mg/L alkalinity as CaCO3 were observed per percentage point glycerol added as volume. Starting alkalinity was 1750 mg/l and the reductions noticed were equivalent to 14% and 24% for the increasing additions of glycerol. pH was also measured and it dropped by greater than a simple weighted average analysis based on sludge pH (which was pH 4) and glycerol. The results from this study suggest that the gas measurements appear lower than what is potentially achievable. Based on the above analysis, this appears to be most likely due to incomplete degradation of glycerol at 20 days HRT, with about a third exiting in the effluent and, also, potential suppression of biogas production from the sludge itself. Sankey diagrams were drawn (Figure 4) to show the flow of COD from digestion of sludge and glycerol. It is clear that adding glycerol to a sludge digester produces additional biogas. However, analysis of the results from this


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Technical Papers REFERENCES ABG (2006): Glycerine Market Analysis, Report for US Soy Bean Export Council. Andersons (2008): A Detailed Economic Assessment of Anaerobic Digestion Technology and its Suitability to UK Farming and Waste Systems, prepared for the National Non-food Crops Centre, Defra funded project, NNFCC 08/006, April. Barber WPF (2014): Influence of Wastewater Treatment on Sludge Production and Processing. Water and Environment Journal, 28, 1, pp 1–10. Chen Y, Cheng JJ & Creamer KS (2008): Inhibition of Anaerobic Digestion Process: A Review, Bioresource Technology, 99, pp 4044–4064. Fountoulakis MS, Petousi I & Manios T (2010): Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge with Glycerol to Boost Biogas Production. Waste Management, 30, 10, pp 1849–1853.

Figure 4. Sankey diagrams showing flow of COD during digestion of sludge and glycerol based on the results of this study. Figure 4a) for 1% addition; Figure 4b) for 2% addition. Key: green = glycerol COD; red = sludge COD. study implies that the benefits of glycerol addition could potentially be greater than observed here. Furthermore, the literature available presents conflicting advice on loading rates possible before failure occurs. Both this study and the literature (Hutňan et al., 2009) highlight the fragility of anaerobic digestion to glycerol overloading, with potential for catastrophic failure. From this study, glycerol is a good candidate as a supplement to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge when fed at a rate of 2% by volume or approximately 40% by load. However, more work is needed to fully understand the potential of glycerol addition on anaerobic digestion performance.

THE AUTHORS Dr William (Bill) Barber (email Bill.Barber@aecom. com) works on global biosolids projects within AECOM’s Technical Practice Network, and is currently based in Maryland, US. Shona Fitzgerald (email: shona.fitzgerald@ sydneywater.com.au) is a Scientist at Sydney Water with a particular interest in treatment processes and resource recovery.

Marcia Dawson (email: marcia.dawson@sydneywater. com.au) is Strategic Analyst at Sydney Water. She has 10 years’ experience in the water industry, covering best practice planning, demand forecasting, codigestion research and analytics. Sarah Vierboom (email: sarah.vierboom @sydneywater.com.au) is a Senior Technical Specialist in Sydney Water’s Energy and Eco-efficiency team. Her role focuses on driving the organisation’s Energy Efficiency Management Program, assessing energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors wish to thank a large number of internal and external stakeholders who have contributed to Sydney Water’s Digester Research Program at its various stages. In particular, we would like to acknowledge Long Nghiem and Patrick Manassa from the University of Wollongong and Babu Gomes, Derek Van Rys, Glenn Austin, Tung Nguyen, Tony Williamson, Bondi WWTP production offices, Wayne Jackson, Phil Woods, Brendan Galway and Nicola Nelson from Sydney Water.

Holm-Nielsen JB, Lomborg CJ, OleskowiczPopiel P & Esbensen KH (2008): On-Line Near Infrared Monitoring of GlycerolBoosted Anaerobic Digestion Processes: Evaluation of Process Analytical Technologies. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 99, 2, pp 302–313. Hutňan M, Kolesárová N, Bodík I, Špalková V & Lazor M (2009): Possibilities of Anaerobic Treatment of Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production. Proceedings of the 36th International Conference of the Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, Paper 156. Lee K, Winter P, Farrow J & Pearce P (2008): Digestibility of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production, 13th European Biosolids & Organic Resources Conference & Workshop, Manchester, UK. Pavlostathis SG & Giraldo-Gomez E (1991): Kinetics of Anaerobic Treatment, Water Science & Technology, 24, 8, pp 35–59. Razaviarani V, Buchanan ID, Malik S & Katalambula H (2013): Pilot Scale Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Municipal Wastewater Sludge with Biodiesel Waste Glycerin. Bioresource Technology, 133, p 206. Viana MB, Freitas AV, Leitão RC & Santaella ST (2011): Anaerobic Biodegradability, Methane Production Potential and Toxicity of the Glycerol Generated on Biodiesel Industry, 10th Latin American Workshop and Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion, Ouro Preto, Brazil. Viana MB, Freitas AV, Leitão RC, Pinto GAS & Santaella ST (2012): Anaerobic Digestion of Crude Glycerol: A Review, Environmental Technology Reviews, 1, 1, pp 81–92. Weng CN & Jeris JS (1976): Biochemical Mechanisms in the Methane Fermentation of Glutamic and Oleic Acids. Water Research, 10, pp 9–18.

