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Volume 40 No 2 APRIL 2013
Journal of the Australian Water Association
Green Cities And Integrated Urban Water Management Identifying the key challenges that need to be addressed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; see page 52
PLUS > Automation & Telemetry > Greenhouse Gas Emissions > Catchment Management
Contents regular features From the AWA President
Changing The World... One Day At A Time Lucia Cade
From the AWA Chief Executive
What Did The Easter Bunny Bring? Tom Mollenkopf
Crosscurrent 8 18
Industry News AWA Young Water Professionals
Paradise Lost? A Letter From Thailand Jo Greene
The Rise And Rise Of Metacities Emma Pryor, MWH Global
New Products and Services
special features Diving With A Difference
Commercial Diving In The Mining Sector Antony Old
Monitoring Biodigesters In Cambodia: A Week In The Field Gabrielle McGill
Transforming Our Cities
Tackling Skills Shortages To Meet The Challenges Ahead Brian McIntosh, Tim Beckenham, Michael Yule and Mark Pascoe
10 Key Integrated Water Management Challenges Rob Skinner and Jamie Ewert
Revolutionising Urban Water Management
volume 40 no 2
The CRC-WSC’s Vision For A Water-Sensitive City Ana Deletic, Anas Ghadouani, Jurg Keller and Tony Wong
Outcome Of The 2012 International Water Sensitive Cities Tour Greg Ingleton 72 Where Are We Headed In Catchment Management? The Ongoing Evolution And Emerging Trends James Patterson and Carla Billington
An Eight-Element Approach
Hunter Water Corporation’s Water Quality Management Methodology Rhys Blackmore and Declan Clausen 83
Source Protection: The WA Experience
Michelle Vojtisek, Clairly Lance, Hew Merrett and Andrew Bath
Applying Evaluation Practices In Tuggerah Lakes Estuary Developing A Sound Estuarine Evaluation Process Helen Watts, Matthew Barnett, Nicole McGaharan, Angela Halcrow and David Ryan
technical papers Cover An integrated approach to urban water design and management, addressing key challenges such as skills shortages, and early engagement with industry, government and community are essential to achieve sustainable ‘green cities’.
MANAGING EDITOR – Anne Lawton Tel: 02 9467 8434 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org TECHNICAL EDITOR – Chris Davis Email: email@example.com
My Point of View
Now That The Drought Has Broken... Tony Wong
CREATIVE DIRECTOR – Mike Wallace Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ADVERTISING SALES MANAGER – Kirsti Couper Tel: 02 9467 8408 (Mob) 0417 441 821 Email: email@example.com NATIONAL MANAGER – PUBLISHING – Wayne Castle Email: firstname.lastname@example.org CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER – Tom Mollenkopf EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT – Despina Hasapis Email: email@example.com EDITORIAL BOARD Frank R Bishop (Chair); Dr Bruce Anderson, AECOM; Dr Terry Anderson, Consultant SEWL; Graham Bateman, CH2M HILL; Dr Andrew Bath, Water Corporation; Michael Chapman, GHD; Wilf Finn, Norton Rose Australia; Robert Ford, Central Highlands Water (rtd); Ted Gardner (rtd); Antony Gibson, Orica Watercare; Dr Lionel Ho, AWQC, SA Water; Dr Brian Labza, Dept Health WA; Dr Robbert van Oorschot, GHD; John Poon, CH2M Hill; David Power, BECA Consultants; Dr Ashok Sharma, CSIRO. PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, April, May, June, August, September, November and December. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org for a copy of our 2013 Editorial Calendar. EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Acceptance of editorial submissions is at the discretion of the Editors and Editorial Board. • Technical Papers & Technical Features: Chris Davis, Technical Editor, email: email@example.com AND firstname.lastname@example.org Technical Paper Submission Guidelines Technical Papers should be 3,000–4,000 words long and accompanied by relevant graphics, tables and images. For more detailed submission guidelines please email: email@example.com • General Feature Articles, Industry News, Opinion Pieces & Media Releases: Anne Lawton, Managing Editor, email: firstname.lastname@example.org General Feature Submission Guidelines General Features should be 1,500–2,000 words and accompanied by relevant graphics, tables and images. For more details please email: email@example.com • Water Business & Product News: Kirsti Couper, Advertising Sales Manager, email: firstname.lastname@example.org ADVERTISING Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water sector and the objectives of AWA. PUBLISHER Australian Water Association (AWA) Publishing, Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, PO Box 222, St Leonards NSW 1590; Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 or 1300 361 426, Fax: +61 2 9436 0155, Email: email@example.com, Web: www.awa.asn.au COPYRIGHT Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without the written permission of AWA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assumes no responsibility for opinions or statements of fact expressed by contributors or advertisers.
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Come see us at OzWater! Grab a FREE coffee from our stand and learn more about the projects we’ve been working on and how they’re aligned with our vision of being the leading sustainable infrastructure solutions, services and delivery partner. Michael will be presenting on the Yarra Park Water Recycling Facility project. Details are as below: Class A Recycled Water Underground at the Melbourne Cricket Ground - The Yarra Park Water Recycling Facility By Michael Gelman – 10:45am - 11:45am, Thursday 9 May 2013
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Tenix has designed and built, and is now operating, Victoria’s largest standalone underground Water Recycling Facility - in Yarra Park, adjacent to the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). The $22m scheme, funded by the Melbourne Cricket Club ($16 million) and the Victorian Government ($6 million), treats sewage from the local sewerage network to ‘Class A’ recycled water standards to irrigate the heritage-listed park and nearby Punt Road Oval, as well as for cleaning and toilet-flushing at the MCG. The plant is able to produce over 600 kilolitres of recycled water per day. As one of the first of its type in Victoria, the Tenix-designed recycling facility has been built underground, out of public view, without taking way from valuable surface land use or park amenity. Key Features The recycled water treatment process consists of screening and grit removal, biological treatment of the sewage and chemical addition for phosphate removal, filtration via membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems, and disinfection via ultraviolet (UV) and chlorination. The underground plant has a trafficable roof, and architecturally designed entry and egress with a box lift and chemical unloading area. Associated infrastructure on the inlet side includes
the sewer connection, diversion structure/ chamber, a 13-metre by 4.8-metre (diameter) pumping station and a rising main. Other infrastructure includes the connections into the MCG under the concourse to a pre-existing storage tank, and to Punt Road storage as well as a pump station and sludge return gravity line downstream of the sewerage take-off. The MCC and their partners were keen to ensure that the design, construction and operation of the plant minimise any impact on the park, its users and other stakeholders including residents, regulatory authorities and members. The MCC also wished to retain the aesthetics of the existing parkland and maintain the availability of parking. Our Role Tenix’s in-house engineering team worked collaboratively with the MCC and their partners to ensure that all project requirements were met and also developed a number of technical and operational improvements to the original plant concept. Tenix provided the process, mechanical, civil, electrical, instrumentation and control design (including 3D modelling), and construction (including earthworks), commissioning, coding for plc/SCADA, and validation for Class A. For more information visit www.tenix.com
Sustainability The recycled water will be used for cleaning and toilet flushing at the MCG and will reduce its reliance on potable water by 50 per cent and remove it from the list of Melbourne’s top 100 water users.
Innovation Tenix introduced a number of technical and operational improvements to the original plant concept and employed innovative construction techniques to improve safety and minimise disruption to stakeholders and the environment.
From the President
CHANGING THE WORLD… ONE DAY AT A TIME Lucia Cade – AWA President
March was a month that was bookended by “days”: International Women’s Day on the 8th and World Water Day on the 22nd. In taking in the events and commentary around each day, I found myself thinking about their origins, what need underpinned their establishment. The following disparity struck me: women bear a disproportionate share of the burden when water resource development is poor. It is they who walk for hours to source water for their families and they who suffer the most through lack of safe access to safe water and sanitation. By contrast, women are under-represented in the leadership of water in the developed world. In the water industry in Australia, with a few outstanding exceptions, we are still overwhelmingly male at the top levels in most government, utility and private sector organisations. Since 1993, World Water Day has focused attention on the importance of freshwater and the sustainable management of freshwater resources. The sustainable harnessing and allocation of water to provide safe and reliable access to water for daily use and to support food production and allow economic growth has been a key pre-requisite of all civilisations over time. This is increasingly important as we become more urbanised on every continent. International Women’s Day has been celebrated on 8 March since 1913 and has developed into a day of both celebration of women’s achievements and a reminder that women still struggle in many regions and societies. Kusum Athukorala, Chair of the Sri Lanka Water Partnership, has done some impactful work with rural women in Sri Lanka, assisting them to develop
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irrigation infrastructure in their villages so they can feed their families and build local economies. I am pleased she is a keynote speaker at Ozwater this year, so you will be able to hear her for yourselves. In the 2011 Report Card on the progress of the Millennium Development Goals, our Oceania region is ranked in the bottom category (with West Asia) of “very low” representation of women in national government leadership. Indeed, in Australia, over 100 years after women were given the right to vote, last November we still found the need to introduce an Equal Opportunity in the Workplace Bill. It seems that gender equality is not something that will just happen with time. Like all good things, it needs to be worked at to succeed. But back to water. In Australia, we have made significant progress in sustainable water management, as shown in the 2010–11 performance reports on our rural and urban water sectors, released by the National Water Commission in March, which benchmark pricing and quality. This general progress, combined with the agreement late last year on the implementation of the Murray-Darling Basin Plan and the improving climate-resilience of our water supplies through investment in infrastructure and societal changes, means we are in pretty good shape. So to make our water industry even better, I’ll leave with you the idea that diversity matters – there is much data showing that organsiations that get this right are more likely to succeed on most business measures. I encourage you to provide the women in your organisations with opportunities to lead.
From the CEO
WHAT DID THE EASTER BUNNY BRING? Tom Mollenkopf – AWA Chief Executive
The phrase “Christmas has come early” generally suggests that something good has happened. This year Easter has come early and I have been searching to see if the economy or our political leaders may have sent the water sector some good news. Sadly, there’s not much fun to report on that front. As we settle deeper into the longest election campaign of all time, the issues of water policy or reform are notorious in their absence from the front pages. True, there are headlines – just not the sort I might have hoped for. We seem to have seen the full gamut in recent weeks, from a resurgence in concern regarding recycling, to complaints about cuts to rebates for water efficiency; that providing a flexible service offering is viewed as favouring the rich; while in regional Australia, safe drinking water is apparently not to be taken for granted. Of course, the desalination plant in Victoria can’t take a trick – no-one wants to buy its water (least of all the Minister); it is involved in litigation seeking to recoup cost overruns – and now it is alleged that its pipes leak. Even fluoride is back on the agenda! But perhaps the saddest news of all involved the surprising changes that have taken place in the Northern Territory. In March, the entire Power and Water Corporation Board was “terminated” and long-serving Managing Director, Andrew Macrides, was replaced. This followed hot on the heels of government intervention to suppress previously approved and long overdue price rises for water sewerage and electricity.
Sounds like it’s time to dust off the reform agenda, I hear you say. Not this year it seems. Strapped finances and other priorities are thus far signalling that governments, by and large, are not seeing investment in water concerns as their major issue. There are some important exceptions. Coal Seam (or non-conventional) Gas and completion of the Murray-Darling Basin reforms will get a good run. Food security and water (particularly in the North) and dams may also get themselves on the agenda. I once heard that the definition of strategic is something that is important, long term and difficult to change direction on. On that basis, water management is one of the most strategic issues confronting our nation. Our call – as always – must be that sound water policy and practice demands time and investment every year, but no more so than in an election year. So, what did the Easter Bunny bring? Some Easter eggs? Perhaps. A bumper issue of Water Journal and the promise of an exciting Ozwater Conference and Exhibition in Perth? Definitely. Now, if we can all just work on Canberra, that would be a real bonus!
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My Point of View
NOW THAT THE DROUGHT HAS BROKEN … Professor Tony Wong – CEO, CRC for Water Sensitive Cities
Professor Tony Wong is Chief Executive of the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities and is internationally recognised for his research and practice in Water Sensitive Urban Design. He has led a large number of award-winning urban design projects in Australia and overseas. In my travels, many have asked me about the ‘easing of pressure’ from more than a decade of crippling drought conditions by drought-breaking rain (and, indeed, devastating floods) in many of our cities and towns – with the exception of Perth – in 2010; in particular, “why do we still need to continue to focus our attention on urban water?”. Our water challenge is constantly influenced by the threat of floods and droughts. In addition, heat waves are going to be more persistent, significantly impacting our water consumption at these times. Bush fires are another threat that may at first appear unrelated to our water security – the recent (January 2013) fire in the catchment of Melbourne’s principal water supply storage, the Thomson Reservoir, could have been more extensive and consequently impacted the water quality, potentially rendering it unsuitable or requiring additional treatment. Forests recovering from fire need a lot of water, which would reduce the runoff available for reservoirs for periods extending from 15 to 30 years. So the multiple threats of drought, floods, poor water quality, increasing heat wave conditions and bushfires are stark reminders of the vulnerability of our cities and towns to climatic extremes, compounded by pressures of population growth, housing affordability and urban densification.
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Planning for a better future Maintaining a strong focus on urban water is important for realising our desire for a better future, not just coping with threats. The perspective of more liveable cities and towns is now a policy agenda for many governments and the way we manage urban water in the urban landscape influences many aspects of the liveability of our urban environments. Water and associated ‘green’ technologies and infrastructures are essential elements of place making, both in maintaining and enhancing the environmental values of surrounding landscapes and in the amenity and cultural connection of the place. Urban planning now has to deliver multiple objectives that strategically place green spaces and corridors to: provide greater amenity, enhance urban biodiversity, protect water environments from urban stormwater pollution, promote harvesting of stormwater, influence micro-climates and provide safe detention and conveyance of floodwaters. Water planning and emerging technologies for fit-for-purpose water production, resource recovery (water, energy and nutrients) from our sewerage system and multi-functional hybrid centralised and decentralised water infrastructure must blend with urban planning. It is important to note at this juncture that integrated urban water cycle management (IUWM) could be undertaken in isolation and is a subset of water-sensitive urban design (WSUD). We can achieve IUWM with a concentrated centralised infrastructure, while the many additional benefits
of WSUD can only be attained through a largely decentralised approach to urban water management. The fact that many desalination plants in Australia’s major capitals (with the exception of Perth) have come online at a period when dams are filling has certainly taken some of the shine off these facilities. Nevertheless, as governments now have infrastructure to deal with large water security threats they have more opportunities to consider alternative green infrastructure, policies and systems that inherently require time to incubate. For example, while the debate on whether Melbourne needed a 150GL desalination plant will continue, the desalination plant will provide Melbourne with a water supply environment of relative stability for implementation of the Victorian Government’s Living Melbourne Living Victoria policy; a strategic, bold and visionary blueprint to deliver better water services, improved local environments and increased liveability in Melbourne.
More change is needed The 2011 National Water Commission report “Urban Water in Australia: Future Directions” recommends that the water sector needs to enhance its effective contribution to more liveable, sustainable and economically prosperous cities in circumstances where broader social, public health and environmental benefits and costs are clearly defined and assessed. Many Australian water institutions are still struggling to embrace this concept, often impeded by the legacy of current institutions and urban water governance structures, as well as a narrow economic rationale in evaluating water infrastructure projects. This also means a narrow focus on meeting the projected shortfall in water supply, and risks delivering sub-optimal integrated urban water cycle solutions that fail to capture the potential for realising the multiple benefits (beyond the traditional water supply and sewerage services) for achieving more liveable environments. With the drought broken, a backlash against infrastructure investments made during the height of the drought could potentially drive a harsher economic perspective to future projects; a perspective where water is once again simply regarded as a commodity with no meaningful consideration to its non-market values. When it comes to this, public good always loses out. This must change.
diversity is the key The prediction is that El Niño is yet to return – but there is no doubt that there will be another drought forthcoming. Australian cities’ and towns’ resilience to climatic extremes and its associated multithreat implications are going to be tested time and time again. How we prepare for this eventuality and use this as an opportunity to continue to protect and enhance the liveability of our cities and towns will define our resilience to an uncertain climatic future. Having a diversity of water sources is the insurance needed for water supply security. This portfolio of water sources includes desalinated water, recycled wastewater, stormwater and groundwater. Our open spaces need to be connected with green and blue corridors for detention and safe passage of floods, while serving as an ecological landscape that enhances the urban amenity, biodiversity and microclimate.
CrossCurrent health,” said ADA Federal President Dr Karin Alexander. “These Local Councils seem to be responding to fringe groups’ falsely based scare-mongering and are not considering the scientifically well-established benefits of fluoridation.”
International A team of urban planners, civil engineers, environmental engineers, architects, systems and information engineers and others from the University of Virginia is working to provide sustainable solutions to global water problems. The organisation, known as PureMadi, is partnering with the University of Venda in Thohoyandou, South Africa and developing-world communities in South Africa’s Limpopo Province under the leadership of James A Smith, a professor in Environmental and Water Resources. PureMadi’s first project is the development of a sustainable ceramic water filter factory in South Africa. You can read more about this and discuss on AWA’s Linkedin page.
National The Federal Government is implementing greater environmental protection for water resources impacted by coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. Environment Minister, Tony Burke, will introduce amendments to Australia’s national environment law, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 that will require federal assessment and approval of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments that have a significant impact on a water resource.
The Gillard Government will support irrigators and irrigation providers to better manage their networks into the future under a new program announced by Water Minister Tony Burke. Mr Burke said the Strategic Sub-System Reconfiguration Program forms part of the Government’s response to the recommendations of the Windsor Inquiry that raised concerns about the so-called ‘swiss cheese’ effect, where government water purchases impacted on the efficiency and viability of shared irrigation networks.
The Australian Dental Association (ADA) is seemingly outraged and dismayed at governments’ lack of leadership in supporting scientific evidence that proves fluoridation of water supplies is safe. “The Queensland and now other State Governments’ decision to permit ill-informed Local Councils to choose to stop fluoridation of water supplies represents a failure to protect the public’s oral
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A new report from Frost & Sullivan on the market for membrane technologies used in water and wastewater treatment in Australia and New Zealand found market revenues of over $147 million in 2011, which the analysts estimate will reach $237.9 million in 2017.
The Government has introduced legislation to enhance the tax treatment of the Sustainable Rural Water Use and Infrastructure Program (SRWUIP). SRWUIP is a key program under the Government’s Water for the Future initiative. Projects funded through SRWUIP are improving efficiency and productivity of rural water use and management, delivering water returns to the environment and helping secure a long-term sustainable future for irrigated agriculture and local communities.
The Australian Government has announced a grant to support Carnegie Wave Energy’s initiative to power a pilot-scale desalination plant using wave energy to produce clean water. Under the $1.27 million funding, the pilot project will utilise the potential of ocean waves to power the high-pressure desalination pumps at the plant and reduce emissions and electricity consumption.
Australians may be asked to reduce their use of bore water in order to preserve their cherished native landscapes. Researchers at the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training (NCGRT) have found that eucalypts, melaleucas, acacias and other Australian native trees drink much more groundwater than previously thought.
TaKaDu, a global leader in Water Network Monitoring, has formed a partnership with Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM). The companies partnered to serve the Australian and New Zealand markets by offering TaKaDu’s Water Network Monitoring solution, enabling clients to implement water-saving initiatives and other operating efficiencies. It combines the monitoring and diagnostic capabilities offered by the TaKaDu system with SKM’s knowledge of the Australian and New Zealand water network systems, and the ability to provide the necessary local resources and expertise.
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Northern Territory The Northern Territory Government has secured more than $10 million of water main piping to support future growth of oil and gas developments at Middle Arm and Blaydin Point. NT Infrastructure Minister Adam Giles said the Territory Government had awarded a contract for supplying and installing more than 13 kilometres of mild-steel cement-lined pipe to water equipment specialist Pentair.
CSIRO, as part of the Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK) research program, has documented and quantified Aboriginal social and economic values of aquatic resources and identified their flow links in a video. The research was conducted over three years (2008-2010) in two tropical river catchments – the Daly River in the Northern Territory and the Fitzroy River in Western Australia – where water planners needed information on Aboriginal people’s water requirements.
Victoria The Victorian Department of Health, with support from Water Futures Pty Ltd and the Victorian Smart Water Fund, has published the Guidelines for Validating Treatment Processes for Pathogen Reduction: Supporting Class A Recycled Water Schemes in Victoria. The Guidelines are available from the Department’s website.
The tripling of environmental water entitlements for the Campaspe River and the launch of the $3.73 million Caring for the Campaspe project will see the river become a healthier, better-flowing system. The four-year Caring for the Campaspe project would see substantial on-ground works including 80 kilometres of fencing, 163 hectares of weed control and community engagement activities.
The Victorian Coalition Government has secured a modest saving for Melbourne’s water customers on the annual payments required for the Wonthaggi desalination plant. These savings equate to approximately $13 million a year, over the next 27 years. The Coalition Government has ensured these savings come directly off the annual holding charges paid by Melbourne families.
Minister for Water, Peter Walsh, has announced the appointment of Mike Waller as the first permanent Chief Executive Officer of the Office of Living Victoria (OLV). “OLV was established by the Victorian Coalition Government to deliver our transformational urban water policy, Living Victoria,” Mr Walsh said.
The Victorian Coalition Government is encouraging the installation of separate water meters on multiple occupancy properties. Minister for Water, Peter Walsh, said the Coalition Government was committed to encouraging the installation of separate water meters in unit complexes, apartment blocks and commercial properties to encourage efficiency and provide financial reward for people who reduce water use.
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New South Wales
Gosford City Council is set to celebrate the completion of a $680,000 groundwater treatment plant project at Bluetongue Stadium. A ceremony will be held to mark the end of the project that will reduce demand on the town water supply by providing an average of 35 million litres of water a year.
The Queensland Government has scrapped the requirement for new properties to include rainwater tanks and energy-efficient hot water systems. Minister for Housing and Public Works Tim Mander said the changes would reduce the cost of a new home by more than $5,000.
NICTA, an information and communications technology (ICT) R&D organisation, has joined forces with Sydney Water to improve assessment of water pipes using technology that forecasts potential breakages in the system. Australia’s critical water mains break on average 7,000 times each year, due to age, material, soil type and other factors. Under the agreement NICTA’s machine learning capabilities will be used to more accurately identify which pipes are at risk of failure, potentially saving Australia’s water utilities and the community $700 million a year in reactive repairs and maintenance.
The NSW Office of Water is conducting the 2013 NSW Irrigators’ Survey, the fourth undertaken since 2006 to monitor socio-economic changes in the NSW irrigation industry. The 20-minute telephone survey includes questions about your irrigation business, water use, employment and other social and economic indicators. The survey will be conducted during April and May 2013. Anonymity and confidentially are guaranteed. To participate, visit the NSW Office of Water website.
Western Australia A $10 million investment from the Gillard Government will improve the quality and security of water supplies in Ardyaloon and other remote Indigenous communities in Western Australia. Minister for Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Jenny Macklin and Parliamentary Secretary for Sustainability and Urban Water, Senator Don Farrell, said the funding will upgrade and replace critical water infrastructure.
Unitywater is investing $18 million to upgrade and increase the capacity of the Maleny STP, providing significant service and environmental benefits to the area. CEO George Theo said: “An upgraded Maleny Sewage Treatment Plant will provide residents with the environmental and health benefits of a modern sewerage network.”
Member News The search for a new AWA Chief Executive is on. Executive search consultants Amrop Cordiner King have been retained to assist with the process and the position has also been advertised in the Australian Financial Review. Enquiries can be directed to Richard Besley and Caroline Dever at Amrop Cordiner King at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mary Rowland from Aqius Education has been contracted to undertake the role of Water Education Curriculum Officer for the AWA Australian Curriculum Project – Water Education in Schools. Mary will work with AWA over the next six months auditing existing water education resources, identifying gaps in resources and linking resources to the Australian Curriculum.
Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) has announced the appointment of Louise Dudley, CEO Queensland Urban Utilities, Jim Grayson, CEO Gladstone Area Water Board, Ross Young, CEO Sydney Catchment Authority, Anne Barker, MD City West Water and Mark Sullivan AO, MD ACTEW Water and one re-elected Board member Kevin Young, MD of Sydney Water, to the WSAA Board.
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Current & Recent projects: Goulburn-Murray Water (VIC) Hattah Lakes Environmental Flows Project: Construction of seven 750mm pump columns, a 2100mm RCP, 900mm PE branch pipeline, large regulating structures, penstock gates and levee banks. State Water Corporation (NSW) NSW Metering Managing Contractor: Planning and installation of over 1200 river and groundwater extraction meters. Yarra Valley Water (VIC) Kalkallo Industrial Recycled Water Main: Construction of 4.8km OD337 to OD419 MSCL and 1.1km OD355 to OD450 PE recyled water main. Works include 5 bores including a 290m long continuous 710mm encasement bore under the Hume Fwy and works within environmentally sensitive areas. Queensland Urban Utilities (QLD) Panel member for the provision of Design and/or Construction of Water and Sewerage Reticulation Systems. Capital projects include open trench and trenchless construction of water and sewer mains and associated works. APRIL 2013 water
POSTCARD FROM INDIA: DELHI TO BENGALURU – From John Poon Namaste... Salutations fromn the subcontinent. April 2012 was my first visit to India. The work on the first two drinking water reuse projects here has been a challenging and rewarding experience. Learning about a new culture and seeing the unprecedented economic and social transformation of the region happening before your eyes is sobering and fascinating. The rapid urbanisation of India now sees it boast at least five megacities and some 50 cities of more than one million population. On my recent visit to Bengaluru we learned that this city is now over 10.5 million people, with no end in sight. The Asian Century is gathering pace, placing enormous stresses on natural resources like water and the environment, as well as physical and social infrastructures. For me, the population and infrastructure issues that confront Australia don’t seem nearly as vexed or unsolvable.
FIRST STOP DELHI: OVERTAKEN BY AN ELEPHANT Winding back to 2012... Being caught in a traffic snarl on the main highway is not abnormal in a big Indian city. My friends and colleagues advised me to expect the unexpected, but getting overtaken by an elephant on its way to a bridal event is one thing you won’t see in Australia. (Unfortunately, this photo was lost along with my misplaced iPad – a victim of too much flying and jet lag.) Luckily my last trip to India saw our car being overtaken by the ubiquitous auto-rickshaw or motorised tricycle. Despite being dangerously overloaded these schoolboys looked pretty happy about heading to school. Life carries on in India along the mantra of “Everything will be alright in the end. If things are not right now, you have not yet reached the end”. Not an elephant perhaps… but those smiles would make any exhausted traveller feel alright. The great Yamuna River runs through the centre of Delhi. It is the largest tributary of the Ganges and also one of the most polluted rivers in India. No place feels the impact of the Asian Century as strongly as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Going from under 10 million people in the 1990s to something that rivals the entire population of Australia today is impressive, but not without it repercussions. Finding safe, adequate and reliable water resources is an immediate and daily activity. Shrinking glaciers in the Himalayas and over-extraction of surface and groundwater for agriculture and urban uses leaves Delhi no other option but to seek out further water conservation measures and new sources of water such as recycling for drinking water uses. Being so far inland seawater desalination is not a viable option. Delhi is now posed to implement major advanced recycled water purification infrastructure at a pace and scale not seen before.
NEXT STOP BENGALURU: REDISCOVERING A LOST TEMPLE The British Empire built the TG Halli Reservoir to satisfy the thirst of the ruling elite sitting some 40 kilometres away in old Bangalore. Building the dam resulted in the flooding of a 700-year-old Hindu temple. Sited on Holy land the temple was built on the confluence of two rivers; there it laid inundated, hidden and lost to the world since the 1930s and the passing of an empire. It took the force of nature to rediscover this lost artifact. Declining stream flows from 15 years of failed monsoons and demands of a city that is now 10.6 million people has reduced this once jewel of the empire to an empty vessel. Given that the entire area is protected from human encroachment and access, it is likely this photo is the first of a kind to document the recovery of this ancient place. The loss of TG Halli was, in effect, a 25% reduction in water supply for Bengaluru. The city has now found new sources of water some 100 kilometres away and requiring 500 meters of pumping lift. Like other places in India water resources are hotly contested and finding more water to satisfy a growing city is close to impossible. Thus, like Delhi, Bengaluru’s future lies in water reuse for drinking, rainwater/stormwater harvesting and more conservation. John Poon is Principal Technologist, Water Business Group, with CH2M HILL and a member of Water Journal’s Editorial Committee. He looks forward to sending more postcards later this year as these two projects progress and more trips to India are made.
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With Ecoline™, Australian Innovative Systems (AIS) becomes one of the first companies in the world to successfully commercialise affordable, production-line manufactured fresh water sanitising technology. Most in-line chlorine generators only work with salt-water. (We know a thing or two about those too: AIS is the brain behind Autochlor™ and also pioneered the use of Switch Mode Power Supply in salt-water chlorine generators.) Ecoline™ is very different to conventional chlorine generators. It uses the salts and minerals naturally present in water to produce chlorine safely and in-line using electrolysis. Suitable for large scale projects too, it can sanitise thousands of litres of water per minute. The amount of chlorine released into the water is controlled electronically by varying the power supply to our unique, high performing anodes manufactured at one of three AIS production facilities in South East Queensland. Your water source must test positive for the prerequisite levels of natural salts and minerals. It’s a simple test that many pass with flying colours, like the drinking water system in remote Russia or aquatic theme parks, leisure facilities and sports facilities in the United Arab Emirates, Indonesia and Australia already running Ecoline™. To find out if Ecoline™ is a feasible solution for your water project, visit our website, www.aiswater.com.au, email us at email@example.com or call (+61) 07 3396 5222.
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WIOA Water Industry Operator Certification Scheme In order to properly fulfil their role, operators of water treatment plants must be adequately trained and have well developed skills to allow them to correctly operate all the water treatment processes for which they have responsibility. They also need to gain extensive onthe-job experience to develop competence, have an appreciation of risk management principles that underpin the operation of water treatment systems and, as water treatment technology advances, undertake ongoing skill development to maintain their competence. Victorian Best Practice Guidelines Victoria’s Safe Drinking Water Act 2003 and Safe Drinking Water Regulations 2005 provide a comprehensive regulatory framework that encompasses a catchment-to tap risk-based approach to the management of drinking water quality across the state. The key objectives of this regulatory framework are to ensure that: • Where water is supplied as drinking water it is safe to drink; • Any water not intended to be drinking water cannot be mistaken for drinking water; and • Water quality information is disclosed to consumers and is open to public accountability. A key aspect of the risk-based approach to the production of safe drinking water is the use of multiple water treatment processes, the so-called ‘multiple barrier approach’. The correct operation of these treatment processes is a highly skilled task, requiring constant vigilance and attention to detail. On a day-to-day basis, it is the water treatment operator who carries the responsibility for ensuring that raw water is treated to the required standard, that incidents that may compromise quality are detected and addressed, and that identified risks are adequately managed. The actions of a water treatment operator can have a direct impact on the health and well-being of the communities for which they undertake water treatment services. In recognition of the importance that the training, experience and competence of water treatment operators has on the production of safe drinking water, the Victorian Department of Health and members of the Victorian Water Industry Association (VicWater), in conjunction with the Water Industry Operators Association of Australia (WIOA), developed and implemented the Victorian Framework for Water Treatment Operator Competencies – Best Practice Guidelines. These Guidelines define minimum training, qualification and competency standards that water treatment operators must attain and maintain in order to operate drinking water treatment facilities in the state of Victoria. The Victorian Department of Health has endorsed WIOA to certify operators in Victoria and the WIOA Water Industry Operator Certification Scheme is an independent confirmation of the training,
skills and competence of water treatment operators employed by a water business. Under the scheme, WIOA provides certified status to an individual water treatment operator, enabling him or her to be responsible for the operation of a particular type of water treatment plant. Certified status indicates that the individual has a specific set of knowledge, skills, experience or abilities in the view of the certifying body (WIOA). Certified Operators – an Australian first In a first for the Australian water industry, four Victorian water treatment operators were certified under the WIOA Certification Scheme when they were presented with their credentials at a reception held at the Victorian Department of Health offices in December 2012. They are Broc Mulcair and Luke McCormick from Veolia Water, and Matthew Sinnott and Peter Uwland from Wannon Water. They were participants in a pilot of the certification scheme that is now available to all water businesses and operators employed in the treatment of water. The Victorian Chief Health Officer, Dr Rosemary Lester, said: “The actions taken, or not taken, by a water treatment operator can have a direct impact on the health and wellbeing of the communities for which they undertake water treatment services”. Dr Lester recognised the important role that WIOA played in the development and implementation of the Guidelines and said, “WIOA has shown leadership to its members in recognising and prompting the importance that training and skill development plays in being an effective water treatment operator”. For further information about the certification scheme contact the WIOA office on 03 5821 6744 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Academy Welcomes New Science Portfolio Ministers The Australian Academy of Science has appointed the Hon. Dr Craig Emerson MP as the new Portfolio Minister and Senator the Hon. Don Farrell as the new Minister for Science and Research. Dr Emerson has taken on the Tertiary Education, Skills, Science and Research portfolio, while Senator Farrell becomes Minister for Science and Research. The Academy also welcomes the promotion of Sharon Bird MP to Minister for Higher Education and Skills. The changes were announced as part of Prime Minister Julia Gillard’s recent Cabinet reshuffle. “The Academy is keen to work with the new Ministers to grow Australia’s research sector, help higher education flourish, and ensure scientific evidence underpins the major policy decisions of Government,” said Academy President, Professor Suzanne Cory. “The Academy is reassured that Dr Emerson’s new responsibilities include Science as well as his existing responsibilities for Asian Century Policy. International scientific collaboration is essential to Australia’s role and new policy is urgently needed in this space. We look forward to working with Ministers Emerson, Farrell, and Bird, and with all interested members of Parliament, during this crucial election year.”
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Aquasure Supports Clean Ocean Foundation Initiative AquaSure has expressed its support for the Clean Ocean Foundation’s (COF) Operation Sea Eagle (OSE) initiative, which began in March on the Bass Coast. Shadow Minister for the Environment, Greg Hunt, and members of COF will dive at various sites along the coastline including the Victorian Desalination Plant’s intake and outlet structures. AquaSure CEO, Chris Herbert, said that he looked forward to being briefed by the COF on any observations that were made during the dive and that AquaSure had provided information to help COF locate the structures. “Experience from other desalination plants is that the area in which the seawater concentrate is dispersed can undergo some changes including a transition to salt-tolerant species,” said Mr Herbert. “Consistent with this, the licence that has been granted to the project by the EPA provides for a mixing zone around the outlet structure. Under the terms of the State Environment Protection Policy (Waters of Victoria), some or all beneficial uses within the mixing zone may not be fully protected,” he said. “We would expect that the COF will see that there have been some changes within the mixing zone, including some minor changes due to the construction activities.”
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The Victorian Desalination Project has had an extensive marine monitoring program in place since the project commenced. This will continue to evolve during the operations phase of the project. Mr Herbert said information from the most recent survey has identified some changes in the cover of canopy-forming seaweed and the understory thallose red algae, but effects are largely confined to tens of metres from the outlets and are predominantly in or beside lower reef areas and gullies. “Importantly, the analysis has concluded that there is unlikely to have been any impact on beneficial uses of the marine environment, and that there is no risk of harm to beneficial uses,” said Mr Herbert. “We hope to have the opportunity to collaborate with the COF on future initiatives,” he said. Documentation on the VDP’s Environmental Monitoring Program is available on the AquaSure website at www.aquasure.com.au.
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Boosting Recycled Water Use for Agriculture New research to expand the use of water recycling for irrigating South Australia’s vineyards has been initiated by the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence. Led by the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) and co-funded by the Goyder Institute for Water Research, the project is collaborating with the local viticulture industry and the University of Adelaide to demonstrate the economic and environmental value of water recycling to Australia’s agri-food industry. In announcing the project, Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence CEO Dr Mark O’Donohue said the security of water supply is an ongoing concern for producers of horticulture crops. “Recycled water can provide a secure, climate-resilient water supply for many agricultural areas of Australia. This project will contribute to a growing body of knowledge about how to incorporate the use of recycled water into a variety of irrigation regimes,” he said. Project investigator, Tim Pitt from SARDI, says, “The project involves crops being watered under precise irrigation systems and looks at how to mitigate the salt content of recycled water by diluting it with fresh rainwater. We will be applying recycled water to vineyards in the McLaren Vale and to almond orchards on the Northern Adelaide Plains.” The trials at a McLaren Vale vineyard owned by Treasury Wine Estates will test whether re-directing rainfall from raised soil mounds built between the vines to soil directly under vines irrigated with recycled water reduces the build-up of salt. Trials on the almond orchards will use mixtures of recycled water and freshwater to identify the most salt-sensitive growth stages of almonds.
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“We will also assess how the changing concentrations of salt, in the various soils being assessed, affect plant response in terms of vigour, yield and crop quality,” says Mr Pitt. Based on the success of the trials, the horticulture industry could expand its use of recycled water schemes for precision crop irrigation in other dry regions and improve management of soil salinity.
UQ Names Chris Hertle As Adjunct Professor The University of Queensland (UQ) has named Chris Hertle, GHD’s Global Market Leader – Water, as an Adjunct Professor in the Advanced Water Management Centre for a period of three years. The title was awarded to Chris as formal recognition of his contribution to the work and activities of the university, from which he received an Honours Degree in Chemical Engineering in 1983. He also holds a Master of Philosophy in Biological and Environmental Science from Murdoch University for development of a high rate anaerobic treatment system that treated abattoir wastewater. After stints working with Brisbane City Council in the wastewater treatment section and ESI, a technology supplier to the water industry, Chris joined GHD in 1993. For the past 20 years, he has been involved in numerous consulting assignments in the areas of industrial and municipal water and wastewater treatment and recycling as well as solid waste management.
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Industry News Speaking of the honour, which complements his recent appointment to the Research Advisory Committee at the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, Chris said, “This recognition allows me to continue to be involved with UQ’s Chemical Engineering Department and the Advanced Water Management Centre at an elevated level. I hope to provide guidance into research projects to ensure that the outcomes can be applied by the water industry.
After this date, Victorians replacing their hot water systems with a more energy-efficient option can continue to apply for incentives through the Victorian Energy Saver Incentive, part of the Victorian Energy Efficiency Target program and, where installing solar hot water, the Small-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme. “The rebates program has been running since 2000 and has improved the energy efficiency of almost 38,000 Victorian homes,” Mr Krpan said. “During that time the industry has developed considerably, and take-up rates have grown. Many new homes install an energy-efficient solar hot water system to achieve a six-star rating.”
“In addition, I’ll be able to occasionally deliver guest lectures – particularly in subjects relating to low energy wastewater treatment, anaerobic systems and management of solid wastes.”
New homes, which do not attract the rebate, account for an estimated 90 per cent of sales.
Change to Hot Water System Replacement Rebate Announced Victorians considering replacing their hot water system with a more energy-efficient model have until May 31 this year to secure the maximum State Government rebate. Sustainability Victoria CEO Stan Krpan encouraged householders to take advantage of all current incentives for solar and gas hot water installation. “Householders looking to purchase a replacement gas or solar hot water system need to place their order before May 31 to be eligible for the full range of current rebates,” he said. “Anyone considering making the change should act now before the rebates close. A full range of information, along with a list of registered suppliers, is available on the Sustainability Victoria website.”
“The rebates have helped make Victorians leaders when it comes to installing energy efficient products such as gas and solar hot water systems,” he said. “According to ABS data, with the exception of Western Australia, Victoria has the lowest percentage of older, inefficient electric hot water systems installed in homes at just 28%, compared to 64% in New South Wales. The focus is now on delivering activities to minimise energy costs and help reduce the cost of living for those in greatest need.” Mr Krpan said the change would enable the delivery of more targeted energy efficiency incentives and reduce duplication of Commonwealth Government programs. “We will also continue to provide a range of other programs and assistance which provide households with cost-effective energy efficient solutions,” he said.
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Logan Water Alliance Gains a Second Contract Extension
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The alliance team responsible for delivery of efficient and sustainable water infrastructure for Logan City has been granted a second extension on its original three-year contract. The Logan Water Alliance, comprising Logan City Council, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Tenix and Cardno, will now continue its work until August 2014.
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Parsons Brinckerhoff General Manager for Water Utilities, Tom Mosquera, said the extension was an option from the start of the Alliance’s three-year planning, design and construction contract. “Based on the successful delivery of the capital works program to date, Logan Water has chosen to continue to use the Alliance for another year. To date the Alliance has completed 148 planning tasks and 34 capital works projects valued at $141 million, with a further $54.8 million of capital works programmed. “The team will continue to deliver a broad range of planning and design packages to support the delivery of the program and guide the long-term water infrastructure for the city. Projects completed to date include water and wastewater pipelines, pump stations, water networks in urban and rural communities, reservoirs and wastewater treatment plants. “Through the delivery of this program, the Alliance has proven the success of its planning-led model. The model enables the Alliance team to accurately plan, design and build innovative and cost-effective water infrastructure. In addition to this, a strong team culture and real ownership of the program has driven positive results for the team and the Logan community. “Upon completion of the contract next year, the Alliance will have worked together for five years,” said Mr Mosquera. The multi-award winning Logan Water Alliance is one of the largest water infrastructure delivery programs of its type in Australia.
Directors Appointed for New Statewide Tasmanian Water & Sewerage Corporation The Tasmanian Water & Sewerage Corporation – the new statewide water utility opening its doors on 1 July this year – today announced the appointment of six Directors to join Chairman Miles Hampton to form the Corporation’s new Board. The Directors are: Mr Brian Bayley; Ms Sibylle Krieger; Mr Peter Lewinsky; Mrs Sarah Merridew; Dr Dan Norton; and Dr Jane Sargison. The Board will be responsible for leading one of Tasmania’s largest organisations. It will employ more than 800 employees, have total assets of more than $2 billion, revenue of around $250 million annually and will spend around $100 million each year on capital works. The Corporation will be owned by the state’s 29 local councils. “The appointment of Directors is an important milestone, giving the Board the opportunity to focus on the job of combining the existing water corporations into one seamless organisation,” Cr Tony Foster, Chairman of the Selection Committee said. “It also clears the way for the Board to commence the search for a Chief Executive Officer for the new Corporation. “We received a large number of applications from an outstanding national field of candidates for the six Directors’ roles,” Cr Foster said. “The process to select the right mix of expertise and knowledge was extremely rigorous. The Selection Committee comprises representatives of the new Corporation’s Owner Representative Group and was assisted by a professional recruitment firm.” Cr Foster said the Board comprises five Directors from the current water corporation boards and two new directors.
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“The Board members bring an outstanding combination of skills, expertise and knowledge to the new Corporation. Collectively they have extensive national water industry experience, an appropriate mix of professional skills and they have all been Directors of private and public organisations across many sectors and industries.” Cr Foster expressed appreciation for the contribution of the Directors of the current Water and Sewerage Corporations who will not be continuing with the new Board.
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“The task of establishing Southern Water, Ben Lomond Water, Cradle Mountain Water and Onstream has been extremely demanding. It is in part as a result of the hard work of these Boards that we expect the transition to the new Board to be smooth.”
Sydney Water Partners with Aurecon and AECOM Global consultancies Aurecon and AECOM have come together for a joint venture as AAJV to win one of two positions on Sydney Water’s Engineering and Environmental Services panel. Sydney Water, Australia’s largest water utility, has a capital program of more than $1 billion to be delivered over the next four years. AAJV will assist Sydney Water in the delivery of major infrastructure projects during this period, with services including:
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Sydney Water provides drinking water, recycled water, wastewater and some stormwater services to more than four million people in the Sydney, Blue Mountains and Illawarra regions. Drinking water is sourced from a network of dams managed by the Sydney Catchment Authority, then treated and delivered to customers’ homes and businesses by Sydney Water. Kevin Young, Managing Director at Sydney Water said, “New investment, increasing standards, ageing assets and growing operating costs have put pressure on customer prices for all essential services – water, energy, transport and communications. We are conscious of the current cost of living pressures so we really want to deliver value to our customers.
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“We consistently strive for excellence in improving our processes to reduce waste and remain focused on achieving this goal. Sydney Water’s vision is ‘valued water solutions’ and Aurecon and AECOM are keen to make this vision a reality in the important work they do for the corporation,” said Mr Young.
Sean Gilchrist, Panel Manager for AAJV and Technical Director for AECOM said, “We see ourselves as partners in Sydney Water’s excellence quest. We offer a fresh, energised and imaginative team who are excited about getting to the heart of customers’ needs and working as partners to deliver valued solutions.” Brian Horton, AAJV Contract Leadership Group representative and Technical Director in Aurecon’s Water Services group said, “AAJV has combined our company values with those of Sydney Water to capture the spirit that we all bring by working together. Smart solutions come from having the right people in the room with shared commitment, common goals and collaborative processes for extracting value.” AAJV is motivated to get to the heart of Sydney Water’s customer needs by collaborating with internal and external stakeholders, sharing knowledge and developing responsive and flexible processes that balance technical, business and sustainable outcomes.
John Holland Announces New Appointment John Holland has appointed Mal Shepherd as General Manager of its Water & Enviro business. Previously, Mal has held the positions of Manager – Water, and National Operations Manager with the company. He has been involved with delivering a number of significant water infrastructure projects across Australia and internationally. Brendan Petersen, Executive General Manager of Energy & Resources at John Holland, said, “Mal has over 20 years’ experience in the Australian water sector and has developed strong relationships with key customers in the industry. This positions Mal well to lead the business in building and maintaining its position in the domestic market, as well as increasing our involvement in international projects.” John Holland’s Water & Enviro business is the largest and most diverse provider of water infrastructure and emerging environmental technologies around the country, with capabilities including water and wastewater treatment, desalination, water recycling and reuse, bulk water catchment, irrigation, operations and maintenance, as well as water and wastewater transfer and network distribution.
MWH Global to Acquire Australia-based Outback Ecology MWH Global, the strategic consulting, technical engineering and construction services firm leading the wet infrastructure sector, will purchase Outback Ecology, an Australian environmental consultancy associated with the natural resources and mining industry for more than 20 years. The planned acquisition provides an opportunity to combine MWH current product offerings for the resources and energy industries, from water management and natural resources engineering to mine remediation, with Outback Ecology’s specialised services in this area. “Both MWH and Outback Ecology have similar values and focus on water, sustainability, ecology and the environment to effectively serve our clients and communities,” said Joseph Adams, president of Energy & Industry at MWH Global. “MWH is pleased to welcome Outback Ecology’s 75 employees, including scientists and specialists who will continue to work with clients across the lifecycle of mining and energy projects from evaluation and permitting through reclamation and beyond.” “The Outback Ecology leadership team committed early on that if we were ever to be acquired, we would join a growing, but stable, firm that has similar values, offers our leaders and staff enhanced opportunities in Asia Pacific and globally, and will ensure our commitment to client service and quality work is maintained. We believe MWH is that firm,” said Harley Lacy, Outback Ecology chairman and founder.
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Outback Ecology delivers services across Australia and the Pacific Rim, operating out of three primary office locations in Perth, Brisbane and Kalgoorlie, Australia. MWH has more than 500 employees in Australia, where it has been serving clients in the Asia-Pacific region for more than 40 years. Integration of the two companies will begin immediately upon transaction completion, which is expected to take place in early to mid-April. Acquisition terms were not disclosed. While initially maintaining its identity as Outback Ecology, the organisation will transition its name to MWH.
New Appointments for WSAA Board Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) is pleased to announce the appointment of Louise Dudley, CEO of Queensland Urban Utilities, Jim Grayson, CEO of the Gladstone Area Water Board, Ross Young, CEO of Sydney Catchment Authority, Anne Barker, MD of City West Water and Mark Sullivan AO, MD of ACTEW Water, and one re-elected Board member Kevin Young, MD of Sydney Water, to the WSAA Board. Sue Murphy, Chair of the WSAA Board and CEO of Water Corporation, said she was delighted with the new appointments. The other continuing WSAA Board members are Shaun Cox, MD of Melbourne Water, John Ringham, CEO of SA Water, and WSAA Executive Director, Adam Lovell. Adam Lovell said: “I am excited to welcome all our new Board members, who bring a wealth of knowledge and enthusiasm to their roles. With such a depth of talent on the Board we can be confident that WSAA will continue to represent the Australian Urban Water industry appropriately.” The role of Deputy Chair will be taken by Mark Sullivan, Managing Director of ACTEW Water in the ACT. “The strength of WSAA is in the support we have from our members. The involvement of such a high level Board from a wide representation of Australian states ensures a strong future for WSAA,” concluded Adam Lovell.