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URBAN WATER REGULATION IN AUSTRALIA: WHERE ARE WE NOW? A summary of the current status of urban water regulation, some of the risks identified around the reform agenda, and the role of the shareholder in driving cost reductions M Black

Recent commentary on the state of reform in the water sector has recognised that progress in achieving the objectives set out in the 2004 National Water Initiative and the COAG Water Reform Framework of 1994 has been slow1. Among other things, these agreements set out a commitment from Australian governments to competition reforms including implementing best practice (i.e. cost-reflective) pricing, and the establishment of independent economic regulation via the separation of regulatory roles from policy-making and ownership functions of government. In this paper, we provide a summary of the current state of play of regulation of the urban water sector, highlight some risks concerning the disparate nature of the reform agenda across Australia, and consider the importance of the role of the shareholder in driving cost reductions.

THE CURRENT STATE OF PLAY Institutional arrangements and regulatory settings across Australian states and territories vary significantly, as do the directions of reforms being contemplated and currently underway: • South Australia and Tasmania are transitioning to arrangements involving price setting by their respective independent economic regulators;

WATER PRICING

• Queensland is transitioning towards a ‘light-handed’ price monitoring approach where detailed cost reviews occur only where prices exceed predefined benchmarks; • The Victorian Government has undertaken a review of economic

regulation, with preliminary findings recommending a stronger role from Government and removing the price setting role from the ESC; • The ACT has introduced a process for more frequent updates of key inputs to the price path to manage risks committed under its existing independent price setting approach. Table 1 provides a high-level summary of the current regulatory frameworks for the urban water sector in Australia. In the following sections we discuss current arrangements and the various reforms in so far as they relate to achievement of the goals of the NWI and COAG Water Reform Framework with respect to economic regulation of the water sector.

INTRODUCING INDEPENDENT PRICE REGULATION AND THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN SETTING PRICES One of the cornerstones of the national competition reforms of the 1990s was the structural separation of the roles of government as an owner and regulator of utilities. As the majority of water businesses and assets remain in public ownership, enshrining the independence of economic regulators is crucial in ‘de-politicising’ the water sector and ensuring that services are delivered to customers efficiently. Only the Western Australian and Northern Territory Governments are yet to relinquish their roles in setting water prices, with South Australia and Tasmania recently introducing independent pricesetting arrangements. However, even in those jurisdictions where independent

regulators notionally oversee price setting, governments may still exert a substantial influence over price setting and cost recovery arrangements via the use of Ministerial Directions and Terms of Reference for reviews. For example: • In its Pricing Orders for the first full and independent price determination for the 2013-15 regulatory period, the South Australian Treasurer specified the form of price control, initial regulatory asset base values, and annual water demand to be adopted by ESCOSA in determining the efficient revenue requirement for SA Water2; • The ACT Treasurer’s Terms of Reference for the ICRC’s 2013 determination included requirements for the ICRC to consider adopting an approach to cost recovery where customers would not have to pay for water security assets unless they were put to use, and regulatory models that minimised the impact of price fluctuations3; • In Victoria, independent regulation has been in place since 2004 and price reviews are conducted under the auspices of a long-standing statutory instrument (the Water Industry Regulatory Order). However, in 2008, in response to prolonged drought and concerns about cost of living pressures, the Government stepped in to set prices for 2008–09 and further decreed an upper limit on price increases in Melbourne for the five-year period to July 20134. In 2014, the Government’s Fairer Water Bill’s initiative and Independent Review of the regulatory framework (findings of which included the proposed removal the price setting role from the ESC) have raised

See for example, Commonwealth of Australia (2014): Competition Policy Review – Draft Report, September; National Water Commission (2014) – Australia’s Water Blueprint: National Reform Assessment 2014; and Productivity Commission (2011): Australia’s Urban Water Sector, Report No. 55, Final Inquiry Report. 2 Pricing Orders made by the Treasurer on 24 September 2012 and 17 May 2013. 3 ICRC (2013): Final Report – Regulated Water and Sewerage Services, June. 4 ESC (2009): Metropolitan Melbourne Water Price Review 2008-09 – Final Decision, June. 1

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Table 1. Summary of current economic regulatory frameworks for the urban water sector in Australia. Australian Capital Territory

New South Wales

Northern Territory

Regulator

ICRC

IPART

Regulated urban businesses

ACTEW

Queensland

South Australia

Tasmania

Western Australia

Victoria

Utilities Commission

QCA

ESCOSA

OTTER

ERA

ESC

Sydney Water, Sydney Catchment Authority, Hunter Water, Gosford & Wyong Councils

Power and Water Corporation

Unitywater, QUU, Gold Coast, Logan and Redland Councils

SA Water

TasWater

Prices set by independent regulator

Prices set by independent regulator

Prices set by the Regulatory Minister (Treasurer). The Utilities Commission has a monitoring role

Prices set by the businesses. The QCA is to have a monitoring role

Prices set by independent regulator

Prices set by independent regulator

Instrument

Ministerial reference (Terms of Reference issued by the ACT Treasurer)

Legislative requirement under the IPART Act

Ministerial reference (Pricing Order, pursuant to s.35 of the Water Industry Act 2012)

Statutory Ministerial Statutory Document reference document (section 36 of (Terms of (section 8 of the Economic Reference Water Industry Regulator Act under section Regulatory 2009) 32 of the Order) Economic Regulation Act 2003)

Typical regulatory period

6 years (price path set for 2 years)

4 years

Cost recovery arrangements

Full efficient Price set for Prices under Unitywater, Tariffs diverge Below full cost recovery full efficient cost-reflective QUU, Logan from efficient cost recovery, with a ‘firm cost recovery levels, Water and costs due as OTTER set specific’ with a however Gold Coast to CSO limits on price WACC and market-based difficult to Water were payments increases extended WACC assess given forecast to from in the first period to consolidated under-recover Government regulatory recover cost reporting. efficient to SA Water period to of water costs, while to cover manage Power security Redland crosscustomer and Water investments Water was subsidies impacts Corporation projected between receives CSO to exceed regional payments for efficient costs and urban uniform tariff customers policy

Price-setting responsibility

questions regarding the independence of the regulatory process5.

5 6

1 year

1–2 years

3 years

Pricing Orders, cautioned against the Treasurer specifying matters of regulatory detail in pricing orders in future determinations6. However, letting go of the perceived safety net provided by the government’s ability to direct and control the prices of essential services

3 years

Prices set by Government, the ERA has an advisory role

3 years

Prices set by independent regulator

3–5 years

Government Price set for sets price full efficient increases cost recovery (ERA has with a marketnoted that based WACC it considers prices to be above efficient costs). CSO payments from Government fund uniform pricing policy

is a difficult and tenuous process. As recognised by ESCOSA, for jurisdictions transitioning towards independent price-setting arrangements (as in South Australia and Tasmania), government intervention to manage price impacts on customers can be critical in obtaining

NWC (2014): National Water Commission (2014) – Australia’s Water Blueprint: National Reform Assessment 2014. ESCOSA (2013): SA Water’s Water and Sewerage Revenues: Final Determination – Statement of Reasons.

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This type of interference in the work of independent regulators typically grieves economists – in its final report, ESCOSA, while recognising the transitional nature of the Government’s

Ministerial Ministerial reference reference (Pricing Order (Referral issued under Notice under the Water the QCA Act) Supply and Sewerage Services Act)

Water 4 metropolitan Corporation, and 10 Aqwest & regional urban Busselton businesses Water


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Technical Papers public acceptance for reforms. A key success factor in the Victorian electricity sector reforms of the 1990s was a government-imposed freeze on retail price increases in the years immediately following privatisation. On the other hand, where independent regulators and price-setting processes are well established, the justification for government retaining powers to direct and influence ostensibly independent processes and outcomes via Ministerial directions and pricing orders is less clear.

COST RECOVERY AND COST-REFLECTIVE PRICING The importance of customers paying prices that reflect the costs of delivering services is a well-established tenet of economic efficiency, providing the dual function of promoting efficiency in production and consumption of scarce resources. This principle is enshrined in the NWI, which requires that prices be set to recover the full efficient cost of service provision7. As shown in Table 1, recovery of efficient costs of providing water services varies significantly across jurisdictions; and deviations from the principles of full cost recovery and cost-reflective pricing appear to be relatively widespread. This is due to a range of factors, including historical pricing practices, Community Service Obligation (CSO) arrangements, and specific requirements set by governments for pricing and cost recovery set out in Ministerial Directions, Terms of Reference and Pricing Orders. For example:

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• The Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia maintain significant CSO payments to their respective utilities to support uniform pricing policies. While revenue (including CSO payments) collected by the respective water businesses in each jurisdiction may reflect the full costs of service provision, pricing structures suffer from lack of adherence to principles of cost-reflectivity; • According to the QCA, all but one of South-East Queensland’s water businesses have consistently earned less than their efficient revenue requirements. However, we note that these revenue benchmarks have been determined without reference to 7

service levels, so it is not clear whether lower prices are the result of productivity gains or have come at the expense of service delivery; • In Tasmania, under-recovery of revenue and the myriad of different (and often inefficient) pricing structures across former council-based pricing areas have been key drivers of reforms. Recognising that these issues will take a considerable amount of time to resolve, and also the novelty of independent price setting in the water sector in Tasmania, in its first determination in 2012, OTTER implemented an approach of transitioning towards full cost recovery over time, managing price impacts on customers by constraining price increases while generating (at a minimum) sufficient revenues to ensure financial viability of the businesses. One of the key challenges posed by the presence of under-recovery of costs from customers, whether under CSO arrangements or for other reasons, is that businesses may find it easier (and more profitable) to lobby the Government to maintain or increase subsidies (or reduce dividends) rather than to seek out cost reductions.

LENGTH OF REGULATORY PERIODS AND FREQUENCY OF REVIEWS The key mechanisms by which regulatory frameworks can provide incentives for businesses to reduce costs and improve efficiency and productivity are those which allow prices to diverge from costs, and businesses to retain some or all of the benefits from efficient cost reductions. These properties are primarily driven by: 1.

The length of the regulatory period and the frequency of price reviews or re-sets; and

2.

The extent to which adjustments to prices to reflect actual cost outcomes are allowed.

In deciding on these conditions, regulators must strike a balance between providing incentives for efficiency and not exposing businesses to excessive revenue risk, while taking into account the costs imposed by more frequent adjustments and administrative reviews. However, there is no hard and fast rule for what constitutes an appropriate

balance between these factors, and ultimately the decision is a somewhat arbitrary one. IPART in NSW and the ESC in Victoria have tended towards increasing the length of time between regulatory price re-sets, with decisions now typically made every four to five years. Recent initiatives taken by the ESC and IPART to support their longer regulatory periods involve conducting explicit assessments of the implications of decisions on financial viability of the regulated businesses. Enhancing the information available to the regulator on financial viability implications of decisions could provide more confidence to the regulator in pressing for efficiency improvements. On the other hand, the recent reforms in the ACT and Queensland have seen regulators err on the side of caution in relation to the length of the regulatory period and opportunities for re-basing costs and price paths. The ICRC’s 2013 determination provides for biennial assessments of key cost inputs and re-setting of the price path every two years, while in South-East Queensland businesses may apply for a review of costs and the price path on an annual basis. Individual circumstances, such as the maturity of the regulatory framework and business-specific risks concerning future costs and revenues, may justify a longer or shorter review period. Nevertheless, it is surprising to see such a wide divergence of approaches across Australian jurisdictions on this fundamental property of the regulatory framework. While we note that the approaches taken in the ACT and South-East Queensland are intended to ensure that regulators are able to keep a close and constant eye on costs of service (managing both risks to business viability and price increases), there is a risk that businesses are provided with strong incentives to lobby the regulator to pass-through increased costs of doing business and very limited incentives to seek out efficiency gains.