Climate Commission Responds to Sceptics’ Claims In response to claims by sceptics that the Earth is not warming, the Climate Commission has released a briefing paper that confirms that the Earth continues to warm at an alarming rate. Professor Will Steffen, author of the paper, says, “The most common error is looking at either a short timeframe, or just one indicator of warming. What climate scientists do is look at the big picture and the long term to understand what is going on. When we put together all of the evidence, the heating ocean, air and land over the last 50 years, we can clearly see that Earth has been warming strongly.” The briefing paper makes the following core points: (1) The Earth continues to warm strongly. Scientists assess this based on long-term observations of the heat content of the ocean, the air temperature (an indicator of the heat content of the atmosphere), and the amount of heat absorbed by the land, glaciers, ice sheets, and sea ice. (2) Understanding changes in climate requires data over long time periods, at least 30 years and preferably much longer. (3) The best measure of global warming is ocean heat content as it absorbs nearly 90 per cent of additional heat trapped by greenhouse gases. Global ocean heat content has increased substantially over the last 40 years, and the strongly upward trend has continued through the most recent decade up to the present. (4) Singling out short-term trends in air temperature to imply that global warming is not occurring is incorrect and misleading.
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Young Water Professionals
PARADISE LOST...? A LETTER FROM THAILAND Jo Greene – AWA YWP National Committee President
I sit writing this from Ao Nang in Thailand. It is a place that is very different from Australia on many levels, not least when it comes to the basics of life. Here, for example, drinking bottled water is not a lifestyle choice – at least for visitors. It’s perceived as a necessity for health reasons. There is a seemingly endless supply of plastic bottles of water for tourists. Wherever you go you can buy more bottled water, and it is cheap, at around AU50c for over a litre. Everywhere you go you see piles of empty plastic bottles – and no recycling facilities. The resorts and other areas frequented by tourists are all sparkling clean. There are beautiful beaches, a multitude of swimming pools, pool bars and stunning water features. Yet, if rather than catching a tuk-tuk you wander about and take some of the back streets, you will see quite a different picture.
I sit here on the balcony of our room with its gorgeous amenities, looking at the five swimming pools and the pool bar and listening to the waterfall. And then I look at the little sign on the basin saying: “Water is sacred. Please help us save it”. There is another message about unwanted detergents being washed into our environment through laundering towels, so we are encouraged to reuse them. These are both good messages, although I’m not sure how effective they would be for the average western tourist in Thailand. I can’t help but wonder why it seems to be so hard for public money to go towards providing adequate water and wastewater treatment. Many reading this would know that both use some of the most basic technologies we have, and yet many of the 61 million Thai people have no running water or sewage treatment available to them. When I see the beautiful island paradise of Thailand being further and further spoiled on a daily basis, it makes me sad.
Too little, too late? We humans can essentially be quite dirty people. History has taught us that it is important to dispose of waste properly, keep our waterways clean, reduce, reuse, recycle, and aim for sustainable practices. Yet sometimes Sparkling clean swimming pools in tourist areas belie the grim reality regarding water and wastewater treatment in Thailand.
water April 2013
I look around in Australia and wonder if we have left our run too late.
Young water Professionals of the longer standing members, Julien Lepetit from the ACT, Trevor Lyn from Western Australia, and Justin Simonis from Queensland, along with guidance from Kim Wuyts of the NSW AWA Branch, we came together and made really effective use of our time. One of the major outcomes from our meeting was to set some key performance indicators linking to the 2012–2014 Strategic Plan in place for the AWA Young Water Professionals. This will enable us to move forward and to be able to measure how much we can achieve over the year.
Those from large, heavily populated cities such as Sydney may not consider polluted rivers, stormwater catchments and creeks to be unusual. I now live in Newcastle, having moved there from Sydney, but before that I lived in an area called Falls Creek in north-eastern Victoria. This was a place where you would happily drink any running water, and our drinking water was filtered and ozone treated. I was shocked to see the Cooks ‘River’ in Sydney. Firstly, I had never seen a river with a concrete bank before. But concrete banks make sense when you consider that from where it rises in Bankstown to where it enters Botany Bay, the catchment of the river drains land that is home to over 400,000 people and around 20,000 commercial and industrial premises. That is a lot of potential sources of pollution to manage.
After saying farewell to Ben and Julien who were flying home that afternoon, we all met for dinner at The Rocks, where New South Wales representative Ashleigh Jones was able to join us and act as the local tour guide. We shared some of the outcomes of our meeting with her, and all agreed that not only do we now have a firm direction, we also have some measures to report back on next year. We have also set in place a way to get the state committees more involved at achieving national objectives.
On another note, just before leaving for Thailand in late February the annual meeting of the National Representative Committee of the Young Water Professionals was held in Sydney. It was, from all accounts, a resounding success. It was my first meeting as the new president and we welcomed two new members, Calum D’Cruz from the Northern Territory and Ben McDonald from South Australia. With the support
Celebrating 50 years of Service to Australian Industry
PHOTO: IGMAR GREWAR
PHOTO: IGMAR GREWAR
Overall the committee is looking forward to a productive year all round – I will keep you posted.
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April 2013 water
Stockholm Junior Water Prize Winner
AWA Appoints New Programs and Policy Manager
Declan Fahey from Hellyer College, Tasmania, was awarded the 2013 Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize at the recent AWA National Water Education Conference. Declan impressed the judges with his project on ‘Facing the Reality of Groundwater Salinity’.
Grant Leslie has joined AWA as National Manager – Programs and Policy. Grant has a long history in the water industry and particularly with the AWA. He has been a member since 1996 and was the first Chair of the National Source Management Specialist Network and NSW Branch President from 2006 to 2009.
As part of the project, Declan developed and applied exponential functions to model salinity effects on soil water movement in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Modelling was achieved by examination of osmotic movement of water in potato cells in neutral, acidic and alkaline media, in keeping with possible variations in soil pH. Hypothesising that the effects of salinity on osmotic movement in potato tissue would model the effects that salinity might have on root hairs of potato plants, exponential models were designed. This modelling inferred the likelihood of successful large-scale potato production in Tasmanian soils in areas affected by groundwater salinity. Salt solutions of varying concentration were used to show osmotic movement in potato tissue at four pH levels: neutral, acidic (pH 4.5), alkaline (pH 8.5) and neutral (after neutralisation treatment). Results suggested that osmosis did occur in potato cells, with clear changes in mass evident when samples were placed in each of the salt solutions. Samples in 0.00% salt solution showed the greatest increase in mass, while those in saturated solutions (» 36.00%) showed greatest mass loss. Regression functions were generated to model trends in mass changes. When graphically analysed, the relationship between salt concentration and percentage change in mass were expressed as exponential functions for each pH level, with respective coefficients of determination, R2. The use of these functions would enable estimations to be made as to the degree of shrinkage that root cells may experience in different saline conditions. From these estimations, predictions could be made into the viability of potato growth in regions prone to groundwater salinity. The results obtained from this investigation suggest that high salinity levels could cause dehydration and subsequent death of potato plants. Furthermore, it can be suggested that plants exposed to alkaline soils may succumb to the effects of dehydration at slightly lower salinity levels. The judges commented that Declan’s findings are very relevant to food scarcity issues and that his project is applicable both at a regional and international level. Declan will go on to represent Australia at the Stockholm Junior Water Prize later this year. The Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize is sponsored by Xylem.
Grant has worked with the Water Services Association (WSAA) of Australia for the past six years and held various roles there including General Manager. Prior to WSAA he worked as the NSW Manager for Ecowise Environmental. As a manager with a passion for membership-based not-for-profit associations, Grant also holds the position of President of Triathlon NSW, the governing body for Triathlon and Multisport in NSW. On his appointment Grant said: “I am very excited to be working with AWA in this leadership role. For a long time now I have been a passionate supporter of the work that AWA does and I am looking forward to helping to shape its future.” Please contact Grant at firstname.lastname@example.org or phone 02 9436 8423.
Young Water Professionals at Ozwater’13 For the past six years a series of successful YWP workshops have been held at Ozwater on a range of topics that are important to members of the YWP network. This year’s workshop, with the theme ‘Valuing Our Scarce Resource: Competition for Water in Remote and Regional Areas’, takes place on Monday 6 May from 1pm–5pm. The scarcity of water in regional and remote areas in Australia and other parts of the world poses different challenges to water scarcity in an urban environment. The competing issues of environment, indigenous water rights and large industrial users (mining, oil and gas production), as well as agriculture and community supply, often lead to debate on how to allocate water resources in remote areas. Speakers from different communities in remote and regional areas around Australia and the world will come together to speak about how their part of the community values water. They will also outline the innovative work their community is doing to make the most of the resource they have. The workshop will include an interactive session for participants to discuss the needs of each part of the community and discuss ways that different communities in regional areas can work together to implement sustainable water management practices in remote and regional areas. Meanwhile the YWP Breakfast Session will provide attendees with the opportunity to network with the water industry’s leaders over a casual stand-up breakfast on Wednesday 8 May from 7:30am–8.30am. It will also feature a presentation from actividt Kusum Athukorala, an inspirational woman with a strong interest in capacity building for young people in the water industry. To register, please visit: www.ozwater.org
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AWA News 2012 NSW Water Professional of the Year
Winner: Simon Thorn, Coffs Harbour City Council. 2012 NSW YWP of the Year Winner: Sally Rewell, Sydney Water.
2012 NSW Undergraduate Water Prize
2013 Water Matters Conference
Winner: Mohammed Kainul Abedin from the University of Western Sydney.
The ACT Branch is currently preparing the program for the 2013 Water Matters Conference to take place on Wednesday 5 June at the CSIRO Discovery Center, Canberra. For more information visit the AWA website or check the ACT Branch Newsletter emails.
Sydney Seminar Series
NSW NSW Branch Water Awards On Thursday 21 February the NSW Branch held the AWA NSW Branch Water Awards in Sydney. Congratulations to the winners, who will be automatically entered into the relevant category in the 2013 AWA National Awards to be announced at Ozwater’13 in May. 2012 NSW Infrastructure Innovation Award Winner: State Water Corporation and Water for Rivers (joint entry) for the Computer Aided River Management (CARM) Project. 2012 NSW Program Innovation Award Winner: NSW Department of Primary Industries, Office of Water (in partnership with other NSW agencies) for the Hawkesbury– Nepean River Recover Program.
The NSW Branch is holding the second of its seminar series on Wednesday 15 May in Sydney. This seminar’s topic is ‘Energy Supply, Costs and the Carbon Tax: Impacts on the Water Industry’. The seminar will explore the key issues for the water sector from rising energy costs and the commencement of the Carbon Tax in July 2012. Registrations for this event are open and both AWA Members and non-members are invited to attend.
Queensland YWPs – A Winning Presence at Griffith University In an effort to increase student engagement in the YWPs, the Queensland branch presented two major events at Griffith University in Brisbane recently – one during Orientation Week on 19 February and another on Market Day on 28 February. On both days the YWPs managed an informative AWA/YWP stall and provided brochures explaining the range of activities and events organised by the YWPs. The YWPs plan to host further university events to encourage more students to become actively involved in the organisation.
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NEW MEMBERS AWA welcomes the following new members since the most recent issue of Water Journal
New Corporate Members
New Individual Members
NSW D Lambert; A Jones; W Brazel; J Mamidanna; S Coobula; S Shaw; Z Moffat; M Anderson; R Bell; W Lorenz; K Taylor; L Simpson; M Hood; K Welsh; M Flew; M Grennan; N Hennessy; D Hancock; H Shollenberge; J Collins; C Miechel; D Brauer; S McGufficke; M Beckwith; M Nix; M Hankinson; R Younan; T Dwyer; M Griffith; G Wynter;
Corporate Bronze Aer-Force Pty Ltd Acqua Kinetics
WA Corporate Silver Scottech Oilfield Services
New Overseas Members Individual Member R Fullerton
Student Member H Mohamad
NT R Meier; D Rose; QLD L Elliss; S Spencer; G Millar; C Lenz; E Cain; A Volcich; D Horton; T McConnell; M Hamill; W Rugless; M Kijlstra;
B Cairns; C West; C Hetmank; D Brown; E Taske; C Hambling; D Myers; A Hinxman; R Dunn; R Geddes; T Neame; M Cross; M Falconer; S Hammer; M Yule; R Cleare; L Fernandes; F Groppa; C Waterhouse; A Lane SA A de Almeida; TAS G Henderson VIC N Walker; M Yimam; J Harvie; B Fenaughty; D Navaratna; P Worcester; P Wyllie; L Hickey; A Dodd WA C Boehl; E Rockwell; M Botsis; P Kradolfer; S Farghaly;
C Furlong; E O’Malley; SH Chellappan VIC C Holness WA H Zuo Tong; L Thwaites
Young Water Professionals NSW E Collins NT M Steen; R Lindner; E Mitchell QLD M Atanassova; E MacDougall; T Schultz
New Student Members
VIC R Bartlett; K Bartlett; E Wisniewski; L Brown; J Segal; FJ Adamson; F Banks; D Meehan; S Berry; M Dunlevie
SA A Wilson; R Aganetti;
WA G Mullins; H May; R Ahmed
AWA EVENTS CALENDAR This list is correct at the time of printing. For up-to-date listings and booking information please check the AWA online events calendar at: www.awa.asn.au/events
April Wed, 10 Apr 2013
QLD Monthly Technical Meeting, Brisbane, QLD
Thu, 11 Apr 2013
NT Technical Seminar, Darwin, NT
Thu, 11 Apr 2013
Vic YWP Seminar – Paradigm Shifts in the Water Industry, Melbourne, VIC
Thu, 11 Apr 2013
WA YWP My Water Career, Perth, WA
Thu, 18 Apr 2013
SA YWP Technical Tour and Networking, Adelaide, SA
Tue, 30 Apr 2013
NSW YWP Site Tour, Sydney, NSW
May Tue, 7 May 2013 – Thu, 9 May 2013
Ozwater’13: Australia’s International Water Conference and Exhibition, PCEC, Perth
Tue, 14 May 2013
Victorian Water Price Review 2013–18, Melbourne, VIC
Wed, 15 May 2013
NSW Seminar Series – Seminar 2, Energy Supply, Costs and the Carbon Tax: Impacts on the Water Industry, UTS Aerial Function Centre, Sydney
Fri, 17 May 2013
Leachate, Lurges and Leftovers – From Contamination to Clean Up in the Water Industry, Country Club Resort, Launceston
Fri, 17 May 2013
VIC YWP Annual Dinner, Melbourne, VIC
Wed, 22 May 2013
QLD Monthly Technical Meeting, Brisbane, QLD
Thu, 23 May 2013
SA YWP Annual Forum 2013, Adelaide, SA
Wed, 29 May 2013
VIC AWA & RMIT Workshop, Melbourne, VIC
June Wed, 5 Jun 2013 – Thu, 6 Jun 2013
ACT Water Matters Conference, CSIRO Discovery Centre, Canberra
Wed, 5 Jun 2013 – Thu, 6 Jun 2013
WIOA QLD Conference & Exhibition, Gold Coast, QLD
Wed, 12 Jun 2013 – Thu, 13 Jun 2013
QLD Young Water Professionals Workshop, Brisbane, QLD
Wed, 12 Jun 2013
NSW Seminar Series – Seminar 3, Skills Shortage and the Generation Gap: Planning for the Future, UTS Aerial Function Centre, Sydney
Thu, 13 Jun 2013
VIC YWP Seminar: My Water Career, Melbourne, VIC
Tue, 25 Jun 2013
NSW Women in Water Breakfast, Sydney, NSW
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THE RISE AND RISE OF MEGACITIES As urban populations increase, demand for essential resources is growing at an alarming rate. So is there a need for greater collaboration between science and engineering to ensure a more sustainable future? Emma Pryor from MWH Global offers her views. In a world of increasing demand for depleting natural resources, the coming decades need to see an increased fusion between science and engineering with a focus on resource use efficiency to coincide with major global efforts on extracting more from less. The urgent need to address the planet’s ‘mega trends’ – from planning for sustainable, vibrant, liveable megacities to climate change adaptation – will drive this collaboration between engineering consultancy firms and technology businesses.
megacities – defined as metropolitan areas with populations of 10 million people or more – like Delhi in India, Mexico City in Mexico, Manila in the Philippines, Lagos in Nigeria, Beijing and Guangzhou in China. According to a 2012 report by the Asian Development Bank there were 23 megacities on earth, with 12 of them in Asia. By 2025, 21 of the world’s 37 megacities will be located there. In 1950, the world had only two megacities, New York and Tokyo.
Innovations resulting from the partnership between technology and design across the globe will bring a variety of solutions to energy, water and food security issues. The synthesis of technology, science and engineering design makes sense: science is brought into practical application through engineering; engineering design focuses on the detailed plan for creation of infrastructure; technology is concentrated on the tools and processes required to perform a given function. Together, engineering consultancies and technology companies can offer megacities across Asia the potential to develop, commercialise, design, assess and implement optimised solutions for a sustainable future.
Critically, although experts estimate that the number of megacities of more than 10 million inhabitants will double over the next 10 to 20 years, it is currently lesser known cities – such as Ghaziabad, Surat or Faridabad in India, Toluca in Mexico, Palembang in Indonesia, the port city of Chittagong in Bangladesh, and Chengdu on the northern coast of China – that will see the biggest growth. Ghaziabad, part of the urban sprawl of the Indian capital Delhi, is already home to nearly four million people. The municipality of Chengdu will soon reach 20 million. Each of these cities is among the fastest-growing settlements in the world. By comparison, on Australian Bureau of Statistics projections, Sydney and Melbourne will only begin to reach megacity status – with a population of over seven million – by 2056.
WHat iS a Megatrend? A megatrend is a collection of trends, patterns of economic, social or environmental activity that will change the way people live and the science and technology products they demand. A significant megatrend is the need to more efficiently use our scarce available resources. The earth has limited supplies of natural mineral, energy, water and food resources essential for human survival and maintenance of lifestyles. Data reveals many of these resources are being depleted at often alarming rates. At the same time, population growth and economic growth are placing upward pressure on demand. Companies, governments and communities need to discover new ways of ensuring quality of life for current and future generations within the confines of the natural world’s limited resources. This megatrend is most keenly illustrated in the unprecedented scale and speed of urbanisation across the world, giving rise to a cluster of
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The cumulative growth of these megacities is set to oversee a new era of city living, changing the face of the planet. This rapid increase in demand will put significant pressure on social infrastructure: roads, rail, water supply, sanitation and electricity. At the same time, climate variation and natural disasters or extreme events will continue to significantly impact on the way new cities are designed, and existing cities are reshaped, to ensure these urban centres are resilient. Combined, these drivers will continue to put strain on the limited food, water and energy resources of the planet. Without bold innovation, there is a danger that we face a bleak future where scarce resources give rise to warring nations and cities become sprawling, divided, chaotic hubs of humanity with falling living standards and declining social amenity. Science, technology, engineering, business
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Opinion processes, government policy, lifestyle patterns and cultural norms will need to play an interlinking role in addressing this mounting demand on resources. With these challenges, technology-led innovation can provide new and clean sources of energy and water to ensure cities are liveable, but this will also happen with much more direct input and individual expression of demand by customers. With the right innovation, megacities can form a network of powerful, stable and prosperous city states, each bigger than many small countries, where the benefits of urban living, relative ease of delivering basic services and new civic identities combine to raise living standards for billions. Successful megacities will not be homogenous but, rather, diverse metropolises with precincts, villages and regions within that exhibit different characteristics, as determined by their citizens.
Building a Better World The world is becoming more connected. People, businesses and governments are increasingly moving into the virtual world to deliver and access services, obtain information, perform transactions, shop, work and interact with each other. With this exponential increased volume of information, captured through the rapid expansion of increasingly cheaper smart technology, the creation of the infrastructure of a city will change drastically. We are moving to a world where new ideas and approaches will be able to be experienced by customers and decision-makers in a virtual world long before anything is physically created, allowing for better decision-making, greater consideration of alternative scenarios and better predictive ability. We are fast approaching a world where we can understand and rapidly analyse – for decision-making purposes – mountains of data about the life, rhythms and consumption patterns of a city:
from buildings that can measure and report out their current state (occupancy, energy needs etc) and respond accordingly, to being able to understand exactly how infrastructure is being used in real time and, hence, be able to real time optimise that use (traffic flow management through mobile devices). We are developing the computational power and data analytics to process huge volumes of data and the technology to quickly and cheaply collect it. Integrated with design, this will enable us to continue to build and develop smarter cities and infrastructure. The role of the engineer will be aligned more than ever in partnerships with technology developers. This collaboration between engineering and science will ensure that design benefits from technology advancements, technology research and development directions are focused on areas of priority in social infrastructure design, helping to ensure a sustainable future. Emma Pryor (email: Emma.Pryor@au.mwhglobal. com) is the Asia Pacific Business Solutions Strategy and Planning Manager for MWH. With 15 years’ experience in management and business consulting, Emma has developed and assisted in the implementation of strategic business and financial plans, water cycle and carbon management strategies and workforce planning and development activities for water utilities. Emma holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Environmental Engineering and Political Science, as well as a Master’s Degree in Environmental Law.
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DIVING WITH A DIFFERENCE Commercial diving has been used in the mining sector for many years, but demand by industry has resulted in enhanced services that result in more sustainable outcomes. As the Australian mining industry continues to face new economic challenges, the need for increased efficiencies has arguably never been so great. Escalating costs and decreasing commodity prices are pushing innovative mining companies in new directions to lower production costs and reduce downtime. With many mines in Australia located in arid areas, water can be a difficult and costly resource to manage. Yet water is essential to almost all mining operations and is used for a multitude of purposes including processing of ore, dust suppression and potable water supply. The management of water resources on a mine site typically involves all aspects of water management, including catchment/ production, treatment, storage and delivery. Sourcing and supplying water in an arid environment is a challenge in itself, but the production pressures of a mine site and costs associated with lost production time add even greater demands. In an effort to lower costs, save water and reduce environmental impact, many mine sites across Australia are now utilising commercial divers to service and maintain underwater assets.
The concept of utilising divers on mine sites is not a new one and has been around for over 25 years. However, more recently, mine diving has expanded and over the past five years has been integrated into many larger mining operations.
WAter MAnAGeMent: A prioritY Water has a high value in the mining industry, not only due to the high cost of sourcing and managing the resource, but also because a supply interruption often has the ability to stop production. Increasingly, water also has significant environmental importance on a mine site, as sustainable management principles have become a standard of the Australian mining industry. It seems logical that water management should be a primary operational priority for all mining companies, given the significant investment in water management and the risks that poor management can pose to production continuity. Commercial divers have been used in the mining industry from many years to perform tasks such as potable water maintenance, reservoir cleaning, anode maintenance and salvage of equipment. In more recent years, the scope of the diving services has widened to focus heavily on inspection and
servicing of underwater assets while they are online, in an effort to prevent supply interruption. Recent advances in underwater nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment, coupled with the availability of formal NDT courses for commercial divers, means that many assets that previously needed to be inspected dry can now be serviced by divers. Similarly, reservoirs and tanks that may have once been drained for cleaning, inspection, servicing or leak detection, are increasingly being done while still operational, resulting in zero downtime. Antony Old from Fremantle Commercial Diving in Western Australia has been involved in mine diving operations for many years, and attributes the recent expansion of mine site diving to the ongoing demand for efficiency in the mining sector. “In recent years we have seen a shift in the type of services we are being asked to deliver,” he says. “The demand is increasingly coming from larger mining companies, focused on delivering better environmental outcomes or reducing asset downtime. We are working with larger companies to put long-term safety and asset design strategies in place, so that assets can be dived on-line, with no supply interruption.”
April 2013 water
Feature article temperature on mine sites can often make the use of dry suits difficult, due to the danger of the divers suffering heat stress (hyperthermia). Diving in potable water supplies typically involves routine cleaning and inspection of assets to remove sediment and check components for corrosion, wear or damage. Build-up of sediment on the floor of the tank increases the risk of naegleria or harmful bacterial pathogens residing in the storage facility, and can make it difficult to hold required chlorine residuals. Without proper monitoring and regular preventative tank maintenance, these bacterial pathogens can pose a serious health risk to water users.
The diver undergoes safety checks prior to diving an open reservoir.
tWo AreAs oF operAtion The demand for divers on a mine site typically comes from two discrete areas:
hygiene protocols in order to avoid water contamination. These protocols typically involve using
potable water supply and production water
special equipment that is dedicated only
supply. While these may seem similar in
to potable water diving, chlorinating all
nature, the equipment and procedures
equipment prior to entering the water
required to dive these assets is very
and kitting divers in full dry suits to
different. It is very important when diving
prevent contact with the water. Although
potable water assets to observe strict
this may sound straightforward, high water
Mine diving teams must be qualified, portable and self-sufficient to operate efficiently.
water April 2013
Divers are used to remove the buildup of sediment from the tank floor using specialised suction systems. A well-prepared dive team will have water-efficient cleaning systems for removing sediment quickly and easily from tank or reservoir floors. It is important that these systems do not require hydraulic fluid or other chemicals to be fed inside the tank to ensure there is no risk of water contamination. A qualified potable tank dive team, even if mobilised to the most remote of sites, should be fully self-contained and equipped to professionally record and report on the assetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s condition using high quality underwater photographs and video. The use of divers mitigates the need to drain the asset, which not only saves water, but also saves costly procedures for bacterial testing and chlorination during re-filling. Potable water storage facilities come in all shapes and sizes, built for a variety of different purposes, but essentially they all share key components that need regular cleaning, inspection and maintenance to keep the asset online
A diver is chlorinated prior to diving a potable water tank.
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April 2013 water
Feature Article Suitably experienced commercial dive teams are able to effectively maintain fire and dust suppression systems while keeping them operational. This means no disruptions to regular operations, as the suppression systems are still functional while divers are working on them. With thoughtful planning, both fire and dust suppression reservoirs can be cleaned using divers, reducing the costs of maintenance and eliminating down time on the asset. Dive teams are able to clean the water storage reservoir or tank using a specialised vacuum dredge to pump aquatic plants and silt out of the reservoir. This organic waste matter can either be pumped to on-site handling facilities, or de-watered using specialised equipment. After cleaning, reservoirs and tanks can be inspected and checked for leaks by divers more easily, as water visibility is improved dramatically. With systematic leak detection by experienced divers, holes in reservoirs and tanks can be located and permanently repaired to stop loss of precious water. A well-prepared commercial dive team will be equipped to operate in the most remote and extreme conditions, with a range of systems to cope with diverse conditions. “Often we are operating in very remote Good commercial dive teams will arrive at mine sites fully equipped to dive in a range of water storage assets. and hygienic. This type of diving is not only utilised by mining companies, but is also used extensively by water boards across Australia as part of their routine maintenance programs. Diving in process and production water assets usually involves dredging of storage dams and reservoirs, inspection and maintenance of submerged equipment, non-destructive testing, anode maintenance, leak detection and aquatic plant removal. The task of mobilising a commercial dive team to a mine site requires compliance with a broad range of legal and statutory requirements, applicable to both the mining and commercial diving industries. A diving company needs to be fully aware of mine site specifications for equipment and staff training requirements, and must carry current service and test certificates for all equipment used. Dive teams should include personnel with experience and training certifications in first aid, diving medicine, working at heights, underwater inspection, non-destructive testing, rigging and dogging.
water April 2013
Dust Suppression On many mine sites water is indispensable for dust suppression. A hot, dry and dusty environment can make for hazardous work conditions. Fire and dust suppression systems are crucial for ensuring a safe working environment. Water for dust suppression systems is typically stored in large open-air reservoirs or tanks and is distributed by water trucks onto haul roads, or wherever needed. Open-air reservoirs can be subject to excessive aquatic plant growth, sedimentation and loss of water through leaks, all diminishing the water storing capacity of the reservoir and the volume of water available for dust suppression.
environments,” says Antony Old. “We have custom built several dive spreads into air-conditioned trucks, some with 4-wheel drive capability, in order to properly service our remote mining clients. There are plenty of logistics to consider and the smallest oversight can result in several days of downtime – dive teams must be selfsufficient, well-equipped and carry spares for almost everything.” With some of the world’s largest mining companies shifting their operations towards the use of commercial divers, this sector of the industry looks set for rapid growth. While it may seem unorthodox, the use of commercial divers in mining is just another example of how the water industry is using progressive thinking to solve traditional problems in new ways. WJ
Antony Old (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) is Contracts Manager at Fremantle Commercial Diving. Antony has worked in the commercial diving industry for over a decade, with years of hands-on experience as a commercial diver and dive supervisor. Antony now spends the majority of his time designing and adapting diving systems to be durable and reliable as well as consulting with mining clients about how best to meet their water infrastructure challenges.
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Piping Design to AS4041 & ASME B31.3 Brisbane 16 & 17 September 2013 Christie Conference Centre Perth 19 & 20 September 2013 Cliftons Conference Centre
KASA Redberg has now finalised its seminar schedule for 2013 and will be running the ever popular “Pump Fundamentals”, “Liquid Piping Systems Fundamentals”, “Pressure Vessel Design to AS1210” and “Piping Design to AS4041 & ASME B31.3” seminars again in Australia. These seminars are all of two days duration. “Pump Fundamentals” and “Liquid Piping Systems Fundamentals” The information presented in “Pump Fundamentals” and “Liquid Piping Systems Fundamentals” includes: Pump calculations, pump types, sizing, selection, installation, maintenance, pipe and fittings selection, pipe sizing, pipeline materials and operation, wall thickness calculations, valves, instruments, drafting, relevant codes and standards, worked example problems and much more. Discounts apply for early registrations, dual seminar bookings and multiple registrations from the one organisation. We can also run these seminars at your own workplace or customise them to suit your needs. We have also provided customised pump/pipeline seminars to many organisations involved in the water and wastewater sector, mining and minerals processing etc including consultants and public utilities. “Pressure Vessel Design to AS1210” For those involved in the design of pressure vessels, our “Pressure Vessel Design to AS1210” seminar is a must. The information presented includes: Relevant background and strength of materials theory, vessel classes, vessel components, commonly used materials, materials testing, vessel corrosion, joint design, shell design, load combinations, openings design, supports design, vessel ancillaries, vessel manufacture, worked example probems and much more. This seminar is presented in conjunction with our seminar partner - Sherwood Design & Engineering. “Piping Design to AS4041 & ASME B31.3” By popular demand, this seminar will now be run in public venues for the first time in 2013. The purpose of this seminar is to provide guidance to those who are not only new to piping, but are also required to design “code compliant” piping systems as part of their job function. The seminar starts with a refresher of relevant “strength of materials” information and a history of piping codes/standards before diving into piping code design topics such as: Determining wall thickness, allowable stresses, stress reduction factors, design of stiffener rings, fittings, pipe support spacing, combined loading, dynamic fluid loading, thermal expansion, flexibility analysis, Stress Intensification Factors, cold spring, pipe supports, nozzle loads, flexible joints and computer stress analysis. Many worked example problems are presented. Contact Details For more information on our seminars (including a full seminar synopsis) and to obtain registration forms, call KASA on (02) 9949 9795 or email email@example.com or visit www.kasa.com.au.
Engineers & Technical Trainers April 2013 water
Monitoring biodigesters on and around the Tonle Sap, Cambodia: A week in the field WASH Engineering Adviser Gabrielle McGill writes of her experiences working with Engineers Without Borders to improve sanitation options in Cambodia. The Tonle Sap lake and its surrounding area is home to 1.6 million people in Cambodia, many of whom live in floating communities. Currently few appropriate, affordable sanitation options exist for floating houses, and the addition of pig farms to these communities has increased sanitation issues. Live and Learn Environmental Education is a Cambodian-based non-governmental organisation one of whose major initiatives in Cambodia is its WASH program, which has the aim of improving local sanitation and hygiene. I am currently assisting with the trial of a number of new small household biodigesters for floating or flood-affected communities, which in addition to improving sanitation for the community can also produce biogas that can be used for cooking, while treated waste can be used as a fertiliser. Still in its early stages, Live and Learn is researching both through trials installed in the community and at a demonstration site in Phnom Penh. My day-to-day work varies with time spent out in the field, in the office planning for the month, writing reports on lessons learned and general documentation, and also time at our testing site. At the testing site we
A floating village in the wet season (left) and in the dry. have seven biodigesters, which we have set up to test different feeds, retention times and prototypes to improve operation, which should hopefully improve community use. About once a month I head out to the field for a week. Here is a brief series of diary entries from my last stint in the field. Day 1. The trip begins I arrive at the office in Phnom Penh but we’re not ready to go yet. There are a few more bits of paperwork to complete, a couple more tools and other items to grab from the workshop out the back… and, I guess the biggest hindrance to us leaving – the car hasn’t arrived yet. Finally the car turns up and is dutifully packed with all our necessary belongings for the week – hammocks for sleeping in, water for drinking, but only a small amount of food for eating, as we’ll be getting more food in the field.
Fish being smoked in one of the communities.
water APRIL 2013
We’re off shortly afterwards. As the constant chatter in Khmer (that I wish I could understand) from my colleagues fills the bus, I sit and watch Cambodia pass by – rice paddies (mostly being harvested), cows and the Tonle Sap River. We soon arrive at our port where we get on a boat to get to the floating village we are working with. I’ve never been to the floating village in the dry season before so it all looks quite different. Housing that was only previously accessible by boat (similarly to Venice in some ways) is now accessible by land – albeit a very muddy land. We meet up with local staff from the area and they take us around to some of the biodigesters we have previously installed, and tell us how they think the project is working in the community. They talk about how some people are using the biogas a lot
A trip on a ‘cow machine’.
Gabrielle and colleague Pheng Buntha transporting a biodigester for installation in Phat Sanday, a floating community on the Tonle Sap in Cambodia.
One of the floating biodigesters (and a monkey).
who has a system is using it properly. We ask whether or not they are able to cook with the gas and what they cook. Often they use it mainly for boiling water for coffee, but some people are able to cook rice (a staple in the Cambodian diet). Day 3. Farewell to a colleague We leave our floating village for the day and head to our other target area – a land-based region that is sometimes prone to flooding. I say farewell to an Environmental Engineering Masters student from Lund University Sweden, who has been investigating the environmental impact of biodigester installation on the Tonle Sap, and head off on what is literally translated to mean “a cow machine”, while he sets off on a motorbike down a particularly sandy street (I hope he makes it back to Phnom Penh!).
Sunset in the dry land community. for cooking, and how others struggle to find time to put the waste in the biodigester as they are so busy fishing. It’s exciting to hear that people think the project is improving water in their community. With the day over it is nice to watch the sunset (although not quite as nice as it was during the wet season when it set over the river), then trudge through the mud to our accommodation. We set up our hammocks, complete with mosquito nets, of course, and then get ready for dinner, which means a trip back across the river. As on most nights on the Tonle Sap I expect rice and fish – it is a fishing village after all! Not being much of a fish eater, I am pleasantly surprised to see some pork as well! After eating, the team
chit-chats about a whole range of things. Again I wish I could understand, but alas the Khmer lessons I’ve been taking haven’t quite managed to make me fluent yet! We then hop back on the boat and cross back to our accommodation. Some of our luggage on the boat is a number of containers of fresh water that we can use for showering. Showering from a bucket is a new skill for me, and one that I am happy wasn’t too difficult to develop quickly. Day 2. More biodigester monitoring Some of the biodigesters are in need of minor repairs, so we replace some of the old stoves with new ones, fixing some gas reservoirs with more reliable materials. But we are mostly there to check that everyone
We go to one of our demonstration sites where I see first hand some of the work our agriculture team has done in preparing a nursery. The agriculture team has been working for around six months to educate the flood-affected communities about more resistant agricultural techniques and assist community members in growing their own vegetables to improve nutrition. It’s a nice piece of land and the sunset there is beautiful. We then head back to the main part of town for the evening.
Local community members helping to build a fingerling pond for the project.
APRIL 2013 water
Feature article Day 4. A perfect cycle The next day we head back to the field again. We run into a team of other Live and Learn staff who are helping a family construct a pond for some fish and build up the agriculture they have on their land. We have also installed a biodigester at this family home, so hopefully we can see a full waste treatment cycle evolve. (Human waste is treated through a system like a biodigester > then the waste is mixed to make fertiliser > the fertiliser is then used to assist the plants to grow > then the human eat the plants and produce more waste! After a full day’s work it’s time to relax – and after hand-pumping water for half-an-hour or so I feel that I deserve the break! The duck we are having for dinner sits waiting while I assist some of the others to prepare the basil and chilli for a meal that translates to ‘stir-fry hot’. After a tasty meal we set up for a night’s rest under the main part of the house, which is raised on stilts. Day 5. Back to some home comforts We finish off the work we had planned and travel back to Phnom Penh ready to enjoy some of the little things (like my bed). WJ
Repairing one of the biodigesters.
Gabrielle McGill is a Process Engineer who is currently undertaking a placement as a field volunteer through Engineers Without Borders Australia’s Live and Learn Environmental Education in Cambodia. Engineers Without Borders Australia (EWB) is a not-for-profit organisation with 10 years’ experience creating systemic change through humanitarian engineering. EWB volunteers work in partnership with local communities in Asia and Australia, assisting them to access basic needs such as clean water, sanitation, energy, infrastructure, waste systems and information communication technology. For more information visit www.ewb.org.au
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a riverside scene in Brisbane during the 2011 flood.
green cities/integrated planning
Transforming our cities while we keep the taps and toilets working Australia today is struggling to retain the key skills and knowledge needed to evolve urban water management to the next level. How best can we tackle these skills shortages to meet the challenges ahead? By Brian McIntosh, Tim Beckenham, Michael Yule and Mark Pascoe. Australia, the land of drought and flooding rains, is known globally for excellence in urban water management. We live in a country with an enviable reputation for, and level of investment in, innovative approaches to managing water from total water cycle planning and ecosystem health monitoring, through water recycling and managed aquifer recharge to watersensitive urban design. Yet our sector is fragile. We face a struggle to retain key skills and knowledge and attract the staff required for service delivery, while simultaneously pursuing agendas for urban transformation centred on better integrating water into urban landscapes to benefit urban ecologies, enhance liveability and secure climateresilient water supplies. The Australian water sector has to have the capacity to deliver both reliable service
A concrete-lined creek channel in Brisbane.
levels and the transformations required to enable our urban places to prosper and thrive into the 21st century. But how? What kinds of skills profiles are needed to meet these challenges? What professional development, education and training should we be investing in? This article draws on the concept of skills profiles to outline how skills and knowledge are embodied in people found in organisations, characterising water professionals into those with ‘I-shaped’ specialist skills profiles, and those with ‘T-shaped’ profiles that play a vital role in enabling innovation and change. The article argues there is a strong need to deliberately develop skills profile distributions across urban water management employers and, in particular, to focus on defining and developing T-shaped profiles to enable innovation.
Pressure to transform The drivers for change globally in water management are demographic and climatic, and Australia, just like everywhere else, is exposed to their influence. Population growth and urbanisation are the primary demographic drivers, with the Australian population expected to grow to between 30 and 40 million people by the middle of the century. We know that the construction of urban development causes erosion and waterway degradation, and we also know that continued urban runoff from impervious areas is a significant cause of waterway pollution and ecological decline. Yet we have to accommodate more people either by densifying existing urban areas, regenerating brownfield land inside towns and cities, or building extensively into greenfield areas. All of these options will, if undertaken traditionally, cause erosion during building work, and then increase impervious area with negative consequences for our waterways. The availability of non-flood-prone land in and around existing urban areas is likely to decrease with population growth, which will result in pressure to build new housing on flood plains. Doing so will create increased potential for flooding as extreme wet weather becomes more frequent and intense as a consequence of climate change. The effects of increasingly frequent flooding are already being felt in towns like Bundaberg, where small businesses have faced multiple floods over the past two years. There are limits to the ability of such businesses and their owners to respond, and eventually the risk is that either their will to persist or the cost of doing so will persuade communities not to.
april 2013 water
Table 1. Skills and knowledge challenges facing the Australian water sector. Skills and knowledge challenge
Potential problems caused • Reduced water security
• Increased flooding risk Lack of capacity to develop and implement effective responses to climate change, population growth and urbanisation
• Increased heat-induced mortality in vulnerable groups • Increased energy use and carbon emissions • Increased environmental impacts on receiving waters • Missed opportunity to enhance urban liveability through better integrating water into urban planning • Lack of innovation • Reduced water security
Lack of skills and knowledge relating to new technologies
• Increased energy use and carbon emissions • Increased environmental impacts on receiving waters • Missed opportunity to recover water, energy and nutrients from waste streams • Loss of reputation for Australian water sector
Lack of skills and experience in multi-disciplinary working required for sustainable water management
• Promotion or preservation of unsustainable approaches to managing water • Lack of innovation • Ultimately, a loss of effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of operations for employers • Need to recruit from overseas
Insufficient attraction of new staff
• Skills shortage within water sector employers
Service delivery challenges
• Increased work pressure on existing staff, leading to increased desire to leave sector
Loss of staff to other sectors
Loss of staff to retirement
• Loss of institutional knowledge and capacity leading to reduced service quality, increased risks and costs, and loss of ability to build skills capacity within employers • Increased work pressure on existing staff, leading to increased desire to leave employer/sector • Loss of institutional knowledge and capacity leading to reduced service quality, increased risks and costs, and loss of ability to build skills capacity within employers • Increased work pressure on existing staff, leading to increased desire to leave employer/sector • Lower levels of direct recruitment into water sector employment
Lack of water sector specific education programs
• Increased burden on employers to train & educate • Lower levels of skills & knowledge in workforce, leading to lower levels of service quality & higher levels of risk & cost
Climate change will have other impacts as well. The effects of hard surfaces in cities increasing temperatures significantly (the urban heat island), and causing increased mortality in the very old and very young during hot periods, is now well documented in Australia, the US and Canada. More air-conditioning is one response, but one that is energy-, carbon- and cost-intensive, tackling only the symptoms rather than the causes of the problem and contributing to the worsening of climate change. Other options include a range of ‘blue-green’ architecture such as green roofs, more urban tree planting and the construction of small wetlands inside cities – all of which offer cooling benefits through evapo-transpiration, as well as a range of ‘liveability’ benefits for urban living.
water April 2013
And finally, with additional population, the need to secure additional water resources for water supply will increase in urban areas, particularly as drought frequency and intensity are also expected to increase as a consequence of climate change around the country. A range of options exist for securing water supplies, and to cope with the extremes of drought and flood a range of options will likely be needed together in any given town or city. Opportunities exist to harness a range of resources for fit-forpurpose supply from treated wastewater through dams and desalination to rainwater and stormwater runoff harvesting. Taken together, the demographic and climatic pressures facing Australia’s cities suggest strongly that significant work is required to integrate urban and regional planning and design with urban water
management (see report by Ison et al., 2009 for a detailed appreciation of the opportunities and barriers). The outcome of such integration could play a significant role in transforming the layout, function and sustainability of Australian cities over the next few decades, and will require significant investment in skills, knowledge and workforce development. How well positioned is the urban water management sector in Australia to deliver on the required transformations?
Skills and knowledge challenges Providing reliable and cost-effective urban water services requires key professional, managerial and technical skills and knowledge. Driving transformational change requires an additional set of skills and knowledge. The Federal Government
green cities/integrated planning
Feature Article • I-shaped – deep disciplinary or functional understanding; an ability to resolve complex tasks and problems and to deliver technically deep, highquality outcomes.
Figure 1. T-shaped, Generalist and I-shaped skills profiles (adapted from Uhlenbrook and de Jong, 2012). (ICEWaRM 2008, DEWHA, 2009 and AWA, 2011) have described the key skills and knowledge challenges facing the Australian water sector, which we have organised into two categories – transformation and service delivery challenges – and teased out the nature of the problems that they might cause (see Table 1). The first challenge identified is our own – a failure to respond effectively to the pressures for transformation just described. Transformation challenges are those related to the kinds of skills and knowledge required to respond effectively to pressures such as population growth, urbanisation and climate change. Service delivery challenges are those related to the capacity of the urban water sector in Australia to provide high-quality, reliable and cost-effective water and wastewater services. From the work undertaken by the Federal Government and AWA, it is clear that the Australian water sector’s access to skills and knowledge is at risk from competition with other sectors, difficulties in recruiting and retaining staff, and demographic shifts as key “babyboomer” personnel retire, taking with them significant institutional knowledge. Addressing these challenges while at the same time developing and implementing a transformation program continues to pose a significant barrier for today’s urban water sector. The process of transformation itself poses a barrier; workforce and organisational transformations require key people with skills, knowledge and experience to stimulate and drive both change and innovation. Ideally, a transformation champion possesses a complex combination of deep disciplinary understanding, applied technical skills and knowledge, leadership, engagement and collaboration, strategic planning and – keenly, foresight – to look beyond what is considered normal for drivers, causes, costs and potentially beneficial opportunities.
Delivery and transformation – a skills profile perspective From manufacturing (IfM and IBM, 2008) through IT (Harris, 2009) to the management of large multinational corporations like BP (Hansen and Oetinger, 2001) the value of T-shaped skills profiles has been recognised as being essential to innovation, creativity and change. Specialist skills and knowledge are essential for quality and reliability in service delivery, but organisations need different skills profiles among their staff in order to recognise the need for change, to figure out how to change or to be able to implement change. The concept of the T-shaped professional is one of a skills profile that has deep disciplinary or functional roots (the vertical bar), and a broad understanding of how to apply that knowledge to different situations and areas (the cross bar). The end result is that a T-shaped skills profile represents a person who can effectively translate between disciplines and functional areas and who is able to identify opportunities for change. T-shaped people are said to be open-minded and curious, and eager to learn about other ways of doing things – often the reason why they develop a T-shaped profile in the first place. Figure 1 depicts three types of idealised skill profile: • T-shaped – deep disciplinary or functional understanding and an ability to apply that understanding in different situations; an ability to ‘talk the language’ of other disciplines and functional areas; • Generalist – knowledge of many areas to a limited extent; able to recognise the need for change and to connect people, but not likely to be deep enough in any one area to identify how to innovate or to drive processes of innovation;
T-shaped profiles are not to be confused with Generalist profiles. One can view Generalists as being dangerous to an organisation’s functioning if too great in number. Having people able to connect across many different areas can be useful, depending on the organisation, but the lack of a firm root in the deep knowledge of a particular discipline or function limits the ability of people with generalist skills profiles to contribute competently to detailed work. The need for and value of T-shaped skills profiles is now being recognised within the water sector (Uhlenbrook and de Jong, 2012, McIntosh and Taylor, 2013), but significant discussion is required to better frame what kinds of skills and knowledge T-shaped water professionals should have, how they should be developed, and how T-shaped roles might function. Thinking first about the kinds of skills and knowledge, we might tease apart generic skills and knowledge required perhaps of T-shaped professionals in any sector, from water specific knowledge. For generic skills and knowledge there are a number of literatures towards which we might turn our attention to provide content including leadership, innovation management, learning theory, collaboration, critical theory and praxis. The leadership literature focuses on understanding what makes for effective leadership (as a process of aligning vision, people and resources), what skills and behavioural characteristics make for effective leaders, and how those might be developed. The innovation management literature focuses on the skills and processes required across a spectrum of incremental to radical innovation, and simple to complex contexts. Learning theory and, in particular, organisational learning theory, provides an insight into the kinds of processes and skills most likely to promote the forms of higher level learning that are required for radical change in practices. The literature on collaboration is more dispersed, but provides insight into the set of key process skills that enables higherlevel learning and innovation to occur, how to develop those skills, and how to run collaborative processes. Critical theory provides a route to acquiring the skills necessary to developing fair forms of systemic urban change and to assessing
april 2013 water
Feature article the differential consequences of potential innovations across different social groups prior to implementation. In terms of water sector specific knowledge, we may think about the elements of the water cycle and how humans manage and intervene in those processes. Hydrology and water quality might be among the natural sciences; water treatment and hydraulics might be among the engineering; water resource economics, ecosystem services, investment appraisal and asset management might be among the financial subjects; and water governance, regulation, policy, planning, law, stakeholder engagement and collaboration, and social impact assessment might be among the relevant social sciences. The precise blend of water subjects required of any T-shaped water professional may require nuancing to the specifics of the role they occupy and the organisation by which they are employed. Turning towards how one might develop T-shaped skills profiles a number of approaches can be identified. One such approach (Harris, 2009) advocates developing T-shaped profiles early in education, at the undergraduate level, but such an approach may risk producing Generalists with insufficient depth, as previously discussed. Other approaches advocate utilising postgraduate education as the primary mechanism for deliberately developing T-shaped profiles, with some variation between avowedly professionally oriented approaches (McIntosh and Taylor, 2013) and more standard models of higher education (Uhlenbrook and de Jong, 2012). And finally, thinking about how T-shaped professionals might be employed within urban water management organisations we might identify three models: 1.