PRICE MONITORING AND THE ROLE OF THE SHAREHOLDER The Productivity Commission’s 2011 Inquiry into Australia’s Urban Water Sector recommended a move from regulatory price setting to a price monitoring regime, which it considered would suffice to prevent the misuse

NWC (2011): The National Water Initiative – Securing Australia’s Water Future: 2011 Assessment, September p77.

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Technical Papers of market power (if combined with appropriate governance arrangements)8. The Productivity Commission’s recommendations were based on its views that pricing outcomes in the water sector to date suggest that water businesses have not exerted market power, and that the costs of price monitoring will be significantly less than price determination. Following an investigation into a long-term regulatory framework for the South-East Queensland water sector, the QCA has taken up the Productivity Commission view and recommended a price monitoring regulatory framework that monitors retailers’ performance against various price and service quality benchmarks and indicators. Price monitoring would normally not in itself provide substantial incentives for efficiency; rather, price-monitoring approaches can be adopted where competitive forces are perceived to provide adequate incentives for businesses to strive for efficiency. The QCA’s approach, and the Productivity Commission’s recommendations, appear to be based on the view that incentives for efficient behaviour can be achieved entirely via appropriate governance arrangements (it has not been suggested that the water sector is competitive or that there is sufficient countervailing buyer power to keep pricing in check under a price monitoring regime). However, it is clear that the governance of public utilities in Australia has not delivered on this requirement to date. Despite a relatively tight regulatory framework, it is widely recognised that the NSW electricity distribution sector has been characterised by significant over-spending and inefficiency, particularly in relation to labour costs entrenched in EBAs well above prevailing industry rates. The CEO of Networks NSW recently commented on inefficient practices across the sector:

Regardless of the approach to setting prices, in the absence of clear and effective pressure from the shareholder for businesses to strive to meet and outperform the efficiency targets embodied in pricing decisions (and pass on those benefits in terms of dividends to the shareholder or reduced prices to consumers), stringent targets will simply result in worsening financial outcomes, lower dividends and, in the long-run, higher prices for customers.

RE-INVIGORATING THE NATIONAL REFORM AGENDA It is encouraging to see governments and regulators pro-actively tackling a variety of reform issues in their respective jurisdictions. However, the disparate nature of current approaches and reforms creates a risk that the hardwon reforms of the last decade might be over-turned with a regression from independent price setting to models that enshrine government influence on pricing decisions. We note that AWA, the Harper Review, the National Water Commission and others have called for consideration of a national approach to water regulation. For example, the Harper Review’s draft report concluded that: “A more national approach to water reform may re-establish its momentum. An intergovernmental agreement founded on the assumption that a national framework is both achievable and desirable may clear some roadblocks. A consistent national framework may also assist in driving competition into the retailing of water and in creating more effective price signals11.” At the inaugural AWA National Water Policy Summit the AWA also called for a nationally consistent approach to regulation and measures to reduce political interference in the decisions and roles of state regulators and water

utilities12. We agree that re-committing to a national reform agenda consistent with national competition reform principles is a critical step in: • Re-instating momentum for reforms where they have stalled or been slow; • Curtailing the temptation for governments to intervene in price setting and cost recovery for political reasons. Further, it is important that the regulatory framework is seen as part of a holistic approach to driving performance in the sector that includes the role of the shareholder – regulation alone cannot deliver efficiency improvements if supporting governance arrangements are not in place. The regulatory model assumes that boards and management will press for efficient cost reductions against regulatory benchmarks, but this is not a fait accompli, particularly when businesses are government-owned and, therefore, subject to a range of competing objectives. Boards and management are ultimately responsible to their shareholders, and as such, while the water sector remains mainly in public hands, governments have a key role to play in driving industry efficiency. In addition to clear and stable regulatory frameworks, we consider that this is best achieved via an overarching ‘profit maximisation’ objective to instil private sector disciplines in government-owned businesses – while profit maximisation is often associated with negative outcomes for consumers (i.e. price gouging), we believe that it is fundamental to achieving efficient cost reductions and productivity, and does not necessarily imply price increases.

THE AUTHOR Michael Black (email: mblack@deloitte.com.au) is a Director with Deloitte Access Economics, where he has contributed to the design and implementation of regulatory frameworks in the water, ports and energy sectors in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. Prior to joining Deloitte in 2008, Michael worked in the water division of the Essential Services Commission (Victoria).

Productivity Commission (2011): Australia’s Urban Water Sector, Report No. 55, Final Inquiry Report. Graham, V (2014): “Selling Off Electricity Networks Will Give NSW Cheaper Power Bills”, The Australian, 20 August. 10 Independent Review (2014): Economic Regulation, Governance and Efficiency in the Victorian Water Sector – Preliminary Advice from the Independent Reviewer, May. 11 Commonwealth of Australia (2014): Competition Policy Review – Draft Report, September. 12 AWA Media Release (2014): Water Industry Picks Up What Government Lets Go, October. 8 9

DECEMBER 2014 WATER

WATER PRICING

Public ownership, politically powerful unions and amenable management have all combined to deliver union agreements that drive higher labour costs … entrenching unproductive and uncompetitive work practices9.

Similarly, in the Victorian water sector, the Independent Review found that the shareholder’s lack of emphasis on performance of the government-owned corporations has resulted in inefficiencies in the sector10.


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Water Business

water business WATER INFRASTRUCTURE GROUP PROJECT WINS SUSTAINABILITY AWARDS Water Infrastructure Group’s contributions to sustainability and environmental protection have been recognised with award wins at the Banksia Sustainability Awards and Victorian Premier’s Sustainability Awards. The Barwon Water Biosolids Management Project was the winner of the 2014 Banksia Sustainable Water Management Award and the 2014 Premier’s Environmental Protection Award. The biosolids drying facility was delivered as a public-private partnership, developed and financed by Plenary Environment for Barwon Water. It was designed, built and is now operated by Water Infrastructure Group. Peter Everist, Water Infrastructure Group Strategic Growth and Marketing Director, said the project introduced a new technology to Australia to deliver a large-scale, sustainable solution for urban biosolids. “The small-footprint, fully enclosed thermal drying facility produces very dry pellets that are safe to handle, easy to transport and can be reused as a soil conditioner immediately after processing using standard farm fertiliser spreaders,” Mr Everist said. Barwon Water Managing Director, Joe Adamski, said the corporation was delighted the project had been recognised. “The biosolids drying facility provides an environmentally sustainable, longterm solution for biosolids produced at Black Rock and Barwon Water’s smaller water reclamation plants. Since beginning operation, the facility has resulted in a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and cut heavy truck movements by 1,000 a year.”

water DECEMBER 2014

The inclusion of the CMC ensures a smooth and consistent delivery of a known TS concentration to digesters, promoting efficient operation and reducing operation costs. Further, by measuring real time and carefully increasing TS concentrations, plants may reduce the total volume of biosolids being pumped and/or handled, significantly saving on pumping costs and expensive chemicals.

The biosolids facility provides a model for Australia for sustainable biosolids management to address the environmental issues associated with biosolids stockpiling, disposal and reuse. The $76 million drying facility can treat 60,000 tonnes of biosolids a year. It is the first of its kind in Australia and the largest of its type in the southern hemisphere. Short movies about the project are available on the Water Infrastructure Group YouTube channel: www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLbvv u7Ylm926IdbMIm6L0V5CJFqgRccKC

CMC MICROWAVE METER FROM CERLIC CONTROLS Cerlic Controls has released the new CMC microwave meter. Utilising the True-Phase Shift measuring principle, this microwave sensor is designed to accurately measure the total solids (TS) concentration of sludge or biosolids in water and wastewater treatment processes as high as 300,000mg/l (30% TS). The microwave TS-meter with True-Phase technology provides rapid response times, which means the continuous output is not affected by the sludge flow rate, changing sludge colour or consistency. For dewatered, digested or primary sludge high in fats and/ or grease, microwave technology is by far the most accurate and reliable sensing approach. By mounting the two ceramic antennas at an angle within the pipe section, Cerlic prevents microwave reflections. This provides better accuracy and stability than existing microwave meters. The angled antenna surfaces of the CMC also promote selfcleaning, while single point calibration (up to 10 points if desired) ensures the configuration is as simple as the other Cerlic sludge sensors. The sensor provides a continuous 4-20mA (or HART) signal for both TS and sludge temperature. With no moving parts, the ruggedly built sensor is designed to provide maintenance-free operation.

“The reduction of biosolids volume through increasing TS will also eventually reduce transportation costs” says Jennie Björk, Export Manager of Cerlic. “We now have a complete range for online, automated measurement of TSS/TS concentration in the various sludge processes of water and wastewater plants, from as low as 10 mg/L up to 300 000 mg/L (30% TS).” Needing only 100mm of pipe length (faceto-face), the compact CMC is available as a wafer flange in sizes from DN50 to DN300. It is a rugged product without moving parts, designed for a long life and low maintenance. Some other products from Cerlic include: • Sludge Blanket Meter, CBX Detects the blanket and fluff layers by means of a near infrared (NIR) suspended solids sensor. It travels through fluff layers until it finds the preset blanket solids concentration. • Portable Meter, Multitracker A portable instrument for several parameters. Chose your sensor for suspended solids or sludge level. You can easily change sensor by means of a simple contact connection. • Low Suspended Solids Sensor, CTXLC A Low Suspended Solids Sensor for continuous on-line measurement of suspended solids. The sensor has high accuracy for applications with very low consistencies. To be used on final effuent and reuse water applications in municipal and industrial waste water treatment plants.