A small, select band of junior to midsenior employees across each functional area in an employer organisation is purposefully developed but given no formal roles. Rather, their ability to drive change is left with them in an emergent, or champion capacity; or A small, select band of junior to midsenior employees across each functional area in an employer organisation is purposefully developed and given formal roles. This might mirror the way in which BP (see Hansen and Oetinger, 2001) gave some senior managers a proportion of their time to engage in internal collaboration, networking and problem solving activities across normal functional boundaries – a formal T-shaped role with carved out time allocated to it; or
water april 2013
T-shaped skills profiles may become the new norm, leaving only a few I-shaped specialists in each functional area. Under this model as many staff as possible would be purposefully developed to become T-shaped, and all such staff would be empowered to act informally to drive change in an emergent or champion capacity.
The relative pros and cons of each model and of other models need to be dissected and assessed.
summary and conclusions The Australian urban water sector faces a range of challenges, from difficulties in recruiting and retaining key skills, to responding effectively to significant pressures for change – population growth, urbanisation and climate change. Developing T-shaped skills profiles has been identified as an important mechanism for promoting capacity for innovation and change in the sector. To progress this agenda and to move Australian water skills dialogue into considering how we build capacity to develop and deliver significant urban transformation, we suggest the following questions be addressed: 1.
What kinds of T-shaped profiles are needed by different urban water sector management employers? What kinds of change are needed in current urban water practices?
How should T-shaped skills profiles be utilised? Informally or through the creation of formal roles?
What kinds of developmental programs would be best for developing T-shaped skills profiles in staff?
How will the necessary skill development be funded? Where will the investment come from and to what level?
the authors Dr Brian S. Mcintosh (email: b.mcintosh@ watercentre.org) is Senior Lecturer and Education Program Manager at the International WaterCentre (IWC), Brisbane. He is leading a project to develop postgraduate, professionally targeted education services to help facilitate processes of transformation towards water sensitivity as part of the CRC in Water Sensitive Cities (watersensitivecities.org.au) ‘Adoption’ Program.
Tim Beckenham is Vice-President of the International WaterCentre Alumni Network (IWCAN), based in Townsville. Michael Yule is a Senior Consultant in Water and Environmental Management with CH2MHILL, and a member of the Board of IWCAN. Mark pascoe is an ex-President and Life Member of AWA and the CEO of the International WaterCentre. An Ex-Deputy Director of IWA, Mark has a 40-year career in the water sector including time as the Manager for Water and Wastewater for Brisbane City Council. He is a member of WIST, the Water Industry Skills Taskforce, co-ordinated by AWA. wJ
references AWA (2011): AWA National Water Skills Audit Report 2011, Australian Water Association. DEWHA (2009): Water for the Future, National Water Skills Strategy, Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, December 2009. Hansen MT & von Oetinger B (2001): Introducing T-Shaped Managers, Knowledge Management’s Next Generation, Harvard Business Review, March, pp 107–116. Harris P (2009): Help Wanted: “T-Shaped Skills to Meet 21st Century Needs”, Technology and Development 63, 9, pp 42–47. ICEWaRM (2008): National Water Skills Audit, Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts for the Council of Australian Governments, June 2008. IfM and IBM (2008): Succeeding Through Service Innovation: A Service Perspective For Education, Research, Business and Government, Cambridge, United Kingdom: University of Cambridge Institute for Manufacturing, ISBN: 978-1-902546-65-0. Ison RL, Collins KB, Bos JJ & Iaquinto B (2009): Transitioning to Water Sensitive Cities in Australia: A summary of the key findings, issues and actions arising from five national capacity building and leadership workshops, NUWGP/IWC, Monash University, Clayton, www.watercentre.org/resources/publications/ attachments/Creating%20Water%20 Sensitive%20Cities.pdf McIntosh BS & Taylor A (2013): Developing T-shaped Water Professionals: Building Capacity in Collaboration, Learning and Leadership to Drive Innovation, Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, 150, pp 6–17. Uhlenbrook S & de Jong E (2012): T-shaped Competency Profile for Water Professionals of the Future, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 3, pp 475–483.
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ADDRESSING THE 10 KEY INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN AN AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT This article by Rob Skinner and Jamie Ewert builds upon a recent feature in Water21, which identified the primary challenges that must be addressed if integrated planning in the development of resilient, sustainable and liveable ‘Cities of the Future’ is to become the norm. Work that commenced at Ozwater’12 and continued at Singapore International Water Week 2012 and at the Bussan World Congress of the International Water Association (IWA) in 2012 has reached a consensus on the 10 Key Challenges that must be addressed if we are to realise the development of resilient, sustainable and liveable ‘Cities of the Future’. The IWA Cities of the Future working group and its collaborating Australian partners are now developing a Case Study Inventory that will identify and document best practice case studies that provide guidance on how these key challenges have been addressed in practice. The 12 key challenges are:
1. Engaging governments, industry and community early and consistently in the planning of cities To develop broad ownership of outcomes and a commitment to implementation of integrated water system management plans once they are developed. 2. Embedding water thinking in all phases of urban planning and operations to achieve more liveable and connected cities
Resilience includes the ability of the city to resist the effects of sudden or unexpected changes, or to rapidly rebound when stressed. Cities aspire to become more resilient to changes in environmental conditions (droughts, floods, heat waves) and unexpected changes in urban form or population.
To clarify and quantify where possible the role that water services play in creating a liveable city, beyond the provision of water security. Although liveability may not be a core responsibility of a water utility, water plays a key enabling role in achieving many aspects of liveability.
Building a diversified portfolio of both centralised and decentralised options is a key strategy to increase resilience. Harmonising decentralised options with centralised systems requires a tailored approach that takes account of local or regional conditions.
Water plays a key role in achieving ‘liveability’ in a city.
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3. Optimising and integrating water systems (central/decentralised and structural/non-structural options) to increase the resilience of cities
green cities/integrated planning 4. S tewarding all resources (material and energy) and optimising their use within the total water cycle It is understood that water and energy are intrinsically linked in cities. The production of water for Australian cities (including treatment and distribution) is becoming increasingly energy intensive. Similarly, the generation of energy often relies on significant volumes of water. Opportunities in this regard include the recovery of energy, water, nutrients and minerals from water supply and sewerage treatment systems. 5. E nsuring the ecological health of cities is protected or enhanced Improving the ecological and social condition of urban waterways is a key benefit of integrated water management. Yet the management of waterways is often a separate and poorly understood function. Emerging research is identifying key threats of urbanisation to Australian waterways and similarly specific opportunities to restore these environments using green infrastructure and recycling water. Embedding these options into water, sewerage and drainage planning is fundamental to the development of sustainable and liveable cities and provides a range of ecosystem services that address emerging urban health concerns such as the heat island effect and the ability to convey floodwaters. 6. Providing citizens with accurate and useful information to enable them to participate fully in planning processes and make informed individual choices on water system behaviour It has become increasingly important that stakeholders and communities are consulted to ensure that their views are considered in projects and that social, stakeholder and political trust in water systems is maintained. Forming partnerships and engaging stakeholders will be crucial to gain community acceptance of new ways of providing water infrastructure. In addition to improving the ways that we engage end users of our services, there is an imperative to provide signals and incentives to reflect the challenges that future cities will inevitably face. Much of this begins with information at a temporal and spatial scale that is both meaningful for end users and the city as a whole. Developing new ways to understand and manage the behaviour of water systems will empower decisions that have benefits that extend beyond water infrastructure itself.
7. D eveloping appropriate planning and investment decision tools – broadening the traditional economic, social and environmental evaluation approaches
accompanied by a range of services that will be delivered through municipal government, private service providers, developers, community organisations and householders.
The importance of providing affordable essential services to cities requires water utilities to ensure that investments are prudent and financially efficient. While traditional financial evaluation remains important, the emerging recognition of the broader value of water highlights the need for commensurate economic evaluation.
Managing this transition requires water utilities to actively support and build the capacity of this broader water sector and, in doing so, adapt their roles to suit this new complexity. The industry may also expand the range of products provided to include a range of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ services (for example, the successful water conservation education programs of recent years). Institutional frameworks will encourage collaboration and customer focus with communities actively engaged in the strategic planning of their cities.
This evaluation should take into account whole-of-life factors and the intrinsic value of options and flexibility in the face of uncertainty. 8. B uilding the capacity of professionals to embrace multi-disciplinary planning and systems analyses Integrated water management represents a multi-disciplinary approach to planning and service delivery. This necessitates a broad range of technical and non-technical skills, including an appreciation of urban planning, public health and other services in cities. Increasingly the development of capability in the water sector is focusing on skills such as engagement, systems thinking and innovation to complement existing technical skill sets. 9. M anaging risk to maximise innovation – tolerance of failure as a learning opportunity and commitment to continuous improvement and knowledge transfer Water services are essential to the health and vibrancy of the city. Risk of failure must be minimised, and investment must be prudent. This calls for an evidence-based approach to planning that is supported in Australia by both standard industry practice as well as independent regulation that is now the norm. Potentially contrasting with this is the need for innovation, which has inherent risks. Full knowledge is only likely to emerge over long time frames. While it is generally acknowledged that a lack of full knowledge or precedence should not prevent action, cities want to explore ways that risk can be managed and adaptive management can be incorporated into strategic planning and delivery. 10. T ransitioning cultures, governance processes and institutional arrangements to meet these new approaches Centralised systems will continue to provide the basis of water service in Australian cities. Increasingly, centralised infrastructure will be
Addressing the challenges: what does best practice look like? Following discussions at Ozwater’12 and the Busan 2012 IWA Water Congress, we now have: 1.
A clear consensus on the 10 key challenges that must be resolved if we are to achieve the IWA’s Cities of the Future vision and principles;
A slowly growing body of opinion and evidence on best practice guidelines and directions on how to address these challenges; and
A range of case studies and projects that demonstrate best practice application of these guidelines.
It is important to note that these challenges are not unique to particular cities or countries. They seem to apply equally to both large and small cities, and are relevant to the challenges in Australia and overseas. What may be unique to different cities are the particular best practice guidelines and best practice solutions will need to be fit for the particular circumstances of each city and its stage of development. Adopting a learning-by-doing approach is likely to be a useful method to address these challenges in a practical way. With integrated water management philosophies now established in many developed cities across the globe, there are new projects and initiatives being developed every year. These projects provide important case studies that collectively illustrate what best practice looks like. The IWA Cities of the Future program and collaborating agencies in Australia are now focusing on sharing the insights gained from these case studies, and progressively
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Feature Article and will come with an invitation for users to submit their own case studies to expand the collection.
developing an ‘information hub’. This hub, within a framework of the challenges outlined previously, will provide: • A repository of information on best practice theory, guidelines and case studies; • A reliable source of information and ideas to facilitate collaboration on projects; • A body of knowledge for feeding into training and capacity building programs; • A platform for identifying and addressing knowledge gaps in research and practice. In other words, this will be a resource to help improve processes for planning and design of sustainable and resilient cities of the future.
Next steps As a first step, case studies that address these challenges are being documented in a Case Study Inventory. A first draft of this Case Study Inventory will be available for distribution in mid-2013 through IWA and Australian networks. The draft Inventory will complement other information sources or information hubs that already exist,
Those wishing to be included on the distribution list of the Draft Case Study Inventory – and who may wish to contribute their own case studies to the Inventory – should contact the authors. This represents another step in the growing body of information sharing and collaboration that is necessary in order for the planning and design of water-sensitive cities – or Cities of the Future that are resilient, sustainable and liveable – to become “business as usual”. *A version of this article was first published in Water21, the journal of the International Water Association. WJ
The Authors Rob Skinner (email: robert.skinner@ monash.edu) is Professorial Fellow and Director, Water for Liveability Centre, at Monash University. He is Chair of WaterAid Australia and a director of Northern Territory Power and Water. In 2011 he was a member of the Victorian Government’s Living Melbourne Ministerial Advisory Council. Rob was Managing Director of Melbourne Water from 2005 until 2011. Prior to this, Rob was Chief Executive Officer of the Kingston Council in metropolitan Melbourne, during which time he held key positions in the water sector as chairman or member of boards or government advisory committees, including Water Services Association of Australia. He is a Fellow of the International Water Association and a leading figure in the Association’s Cities of the Future Program. Jamie Ewert (email: Jamie.ewert@ melbournewater.com.au) is a member of Melbourne Water’s Strategic Planning Group, and has previously worked for the NSW Environment Protection Authority and Southern Rural Water in Victoria. At Melbourne Water he has worked in various aspects of waterway management and integrated water management. Jamie is also a member of the IWA’s Cities of the Future working group and the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities.
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Revolutionising Urban Water Management The CRC for Water Sensitive Cities will receive $30 million in Australian Government funding until 30 June 2021 to undertake research that will revolutionise water management in Australia and overseas. Ana Deletic, Anas Ghadouani, Jurg Keller and Tony Wong discuss the key objectives of CRC-WSC and outline its vision of the water-sensitive city. The Australian Government has made the creation of liveable, sustainable and productive cities a national priority and identified reform of urban water systems as a key goal. This acknowledgement has encouraged significant public and private support for the establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Water Sensitive Cities, an inter-disciplinary research program that will revolutionise urban water management in Australian cities. The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;revolutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is in the interdisciplinary approach that will be adopted in research and associated partnership with industry across multiple industry sectors. This is in recognition that the challenge in building water resilience in the face of increased climatic variability and uncertainty is manifold. It is not exclusively about water. Solutions will need to be integrated into the city form in an inter-disciplinary manner in order to foster a higher degree of climate resilience in cities of the future. This article presents an overview of the research activities of the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities and its vision of the water-sensitive city.
The Origins of CRC for Water-Sensitive Cities In November 2012, the then Federal Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Senator the Hon Kim Carr, announced funding of almost $148 million for world-class collaborative research and innovation under the Australian Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cooperative Research Centres program. In addition to four renewals of existing CRCs, two new CRCs were to be established, one of which is the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities (CRC-WSC). The CRC-WSC will receive $30 million in Australian Government funding until 30 June 2021, and is supported by higher education institutions, government and non-government organisations, water
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utilities and the private sector, which are contributing a further $89 million. This CRC brings together the interdisciplinary research expertise and thought-leadership to undertake research that will revolutionise water management in Australia and overseas. In collaboration with over 70 research, industry and government partners, the CRC-WSC will deliver the socio-technical urban water management solutions, education and training programs, and industry engagement required to make towns and cities water sensitive. The Australian CRC Program has had a long connection with water. Since its commencement in 1991, it has established the CRC for Catchment Hydrology from 1992 to 2005, the CRC for Freshwater Ecology from 1993 to 2005, and its amalgamation into eWater CRC from 2004 to 2012, and the CRC for Water Quality and Treatment from 1995 to 2008. The CRC for Water Sensitive Cities will run from 2012 to 2021. Currently, it is the only existing water-related CRC in Australia. The CRC for Water Sensitive Cities has four hubs, located in Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Singapore.
Why DO WE NEED Water-Sensitive Cities? Cities across the globe are facing increasing challenges for managing water. Water is critical for the health, viability and development of cities, yet urban population growth and climate variability are placing pressure on resource availability and already stressed ecosystems. At the same time, water services infrastructures are reaching the end of their lifespan in developed countries, while developing countries race to meet growing needs, often importing traditional models and standards from developed nations, arguably unsuited to their conditions and socio-political contexts (Boyle et al., 2010).
These prevailing water management technologies, modelled on large centralised potable supply systems, do not always offer urban communities the flexibility needed for meeting sustainable development goals, nor the ability to address future conditions. It is also increasingly recognised that, along with changing consumption habits and expectations, sustainable development is more likely to be achieved through a diverse suite of alternative supplies, such as recycled wastewater, greywater, stormwater and decentralised technologies augmenting centralised infrastructure, while protecting waterway health, thus building flexibility into servicing options (e.g., Newman, 2001; Lienert, Monstadt and Truffer, 2006). Despite policy rhetoric, proven technology options and well-performing demonstrations projects, modern cities have had limited success at implementing and managing these complex water supply and waterway health protection practices in a cohesive and mainstream way. The water-sensitive cities initiative is responding to a general consensus across multiple sectoral stakeholders in the urban planning and design of future cities that existing water services and planning processes are poorly equipped to support projected population growth and slow to respond to economic or climatic uncertainty. In essence, cities were trying to meet 21st century challenges by re-investing in 19th century strategies and infrastructures. The wicked problem we face in building water resilience in the face of increased climatic variability and uncertainty is manifold. It is not exclusively about water. Solutions will need to be integrated into the city form in an inter-disciplinary manner in order to foster a higher degree of climate resilience in cities of the future (Wong et al., 2012).
green cities/integrated planning The Research Program Through an extensive consultation process, our participants and stakeholders have identified a number of key challenges to urban water reform required to transform cities into liveable, resilient, sustainable and productive cities. With a research budget in excess of $100 million, our research over the next nine years will guide capital investments of more than $100 billion by the Australian water sector and more than $550 billion of private sector investment in urban development over the next 15 years. Organisations across all sectors are stakeholders in this endeavour and they will all benefit, to a varying degree, from the partnership with the CRC-WSC and the integrated approach in which science will be used to inform practice. The CRC-WSC has already developed 32 projects or sub-projects to address these challenges and the Board of the CRC-WSC has now committed $50 million of cash and in-kind resources to execute these firstround projects. These projects will forge links with our partners across the public, private and tertiary education sectors. They will involve the participation of 167 researchers and 43 PhD students. To effectively address the complex interdependencies of the many socio-technical factors influencing water management in cities of the future, we will employ an inter-disciplinary delivery approach. This approach will place practitioners, policy makers and regulators in inter-disciplinary teams with researchers whose expertise may be in areas such as: water engineering; urban planning; commercial and property law; urban ecology; urban climatology and global climate science; social and institutional science; organisational behaviour; change management; the water economy; risk assessment; social marketing; and community health. These teams will be incorporated in activities across all research hubs (Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Singapore), assuring that interdisciplinary research does not include geographical boundaries. The ‘revolution’ is in the inter-disciplinary approach that we adopt in our research and our effective engagement of the multiple industry sectors. Our research team comes from over 20 different disciplines, encompassing seven of the 10 faculties in Monash University, five of the nine faculties in The University of Western Australia and five of the six faculties in The University of Queensland.
All partner organisations will be engaged and their participation sought throughout the life of the CRC-WSC, with two Industry Partners Workshops and a further two Research Workshops convened annually. The focus of the Industry Partners Workshops is to disseminate research insights and findings and invite industry feedback at every stage of the research undertaken. From previous experience, discussions among industry participants at these workshops will include issues of adaptation and implementation of research outputs to accommodate the local social, institutional and biophysical environment. The Research Workshops are designed to foster communication and integration across research programs. In additional to the four whole-of-CRCWSC workshops annually, there will also be regular hub-based activities including seminars, training workshops and short courses, and technical field trips organised for partner organisations. Research activities are grouped into four research programs entitled: Society, Water Sensitive Urbanism, Future Technologies and Adoption Pathways. Society The research program on Society will focus on understanding and delivering the social transformations needed to support water-sensitive cities, including community attitude and behavioural change, governance and economic assessment practices, management systems and technological innovation. As a snapshot of this program, the project entitled “Economic Modelling and Analysis” is focused on the valuation of economic, social and ecological costs and benefits of contemporary urban water management. This will lead to the development of a more robust economic valuation framework to internalise many of the current externalities associated with the contribution of urban water management towards urban liveability. Our partners across all sectors could use this framework to inform policy on public-private investment in water projects, and to assess and prioritise competing projects. Water-Sensitive Urbanism The research program on Water Sensitive Urbanism will focus on investigating the influence of urban configurations on resource flows across a range of scales. It will apply green infrastructure and climate responsive design principles to water security, flood protection and the ecological health of terrestrial and aquatic landscapes from whole-of-catchment to street level.
Feature Article As a snapshot of this program, the project entitled “Statutory Planning for Water Sensitive Urban Design” seeks to determine how town-planning frameworks can be reformed to more effectively support the implementation of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and associated research outputs from other projects in this program and also the program on Future Technologies. It is also concerned with the integration of WSUD policy with associated town planning policy objectives relating to subdivision, public open space planning, water recycling and stormwater management. Our partners at all levels of government could use the outputs from this project to underpin a more evidence-based policy development in urban planning. Future Technologies The program on Future Technologies will focus on developing integrated and multi-functional urban water systems that manage and/or use multiple water sources at a range of scales. It will deliver innovative technologies for: integrative management of the urban water systems; fit-for-purpose production of water; the recovery of energy, nutrients and other valuable materials embedded in urban water; minimising the carbon footprint and ecological impacts of water systems; and maximising the potential multiple beneficial values of urban water services. As a snapshot of this program, the project entitled “Managing Interactions between Decentralised and Centralised Water Systems” aims to understand and assess the interactions between decentralised water treatment/reuse systems and central infrastructure, to support optimised integration of decentralised and centralised systems. The project will facilitate the future provision of water services through the integration of decentralised and centralised systems including the extension of the capacity of existing centralised water supply infrastructure through the provision of alternative water sources at local scales. Our partners in the water sector could use the outputs from this project to extend and augment the life of existing (centralised) water infrastructure through the introduction of decentralised systems that capture the opportunities presented from local conditions, that is synchronous to the urban development programs and that could avoid or delay significant capital investments associated with larger centralised infrastructure.
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Table 1: Stormwater treatment technologies achieving specific end-use water quality requirements (Wong et al., 2012). End use as per current Australian guidelines
Municipal use with restricted access (RAa) and drip irrigation (RAb)
Municipal use with unrestricted access (UA)
Dual reticulation with indoor and outdoor use (NP)
Drinking water ****
Screens GPTs Oil and sediment separators Before storage
Tanks** Sediment basins Ponds and lakes** Infiltration systems*
Wetlands** Biofilters*,** Stormwater filters
Sand filters Aquifers** Suitable drinking water technologies (e.g. microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation) * Could also be used for collection ** Could also be used for storage *** Alternative/ additional drinking water technologies should be adopted where specific issues are present (e.g. colour, metals, odour, etc.) **** Stormwater should currently only be used for indirect potable use, as far more research is needed prior to direct potable use Water quality level achieved when disinfection is employed (e.g., chlorination) Currently requires disinfection but this requirement may be removed in the near future with the advancement of WSUD technologies.
Details of the projects within these programs can be viewed on the CRC-WSC website: www.watersensitivecities.org.au.
to emerging and expanding urban water management objectives. The operational principles underpinning water-sensitive cities were described by Wong and Brown (2009) as consisting of: (i) Cities as Water Supply Catchments – meaning access to water through a diversity of sources at a diversity of supply scales; (ii) Cities Providing Ecosystem Services – meaning the built environment functions to supplement and support the function of the natural environment; and (iii) Cities Comprising Water Sensitive Communities – meaning socio-political capital for sustainability exists and citizens’ decision-making and behaviour are water-sensitive.
Envisioning a future water-sensitive city
Cities as Water Supply Catchments
Our cities and towns have always been the platform of ‘social-technical experiments’ and the intersection of competing and complementary objectives. It is within these ‘melting pots’ that the practice of urban planning and design integrates the socio-technical strategies and solutions
It is envisaged that future water-sensitive cities would secure their water supply through investment in a diversity of water sources underpinned by a range of centralised and decentralised infrastructure providing cities with the flexibility to access a ‘portfolio’ of water sources at optimal
The Adoption Pathways program is aimed at delivering a suite of capacity building projects and socio-technical modelling tools that will provide a focus for participants and stakeholders at a national regional and community level to interact, experiment, and learn from each other. This in turn will: improve community engagement; enrich educational and training programs at the professional and sub-professional levels; and support the development of robust science-policy partnerships.
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value and with least impact on rural and environmental water needs (PMSEIC, 2007). Stormwater harvesting is one of the most obvious examples of how cities can start utilising runoff generated from their own catchments, and therefore move towards becoming more self-reliant and resilient. Stormwater volumes discharged each year from Australian cities are substantial; while Brisbane and Sydney generate far more runoff than these cities are using, Melbourne discharges a comparable volume of runoff to what it uses. Major advancements have been made in the field of stormwater harvesting in the last decade alone, however the research and practice is far behind management of any other water sources. Stormwater has a highly intermittent nature, while its quality is variable and difficult to predict. However, stormwater is still of similar and often better quality than conventionally treated sewage (Wong et al., 2012). Our understanding of pathogen and chemical risks in stormwater remains limited, and therefore conservative estimates of pathogen and toxicant
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Feature Article concentrations should be adopted for risk assessments in the interim. Appropriate elements of an effective stormwater treatment train depend on the intended end-uses as summarised in Table 1 (Wong et al., 2012). It has been recognised that WSUD stormwater systems (such as ponds, swales, wetlands and biofilters) should be used at the very start to capture and pre-treat stormwater. These stormwater treatment elements provide a buffer to the highly variable pollutant concentrations, and bring stormwater quality to a predictable and consistently narrow range. For example, stormwater biofilters are able to reduce Total Suspended Solids (TSS) to around 5mg/L (Bratieres et al., 2008), while reducing metal concentrations below drinking water targets in most cases (Feng et al., 2012). However, to meet current national stormwater harvesting guidelines, the following applies: • If water is used for restricted or drip irrigation, no additional treatment/ disinfection is needed; • For all other uses disinfection is needed and for high level exposure uses (e.g. toilet flushing, cooling etc.) further treatment is also necessary. Novel WSUD systems are under development to target micro-pollutant and pathogen removal. They are mainly based on further enhancement of biofilter design to incorporate novel media for pathogen inactivation (Li, Deletic & McCarthy, 2012) and plant species that have anti-microbial properties (Chandrasena et al., 2012). Storage of stormwater in confined and highly valued urban space is another issue. Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) should be explored as the first preference when site conditions are favourable, since such schemes are usually the most cost effective. Schemes involving other forms of storage (e.g., underground and aboveground tanks, ponds, lakes, etc.) should be generally designed to meet a moderate volumetric reliability to limit storage costs; e.g., if the mean annual runoff volume is well in excess of the water demand at a site, it is generally optimal for stormwater harvesting schemes to meet between 50 to 80 per cent of total water demand (Mitchell et al., 2006). The site rainfall variability and demand regime (i.e., seasonal or non-seasonal) are the most important factors in determining the storage size required, and modelling using very fine resolution of rainfall data is necessary for reliable storage design (Mitchell et al., 2008).
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Sewage treatment plants will be places of recovery of resources including energy, water and nutrients. Localised wastewater recycling will be linked to local productive landscapes as a means of passive nutrient recovery.
these plants. This is where substantial new developments will take place over the coming years and the CRC-WSC has projects in this area to assist the partners and the industry with making this shift in an optimal way.
There has been a clear move across the industry to recognise that there is no such thing as ‘wastewater’ any more, but there could be ‘wasted water’ if it is not adequately used and re-used. In this context, the transition in strategic directions and long-term planning at a number of utilities from wastewater treatment to resource recovery is one of the obvious signs of such a shift in thinking. In economic terms, the major benefits at present can be gained from water recovery, with energy and nutrient recovery gaining increasing relevance with the higher power costs and also rising value of nutrients, such as phosphorus, nitrogen and even potassium.
In the context of resource recovery there are often also strong views expressed regarding the need to have decentralised processing rather than the current more centralised treatment systems. However, these ‘fundamental’ debates often ignore some key factors that need to be taken into consideration. Most importantly, public health can never be compromised in any water supply or sewage collection and treatment option. Using a decentralised approach can drastically increase the challenges in achieving this fundamental goal, particularly when dealing with combined sewage or blackwater (from toilets). The same can be true for water supply options from potentially compromised sources. On the other hand, water recycling for non-potable applications is likely best achieved at a more decentralised level, possibly even at neighbourhood or household level. This minimises the need for large distance piping and pumping requirements and can be implemented in a very flexible way.
The magnitude of the economic benefits has already been recognised by many industries such as breweries, food producers, refineries, etc. There have been several water recycling systems installed in the last 10 years in such companies, simply for the direct economic benefit they can generate by reducing the water intake and the trade waste discharge costs, which clearly outweigh the operational and even amortisation costs of water recycling installations. In the process, there are often valuable additional returns generated by the energy recovery (mainly through biogas from anaerobic systems), as well as direct operational benefits in the processing side, due to better control of the water quality from the water recycling systems. There are also direct benefits that can be gained in the public sector from such resource recovery initiatives. Water recycling could, for example, off-set water production from surface waters, providing either improved environmental situations through more flows in rivers, but it could also increase the available water supply security from a given dam or catchment area. This can reduce the need for alternative water supplies such as desalination in case of droughts, but it can also increase the flood mitigation capacity of large dams such as Wivenhoe or Warragamba, which may be highly beneficial in flood situations too. At present there are also major efforts underway into improving the energy efficiency of the public water systems due to the rapidly increasing electricity costs across Australia. Here, the reduction of energy required for wastewater treatment is going hand-in-hand with the increased energy recovery within
When it comes to energy and nutrient recovery, the need for integration of various scale processes is even more evident. While anaerobic processes and biogas utilisation for power generation are clearly more attractive and viable at a reasonably large scale (thousands of properties to whole city catchments), the recovery of heat energy may likely be best done at the household level. Newly emerging technologies, such as recirculating showers, not only save potentially up to 80 per cent of the water use for a shower, but the energy saving is of a similar magnitude and far more valuable from a financial perspective. These examples demonstrate that future water systems, in order to be more sustainable, will very likely need to optimally integrate various processes across all scales and provide solutions that are suitable for a range of water sources and end uses. Cities Providing Ecosystem Services Ecosystem services refer to the concept by which humans derive benefit from surrounding ecosystems. Historically, cities have always depended on ecosystems beyond the limits of the urban area; however, with rapid urbanisation the distinction between pristine ecological systems and urban areas has become less defined (Bolund and Hunhammar, 1999).
green cities/integrated planning Cities, through inherent human activities, both planned and unplanned, have dramatically changed the way people think about ecosystems and there are hardly any systems that remain unmodified or unregulated by these activities (Hobbs et al., 2006). In fact, urban ecosystems are now considered to be a new breed of ecosystem coined by Hobbs et al. (2006) as novel or emerging ecosystems. It is now well established that urban ecosystems, whether modified by human activities or artificially built (e.g., constructed wetlands), are unique and have a number of distinct characteristics that include the provision of a wide range of ecosystem services. These systems include street trees, lawns/parks, urban forests, cultivated land, wetlands, lakes and streams (Bolund and Hunhammar 1999), and are now a fundamental component of the urban landscape. These systems contribute significantly to a wide range of ecosystem services including water provision and treatment, drainage, recreation, and even food. For example, urban stormwater treatment and harvesting offers a significant opportunity to provide a major new water source for use by cities, while simultaneously helping to protect valuable waterways from excessive pollution and ecosystem degradation (Wong et al., 2012). Stormwater provides an additional and abundant source of water to support the greening of cities, which in turn provides multiple benefits in creating more liveable and resilient urban environments. Sensitive spatial planning would ensure that stormwater is conveyed
through a network of green and blue corridors of open spaces and productive landscapes that also detain flood water for flood protection of downstream communities. By adopting a multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary approach to the way cities are designed, the planning of future development/cities will integrate and embed ecosystem attributes in the planning and the design phases. The Water Sensitive Urbanism program of this CRC is setting out to develop new multi-scale planning methodologies for addressing the appropriate scales from streetscape up to catchment and regional scales, with the intent to foreground ecological systems in the statutory planning process. The inclusion of ecological principles in the design and execution of new development will ensure the connectivity between urban ecosystems at the relevant scales (Figure 1). This will ensure that the cities themselves become part of a global network of ecosystems (Bolund and Hunhammar, 1999).
Cities Comprising Water-Sensitive Communities Community values and the aspirations of urban places govern urban design decisions and, therefore, urban water management practices. Therefore, a fundamental underpinning of a watersensitive city is the social and institutional capital inherent in the city, reflected in: (i) a well-informed community of the ongoing balance and tension between consumption and conservation of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural resources and, therefore, living
Figure 1. A simplified example of a water-sensitive precinct. Ecosystems form a central and key component of the urban landscape (adapted from image provided by AECOM).
Feature Article a sustainable lifestyle; (ii) a community that is receptive to innovation and an adaptive lifestyle to continually improve the sustainability, resilience and liveability of their environment; (iii) the industry and professional capacity to innovate and adapt as reflective practitioners in city building; and (iv) government policies that facilitate the ongoing adaptive evolution of the water-sensitive city. While ongoing research can be expected to improve the design and performance of WSUD technologies this does not ensure their adoption into mainstream practice. The capacity of institutions themselves to advance sustainable urban water management is essential. Unless new technologies are embedded into the local institutional and social context, their development in isolation will not be enough to ensure their successful implementation in practice. Institutional reform for integrated urban water cycle management remains elusive. Like most reform agendas, it requires the consideration of options that are not immediately clear, technically or otherwise. The socio-institutional dimension of WSUD is still a largely underdeveloped area of research and is a primary focus of the Society research program of the CRC-WSC. Building a Water-Sensitive City Establishing water sensitive cities will require a major socio-technical overhaul of conventional approaches. It requires the transformation of urban water systems from a focus on water supply and wastewater disposal to more complex, flexible systems that: integrate various sources of water; operate through a combination of centralised and decentralised systems; deliver a wider range of services to communities (e.g., ecosystem services, urban heat mitigation); and integrate into urban design. Urban planning now has to deliver multiple objectives that strategically place green spaces and corridors that provide greater amenity, enhance urban biodiversity, protect water environments from urban stormwater pollution, promote harvesting of stormwater, influence micro-climates and provide safe detention and conveyance of floodwaters. Water planning and emerging technologies for fit-for-purpose water production, resource recovery (water, energy and nutrients) from our sewerage system and multi-functional hybrid centralised and decentralised water infrastructure must blend with urban planning. It is important
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Feature Article to note at this juncture that integrated urban water cycle management (IUWM) could be undertaken in isolation and is a subset of WSUD that combines these two processes of planning. We can achieve IUWM with a concentrated centralised infrastructure, while the many additional benefits of WSUD can only be attained through a largely decentralised approach to urban water management. Future water-sensitive cities: efficiently use the diversity of water resources available within cities; enhance and protect the health of urban and natural waterways; and mitigate against flood risk and damage. Public spaces are green infrastructure that harvest, clean and recycle water, increase biodiversity, support carbon sequestration and reduce urban heat island effects.
Leapfrogging the legacy of past practices Many developed countries are often encumbered by ‘path-dependent lock-in’ owing to institutional legacy limiting the range of acceptable solutions/interventions to those that would fit into the existing institutional paradigm. Studies have identified numerous factors leading to path-dependent lock-in, and this is often expressed in attempts to secure improved system resilience and sustainability by simply improving the efficiency of the existing urban water system. A typical argument leading to path-dependent lock-in is significant weight given to the ‘sunk cost’ associated with the legacy of past decisions.
Figure 2. Water Sensitive Cities Knowledge Hub structure.
The Water-Sensitive Cities Knowledge Hub The CRC-WSC has on its forward planning agenda the establishment of a Knowledge Hub to serve the following key functions: 1.
Developing countries where infrastructure and institutions are not well established are, therefore, more flexible and conducive to unconventional solutions. It is often for this reason that cities in developing countries are well-placed to leap-frog from a water supply city directly to a water-sensitive city. This is on the proviso that international aid programs do not inadvertently impose developed-world conventional thinking, planning and design of water systems onto these countries. Adaptive and integrated management approaches offer an alternative to the traditional urban water regime and present alternative urban water governance frameworks to support more sustainable and resilient practices. Sustainable urban water management regimes would emphasise a systems approach, whereby interconnections between the management of the urban water streams and other related urban water governance functions such as land use planning, urban design, infrastructure
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• Convening project-specific workshops and design charrettes. These are envisaged to be three- or four-day events, hosted by a sponsoring participant organisation, where key researchers and industry practitioners from CRC-WSC participant organisations come together to explore water-sensitive cities’ strategies for a focus site/project (nominated by the host organisation);
delivery and maintenance, project financing, etc, would deliver and protect multiple benefits, and are resilient to unanticipated outcomes by being prepared for multiple potential future conditions.
An Information Hub where software infrastructure will be established to serve as:
• Convening hub activities such as technical seminars and field trips; • Providing a neutral ground on which researchers and practitioners would interact with government agencies, regulators and the water sector.
• A repository of research outputs from CRC-WSC projects; • A portal to other information hubs of relevance, including database of location-specific bio-physical information, water governance policies, design guidelines, case studies of water sensitive urban design projects etc.; • A repository for high level meta-analysis of information available. 2.
As the Water Sensitive Cities Design Institute, where forums and workshops are regularly convened to facilitate the synthesis of new and existing knowledge and information derived from the many disciplinary studies in developing context-specific water-sensitive urban design solutions. Some of its key activities include: • Convening industry partners workshops;
As the enterprise that facilitates small to medium enterprises (SME) participation in the CRC-WSC, which will provide SMEs with the opportunity to invest in having access to CRC-WSC researchers, the research outputs, opportunities to participate in the development of demonstration sites, and education programs focusing on personal and organisational capability enhancement. Unlike participants in the CRC-WSC, those subscribing to membership of the Knowledge Hub are not investing in the research program, merely investing in having access to the outputs of the research programs and associated education and training activities. These subscriptions will be a revenue stream for the Institute.
M ade in ia l s u A tra
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Feature article In summary, the Knowledge Hub (Figure 2) is to be a ‘think tank’ and a ‘library with a difference’, i.e.:
both Western Australia and the Northern
• The think tank (the Water Sensitive Cities Design Institute) is supported by a strong critical mass of CRC-WSC researchers and thought leaders across 20 core disciplines and seven industry sectors of direct relevance to delivering water-sensitive cities;
of Environmental Systems Engineering at The
• The library is supported by a rigorous meta-analysis of information sourced from within the CRC-WSC and across a number of key information portals of relevance to water-sensitive cities.
Territory. He is Professor of Environmental Engineering and Deputy Head of the School University of Western Australia. His research interests include Environmental Engineering, Ecological Engineering and Aquatic Ecology and Ecosystem Studies. Jurg Keller (email: j.keller@ uq.edu.au) is the Brisbane Research Hub Coordinator for the CRC-WSC, responsible for coordinating CRC-WSC activities in Queensland, New South Wales
and the Australian Capital Territory. He is
The CRC-WSC activities will extend for close to a decade and will set out to transform the way we go about designing and building new cities, as well as improving existing cities. Through the combination of cutting edge multidisciplinary research and effective partnership with industry, it will provide transformative change to the way we plan, design, build or upgrade urban environments. It will offer global leadership in the design and development of water sensitive cities that are attractive, liveable, eco-friendly and resilient places in which to live, work and invest.
a Professor and Director of the Advanced
aCKnOWleDgemenTs The Authors would like to acknowledge funding from the Commonwealth Government of Australia through the Cooperative Research Centres Program. They would also like to thank Liah Coggins for editing an earlier version of this manuscript.
The aUThOrs Ana Deletic (email: ana. email@example.com) is the Melbourne Research Hub Coordinator for the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities (CRC-WSC), responsible for coordinating CRC-WSC activities in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. She is a Professor in Civil Engineering at the Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University and a Director of Monash Water for Liveability. She is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE). Anas Ghadouani (email: Anas.Ghadouani@uwa.edu. au) is the Perth Research Hub Coordinator for the CRC-WSC, responsible for coordinating CRC-WSC activities in
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Water Management Centre (AWMC) at The University of Queensland. He has over 20 years of experience in water industry research, particularly in biological wastewater treatment, environmental biotechnology, microbial fuel cells and resource recovery concepts. Tony Wong (email: tony. firstname.lastname@example.org) is Professor and Chief Executive of the CRC-WSC. A Civil Engineer, with a PhD in Water Resources Engineering, Tony is internationally recognised for his research and practice in sustainable urban water management. His expertise has been gained through consulting, research, and academia. He has led a large number of awardwinning urban design projects in Australia and overseas. He was the Institution of Engineers, Australia 2010 Civil Engineer of the Year and was commended for having defined “a new paradigm for design of urban environments that blends creativity with technical and scientific rigour”. WJ
referenCes Bolund P & Hunhammar S (1999): Ecosystem Services in Urban Areas, Ecological Economics, 29, 2, pp 293–301. Boyle C, Mudd G, Mihelcic JR, Anastas P, Collins T, Culligan P, Edwards M, Gabe J, Gallagher P, Handy S, Kao J-J, Krumdieck S, Lyles LD, Mason I, McDowall R, Pearce A, Riedy C, Russell J, Schnoor JL, Trotz M, Venables R, Zimmerman JB, Fuchs V, Miller S, Page S & Reeder-Emery K (2010): Delivering Sustainable Infrastructure that Supports the Urban Built Environment, Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 13, pp 4836–4840.
Bratieres K, Fletcher TD, Deletic A & Zinger Y (2008): Nutrient and Sediment Removal by Stormwater Biofilters: A Large-Scale Design Optimisation Study, Water Research, 42, 14, pp 3930-3940. Chandrasena GI, Deletic A, Ellerton J & McCarthy DT (2012): Evaluating Escherichia coli Removal Performance in Stormwater Biofilters: A Laboratory-Scale Study, Water Science and Technology, 66, 5, pp 1132–1138. Feng WJ, Hatt BE, McCarthy DT, Fletcher TD & Deletic A (2012): Biofilters for Stormwater Harvesting: Understanding the Treatment Performance of Key Metals That Pose a Risk for Water Use, Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 9, pp 5100–5108. Hobbs RJ, Arico S, Aronson J, Baron JS, Bridgewater P, Cramer VA, Epstein PR, Ewel JJ, Klink CA, Lugo AE, Norton D, Ojima D, Richardson DM, Sanderson EW, Valladares F, Vila M, Zamora R & Zobel M (2006): Novel Ecosystems: Theoretical and Management Aspects of the New Ecological World Order, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 1, pp 1–7. Li Y Deletic A & McCarthy D (2012): Copper Coated Media for Pathogen Removal in Natural Stormwater (2012): In 7th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design. Melbourne, Australia. Lienert J, Monstadt J & Truffer B (2006): Future Scenarios for a Sustainable Water Sector: A Case Study from Switzerland, Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 2, pp 436–442. Mitchell V, Hatt B, Deletic A, Fletcher T, McCarty D & Magyar M (2006): Technical Guidance on the Development of Integrated Stormwater Treatment and Reuse Systems, ISWR Technical Report 06/01. Mitchell VG, McCarthy DT, Deletic A & Fletcher TD (2008): Urban Stormwater Harvesting – Sensitivity of a Storage Behaviour Model, Environmental Modelling & Software, 23, 6, pp 782–793. Newman P (2001): Sustainable Urban Water Systems in Rich and Poor Cities – Steps Towards a New Approach, Water Science and Technology, 43, 4, pp 93–99. Prime Minister Science Engineering and Innovation Council (PMSEIC) Working Group (2007): Water for Our Cities: Building Resilience in a Climate of Uncertainty: Report, PMSEIC Working Group, June 2007. Wong THF, Allen R, Beringer J, Brown RR, Deletic A, Fletcher TD, Gangadharan L, Gernjak W, Jakob C, O’Loan T, Reeder M, Tapper N & Walsh C (2012): Blueprint2012 – Stormwater Management in a Water Sensitive City, Melbourne, Australia: Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, ISBN 978-1-921912-01-6, March 2012. Wong THF & Brown RR (2009): The Water Sensitive City: Principles for Practice, Water Science and Technology, 60, 3, pp 673–682.
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OUTCOMES OF 2012 International Water-Sensitive Cities Study Tour By Greg Ingleton, on behalf of the 18 Australian study tour participants A national and international study tour was conducted in 2012 to investigate advances in water-sensitive urban design. The sites that were visited were chosen through the use of six selection criteria developed by the 18 study tour participants. The participants visited sites in Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide prior to visiting sites in five countries in Europe. Of the sites visited, 12 are discussed in some detail in this paper. The discussion centres on the aspects of these sites that addressed the selection criteria. The sites demonstrated a holistic approach to urban development and, while there were differences between the Australian and European sites visited, there are similar drivers directing urban development on both continents. It was concluded from this study tour that the aim for future development in Australia should be towards resource resilience, with watersensitive urban design (WSUD) being a major aspect of resource resilience. In mid-2011 a group of water professionals were selected to participate in an international study tour for watersensitive urban design. The 18 participants represented five states from around Australia, all with diverse backgrounds, experiences and interests. The aim of the tour was to identify strategies and examples to enable greater implementation of WSUD principles to support the development of liveable cities in Australia. The specific objectives included: • The development of selection criteria that encompass the guiding principles of WSUD; • Identification of national and international sites (projects, programs and activities) that exhibit aspects of the selection criteria; • Detailed assessment of these sites including a site visit and discussions with the site leaders; • Post-tour activities to assist with the implementation of WSUD in our states;
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• Strengthen knowledge-sharing networks that are critical to bringing about generational change and adoption of best practice approaches to address the pressing challenges facing cities in Australia and around the world. This article describes the sites that were visited that best displayed the attributes associated with the selection criteria.
Selection Criteria Following discussions with Australian researchers and practitioners of WSUD, the group developed six selection criteria. These criteria were used to select the international sites to be visited. The criteria covered the various interests of the group and linked these interests to the overarching guiding principles of WSUD, as seen by the experts. Six criteria were developed and are as follows: • Catchment scale issues • Innovation and technology • Policy development • Community development and engagement • Sustainability and resilience • Liveability
Sites Visited The Australian cities visited as part of the national leg of the tour were Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide. The international visits were confined to the countries of England, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany. It was evident on completion of this study tour that there were similar themes and drivers that shaped the European sites. It was also evident that similar drivers have recently emerged in Australia and that the directions demonstrated at the European sites were applicable to many Australian situations.
Key Statements and Examples to address the selection criteria The six selection criteria were reflected upon at the end of each site visit. At the end of the study tour the overall key
statements for the criteria were developed and summarised by the study tour group. A selection of these key statements, plus the site visits that best supported the statements, are detailed below. It should be noted that a seventh criterion was recognised during this reflection process, being that of leadership.
Leadership Leadership was added to the list of criteria due to the importance of this aspect to the ability to plan, deliver and operate a scheme, especially where the scheme challenges conventional thinking and solutions. At least three of the large urban developments were underpinned by stability in leadership of the local government. The municipal council in Heerhugowaard, Netherlands, had the same mayor for 16 years, enabling carbon-neutral urban and commercial development to be conceived, designed and implemented. A second example of this was in the Swedish city of Malmo. The mayor remained in office for over 20 years, during which the city was transformed from an industrial city into one of the most sustainable cities in the world. While in Australia stability in local government is rare, it should be noted that the successes of the European projects visited were also underpinned by other social, environmental and or economic drivers. The true success was in having a champion in the right place (or position) at the right time, to take advantage of a changing landscape.
Community The importance placed on community and stakeholder engagement was evident at many visited sites. The community were invited to attend all initial urban planning sessions to allow early input and to give them the sense of ownership of the scheme. This was particularly evident in the urban renewal projects around Stuttgart, where the community were rewarded for their involvement with the installation of aesthetically pleasing urban landscapes incorporated into green and blue open spaces. In a number of cases, specifically in Germany, the universities were at the
green cities/integrated planning forefront of the design process, utilising outcomes from research to assist in the implementation of innovative infrastructure and strategies.
Catchment Scale A project that had benefits for a large population was best exhibited in the rehabilitation work that had occurred in the Isar River, Munich. This project aimed to restore the ecological value of the river and riparian zone, while aiding flood prevention and providing a scenic location for recreation and leisure for the city of Munich. This 8km section of river is located in the heart of Munich and prior to the restoration project was a concrete-constrained channel.
is an opportunity to improve stormwater management in Australia via a rethink of the type, size and location of infrastructure. There is also an opportunity to look for opportunities that will enable stormwater to remain in the landscape for longer periods of time to enable additional benefits such as reducing urban heat island impacts and improving amenity.
Innovation Three examples are discussed here that demonstrate innovative aspects that could be implemented into Australian situations. The first of these was the new wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Epe, The Netherlands. The WWTP uses a novel aerobic granular sludge technology developed by Delft University. Both aerobic and anaerobic processes occur within these biologicallyderived granules, removing the need for separate aerobic and anaerobic reactors in the treatment process. The majority of the process occurs in one tank, resulting in reduced infrastructure footprint, lower energy use, lower risk of odour generation and a greater rate of nutrient removal when compared to a conventional plant. The second example of innovation comes from the Vathorst Estate urban development area in Amersfoort, the Netherlands. There were several innovative aspects of this development, including the integration of water into the landscape. The entire urban area is intersected by canals that are used for stormwater management, influencing groundwater replenishment, transport,
Figure 1. Showing the before (top) and after (bottom) images of the Isar River upgrade in Munich, Germany (sourced from MUC Munich). There was a sense from the European site visits that the main focus was on water quantity, not quality. The main driver for this was the management of stormwater for flood prevention. In the city of Hamburg a stormwater strategy had been developed that looked at stormwater management from a multi-disciplinary approach. The Rain Infrastructure Adaption (RISA) stormwater project aimed to assess the current capacity of the stormwater system, considering issues such as recent flooding hot spots, the impacts of a changing climate, and future growth. The multidisciplinary approach ensured that all aspects of the catchment were adequately considered from a water management, public safety, sanitation and financial perspective. There is a significant difference in rainfall patterns in Australia when compared to the areas visited in Europe, however there
Feature Article recreation and amenity. Water is visible from almost all homes. Another innovative aspect of the Amersfoort development was the ability to enlarge or decrease the size of houses, according to the status of the inhabitant family. As a family grows, it is possible to add up to four new modulated rooms onto the top of the house, removing the need for families to relocate when expanding or downsizing. There are numerous varieties and designs of houses, ensuring that the area maintains an aesthetic appeal. The third example of innovation comes from the strategy used to encourage innovative solutions and designs in new developments. At several sites there had been a â&#x20AC;&#x153;competitionâ&#x20AC;? run to enable interested parties to lodge plans and ideas to gain a designer role on the project team. This has led to novel ideas being presented, and encouraged the establishment of multidisciplinary applicants, especially between research bodies and private industry. It also resulted in a holistic assessment of the whole cost of a conventional solution versus the innovative solution. An example of this, which is applicable to the Australian situation, was the additional stormwater infrastructure incorporated into the Scharnhauser Park development, Stuttgart. The use of open space for stormwater detention (which doubles as community open space during dry weather), in an area with high land value, was supported by a financial offset due to the subsequent reduction in the size of downstream stormwater infrastructure, easements and associated maintenance costs.
Policy Aspects of the policy criteria were demonstrated across most of the sites that were visited. Policy was the main driver for change in urban renewal and development projects. While policy shaped strategies and outcomes of projects, the interesting component of the policy criterion was the way policy was being shaped by tangible events.
Figure 2. An aerial view of the Vathorst Estate development.
The economic situation in Europe has undergone considerable change over the past two decades as a result of shifts in industrial patterns, the introduction of the European Union and, recently, the global financial crisis. In all of the urban development areas visited on the tour there was a significant percentage of state-owned social housing included in the project,
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Feature Article A further aspect of sustainability is the integration of transport into the development. In the four developments discussed in the Liveability section, all featured easy access to public transport and encouraged walking and bicycle use. The benefits from this include lower road infrastructure costs, greater amenity due to the installation of gardens and trees in place of areas required for parking, and influencing community health through exercise and lower carbon monoxide emissions.
which was located adjacent to mediumand high-end housing, ensuring that social barriers were minimised. As for environmental drivers and policy, there are two events that have significantly influenced change, being the introduction in 2000 of the European Union’s Water Framework Directive, and the noticeable shift in weather patterns, particularly the increase in flood events. Both of these drivers have had a major impact on stormwater management, leading to the mandatory use of green roofs and the installation of flood detention facilities in the urban landscape. There has also been an emphasis placed on water quality and the potential impacts, from both a quality and quantity perspective, on the receiving environment. The EU Water Framework Directive promotes the protection of surface waters by the financing of strategic projects and the enforcement of offsets and penalties for not complying with this legislation.
Liveability The liveability criteria were demonstrated at many of the urban development sites. While the European urban landscape differs from that in conventional Australian urban areas, particularly in the density of housing, there were developments that demonstrated features that would appeal to many Australians. Four developments stand out due to each containing examples of one or more components that underpin the liveability aspect of an urban area. These include low-energy houses (low carbon footprint), large areas of open communal space including areas referred to as “water plazas” (doubling as stormwater management infrastructure), the ability to connect the residents to their environment, smart use of water and vegetation for aesthetic and urban cooling benefits, a lack of reliance on cars for transport, and an overall “village” feel. These developments were Western Harbour in Malmo, Sweden; Vathorst Estate in Amersfoort, The Netherlands; The City of the Sun in Heerhugowaard, the Netherlands; and Trabrennbahn Farmsen in Hamburg, Germany. Trabrennbahn Farmsen was particularly appealing due to the design being incorporated into the footprint of a disused horse-racing track, shown in Figure 3. This development was set on a 15-hectare site and included the integration of the stormwater system into the urban landscape. No stormwater pipes were used in this development; all stormwater was directed through a series of small to medium stormwater channels that mimicked natural creeks.
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Figure 3. The Trabrennbahn Farmsen in Hamburg, showing the innovative stormwater management system (top) and the layout of the development. The holistic approach to integrated urban design demonstrated at these four sites represented an outstanding template for the design of future cities. There are some examples of this holistic approach in Australia, best demonstrated at Lochiel Park in Adelaide and the proposed Central Park Development in Sydney. Although Lochiel Park is not financially viable at its relatively small scale, as this was not the intention of the development, it does demonstrate the ability to undertake this type of development in Australia, and also sets the benchmark for larger developments in the future.
Sustainability Most aspects of sustainability have by default been explained in the Innovation and Liveability sections. The focus of this section is the consideration and integration of all resources in developments. Due to the similarities between the supply of energy and the water services, there is an obvious link between these two services. This is being refined by Hamburg Water, via generating energy from small hydroelectric systems on their pipelines, and also combining energy and water infrastructure together in new developments.
As discussed, there is a difference between the methods the Europeans are using to address the issue of urban design and those used in Australia. While in the past the main Australian driver has been the need to conserve water, the past few years of shifting weather patterns has seen a need to reassess stormwater management, and to address the impact of heat generated from urban landscapes. The European approach is holistic, due to the integration of water, energy and transport needs, stemming from a multi-disciplinary method of planning, design and construction. The influence local government (i.e. municipal councils) has had over development in Europe enabled the councils to dictate the terms of the development. Unfortunately, this is not the situation in many new urban developments in Australia. There are numerous examples of innovation in urban development in Australia, some of which exceed the European sites that were visited during the study tour, however these appear to be done in isolation and not to the scale witnessed in Europe. The European approach can be best described as the movement toward resource resilience in urban design, which is one step further than aiming for water-sensitive urban design.
Acknowledgements The 2012 Water Sensitive Cities Study Tour participants would like to acknowledge the financial and in-kind support of the following organisations: Melbourne Water, Western Water, Yarra Valley Water, Barwon Water, City West Water, Wyndam City Council, City of Melbourne Council, City of Port Phillip Bay Council, Sydney Water, SA Water, Water Corporation, Unity Water, GHD and Spiire. We would also like to thank the kind hospitality of our host organisations overseas. Greg Ingleton (email: greg.ingleton@ sawater.com.au) is Principal Advisor – Recycled Water, SA Water Corporation. WJ
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WHERE ARE WE HEADING IN CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT? James Patterson and Karla Billington from AWA’s Catchment Management Specialist Network discuss the ongoing evolution and emerging trends in catchment management. Abstract
Catchment management is a complex and multi-faceted field, encompassing a wide range of issues associated with interactions between water, land use and human activities within landscapes. Goals can include managing catchments for the supply of drinking water, waterway health and biodiversity outcomes, and human wellbeing (e.g. social and economic values). It is a challenging field because it cuts across multiple disciplines and sectors, and involves a range of different perspectives. Fundamentally, it seeks to address a range of complex issues related to the management of water and natural resources, which many organisations and individuals contribute to and are impacted by, but typically no single organisation has responsibility or power to address on their own.
Catchment management is a complex and multi-faceted field, encompassing a wide range of issues associated with interactions between water, land use and human activities within landscapes. Essentially, it focuses on managing water resources and ecological health of waterways and catchments, and linkages with a wide range of social, economic and cultural values. It spans both rural and urban contexts, and interactions with many aspects of the water cycle including urban water supply, wastewater treatment, urban stormwater runoff and agriculture. Approaches to catchment management have continued to evolve over the last two decades. The purpose of this artcle is to identify and reflect on some important trends that have been emerging over recent years in the broad field of catchment management.
The field of catchment management has been evolving over decades, and in this article we provide a brief snapshot of some key trends that have emerged in recent years. In doing so, we aim to broaden appreciation for catchment management within the water industry, and to encourage a deeper appreciation of its relevance, complexity and connectivity with all aspects of the water cycle.
Evolving approaches and drivers of new responses The need for catchment management has long been recognised and approaches to it have evolved over time. Concepts of ‘Integrated Catchment Management’ (ICM) developed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and embodied a growing awareness of the need for integrated approaches to manage cross-
cutting water issues. However, while there was strong enthusiasm for ICM approaches, there was in some areas insufficient scientific, social and institutional knowledge and capacity available at the time to fully enact these. The will to make the compromises necessary to protect waterway and catchment health in practice is another ongoing issue that must be addressed in order to convert ICM principles into application. From a longer-term perspective this could be seen as the beginning of a journey that continues to today, about what is required to fully implement integrated approaches within catchments. A wide range of different activities can be seen as contributing to catchment management – for example, managing point source pollutants (such as sewage treatment plants and industry) and nonpoint source pollutants (such as urban stormwater runoff, stream and gully erosion in rural areas, and agricultural land management practices) released to waterways, and developing more watersensitive urban environments. From this perspective, the principles and goals of catchment management (see box, below) remain highly relevant within broader efforts towards ‘whole-of-water cycle’ management.
Some important principles of catchment management • Healthy catchments support healthy communities; • Catchments generate multiple interlinked environmental, social and economic benefits; • Catchment management involves balancing these often competing benefits and values, and an appropriate balance will vary from catchment to catchment and may change over time; • The types and extent of land use and other human activities undertaken in catchments can significantly influence the quality and quantity of water derived from the catchment, and the wider associated environmental, social and ecological benefits of catchments; • Investments in improving catchments often take many years to show measurable change, but negative impacts often have more rapid effects; and • Many organisations and all community members have an important role to play in catchment management. NB: This working list of principles was developed over several months by the previous AWA Catchment Management Specialist Network (2011–2012).
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catchment management In recent years there have been a range of drivers for new types of responses, including: • Resurgent interest in ‘whole-of-water cycle’ and ‘whole-of-catchment’ management, particularly as the institutional context for water resource distribution is now settling down after a decade of rapid change (e.g. regarding supply-demand planning in urban areas, rural water allocations and water trading markets); • Increasing experience and desire for cross-cutting approaches such as ‘water-sensitive urban design’ (Water by Design, 2009), ‘water sensitive cities’ (Wong et al., 2012), and socialecological resilience (NRC, 2010); • Rising marginal costs of water and wastewater treatment in many locations, which brings water recycling and water quality improvement programs within catchments into greater consideration; • Catchments experiencing strong urban development pressures (e.g. expanding peri-urban development encroaching on existing drinking water supply catchments);
• Growing interest in pollutant offsetting within catchments in order to achieve more cost-effective pollutant reductions at the catchment level; • Increasing variability and intensity of environmental events such as floods and droughts, highlighting the need for healthy catchments to cope with a variety of extremes as a matter of course, and the need for communities to adapt to the effects of climate change on catchment processes; • Increasing policy integration of water cycle issues with land use planning and natural resource management (NRM) planning; and • Ongoing challenges of arresting declines and driving restoration of waterway and catchment health.
EmErgIng trEnds While approaches, arrangements and the level of focus on catchment management issues vary substantially across states and territories (Bellamy et al., 2002; Williams, 2012), what we focus on here are some patterns that we have observed across different contexts within Australia. We describe a range of important trends that we see emerging, and also identify some potential gaps and risks in these areas.
Feature article 1. linking catchment management with water resource planning and statutory land use planning While not necessarily a new trend, linking catchment management with water allocation and statutory land use planning is difficult to achieve, but there has been some positive progress in recent years. Historically there has often been a fairly sharp institutional divide between water allocation planning (in both rural and urban areas) and managing overall catchment health and the values it provides. However, there has recently been increasing attention on better addressing this fragmentation (Hamstead, 2010), which is essential for integrating water quantity and water quality issues. There has also generally been a similar persistent institutional disconnection between catchment management and land use planning. This is significant because catchment management in Australia has evolved to be largely reliant on voluntary coordinative and collaborative mechanisms and can, therefore, be limited in its directive ability to manage relevant activities and land use change. This can mean that tensions between land use development and catchment management goals are poorly resolved and, in some cases, may directly conflict. In order for catchment management
recent extreme weather events such as flooding have highlighted a range of catchment management issues in Australia. April 2013 water
Feature article goals to be achieved at a landscape scale over the long term, there needs to be better links with statutory land use planning. One area where there has been significant effort made to address this issue is in regards to the protection of drinking water supply catchments from inappropriate development (Ford and Lewis, 2010; Hurlimann and Ford, 2010). Many jurisdictions (e.g. Western Australia and Victoria) now have specific policy positions on acceptable levels of development in drinking water supply catchments. The challenge now is ensuring that these policies are implemented across all levels of State and Local Government, with objections and appeals sought for non-complying activities. 2. living in a variable climate and managing natural disasters Over the last decade there has been widespread recognition that climate variability is inherent within the Australian climate, and that this variability is increasing with climate change. There has also been increasing awareness that managing water and catchments based on long-term averages is inadequate, both because the ‘average’ is changing, and because high levels of variability is the norm rather than the exception. This highlights the need to adaptively manage catchments for a variety of possible climate scenarios and extreme events. Recent experiences with a variety of extreme events and natural disasters (floods, fires, droughts) across multiple areas of the country have highlighted these issues. This poses new challenges for understanding the role of catchment management under a changing climatic future. It raises the need to proactively manage catchments with these situations in mind, which includes building socialecological resilience and the ability to adapt in the face of variability and change. This may involve integrated and adaptive water management systems that match “fit-for-purpose” water resources with the varying demands of the community and environment. The need to protect and enhance landscape environmental assets will also increase as additional stressors come into effect. 3. Use of new concepts reflecting dynamics and change Related to the previous trend of variability and extremes is the increasing use of new concepts that are more reflective of the challenges and goals of catchment management in situations of change.
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In particular, concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptation are increasingly being adopted. ‘Resilience’, and in particular ‘social-ecological resilience’ (Berkes et al., 2003) is increasingly recognised as useful for thinking about how linked biophysical and human components of catchments respond to disturbance and change. ‘Vulnerability’ is a related concept that focuses on the extent to which future change will impact human and natural systems in a particular place, and has been particularly applied to understand impacts of climate change on communities. Both concepts are starting to be applied in different situations in different ways (e.g. LGA SA, 2012; Central West CMA, 2011; NRC, 2010; Walker et al., 2009), however despite widespread discussion, these concepts are not yet necessarily widely embedded in implementation plans and practices across the country.
5. Economic assessment and comparison of options Closely linked to the trend of evaluating management outcomes and effectiveness is an increasing focus on comparative economic assessment of management options. Assessments based on costeffectiveness and ‘least-cost’ decisionmaking on a whole-of-catchment basis are becoming more commonly pursued (e.g. US EPA, 2012; BCC and MJ, 2011; Bryan and Kandulu, 2009; McInnes et al., 2010).
The significance of these new concepts is that they have the potential to shift thinking about the purpose and goals of catchment management from static and reactive, to dynamic and proactive in the face of uncertainty, complexity and change.
If done from a genuinely ‘whole-of-society’ perspective (e.g. Mitchell et al., 2007), this has the potential to identify scenarios that are most beneficial across a wide range of public and private stakeholder interests. This could lead to new opportunities for sharing costs and benefits and addressing the seemingly intractable problem of ‘who pays’ for catchment benefits, which are often dispersed, long-term and shared in nature. However, given the intangible nature of many catchment management outcomes, care must be taken to use appropriate assessment frameworks that properly evaluate the broad range of benefits and costs to the community and environment, rather than purely focusing on short-term financial outcomes.
4. Evaluating management outcomes and effectiveness
6. Expanding focus from ‘management’ to ‘governance’
An increased focus on target setting and evaluating management outcomes has been a strong theme across a range of policy areas relating to catchments, water and NRM (e.g. Australian Government, 2011). This reflects an increasing focus in decision-making on management effectiveness and cost-effective (‘bang for buck’) investment, within a broader contemporary public policy focus on ‘evidence-based policy’ (Head, 2008). There has also been growing attention on prioritising and targeting investment in catchments based on multiple catchmentlevel outcomes, such as biodiversity, water and land condition, and human wellbeing (Landscape Logic, 2012; Williams, 2012). Also, in decision-making contexts that are increasingly contested (e.g. between different land uses, human activities and uses of water), there is a heightened need for transparent assessments of management outcomes and effectiveness for defensible water and catchment management decisions. Nevertheless, while a more robust understanding of management outcomes and effectiveness is useful for prioritisation and transparency, there is also a risk of oversimplifying complex and uncertain situations that do not always respond predictably or over short timeframes.
The final trend is increasing attention to issues of governance related to catchments and natural resources (e.g. Ryan et al., 2010). Governance as related to catchments encompasses the roles, responsibilities and relationships of different stakeholders in a catchment, and issues of accountability and power. In this context, governance is a vital aspect of managing water more holistically, equitably, efficiently and sustainably. Indeed, the need to address catchment governance increases with increasing number, intensity and competition between different activities and interests, as the degree of interdependence and potential tensions between stakeholders increases (Hirsch et al., 2006). From a public policy perspective, ‘good governance’ is also a requirement for the investment of public funds in catchment initiatives that seek to protect and improve both the quality and security of water resources, and/or waterway and catchment health more generally. The need for increased attention on governance becomes increasingly evident in responding to challenges of uncertainty, dynamics and change (Trends 2 and 3), because doing so requires the ability to reflect, learn and adapt, not just at an operational management level, but also at broader levels of catchment governance.
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Feature article thE Authors
conclusIons The field of catchment management has been developing for over two decades, and has a central role in our collective ongoing efforts to manage water and natural resources. The key message of this article is that the field continues to evolve and is currently maturing in a range of ways, including: • Institutional arrangements for aligning related sectors (Trend 1); • Conceptually, in terms of the way we understand and manage catchments under uncertainty, complexity and change (Trends 2, 3 and 6); and • Available technical capacity for understanding management outcomes and prioritising investment (Trends 4 and 5.) Catchment management-related activities are often pursued under a range of different guises and focal issues; however, we nevertheless see such diverse approaches as contributing to a broader catchment management agenda. Some of the trends identified, while relatively new in their application, are not necessarily new ideas per se, but have required extended timeframes to mature (e.g. technical, institutional and interdisciplinary capacities). Notwithstanding, there are, of course, likely to be many particular examples in different places of initiatives where these types of thinking have been occurring ‘ahead of their time’. Overall, the ongoing evolution described in this paper points to the future role of catchment management as a vibrant and cross-cutting field of activity that is vital to the sustainable management of water and natural resources, and enhancing human wellbeing.
AcKnowlEdgEmEnts The Authors would like to acknowledge the generous feedback on this article by David Sheehan, Team Leader – Water Regulation, Department of Health, Victoria and Pat Feehan, Director – Feehan Consulting Pty Ltd, Victoria.
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James patterson (email: james.patterson@ uqconnect.edu.au) is a PhD Candidate at the University of Queensland, investigating collaborative management action for the complex issue of non-point source waterway pollution, focusing on a case study of South-East Queensland. Prior to his PhD, James worked in urban water planning, and has qualifications in civil and environmental engineering from the University of New South Wales. He is a member of the AWA Catchment Management Specialist Network Committee. Karla Billington (email: karla@naturallogic. org) has worked across a number of water-resource related agencies and as a consultant over the last 17 years. Karla has substantial expertise in the application of the National Water Quality Management Strategy and the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines to catchment and water resource management, and has been called upon to lead or provide critical review for many projects which require practical solutions to complex multidisciplinary issues. She is a member of the AWA Catchment Management Specialist Network Committee. wJ
rEfErEncEs Australian Government (2011): Caring for our Country Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting and Improvement Strategy. BCC & MJ (2011): Case Study: Integrated Resource Planning for Urban Water – Cabbage Tree Creek, Waterlines Report, National Water Commission, March 2011. Bellamy J, Ross H, Ewing S & Meppem T (2002): Integrated Catchment Management: Learning from the Australian Experience for the MurrayDarling Basin, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, January 2002.
Head BW (2008): Three Lenses of EvidenceBased Policy, The Australian Journal of Public Administration, 67, 1. Hirsch P, Carrard N, Miller F, Wyatt A (2006): Water Governance in Context: Lessons for Development Assistance, Volume 1: Overview Report, Australian Mekong Resource Centre, University of Sydney. Hurlimann A & Ford R (2010): Development Control Within Catchments’, Water Journal, 37, 1, pp 88–90. Landscape Logic (2012): Linking Land and Water Management, hosted by University of Tasmania under the Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities Program (www.landscapelogic.org.au/). Local Government Association of South Australia (LGA SA) (2012): Undertaking an Integrated Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment as Part of Developing an Adaptation Plan, Jacqueline Balston & Associates, April 2012. McInnes R, de Groot J, Plant R, Chong J & Olszak C (2010): Managing Catchments as Business Assets: An Economic Framework for Evaluating Control Measures for Source Water Protection, CRC for Water Quality and Treatment, Research Report 83. Mitchell C, Fane S, Willetts J, Plant R & Kazaglis A (2007): Costing for Sustainable Outcomes in Urban Water Systems: A Guidebook, CRC for Water Quality and Treatment, Research Report 35. NRC (2010): Progress Towards Healthy Resilient Landscapes – Implementing the Standard, Targets and Catchment Action Plans, Natural Resources Commission, December 2010. Ryan S, Broderick K, Sneddon Y, Andrews K (2010): Australia’s NRM Governance System: Foundations and Principles for Meeting Future Challenges, Australian Regional NRM Chairs, Canberra. US EPA (2012): The Economic Benefits of Protecting Healthy Watersheds, Healthy Watersheds Initiative Fact Sheet, US Environmental Protection Agency, April 2012.
Berkes F, Colding J & Folke C (2003): Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change, Cambridge University Press.
Walker B, Abel N, Anderies J & Ryan P (2009): Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia, Ecology and Society, 14, 1.
Bryan BA & Kandulu JM (2009): Cost-Effective Alternatives for Mitigating Cryptosporidium Risk in Drinking Water and Enhancing Ecosystem Services, Water Resources Research, 45, p W08437.
Water by Design (2009): Concept Design Guidelines for Water Sensitive Urban Design, Version 1, South East Queensland Healthy Waterways Partnership, Brisbane, March 2009.
Central West CMA (2011): Central West Catchment Action Plan 2011–2021, State of NSW. Ford R & Lewis N (2010): Strategic Land Use Planning’, Water Journal, 37, 1, pp 86–87. Hamstead M (2010): Alignment of Water Planning and Catchment Planning, Waterlines Report, National Water Commission, December 2010.
Williams J (2012): Catchment Management – Setting the Scene’, Water Journal, 39, 2, pp 94–98. Wong THF (Ed.), Allen R, Beringer J, Brown RR, Deletic A, Fletcher TD, Gangadharan L, Gernjak W, Jakob C, O’Loan T, Reeder M, Tapper N & Walsh C (2012): Blueprint 2012 – Stormwater Management in a Water Sensitive City, Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, Melbourne, March 2012.
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AN EIGHT-ELEMENT APPROACH Hunter Water Corporationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s methodology in managing water quality in source waters involves a multi-strategy plan of action. Rhys Blackmore, Water Quality Scientist, and Declan Clausen, Industry Scholar, both at Hunter Water Corporation, explain. Catchment management and source water protection provide the first barrier for the protection of water quality (NHMRC, 2011). Due to their population base, water authorities in capital cities are often supported by substantial financial and human resources and a comprehensive legislative framework, which provide these authorities the opportunity to expertly manage their respective drinking water catchments. However, the story may be different for small to medium sized water authorities outside these areas. With smaller revenue bases and fewer people to undertake catchment based work, regional authorities often have significant difficulties in managing water quality in catchments by applying the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (the Guidelines) to their source waters. This article explains how Hunter Water Corporation (Hunter Water) has approached this issue with a methodology that is considered adaptable to utilities of all sizes.
represented by the web diagram in Figure 2. While significant work is required by the catchment manager to optimise the relative strength of each element for best practice catchment management, identifying the top hazards and working with stakeholders were identified early on as being central to the success of any catchment plan. The following is a summary of the methodology used by Hunter Water to systematically and logically address catchment issues.
Element 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Identify the Top Hazards Most authorities view the identification of water quality hazard location in catchments and their associated level of risk as the foundation data upon which to build an effective catchment management plan. Water authorities employ a range of methods to identify and rank a large diversity of potential risks to water quality in rivers. For example, water authorities
Hunter Water supplies water and wastewater services to approximately half a million people in the lower Hunter Region, New South Wales (Figure 1). It employs 480 staff, including a handful in catchment water planning and operations. Hunter Water, and its wholly owned subsidiary Hunter Water Australia, is among industry leaders for engineered solutions in water treatment and distribution. When faced with a significant upgrade cost for one of its major water treatment plants four years ago, Hunter Water began looking more closely into the nexus between expenditure on catchment management and engineered water treatment solutions. The Hunter Water Catchment Management Plan (available at www.hunterwater.com.au) was produced to articulate a strategy for catchment management activities. The Plan comprises eight elements for effective catchment management, which have been collected and summarised from the Guidelines and a diversity of other catchment plans. The central idea of the plan is that many elements are co-dependent, an idea
Figure 1. The Hunter Water drinking water catchments, NSW.
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Feature Article Catchment risks may then be ranked according to a prioritisation process that factors in practical aspects such as the cost of reducing each hazard, the likely effectiveness of remediation works and the level of confidence in the data. Hunter Water found that while the process of applying a spatial model was a powerful tool for making investment decisions, it was not essential. The process of collecting and spatially representing raw data is, however, essential. Collection of reliable spatial catchment information forms the basis of making good decisions about catchment management, and if a more complex model follows it may help bring issues into focus.
Element 2 – Have Effective Legislation Figure 2. The eight elements of effective catchment management, showing that each element is dependent on the strength of others. must be able to consider how to rank potential problems such as the risk of an onsite wastewater overflow against other issues such as the presence of cattle within the catchment.
Land use planning legislation that ensures developments consider the quality and quantity of water is essential to maintain or improve raw drinking water quality. Although not a consent authority, Hunter Water has adequate legislative controls in drinking water catchments to be a recognised stakeholder when developments are determined. Wherever possible, the catchment manager should seek legal advice about the scope of powers so they can be clear with the community and stakeholders about their responsibilities.
A repeatable and transparent way of assessing these scenarios is required so that rectification efforts may be addressed in priority order based on likely improvements and cost effectiveness. The most important step in identifying catchment hazards is to accurately determine the boundary of the drinking water catchments, followed by mapping the current land use in as detailed a form as possible. Additional data such as map layers of soils, topography, vegetation cover and location of settlements then further contribute to the identification of possible pollution sources. A common issue that arises is the fact that data collected quickly becomes unmanageable. At this point in time, a model that weights and ranks geographical information is required. Hunter Water has used the Source Water Improvement Support System (SWISS) model for this purpose. The model graphically identifies the catchment areas that pose greatest risk from pathogens (disease-causing organisms), suspended solids and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus, Figure 3). While more complex quantitative models are available, the SWISS is relatively simple in structure, thus allowing for it to be built, run and analysed by catchment managers with a relatively small amount of additional specialist support.
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The quality and quantity of source water is largely dependent upon the land-based activities that occur in the catchment. Poor development choices in drinking water catchments can have detrimental impacts on drinking water quality (Hurlimann, 2010) (Figure 4).
Figure 3. An example of a SWISS risk output map. Put simply, the model inputs various spatial geographical information system (GIS) data ‘layers’ that may be continuous (e.g. rainfall) or point source (e.g. intensive animal sheds). It then uses weightings (determined from expert panel workshops) to multiply the importance of each layer to determine the areas with greatest contribution to nutrient, turbidity and pathogen risk in approximately 1700km2 of surface water catchments. There are various inbuilt scripts to calculate parameters such as the number of pathogens from livestock and the like. The output is a ranking of activities and associated areas in the catchment that pose the greatest hazard to drinking water quality.
Effective legislation refers not only to the strength and clarity of the law governing catchment land use, but also their integration into local planning instruments. Hunter Water has found that consent authorities (such as local councils and the NSW Department of Planning and Infrastructure), and those that are charged with anti-pollution duties (such as the Environment Protection Authority), are consistently supportive of recommendations made for the benefit of drinking water catchments, given good reasons. However, while legislation may be in place, it is Hunter Water’s experience that staff turnover and shifting priorities within the consent authority often mean that components of catchment legislation can be overlooked. Regular stakeholder contact is, therefore, pivotal for catchment authorities in the implementation of successful catchment management.
Feature Article well-qualified academic staff to consider local issues, and access to placement students who have a great working knowledge of the local catchment.
Element 6: Perform Proactive Surveillance
Figure 4. Possible impacts of inappropriate development controls.
Element 3 – Work with Stakeholders
Element 4 – Monitor High-Risk Areas
The critical environmental issues in catchments are often complex and complicated, necessitating a collaborative approach to problem-solving (EPA, 1997). Drinking water catchments are typically managed by a number of agencies. The efficiencies gained through collaboration about management of raw water more than compensate for the time invested in meetings. Working effectively with stakeholders is a fundamental element of the eight-element plan.
Monitoring highest catchment risk informs a water authority about the level of treatment necessary to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Hunter Water has a water-quality monitoring program in catchments at 10 surface water sites and approximately 70 groundwater locations.
There are compelling reasons for integrating across traditional water services (e.g. flood-prone area management, wastewater treatment, non-point source pollution control) and to cooperate across levels of government (Local, State and Federal). For example, flood mitigation work that does not consider water quality may shift the financial burden onto a drinking water authority.
• Seasonal or natural trends to be identified that can impact on the treatment process;
Natural resource managers should consider the total water cycle, and not simply discrete traditional services such as water delivery, wastewater transport and stormwater alleviation. Collaboration with stakeholders is vital because single authorities rarely, if ever, administer all aspects of water resource management. Communities that have implemented a broad approach to water management have demonstrated marked improvements in social, environmental and financial outcomes (Ison et al., 2009). Hunter Water has acted to better promote partnerships across stakeholder groups for more effective management of drinking water catchments. Regular liaison meetings are essential at which discussion of leveraging catchment protection is explicit. Hunter Water has found that almost all stakeholders are highly receptive to short, well run meetings with clearly defined agendas and that these have paid excellent dividends.
The monitoring program allows (Davies, 2009): • Baseline and flow event records to track risks through time;
• The impact of different land uses to be determined; • Identification of emerging issues and possible contaminants in the catchment; and • Reporting on performance of catchment improvements against water quality criteria. The water-quality monitoring program will be reviewed periodically to reflect current risks. Additional focus will be placed on better characterisation of water quality after rainfall as this water is often significantly lower quality than baseline flow. The results of monitoring will feed essential information back into the water quality risk assessment process.
To understand a catchment area, the Guidelines recommend “regular documented inspections to monitor catchment conditions and land use changes”. The very action of being seen proactively patrolling the catchment sends a positive signal to the land owners that the utility cares about land management and is interested in their activities. In conversations with other water and catchment management authorities and in the literature, catchment knowledge is often identified as one of the single greatest barriers to waterborne disease (Ferguson and Sheehan, 2010). Catchment knowledge is vital because the application of the water quality risk assessment process is entirely reliant on the understanding of the water supply system from catchment to tap. Inspection of catchments is the key activity that will increase an organisation’s knowledge and understanding of its catchment area (Lance and Schulete, 2008). Current best practice surveillance in catchments involves not only monitoring catchments but also recording observations. Hunter Water is working to formalise regular, programmed and proactive surveillance to feed back into risk assessments and policy documents. Records should be kept of the following: • General land use activities and land use changes; • Unusual, unapproved or unlawful activities; and
Element 5 – Foster Research
• Inspections following incidents (fires, heavy rain, spills).
Our understanding of the catchments changes over time as the population grows and science progresses. Better information leads to better decisions, which is why it is important to be involved in national and local catchment research.
The frequency of surveillance should be dependent upon the risk in a catchment. As Hunter Water’s catchments may be described as partly or fully developed, current best practice is a minimum of three to five days per week of surveillance. Between its three rangers, Hunter Water spends approximately four days per week proactively engaging in surveillance. Hunter Water is currently working to better feed this information back into its planning process.
Hunter Water has a modest research and development program and supports the University of Newcastle with funding for an undergraduate level catchment management course. Two great benefits include attracting
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Feature Article ELEMENT 7: ENGAGE THE COMMUNITY
catchments, including catchment planning documents.
Community involvement and awareness are foundation concepts in the Guidelines. There are two reasons for this.
• Chemical collections reduce the quantity of unused chemicals that could be incorrectly disposed of into water sources.
Firstly, it is customers and taxpayers who ultimately pay for catchment management activities. In 2012, as part of its formal pricing review process, Hunter Water surveyed its customers for their willingness to pay for management of source drinking water. The survey of 1,900 people was conducted by phone poll (700 respondents) and a voluntary internet survey (1200 respondents). Numbers were deemed highly reliable, providing 99% confidence that statistics were within 3% of the views held by the community. Results revealed that 71% of people were willing to spend an additonal $2 per bill on catchment activities. This finding has fundamentally influenced the level of investment in catchments.
• News articles in bill pamphlets have proved a cost-effective method of presenting catchment information to customers.
Secondly, catchment land users and customers have arguably the greatest influence on drinking water quality in these areas. Approximately 65% of Hunter Water’s catchments are in private ownership. Through education and empowerment, positive changes in routines and actions of private landholders can have a large effect on the runoff from their properties. It follows that effective communication is one of the most important mechanisms for better catchment management. Hunter Water currently employs four mechanisms to communicate catchment information: • Signage draws awareness of the catchment boundaries and reinforces the notion that the authority is the environmental steward for this area. Hunter Water is at present identifying and upgrading signage in catchments. • Hunter Water’s website (www. hunterwater.com.au) has detailed information on the drinking water
ELEMENT 8: PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES The risk profile for likelihood, severity and type of natural disasters are unique for each catchment authority. The Guidelines recommend a robust and tested Incident Management Plan (IMP) that gives explicit directions and a chain of command should any emergency arise. Hunter Water regularly tests its IMP with desk and mock incidents to assess the response adequacy. A water authority may choose to further plan for emergencies that are most likely or have potential catastrophic effects in catchments. For example, the profound effect of bushfire was brought to the fore in February 2009 when Melbourne’s Black Saturday bushfires caused significant human, environmental and financial costs for the state of Victoria. Those who were involved in the fires stressed the importance of preparation before bushfires by implementation of a separate Bushfire Management Plan, which should address three aspects of bushfire risk management: • Preparation – working with catchment management authorities and fire agencies on preparation activities like contingency planning and critical asset protection. • Incident management – maintaining an incident management structure that is well drilled on the implementation of contingency plans/management of assets. • Recovery – working with stakeholder agencies on prioritising recovery works that will minimise the impacts on water quality and assets.
CONCLUSION The Australian Drinking Water Guidelines clearly articulate that drinking water treatment begins in the catchments. These catchments are often large and may be subject to multiple competing land uses, which makes it challenging for catchment managers to form a strategy to best implement the Guidelines. While the circumstances of each catchment authority will vary, all may benefit from considering and strengthening the eight elements outlined above. In particular, catchment managers should consider implementing a computerised mapping system, regularly schedule meetings with stakeholders to discuss collaboration opportunities, and embrace the opportunity to survey the community for their willingness to pay for catchment management programs. Further, the principles outlined in this article are not unique to drinking water authorities, and indeed may be useful for more general natural resource management organisations. WJ
REFERENCES Davies C (Ed) (2009): Watershed Management for Drinking Water Protection, Indiana: American Water Works Association. Ferguson X & Sheehan X (2010): Catchment Knowledge – The Underrated Barrier to Waterborne Disease, Water Journal, 37, 1, pp 13–20. Hurlimann F (2010): Development Control Within Catchments, Water Journal, 37, 1, pp 138–141. Ison RL, Collins KB, Bos JJ & Iaquinto B (2009): Transitioning to Water Sensitive Cities in Australia: A summary of the key findings, issues and actions arising from five national capacity building and leadership workshops. NUWGP/IWC, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria. Lance & Schulte (2008): Surveillance in Watershed Management for Drinking Water Protection, Water Journal, 35, 5, 61–67. National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2011): Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (6th ed.)(pp A-13), Canberra.
Figure 5. Signage surrounding Hunter Water catchments (left); and drums of chemicals collected from the public at routine chemical collection days.
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United States Environment Protection Authority (US EPA) (1997): State-wide Watershed Management Facilitation, Washington: US EPA Office of Water.
Nothing stands in the way of a Godwin
Source Protection: The WA Experience Vigilant management of all available water sources is essential in reducing the risk of drinking water contamination. Michelle Vojtisek, Clairly Lance, Hew Merrett and Andrew Bath explain how Water Corporation’s Source Protection Operations Manual (SPOM) helps provide a standardised approach. INTRODUCTION Water Corporation (the Corporation) is committed to the proactive management of drinking water supplies in Western Australia (WA) from catchment to customer’s tap. The size and diverse climate of WA results in the Corporation sourcing water from over 700 groundwater wells, 114 surface water sources (including natural and artificial sources) and two seawater desalination plants. The management of 244 localities across WA presents a large and diverse challenge for the Corporation. In meeting this challenge, the Corporation has developed a robust, multi-barrier drinking water quality management system, based on the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). Source protection forms a major component of this system, being the first barrier in the multiple-barrier catchment to tap approach. Source protection involves the management of drinking water catchments and surrounding land uses in order to minimise the risk of contamination to the source water. One of the guiding principles of the ADWG is that prevention of contamination provides greater surety than removal of contaminants by treatment (NHMRC, NRMMC, 2011). The application of this approach in WA is highlighted by the Corporation’s commitment to the primacy of drinking water over all other land uses. This article looks at the role of source protection in the Corporation’s drinking water quality management system, as well as strategies used to address emerging challenges in WA.
SOURCE PROTECTION IN THE CORPORATION With the release of the 2004 ADWG and its associated Framework for the Management of Drinking Water Quality, the Corporation identified the need to develop a standardised approach to
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source protection in WA for all drinking water sources. Such a system would need to be flexible, given the variety of sources, as well as proactive and adaptable in response to new and emerging challenges to source protection in the state. A Source Protection Operations Manual (SPOM) was created to meet these requirements.
been created and implemented for all drinking water sources operated by the Corporation in WA.
REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT The Corporation carries out its source protection responsibilities under the legislation of other agencies. In addition, the Corporation also has a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the WA Department of Health (DoH) for drinking water, which outlines the joint commitment of both DoH and the Corporation to the provision of safe drinking water to the community of WA.
The resulting manual was a comprehensive document that provided the basis for a consistent approach to the management of WA’s diverse water sources – from a large surface water catchment providing drinking water to thousands of customers, to a remote groundwater source providing drinking water to a small regional community – and this manual continues to be applied to catchment and source protection operations by the Corporation in the present day. One of the key components of SPOM is the requirement for each source to have a Catchment Management Strategy (CMS). The CMS outlines the requirements for water quality sampling, surveillance, inspections and operational or capital improvements required to effectively manage each catchment. One of the key components of the CMS is the development of a qualitative risk assessment for each source. Each risk assessment uses standardised risk assessment tables that assess water quality impacts from a wide range of land use activities including recreation, urban development, extractive industry, light industry and agricultural enterprises. Analysis of catchment activities, surrounding land use and any preventive barriers in place drives the final risk assessment outcomes, which guide targeted operational management for each catchment. CMSs have
This MoU applies to all aspects of the drinking water supply (catchment to tap), however a key component of the MoU is the focus on protection of sources of
GOLDFIELDS & AGRICULTURAL GREAT SOUTHERN METRO MID WEST NORTH WEST SOUTH WEST 0
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State map showing Water Corporation’s defined boundaries and areas of operation.
Aerial view of Victoria Dam, located in Perth Metropolitan Region’s area of operation. drinking water for public health outcomes. Key legislation for the management of WA’s water resources, administered by the Department of Water (DoW), includes the Metropolitan Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Act 1909 (MWSSD), Country Areas Water Supply Act 1947 (CAWS), and associated by-laws under these Acts. Traditionally, breaches of these Acts and bylaws resulted in minor penalties and at times these have not effectively deterred public access to catchments. DoH, the regulator of drinking water quality in WA, administers the Health Act 1911, which also provides protection through the requirement for the prevention of contamination of water sources, and the ability to stop the use of any source that is contaminated. As of 2013, all proclaimed
Public Drinking Water Source Areas (PDWSAs) that fall under the operating licence of the Corporation have been delegated to the Corporation for by-law and enforcement duties under the MWSSD and CAWS Acts. Ultimately this will result in an increased presence of Corporation staff in catchment areas, with associated increase of surveillance and visibility to the public. One method used by the Corporation to strengthen source protection measures is to work closely with other agencies, such as WA Police, Department of Fisheries (DoF) and Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC). This includes conducting joint patrols, as well as applying legislation and enforcing by-laws administered by these agencies in order to manage illegal activities in catchments, such as trespass, illegal fishing and marroning, and feral animal control.
A vehicle intentionally bogged in a drinking water dam for a non-approved vehicle recovery exercise.
Some of the Corporation’s Catchment Rangers have honorary powers under legislation administered by the DoF to prosecute people for illegally obtaining fish within Corporation-operated land. This activity has significant penalties under the DoF’s legislation, and acts
as a better deterrent than prosecution under existing water resources legislation.
COLLECTION OF DATA ON CATCHMENT ACTIVITIES Along the journey of continuous improvement in source protection in WA, the Corporation’s focus is on developing systems to better identify and record various activities that occur within catchments. The greatest threat to drinking water catchments is non-permitted recreation, including direct access to the water body via activities such as swimming and fishing. Other high impact activities include the use of off-road vehicles, camping and illegal hunting. To support an effectual approach to data collection on these types of activities, all catchment field staff are equipped with mobile computing devices. These systems allow ‘on-the-spot’ entry of observations made, follow-up actions required and spatial location of events. Subsequently, this information can easily be disseminated through IT-based reporting systems, which contain many years of historic and eventbased data. Collectively, the aim of these systems is to track the types, frequency and location of activities occurring in drinking water catchments. Continuous review of this data allows the Corporation to implement a focused and effective investment of resources toward the better protection of catchments. The result is that across the state there are a number of measures that provide a check on both the effort put into source protection activities and the challenges to
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Typical source protection signage in drinking water catchments in perth Metropolitan region (left) and regional Western Australia. the catchment’s integrity. These measures help to strengthen the source protection processes in SPOM and, in turn, provide triggers to capture emerging challenges.
INTELLIGENCE-BASED SURVEILLANCE Despite the application of active catchment management programs, illegal recreational activity still occurs within many catchments to varying degrees. This has prompted a move towards more intelligent deployment of resources to ensure the greatest value from field operations. Covert infrared surveillance cameras and vehicle sensors have proven to be extremely useful, cost-effective tools in capturing additional data on catchment activity. Vehicle sensors, currently being trialled in some Perth catchments, have the ability to send an alert message to mobile phones when they have been activated. This allows for almost immediate action to be taken by Catchment Rangers. At present, the purpose of surveillance cameras and vehicle sensors is to provide supplementary information to frontline ‘on the ground’ surveillance carried out by Catchment Rangers, and allow for a more targeted use of these resources where it is required. The continuing aim of the cameras and sensors is to provide additional monitoring of anything that has the potential to contribute to the contamination or degradation of WA’s drinking water sources. Examples range from capturing images of illegal entry to a catchment, to monitoring the effect of animal activity (e.g. feral pigs, birds) at a water source.
EMERGING CHALLENGES Despite the outcomes of the Parliamentary Review of Recreation Activities within Public Drinking Water Source Areas (PDWSA) (Legislative Council, Western Australia, 2010), which concluded that dual use
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(recreation and drinking water supply) of catchments was untenable, there is still increased pressure from the public to access drinking water catchments for recreation purposes. Protected, natural catchments are in good condition and are, therefore, appealing to recreational groups and to the general public. Allowing recreation in a drinking water catchment greatly increases the risk of contamination of a drinking water source with pathogens, and would require the installation of additional water treatment. The requirement for additional treatment brings with it high financial costs, which would not be required if a catchment remained protected from such activity. The cost associated with recreation in drinking water sources, which requires a multi-barrier pathogen removal process, entails a two order of magnitude increase in capital costs, along with the same increase in operational costs over the long term. A case study showed these capital costs for three existing PDWSA reservoirs in Perth would total over $400 million. Recreation activities within catchments are managed as per DoW’s Operational Policy 13 Recreation within public drinking water source areas on Crown land (Department of Water, 2012), which allows for certain types of passive land-based recreation activities to occur in outer catchment areas, while restricting the types of activities that occur close to the source. The intent of allowing only passive activities in the outer catchment is to protect public health by maintaining the quality of water in public drinking water source areas to help ensure a safe, reliable, lower cost public water supply (Department of Water, 2012). The Parliamentary Review also produced balanced findings in complete support
for the Corporation’s processes, the need to protect PDWSAs but also proactively develop recreational opportunities outside PDWSAs, deproclamation/abolition of unused PDWSAs and the formation of an inter-agency working group to help meet the needs of recreators. The Corporation has supported these outcomes and plays an active role on the inter-agency working group, with a focus on ensuring that protection of public health in drinking water catchments is paramount. An upcoming challenge is the use of hydraulic fracturing (‘fraccing’) to retrieve gas from underground shale and tight gas deposits. Fraccing at a commercial scale is still a relatively unknown land use activity in WA. WA contains vast reserves of these deposits, and it is estimated shale gas reserves make up about one-fifth of the world’s total reserves (Department of Mines and Petroleum, 2012). This is equivalent to a supply to 10 million customers for the next 20 years, and represents a major opportunity for the State’s economy, as well as provision of energy to regional areas. It is widely considered that the numerous chemicals used in the fraccing process pose the greatest risk to the quality of groundwater due to their potential toxicity in drinking water (Department of Health, 2012). Once a groundwater source is contaminated, remediation can be near impossible and treatment is problematic as well as costly. There is also considerable uncertainty about the risks associated with waste disposal of fraccing water and dewatering critical future water resources, so management must be preventative and proactive. The Corporation is not a lead agency for the regulation of water resources in the state, and will therefore rely on working arrangements already implemented with DoW, DoH, the Department of Mines and
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Feature Article monitoring includes activities such as microbiological (E. coli) monitoring, routine catchment surveillance and inspections, which have historically been carried out at most catchments throughout WA. The observational monitoring approach described in ADWG 2011 includes Recreational activities such as boating are only allowed in assigning targets recreational or irrigation waterbodies. against which Petroleum and DEC to provide input into observational the management of fraccing activities within data can be assessed, implementing water resources. There are long-standing operational responses (corrective action) and effective working arrangements in place for abnormal conditions, as well as feeding with these agencies, but the Corporation back these results into the risk assessment has the greatest level of knowledge and review process. regarding management of impacts to Setting targets for catchments in WA is water quality at an operational level. a challenging task, with difficulties arising The Corporation is currently examining from the diversity of the types, locations, its risk assessment approaches to include remoteness and differing climates of fraccing in order to better manage catchments managed by the Corporation. and prevent contamination of public It is not always evident whether the level groundwater supplies. Working in close of activity in a catchment is normal or conjunction with industry and government abnormal, or whether it is acceptable on fraccing regulation and policy will enable or unacceptable, if the comparison must drinking water-specific concerns to be be made across all catchments (i.e. taking raised and appropriately addressed using a ‘one size fits all’ approach), rather than a proactive approach. being assessed individually. The Corporation’s source protection Historically, catchments in WA have strategies have also been tested by the been assessed individually through intrinsic challenges presented by a changing climate. knowledge of the catchment combined with The winters of 2011 and 2012 were the driest the results of surveillance reporting. The on record, and several catchments in the Corporation is currently working towards state, notably in the south-western corner of setting ‘in specification/out of specification’ WA, experienced reduced rainfall capture. A limits for activities in catchments that pose number of drinking water supplies have been the greatest risk to water quality. augmented by short-term sources. Alongside water efficiency efforts, source protection measures at existing drinking water catchments are even more crucial when faced with the threat of a drying climate.