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water Business GRUNDFOS HAS THE SOLUTION TO IE3 ISSUE Specifiers looking to select a wastewater pump that complies with the IE3 standard for energy efficiency have faced something of a dilemma in recent years. Due to an oversight in drafting, the IE3 premium efficiency standard that applies to singlespeed, three-phase cage and induction motors does not include submersible pumps with integrated motors. Motors that operate completely submerged in a liquid, and those integrated into a product – where the motor cannot be tested independently from the product – are excluded from the standard and its replacement, IE4 super premium efficiency, set to be introduced this year. “Specifiers wanting to choose a model that complies with the IE3 standard haven’t been able to, simply because the standard cannot apply to submersible pumps with integrated motors,” explains Sam Ryder, Grundfos Australia’s Segment Manager (Water Utilities). “The oversight means that pump manufacturers who claim that their wastewater pumps are IE3 compliant are misleading consultants and end users.” This has been a recurrent issue for professional specifiers in the wastewater industry since the introduction of IE3, but Grundfos has come up with a solution. Its

SE1/SEV and SL1/SLV wastewater pumps provide what it claims are the highest levels of total efficiency currently available on the market. They combine intelligent motors, hydraulics and functionality to maximise hydraulic, electrical and mechanical efficiency. Advanced features include intelligent adaptive controls to ensure reliable operation with low energy consumption – and the models incorporate the electrical internals, in other words the rotor and stator, of the IE3 motor, within the pump housing. “These models offer the highest all-round efficiency that is currently available anywhere in the world. And, additionally, the rotors and the stators from the Grundfos IE3 motor are type test certified in accordance with the TEFC motor standard and supported by measurement reports, so, to all intents and purposes, they are IE3 compliant motors.” Grundfos believes that going forward, rather than concentrate purely on motor efficiency, the wastewater industry needs to address total pump efficiency, as defined in the ISO 9906:2012 ‘Performance acceptance test for rotodynamic pumps’ standard, or ANSI/HI 11.6.2012 ‘Performance acceptance test for rotodynamic submersible pumps’ standard. It points out that of equal importance to motor efficiency are the pump’s hydraulics, given that the potential for improving pump efficiency is far greater than improving motor efficiency.

association, and pump manufacturers, the standard consists of seven classifications of energy conservation. With the introduction of such energy labelling for wastewater pumps, end users will be able to compare models and specify the most appropriate pump for their installations. Mr Ryder said: “If this can be achieved for circulator pumps, then it follows that an internationally recognised energy standard can also be produced for wastewater pumps.”

BERMAD WATER TECHNOLOGIES LAUNCHES VIRTUAL CITY Bermad’s ‘virtual city’ is an exciting, interactive resource for the water supply market where users can visualise Bermad products in action. The 3D virtual city, complete with video and animation, is designed to inform customers, giving them a deeper understanding of how our products operate, their capabilities and functionality. Zooming into an area of the ‘city’, users can see typical scenarios of Bermad valves in operation. At BWT, we are committed to sharing our knowledge, expertise and resources to provide you with full support, education and training. If you require further information on the ‘virtual city’ or need training, contact your local sales office. Please go to www.bermad. com.au for more information.

The company says a comprehensive energy standard suited to wastewater pumps could be achievable and points to one that has already been introduced for small circulator pumps where, like wastewater and submersible pumps, the motor and shaft are contained in a single housing and cannot be tested separately. Endorsed by the EU and drawn up Europump, the pump manufacturers’ trade

Field • Laboratory • Process

• Chlorine • Turbidity

Automatic Titrators

Instruments for up to 40 Other Parameters

• pH • DO • EC • Turbidity

Chlorine Analysers

pH/ORP/EC Controllers & Probes

For more information call 03 9769 0666 Fax: 03 9769 0699

Email: sales@hannainst.com.au

Web: www.hannainst.com.au & www.hannachecker.com.au

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Water Business FLOOD CONTROL PUMPS: RENOVATION OF A PUMPING STATION IN THE DUTCH POLDER Flood control is an important issue for the Netherlands as the largest part of its surface area is vulnerable to flooding. Water control boards are the independent local government bodies responsible for maintaining Flood Protection Systems. In the Dutch region of Overijssel the local Water Board governs the water in the agricultural polders. One of their refurbishment projects concerns a pumping station built in the year 1933, which has been designated as a so-called municipal monument. The project started with the installation of temporary pumping equipment, consisting of three new diesel-driven pump units from BBA Pumps. During the renovation these pumps will take over from the pumping station without any loss of capacity, and as such they will guarantee the correct water level. Two BA300K D324 diesel-driven pumps, which together account for a maximum of 46 m3/min, have both been set up next to a big 20² pump set, type BA-C500S11 D711 with a capacity of over 60 m3/min. The pumps have been connected to a modern operating system, making it possible to automatically and independently start and stop them, depending on the volumes of water flowing in from the olders nearby. These super-silent pump units can even continue working during the night, without causing any noise disturbance to the surrounding environment.

The flood control pumps from BBA are very well suited to controlling water levels during heavy rainfalls and to prevent flooding, in addition to acting as a temporary pumping station. For more information please visit www.bbapumps.com

ARE FOOD, BEVERAGE AND PRIMARY PROCESSORS LITERALLY POURING PROFIT DOWN THE DRAIN? Many food, beverage and primary processors in the Australasian and Asia-Pacific region have traditionally viewed their wastewater primarily as a problem that has to be solved to meet local discharge standards. They view investment in wastewater treatment purely as a cost impost required to meet environmental and health standards. Some processors have made the problem even worse – and more expensive to solve – by using their settling ponds and other treatment facilities as a place into which to deposit process failures entrained in their waste streams. This only adds to the investment and energy costs required (for diffuser and other technologies) to get the wastewater up to legal standards for disposal within local regulations. The result of such practices is not only environmental groundwater and discharge hazards, but also increasing community objections from neighbouring residents. Many forward-thinking companies are taking the initiative to search the globe for best practice methods to achieve as close to possible zero waste in their plants, often though prevention of biowaste in the first place and often through re-use of potentially contaminating products into useful forms.