IMPLEMENTATION OF ADWG 2011 – OBSERVATIONAL MONITORING The release of ADWG 2011 sees a move away from compliance monitoring and a focus towards the use of short-term and long-term evaluation of water supplies. ADWG 2011 includes a framework for observational monitoring as part of the overall operation of a water supply system. In terms of source protection, observational
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By comparing observational data to historical surveillance and water quality monitoring, it will be easier to determine when activities are outside the ‘norm’ for a specific catchment, and when an operational response (e.g. additional surveillance) must be triggered. As the Corporation shifts towards a target-based approach it will need to mimic and enhance the outcomes provided through current process. With catchment activity being a key driver in source risk classification, observational monitoring will provide a more robust process for not only assessing overall source risk, but also for providing a trigger for initiating a review of the risk assessment.
CONCLUSION The Corporation’s source protection measures are based on the ADWG principle of the primacy of drinking water over all other land uses. This model has stood the test of time. Its validity has been proven in the 2010 Parliamentary Inquiry into recreation and in the Corporation’s learnings from actively implementing source protection measures over the last 10 years. The guiding document for the Corporation, the Source Protection Operations Manual (SPOM), has been effectively applied to a diverse range of sources throughout WA. Each source has its own unique challenges, however from our experience, a clear and consistent model based on the principles of the ADWG is effective in the management and protection of water sources in WA. Source protection is a key component of a multiple barrier approach in the provision of safe drinking water. By reducing the risk of contamination to sources, the Corporation has effectively contributed to the community’s confidence in the provision of safe drinking water in WA, without the requirement for extensive treatment at most of our sources. As the Corporation moves forward it will seek to continuously improve its source protection processes to meet future challenges posed by emerging issues such as recreation within drinking water catchments, a drying climate and commercial fraccing activities. WJ
REFERENCES Department of Health, Government of Western Australia (2012): Hydraulic Fracturing in the Onshore Gas Industry and Drinking Water. Available at www.public.health.wa.gov.au/ cproot/4474/2/Hydraulic%20fracturing%20 and%20drinking%20water.pdf. Last accessed January 2013. Department of Mines and Petroleum, Government of Western Australia (2012): Draft Western Australia’s Onshore Unconventional Gas Development Framework. Department of Water (2012): Government of Western Australia. Operational Policy 13: Recreation Within Public Drinking Water Source Areas on Crown Land. Report 13, September 2012. Legislative Council, Western Australia (2010). Report 11 – Standing Committee on Public Administration. Recreation Activities Within Public Drinking Water Source Areas. September 2010. NHMRC, NRMMC (2011): Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Paper 6 National Water Quality Management Strategy. National Health and Medical Research Council, National Resource Management Ministerial Council, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
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APPLYING EVALUATION PRACTICES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE TUGGERAH LAKES ESTUARY Helen Watts, Director of Evaluation and Sustainability Services, and co-authors Matthew Barnett, Nicole McGaharan, Angela Halcrow and David Ryan from the Wyong Shire Council Estuary Management Team, outline the process of developing a sound estuarine evaluation process and present a case study involving saltmarsh rehabilitation. Abstract An Estuary Management Plan (EMP) for the Tuggerah Lakes on the NSW Central Coast was adopted by Wyong Shire Council in 2006 and provides a strategic framework for Wyong Shire Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s management of the lake system. In 2007, under the Australian Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Caring for our Country initiative, an election commitment supporting the implementation activities within the Tuggerah Lakes EMP was announced. The delivery of EMP activities funded under Caring for our Country are multidisciplined and delivered collaboratively across other state agencies, the Catchment Management Authority and NGOs, with Wyong Shire Council as the lead. Activities include streambank and natural areas rehabilitation, saltmarsh and wetland restoration and protection, riparian management activities with landholders and
modelling of estuary processes, as well as community awareness and education programs. While a significant requirement under Caring for our Country is the implementation of a suitable evaluation process enabling reporting on project deliverables and outcomes, Wyong Shire Council also wanted to establish processes to adaptively manage the program as well as use the evaluation report to inform the review of their EMP. This article will discuss the participatory process of developing a sound evaluation process, the development of evaluation capacity with Wyong Shire and their partners, and present one case associated with saltmarsh rehabilitation to illustrate how the catchment program has been adaptively managed through its implementation.
Background The Tuggerah Lakes estuary comprises three shallow coastal lagoons within the Wyong Shire just to the north of Sydney, New South Wales. The interconnected lakes are Tuggerah Lake, Budgewoi Lake and Lake Munmorah (refer to Figure 1). The tidal flushing via the entrance contributes very little to circulation and mixing patterns, with the majority of water entering the estuary from the catchment. The estuary has been impacted by sediments and associated nutrients as a result of land-use changes since European settlement in the area. The estuary has been described in the Estuary Management Study (Roberts and Dickinson, 2005) as having experienced three historical stages, as summarised in Table 1. An overall framework for the co-ordinated management of the Lakes was required to ensure that ongoing development was sustainable. Wyong Shire Council adopted the Tuggerah Lakes Estuary Management Plan (EMP) in 2006, in accordance with the NSW Estuary Management Policy, following a nine-year development period that included detailed technical studies and consultation. The EMP includes priorities and costings, providing the Council with a strategic direction for the sustainable management of the estuary and its associated catchments (Wyong Shire Council, 2010). The delivery of the EMP is supported by a $20 million Australian Government Caring for our Country grant. The first stage of the grant provided $8.6 million and the second stage, which is due to end in June 2013, has committed a further $11.4 million.
Figure 1. Tuggerah Lakes System.
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The work funded under the second stage of Caring for our Country enabled
Table 1. Summary of the estuary’s nutrient status over its recent history. Stage Stage 1: Nutrient-poor
Stage 2: Nutrient-rich
Stage of catchment development
Status of estuary
• Prior to large-scale development in the 1950s
• Extensive saltmarshes
• Primary industry logging and fishing
• Post-1950s holiday and suburban development • Clearing in the catchments for dairying industry
• Natural freshwater flows • Sediments naturally eroded and recycled • Disturbance to seagrass and saltmarsh habitats as well as riparian zones • Flows of nutrients and sediments from sub-catchment increased • Increase in nutrient loads associated with septic and sewage discharges • Increased concentration of organic nutrients within the sediments • Continued organic enrichment
Stage 3: Mediumnutrient estuary
• Post-1980s and 1990s urban development • Urban development remains a pressure and agricultural land-use changes
• Management of the wider catchment has improved with greater controls on planning and environmental management • Heavy rains still result in nutrient and sediment loads increasing in the estuary from stormwater and tributaries • Symptoms of eutrophication still occur
significant investment in areas of management that met the objectives of the EMP, as well as the Australian Government’s priority natural resource management objectives. The funded initiatives include: • Streambank rehabilitation works; • Provision of grants to landholders for riparian management activities; • Passive and active saltmarsh on-ground works; • Wetland protection and management; • Land management training for landholders; • Broader community education and awareness of the estuary and associated catchments; • Monitoring and modelling within the estuary.
This stage of work is referred to collectively as ‘Resoration of Tuggerah Lakes Through Improved Water Quality Management – Stage 2’. The relationship between this funded work and the EMP can be illustrated in the outcome logic in Figure 2. Under the Caring for our Country initiative there are contractual evaluation requirements to undertake and report against. Therefore, the focus of this article is to discuss the approach to evaluation Wyong Shire Council has taken during Stage 2 of the Program.
FROM evaluation to successful delivery Evaluation can be defined as the production of knowledge based on systematic enquiry to assist decision-making (Owen, 2006). That is, an evaluation may not just be interested in biophysical outcomes such as a reduction
in sediment load to a catchment, but is often also interested in: • Whether the most appropriate interventions to meet the desired outcomes were implemented; • Whether those interventions could have been implemented more efficiently; and • Whether the program made a longer-term impact. Therefore, evaluations enquire about the relationship between the program’s interventions and outcomes as well as factors (internal and external) that may have impacted on the program. These questions relate to different phases of the life cycle of a program and will assist in decision-making at project design and implementation, inform whether a project should continue in its current state, or how best to implement
The initiatives are multi-disciplined and delivered by various partners under the co-ordination of the Wyong Shire Council. The partners include: • National Parks within the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage; • The Hunter Central Rivers Catchment Management Authority; • Scientific Division within the Office of Environment and Heritage; • Pioneer Dairy Trust (Central Coast Wetlands); • Wyong Shire Council’s Communication and Education Team, Bush Regeneration Team, Construction Team and the Estuary Management Unit.
Figure 2. Outcome hierarchy that illustrates the funded sub-programs under Restoration of Tuggerah Lakes through Improved Water Quality Management – Stage 2 and the overarching EMP.
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Table 2. Extract from the evaluation plan stating, broadly, how the program will address the impact evaluation requirements. Evaluation purpose
Key evaluation questions
What contribution has the project made to Caring for our Country outcomes?
The purpose of this is to evaluate the impact of this project and its agreed contributions to the Caring for our Country targets
Were there any unintended outcomes (positive or negative) and how did they influence the project impact?
Evaluation methods and frequency
What will be monitored and when
Monitoring measures and methods
To be undertaken at the end of the project.
This evaluation will draw on existing information produced from the other evaluation processes to assess the ultimate contribution towards the Caring for our Country targets.
Extent and location of investments and outputs (see Efficiency)
Use contribution analysis drawing on multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate the strength in the theory that underpins the logic.
Measures of project outcomes (see Effectiveness). Desktop review of peer-reviewed literature and grey literature (see Appropriateness) High-risk assumptions tested under Appropriateness Qualitative assessment for unintended outcomes
other similar programs in the future.
The funding under the Caring for
Some evaluations may be commissioned
our Country initiative has requirements
to address one or multiple key evaluation
for different types of evaluation to be
undertaken and evaluation requirements
While the previous discussion has referred to programs, evaluation practices are applied similarly to projects, strategies,
vary with the amount of funding received. The Australian Government has provided all recipients of Caring for our Country
policy and legislation within the sectors
funding with templates and guidance
of education, health, international aid and,
(accessible at www.nrm.gov.au).
more recently, environmental management. There may be many drivers, internal
Wyong Shire Council saw an opportunity to not only meet their contractual funding
and external, to an organisation for the
needs for the Australian Government, but
implementation of an evaluation. Sometimes
also their own organisational needs:
legislative drivers may exist, such as the requirement to evaluate the performance of various activities implemented under the NSW Water Management Act (2000) or funding organisations wanting confidence that they are investing in the most appropriate areas (for example, AusAid’s requirements for evaluating international aid projects). Most important are the internal
• To inform a review of the EMP; • To enhance their capacity for evaluation more generally.
tuggerAH lAkes reHAbilitAtion ProgrAM: stAge 2 Wyong Shire Council and its program
drivers within an organisation for learning
partners have been working with principal
and adapting to improve program delivery.
author Helen Watts of Evaluation and
While other drivers are important, it is felt that an organisation with an internal culture for evaluation and adaptive management will be more successful in delivering against program outcomes. This is because they will be more driven to focus
Sustainability Services Pty Ltd to establish a sound evaluation foundation through a more detailed planning process that has also been used to commence the process of developing capacity in evaluation. Some of the critical stages of this work
on the most beneficial evaluations and,
importantly, utilise evaluation findings.
• Gaining an understanding of evaluation
These organisations see the benefit
capacity and capability within the
beyond reporting to satisfy someone
Council and its program partners
else’s requirements. The importance of
This occurred through discussions of
an organisational culture for evaluation
evaluation concepts and explaining the
has also been reported by other evaluators
partner’s evaluation requirements under
(Love, 1991; Patton, 2008; Trochim, 1991).
the Caring for our Country initiative;
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• Working with each of the program partners to develop a more detailed plan Initial discussions with all subprogram teams had highlighted the need for a plan that provided them with more detail specific to their sub-program. The more detailed planning process aimed to find a balance between a document with the required detail but without being overly verbose. This more detailed plan was developed using DoView™, as it not only provided the required detail in one place across all programs for co-ordination ease, but could also be easily navigated, edited and web-enabled; • program theories (or logic models) for each of the sub-programs were developed with each of the partners and these were then all linked to an overarching logic model. This process not only developed capacity, but also used the expertise of each of the teams to interrogate the models and define evaluation questions and knowledge gaps; • The identification of the multiple sources of evidence that will be required to address the specific evaluation questions. This stage also included the specific work on the qualitative needs to address issues of changes in landholder behaviour or community awareness. Table 2 highlights just one of the types of evaluation required by the Stage 2 Program. Other evaluations that they need to report against include: • Appropriateness – undertaken at project inception or mid-term to determine how appropriate the interventions were to meet the needs;
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Feature article demarcation of saltmarsh in susceptible areas, application of mowing restrictions, fencing and signage in some places, significant community and council staff education and control of semi salt-tolerant weeds. Council has worked closely with NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) Officers, the Hunter-Central Rivers Catchment Management Authority, the Community Environment Network, Darkinjung Local Aboriginal Land Council and the local community to deliver these projects.
Figure 3. An area of Tuggerah Bay before saltmarsh works were undertaken. • Efficiency – to report on the extent to which the program delivered against its agreed activities and expenditure and explanation of any variations; • Effectiveness – to determine whether the program achieved its desired outcomes and any reasons for program over- or under-delivery. While a significant amount of the evaluation effort has been associated with enabling an evaluation of the Stage 2 of the Tuggerah Lakes program at its completion in June 2013, many of the discussions with the partners have highlighted examples of how some of the sub-programs have been adaptively managed during implementation. For example, the streambank rehabilitation program incorporated expert opinion, design and observation at sites to adapt rehabilitation approaches at some streambank sites. Ensuring that appropriate evaluation processes are in place to enable ongoing review of an intervention against the intent of a program is critical. This recognises that evaluation is not just about making judgments and reporting them at the end of the program, but is also critical during program implementation so that a program can be continually strengthened on the basis of new evidence to support change. A case study of the saltmarsh rehabilitation sub-program is presented next, to provide an example of the adaptive processes that have been implemented under Stage 2 of the Tuggerah Lakes rehabilitation program.
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cAse study: sAltMArsH reHAbilitAtion ProJect bAckground to tHe sAltMArsH sub-ProgrAM Saltmarshes are a unique component of coastal estuaries in Australia that exist at the land and water interface. Conditions in these areas are highly dynamic and biota must be adapted and specialised to cope with varying degrees of salinity, tidal inundation, competition and disturbance. The unique position of saltmarshes allows them to function in several ways including flood and erosion control, storm surge buffering, water quality improvement and seagrass wrack assimilation. The need to rehabilitate saltmarsh habitat within the Tuggerah Lakes Estuary was highlighted in the Estuary Process Study as a high priority management issue. This recommendation was then carried through as a priority program under the Tuggerah Lakes EMP. Receipt of funding from the Caring for our Country initiative then enabled implementation of the passive and active saltmarsh rehabilitation programs beginning in 2009 and continuing for the duration of Stage 2 of the program. PAssive sAltMArsH reHAbilitAtion Passive saltmarsh rehabilitation includes controlling localised threats to saltmarsh and supporting natural regeneration with the aim of increasing the long-term viability and extent of existing saltmarsh. Identified threats to saltmarsh around the Tuggerah Lakes Estuary include mowing, trampling, compaction, vandalism, weeds and altered hydrology. The passive rehabilitation program includes highly accurate mapping and
Development of good working relationships with these authorities and agencies has been crucial in the delivery of these programs. Further to this, another real key to the success of this program was the excellent education, liaison and consultation with the community and land owners to build rapport. This led to some important and unexpected outcomes with many adjacent residents becoming real ambassadors for the saltmarsh program. Active sAltMArsH reHAbilitAtion Reconstruction of saltmarshes in non-tidal estuaries is a largely untested activity in Australia. Around the Tuggerah Lakes estuary, Council has previously attempted small-scale saltmarsh rehabilitation projects at the mouth of Tumbi Creek and at Rocky Point using natural regeneration as the primary mechanism for recolonisation. The active saltmarsh rehabilitation program aims to recreate an appropriate saltmarsh habitat by re-grading elevated foreshore areas to reinstate hydrological links with groundwater, overland flow and, most importantly, inundation from the estuary. Once an appropriate grade is established, local provenance native saltmarsh plants are replanted and then carefully maintained for up to five years to support complete establishment of a fully functioning plant community. The active saltmarsh rehabilitation sub-program also utilised innovative techniques not before used in the estuary and faced a number of challenges from its inception. Three examples of this that required adaption included: 1.
The need to protect new saltmarsh plants from excessive wind-driven wave erosion and deposition of wrack resulted in the use of a combination of ecologs and a purpose-built wrack fence; this was further adapted at later sites by retaining a fringe of original vegetation along the foreshore.
Wrack had been used in small amounts as a soil conditioner but resulted in the
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Figure 4. passive activity (left) shown in Tuggerah Bay, and active saltmarsh (right) during rehabilitation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; works depicted include foreshore re-grading and spreading of wrack mulch prior to planting. need for ongoing maintenance due to re-mobilisation during minor flooding events. Due to this, trials were undertaken using open-weave jute mesh to prevent movement of the wrack when lake levels were higher. 3.
Similarly to the passive saltmarsh program, community engagement was important and early lessons were learnt about the timing and breadth of stakeholder engagement so that all expectations could be considered and managed before works began.
One of the most significant unforeseen issues that arose for the active saltmarsh rehabilitation work was with the original designs that had utilised years of data collected by Council. The estuary had been facing drought conditions for the previous decade and subsequently the vegetation communities around the lake had adapted to these conditions. Due to the continued low water level in the lake during the drought, the healthiest saltmarsh was growing at around 0.2m AHD; this resulted in the designs for the active sites being re-graded from this elevation to around 0.5m AHD (in some cases less). A number of the active rehabilitation sites had been constructed using this specification when the drought broke in 2010/2011. During 2011 and early 2012, the estuary received more frequent and heavier rain events, causing a higher average lake level. This higher level caused the two most recently constructed sites to be submerged for extended periods immediately after planting and has contributed to their slow rehabilitation. These challenges resulted in a redesign of the methodology for the remaining sites. Surveys of healthy saltmarsh in 2011 showed that the ideal elevation during the frequently higher rainfall was between 0.4m AHD and 0.5m AHD, with saltmarsh species
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present up to 0.8m AHD. The majority of these elevations were not captured in the original designs. Adopting lower levels of intervention has greatly reduced construction costs for acid sulphate soil treatment and spoil disposal and has permitted existing healthy saltmarsh to be retained in situ. The reduced excavation has allowed these sites to include higher elevation areas that will facilitate healthy bands of saltmarsh that can migrate landward or towards the lake edge in response to changes in rainfall patterns. Early observations in these elevated saltmarsh areas have, however, initially shown increased levels of weed species, which may be due to the lack of frequent inundation of saline/brackish water allowing the terrestrial weeds to compete with the newly planted saltmarsh. Monitoring and maintenance activities over the next few months should show if these sites are likely to become resilient over time. Trials are in the early stages of development for irrigating the saltmarsh and fringing exotics with lake water to help reduce the competing weeds.
APPlying An AdAPtive MAnAgeMent APProAcH As noted previously in this article, saltmarsh rehabilitation in a non-tidal estuary is largely untested. As a result, many issues were encountered during on-ground works that required an adaptive management approach to be embraced. The saltmarsh sub-program has employed a regular monitoring program that is complemented by a regular review of findings and adaption of activities as has been seen fit. This is vital so that a regular feedback loop is maintained to ensure the most effective and efficient delivery of the saltmarsh rehabilitation sub-program. For example, if the active saltmarsh subprogram was not analysing the monitoring
information then significant design changes may not have been made and the desired outcomes not achieved or further significant investment of maintenance employed to achieve the outcomes. Monitoring of the sites will continue to provide important data on the response of the saltmarsh rehabilitation over a longer time-frame.
AcknoWledgeMents The Wyong Shire Council would like to acknowledge the Australian Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Caring for our Country initiative that has enabled these important works to be able to be undertaken.
reFerences Funnell SC & Rogers PJ (2011): Purposeful Program Theory: Effective use of theories of change and logic models. San Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass. Love AJ (1991): Internal Evaluations: Building Organisations from Within (Vol 24). Newbury Park, USA: Sage. Owen JM (2006): Program Evaluation: Forms and Approaches. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin. Patton MQ (2008): Utilization-Focussed Evaluation (4th edition ed.). Newbury Park, USA: Sage. Roberts DE & Dickinson TG (2005): Tuggerah Lakes Estuary Management Study. Bio-Analysis: Marine, Estuarine and Freshwater Ecology. Trochim WM (1991): Developing an Evaluation Culture for International Agricultural Research. Assessing the Impact of International Agricultural Research for Sustainable Development. Cornell University. Wyong Shire Council (2010): Tuggerah Lakes Estuary: Estuary Management Plan. Retrieved February 2013, from Wyong Shire Council: Central Coast: www.wyong. nsw.gov.au/environment/tuggerah-lakesestuary/estuary-management-plan
Automation & Telemetry Analytics In A Data-Rich World
G Garner & J Millen
M Wassell & M Januszek
P Johnstone et al.
G Wilson, P Edwards, J McGrath & J Baumann
R Cardell-Oliver & G Peach
R Steele, J Krampe & N Dinesh
Dr MM Hafeez & M Smith
K Billington et al.
How ‘Big Data’ can help our cities operate more effectively
Using New Technology To Drive Improvements In Business Processes
Integrating SCADA and Business Intelligence for effective operations and asset management solutions
Green Cities/Integrated Planning Linking Urban Water Management To Urban Liveability
How better management and use of alternative water sources can improve urban amenity
Integrated Water Management Planning In Melbourne’s North
Maximising the achievement of environmental outcomes
Making Sense Of Smart Metering Data
A data mining approach for discovering water use patterns
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Process Level Energy Benchmarking To Improve Energy Efficiency Of WWTPs
An in-depth process level review of the Bird In Hand WWTP in South Australia
Catchment Management Is Computer-Aided River Management The Next Step? An independent assessment of the CARM Decision Support System This icon means the paper has been peer reviewed
Proof Of Concept Approach
How can the effectiveness of stock exclusion on catchment water quality be assessed?
Can We Save Sydney’s Streams? Meeting stream health objectives in two typical urban catchments on Sydney’s North Shore
AA McAuley et al.
C Larsen et al.
Estimating Stock And Water Use To Improve Catchment Water Management Outcomes
Methods, results and tools to improve outcomes in the Port Phillip and Westernport Basin
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MAY 2013 • WATER TREATMENT • WATER EFFICIENCY • RURAL WATER ISSUES • WATER RESOURCES – PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Lovers Jump Creek in northern Sydney.
ANALYTICS IN A DATA-RICH WORLD How ‘big data’ can help our cities operate more effectively G Garner, J Millen
BACKGROUND As a dry continent with thinly stretched water resources, Australia has built desalination into the infrastructure of most of its capital cities. While desalination provides additional usable water, it comes at a cost: it’s an incredibly energy-intensive process. Even the most efficient desalination plants use 2.5kW of energy for each 1000L of water produced. It’s also a water-intensive process; it takes water to desalinate water. In Australia, consuming energy means using coal-fired power, and even the most efficient coal-fired power stations consume 2L of water for every 1kWhr of power generated (usually potable water). Water and energy are critical resources and are inseparable. Affordability, liveability and lifestyle in cities, towns and rural locations all depend on our intelligent use and management of both of them. Today, the key to a city is not a key, per se; it is information. However, using information is not the same as using data. Information is the insight derived from ‘big data’ after advanced analytics have been applied. This enables quick, accurate decisions, and insights that would not have been obvious without analysis of raw data. This article looks at how Big Data is helping our cities operate more effectively, allowing city managers to make reliable effective business decisions, and grabbing the attention of consumers to self-act on leaks, wastage and other inefficient behaviours of which they may not have been aware. In this context, timely information helps people conserve water. “Timely information” includes near real-time feedback of consumption, comparisons to other residents, and other media forms of feedback such as achieved through social media.
conservation and cost savings. Townsville was a recipient of IBM’s Smarter City Challenge in 2011, one of a planned 100 cities to earn a grant from IBM as part of the company’s philanthropic efforts to build a Smarter Planet. Use of Big Data analytics in Townsville to deliver timely information to residents will improve the way the town uses and conserves water and energy. Townsville exists at the end of a transmission line, which, with the increase in population and peak power consumption is bringing the capacity constraints of the transmission line forward in time. There are approximately 45,000 families in the Townsville City Council area. Townsville’s annual population growth over the past five years was 2.8 per cent, where the nation’s was less than 1.4 per cent. The five-year average water consumption of Townsville residents is approximately 464kL per household per annum. Townsville’s climate contributes significantly to this consumption profile, with around 300 days of sunshine per year, coupled with a high evapotranspiration rate and an extended dry season between April and November. The climate, combined with a desire to maintain lush green lawns and gardens, means that Townsville residents use more water for garden irrigation purposes than most other areas. In fact, approximately 60% of the total household water usage in Townsville occurs outdoors.
TOWNSVILLE SMART WATER PILOT
In addition, a significant amount of potable water is used annually on public open space and other public land areas under Council jurisdiction to keep these areas looking green over the long dry season. Population increase, seasonality, climatic variability over seasons and, indeed, climate change over a longer period will all affect water availability, supply and demand year by year.
Townsville in Northern Queensland has embarked on a six-month trial of a smarter water system provided by IBM, with Taggle Systems’ remote sensor network delivering the Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) data. The Townsville Smart Water Pilot aims to provide quantitative results around citizen usage patterns, helping drive efficiencies,
The Townsville Smart Water Pilot builds on and acknowledges the existing work of Townsville City Council (TCC) and especially its Dry Tropics Water Smart (DTWS) initiative, developed as an internal partnership between both the Council’s Integrated Sustainability Services (ISS) Department and the internal commercial
business of Townsville Water. The DTWS and subsequent TSW Pilot project builds on TCC’s experience with integrating various community-based behaviour change approaches, specifically based on cognitive psychologies of CBSM (Consumer Based Social Marketing) and Thematic Communication, along with collective learning practices in order to develop a transformative residential outdoor water conservation program in home and parkland. Providing good quality potable water as well as processing sewage represent a significant capital and operational cost to the Council. The existing sewage treatment and water transfer capacities between the Burdekin Dam and Townsville will hit constraint limits in the next couple of decades, forcing the Council to work on designs and debt financing to update and improve this infrastructure in the immediate future.
PROVIDING THE SENSORS Smarter water systems require accurate data collection and analysis. In Townsville, Taggle Systems is providing metering infrastructure that delivers hourly readings of consumption. A pilot group of residences in Townsville has had taggle meters installed, which are expected to provide readings of consumption for more than 10 years from a single battery. This development with the low cost of meter production brings mass metering within the reach of any Australian water authority. In addition to new residential meters, some existing system sensors are already in situ – future enhancements will use data from existing SCADA systems (see Figure 3).
BIG DATA ANALYTICS: THE INFORMATION KEY While taggle sensors provide data about consumption and consumption rates, Big Data analytics expertise processes these volumes of data into information, insights and alerts. Anomalies in usage may be associated with leakage, meter failures or system management issues. Insights can inform on optimum irrigation for gardens and open spaces when compared with evapotranspiration data, helping to avoid watering when rain is imminent. In addition
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Technical Features consumption data. IBMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scope involves the provision of the software platform and intelligent analytics to draw insights from the collected meter data, and communicate this through a multi-channel citizen engagement strategy, beginning with a web portal and with future options to include social media and traditional mobile phone SMS alerts.
Baselines & Comparisons
Analytics Engines Real-Time Rea eal-T ea Time Data
Clustering Water W Wa ter Meters M rs r
Building ildi Characteristics t
Past Monthly Bill
Time of day Disaggregation
Time Series Analytics
Water Data Warehouse
Regional Anomaly Detection
Static Data Event Rules
Figure 1. Schematic of the process architecture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; simple to start (processing consumption) with sophisticated future capabilities. Central Analytics and Visualisation Meters
Taggle Metering DB
Customers Taggle data
Tag ID (meter ID) Consumption (count over the last period) Timestamp
Figure 2. Cloud-based infrastructure â&#x20AC;&#x201C; basic arrangement.
Additional external data feed
Council SCADA environment
Sensors and con
AUTOMATION & TELEMETRY
BOM data Cloud computing environment
Central Analytics and Visualisation Taggle system
Taggle Metering DB
Customers Taggle data User environment
Tag ID (meter ID) Consumption (count over the last period) Timestamp
Figure 3. Enhanced functionality by adding data inputs and leveraging more extensive models. to real-time consumption information from the taggle meters, data such as number of people in the household, number of bathrooms, whether there is a pool, and the irrigation situation will also be incorporated, thereby providing a holistic view of the actual usage in each household. Data will be enriched with advisories such as rainfall, evapotranspiration, temperature, humidity, wind and more. Figure 1 is a simple schematic of the process architecture.
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The objective of the pilot project is to empower households with these insights and alerts to reduce water waste and save money. The inclusion of social computing around water consumption will also allow the hypothesis to be tested that informed and incentivised citizens will be able to conserve water. The pilot project involves a rollout of smart water meters to 300 households and the associated technology infrastructure to collect near real-time water
This might look complex, but the application of cloud computing means that a cloud-based system can subscribe to Bureau of Meteorology (or equivalent) services from one source, have regular consumption data transfers from another source (i.e., the taggle central data receiver) and require Townsville to have no additional IT infrastructure. The Smarter Water system, via standard web portal access, allows households that participate in the pilot program to understand their water consumption in near real-time, be alerted to potential anomalies in usage (e.g. leaks), get a better understanding of their consumption patterns, compare and contrast it with others in the community, and therefore have the opportunity to be fully engaged and informed about their consumption and the impact of any changes they make. The use of cloud computing allows transparent scaling of infrastructure, which starts at hundreds of data sets during a pilot, and may scale to 10s or 100s of thousands (or even millions!) of meter data sets. Figure 2 illustrates the relationships between key system components. New data streams can be introduced over time to allow new insights, events and workflows. For instance, Townsville has a SCADA system running the irrigation in its parks and open spaces. Using moisture data from the SCADA system could give advisories for watering requirements in housing estates in close proximity to parks (using existing sensors). When combined with Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) data, optimised advisories and pre-weather event advisories, the information sent to users (and operators) can be continually enriched to higher levels of insight, bringing increasing value to the Smarter Water system. Figure 3 shows the potential scope of the system. IBM has already demonstrated the potential of this type of project in other areas of the world, including similar pilots that have advanced to largerscale deployments. Most notably the Townsville pilot almost mirrors a pilot in Dubuque, in Iowa in the US.
• If extrapolated to a full year, this would be a saving of 1.9ML in total or 12,900 litres per household annually; • Anticipated aggregate annual communitywide water savings across 23,000 households was 246 megalitres; • Pilot participants reported leaks at a rate of 8% compared to 0.98% citywide, a seven-fold increase. It is estimated that, on average, 30% of households have leaks; • An active participation rate of 44%; • Pilot households actively engaged in the experiment reduced water consumption the most (10%) compared to a group of 9000+ users with no portal access; Figure 4. Use of multiple models increase accuracy and system confidence.
DUBUQUE PILOT The initial pilot project with Dubuque provided insight into water consumption behaviour and trends for citizens, city policy makers and the city water department. Monitoring water consumption every 15 minutes, the Neptune meter system securely transmitted data to the analytics platform. When the system was initiated, the Neptune systems water leak flag was turned on for 41% of the users. Analytics in the system used both inference and rolling averages to increase anomaly detection accuracy. The concepts are illustrated in Figure 4. By offering personal water usage information expressed in dollar savings, volume savings and carbon reduction, the city encourages its residents to alter patterns of behaviour, conserve water and save money. The consumption and behavioural results from the Dubuque pilot demonstrate that ratepayers are interested in mitigating their utility costs and impact on their environment. While technology is making automated control in the utilities space more achievable and highly beneficial for the utilities, people are also gaining a sense of empowerment in the process. In this pilot, the average household was able to save 6.6% of their annual water consumption. Their engagement through the project portal has demonstrated willingness to examine consumption profiles, compare with others and take action accordingly. If the results from the trial were extrapolated to include all of Dubuque’s 23,000 households then the residents would save a substantial amount of water. Dubuque also added smart electricity meters and a consumer engagement portal to the pilot. The achievements in that trial were also quite significant with a reduction of up to 11% in household electricity usage.
Convincingly, there was a demonstrated net benefit to making the investment in technology that would prompt and guide people to take affirmative action to proactively reduce their electricity and water usage. A gaming element was also added to the mix to enable participants to compare themselves to others in the program; this could be extended as a rewards program, along similar lines to airline reward programs where redeemable vouchers for goods and services are offered. RESULTS OF DUBUQUE PILOT Dubuque has since moved on to a citywide deployment of integrated smart energy and water meters connected to a citizen and city engagement portal, but those initial results are a good indication of potential for Townsville. The Dubuque pilot included behavioural studies that showed, of consumers:
• Various portal functions assisted users in making sense of how they used water and appeared to have helped maintain their interest in water conservation.
BEHAVIOUR AND FEEDBACK Success in Dubuque (or any Smarter Water system) is only achieved when behaviours change. So monitoring of behaviours was a key aspect of the program of community engagement. Weekly contests and prizes were also key in reinforcing desired behaviours and maintaining momentum with end users. Without these and other mechanisms consumers reported, “I just kept forgetting to look at my consumption”. Figure 5 shows monitoring behaviour and Figure 6 outlines the weekly contest concepts.
• 77% said that the Water Portal increased their understanding of their water use; • 70% felt it helped them assess the impacts of the changes they had made; • 48% felt that it helped them conserve water; • 61% reported making a change to a water appliance or in the ways they used water (or both) during the study period (e.g. they took shorter showers, fixed leaks, purchased water-efficient appliances, or altered the watering system in their yard); • 48% reported that they planned to make changes to their water equipment or ways of using water in the future. Some key statistics from the Dubuque pilot include: • Residents decreased water utilisation during the pilot project by 337,000 litres among 151 households over nine weeks – a 6.6% reduction;
Figure 5. Usage monitoring. Better decision making, whether in treating/conveying drinking water or in repairing/replacing infrastructure prior to catastrophic failure, ultimately improves water/wastewater operations and efficiencies. Smarter Water Management also facilitates planning processes and maintenance and repair operations to better manage and forecast future water/ wastewater needs and requirements. In Townsville, a dry tropics environment, the challenge is to minimise water usage
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AUTOMATION & TELEMETRY
Weekly Team Contest: Each week, advanced analytics were used to generate teams of 3-5 members - comparable historic consumption. Each team was paired with an opposing team that had a similar historical water usage. Users received reward points by taking various actions inside and outside the portal to reduce water consumption. The team that used less water won. Both members and teams were anonymous, and the teams changed weekly, providing a chance to win each week.
Figure 6. Weekly contests. in the dry season, and also manage floods and extreme weather in the wet season. By using data in effective ways – turning it into actionable information via advanced analytics – this community will be able to make smarter decisions about water management, delivering a resilient, affordable, city environment.
CONCLUSION The results of the Dubuque project so far suggest a number of areas for future development. For instance, the visualisations of water use were clearly important and useful. The ability of citizens to make sense of the water usage graphs and map that to their individual actions and water appliances is an important finding, because it shows that visualisations can be useful even when they do not show which appliances were responsible for water use. The fact that users
enjoyed looking at their water graphs also suggests that visualisations could be further developed as a motivational or incentive mechanism. The social comparisons and contests were also effective, albeit for a smaller set of users. There is considerable opportunity for future development of both social comparisons and contests. The chat was used for posting information and made up 10% of users’ time on the portal. However, as deployments become larger, chat using social media forms (Facebook and Twitter) may help to maintain the vitality and interest of the user community. Today, more than ever, municipalities and citizens need to understand their patterns of behaviour and how to change them. Whether it is in water consumption, traffic patterns or energy use, they need new technologies to enable the change. Initiatives in Dubuque in the US show that, by using advanced analytics, community engagement, and cloud computing, government officials and citizens can have access to real-time data to alter their
patterns of behaviour, which will save them money. This water sustainability pilot case is a template for communities worldwide and Townsville’s project paves the way in Australia.
THE AUTHORS Glen Garner (email: ggarner@ au1.ibm.com) is a Senior Managing Consultant in IBM’s Energy & Utilities Global Centre of Competency. Glen’s current role involves helping customers solve problems with energy and water, developing and implementing strategies to make grids more resilient, water systems more efficient and working on smarter cities and their challenges. These designs include smart grids/smart cities across Asia Pacific. Josh Millen (email: jmillen@ au1.ibm.com) is Business Development Executive, Smarter Cities – Energy & Utilities, IBM Australia. The Smarter Cities team engages with city officials and key stakeholders, such as utility operators, on smarter ideas and solutions to help then realise and achieve their full potential in an instrumented, interconnected and intelligent world.
IRRIGATION AUSTRALIA’S 2013 REGIONAL CONFERENCE 28 – 30 May 2013
Sharing irrigation knowledge for better outcomes In May 2013, the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area hub of Griffith will play host to Irrigation Australia’s Regional Conference. The theme ‘sharing irrigation knowledge for better outcomes’ will come to life at the 2013 conference, with leading industry spokespeople covering topics such as irrigation water system modernisation, urban irrigation, irrigation farming streams, sessions dedicated to specific irrigation methods including drip, centre pivot and surface, environmental irrigation, system design software and much more. Bringing together irrigation practitioners, suppliers, consultants, advisors, researchers, water management professionals, NRM staff, researchers and the local community, the 2013 conference will be the one stop shop for all things irrigation, exchanging ideas and networking. Tours of both on-farm and infrastructure modernisation will be a feature of the two day program. For more information, contact the conference organisers Sauce Communications on (02) 6953 7382 or visit www.irrigation.org.au
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USING NEW TECHNOLOGY TO DRIVE IMPROVEMENTS IN BUSINESS PROCESSES Integrating SCADA and Business Intelligence to deliver effective operations and asset management solutions M Wassell, M Januszek
ABSTRACT Historically Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) were either completely isolated or only partially integrated with other corporate systems. Users accessing SCADA were usually only plant operators with manual or semi-automatic reports created for others. Advances in technology allow and also encourage much greater interaction between different operational systems and provide the ability to expose SCADA data to a much wider audience. This paper describes the technical aspects of designing and implementing examples of such an interface, as well as identifying the benefits already realised as a result of its implementation. It also examines how this new technology changes existing culture and work practices and drives improvements in business processes. The examples covered in this paper are Sydney Water Corporation (SWC) implementation of Business Intelligence (BI) for the Metropolitan SCADA system (IICATS) and ongoing developments for extending BI to all the local Treatment Plant SCADA systems. There are many business areas that took advantage of this implementation. This paper focuses on the work done in the following areas: • Identifying methods to extend the life of current SCADA/Telemetry systems and maximise the value of installed equipment to work smarter and harder; • Improving corporate reporting to allow more informed business decisions to be made; • Uncovering other benefits of utilising Business Intelligence to further leverage the investments made in Advanced Control Systems.
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HISTORY OF SCADA AND WIDE AREA TELEMETRY IN SYDNEY WATER Sydney Water commenced remote monitoring of their water and wastewater networks in the early 1970s. Initial systems were localised and provided very basic alarm information. Over time the systems became more complex and provided analogue data (level measurement, flow readings etc.) as well as status data relating to plant conditions (pump healthy/failed, well level high, etc). The hardware was developed by a dedicated in-house team and utilised a range of SCADA Human Machine Interface (HMI) packages. Having demonstrated the benefits that could be achieved by the utilisation of SCADA within the business, in 1987 Sydney Water developed a strategy for deploying a SCADA system that would be fully integrated into all aspects of Sydney Water operations. This strategy was endorsed by the Board and was assigned a corporate sponsor to ensure the successful implementation across the organisation. The strategy resulted in the successful deployment of a wide area networkbased system known as the Integrated Instrumentation, Control and Telemetry System (IICATS). In 1995 this system was deployed to the entire Sydney Water distribution network covering around 650 sites. The system has a 24/7 System Operations Centre (SOC) which is manned by a team of dedicated operations officers and engineers. IICATS is a functionally rich system incorporating integrated demand scheduling models as well as advanced control capabilities and the ability to download changes to all aspects of the system remotely. The system was designed for high availability and was underpinned by a failsafe control philosophy and a comprehensive set of standards covering
all components of the system and its configuration, including software. The entire system is supported by an inclusive asset management plan that caters for the different lifecycles of the key technologies utilised. This has been a key aspect of the system design philosophy and, along with a rigorous configuration change management process, has ensured that the system has managed to stay abreast with technology while maintaining the required levels of functionality and reliability. A benefits realisation register was established along with the system delivery and all benefits that are delivered by the system are recorded in the register. Along with the expected benefits associated with operational efficiency (resourcing, optimised demand scheduling and energy savings), significant benefits in avoided capital costs and incident management have also resulted. As a result of the benefits delivered from the deployment of IICATS to the water distribution system, the system was expanded to cover all of the wastewater network operations, including the integrated monitoring and control of over 670 sewage pumping stations. This has resulted in a substantial improvement to the operation of the wastewater network as well as improved environmental and customer benefits. Today, IICATS monitors and controls more than 2200 facilities across the Sydney Water area of operations and is an integral part of the Sydney Water Service Delivery model. Having proven the benefits of adopting a strategic approach to the deployment of IICATS, approval was granted in 2003 to develop a similar strategy for the application of SCADA to Sydney Water’s 34 treatment plants. While a number of the treatment plants had varying levels of control and automation, they were completely independent and generally locally supported.
Table 1. Details of some of the more significant cost savings from the deployment of IICATS. Annual Cost Saving
One-Off Cost Saving
Avoided Capital Cost
Ability to better control all network assets and auto scheduling allows us to not have to build large Clear Water Tanks on outlets of Treatment Plants
Avoided Capital Cost
Planned and approved Trunk Main in Northern Suburbs not required due to operational scheduling and profile download via IICATS
Use of scheduling model and automatic profile download allows operation of key pumping stations on low and shoulder, as opposed to peak, tariffs
>$1m per annum
Use of profiles and turnover of reservoirs improves water quality and reduces Chlorine tablet dosing
$0.5m per annum
Reduction in manual collection of data and collation of reports
>$1.5m per annum
The strategy that was developed was based upon the proven methodologies adopted for IICATS. A 7-level control philosophy was developed. This ranged from basic localised monitoring at Level 1 to a fully automated system incorporating expert models for decision making and centralised operation at Level 7. In consultation with key stakeholders, it was determined, on the basis of cost and risk, to adopt level 4 within the 7-level range. Level 4 automation adopted a 20/80 rule (20% of the cost for 80% of the benefit). It provided for monitoring and automated control of all key process streams within a plant with a view to minimising repetitive labour tasks as well as facilitating clustered operation – the monitoring and control of multiple plants from a single plant location. Key concepts of the strategy included the development of a comprehensive set of SCADA standards covering all aspects of system design including architecture, hardware, software and configuration along with a compatible set of Instrumentation & Control standards that ensure instrumentation and motor control equipment interface seamlessly. Once again a rigorous configuration management process was an integral part of this strategy. This means that all changes are reviewed, planned and tested off-line prior to deployment and on-line changes are not permitted except in exceptional circumstances. Other key concepts included vendor independence and the use of commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) technology wherever possible. A crucial enabler of achieving this strategy was the development of a comprehensive software library and the incorporation of a specialist Computer Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tool for the enforcement of configuration standards and libraries. This facilitates the maintenance of a single software library that can be deployed to multiple vendors’ hardware and software platforms.
The strategy has been highly successful and standard SCADA systems have so far been deployed to 21 of the 34 treatment plants with all others either in progress or scheduled for upgrade in the next eight years. The Treatment Plant SCADA strategy has delivered similar benefits to the IICATS strategy with plant operating efficiencies, workforce flexibility and improved maintenance processes as some of the additional benefits.
INTEGRATION OF SCADA AND BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE Although the benefits of IICATS was widely accepted in relation to real-time monitoring and control of the Sydney Water networks, the reporting aspects of the system left a lot to be desired. It was difficult to extract the required information and required specialist knowledge of both the IICATS domain and Structured Query Language (SQL). Since going live in 1995, more than 10 years’ worth of data had been collected and stored. In 2006 a decision was made to include IICATS data as the first data stream in the SWC Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) and expose it through Business Intelligence as part of an overall Information Architecture Program.
A number of high level business objectives were identified as part of the development of BI: • A centralised, quality, trusted source of important business information – building a system and processes that we can have confidence in; • Evidence-based decision making and transparency of data streams – decisions made on quality data and information in which we have confidence; • Focus on value-add – allowing attention and efforts to be focused on the analysis of information rather than the gathering and collation; • Self-service from the desktop – people are able to self-service what they need to do from their desktop; • More timely information – in a more competitive environment and with greater regulatory demands, we need to be fast and flexible; • Open access to information across the business – we need to be more effective at managing the present and planning for the future. To do this we need to have access to information across domains and divisions.
EDW – Enterprise Data Warehouse CDR – Common Data Repository DM – Data Mart
Figure 1. IICATS BI architecture.
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Technical Features The architecture of the implemented solution was reasonably simple (see Figure 1); however, it presented a number of challenges due to data volume, data stream inconsistency and the dynamic nature of the configuration. Data is continuously pushed from the IICATS Top End Telemetry Servers into a series of IICATS holding tables. Each evening the data is then pulled into the staging area of the EDW and all raw data is held here for audit purposes. An Extract, Transform and Load process is then applied to data being transferred to the Common Data Repository (CDR). The CDR holds data from multiple other Sydney Water information systems. Data is then exposed to users in a purpose-built IICATS Data Mart. The data is exposed in the data mart as a series of objects that relate to realworld assets and are presented in plain English. Reports are created by dragging and dropping the objects on to a report canvas and applying filters to limit data returned (e.g. dates between x and y). The users require no knowledge of SQL or of the IICATS domain in order to extract the data or to drill from an enterprise level to a business or asset-specific view. The data mining capability has proven to be an extremely powerful tool. Although the IICATS BI project was established primarily to improve and streamline corporate reporting and facilitate combining IICATS data with other SWC data sources, it quickly started to deliver many more benefits, some of them anticipated and some quite unexpected. Examples include energy
efficiency programs, asset maintenance improvements (e.g., reduction in nonessential work orders, supporting Reliability Centred Maintenance activities), proactive leakage detection, license compliance improvements (water pressure and water quality) and ad hoc reports to identify system faults that were not really visible previously (e.g. leaking non-return valves leading to extended pump run hours). Corporate users are now accessing the IICATS data without any involvement of the Subject Matter Experts and are utilising the data to challenge long-held field “myths”. A significant benefit has been the utilisation of empirical data to inform investment renewal decisions. This includes identifying over-specification of asset requirements (e.g., pumps do not need to be so large) to deferral of asset replacement because there has been no significant deterioration in performance. A number of future initiatives include building main breaks probability models, analysis of the equipment performance based on model or vendor, correlating the data to site financial performance and customer feedback and incorporation of real-time data feeds. Table 2 details some of the more significant cost savings from the deployment of IICATS BI. The success of the IICATS BI project led to further developments in integrating SCADA data to EDW. The SCADA BI project was established in late 2011. The project encompasses integration of measurement,
event and trend information from 34 local SCADA systems on SWC treatment plants to EDW to allow analysis and reporting capability similar to that provided by the IICATS BI system. The project is now in the deployment phase (at the time of writing 12 plants are live). A number of technical challenges had to be overcome to deliver an effective solution. They included: • Volume of the data A few million measurement points, scanned at 30-second intervals; • Normalisation of the data Plants were developed in different periods, matching different standards, leading to a mixture of naming conventions, units, point types and quantity; • System security Connecting all the plants to corporate networks had to be done in a safe way; • Requires interfaces to multiple different vendor SCADA applications; • Local plant performance Extraction of the data could not effect plant day-to-day operation. Although the technology and architecture used is similar to the IICATS BI solution, it also provides for some additional configuration tools as well as a centralised manual data input facility (e.g. for sample data) as well as a replacement for the 34 Plant Data Management systems that provide statistical process control functions for the plants.
Table 2. IICATS BI Benefits Register. Annual Cost Saving
One-Off Cost Saving
Avoided Capital Cost
Analysis of operation of water pumping station over 12 years identifies that proposed design not required. Pump size can be reduced and therefore no requirement for HV or improvements to road access to support crane.
Avoided Capital Cost
Analysis of power failures and reservoir depletion rates over 10 years demonstrates that there is no need for implementation of UPS project approved following reservoir incident.
Analysis of pump operating regimes and failure modes and costs due to grit ingress results in improved operation of asset, no failures and improved OH&S.
$0.5m per annum
Identification of extended pump run hours at a number of sites identifies a range of problems causing inefficient operations (seawater ingress to sewer main, leaking or broken reflux valves, etc.)
$0.32m per annum
Analysis of alarms and job dispatches and repeat failures leads to significant improvements in maintenance response and significant improvements in dispatch of non-essential work orders.
>$0.4m per annum
Maintenance & Operating Efficiency
Identification of non-operating assets. Removal from monitoring and maintenance programs and initiate land sales.
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It is anticipated that the benefits will be potentially even greater than IICATS BI, as water and wastewater treatment plants operations were traditionally fragmented and the combination of all the data into one repository allows for easy analysis of a range of criteria across all plants, as well as facilitating plant performance comparisons. It is anticipated that this will lead to significant improvements in plant performance and, in particular, to optimised plant maintenance routines. Immediate measurable benefits also include de-commissioning of the separately maintained 34 Plant Data Management databases (based on MS Access).
LESSONS LEARNED In addition to the implementation of dedicated data marts for IICATS and SCADA, Sydney Water has implemented data marts for eight other key information systems (Finance, Customer, Asset Management, Lab Data, etc) as part of the Information Architecture Programme. A future project, already at the prototyping phase, includes the integration of all of these individual data marts into a single Enterprise Data Mart. Experience gained from the projects implemented to date suggest that this will present a range of new challenges for the organisation, primarily around data governance and standards. Some of the key lessons learned to date are as follows: • Data Quality Although there have been comprehensive standards in place for Sydney Water SCADA systems for a number of years, the project uncovered a surprising number of data quality issues ranging from naming conventions to units of measure. When this is expanded out to include other source systems, most of which did not have the same discipline or
standards relating to data configuration, then the scale of the problem becomes significant. The development and policing of comprehensive corporate data quality standards is essential in minimising data quality issues. Wherever possible these standards should be enforced in the source systems. • Data Governance One measure of BI projects’ success may be the number of reports that users develop once the data is available. In addition to over a hundred officially certified reports users have developed a few thousand “private” reports. They stretch from simple local sites queries to complicated analytical tools. This in itself presents a challenge, as the changes to any of source system data now need to be reviewed with consideration of side effects that the changes may cause to existing reports. Data ownership also becomes a challenge. The data is transformed in multiple stages in different systems belonging to different business owners. Users may also have different business interests while looking at the data, influencing further developments in sometimes contradictory directions. This has led to a comprehensive review of data governance in Sydney Water and crossdivisional change management is a key to success. A number of data working groups have been established in SWC to help facilitate resolution of such differences. • Knowledge Management The project was delivered by a number of cross-divisional teams including IT, Business Subject Matter Experts and key stakeholders. While the key infrastructure is owned and maintained by IT on behalf of the organisation, they do not possess the detailed business knowledge to drive the benefits or to make informed decisions
relating to business data structures and use. It is imperative that ownership for the source systems and maintenance of data and report specifications is a key accountability of the individual businesses, and that they have the necessary skills and business structures to support this. Furthermore, it is imperative that such knowledge is documented and made available to the wider businesses.
CONCLUSION The exposure of SCADA data to all the corporate users in a single source using Business Intelligence toolsets has proven to be very beneficial to Sydney Water. It has further leveraged the investment made in SCADA and converted data into information and insight, but this is just a start. Users no longer need to be experts in SCADA (or other source information systems) in order to take advantage of data collected out in the field. Availability of data spawns ideas. All we need to do is to encourage the follow-up and recognise successful practical application to ensure that even more benefits continue to be realised.
THE AUTHORS Mike Wassell (email: MICHAEL.WASSELL@ sydneywater.com.au) is Manager, Hydraulic System Services at Sydney water Corporation. He has been with Sydney Water for 15 years and has 30 years’ experience in the field of SCADA. Mirek Januszek (email: MIREK.JANUSZEK@ sydneywater.com.au) is SCADA Standards and Technology Manager at Sydney Water Corporation. Mirek has over 15 years’ experience in SCADA and IT technologies across water and electricity industries.
Australasia’s most experienced supplier/constructor of quality high-end Bolted Steel Tanks A high-end quality company established in 1991. Contact Ph: Email: Web:
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LINKING URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT TO URBAN LIVEABILITY How better management and use of alternative water sources can improve urban amenity GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
P Johnstone, R Adamowicz, F de Haan, B Ferguson, J Ewert, R Brown, T Wong
ABSTRACT Water scarcity has driven new ways of using water within our cities. While consumptive uses were previously linked to potable water supply systems, other urban water, such as stormwater and wastewater, was not utilised and created environmental and safety issues through its disposal. Maintaining secure water supplies throughout drought has led to the recognition and use of alternative ‘fit-for-purpose’ water resources. This paper examines the links between the adoption of an integrated system of such water resources and general considerations of overall ‘liveability’.
INTRODUCTION Water scarcity has driven new ways of looking at water within our cities. Previously consumptive uses were exclusively linked to potable water supply systems while other water found in the urban environment, such as stormwater and wastewater, was not utilised as a resource and inevitably created environmental and safety issues through its disposal. The need to maintain secure water supplies throughout drought has led to the recognition and use of stormwater and
recycled wastewater as alternative ‘fit-for-purpose’ water sources. This approach to managing various sources and qualities of water as an integrated system has developed into Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM). In addition to relieving pressure on water security, more active management and use of stormwater and recycled wastewater can improve other aspects of urban life. For example, the ability to support ‘green spaces’ without compromising potable water resources adds to the amenity of urban areas. Improved amenity makes a place more attractive and desirable, allowing us to suggest that it improves the ‘liveability’ of the place, or adds to the ‘quality of life’ of its inhabitants. These ideas, that better management and use of ‘alternate water sources’ can improve urban amenity and, hence, the liveability of a city are emerging as key drivers for urban development and water resources policy in Australia. For example, Victoria’s ‘Living Melbourne, Living Victoria’ policy and its delivery through the new Office of Living Victoria highlights the desire to develop
urban water systems beyond the traditional water supply and wastewater services, and for them to be a driver of improved liveability of Australian cities and towns. While conceptual links can be made between IUWM, urban amenity and liveability, transforming these into reality through the planning and design of cities and their water systems raises many questions. What is liveability? Is there a relationship between liveability and the established drivers of city development and urban water systems? What are the ways that urban water systems contribute to liveability? Monash Water for Liveability has explored these questions, investigating the additional benefits provided by incorporating water-sensitive urban design (WSUD) approaches with IUWM to create the Water Sensitive City. One outcome of this work is a conceptualising of urban water systems and liveability.
DEFINING LIVEABILITY To develop a framework we need firstly to establish a clear understanding of what we mean by ‘liveability’ and, secondly, apply this to the concepts of IUWM.
THE WORLD’S MOST LIVEABLE CITY There are several global ratings of the liveability of the world’s major cities; particularly prominent are the Economics Intelligence Unit’s Global Liveability Report, Mercer’s Quality of Living Survey and Monocle’s Most Liveable Cities Index. Australian cities constantly rate in the top 10 cities of the EIU survey (Economics Intelligence Unit, 2012). This survey tests whether employers needed to assign a hardship allowance as part of expatriate relocation packages. Selected cities are assigned a rating of relative comfort for over 30 qualitative and quantitative factors across five broad categories: stability; healthcare; culture and environment; education; and infrastructure. Suggested salary premiums are assigned to five categories of ‘liveability’ scores. Rankings of cities within each category have no effect on the outcome (suggested salary premium), providing some tolerance to imprecise data and assessments. However, the popular use of each city’s scores to discriminate and rank cities to determine ‘The World’s Most Liveable City’ may exceed the precision of the data and the rating methodology.
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Technical Features A mechanism for identifying and structuring needs provides a context for defining the particular needs. Maslow (1943) established a hierarchy of five sets of goals that equate to human needs (see Figure 1). Progression up the levels of the hierarchy reflects an improving ‘quality of life’ and, we suggest, liveability.
Figure 1. Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs. Like sustainability, definitions of liveability are diverse and, while the term invokes various ideas pertaining to quality of life or human wellbeing, it is recognised as being difficult to measure and even define (e.g. Van Kamp et al., 2003; Balsas, 2004). Vuchic (1999) describes liveability as a series of elements that make a city liveable and is: “generally understood to encompass those elements of home, neighbourhood, and metropolitan area that contribute to safety, economic opportunities and welfare, health, convenience, mobility and recreation”. Veenhoven (1996) argues that liveability is the quality of life in the nation – the degree to which its provisions and requirements fit with the needs and capacities of its citizens. A key theme across the various definitions and applications of the concept is that it is inherently human-centred – liveability is a reflection of ‘quality of life’, ‘wellbeing’ and/or the satisfaction of the needs of ‘the people’. The Victorian Competition and Efficiency Commission (2008) followed this theme when it concluded that: “Liveability reflects the wellbeing of a community and comprises the many characteristics that make a location a place where people want to live now and in the future.” While these definitions and descriptions of liveability present an objective basis for framing the various aspects of a city, the public profile and focus on ‘liveability’ is driven by particular interpretations of the concept that generate lists of the ‘World’s Most Liveable Cities’ (see box, opposite). Unfortunately, media attention given to the World’s Most Liveable Cities ratings distracts and detracts from the more objective analysis of the quality of life and liveability provided by a city and experienced by its people.
LIVEABILITY AS A REPRESENTATION OF SOCIETAL NEEDS Building on the notions that liveability is both ‘human-centred’ and ‘context-specific’, we adopt a ‘societal needs’ approach for considering liveability. Humans possess basic needs that must be satisfied to ensure their survival – from both a physiological needs of the body: breathing, food, water) and security perspective (basic need for safety of the body: health, security and continuity of necessary resources). In addition, humans have desires, or wants, to enhance their quality of life, which can be regarded as ‘needs’. The proposition is that ‘quality of life’ and, hence, liveability is related to the satisfaction of needs and wants. To a certain extent, the basic survival needs are common, however, overall the needs and wants are likely to reflect the particular values, expectations and ambitions of individual communities. So accepting the suggestion that liveability can be associated with the satisfaction of human needs, in order to determine the liveability of a city it is necessary to uncover the needs and wants of the people, and establish whether these are satisfied.
• ‘Existence’ relates to a person’s physical and material needs such as food, clothing and shelter. In many cases there are threshold needs that are essential for survival; a person requires adequate nourishment, respiration and so on to satisfy the needs of the body. However, the physical and material requirements for Existence extend beyond basic survival. Applying these concepts to water, there is usually a minimum amount of clean water that a person needs for drinking and consumption to survive. Having more water available opens up the opportunity for additional key uses of water, for example bathing and cleansing, which improve hygiene and, hence, increase survival rates. If even more water is available then discretionary uses become possible, further enhancing the quality of life experienced. • ‘Relatedness’ describes a person’s interpersonal needs within his personal as well as professional settings, also described as social and external esteem needs. De Haan et al. (2012) consider a person’s interactions with their environment as part of this suite of interpersonal needs. Two subcategories of Relatedness can be distinguished that are related to the role of water in:
Figure 2. Representation of Alderfer’s ERG Theory of human needs.
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Alderfer’s (1969) ERG (Existence, Relatedness, Growth) Theory simplifies Maslow’s hierarchy to three sets of needs (see Figure 2) and a set of hypotheses on the influence of satisfaction and frustration of needs on human motivation. This gives the ERG Theory a dynamic ability, explaining how the satisfaction or frustration of a need motivates actions to meet that or other needs.
– Supporting or facilitating social interactions and, hence, interpersonal relationships; and
that are effectively delegated to institutions that, together, underpin the ability of societies to satisfy their Growth needs.
– Contributing to societalenvironmental inter-relationships.
PROVIDING ERG NEEDS THROUGH WATER SERVICES
• ‘Growth’ relates to a person’s needs for personal development, also described as self-actualisation and internal esteem needs. Societal growth needs reflect the engagement of society in the processes that shape cities and urban water systems. Overall, growth is achieved when the intellect and resources of society are applied to deliver ‘state-of-the-art’ or ‘best practice’ services (societal selfesteem) and these actions are on a pathway towards some societal vision for the future (societal self-actualisation). While Growth needs reflect a degree of control over services and systems, this need not be direct and can be provided for on behalf of people. The role of individuals and communities in the governance of institutions can contribute to satisfying Growth needs. A hydro-social contract (Turton and Meissner, 2002) can describe the expectations for direct community engagement and the responsibilities
A practical illustration of the concept of satisfying Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) needs through delivery of water services is provided by looking at the potential for water sensitive urban design (WSUD) in IUWM. Whereas traditionally water infrastructure has been ‘hard engineered’ to hold and transport water, wastewater and stormwater, WSUD often employs ‘green’ infrastructure that mimics natural biophysical and ecological processes and thereby reintroduces ‘nature’ in urban environments. The ‘nature’ that is provided can satisfy a range of societal needs such as physical and mental health and relatedness needs. WSUD contributes to societal urban water needs in various ways. WSUD can improve the quality of life and, hence, the liveability of urban areas by: – Expanding the beneficial uses of water
in urban areas and ensuring that the uses are resilient to climate variability; – Reducing the adverse impacts of discharging wastewaters and stormwater to the environment; – Increasing the utilisation of alternative sources of water, particularly to substitute for potable water, including demands for enhancing ‘nature’ in urban environments that deliver a range of health and wellbeing benefits (as outlined above). We follow De Haan et al.’s (2012) use of Alderfer’s ERG Theory as a framework for considering these needs, and our further development of the framework is presented in Table 1.
WATER-SENSITIVE CITIES AND LIVEABILITY Brown et al. (2009) describe the development of water systems in urban environments as an embedded city states continuum (see Figure 3) that extends from the water, sewerage and drainage services observed in most cities through to the conceptual Water Sensitive City of the future.
Table 1. Societal needs in urban water systems (adapted from de Haan et al., 2012).
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Physical and material needs
Social interaction and interpersonal relationships
Societal self-esteem and self-actualisation
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Societal Urban Water Needs
Safe, secure and accessible supply of water for direct human consumption
Safe, secure and accessible supply of water available for other uses
Protection from polluted wastewater and stormwater; tolerable microclimates; public places that promote physical and mental health
Protection of people from the hazards of water, e.g. during floods or storm events
Protection of property and infrastructure from water, e.g. during floods or storm events
Industries and jobs that rely on water and/or water systems and services
Places for play, sport and leisure
Safe and secure places for social interaction and human connectedness with people and nature
Aesthetic urban environments
A pleasant micro-climate and landscape for human thermal comfort
Clean and healthy ecosystems with no negative impact on other ecosystems
Harmony with culture and tradition, to feel a sense of belonging. Proud association with urban water systems and environments
Purpose and Ambition
Progress towards a shared vision of a water-sensitive future
Control and Independence
Choice and influence on decision-making about water infrastructure and services
Equity and Social Justice
Equal opportunity to access the benefits of the urban water system
Preserve the ability of future generations to meet their water-related needs
Technical Features for IUWM projects. The newly formed CRC for Water Sensitive Cities is undertaking further research in both these areas.
Figure 3. Urban water city states, their socio-political drivers and their service delivery functions (Brown et al., 2009). The socio-political drivers of these city states reflect key societal needs, highlighting that society and cities are dynamic and progressive. There are strong parallels between the drivers of the city state continuum and the ERG theory, which serve to strengthen the linkages between societal urban water needs, the liveability of our cities and the concept of a watersensitive city. As cities progress along the continuum, the set of needs that are met grows to include ‘relatedness’ and ‘growth’ needs, in addition to the basic ‘existence’ needs. IUWM, as represented by the Water Cycle City, can be considered as a significant advancement on the more ‘existence’ based states of Water Supply, Sewered and Drained Cities. A water-sensitive city takes the integration
CONCLUSIONS Consideration of societal urban water needs provides a framework for establishing the link between urban water services and liveability. The relationship between city states and societal urban water needs illustrates that basic water supply, sewerage and drainage systems meet existence needs. Therefore, we suggest that Australian cities can progressively move towards a Water Sensitive City state by addressing relatedness and growth needs and more efficiently/sustainably addressing Existence needs by considered ways to enhance the city’s liveability. Here we offer a framework to recognise the opportunities to enhance liveability through IUWM approaches. This is the first step in reaching consensus on how to deliver these enhancements, and efforts will next turn to quantifying these liveability benefits and valuing them to aid in the development of multi-criteria assessments and business cases
Finally, we need to remind ourselves that we are dealing with one aspect of liveability, that of urban water’s contribution to liveability, and that the liveability experienced within a city is also influenced by many other societal systems such as transport, public infrastructure, communication, health care, education and welfare. All societal systems need to be considered if we are to achieve a ‘highly liveable city’ that represents the ‘choice of place for people to live’.
THE AUTHORS Associate Professor Phillip Johnstone (email: phillip.johnstone@ monash.edu) is Project Leader, Science–Policy Partnerships, CRC for Water Sensitive Cities (CRC WSC). Rachelle Adamowicz (email: rachelle.adamowicz@ monash.edu) is Research Officer, Monash Water for Liveability.
of water cycles further across ‘relatedness’ and ‘growth’ needs, linking with other environmental aspects (for example, urban microclimates) and social dimensions (for example, the benefits of alternative urban design for stormwater systems contributing to the higher order societal needs for water). The contributions of each of Brown et al.’s city states to societal urban water needs provides a basis for establishing a relationship between the city states and Alderfer’s Existence, Relatedness and Growth needs categories (see Figure 4). As with the city states, the needs categories can be considered as being nested, in that they are contained sequentially within one another.
Figure 4. Illustration of the relationships between City States and Societal Urban Water Needs.
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Projects are underway to quantify the ability of IUWM to mitigate urban heat island impacts and restore ecosystems in degraded urban waterways. Other research projects are developing approaches to include these and other benefits in the quantification of the full range of costs and benefits of IUWM. This research, together with emerging practice in the industry, is leading towards the development of an investment framework that allows the water industry to deliver its objectives of enhancing liveability of urban areas.
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Dr Fjalar J de Haan (email: email@example.com) is ARC APDI Fellow, Monash Water for Liveability, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, specialising in Theory and Modelling of Societal Innovation and Transitions. Briony Ferguson (email: briony.ferguson@monash. edu) is a Research Fellow, Monash Water for Liveability, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, CRC WSC. Jamie Ewert (email: Jamie.firstname.lastname@example.org) is Program Leader Adoption Pathways, CRC WSC. Professor Rebekah Brown (email: Rebekah.brown@ monash.edu) is Professor in School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Director of Monash Water for Liveability, Program Leader – Society, CRC WSC.
Professor Tony Wong email: tony.wong@crcwsc. org.au) is Chief Executive Officer CRC WSC.
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and Henwood R (eds.), Hydropolitics in the Developing World: A Southern African Perspective. Pretoria: African Water Issues
Van Kamp I et al. (2003): Urban Environmental Quality and Human Well-Being: Towards a Conceptual Framework and Demarcation of Concepts; A Literature Study. Landscape and Urban Planning 65, 1–2, pp 5–18. Veenhoven R (1996): Happy Life-Expectancy: A Comprehensive Measure of Quality-of-Life in Nations, Social Indicator Research, 39, pp 1–58. Victorian Competition and Efficiency Commission (2008): Final Report. A State of Liveability: An Inquiry into Enhancing Victoria’s Liveability. Vuchic VR (1999): Transportation for Livable Cities. Center for Urban Policy Research, University of Michigan.
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INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN MELBOURNE’S NORTH Maximising the achievement of environmental outcomes G Wilson, P Edwards, J McGrath, J Baumann
GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
INTRODUCTION In Melbourne’s northern suburbs, there are a number of organisations involved in the provision of urban water services (potable water supply, recycled water supply, sewerage and stormwater management). Yarra Valley Water (YVW) manages the reticulated water, recycled water and sewerage systems. Melbourne Water (MW) is the waterway manager and is responsible for stormwater services when the catchment area exceeds 60Ha, as well as wholesale water and sewerage services. Local councils manage the street-scale stormwater services. Historically, these organisations have worked independently, focusing on their own responsibilities. To date this has been satisfactory, however, faced with a growing population (expected to reach six million people by 2050) and an environment which is under stress (due to reduced water storages as a result of drought, ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and a Bay that is highly sensitive to the discharge of nutrients), a new approach is required to ensure the best holistic solution to provide maximum community benefit is identified.
In order to define where new developments can occur and to limit urban sprawl, the Government created an Urban Growth Boundary (UGB), which encompasses the city. Within the UGB, there are four major development fronts, one of which is the Northern Growth Area (NGA), covering an area of 9,500ha, which will ultimately contain 90,000+ residential homes and 1,050ha of employment land (see Figure 1). Providing water, sewerage and stormwater services to this area is estimated to have a net present cost over 25 years (borne by water utilities, Councils, land developers and property owners) of between $1.3–1.7 billion depending on the solution adopted. To ensure the best holistic solution is identified, a methodology was developed to measure the performance of a number of different servicing options against a set of Integrated Water Cycle Management (IWCM) objectives developed in consultation with key stakeholders as follows: • Reducing potable water consumption – relieving the pressure on climatedependent sources such as dams and
deferring non-climate-dependent augmentations such as seawater desalination; • Reducing the volume of treated effluent discharged to Port Phillip Bay and receiving waterways – Port Phillip Bay has a finite capacity to receive and naturally treat nitrogen; • Improving stormwater quality – the addition of pollutants (such as nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended solids) degrade waterways; • Reducing stormwater runoff frequency and volume – reduces waterway erosion and protects aquatic ecosystems (Fletcher and Walsh, 2007); • Maximising the volume of stormwater/ rainwater that infiltrates into the groundwater table – returning base flows to pre-settlement levels. The methodology then relates the overall performance of each option to its total community cost to derive a ratio that can be used to indicate its value (environmental) for money. With the world’s population forecast to grow from six billion people to nine billion people by 2050 and with most of these people living in cities, the challenge of providing services in a more sustainable and integrated way is certainly not unique to Melbourne, and methodologies such as this one may be useful in assisting similar future processes.
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF IWCM PLANNING
Figure 1. Major urban growth corridors around metropolitan Melbourne.
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In recent times, water practitioners and town planners have had differing opinions regarding what IWCM actually is. IWCM planning takes place over an extended period of time, constantly evolving throughout the planning cycle as more information about future land uses becomes available. As such, a number of key decisions (such as whether or not recycled water will be provided or what areas of land need to be set aside for key infrastructure) are made at various different points in time.
Technical Features • 50/100 = current best practice – meets currently documented standards and which could be enforced today. • 100/100 = world’s best practice – eliminates or minimises impacts to levels which are deemed to be within the carrying capacity of nature. Each of the sub-measures were assigned a weighting using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, which is a mathematical technique for organising and analysing complex decisions developed during the 1970s (Saaty, 2008). This scoring process involved assigning a single vote to each stakeholder group for each pair of sub-measures. Sensitivities were captured to measure the impacts that differing stakeholder opinions had on the end result.
Raw sub-measure scores and sub-measure weightings were combined to calculate “weighted sub-measure scores”. For each option, these weighted sub-measure scores were added together to obtain an overall option CEF score.
For each option, the Total Community Net Present Cost (NPC) was divided by the CEF overall score to calculate a “community value” ratio. Preferred options were those with the lowest NPC per unit of CEF overall score.
Figure 2. Hierarchy of IWCM planning in Melbourne. It is imperative to ensure the outcomes from the various levels of IWCM planning are complementary, while providing developers and customers with as much choice as possible. Figure 2 illustrates the various levels of IWCM planning which take place within Melbourne.
METHODOLOGY At the commencement of the investigation, YVW and MW collaborated to develop six options (described in Figure 3) for detailed analysis. Three of these options can be classified as “integrated”, meaning they address all of the key IWCM objectives previously listed. The remaining three options represent a more traditional approach in which the IWCM objectives are prioritised (with some often not addressed at all – predominantly those objectives relating to stormwater runoff frequency and volumes).
Based on the outputs of the hydraulic models, the environmental impacts specifically relating to the key IWCM objectives were quantified – namely energy and water consumption, nutrient concentrations, runoff volumes and frequency, and base flow volumes.
A Common Evaluation Framework (CEF) was developed, based around a set of sub-measures, to measure the achievement of the IWCM objectives.
For each option, raw sub-measures scores were calculated. Scores out of 100 were assigned as follows: • 0/100 = poor performance – a step backwards from current practice.
Several supporting pieces of work were undertaken as part of the investigation to provide surety around some of the assumptions being used. This work is described in the following sections.
The options chosen were selected to represent the extremes of what is currently possible (and assumes that any other alternate options would fall somewhere in between). Although the extreme options are unlikely to be implemented exactly as they have been defined, they do provide guidance as to what future work (if any) may be required to hone in on a preferred option. The options investigated were compared using the following methodology: 1.
The sewerage, potable water, recycled water and stormwater systems were all hydraulically modelled to size the required infrastructure (at both the catchment, development and allotment scales).
Figure 3. Options investigated.
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Technical Features returning realistic results. As such, a reference catchment with similar rainfall, topography, soil type and vegetation (matching vegetation maps produced by the early explorers) was found and analysed for the purposes of calibrating the NGA model parameters.
GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
The Surrey River catchment located in south-west Victoria was chosen. This catchment has gently sloping topography with primarily basaltic clays and is characterised by its grassy woodlands, much like the NGA pre-settlement. The catchment also had reliable streamflow and meterological data available over an extended period of time. By comparing historical flows in the Surrey River against rainfall and evaporation data (ensuring only years where the annual rainfall was within 15% of avearge rainfall for the NGA were selected), it was possible to calculate that there were approximately 35 naturally occurring surface runoff days per year. This is reflective of the unique soil conditions and is significantly higher than the MUSIC model estimates (six runoff days per year), which is more typical of a more free-draining soil present in the south-east of Melbourne. Figure 4. Example of overall weighted option scores from the MCA model, including sensitivities.
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF RAINWATER TANKS ON KEY STORMWATER ASSET SIZING In order to determine whether any of the key stormwater infrastructure (ie. pipes, wetlands and retarding basins) could be downsized as a result of using rainwater tanks, a separate hydraulic modelling investigation was undertaken (Ward, 2011). Several rainwater tank configurations were tested against a number of rainfall events recorded over the past 70 years – of varying intensities (from a 1 to >100year average recurrence interval) and durations (from 35 minutes to 1,860 minutes). These configurations included a traditional rainwater tank design with a high level overflow and a modified rainwater tank with a controlled overflow halfway up the tank (set to empty the top half of the tank volume over a 24-hour period).
Figure 5. Calculation of a “community value” ratio. CALCULATION OF PRE-DEVELOPMENT RUNOFF DAYS
exceeded the available soil storage levels and resulted in surface runoff to the local waterway.
A number of the CEF calculations involved comparisons with the pre-settlement number of runoff days – that is, the number of days in which rainfall on the catchment
Given that the NGA has been extensively farmed and cleared over the past 100 years, it was difficult to calibrate the stormwater model (MUSIC) and confirm that it was
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The investigation concluded that although the modified rainwater tank configuration provided reductions in retarding basin size for certain shorter duration and intensity events, there were no significant savings evident for the lower intensity but longer duration events, as the tanks were unable to empty quickly enough to provide any meaningful additional storage capacity. Despite the inability to downsize the retarding basin assets, stormwater
Technical Features pollutant modelling found that the use of rainwater tanks on each allotment resulted in a significant reduction in downstream (development scale) wetland sizing of up to two-thirds. These savings were subsequently incorporated into the financial analysis.
RESULTS AND OUTCOMES
CEF overall scores were then divided by the Total Community Cost (represented as a NPC) to calculate a “community value” ratio (see Figure 5). This ratio effectively measures how much each CEF overall scoring unit costs the community (i.e. $M of NPC to achieve one unit of CEF overall score) and is not dissimilar to a traditional financial cost-to-benefit ratio. As Figure 5 shows, Option 3 does not have the highest overall CEF score but does have the best “community value” ratio – in simple terms it is $3.15M cheaper per unit of CEF score than the next best option (Option 4). The results highlight the deficiencies of a traditional Triple Bottom Line (TBL) approach, which attempts to consider financial, social and environmental measures in parallel: • Traditional TBL models often artificially reduce the weighting given to community cost and fail to recognise the commercial reality of how business decisions are made. They can also recommend options that do not necessarily represent value for money (i.e. an option may meet all of the desired objectives but have a huge cost and be selected over a much cheaper optionthat only falls slightly short of meeting all the desired objectives).
Additional outcomes of the study, which will be used to inform the next level of IWCM planning, include: • The design of bio-retention systems is critical, particularly when installed in areas with clay soils where the evapo-transpiration rate is much greater than the infiltration rate all year round. Systems must be of a manageable size, be aesthetically pleasing, and require minimal operations and maintenance input. • The lowest cost option for meeting the stormwater performance objectives in Melbourne’s north does not involve the use of rainwater tanks. This investigation indicates that bio-retention systems are a more cost-effective solution for disconnecting impervious surface areas from the formal stormwater system (through a combination of evapotranspiration and infiltration). • The performance of rainwater tanks is very “area-specific”. In this study, average reliabilities were between 52–81% depending on household size (with 100% of the roof area connected to the tank
and annual rainfall of 596mm). This means that reductions in the size of the potable water network (or recycled water network depending on how the tanks are backed up when empty) are not possible without the installation of some form of off-peak tank top-up system. • The use of rainwater tanks to supply hot water services in parallel with the supply of recycled water for non-potable uses (toilet flushing, clothes washing and outdoor uses) can reduce per capita imported water to 60L/person/day (30L/person/day less than a recycled water only solution). • In water supply systems where energyintensive supply sources such as desalination will ultimately play a major role (such as Melbourne), the use of recycled water to substitute nonpotable uses can result in a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in comparison. Based on recent data, recycled water production and supply consumes approximately 1,600kWh/ML compared with an estimated 2,100kWh/ML for potable water, which includes a mix of desalinated water and dam water. In comparison, it is not uncommon for a typical household rainwater tank system to use around 2,500kWh/ML.
CONCLUSION The key outcomes of the investigation for Melbourne’s North were as follows: • All preferred options – whether it be the best traditional option (Option 2) or the best integrated option (Option 3, which is illustrated in Figure 6) – involved local
• The community value ratio for the “do nothing” option represents a reference point against which alternatives should be compared. Theoretically, this reference point represents “current practice” (not to be confused with current best practice) and before considering alternatives, they should at least have a matching or better ratio. • The option with the highest community value ratio will not necessarily have the highest overall CEF score. Often in
Figure 6. Schematic diagram of the best “integrated” option.
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When the CEF sub-measure weightings were applied to the raw sub-measure scores, the chart in Figure 4 was created. This chart highlights the sensitivity of the options to the sub-measure weightings extracted from the scoring process. Using a sporting analogy, the non-integrated options “are more like specialists than all-rounders”, and subsequently do well when their speciality receives a higher weighting and poorly when it receives a lower weighting.
traditional TBL models, there is very little difference in overall option scores but large variations in community cost. This is certainly the case in this investigation, with Option 3 having a CEF overall score of 66.33 and a Community NPC of $1,482M, and Option 4 having a CEF overall score of 67.38 and a Community NPC of $1,721M (a score difference of 1.05/100 but an NPC difference of $239M).
GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
treatment and recycling. As a result of this investigation, YVW is planning for all new developments within the NGA to be required to provide the necessary recycled water reticulation assets and connect to the local recycled water system provided by YVW – enforced using Clause 56 of the Victorian Planning Provisions, which define the conditions that are associated with the sub-division of land. • Alternate water sources should not compete against each other. This investigation has shown that multiple sources can be used in a complementary way without negating their own unique benefits. As the water balance indicates, the area is an overall “net water producer”, with the annual volume of rainfall and wastewater far exceeding total demand. • It is possible to implement stormwater retention measures, which achieve the desired runoff frequency outcomes. The exact configuration of these solutions is area-specific, however they will be distributed across a range of scales (i.e. allotment, street and public open space).
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• Given the difficult soil conditions in the NGA, agreed solutions to manage stormwater runoff frequency and volume will be challenging to find. One possible alternative is to undertake large-scale stormwater harvesting with the aim of producing drinking quality water (this is currently being tested at a pilot scale by YVW at its Merrifield Stormwater Harvesting Project, which is jointly funded by the Australian Government).
THE AUTHORS Glenn Wilson (email: glenn.wilson@yvw.
REFERENCES Fletcher TD, Walsh CJ (2007): Formulation and Assessment of an Allotment-Scale Flow Objective for Protecting Receiving Waterways. Benchmark Environmental Consulting, Victoria, Australia. Paul MJ & Meyer JL (2001): Streams in the Urban Landscape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, pp 333–365. Saaty T (2008): Relative Measurement and its Generalisation in Decision Making, www.rac.es/ficheros/doc/00576.pdf Suren AM (2000): Effects of Urbanisation. In
com.au) is the Manager of Sustainable
KJ Collier & MJ Winterbourn (Eds). New
Growth Planning at Yarra Valley Water.
Zealand Stream Invertebrates: Implications
Phil Edwards (email: phil.edwards@
Society, Christchurch, New Zealand.
melbournewater.com.au) is the Integrated Water Management Partnership Manager at Melbourne Water. Jonathan McGrath (email: Jonathan@ dceprofile.com) is a Senior Associate at Dalton Consulting Engineers. Julia Baumann (email: Julia.Baumann@
for Management. New Zealand Limnological
Walsh CJ, Roy AH, Feminella JW, Cottingham PD, Groffman PM & Morgan RP (2005): The Urban Stream Syndrome: Current Knowledge and the Search for a Cure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24, 3, pp 706–723. Ward A (2011): Investigation of Rainwater Tanks and Their Impact on Stormwater
dceprofile.com) is a Design Engineer at
Infrastructure Sizing. Dalton Consulting
Dalton Consulting Engineers.
Engineers, Victoria, Australia.
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MAKING SENSE OF SMART METERING DATA A data mining approach for discovering water use patterns R Cardell-Oliver, G Peach
GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
ABSTRACT Smart water metering promises many benefits including customer empowerment, support for policy-making and environmental savings. This paper gives an overview of a new activity pattern model that can be learnt automatically from collected water meter readings. The model is used to identify and explain water use patterns. A case study from 188 houses in the Western Australian mining town of Kalgoorlie-Boulder is used to demonstrate the potential of activity pattern modelling for effective smart metering.
WHY SMART WATER METERING? Smart sensors are being deployed throughout the water industry to collect information about the state of assets. Smart sensors measure properties such as water quality, pipeline condition and metered water use. For example, household smart meters can record hourly water usage by end users, with time series data from the sensors collected continuously and automatically. The data from smart meters can be used to prepare water bills in the same way as traditional meter readings are used. However, this new technology also offers the opportunity to improve water efficiency through better evidence for decision-making. Extracting valuable information from the data provided by smart meter company assets and sharing this information within the business and with customers is known as smart metering (Water Corporation, 2010). Several cost benefit studies have detailed the business potential of smart water metering (Marchment Hill, 2010; Water Corporation, 2010). Smart metering empowers water customers by providing more information on how and when water is used, enabling them to save water and so reduce their water use charges. Reduction in demand and, therefore, water supplied will reduce operating costs and contribute towards the deferment of capital asset upgrades. It also provides information to support decisions on water billing bands
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and future investment for water providers. The environmental benefits of smart metering include water conservation and reduced carbon footprints, which contribute to climate resilience. A further significant operational benefit of smart metering is the low staff maintenance costs for smart meters compared with traditional meters. However, although the benefits are well known, practical techniques to support smart metering are just emerging. New techniques are needed to analyse collected water meter readings in order to identify and explain water use patterns. This paper presents a new model for this purpose.
DATA MINING FOR WATER USE PATTERNS Our goal is to discover water usage patterns automatically from smart meter readings. This section gives an overview of data mining techniques that can be used to achieve this goal and summarises some challenges for doing this.
TECHNIQUES Data mining is a research field of Computer Science concerned with finding interesting patterns in large data sets (Han et al., 2006). Data mining methods use heuristics and efficient algorithms to discover interesting patterns automatically. Efficiency and automation are important because real-world data sets are large and complex. Interesting patterns are defined to be those that can be used to inform policy and strategy because they provide information relevant for decision-making. That is, whether a pattern is interesting or not depends on the application. For a household user, an interesting pattern is: On 61/170 days (36%), recorded water use was relatively high (average of 2.78KL per day), totalling 169KL (52%) of your overall water use for the period. This high water use occurred most frequently on Wednesdays and Saturdays, between 8am and 9am on those days.
For water providers, the following pattern is interesting because it differs from findings in other studies. Furthermore, continuous flows are interesting for users because they are unexpected: users may be unaware of a continuous flow and so water is wasted where waste could be avoided. In the sampled population, the prevalence of continuous flow days (potential leaks) was high: 84% of metered houses registered at least one day of continuous flow. Continuous flows accounted for 10% of all water used by this population and were more common in summer than in winter.
PATTERN DISCOVERY Data mining algorithms search for patterns in a given set of observations. Each observation is characterised by its features. For smart water meters, features include a meter identifier, date of use, land use type, and volumes used per hour of the day. In addition, new features can be derived from the raw data. For example, the day of the week or season of the year can be derived from date of use. The total volume used per day, the minimum hourly flow per day, and the aggregated volume per quarter-day can all be derived from hourly volumes. Patterns are simply groups of observations that are similar in some way. For example, the set of all days for a given meter in which the minimum flow is at least two litres per hour forms a group that can be characterised as a continuous flow, potentially a leak. As well as common sense rules of this type, groups can be discovered using data mining clustering algorithms (Cardell-Oliver, 2013). For example, a set of observations for a particular meter can be partitioned by volume into relative categories of extreme, high or low water use for that user. Grouping data in this way is known as unsupervised learning since the patterns are discovered automatically by a clustering algorithm, rather than by an explicit rule as in a continuous flow group (Han et al., 2006).
Technical Features PATTERN EXPLANATION
The study uses hourly water meter readings for 239 meters selected from 13,800 properties metered in the 2011â&#x20AC;&#x201C;12 Kalgoorlie Smart Meter Trial by the Water Corporation of Western Australia (Water Corporation, 2010). The raw data from the trial comprises a meter number, land use type for that meter, and a sequence of hourly time-stamped readings giving the meter reading for each hour. This data is converted into daily observations, given as 24-tuples of the number of litres of water used per hour.
DATA MINING CHALLENGES LEVEL OF DETAIL
KALGOORLIE-BOULDER SMART METERING STUDY To illustrate the application of activity pattern models in practice, we present a case study of metered water use from the Western Australian city of KalgoorlieBoulder. Situated 595 kilometres inland, east of Perth, in the Eastern goldfields of Western Australia, Kalgoorlie-Boulder is surrounded by semi-arid countryside. The climate is hot and very dry, with an average annual rainfall of 264mm and an annual evaporation rate of 2943mm. The main business was and is mining, from the gold rush of 1893 to large open-cut mining today. Since 1903 the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water has been pumped from Mundaring Weir in Perth via a pipeline to Kalgoorlie.
Figure 1 illustrates the sequence of hourly water usage for two households in the case study. Patterns of water use are not evident at this level for two reasons. First the data is too detailed, in that it does not show higherlevel conceptual views for time (e.g. day or week or season) or volume (e.g. extreme use or use associated with a continuous flow). On the other hand, the data is not detailed enough because many interesting details are hidden. Concurrent activities such as taking a shower while the washing machine is running, and sequential activities such as showering and breakfasting while getting ready for work in the morning, are all aggregated into single, hourly water volume measurements. Nonetheless, interesting temporal and spatial patterns are to be found in these time series, as will be shown in the following sections.
1000 400 0
Litres per hour
Hourly meter readings, type=house, mean vol=704 L/day
Another challenge is how to identify errors in the data. The data includes a number of exceptionally high or low readings that may be erroneous. In many data mining applications, such outliers are treated as errors and removed from the data set. However, inspection of our data set by water use experts suggests that the readings are unusual but correct, and so we have not removed these outliers from the data set.
RESULTS USING COMMONSENSE KNOWLEDGE Logical rules can be used to define patterns that capture commonsense knowledge. For example, a continuous flow is said to occur when at least two litres of water is metered in every hour over a 24-hour period. Continuous flows may indicate an undetected leak in a pipe or appliance. This rule is used to select continuous flow days for each user. Then the set of continuous flows can be characterised using attributeoriented induction (Han et al., 2006). The properties of continuous flows can also be summarised across the whole population. From the Kalgoorlie-Boulder data set the following patterns can be mined: Meter 90 has a frequency of 16% (28/170 days) of continuous flow days. The significance of water identified as continuous flows for this meter was 2% (3/152 kilolitres) of all water used by this household.
Hour of Trial
Hourly meter readings, type=house, mean vol=1520 L/day 1000
Meter 132 has a frequency of 52% (89/170 days) of continuous flow days. The significance of water identified as continuous flows for this meter was 14% (56/412 kilolitres) of all water used by this household.
Litres per hour
Real-world data sets are typically noisy in that they have missing data and contain erroneous values, and the data set is not exceptional in this regard. The main noise feature is missing data points arising from the initial set-up of new wireless meters. The data set is taken from 205 days of the year (from mid-January to early August 2012). Nineteen per cent of possible hourly reading data points were unavailable. Most of the missing data is from days during the set-up phase when readings were not received by any meters. These gaps can be seen in Figure 1. In the following analysis we include only full days of data from each meter: that is, days for which the full 24 hours of readings were available.
Hour of Trial
Figure 1. Raw data: hourly meter readings for two metered households.
Continuous flow patterns were prevalent in the Kalgoorlie sample with 84% (157/188) of households having at least one day of continuous flow. Continuous flows
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Having identified potentially interesting patterns as groups of related observations, the next step is to characterise these groups in terms that are understandable to human users. Since any subset of features and constraints on those features will define a group, the challenge is to identify the interesting patterns. Attribute oriented induction is a data mining technique for describing a group in terms of the distribution of its attributes (Han et al., 2007). For example, a group of high water use days can be partitioned by the day of the week on which the water is used. The frequency distribution of those days gives a signature that characterises the group. Threshold frequencies can then be used to define which patterns are likely to be interesting to users.
Technical Features ID=139, type=house, mean=1744 L/d
8000 6000 4000
Volume (Litres per Day )
4000 3000 2000 0 Feb
Figure 2. Individual household water use clustered by volume (X, H, L) and season (summer, winter). Cluster boundaries are shown by the dotted lines.
Figure 3. Day-of-week patterns in the high volume (H) clusters for meters 90 (left) and 139 (right). High water use for each meter shows a strong bias to particular days of the week.
Figure 2 shows the discovered usage clusters for two households: 90 and 139. The clusters are X (shown as crosses), H (shown as triangles) and L (shown as circles). The figure shows that both households have three clear volume clusters delineated by horizontal dotted lines. The temporal division between summer and winter is shown by the vertical line. For most meters X and H activities are biased to summer. The mean daily use for meter 90 is close to the mean for this population, while meter 139 shows high water use relative to this population. Higher overall use for meter 139 can be attributed to the longer run of high use days and a higher volume range for both extreme and high clusters. Often individual users have strong usage patterns within their clusters. For example, the H or X clusters may be biased to particular days of the week, most likely days in which the household is allowed to use garden sprinklers. Day-of-week patterns are discovered by separating the days in a given volume cluster into days of the week. Figure 3 shows the day-of-week frequencies for high water use for meters 90 and 139. The most frequent high use days of the week for meter 90 are Sunday (31%) and Wednesday (28%). The most frequent high use days of the week for meter 139 are Saturday (38%) and Wednesday (31%).
WATER USE IN CONTEXT
8000 6000 4000 2000
Litres per meter per day (outliers not shown)
LAND USE Each water meter is associated with a land use for that property. There are 10 land use types represented in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder case study: house, home unit, duplex unit, multiplex unit, rest home, club, sports ground, park, sewage treatment works and residential vacant land. Figure 4 compares the range of water used per day for each category. The differences between land use categories are statistically significant. Examples in this paper focus on the 188 houses in the sample.
GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
Volume (Litres per Day )
ID=90, type=house, mean=896 L/d
Sports gnd (N=1)
Sewage Wks Vacant (N=1) (N=2)
Figure 4. Water use (litres per meter per day) versus land use type (outliers not shown). accounted for 10% (3/29 megalitres) of all water used by houses in the sample population.
INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS Clustering is a data mining technique for classifying observations into subgroups of closely related values. Clustering algorithms use heuristics to search automatically for
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the best way of dividing a set of values. The algorithms ensure that values in the same cluster are close to one another, but each cluster is far from the other clusters. For daily water use volumes, the k-means clustering algorithm is used to classify an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water use volume as extreme (X), high (H) or low (L), relative to the volumes used by that individual. Details of the k-means algorithm can be found in Han et al. (2006).
CLIMATE It is to be expected that weather conditions will affect the volume of water used, with more water being used in the summer and less in the winter. The Kalgoorlie-Boulder case study supports that hypothesis. But how closely correlated is water use with daily weather conditions? Figure 5 summarises daily minimum and maximum temperatures and daily rainfall totals for Kalgoorlie-Boulder. Readings are from the Bureau of Meteorology station 12838 in Kalgoorlie available from www.bom.gov.au.
The seasonal bias (summer/winter) of meter 90 for days with continuous flows (N=28) is 8%/92%. For extreme days (N=10) the bias is 100%/0%, for high use days (N=32) the seasonal bias is 87%/13%. For low use days (N=128) the bias is is 39%/61%.
RELATED WORK 20
Appliance models and socio-economic models are the state-of-the-art techniques for understanding and explaining end user water usage.
Appliance models explain overall water use in terms of the water used by washing machines, showers, baths, household taps, outdoor use and so on. The types of questions that can be answered by appliance models are statistical characteristics of water use.
For example, in Southern Queensland “on average, showers [account for] (42.7L/p/d: 29%) [Litres per person per day of water use] ... and clothes washers (31L/p/d: 21%)” (Beal et al., 2011). In this context, leakage can be regarded as an appliance.
Day of Year
In California, the “average leakage rate in the study homes was 31 gphd [US gallons per household per day = 117 L/h/d], while the median rate was 12 gphd [45 L/h/d]. The wide disparity between these values shows that a small group of homes are leaking at very large rates, and this increases the average for the entire study group.” (DeOreo, 2011).
Litres / Household / Day
average weekly mean daily temperature and average daily volume per week is stronger (corr = 0.86, p-value = 3.797e09). At a broader scale, the seasonal bias between summer and winter can be measured for selected activities of individual households. For example:
Week of Year
Figure 5. Seasonal patterns of water use: Kalgoorlie-Boulder weather observations (top) with daily temperature maxima (red top) and minima (blue lower) and rainfall (green bars) [Source: BOM] and per-week distribution of water use volumes for all users (bottom). Many of Australia’s coastal cities have a rainy and a dry season, but Kalgoorlie has low rainfall at all times of the year. There is a statistically significant, seasonal, temperature-based difference in water use between summer and winter, but we found no correlation between the rare rainfall events and water use.
Mean daily temperature is correlated with water use across the whole population (corr = 0.75, p-value = 2.2e-16). However, this daily correlation statistic is somewhat misleading because water use actually follows a broader trend, rather than daily responses. The correlation between the
Appliance models are developed using a mixed-methods methodology. Data is gathered from interviews with householders, water use diaries, appliance audits, land use surveys, and fine-grained water meter readings. Once the data for an appliance model has been collected, then the data is analysed to construct a model. The different viewpoints are used to triangulate observations. Fine grained water meter traces are manually labelled with activity names such as taking a shower, flushing the toilet, or watering the garden. Software such as Trace Wizard (www. aquacraft.com) can be used to assist with the labour intensive process of labeling activities in a water use trace. In addition, contextual information such as household
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GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
Maximum Temperature (degrees C) / Daily Rainfall (mm)
BOM weather data 2012 for Kalgoorlie Boulder station 12038
GREEN CITIES/ INTEGRATED PLANNING
Technical Features type, block size, number of householders, social demographic, as well as interviews and water-use diaries, are used to help identify individual activities linked to water use.