One of the most dramatic but least publicised results of this search for excellence is the installation by hundreds of processing plants around the globe of anaerobic digestion plants to not only remove nutrients (BOD, COD) from their wastewater and solids waste streams, but also to convert the waste itself into biogas (methane) to replace fossil fuels. The best of these technologies not only remove up to 99% or more of organic matter from waste streams, but also provide an ongoing and reliable source of base load green energy for profitable use. Unlike windmills and solar power (which have excellent applications in some situations), this biological source of energy can be tapped on demand to fuel boilers and heat processes, or even to fuel generators to sell electricity back into the local grid (a great advantage in areas of the Asia-Pacific where electricity production can be highly centralised, and major losses may be incurred in transmitting energy across long distances). Companies who sell electricity back to the grid may also earn carbon credits in doing so. This can be a key competitive advantage for companies in industries such as food, beverage and primary production. As a result of their efficiency, anaerobic digestion facilities have been recognised by the United Nations Development Program as one of the most useful decentralised sources of energy supply, as they are less capital-intensive than large power plants. They can also benefit local communities by providing local energy supplies and eliminate the need for large and often smelly and environmentally challenging lagoons. CST Wastewater Solutions is involved in a number of GWE anaerobic installations, ranging from a fully enclosed reactor (tank) type at the Bluetongue brewery near Sydney, to a closed high-rate anaerobic lagoon (COHRAL™) type for Oakey Beef Exports on Queensland’s Darling Downs. This latter installation, scheduled for completion next year, will extract green energy biogas from its wastewater streams to replace millions of dollars worth of natural gas currently consumed at the abattoir. Adoption of the technology is the result of an exhaustive selection process and the committed alliance to the environment of Oakey Beef Exports and its owners Nippon Meat Packers, says the General Manager of Nippon Meat Packers’ Oakey Beef Exports, Pat Gleeson. “We look to reduce our gas usage by 42–50% – so it’s massive. Manufacturing is very tough at the best of times and we always have to be looking for solutions to reduce our costs.”

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water Business waste streams such starch and sugar pulps, vegetable or potato waste,” says Mike Bambridge, Managing Director at CST Wastewater Solutions.

Australian Federal Industry Minister Ian Macfarlane, who opened the Oakey plant this year, agrees – and says other meat plants will follow Oakey. “The economic payback period is quite short, so not only will they make the investment, and do things that are good for the environment, but they’ll actually get their money back quite quickly.” Both the Bluetongue installation and the Oakey are among GWE anaerobic installations that not only clean wastewater to high standards, but also, in scores of instances, transform a process problem into a source of profit by producing green energy. “These technologies that transform waste and wastewater into green energy are eminently applicable to any industry with a biological waste water stream, including particularly food and beverage industries and agro industries with water and pulp

An example of an Asia-Pacific company that converts pulp waste to produce greater quantities of green energy is provided by the Chok Chai Starch tapioca starch plant in Uthai Thani, Thailand. This project is a finalist in the energy category of the prestigious 2014 IChemE global awards, run by the Institution of Chemical Engineers and representing 40,000 members across 120 countries. Chok Chai uses groundbreaking GWE RAPTOR™ anaerobic wastewater technology coupled with ANAMIX™ thermophilic digester for the processing of waste cassava pulp. The RAPTOR™ system greatly reduces an environmental pollution issue by processing and converting to useful green energy the leftover fresh pulp, which starts to ferment once stored. Such rotting organic material can generate considerable odour and release heavily polluted wastewater leaching out of mountainous pulp piles.

HYDROVAR®, the modern variable speed pump drive is taking pumping to a new level of flexibility and efficiency.

Another company to deploy the RAPTOR™ system is the global exporter of processed potato products, Remo-Frit, which has won international acclaim for demonstrating the environmental and economic benefits of converting waste products into green energy. Global Water Engineering Ltd (GWE) built a complete wastewater treatment plant and a RAPTOR™ plant for the solid residues of the Remo-Frit potato processing plant in Verrebroek, Belgium, where Flemish Government Minister, President Kris Peeters, inaugurated the facility in the presence of GWE and Remo-Frit owners and top management. The Flemish Government invested 0.5 million Euro as a grant. Energy savings produced by biogas production at Remo-Frit are achieved in perpetuity, with fossil fuel equivalent savings totaling $US40 million in the first decade at today’s prices. “Like forward-thinking Asia-Pacific companies, Europe’s food and beverage producers are highly focused on minimising waste and making the most of by-products in re-use, recycling and recovery,” says Mike Bambridge.

MECHANICAL PIPE SEAL PREFFERED BY ENGINEERS

Call us to discuss your applications: Melbourne 03 9793 9999 Sydney 02 9671 3666 Brisbane 07 3200 6488

No downtime on curing! Resistant to: Email: info@brownbros.com.au Chemicals, Oil, Gas, Water, Fire Web: www.brownbros.com.au

DELIVERING PUMPING SOLUTIONS

www.projex.com.au (02) 8336 1666

mail@projex.com.au

DECEMBER 2014 water


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Water Business other process automation field devices are interoperable and compatible through an industry standard bus. The current version of Profibus PA includes many functions that simplify the handling of field devices, including the exchange of one field device for another device from a different manufacturer during routine plant upgrades.

“But most industries have not realised the potential of this green energy cash cow because they have mainly been focusing on treating their effluent to meet local discharge standards at the lowest possible investment costs. By doing so, wastewater treatment installations have only generated additional operating costs and have never been seen as revenue generators. “Applying anaerobic wastewater treatment sheds a whole different light on the cost structure of wastewater treatment infrastructure. It can now become a substantial additional source of income for many factories and processing plants throughout the AsiaPacific and throughout the world.”