A case study from 188 houses in the Western Australian mining town of KalgoorlieBoulder is used to illustrate the practicalities of activity pattern modelling. Key findings from this case study for its stakeholders are:
Social and economic models capture the relationships between customers’ water use and social factors such as conservation motives or economic factors such as income or home ownership. The premise underlying this type of model is that the “success of household water demand management strategies is dependent on how well we understand how people think about water and water use” (Jorgensen et al., 2009).
1. The population of Kalgoorlie-Boulder is known to have a high average water use, with an average household consumption of 359 kilolitres against a state average of 270 kilolitres. The unique situation of this mining town population and its arid climate are likely contributing factors. Our case study sample of hourly water use volume over a time span of nearly six months (170 days), for a population of 188 houses, has provided a new and detailed picture about the patterns of water use that occur in practice.
The effect of incentives, regulations, and property, household and personal characteristics, as well as trust, have all been studied. For example, in a Perth study Syme et al. (1990) found statistically significant correlations between attitudes about garden importance and household water use. Socio-economic models are developed using interview data and water use records. Methods such as regression analysis and analysis of variance are used to characterise the strength and statistical significance of direct and indirect drivers of water use. Both appliance and socio-economic models give rich explanations of historical water use. However, neither of these models is well suited for providing continuous, real-time monitoring and feedback for large populations of water users, because both types of model require specialised data collection with user involvement in interviews and diaries. The activity pattern model proposed in this paper thus complements existing models by providing a new way of viewing end-user water use, using only automatically collected measurements for large populations and time spans.
CONCLUSION The goal of smart metering is to discover and characterise interesting patterns of water use by end users. To this end, we have developed a novel activity pattern model for smart metering. The model uses data mining techniques to select and characterise the activities of individual users and of user populations. Activities are discovered from hourly, per meter, water use readings. Pattern discovery and description can be automated, making the approach scalable for large user populations over long time periods. This paper presents an overview of activity pattern modelling and the data mining techniques used for activity discovery.
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2. Continuous flow patterns were prevalent in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder sample, with 84% (157/188) of households having one or more days of continuous flow. Continuous flows accounted for 10% (3/29 megalitres) of all water used by houses in this sample population. 3. Many individuals have strongly identifiable water use patterns characterised by usage volume or day of week. Identifying such patterns is valuable for targeted feedback to achieve water efficiency goals. Smart water metering promises many benefits including customer empowerment, support for policy-making and environmental savings. Findings from the Kalgoorlie-Boulder case study demonstrate the potential of activity pattern models to help realise this promise. In future research we plan to: • Apply activity pattern modelling with different populations; • Develop methods for making activity discovery more robust and general; • Investigate the potential of using additional contextual information such as geo-spatial information; and • Develop methods for visualisation and communication of activity patterns to customers and providers. Another area for future research is the use of smart metering to inform future design upgrades by assessing peak hourly flows and analysing correlations between temperature and water use and other relevant contextual information.
THE AUTHORS Rachel Cardell-Oliver (email: email@example.com. au) is a Professor of Computer Science & Software Engineering at the University of Western Australia. With the Australian Co-operative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, she is developing novel data mining techniques to discover activity patterns in household water meter data. Her research focuses on end-to-end reliability of sensor networks, and she has worked on deploying field sensor networks, reliable communication protocols, and analysis of sensed data. Garry Peach (email: Garry. Peach@watercorporation. com.au) has been managing the Smart Metering initiatives being undertaken by the Water Corporation of WA. The success of a recent trial in Kalgoorlie-Boulder involving almost 14,000 properties and including the installation of a fixed wireless collection system has resulted in a further 14,500 smart meters being installed in towns in the Pilbara region.
REFERENCES Beal CD, Stewart RA, Huang T & Rey E (2011): SEQ Residential End Use Study. Journal of the Australian Water Association, 38, 1, pp 92–96. Cardell-Oliver RM (2013): Discovering Water Use Activities for Smart Metering. To appear in 2013 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (IEEE ISSNIP 2013), Melbourne, Australia, April 2013. DeOreo WB (2011): California Single-Family Water Use Efficiency Study, Aquacraft Inc. Water Engineering & Management, www.aquacraft.com Han J & Kamber K (2006): Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques (2nd ed.). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA. Jorgensen B, Graymore M & O’Toole K (2009): Household Water Use Behavior: An Integrated Model. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(1), pp 227–236. Marchment Hill Consulting Pty Ltd (2010): Smart Water Metering Cost Benefit Study. Retrieved May 2011 from www.swan-forum.com/ uploads/5/7/4/3/5743901/smart_metering_ cost_benefit.pdf. Syme GJ, Seligman C & Thomas JF (1990): Predicting Water Consumption From Homeowners’ Attitudes. Journal of Environmental Systems, 20, pp 157–168.
Water Corporation (2009): Water Forever: Towards Climate Resilience (Summary). Retrieved October 2012 from www.watercorporation.com.au.
This research was supported by the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities and the Water Corporation of Western Australia.
Water Corporation (2010): Kalgoorlie Smart Metering Trial Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved February 2012 from www. watercorporation.com.au.
PROCESS LEVEL ENERGY BENCHMARKING AS A TOOL TO IMPROVE THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS An in-depth process level review of the Bird In Hand WWTP in South Australia R Steele, J Krampe, N Dinesh
KEYWORDS Energy optimisation, energy benchmarking, specific energy consumption, energy efficiency, process level optimisation.
potential) were undertaken in an energy
benchmarking study comparing all of
Bird in Hand (BIH) WWTP is a 15,000 person-equivalent (PE) plant that is designed to treat average flows of 2.4ML/d (with a hydraulic capacity of up to 12.5ML/d). The plant was officially completed in June 2012, with most processes operational from late 2011, providing 10 months of operational data. The plant consists of two 3mm duty/standby screens and a vortex grit removal system, followed by an activated sludge Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process consisting of three parallel trains and two clarifiers.
SA Water’s WWTPs against suitable benchmarks. The key results are summarised in Krampe (2013). Bird in Hand (BIH) WWTP was selected as a priority and, therefore, SA Water’s first detailed energy assessment was undertaken on the plant, the results of which are outlined in this paper. The methodology used for this assessment was process-level benchmarking, as has been shown to be effective in Europe (Müller & Kobel, 2004; Müller et al., 2006). During the original EEO assessment, a lack of energy sub-metering made detailed energy monitoring difficult. Therefore, extensive process sub-metering was initiated for metropolitan WWTPs and for country plants during scheduled upgrades. This data was used for processlevel benchmarking.
INTRODUCTION SA Water owns 24 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South Australia, with an annual energy use of 139 GWh/y, 27% of the water utility’s total consumption. An Energy Efficiency Opportunity (EEO) assessment (SA Water, 2011) culminated in a list of recommended energy efficiency improvements that were progressed according to payback period and ease of implementation. However, the experience of this process clearly showed that a systematic energy reduction approach was necessary. The subsequent approach adopted is outlined in Figure 1.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Each bioreactor includes a swing zone which is operated in anoxic mode above 15°C and aeration mode below 15°C. The three parallel trains provide flexibility and reduce energy consumption by enabling one of three biological reactors to be taken offline. At the current plant loading of 60%, two of three reactors were online. Anaerobic selectors at the head of the MLE process are included to minimise bulking and achieve some biological phosphorus removal. Tertiary treatment includes flocculation, followed by 10-micron cloth media disc filtration and UV disinfection. The treated wastewater may be used for onsite and offsite reuse for restricted access application as per the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling (2006), or in winter months may be discharged to a local creek. The plant relies on alum dosing to achieve low design effluent phosphorus targets.
Figure 1. Outline of the energy reduction approach adopted.
The sludge generated from this site is thickened using a gravity drainage deck prior to feeding the anaerobic mesophilic digester. The digested sludge
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As part of its ongoing energy efficiency program, SA Water benchmarked all of its plants based on their energy use. The wastewater treatment plant at Bird in Hand was identified as a priority for an in-depth process level review, which is presented in this study. Each process was compared to international benchmarks, with areas with great potential for improvement analysed in depth to identify operational improvements or infrastructure upgrades which would save energy. Across the plant 30% savings in electricity consumption and 43% in total energy costs were identified. The study confirmed the applicability of European benchmarks to Australian conditions, as all process energy exceedances were found to relate to process inefficiencies.
The first steps (plant level analysis and identification of sufficient savings
Table 1: Bird in Hand WWTP Design Targets (annual medians). Design Target Biochemical Oxygen Demand, mg/L
Suspended Solids, mg/L
Total Nitrogen, mg/L
Total Phosphorus, mg/L
Ammonia, mg/L as N
E. coli, No/100mL
is then dewatered using a centrifuge and dewatered cake is sent offsite for cocomposting with green waste as part of 100% beneficial reuse of biosolids. The effluent design targets are summarised in Table 1. The plant has consistently achieved effluent quality superior to the design targets.
PROCESS LEVEL BENCHMARKING Several benchmarking manuals have been written based on surveys of the performance of central European WWTPs. Process level benchmarking compares the performance of individual processes (e.g. aeration or digestion) against the energy consumption required at surveyed plants. Most manuals differentiate between guide and target number benchmarks. The guide number represents the average performance that is achieved by a significant number of plants with similar capacity and technology. The target number represents the specific energy consumption of the top performers of comparable technology and size, and is close to the theoretical minimum energy consumption.
Figure 2. Specific energy consumption (kWh/PEBOD60/y) for functional groups (translated from Baumann & Roth, 2008). Baumann & Roth (2008) was the primary source of process level benchmarks (Figure 2). Additional information was taken from a manual by Haberkern et al. (2008), which is limited to activated sludge plants larger than 5,000 PE. Both manuals use specific energy consumption in kWh/PEBOD60/year as the benchmark, where the PE load is specified on the basis of 60 g/capita.d Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) in the raw sewage.
THE APPROACH TAKEN The preliminary total plant analysis used system boundaries adapted from Haberkern et al. (2008) for a conventional activated sludge process with nitrification and denitrification, with UV disinfection, reuse pumping and disc filtration excluded. However, these were still process level benchmarked.
Each sludge processing step (thickening, digestion, dewatering) was monitored separately. Sludge pumping from the thickener to digester was included in the sludge thickener benchmark and pumping from the digester to the centrifuge in the centrifuge benchmark. Some energy consumers were included in the total plant energy consumption, but not measured separately in a functional group (e.g. general pump station), due to limitations with onsite monitoring. The plant was fitted with SCADA energy monitoring of each functional process group during construction (Figure 3). In addition to providing data for process level benchmarking, the sub-metering screen allows operators to compare current energy use to that of past days and months, helping to assess the energy impact of operational changes or other events. The monthly average daily power consumption (kWh/d) was used to determine each processâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s specific energy consumption in kWh/PEBOD60/y. Where the energy use was well above the process level benchmarks shown in Figure 2, further investigation was undertaken into how the energy consumption could be reduced. This was done by comparison to best-practice operational examples, in-depth process analysis for inefficiencies and benchmarking of individual equipment against benchmarks or manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s specifications.
Figure 3. SCADA screen showing the sub-metering of the functional process groups.
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From this, recommendations were made both for operational changes and capital projects to reduce energy use.
Technical Features RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 2. BIH total plant energy consumption comparison to benchmark.
PLANT LEVEL ANALYSIS A plant level analysis, shown in Table 2, indicated that the plant’s energy consumption would halve (from 1,311 to 581kWh/d) if the plant was able to achieve the guide number. Reaching the optimal target number would achieve a 75% reduction. To some degree the high saving potential is a result of the plant just being commissioned, with some commissioning suggestions not yet implemented. PROCESS LEVEL ANALYSIS A split of total plant energy into functional groups (see Figure 4) shows that the biggest energy consumer is the bioreactor, 60% of which is for mixing. The second largest is aeration, which due to its large size is measured separately from the bioreactor, followed by the digester, which primarily uses electricity for mixing and circulating sludge to the heaters. Due to the inclusion of UV disinfection and reuse pumps, as well as digester energy consumption, the proportion of energy used for biological treatment is smaller than is typical.
Total Benchmarkable Energy (kWh/d)
Specific Energy Consumption (kWh/PEBOD60/y)
The inlet works has a favourable benchmark, as the vortex grit removal system at BIH uses less energy than aerated grit removal, which is used in the benchmark. A digester benchmark is only available for digester mixing, which accounts for approximately one-third of total digester energy consumption. The greatest potential gains are in the bioreactors, aeration, digester, dewatering and UV system and, therefore, these areas will be discussed in more detail. BIOREACTORS The energy breakdown for the individual energy consumers in the bioreactor group is shown in Figure 6.
benchmark of 3.5 kWh/PEBOD60/y. This can be traced to the relatively high sewage strength due to industrial inflows, reducing the required RAS flow rate on a PE basis. A-recycle rates were found to be slightly below benchmark at 1.5 kWh/ PEBOD60/y, compared to 1.7 kWh/PEBOD60/y, for the same reason. The WAS sump mixer was designed to break down scum and foam and is only operated for short periods when wasting and is, therefore, not considered in the comparison. The mixers for the anaerobic selectors and denitrifying zones are the largest energy consumers of the bioreactors, comprising 16% of total plant energy consumption. They were found to be operating at 2.5 times the individual benchmark of 6.3 kWh/PEBOD60/y (Baumann & Roth, 2008). However, as the benchmark depends on the anaerobic and anoxic fraction of the reactor volume, it is more useful to compare mixing energy consumption based on power density, as shown in Equation 1.
Figure 6. Breakdown of bioreactor energy consumption.
Figure 4. Energy consumption of functional groups (average energy use in kWh/d). Figure 5 shows that all functional groups are currently operating above the guide number from Baumann and Roth (2008), with the exception of the inlet works.
Secondary clarification was found to be operating at more than twice its benchmark at 2.3 kWh/PEBOD60/y, compared to 0.7 kWh/ PEBOD60/y, which can largely be linked to the under-loading of the plant and having both clarifiers online during commissioning. RAS pumping was found to be operating at 2.0 kWh/PEBOD60/y, better than the RAS pumping
Baumann & Roth (2008) provide some guidance for the required power density to achieve sufficient mixing in activated sludge plants (Table 3). Table 3. Target values for the power density of mixers (Baumann & Roth, 2008). Tank Volume (m3) > 2000
Power Density (W/m3) 1.5
Bird in Hand has two types of mixers installed. Slow-speed, top-entry hyperboloid mixers in the selector and anoxic zones and high-speed submersible mixers in the swing zone. Table 4 shows that the swing zone and selector mixers are operating much above the required power density.
Bird in Hand
Benchmark Guide Number
Figure 5. Comparison of individual functional group energy consumption to benchmarks.
The anaerobic selectors were designed with four very small individual bays in each selector, each with its own mixer. The
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Table 4. Power density of mixers at BIH. Type of Mixer
Power density (W/m3)
Energy Consumption (kWh/d)
(Baumann & Roth, 2008)
anaerobic selector mixers use the same motors as the anoxic basin, despite each only being responsible for mixing a 27m3 reactor volume, compared to the two mixers in each 440m3 anoxic zone. Thus, even though the mixers have a relatively small power rating individually, since each of the eight operate in a small basin and run 24 hours per day, they together consume 108 kWh/d or 6.5% of plant power.
In this context the installation of anaerobic selectors has to be critically reviewed as they have limited effects in relation to many of the usual low F/M filaments that are common on activated sludge plants (e.g. Mictrothrix Parvicella, Lebek and Rosenwinkel, 2002; Noutsopoulos et al., 2010). The conventional submerged swing zone mixer was also shown to be highly inefficient, consuming 121kWh/d, because its power consumption (kW) is four times that of the hyperboloid mixers. This is discussed in more detail by Dinesh et al. (2012), who report that the more efficient hyperboloid mixers have also had troublefree operation and no ragging. To reduce the energy consumption for mixing it is currently intended to modify the control system to allow intermittent mixing. This has previously been found by Sydney Water and Hunter Water to also reduce maintenance requirements, not affect effluent quality and even reduce ragging (Van Rys, 2012). The selector and swing zone mixers should be operated in a 10-min on, 10-min off cycle and only four of eight selector mixers used in the on cycle. This is expected to save 111kWh/d (7% of total plant energy) in itself. AERATION Bird in Hand WWTP is fitted with a finebubble 9-inch EPDM disc diffuser system, supplied with air by four three-lobe roots type positive displacement blowers in a duty/2nd duty/3rd duty/standby configuration. The specific energy consumption of the aeration system was found to be 42% above the guide number. Although one of the best performers against its benchmark, since the blowers are the largest benchmark energy consumer, they were targeted for further
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assessment. Constraints identified were a large specific nitrogen load and underloading of the plant.
After secondary treatment and disc filtration, effluent is disinfected with UV and discharged to the creek or reused as service water and or for irrigation. The plant is fitted with three UV units in parallel, which are designed to deliver a minimum validated UV dose of 550 J/m2 at UV transmittance (UVT) of 54%.
The higher than benchmark aeration system may either be due to inefficient blowers or inefficiencies in the aeration system itself. Unlike mixers and pumps, no specific energy benchmark (e.g. kWh/m3 airflow/m pressure) exists in the literature for blowers, so manufacturer’s performance curves were used instead.
Haberkern et al. (2008) provide a benchmark for energy consumption per unit volume treated, based on German WWTPs, which are generally required to meet a dose of 400-500 J/m2. It was found that the BIH UV system was operating at five times this benchmark (see Table 5). This higher energy use can be only partially attributed to the higher dose requirement.
It was found that the blowers were overdesigned and that typically only one of four blowers was operating at 30-60% of capacity. At full plant capacity this would equate to one blower operating at 100% capacity. Due to resulting limitations with the turndown rate the plant is over-aerating at night-time during periods of reduced flows and industrial load. If the blowers were operating at capacity, specific energy consumption would reduce by 21%. Further investigation found that the efficiency of the blowers (kWh/m3) for the design discharge pressure appeared significantly below that specified by the manufacturer. Finally, the specific nitrogen load entering the plant is higher than typically assumed for the benchmarks, which results in a higher energy demand for nitrification. In a recent energy assessment of 4,330 German WWTPs it was found that plants with a specific nitrogen load of greater than 15 g N/PEBOD60/d (BIH is 15.8 g N/PEBOD60/d) had a 29% increased energy consumption compared to plant with 11-15 g N/PEBOD60/d (DWA, 2012). These factors and limitations explain why the benchmark is exceeded. Only once they are rectified may a more in-depth analysis be undertaken.
Inflows into the plant are highly variable due to sewage pump stations not being fitted with variable speed drives (VSDs), at approximately 0-50 L/s, with an average annual flow (AAF) of 14.7 L/s. Zero flow periods mean that often service water must be pumped back to the UV system to cool UV lamps, increasing the energy consumption in the reuse pump station by 9%. Additionally, the spikes in inflows greater than 48L/s at 54% UVT require that a second UV unit be switched on to achieve a minimum validated dose of 550 J/m2. As UV units must warm up before being put online and must remain on to reduce start-ups, this caused a second unit to be switched on relatively often in dry weather, even if only required for a few minutes. However, with the current UVT over 60% , increasing the setpoints for calling 2nd and 3rd units decreased energy consumption by 23% during commissioning. The three UV units are able to moderate dose according to their ballast power, which ranges between 50 and 100%. Therefore,
Table 5. Comparison of BIH UV Power Consumption to Benchmark (Haberkern et al., 2008.) Specific Energy Use (kWh/ m3effluent)
Reduction Equivalent Dose (J/m2)
Technical Features the fact that almost all appliances would halve their run time. Currently a liquid poly dosing system is being retrofitted to the gravity drainage deck to address this issue.
Table 6. Potential energy savings achieved by various changes to the UV system. Specific Energy Consumption (kWh/m3 effluent) Original performance
After changing of 2nd/3rd unit setpoints
After installing VSDs at influent pump stations
After replacing with smaller UV units
By lowering dose to that used in Europe
they have an effective turndown ratio of 1:6. However, given the current UVT of more than 60%, the AAF being currently 1/10th of the design PWWF and the UV lamps being new, the required turndown averages 1:18. Thus, on average the dose delivered is three times that required and the system is dosing more than is required 97% of the time. Table 6 shows that the change of setpoints somewhat reduced energy consumption and that a further reduction would require the installation of smaller UV units, noting these units will not provide sufficient disinfection at a UVT of 45–50%. The difference in dose requirements increases the energy required by 20%. DIGESTION
In the digester, sludge mixing (via gas injection lances) accounted for 34% of energy, sludge heating equipment 28%, small pumps, mixers and vents 22% and a large portion was unaccounted for 16% – a total specific energy consumption of 15 kWh/PEBOD60/y. During the commissioning process the digester’s operation was changed from continuous mixing to 1hr ON: 2hr OFF, reducing energy consumption by 35%. Yet, mixing was found to be still twice
The recommended changes would reduce the digester’s total electrical energy consumption by 48% to 7.9 kWh/PEBOD60/y. Unfortunately, no benchmark comparison is available for this measure.
its benchmark at 5.4 kWh/PEBOD60/y. Gas production, volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and gas quality all compared well to benchmarks. It was observed that energy consumption occasionally spiked during the year. This was traced to gas injection mixing resetting to continual operation after power spikes. This effectively tripled power consumption for mixing until corrected. Baumann and Roth (2008) provide a benchmark for the energy required to ensure adequate mixing in a digester (see Equation 2) of 2–3 W/m3 reactor volume while Rölle (2012) showed that a digester could be adequately mixed with ON:OFF ratios of up to a minute 1:60 with specific mixing energies between 0.16 – 1.1 W/m3. The current mixing regime of 1:2 at BIH was found to use double the benchmark mixing energy at 4.8W/m3. Operation was, therefore, recommended to change to 30 mins ON, 150 mins OFF (1:5), cutting energy consumption in half and bringing digester mixing energy down to the benchmark. Eliminating energy spikes and switching to 1:5 operation will save 40 kWh/d.
The second limitation identified was that feed sludge to the digester was half the thickness (2–3%) of that which can be achieved by mechanical thickeners (5–7%) (Water Environment Federation, 2010; DWA, 2007) and also as considered during the design. This resulted in the digester being close to capacity, despite the plant operating at 60% capacity, and also wasted energy for heating and pumping. During commissioning the use of dry powdered polymer was found to be sub-optimal. The use of liquid polymer in full-scale trials delivered 4–5% thickness in testing, halving the sludge volume to be heated and pumped, saving 88 kWh/d. This reflects
Table 7. Identified energy savings for the BIH WWTP. Identified savings based on operational changes
Identified savings that require significant CAPEX
In addition to electricity savings, an investigation into LPG costs for maintaining digester temperature was undertaken. Optimisation work during commissioning has already saved $21,500/year in LPG costs. Recommended work, which is under way, including improving sludge thickening and insulating the digester, is expected to reduce sludge heating demand by 50%, which would eliminate the need for LPG, saving a further $33,500/year. DEWATERING The stabilised sludge is then dewatered in a centrifuge to about 18% total solids before being sent offsite for composting. The dewatering energy consumption includes the centrifuge motor, centrifuge feed sludge pumps, sludge cake conveyor and sludge bin screw motor. Initially the centrifuge’s energy consumption was found to be 5.0 kWh/PEBOD60/y, more than double the benchmark of 1.9 kWh/PEBOD60/y. The run time of all dewatering equipment is governed by the sludge volume fed to it. Therefore, doubling the sludge thickness through the introduction of liquid polymer in the sludge thickener is expected to halve the sludge flow to the centrifuge and thus reduce the dewatered energy consumption to 2.5 kWh/PEBOD60/y, which is close enough to the benchmark in the first instance.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY This paper demonstrates that energy benchmarking is an extremely valuable tool for identifying areas for improvement and significant cost savings without affecting effluent quality. With a staged approach it was possible to identify a total potential electrical energy savings of 451 kWh/d, 30% of total electricity costs, which can be realised with operational changes and minor capital expenditure, such as for SCADA programming (see Table 7). Digester heating changes are expected to eliminate LPG costs altogether, saving a total of 47% of plant energy over levels already optimised through commissioning. A further 305 kWh/d energy savings could be made with capital expenditure for equipment replacement.
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Waste-activated sludge (WAS) from the bioreactor is thickened via a gravity drainage deck and then fed to an anaerobic mesophilic digester. As Bird in Hand WWTP does not have primary sedimentation no primary sludge is digested. Due to concerns about the digestibility of pure WAS, the digester was designed for a high retention time of 30 days. The biogas is used for heating the digester and is supplemented with LPG as required. As the digester is only fed WAS, the gas production is not high enough to justify the installation of a combined heat power unit for onsite energy generation.
Even though these changes might not be implemented in the short term or at BIH WWTP at all due to high equipment replacement costs, they will be captured in SA Water’s lessons learnt register and influence future designs. None of the recommended changes are believed to adversely affect the process or effluent quality. A review of 10 years of experience by Müller et al. (2006) found that on average plants in Switzerland saved 38% (12.5% from efficiency, 25.5% from increased biogas) of their total energy costs using process benchmarking. Therefore, this study suggests there is at least similar energy savings potential at Australian WWTPs. However, it is clear that the stability of the treatment process and effluent quality cannot be compromised in pursuit of energy savings. Overall it can be concluded that the energy benchmarking process offers great opportunities to optimise the operation of WWTPs and that the applied benchmarks from Baumann and Roth (2008) as well as Haberkern et al. (2008) are applicable to Australian conditions, as every exceedance of the benchmark for functional groups pinpoints opportunities for improvement in the process operation and design.
SA Water will continue the energy benchmarking process and process level energy analyses are expected to be performed on an ongoing basis for other WWTPs with high energy saving potential.
Rowan Steele (email: rowan.steele@sawater. com.au) is a Graduate Engineer with SA Water. He was awarded first class honours in Civil & Environmental Engineering at the University of Adelaide. Dr Joerg Krampe (email: joerg.krampe@ sawater.com.au) is Principal Wastewater Treatment Engineer with SA Water and Adjunct Associate Professor at the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, the University of Adelaide. Dr Nirmala Dinesh (email: nirmala.dinesh@ sawater.com.au) is a Senior Process Engineer with SA Water. She has 15 years’ experience in the area of wastewater treatment..
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REFERENCES Baumann P & Roth M (2008): Senkung des Stromverbrauchs auf Kläranlagen (Reducing Power Consumption in Wastewater Treatment Plants). Leitfaden für das Betriebspersonal, Issue 4. Dinesh N, Schroeder G, Hargreaves M, Kinghan B, Todd J & Krampe J (2012): SA Water‘s New Bird in Hand WWTP – New Approaches Towards Energy Efficiency and Enhanced Operator Training. AWA National Operations Conference, Darwin. DWA (2007): Advisory Leaflet DWA-M381, Thickening of Sludge (in German). DWA (2012): Leistungsgsvergleich Kommunaler Kläranlagen 2011 (in German), Korrespondenz Abwasser, No 12, pp 1122–1125. Haberkern B, Maier W & Schneider U (2008): Steigerung der Energieeffizienz auf Kommunalen Klaeranlagen (Improving Energy Efficiency in Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants), s.l.: Umweltbundesamt (German Federal Environment Agency). Krampe J (2013): Energy Benchmarking of South Australian WWTPs. In press. Water Science and Technology.doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.090. Lebek M, Rosenwinkel K-H (2002): Control of the Growth of Microthrix parvicella by Using an Aerobic Selector – Results of Pilot and Full Scale Plant Operation, Water Science and Technology, Vol. 46, No 1–2, pp 491–494. Müller E & Kobel B (2004): Stocktaking at Wastewater Treatment Plants in North Rhine Westphalia with 30 Million Population Equivalent – Energy Benchmarking and Savings Potentials (in German). Korrespondenz Abwasser, Volume 6, pp 625–631. Müller E, Schmid F & Kobel B (2006): Energy in Sewage Treatment Plants. Ten Years Experience in Switzerland (in German). Korrespondenz Abwasser, Volume 8, pp 793–797. Noutsopoulos C, Mamais D & Andreadakis A (2010): Long Chain Fatty Acids Removal in Selector Tanks: Evidence for Insufficient Microthrix parvicella Control, Desalination & Water Treatment, Vol 23, Issue 1–3, p 20. Rölle R (2012): Comparison of Digester Gas Mixing for Different WWTPs in Germany. (Personal Communication). SA Water (2011): SA Water Public Report: Energy Efficiency Opportunities, Adelaide. Van Rys D (2012): Sydney Water. (Personal Communication). Water Environment Federation (2010): Gravity Belt Thickener. In: Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants: WEF Manual of Practice No. 8 ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 76. 5th ed. s.l.:McGraw-Hill Professional.
IS COMPUTER-AIDED RIVER MANAGEMENT (CARM) THE NEXT STEP IN THE CONTINUING EVOLUTION OF RIVER OPERATIONS IN AUSTRALIA? An independent assessment of the CARM Decision Support System Dr MM Hafeez, M Smith
ABSTRACT The recent long drought in Australia, combined with concerns about climate change, along with the introduction of the Murray-Darling Basin Plan, has highlighted the need to manage water resources more sustainably, especially in the Murrumbidgee River catchment, which utilises bulk water for food production, industry and urban water supplies. Improving real-time water management in the catchment is needed not only to enhance water use delivery management and efficiency, but also to increase the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and improved environmental watering accountability without impacting irrigation diversions. However, generating water efficiency benefits requires the complete understanding of all aspects of the water balance of the river basin at various spatiotemporal scales from dam storage to farm.
The authors were engaged by WfR to perform an independent assessment of CARM by assessing how each assumption and model element interacts to facilitate water efficiency benefits and other river operational benefits for the Murrumbidgee River basin. This paper provides the findings of this independent assessment of the CARM model developed for the Murrumbidgee catchment. In summary, the assessment found that the CARM system developed for the Murrumbidgee River system is based on sound scientific principles and state-ofthe-art models to better understand and quantify the hydraulic and hydrological processes in the river; it will help significantly to reduce operational surpluses in the river and has the potential to underpin future Sustainable Diversion Limit (SDL) Adjustment ‘supply measures’. CARM, when fully operational with comprehensive real-time data feeds (e.g. metering, rainfall, gauging data, etc) offers a wide range of potential benefits in improving river operations. CARM is also an enabling tool in that it provides a platform for
continual improvement of river operations and customer service delivery. Continued refinement and enhancement of the CARM DSS model will lead to more efficient river operations in which water is released only when required, improving control, reducing non-beneficial river losses, increasing transparency and improving services to customers – including the environment. CARM is an innovative response that will assist to align policy decisions with operational objectives. It offers a positive step change in regulated river operations and improves the ability of SWC to deliver the right volume of all forms of water – consumptive and environmental – to the right place at the right time. The further rollout of CARM could benefit other regulated river systems in NSW and more broadly across Australia.
INTRODUCTION In Australia, extended drought conditions and climate change concerns have highlighted the need to manage water resources more sustainably. Within Australia, the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is the largest catchment for irrigation activities and covers 1.06 million km2 or about 14% of the total area of Australia. It accounts for approximately 40% of the gross value of Australian agricultural production (ABS, 2008). Irrigated agriculture in the MDB utilised around 66% of all irrigated water used for agriculture in Australia in 2005–2006, but produced 44% of the gross value of irrigated agriculture (ABS, 2008). The major irrigation areas within the basin include Goulburn-Murray, Murray, Murrumbidgee and Coleambally. In the MDB, 25% of diversions for irrigation are lost during conveyance in rivers, 15% are
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Regulated water supplies in the Murrumbidgee River are delivered to downstream water users from Blowering and Burrinjuck dams. These dams, together with a series of smaller weirs, support an average annual irrigation demand of approximately 1,600GL. Several water balance studies reported that over 300GL of water is lost each year in the regulated Murrumbidgee system through non-beneficial uses. In order to improve river operational efficiency Water for Rivers (WfR), in partnership with NSW State Water Corporation (SWC), developed the concept of Computer-Aided River Management (CARM) with DHI Pty Ltd following an international tender process including a ‘proof of concept’ phase. WfR has now funded the rollout of CARM in the Murrumbidgee Valley.
CARM is a Decision Support System (DSS) created to inform operational, resource management and future investment decisions within the Murrumbidgee regulated system. CARM integrates internationally utilised hydrology and hydraulic modelling software with real-time metering and gauging data, observed and forecast rainfall, and online and data control systems to provide forecasts of future river inflows and automatically updates the model so that it continuously emulates the real-time behaviour of the river.
The Murrumbidgee and Coleambally Irrigation areas are located in the Murrumbidgee catchment, which utilises bulk water for food production, industry and urban water supplies. Improving water management in the catchment is needed not only to improve water use efficiency, but also to increase the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and to generate water savings and assist in bridging the gap to SDLs. However, the definition of potential water savings requires the complete understanding of all aspects of the water balance of the river basin at various spatio-temporal scales.
Since 2000, there have been several water balance studies carried out on the Murrumbidgee River, which have highlighted that major water savings could be realised through infrastructure upgrades and tighter river operations. The complexity of river operations, coupled with high water demand for towns, irrigation and environmental sectors, results in excess water being released from major dams surplus to the actual water demands in the Murrumbidgee catchment. In order to improve river operations and generate operational surplus it is most important to have improved accuracy in the knowledge of unmeasured water balance components in the river. The accurate identification and quantification of unaccounted differences will potentially identify opportunities to make more water available to the environment and increase the resilience of the river system. At the same time it is important that tighter river operations do not compromise the delivery of customers’ water orders. Presently, SWC operates the Murrumbidgee River using a largely manual water balance system (Computer Assisted Integrated River Operations – CAIRO). A crucial part of this management system is the accounting for the various river processes that add or subtract flows between the flow gauging stations along the river. Currently, these processes are lumped together into one aggregated term for each river reach, called the Actual Unaccounted Difference (AUD). Several water balance studies (e.g. Pratt, 2004 and SKM, 2010) have reported that an estimated 300GL of water is lost each year in the river through evaporation, evapotranspiration, seepage and leakage, unauthorised use and other
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and incorporates Australia’s capital city, Canberra. It is located in central New South Wales (NSW) and covers a range of soil and vegetation types typical of much of Australia. The Murrumbidgee River is a complex regulated river basin that provides bulk water supplies to major irrigation areas (Coleambally and Murrumbidgee), other private diverters, important Ramsar wetlands and key towns in the Riverina region. A schematic overview of the system is shown in Figure 1.
forms of unnecessary and non-beneficial environmental loss. In addition, some water released from dams flows right through the river system without being taken up by communities or irrigators (known as operational losses). However, this needs to be further understood in terms of operational rules around tributary inflows and end-of-system flow contributions to the Murray River system. To overcome these complex operational problems, SWC, with the financial support of WfR, invested in a $65 million upgrade of the river management and operational system in 2011 for the Murrumbidgee River. The Murrumbidgee CARM project aims to recover up to 33GL of water lost annually from the Murrumbidgee River system through reducing evaporation, evapotranspiration, seepage, unauthorised extraction and inaccurate metering.
In terms of scale, flows in the Murrumbidgee River are regulated through two major dams (Burrinjuck and Blowering) and a further nine re-regulation weirs. The travel times of releases from the dams to the ends of the system can be as high as 28 days with the travel times dependent on the flows. In summary, the Murrumbidgee system has a current diversion limit of approximately 2,600GL with average use in the order of 2,200GL/annum. Its annual rainfall varies from more than 1500mm in the high country to less than 400mm on the western plains. The annual evaporation averages about 1000mm to 1800mm. Land use in the catchment is predominantly agricultural with the exception of the steeper parts of the catchment with native forests.
The CARM project has three core aims, namely: 1.
To improve water delivery, security and efficiency throughout the system and in so doing generate water savings;
To allow increased farm productivity by more closely matching irrigation delivery with crop water demand;
To improve the health of wetlands and the riparian environment of the river system.
STUDY AREA The Murrumbidgee River catchment ranges from Kosciusko National Park and the Monaro plains in the east, through to the grazing and grain belts of the southwest slopes and the plains of the semi-arid western Riverina. It covers an area of approximately 84,000 square kilometres, is home to approximately 545,000 people
Balranald Weir BALRANALD Murray River
AIM OF THE STUDY This paper discusses the findings of the independent assessment of CARM, epsecially integration of modelling elements and other benefits for the Murrumbidgee River basin. This technical assessment included a review of catchment processes, spatial extent of the models’ representation and their temporal resolution, comparison of physical data inputs to generic or catchment specific values, comparison of sample output with recorded data/ad hoc values
GRIFFITH Mil Main Canal Hay Weir
DARLINGTON POINT Tombullen Storage
LEETON Yanco Weir
MOULAMEIN Hartwood Weir
Yanco Creek JERILDRIE
Tarabah Weir Colombo Creek
Old Man Creek
YASS Yass River
Murrumbidgee River WAGGA WAGGA
Beavers Creek Weir Billabong Creek
Burrinjuck Dam TUMUT
Tumut River Blowering Dam
Forest Creek Offtake
Legend Major Dams
Figure 1. Schematic of the Murrumbidgee River System.
SOURCE: DHI, 2012
lost from canals and 24% are lost on farms, resulting in only 36% of the water initially diverted being available to crops (Chartres and Williams, 2006).
Technical Features from similar catchments where possible, review of calibrations of models, consistency between individual module spatial and temporal resolution, and assessment of the extent to which the concept could be replicated on other catchments.
CARM is underpinned by an internationally recognised suite of MIKE Hydraulic software. A hydraulic model offers additional benefits over hydrological models by more adequately representing the operational nature of river and channel systems as it captures and reflects the driving head and the operating environment in influencing water travel times. CARM is designed as ‘open architecture’ and can readily have other modules incorporated. A number of different models have been developed by DHI to provide the necessary catchment and river behaviour inputs to the CARM DSS system for integration of modelling and optimisation tools with real-time data sources (Figure 2). These data sources include current and forecast information for rainfall (from BoM), river flows and levels (HYDSTRA), actual water extractions (Telemetry Metering System, TMS) and future water orders (Internet Water Accounting System, IWAS).
Figure 2. CARM system data flow and processes. • River dynamics and storages using Hydrodynamic MIKE 11 model; • River losses and gains using MIKE SHE model; • River operations optimisation using a generic optimiser (MIKE AUTOCAL). Due to its shorter nature, this paper does not describe in detail technical elements of the Model and interested readers are referred to the report (GHD, 2012). The CARM concept is seen initially as an enabling project for users of the Murrumbidgee River regulated system. Through utilising real-time data CARM offers a tool that has the capacity to: • Enhance the efficient delivery of water – i.e. right volume, right place, right time for all customers (including the environment); • Generate water efficiencies and reduce pressures on existing water entitlements – i.e. reduce the gap to Sustainable Diversion Limits without impacting water entitlements held in the consumptive pool;
A technical assessment of the following models used in the CARM DSS was undertaken:
• Improve the management of the riverine environment (including associated wetlands);
• Forecasting of tributary inflows using MIKE 11 NAM Rainfall runoff model;
• Provide transparency around the use of water for consumptive and environmental purposes;
• Forecasting irrigation demand using MIKE Basin model;
• Assist decision-making to optimise water
use efficiency and flood control within the regulated river systems; • Provide a platform for improved service levels to customers through access to real-time data to assist in management decisions – e.g. planting or irrigation scheduling; • Leverage additional benefits from the real-time metering program – e.g. position in ordering schedule, downstream demands etc; • Assist in flood management and forecasting; • Enable tangible and measureable performance targets for Murrumbidgee River operators; • Enhance other water saving initiatives in the Murrumbidgee; • Support the delivery of environmental water for the Lowbidgee.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This study acknowledges that the CARM model is not yet fully developed as the initial model was only completed in April 2012; however, it will continue to develop and be enhanced as it matures. This is already apparent in the case of operational rollout in the catchment. The main findings are given in the following sections. NAM Rainfall-Runoff Model Tributary inflows to the river are modelled by the lumped-conceptual rainfall-runoff
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The model simulations generate dam and weir release hydrographs that are passed to the iSMART SCADA system as automated gate control set points. These set points are optimised at approximately hourly intervals and updated every six hours. A river response forecast for the next seven days is also generated. The data captured during the operation of CARM is also likely to improve the performance of relevant IQQM models over time – i.e. model utilised by the NSW Office of Water (NOW) for establishing the baseline for Water Sharing Plans.
Source: DHI, 2012
CARM integrates internationally utilised modelling software with real-time metering, real-time BoM data and SWC’s online and data control systems to provide forecasts of future river inflows and automatically updates the model so that it continuously emulates the real-time behaviour of the river. It is intended that CARM will ultimately replace the operational tool ‘CAIRO’ currently being used by SWC and optimise river operations.
Technical Features type model (MIKE 11 NAM), running on hourly time-step that takes observed and forecast rainfall information to generate catchment inflows. In summary, the model adopts a lumped rainfall runoff approach to catchments that range in size from 10km2 to over 2800km2 and the calibration has been undertaken for 10 years of data from 2000–2010. Allowance has been made for the prolonged travel times associated with larger catchments. It is also evident that areas of the Murrumbidgee catchment are currently not sufficiently covered by rainfall gauges and this has affected the performance of the calibration. However, it is noted that 12 new rainfall stations have been installed after June 2012, with associated data yet to be fully incorporated into the model. The full incorporation of this data is likely to significantly improve the accuracy of forecasted flows. It is further recommended to subdivide large catchments into smaller areas, standardising a consistent method of assigning rain gauge stations’ weights during the application of the NAM model to each sub-catchment and then lag -routed to the overall catchment outlet. Irrigation Demand Forecasting Model
A major advantage of the irrigation demand forecasting model within the CARM DSS system is to provide a better service for SWC customers and river operators by providing information on forecast crop water requirements, which will lead to more accurate water ordering and improved water delivery efficiencies. In summary, DHI has applied biophysical (MIKE BASIN) and behavioural models for forecasting irrigation demand of two major irrigation corporations that, combined, use approximately 70% of all regulated water use for irrigation purposes. GHD has found significant issues in the reliability of irrigation demand forecasting models. This study recommends that CARM incorporates emerging innovations with remote sensing methodologies (provides spatial information of actual evapotranspiration from each crop type) for forecasting irrigation demand seven days in advance for the irrigation areas. CARM’s open architecture offers the additional benefit of capacity to incorporate additional modules such as these remote sensing models. MIKE 11 Hydrodynamic Model Given the complexity of the Murrumbidgee River system and the operation of its water regulation structures together with the need for information on water levels, flow volume and travel times, application of a one-
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dimensional hydrodynamic model such as MIKE 11 is considered an appropriate modelling approach. It is recognised that the ability to calibrate a hydrodynamic model for such a large and complex river system is extremely difficult, especially where so many boundary conditions are unknown. A flow-on benefit of CARM’s development is its capacity to ‘shine the light’ on areas of poor or limited knowledge around key water balance elements, hence highlighting opportunities for future focus in the ongoing investment of resources. Documentary evidence of the performance of the MIKE 11 model is limited to the reported calibration periods (April 2009 to August 2010, and also August 2010 to October 2010), and has been expressed in terms of its ability to reproduce measured values of flows and water levels. Calibration results show that the adopted channel roughness parameters and storage volumes at the larger storage ponds and weirs achieve a close alignment between simulated and recorded flows and water levels within the re-regulated reaches of the basin, and there is evidence of the model’s ability to simulate the exchange of flow between river and wetlands. CARM is already enhancing the knowledge base across the Murrumbidgee catchment and assisting development and refinement of public policy. Continued investment in enhancement of CARM through additional surveys has the capacity to transform CARM into a very powerful tool – much more than a DSS system for river operations. Stored appropriately, data and outputs from CARM will enable continuous improvement of CARM and other model products such as IQQM. There is a potential for further improvements to the description of wetland storage and its interaction with the river channel if additional surveys are carried out. This would lead to further improvements in model performance and calibration, especially during environmental releases. MIKE SHE River Losses and Gains Model The hydrological processes that directly or indirectly affect the water exchange between the river and the adjacent aquifer include near bank evapotranspiration losses, bank storage fluxes and groundwater fluxes. These processes are computed by using an integrated MIKE SHE model to provide estimates of gains from and losses to groundwater along the Murrumbidgee river system. This interaction between the river flow and groundwater is a component
of losses/gains from the river system (actual unaccounted differences of AUDs) that are currently poorly quantified. Using the MIKE SHE model’s predictions, the intent is to quantify that component of AUDs that are net river losses. This will help inform State Water’s operation of the river system, including dam releases for irrigation, leading to improved water use efficiency. When the CARM system is fully operational, the MIKE SHE model will be run daily to produce an updated future estimate of gains and losses along the river system. This is then passed to the river optimisation model, which will use the information as part of overall optimisation of river operations. This will be an important step to achieving a tighter water balance for the catchment and tighter river operation. It will also inform public policy and investment decisions. The MIKE SHE model represents the water balance for the river corridor of the Murrumbidgee River catchment. The focus of the model is on predicting flows between the main river reaches and river banks and the groundwater. The main components of the model are surface runoff from contributing catchments, river flows including regulation and dam releases, direct rainfall and evaporation, and groundwater flows, including transpiration, local recharge from rainfall to groundwater and interaction with the river system, including saturated and unsaturated groundwater flow modules. The study considered that: • The MIKE SHE model is a comprehensive platform with which to simulate the complex water balance of the catchment, including mechanisms for river gains and losses. However, this level of complexity in turn requires extensive knowledge of interactions between surface and groundwater systems; • Further model refinement is possible over time to improve calibration and overall model robustness, particularly with respect to addressing existing anomalies with other groundwater studies, and integration of the MIKE SHE model with the river optimisation model or incorporation of improved modelling routines or methodologies. It is also recommended that: • There is further quantification of the relative importance of river gains and losses to the objective of the river forecasting model (to optimise efficiency of water releases from the dams and weirs);
Technical Features • Further experimental verification of the model’s prediction of water levels is undertaken, e.g. modelling of controlled flows with supporting survey data; • Further refinement of the integration of MIKE SHE with the river optimisation model is undertaken over time as more is learnt about the relative importance of the catchment’s water balance components and as model efficiency, particularly run time, is improved. River Operation Optimisation Model CARM’s optimisation module aims to produce the required flows at each of the controllable structures that meet all demands and align with the physical and operational constraints of the system. The ability to reduce releases from upstream storage and to maintain less volume in the active storages at downstream re-regulation weirs compared to that achieved by realtime operation has been demonstrated.
BENEFITS OF CARM IQQM modelling undertaken by NOW has concluded that CARM will generate an average annual stored operational surplus of 100GL, which may be largely utilised to offset potential third-party impacts such as inflows to the Murray system and Lowbidgee with 5GL/year attributed to a water saving licence. This independent assessment recommends the validity of these potential third party impacts be more fully tested in light of the framework provided by the Murrumbidgee Water Sharing Plan. This assessment has concluded that CARM, when fully operational with comprehensive real-time data feeds (e.g. metering, rainfall, gauging data etc), offers the following benefits: • Improved delivery of environmental water including: - Capacity to better assess the merits of proposed environmental works and measures - Identification and better management of system chokes
• Opportunity to identify areas of high water loss for other potential remediation measures; • Streamlined SWC business and information flow to customers; • Greater transparency of accounting and reporting of all water use; • Improved community communication of actual water use;
• Generates operational surplus and improved reliability by creating a robust platform for management efficiency. CARM is also an enabling tool in that it provides a platform for continual improvement of river operations and customer service improvements.
SUMMARY AND WAY FORWARD It is important to acknowledge that the CARM model is not yet fully developed and will continue to be enhanced as it matures, as is evidenced with the rollout in the Murrumbidgee catchment. It will take some time to fully refine the CARM DSS model, with the availability of more reliable online data over time before CARM will provide the full suite of benefits mentioned above. In summary, the assessment found that the CARM system developed for the Murrumbidgee River system is based on sound scientific principles and state-of-theart models to better understand hydraulic and quantify the hydrological processes in the river, and will help significantly to reduce operational surpluses in the river and generate a range of further benefits. Continued refinement and enhancement of the CARM DSS model will lead to more efficient river operations in which water is released only when required, improving control, reducing non-beneficial river losses, increasing transparency and improving services to customers – including the environment. CARM is an innovative response that will assist in aligning policy decisions with operational objectives. It offers a positive step for change in regulated river operations and improves the ability of SWC to deliver the right volume of all forms of water – consumptive and environmental – to the right place at the right time and minimise relate risks. It could offer significant benefits to other regulated river systems Australia-wide.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors acknowledge WfR for funding the work described in this paper. We also acknowledge the guidance and technical support of numerous staff from DHI Pty Ltd, State Water Corporation, NSW Office of Water and WfR in carrying out this assessment, and, lastly, the hard work of GHD’s staff including Peter Dunn, Leila Macadam, Asaad Kamal, Dr Robin Connolly, Steven Roach and Scott Lawson in carrying out an independent assessment of the CARM model.