The ST100 Flow Meter with Profibus PA gives wastewater plant engineers excellent device flexibility while providing superior accuracy and reliability in harsh environments. Profibus PA communication facilitates plant system retrofits through a seamless integration process for new field devices including flow meters, which saves time and money. The ST100 meter’s insertion style configuration makes it a simple drop-in replacement where older technology meters were installed previously in wastewater plants. With the ST100 meter, engineers and technicians can easily manage multiple fluid flow process variables and configure the meter remotely from the safety of the control room.

FCI ST100 AERATION FLOW METER SIMPLIFIES WASTEWATER PLANT UPGRADE PROCESS

Whether the need is for Profibus, Fieldbus, HART or Modbus, 4-20 mA analogue, frequency/pulse, or alarm relays, the ST100 Flow meter is the versatile communication solution. If a plant’s communication needs change, the ST100 meter adapts with a plug-in card replacement that can be changed out in the field.

Wastewater treatment plant engineers searching for a solution to flow measurement in aeration basins that is Profibus PA compatible will find Fluid Components International’s precision ST100 Thermal Mass Flow Meter provides superior accuracy combined with digital bus communication flexibility to reduce airflow energy costs.

The ST100 Flow Meter’s unique graphical, multivariable, backlit LCD display/readout brings new meaning to the term “process information”. It provides the industry’s most comprehensive information with continuous display of all process measurements and alarm status, and the ability to interrogate for service diagnostics.

In municipal wastewater plants, the activated sludge treatment method requires the pumping of compressed air into aeration basins where a diffuser system ensures the air is distributed evenly for optimum treatment. Flow meters are typically installed in the system piping to help monitor the air that is released into the basins.

The user-friendly ST100 stores up to five unique calibration groups to accommodate broad flow ranges, differing mixtures of the same gas and multiple gases, and obtains up to 1000:1 turndown. Also standard is an on-board data logger with an easily accessible, removable 2-GB micro-SD memory card capable of storing 21 million readings.

For more information please visit www. cstwastewater.com

Precisely controlling the airflow is necessary to promote the growth of the micro-organisms that treat the wastewater and to reduce compressed air energy costs. The advanced ST100 Flow Meter is ideal for this task because of the meter’s accurate performance over a wide flow range, ease of installation, low-maintenance requirements and digital bus communications versatility, including Profibus PA compatibility. Digital bus communications such as Profibus PA bus ensure flow meters and

water DECEMBER 2014

The ST100 can be calibrated to measure virtually any process gas, including wet gas, mixed gases and dirty gases. The basic insertion style air/gas meter features a thermal flow sensing element that measures flow from 0.07 NMPS to 305 NMPS with accuracy of ±0.75% of reading, ±0.5% of full scale. Designed for rugged industrial processes and plants, ST100 Flow Meters include service up to 454°C and are available

with both integral and remote up to 300 meters electronics versions. The ST100 has the industry’s most comprehensive set of instrument approvals. The ST100 is approved for hazardous environments, including the entire instrument, the transmitter and the rugged, NEMA 4X/IP67 rated enclosure. Approvals include: SIL 1, ATEX, IECEx, FM, FMc, CPA, Inmetro, GOST-R and more. For more information please visit www.ams-ic.com.au

SCADAPACK 500E SERIES RTU/RPAC, COMBINES THE POWER OF A PAC WITH THE VERSATILITY OF AN RTU By combining the functionalities of an RTU and a PAC, the SCADAPack 500E series rPACs allow operators of remote assets in the oil and gas, water and wastewater, and renewable energy industries to monitor and control assets through a single device. Maintain crucial and dependable communications in harsh, dispersed environments. One of the outstanding features of the SCADAPack 500E series rPACs is the increase in execution speed. It is fitted with a 32-bit processor sequenced at 500 MHz and more than 250 MB of high-performing memory. This allows the SCADAPack 500E to be at least 20 times faster than a standard RTU, while still able to be powered from solar panels, batteries or wind turbines. SCADAPack 500E series rPACs use open standards and programming environments to provide outstanding flexibility and versatility. Using a 20,000-point database and various open standard telemetry and industrial protocols, it can connect with up to 29 active SCADA masters, 100 remote/local slave devices and 100 remote Distributed Network Protocol (DNP) devices in peer-to-peer configuration. A data concentrator and protocol converter in each rPAC allows devices to communicate whether using DNP3, Modbus or DF1 protocols. Benefits include: • Reduced Total Cost of Ownership for today’s needs and for future evolution; • Enhanced security and reliability of remote operation; • Increase I/O capabilities without the need of a separate PAC. For more information please contact Schneider Electric on 1300 369 233.


CRS ENVITUBE DEWATERING CONTAINERS

Traditional methods of dewatering industrial and municipal high water content sludges involve the use of expensive operating and captial cost equipment such as centrifuges and belt presses. The alternative is passive dewatering using CRS Envitube Dewatering Containers made from woven polypropylene geotextile. Sludge can be fed from storage ponds or directly from the process / digesters, using lower dosage rates of polymers and producing exceptional quality filtrate. Depending upon the length of time sludge remains within the CRS Envitube units to dry, solids of > 45% w/w can be achieved, as with water treatment sludges.

Profile for australianwater

Water Journal December 2014  

This issue features a great range of topical themes such as the Debate About Dams, Water Pricing, Freshwater Governance, Water In Agricultur...

Water Journal December 2014  

This issue features a great range of topical themes such as the Debate About Dams, Water Pricing, Freshwater Governance, Water In Agricultur...