THE AUTHORS Dr Mohsin Hafeez (email: Mohsin.Hafeez@ghd.com) is Principal Hydrologist and Irrigation and Water Resources Team Leader with GHD. Dr Hafeez has a PhD Engineering in Water Resources Management and more than 17 years’ research and project management experience in sustainable land and water management for food security, agricultural water management, surface and groundwater hydrology, hydraulic and hydrological modelling, economics and cost-benefits of water use, remote sensing and GIS, and climate change impacts on water resources in different agro-ecological zones in data sparse and rich environments in irrigated as well as dryland catchments. Murray Smith (email: Murray. Smith@ghd.com) is Principal Engineer – Agriculture and Regional Water at GHD. During Murray’s 34-year career he has gained and applied extensive knowledge and skills relating to management and development of natural resources and the agricultural activities reliant on the sustainable development of such resources. This has included infrastructure planning and development, resource management, agricultural production systems, irrigation planning, design and extension, project management, and policy development.
REFERENCES ABS (2008): Water and the Murray-Darling Basin, A Statistical Profile, 2000–01 to 2005–06, Cat. No.4610.0.55.007, ABS, Canberra. Chartres C & Williams J (2006): Can Australia overcome its water scarcity problems? Journal of Development in Sustainable Agriculture, 1, pp 17–24. GHD (2012): Water for Rivers – Water Savings in NSW River Basins, Final Report for Validation of CARM Model, October 2012. Pratt Water (2004): The Business of Saving Water, Report to the NSW and Commonwealth Government under the National Action Plan for Salinity & Water Quality, and by Pratt Water Ltd December 2004. SKM (2010): Water Balance Study for Murrumbidgee River-Stage 2 Report, Report to the State Water and Water for Rivers from SKM, December 2010. DHI (2012): Murrumbidgee Computer Aided River Management System (CARM) System Optimisation Long Term Testing-Interim Report, August 2012.
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- Enhancing piggybacking and shepherding opportunities;
• Maximisation of environmental outcomes with water delivery at the right time, quantity and place;
PROOF OF CONCEPT APPROACH How can the effectiveness of stock exclusion on catchment water quality be assessed? K Billington, J Frizenschaf, D Deere, M Krogh
INTRODUCTION There is an increasing need for water utilities to provide tangible evidence that targeted improvement measures in multi-use drinking water supply catchments can lead to reduced water quality risks and save cost, as compared to other improvement measures (such as water treatment upgrades). As a first step to canvass the potential success of introducing an accelerated stock exclusion program in a drinking water supply catchment, the Kersbrook Water Quality Improvement Project – Pathogen Reduction, considered the feasibility of implementing an accelerated pathogen reduction effort (primarily stock exclusion from watercourses) from two perspectives: the effectiveness of stock exclusion on water quality (in this case pathogen concentrations); and the ability to engage target landholders and realise an effect in a short timeframe. The aim of the initial feasibility study, presented here was to design a threeyear program that could act as a ‘proof of concept’ for the effectiveness of such catchment measures.
CONTEXT The specific objectives of the feasibility study were to: 1. Confirm primary pathogen sources in the study catchment, Kersbrook Creek (Adelaide’s drinking water supply catchment), and identify whether fast-tracking of measures (e.g. stock exclusion) have the potential to achieve the desired pathogen reduction targets (based on community profiling and practical implementation factors); 2.
Determine spatially targeted mitigation measures that deliver the desired pathogen reduction target in the most cost-effective manner; and Provide a conceptual monitoring and an evaluation plan that allows the project to measure the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.
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Background information on the Kersbrook Creek catchment, results from the landholder surveys and pathogen water quality data have been collated and are summarised in Table 1. The Kersbrook Creek catchment was divided into 10 sub-catchments or ‘watersheds’ based on an interpretation of a one-second (30m) elevation model of the area. Landholder surveys and pathogen modelling were undertaken considering these spatial boundaries. The landholder survey illustrated that watershed areas numbered 3 and 5 within Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment have a higher level of landholders willing to participate in the project. These two watersheds were, therefore, suggested to become a focus for stock exclusion/watercourse fencing under the implementation stage of the project, with a focus on achieving high rates of uptake among those landholders. Monitoring for mitigation effectiveness would focus on at least one of these watersheds, with other watersheds used as control sites to provide statistically robust assessments. The second spatial scale would include the Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment as a whole and also consider the implementation requirements if works were to be rolled out across other catchments. As a result, the pathogen modelling has been completed for the entire sub-catchment (with results presented for each watershed). Future consideration of social/behavioural aspects and the potential application of marketbased or other policy instruments should focus on the broader catchment.
PATHOGEN MODELLING A catchment pathogen model was created using the ‘materials budgeting’ approach (analogous to the approach used for sediment and nutrient budgeting) to provide a framework familiar to catchment management professionals (Ferguson, 2005; Ferguson et al., 2003 in Olley and Deere, 2003). The ‘pathogen budget’ was expressed in terms of two outputs for each watershed:
• Daily primary pathogen stock The quantity of pathogens generated each day in the sub-catchment, considered to represent the standing stock. Traditional materials budgets, such as those for sediments, represent stocks as including the build-up of stocks over time. However, pathogens are not conservative (they degrade over time), so the daily stock is a more appropriate indicator in setting priorities for management; • Daily peak event flux deposited within and mobilised by catchment run-off The quantity of pathogens contributed through direct deposition and transferred to watercourses via catchment run-off from source areas each day during indicative peak events. ‘Peak events’ were not precisely defined but were considered to be of the order 20mm falling on a pre-wetted catchment over around three hours. The first step in developing a pathogen budget is to identify the processes that govern pathogen sources and their subsequent fate and transport within catchments, and to develop these into a conceptual model. The conceptual model is then used as a framework for the development of a mathematical model. The conceptual model developed for Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment is given in Figure 1. The assumptions and values used for the Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment baseline model are summarised in Table 2, which also includes a qualitative indicator of the level of certainty relating to those assumptions. The baseline pathogen budget coefficients used within the model were derived from literature reviews, and current work by the model developers and their colleagues (Table 3). These parameters, along with specific criteria of stock grazing patterns, were included in the model. Land use (ha) – is the total area of land within this class as determined from the land use GIS layer. Grazing (ha) – is the estimated proportion of the total area (as specified in ‘Land use’), which would be used for grazing animals
Table 1. Profiling of Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment. Criteria/Feature
Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment has a relatively high yield of flow to the Torrens Catchment and makes a significant contribution to the inflow of Millbrook Reservoir in comparison to other sub-catchments. Flow is measured at the Kersbrook gauging station at 10-minute intervals. Cryptosporidium is monitored on a routine (approximately monthly in winter months) and rainfall event basis (after 20mm of rainfall in 48 hours) at the Kersbrook gauging station.
Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts
Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment has a relatively high concentration of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts based on monitoring data and model prediction. Over the past decade, peak concentrations of 2259, 1029 and 858 oocysts per 10L were recorded during high winter flows, with an average of 176 oocysts per 10L (n = 44, data from May 2008 to July 2012). The sources of Cryptosporidium in the catchment are fairly well known. They include animal sources, primarily grazing animals with access to water courses, and human sources, mainly due to leaks and overflows from the Community Wastewater Management System and individual septic systems. Based on the understanding of the current practices related to these two sources, annual export of animal-derived Cryptosporidium is estimated to impact water quality more significantly than human-derived sources (Billington and Willis, 2011; Deere et al., 2008; Deere et al., 2005).
Current watercourse fencing
Willingness of landholders in Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment
7.7km of watercourse fencing has been erected as compared with 23.1km of watercourses (greater than 1st order) on grazing properties. This is a relatively low level of implementation, which increases the total length of fencing that could be implemented and assessed for effectiveness within this project. 48% of landholders with grazing properties conversed with via telephone were willing to take part in the landholder survey (14 landholders). Based on watercourse length, there is a total of 18.9km within the properties that were approached to do the survey and 12.2m (or 64%) of watercourse on those properties that undertook the survey. This is considered a reasonably high proportion for an initial contact of a natural resource management (NRM) project. While some landholders indicated that they may participate in the project as it develops, others have been less committed. An approximate 35% of initially contacted landholders would likely be early participants in the project, which could be built on to further entice other catchment landholders throughout the duration of the project. In order to ensure that late participants engage, the ongoing communication and engagement with this group is considered an essential component of the project, in addition to that which occurs with early participants.
Desired pathogen targets
It is appreciated that in order to achieve the desired pathogen reduction rates, a very high proportion of landholders will need to undertake actions to exclude stock from watercourses, particularly as there is a disproportionate relationship between percentage fencing in the catchment and pathogen reduction expressed on a log10 scale. For example, if 100% of watercourses are fenced, then a 3 log10 removal of pathogen concentrations is expected (from here on, log10 will be abbreviated to log). However, if this percentage decreases to 80% or 50% then only a 0.7 log removal or 0.3 log removal, respectively, would be anticipated (based on previously determined averages of pathogen loads) (Deere and Billington, 2011). At this stage (and without a regulated position on watercourse fencing) a voluntary program (with incentive rates above those currently offered) will hopefully achieve between 50% to 75% of coverage for fenced watercourses on grazing properties. If this is targeted at high pathogen sources (including young stock) within the sub-catchment, then a log reduction of between 0.7 and 1 may be achieved.
(eg. 95% of ‘Grazing Modified Pasture’ was considered to be grazed, whereas 50% of ‘Rural Residential’ was considered to be grazed.
For watersheds above the Kersbrook Creek gauging station (Figure 2), the ‘nominal’ peak event daily flow was estimated. This was done by calculating the peak event flow at the gauging station (defined as the 80th percentile of daily flows from May to October for the period 2007 to 2012), which was 7.5ML/day. This flow was then apportioned across the upstream watersheds according to area and then converted to a flow in litres per day. The Cryptosporidium inputs for the watersheds above the Kersbrook Creek gauging station were then converted to an estimated daily concentration per 10L.
For watersheds 1 to 5, concentrations of potentially human infectious Cryptosporidium were estimated via the developed model at 16, 11, 37, 13 and 9 oocysts per 10L and 8 oocysts per 10L for watershed 9. To aid interpretation against Cryptosporidium spp. monitoring data collected at the Kersbrook Creek gauging station, estimates were also made for total Cryptosporidium counts (as distinct from just the potentially human infectious fraction, generally assumed to be 30%). For watersheds 1 to 5, total Cryptosporidium numbers were estimated at 113, 80, 264, 93 and 64 oocysts per 10L and 125 oocysts per 10L for watershed 9. These estimates were within a reasonable range of the observations from the same period given
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Previous models developed by the authors have been based on an annual cycle with definitions of wet and dry periods within the year. The model developed for Kersbrook Creek subcatchment has improved on this approach by utilising a monthly modelling framework, acknowledging that the Cryptosporidium impact varies throughout the year (predominantly due to variations in the presence of young grazing animals and seasonal rainfall). As a result, the average daily potentially human infectious counts for Cryptosporidium oocysts, which would be exported under nominal peak event
conditions, have been calculated for each month and are averaged over the 12 months to permit annual comparisons.
Technical Features that: a) the annual daily Cryptosporidium counts were an average of the 12 daily results for each month, and b) no allowances were made for inactivation or deposition of Cryptosporidium within the watersheds. The estimated Cryptosporidium numbers are derived from four inputs: a) direct manure deposition into watercourses; b) manure that is transported from an unfenced riparian zone; c) manure that is transported through a fenced riparian zone; and d) discharging sewage from the councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wastewater treatment plant. Modelling results indicate that the majority of exported Cryptosporidium is sourced from direct deposition into watercourses. For example, in watershed 3 within the month of August, 2.2 million Cryptosporidium oocysts per day were estimated to be sourced from direct deposition, whereas 12,000 Cryptosporidium oocysts per day were estimated to be exported via surface run-off from the catchment â&#x20AC;&#x201C; with the latter becoming relatively insignificant. As a result, the model outputs are highly sensitive to
Figure 1. Architecture of pathogen budgeting model. Values selected for the base model were those for the catchment as currently managed and included best estimates of current levels of stock numbers and riparian fencing. During scenario and sensitivity analysis, values were varied and effects reported relative to the base model.
the percentage of manure that is directly deposited into watercourses.
Table 2. Values used for the watersheds-specific baseline assumptions applied in the pathogen budget. Watershed 1
Length of watercourse (2nd order and greater) km
Length of watercourse fenced on both sides
% of watercourse fenced on both sides
Grazing modified pastures
Location relative to the gauging station
Land use (ha) Rural living
Forestry SA land used for grazing
Grazing area (ha) Grazing modified pastures
Forestry SA land used for grazing
Total grazing area Proportion of catchment that is grazing area
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Table 3. Global baseline Cryptosporidium assumptions applied across the pathogen budget. Parameter
Basis for selection of
Manure production rates per day (kg) Sheep
Consistent with other studies
Based on ASAE 1999 and Attwill et. al., 2012. Also note: www.fao.org/wairdocs/ilri/x5522e/ x5522e0b.htm and www.fao.org/wairdocs/ilri/ x5522e/x5522e06.htm
Only reference found
Consistent with other studies
Consistent with other studies
Calf (dairy or beef)
Consistent with other studies
Baseline Cryptosporidium concentration/g manure Sheep
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Calf (beef or dairy)
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Baseline Cryptosporidium prevalence Sheep
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Calf (beef or dairy)
Large, long-term study
Rounded from Attwill et al., 2012
Baseline Cryptosporidium human infectious proportion Sheep
U. Ryan pers. comm. (MurdochUniv)
Lamb (< 3 months old)
U. Ryan pers. comm.
Large, long-term study
Fayer et al., 2005
Large, long-term study
Fayer et al., 2005
Calf (beef or dairy; < 3 months old)
Large, long-term study
Santin et al., 2004
Sheep or lamb
Beef cow or calf
The most relevant study found
Larsen et al., 1994
Dairy cow or calf
The most relevant study found
Larsen et al., 1994
Manure deposition rates in riparian area (≤ 10 m). All grazing types assumed equal
The most relevant study found
Kaucner et al., 2006
The most relevant study found
Kaucner et al., 2006
Manure deposition rates in stream
Manure deposition in catchment source area (≤ 30 m from watercourse) All grazing types assumed equal Export of manure across land – vegetated
The most relevant study found
Ferguson et al., 2007
Export of manure across land – bare soil (no or virtually no vegetation)
The most relevant study found
Ferguson et al., 2007
Export of manure across land – denuded summer cover
The most relevant study found
Ferguson et al., 2007
Manure deposited within connected source areas
The most relevant study found
Kaucner et al., 2006
*References are as cited in Deere et al., 2005; Deere et al., 2008; and Billington et al., in preparation.
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Baseline manure mobilisation rates
Figure 2. Kersbrook Creek sub-catchment and modelled watersheds.
Permanent fencing is one of the most direct measures by which to prevent stock access into watercourses. Such fencing has two effects: (i) the source of direct faecal deposition is removed; and (ii) a riparian buffer can be created (provided the fencing is set back from the bank) that can entrap faecal material washed in from upslope, reducing transport to the water. The current proportion of watercourse fencing for second order and above (using the Strahler stream order method) watercourses was used as the baseline to model the effect of management scenarios for 80% watercourse fencing and 95% watercourse fencing on grazing properties. Proportions less than 80% have not been evaluated for this project, as it is well recognised that high levels of watercourse fencing would generally be required to ensure desired pathogen reduction targets are met (Deere and Billington, 2011). Compared to the estimated current level of fencing, modelling a stock exclusion rate of 80% of second order and greater watercourses suggested a 0.5 to 0.7 log reduction of potentially daily human
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infectious Cryptosporidium counts, while excluding stock from 95% of second order and greater watercourse suggested a 1 to 1.2 log reduction. With 80% fencing in place, the predicted human infectious Cryptosporidium concentration was estimated in the range of 1.6/10L to 8.8/10L for watersheds 1 to 5 and 9 (these watersheds yield above the gauging station as previously discussed), dropping to a concentration of 0.4/10L to 2.2/10L for the 95% watercourse fencing scenario. The analysis suggested that, in order to reach desirable pathogen reduction of at least 0.5 log in the water source, watercourse fencing should be undertaken on grazing properties within watersheds 3 and 5, with a fencing target of at least 80% of second order and greater watercourses.
EXCLUSION OF YOUNG GRAZING ANIMALS FROM PRIMARY RUN-OFF AREA It is well understood that, relative to mature animals, young grazing animals are particularly significant in terms of driving human infectious Cryptosporidium concentrations in water for several reasons: • A higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the animal;
• Prevalence of human infective species; • An order of magnitude greater concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the manure; and • Potentially infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts being present at a prevalence of approximately 80% as compared with 1% in adults. The above factors result in young animals contributing the majority of the Cryptosporidium exported to a watercourse. For example, in one of the watersheds, which is predominately owned by Forestry SA for the purpose of forestry and with 160ha of leased grazing land, potentially human infectious Cryptosporidium counts per day for ewes, and for lambs less than three months, were estimated to be approximately 84 million, whereas for dry sheep with equivalent carrying capacity an estimated Cryptosporidium count per day of 5.9 million – or a reduction of 92%) was estimated. Based on this simple analysis, the removal (or reduction in numbers) of lambs and calves from run-off areas in close proximity to supply reservoirs, or within close proximity to
A limited number of scenarios were tested, in the first instance to provide an indicative picture of the ability of a specified monitoring design to detect a simulated change from before to after intervention at the ‘impact’ site for the given levels of replication, number
Lognormal μ - After at Impact Site
Lognormal σ - After at Impact Site
Times Before and After
Impact Detected (%)
No Impact Detected (%)
Number of Samples Required
No change (Type 1 error)
0.5 Log reduction
1 Log reduction
1.5 Log reduction
1 Log reduction – 20 times before/after
0.4 Log reduction – lower variance
0.4 Log reduction – lower variance; 20 times before/after
0.5 Log reduction
1 Log reduction
1.5 Log reduction
0.5 Log reduction
1 Log reduction
1.5 Log reduction
0.5 Log reduction
1 Log reduction
1.5 Log reduction
0.5 Log reduction
1 Log reduction
1.5 Log reduction
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In order to investigate a monitoring program that might reliably detect a difference from before to after stock exclusion, a BACI computer simulation program was written using random generation of counts from a lognormal distribution, using the distribution parameters (mean and standard deviation) calculated from the observed Cryptosporidium counts measured at the Kersbrook gauging station. The impact site was considered to be represented by the monitoring point in the watershed that received the intervention (in this case, enhanced riparian fencing). The control or reference sites were considered to be represented by the monitoring points in nearby watersheds that received no intervention and, therefore, should be representative of ‘typical’ Cryptosporidium levels in the absence of the enhanced riparian fencing intervention.
Lognormal σ – Before All sites and Controls in After period
To illustrate that the stock exclusion efforts had a (statistically) significant effect in reducing Cryptosporidium counts in any of the fenced watersheds, a robust monitoring and evaluation program was devised. The most widely accepted monitoring design to detect a change (or impact) as a result of a management intervention in a water catchment is the Before-After-ControlImpact (or BACI) design, incorporating sampling before and after a management intervention with measurements taken at both control and impact (or intervention) sites (Green, 1979; Underwood, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997; Keough & Mapstone, 1995; Downes et al., 2002). In this context, the increased riparian fencing and/or the reduced young stock presence would represent the intervention of interest.
Lognormal μ - Before All sites and Controls in After period
MONITORING EFFECTIVENESS OF CATCHMENT MEASURES
Table 4. Scenarios tested and empirical estimates of power based on 100 simulations from a lognormal distribution with given parameters (mean and standard deviation), times before and after and level of replication. Cryptosporidium Scenario Tested – Change at the Impact Site
watercourses directly discharging into these reservoirs, provides a promising action to reduce Cryptosporidium risk. Buffer distances for exclusions are generally developed based on the contextual need to provide water quality protection and in light of other existing measures. For example, Western Australia has developed a Reservoir Protection Zone of 2 kilometres wide around the top water level of storage reservoirs in the Perth water supply area (Department of Environment, 2004) and a minimum 5 to 10m riparian buffer has been recommended by the Department of Health Victoria (Deere and Billington, 2011).
Technical Features of times before and after intervention and number of sites (i.e. the experimental design for the study). In each case, 100 repeat simulations were run with data randomly chosen from a lognormal distribution with the given lognormal distribution parameters. The percentage of time an impact was detected was then recorded. All statistical tests were conducted using a Type 1 error rate (α) of 0.05.
SIMULATED SCENARIOS The scenarios considered used three reference or control sites and one impact site, with the number of sampling occasions before and after the intervention and the number of replicates varied to determine an optimum sampling profile. Type 1 error rates were determined by making no changes to the lognormal mean or standard deviation when randomly sampling from the lognormal distribution for the 100 simulations. Impact detection probabilities (in %) were then calculated by varying (reducing) the lognormal mean to allow a 0.5, 1 and 1.5 log reduction.
When designing a monitoring program, a tradeoff between Type 1 (α) and Type 2 (ß) errors inevitably needs to be made. While there are no recognised standards of ‘acceptability’ for Type 2 errors, it is often considered useful to perform power and sample size computations with the goal of ensuring power (1-ß) = 0.8 (or 80%) for a medium effect size (Bradley and Russell, 1998). In the current project, for the scenario tested with 10 sampling occasions before the intervention, and 10 sampling occasions after the intervention at each site, the 100 simulations yielded an empirical type 1 error rate (i.e. where no change was simulated at the impact site) of 6% (refer Table 4), which is close to the α=5% level commonly used in statistical tests. With a 1 log reduction at the impact (intervention) site, an impact was determined to occur 79% of the time with 10 time periods (sampling occasions) before and after, and 85% of the time with 20 time periods (sampling occasions) before and after. If an 80% threshold for power is used to identify an ‘acceptable’ design capable of detecting an impact leading to a 1 log reduction in Cryptosporidium counts, then both the 10 times before and after and 20 times before and after designs approach or exceed the desired level of power. However, these designs are not unique in achieving a power close to or exceeding 80%. For example, an experimental design involving three reference or control sites and one impact site, with seven sampling occasions before the intervention and seven sampling occasions after the intervention, with three replicates taken on each sampling occasion (simulated
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power=78%) also approaches the desired level of power. This same design will have lower power (simulated power=35%) to detect a 0.5 log reduction in Cryptosporidium counts and higher power (simulated power=85%) to detect a 1.5 log reduction in Cryptosporidium counts (refer Table 4). Based on these analyses the project can now select an appropriate sampling design that caters to the desired outcomes, such as an 80% threshold for power, the desired log reduction and value for money (associated cost of sampling to achieve different power and log reduction results). It should be remembered, however, that the true power of such designs will still depend on the actual benefits (i.e. magnitude of log reduction) achieved through increased riparian fencing and/or the reduced presence of young stock.
CONCLUSIONS A broad approach has been devised to provide tangible evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of catchment intervention measures. The feasibility study Kersbrook Creek Water Quality Improvement Project – Pathogen Reduction illustrated that a three-pronged approach can be useful to design stock exclusion measures that allow for 1) an assessment of landholder willingness to participate in the program; 2) a statistically robust effectiveness monitoring program; and 3) the ability to tailor the program to available funds while maintaining desired statistical power and outcome (log reduction).
THE AUTHORS Karla Billington (email: karla@ naturallogic.org) is a catchment management specialist with 17 years’ experience in the public and private sector. She is a Director at Natural Logic in SA. Jacqueline Frizenschaf (email: Jacqueline.Frizenschaf@ sawater.com.au) has worked in the ground- and surface water resources field overseas and in Australia for over 20 years. Her current role is Manager, Catchments and Land Management at SA Water Corporation. Dr Daniel Deere (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) is a Water Quality Scientist at Water Futures in Sydney. His particular specialism is in health-related water quality management and microbiology. Martin Krogh is Director, Environmental Data Analysis Pty Ltd, Jannali, NSW.
REFERENCES Billington K, Deere D, Krogh MK & Frizenschaf J (in preparation): Kersbrook Creek Water Quality Improvement Project – Pathogen Reduction. Natural Logic Report to SA Water. Billington K & Willis D (2012): Mount Lofty Ranges Waste Control Project – A Ten Year Review. Prepared for Adelaide Hills Council. Natural Logic Australia Pty Ltd. Bradley DR & Russell RL (1998): Some Cautions Regarding Statistical Power in Split-Plot Designs. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 30, 3, pp 462–477. Deere D & Billington K (2011): Public Health Issues Associated with Stock Accessing Waterways Upstream of Drinking Water Off-Takes. A Report Prepared for the Department of Health Victoria, Water Futures, Sydney, Australia. Deere D, Ferguson C, Billington K, Wood J & Davison A (2005): Pathogens in the Upper Torrens River Catchment. Water Futures Report to SA Water and Torrens Catchment Water Management Board. 43 pages. Deere D, Ferguson C, Billington K, Wood J & Davison A (2008): Pathogens in the Upper Torrens River Catchment. Water Futures Report to SA Water and Torrens Catchment Water Management Board. 40 pages. Downes BJ, Barmuta LA, Fairweather PG, Faith DP, Keough MJ, Lake PS, Mapstone BD & Quinn GP (2002): Monitoring Ecological Impacts. Concepts and practice in flowing waters. Cambridge University Press UK. Green RH (1979): Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental Biologists. Wiley, New York. Keough MJ & Mapstone BD (1995): Protocols for Designing Marine Ecological Monitoring Programs Associated with BEK Mills. National Pulp Mills Research Program Technical Report No. 11. CSIRO Canberra 185pp. Underwood AJ (1991): Beyond BACI : Experimental Designs for Detecting Human Environmental Impacts on Temporal Variations in Natural Populations. Australian Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 42, pp 569–587. Underwood AJ (1992): Beyond BACI: The Detection of Environmental Impacts on Populations in the Real, But Variable, World. Journal of Experimental & Marine Biology and Ecology, 161, pp 145–178. Underwood AJ (1993): The Mechanics of Spatially Replicated Sampling Programmes to Detect Environmental Impacts in a Variable World. Australian Journal of Ecology, 18, pp 99–116. Underwood AJ (1997): Experiments in Ecology. Their Logical Design and Interpretation Using Analysis of Variance. Cambridge University Press, UK.
CAN WE SAVE SYDNEY’S STREAMS? Meeting stream health objectives in two typical urban catchments on Sydney’s north shore AA McAuley, DS Knights, SJ Findlay, OJ Jonasson
ABSTRACT Gordon and Lovers Jump Creeks are located in Ku-ring-gai Local Government Area in Sydney. While the upper catchment of each creek is urbanised, the lower catchments are remnant bushland and the creeks retain significant natural value. This paper describes the development of a catchment management plan for each of the creeks, with an overarching objective to restore and protect stream health. The strategy considered the potential actions that the local Council could take to improve stream health, including construction of stormwater treatment and harvesting systems within the public domain, applying controls to new development, and providing incentives and support for retrofits on private property.
The study found that if development patterns continue as per recent years, it will be impossible to meet stream health objectives within 50 years, unless both development controls and residential retrofits form a significant element of the overall strategy for each catchment. A key implication, if stream health is to be preserved in urban areas, is the need to focus on effective planning controls and programs for widespread lot-scale Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) adoption.
KEYWORDS Catchment management, stream health, frequent flows, urban streams.
Figure 1. Lovers Jump Creek in northern Sydney.
The local community places a high value on Ku-ring-gai’s natural environment (Kuring-gai Council, 2008a) and one of the key themes in Ku-ring-gai Council’s
During the 1990s, Ku-ring-gai Council prepared stormwater management plans for each of its three major catchments. The focus of these plans was water quality (Ku-ring-gai Council, 2008b). During the early 2000s, Council prepared a new set of stormwater management plans, which included both stormwater quantity and quality (ibid). However, despite the long-term effort towards stormwater management, water quality and stream health indicators have remained poor (Wright et al, 2007; Wright, 2011). Regular macroinvertebrate surveys were conducted by Council between 1998 and 2004. SIGNAL2 scores (an indicator of the proportion of macroinvertebrates tolerant to disturbance) showed no improvement over this time (Ku-ring-gai Council, 2004). Various physical water quality parameters display a similar picture (Equatica, 2011). Since the 1990s, catchment management has evolved from its earlier focus on stormwater management to a broader focus on integrated water cycle management. Recent research (e.g. Walsh et al, 2005a; Walsh et al, 2005b; Ladson et al, 2006; Fletcher et al, 2007; Walsh et al, 2009; Walsh et al, 2010) has helped to define the relationship between urbanisation and stream health. This research has shown that urban streams are strongly affected by changes to hydrology, which occur when impervious areas are directly connected to the stream. Runoff becomes ‘flashy’, with a quick response to rainfall, increased peak flows and increased total surface runoff. This affects stream morphology, as well as impacting on physio-chemical and biological processes. Streams are frequently exposed to poor
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Gordon and Lovers Jump Creeks are located in the Ku-ring-gai Local Government Area (LGA) in northern Sydney. Both creeks include significant reaches retained in their natural form, with most development and channelisation confined to the upper reaches. The lower reaches of each creek are protected in National Parks. Both streams have significant natural value, including aquatic habitat, riparian vegetation and natural amenity. They are typical of the streams in Sydney’s upper north shore. Lovers Jump Creek is pictured in Figure 1.
Sustainability Vision Report (ibid) is protecting the LGA’s bushland and open space. The Community Strategic Plan (Kuring-gai Council, 2009) identifies among its 20-year targets that “15% of Ku-ringgai waterways demonstrate an improved riparian condition”. Council has identified strong drivers and made a firm commitment to sustainable water management, including the protection of natural waterways.
Technical Features quality surface runoff, with high pollutant concentrations. Therefore, it has been suggested that the key to restoring urban stream health is to restore catchment hydrology. Within the context of this research, Ku-ring-gai Council saw a need to revisit its catchment management plans with renewed focus on stream health. A Sustainable Water Management Feasibility Study (Equatica, 2011) has been prepared for Gordon Creek and Lovers Jump Creek. The objectives of the project were to: • Set appropriate stream health objectives for the creeks; • Determine if it would be feasible to meet the objectives, and how this could be achieved; • Develop a strategy for each catchment – particularly focused on the actions that Council could take to improve stream health outcomes.
METHODS This study used the principles developed by Walsh et al. (2010) to set stream health objectives. Walsh et al. (2010) developed four stream health indicators. These are based on: • The frequency of surface flows to the stream (days per year); • The volume of subsurface flows (base flows); • The median concentrations of TSS, TP and TN in runoff flowing to the stream;
• The total volume of water flowing to the stream. The first stage of the investigations involved the definition of pre-development conditions within the streams. Ku-ringgai Council has undertaken stream flow monitoring in Treefern Gully, which is located approximately 5km from Lovers Jump Creek and 7km from Gordon Creek. Treefern Gully has a low proportion of developed area within its catchment; Jonasson and Davies (2009) found that it was 8.8% impervious, with a connected imperviousness of 3.6%. However, none of the impervious areas are directly connected to the stream by pipes, with stormwater travelling overland through vegetated areas for a minimum distance of 400m before reaching the creek. Chemical analysis of Treefern Gully confirms that the water is similar to that found in undeveloped catchments (Wright et al., 2011) and aquatic macroinvertebrate sampling done by Ku-ring-gai Council
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Table 1. Residential redevelopment within each catchment. Catchment
Lovers Jump Creek
Total urbanised catchment area
Total number of residential lots
Number of DAs over last 5.5 years
DAs involving new buildings Rate of redevelopment Areal rate of redevelopment Area redeveloped over 50 years (% of catchment) in 1998 returned a SIGNAL2 score of 4.93, which is close to the average of 5.1 for reference streams in Wright (2011). Therefore, Treefern Gully was used as a reference catchment to set pre-development pervious area parameters in MUSIC. A MUSIC model was set up for Treefern Gully catchment, using the rainfall data from the monitoring station. The pervious area soil parameters were calibrated to achieve a reasonable representation of base flows, storm flows and total runoff volumes in the stream. These soil parameters were then used in the Gordon and Lovers Jump Creek models to define the pre-development conditions, as well as in modelling postdevelopment pervious areas. Post-development conditions were defined based on existing conditions in each catchment. Gordon Creek includes 331ha urban area, which is 54% impervious. Lovers Jump Creek includes 490ha urban area, which is 45% impervious. MUSIC (version 4) was used to analyse pre-and post development catchment conditions, as well as a range of potential catchment management options. The models were run for a period of 10 years, using a six-minute time step, and the following methodology was employed to estimate each of the stream health indicators: • The mean annual runoff volume was estimated directly from MUSIC; • Where a treatment system included infiltration, the infiltration volume was noted separately; • A post-processing tool was set up to estimate the mean annual number of surface runoff days, by counting the number of days with a positive value for surface runoff; • Median pollutant concentrations were also estimated using a post-processing tool. Daily pollutant concentrations were extracted for each day where the post-development scenario produced surface runoff.
0.6% of lots per year
0.5% of lots per year
1.5ha per year
1.7ha per year
One of our key assumptions in employing this methodology was to define “surface runoff” from a stormwater treatment system as including filtered flows and overflows, but excluding infiltration (i.e. infiltration from the treatment system into the surrounding soils). In most cases in urban areas, the outlet pipe for treated flows would be designed to discharge into a stormwater drainage system, directly connected to the stream. In the case of bioretention systems, which were the principal treatment option tested for this project, the retention time in the system is relatively short, and therefore flows reach the stream relatively quickly in response to rainfall, behaving more like surface runoff. A second key assumption was the way in which pollutant concentrations were assigned to all days that would have produced surface runoff in the post-development scenario. Using standard MUSIC treatment system parameters, the background concentrations for bioretention systems were higher than the pre-development event mean concentrations. Therefore, the only way to meet the pollutant concentration targets was to eliminate flows altogether. If there was no surface runoff on the 50th percentile day, the median pollutant concentration target was assumed to be met. This meant that the pollutant concentration targets essentially collapsed to the same target as the surface runoff days. For this reason, the focus in our results is on the volumetric targets and the number of surface runoff days. A water management strategy was developed for each catchment in a collaborative process between Equatica and Ku-ring-gai Council. GIS analysis and field visits were used to identify potential sites within the public domain where new water management systems could be employed. Potential options were discussed at workshops, including options for the private domain. The strategy considered the potential for the following elements to contribute: • Stormwater treatment in public open space (e.g. parks and reserves);
Table 2. Pre- and post-development catchment modelling results. Scenario
Rainfall (ML/year) Evapo-transpiration (ML/yr)
Surface runoff (ML/yr)
Surface runoff days (No/yr)
Median [TN] (mg/L)
Mean Annual Runoff Volume (ML/year)
Median [TSS] (mg/L) Median [TP] (mg/L) 7.0
Saturated zone depths 200 mm sat zone 400 mm sat zone 600 mm sat zone
6.0 5.0 4.0
k = 3.6 mm/hr
k = 36 mm/hr
Bioretention area (m /ha)
k = 36 mm/hr
k = 3.6 mm/hr
Saturated zone depths 200 mm sat zone 400 mm sat zone 600 mm sat zone
Bioretention area (m /ha) 100
90 80 70
Saturated zone depths
k = 3.6 mm/hr
200 mm sat zone 400 mm sat zone 600 mm sat zone
k = 36 mm/hr
• Planning controls on new development, including rainwater tanks and bioretention systems; • Retrofits on private property (undertaken independently of redevelopment) including rainwater tanks, formal and informal rain gardens. Some analysis was done in each catchment to understand the current rate of redevelopment based on recent development applications (DAs). Council’s DA database was interrogated to extract those DAs located within each catchment for the last five-and-a-half years. A summary of this analysis is shown in Table 1, which shows that over the next 50 years, approximately 75ha (23%) of Gordon Creek and 84ha (17%) of Lovers Jump Creek will be redeveloped. A key assumption in our analysis is that future development continues to follow the same pattern as recent development. Equatica (2011) found that development rates are currently slightly higher in Ku-ring-gai than in Sydney as a whole.
Bioretention area (m /ha)
Figure 2. Results for various bioretention system configurations: (a) Mean annual runoff volume; (b) Mean annual baseflow; (c) Mean annual surface runoff days. Note that k = infiltration rate
Key results for the pre- and postdevelopment scenarios are shown in Table 2. It was clear from these initial results that stormwater harvesting and reuse and/ or infiltration would need to form a key role in the water management strategy for each catchment. The post-development scenario produced a large volume of excess surface runoff, a significant deficit in evapo-transpiration and a smaller deficit in baseflow. It would be difficult to increase evapo-transpiration significantly within the urban area, and therefore stormwater flows would need to be reduced via other methods. This is consistent with findings in other similar Australian catchment studies, including Fletcher et al (2007) and McAuley et al (2010). As the starting point for developing catchment management options, a range of bioretention system configurations were tested in MUSIC. Each bioretention system included 0.6m filter media and 0.2m extended detention, plus a variable depth of saturated zone below the filter media. Two different infiltration rates were tested as part of each stormwater treatment option. Information on the local soil landscapes indicated that the soils within the urban area generally ranged from medium clays to coarse sandy clay loams and coarse clayey sands, therefore infiltration rates of 3.6 and
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Mean annual surface runoff days
• Stormwater treatment within streetscapes;
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Mean annual baseflow + infiltration (ML/year)
• Stormwater harvesting and reuse in the public domain (e.g. parks and reserves);
Technical Features 36mm/hr were tested in the model. The infiltration rate is a key point of uncertainty, and should ideally be tested on site as part of the design for each proposed treatment system; however, for this study the two infiltration rates provided a reasonable estimate of the range of possible results. Results for the range of tested treatment system configurations are shown in Figure 2. Note that infiltration flows would not necessarily be converted to baseflow, however, without accounting for infiltration, the MUSIC results show a constant baseflow volume for all of the various post-development (with treatment) scenarios. Therefore, infiltration results are presented as an indication of the potential increase in baseflow.
The results show that when infiltration is 36mm/hr, the mean annual runoff volume and baseflow targets can be met relatively easily (noting that infiltration flows would not necessarily be converted to baseflow). The surface runoff days target can also be met – for example, with a treatment system of at least 400m2/ha and a 600mm saturated zone. However, if the infiltration rate is as low as 3.6mm/hr, then it becomes very difficult to meet the targets, particularly the number of surface runoff days. Treatment systems of 1,000m2/ha (10% of the catchment area) are not likely to be feasible in many situations. In Sydney this would be five to six times larger than a treatment system to meet current best practice objectives. Even small treatment systems are difficult to accommodate in a retrofit situation, and not all sites will be suitable to allow infiltration. A strategy that relies on infiltration requires a fine-grained understanding of soil and bedrock characteristics – information that is not typically available at the planning stage. Therefore, this study assumed that this limitation could be overcome at most sites (an optimistic assumption), and investigated the potential opportunities to accommodate stormwater treatment within each catchment, with an aim to meet the stream health targets over a 50-year time frame. This timeframe was selected arbitrarily, with a view to defining what Council could achieve in the catchments within a reasonably long-term planning timeframe. A common approach for retrofits is to find opportunities to build treatment systems within parks and reserves. This project looked at these public domain opportunities across each catchment, and found that the total area of parks and reserves (excluding bushland areas) represented only 5% of the
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Lovers Jump Creek catchment and 3% of the Gordon Creek catchment. Accommodating existing facilities within public open space, it was estimated that it would only be possible to treat a further 3% of each catchment within public parks and reserves. Opportunities for stormwater harvesting and reuse were also investigated for irrigated parks and reserves within each catchment (as these represent the key water demands within Council’s jurisdiction). In each case, stormwater harvesting for irrigation of parks could only treat a small portion of each catchment, and could only make a small reduction in the surface runoff volume and number of surface runoff days. For example, in Lovers Jump Creek, which includes two irrigated sports fields, stormwater harvesting from a 43ha subcatchment could reduce the mean annual runoff volume from 6.0 to 5.8ML/ha/year and the surface runoff days from 89 to 82 days per year. In Gordon Creek, an existing stormwater harvesting scheme could be modified with a stormwater treatment and infiltration system to treat 0.3% of the catchment to meet the flow targets. Note that rainwater harvesting was included in consideration of the private domain options discussed in the following text. Ku-ring-gai Council has incorporated some treatment systems into streetscapes in the LGA, but Council has found streetscape treatment systems difficult to accommodate between services, parking, existing vegetation and other constraints. Even if the streets could be retrofit so that the road pavement and footpath areas were treated within the streetscape, this would only account for a further 16% of the Lovers Jump Creek catchment and 22% of the Gordon Creek catchment. Only approximately 50% of the streets have a stormwater drainage system and after accounting for services and other constraints, it is considered optimistic to aim for up to 50% of the streets to be treated in each catchment. Redevelopment presents a key opportunity for retrofit of stormwater management measures. Each of the catchments includes a small “town centre” area which has been earmarked for redevelopment. Opportunities for stormwater treatment were investigated in each of the town centres, but the town centres only represent 1% of each catchment, and the area which could potentially be treated is even less than this. Each town centre is located on the ridgeline
at the top of the catchment, which makes it very difficult for the town centres to play a larger role in stormwater management. Beyond the town centres, most of each catchment is residential. Typical residential scenarios were modelled in MUSIC, with water management controls including a range of rainwater tanks and infiltration systems. These results showed that with appropriate controls in place, it would theoretically be feasible for most residential redevelopment to meet the stream health targets, as long as soil conditions are relatively favourable for infiltration. It would be important to include both rainwater tanks for roof runoff and infiltration systems for runoff from other surfaces. A summary of all the potential treatment opportunities identified in this study is shown in Table 3. This shows that within each catchment, there will still be a significant catchment area untreated after 50 years, representing more than half of each catchment. Most of this is established residential area. This result points to a clear role for residential retrofits to reduce stormwater runoff and improve stream health in each catchment. Effectively implementing stormwater treatment in residential redevelopment and residential retrofits is a challenging proposition. Development controls would need careful consideration to ensure that controls are realistic for developers to meet (including single residential re-builds), and for Council to support through the development process. McManus (2009) observes that in Sydney councils, current WSUD development controls are often not supported by appropriate guidance for developers, nor do these councils have strong skills to assess WSUD DAs. Therefore, development controls are not always successfully implemented. To date this has been a key barrier limiting the potential for the redevelopment process to achieve improved catchment management outcomes, and this would need to be overcome in Ku-ring-gai for this approach to be successful. Residential retrofits would also need to be supported by appropriate technical guidance and advice from Council; however, perhaps an even more significant challenge is to design an effective education campaign and incentive scheme to encourage WSUD adoption.
CONCLUSIONS This study developed objectives designed to protect stream health in two typical catchments in Sydney’s Ku-ring-gai local government area. Analysis of potential
Table 3. Opportunities for stormwater treatment within each catchment over 50 years. Gordon Creek Stormwater treatment opportunities
Lovers Jump Creek
Proportion of catchment area
Potential catchment area treated
Proportion of catchment area
Potential catchment area treated
Public parks and reserves: Stormwater treatment Stormwater harvesting
Redevelopment Town centres Residential
Remaining residential area
Other remaining areas (schools, aged care, community, railway lands)
Total stormwater treatment options found that if development patterns continue as per recent years, it will be impossible to meet the stream health objectives within 50 years, unless both robust development controls and widespread private property retrofits form a significant element of the overall strategy for each catchment. A key implication, if stream health is to be restored downstream of urban areas such as Sydney’s North Shore, is the need to focus on low-density residential redevelopment and retrofits as part of an effective catchment management strategy. This broadens and shifts the emphasis of WSUD from design of physical treatment systems to design of effective programs for widespread lot-scale WSUD adoption. Suitable targets should be incorporated into local environment plans, and achievable, meaningful controls within development control plans. These need to be supported through the development process by suitable guidance, advice and assessment. Incentives also need to be provided for private landowners to adopt WSUD independently of the redevelopment process, including economic, educational and other instruments.
Alexa McAuley (email: alexa@equatica. com.au) and David Knights (email: david@ equatica.com.au) are Directors at Equatica Pty Ltd, Surry Hills, NSW. Sophia Findlay (email: email@example.com. gov.au) is Water and Catchments Program Leader and Jay Jonasson (email: jjonasson@ kmc.nsw.gov.au) is Environmental Engineer, both at Ku-ring-gai Council, Gordon, NSW.
REFERENCES Equatica (2011): Sustainable Water Management Feasibility Study and Concept Design: Gordon Creek and Lovers Jump Creek (Draft Report). Prepared for Ku-ring-gai Council. Fletcher TD, Mitchell VG, Deletic A, Ladson AR & Seven A (2007): Is Stormwater Harvesting Beneficial to Urban Waterway Environmental Flows? Water Science & Technology, 55, 4, pp 265–272. Jonasson J & Davies P (2009): Stormwater Management – Runoff Generation in the Sydney Region and Impact on Stormwater Harvesting Design. The 6th International Water Sensitive Urban Design Conference and Hydropolis #3, Perth, WA. Ku-ring-gai Council (2004): Comprehensive State of the Environment Report. Ku-ring-gai Council (2008a): Sustainability Vision Summary Report 2008–2033.
McAuley A, Gillam P, Knights D, Blackham D & RossRakesh S (2010): Stormwater Harvesting to Meet Flow Management Objectives. Stormwater Industry Association National Conference, Sydney. McManus R (2009): A Framework for Assessing the Organisational Capacity of Councils for WSUD. Stormwater Industry Association of NSW and Victoria Joint Annual Conference, Albury. Walsh CJ, Roy AH, Feminella JW, Cottingham PD, Groffman PM & Morgan RP (2005a): The Urban Stream Syndrome: Current Knowledge and the Search for a Cure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24, pp 706–723. Walsh CJ, Fletcher TD & Ladson AR (2005b): Stream Restoration in Urban Catchments Through Redesigning Stormwater Systems: Looking to the Catchment to Save the Stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24, pp 690–705. Walsh CJ, Fletcher TD & Ladson AR (2009): Retention Capacity: A Metric to Link Stream Ecology and Storm-Water Management, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14, 4, pp 399–406. Walsh CJ, Fletcher TD, Hatt BE & Burns M (2010): New Generation Stormwater Management Objectives for Stream Protection: Stormwater as an Environmental Flow Problem. Stormwater Industry Association National Conference, Sydney. Wright I, Davies P, Wilks D, Findlay S & Taylor MP (2007): Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in Urban Waterways: Comparing Ecosystem Health in Natural Reference and Urban Streams, pp 467– 472 in Wilson AL, Dehaan RL, Watts RJ, Page KJ, Bowmer KH & Curtis A, editors. Proceedings from the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference, Albury, NSW, 21–25 May 2007.
Ku-ring-gai Council (2009): Community Strategic Plan 2030.
Wright IA, Davies PJ, Findlay SJ & Jonasson OJ (2011): A New Type of Water Pollution: Concrete Drainage Infrastructure and Geochemical Contamination of Urban Waters. Marine and Freshwater Research. Published online October 2011.
Ladson AR, Walsh CJ & Fletcher TD (2006): Improving Stream Health in Urban Areas By Reducing Runoff Frequency From Impervious Surfaces. Australian Journal of Water Resources, 10, 1, pp 23–33.
Wright IA (2011): Assessment of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Aquatic Ecosystem Health in Ku-ring-gai Council Waterways, June 2011. Report prepared for Ku-ring-gai Council.
Ku-ring-gai Council (2008b): Integrated Water Cycle Management Strategy.
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From a technical perspective, there is a need for suitable stormwater treatment options that are simple to design, construct and maintain, and can be easily implemented by small developers and individual households. Furthermore, infiltration capacity was found to be a key limiting factor in meeting stream health targets in the Ku-ring-gai context. Therefore, for the proposed strategy to be successful, a fine-grained understanding of infiltration capacity will be important, as well as new design templates for stormwater treatment systems which encourage infiltration.
ESTIMATING STOCK AND DOMESTIC WATER USE TO IMPROVE CATCHMENT WATER MANAGEMENT OUTCOMES Method, results and contribution of different tools to improving catchment management outcomes in the Port Phillip and Westernport Basin in Victoria C Larsen, M Toulmin, D Wallis, B Moulden, S Gaskill, A Lucas
Environmental flows are a key component of waterway health, in conjunction with other key environmental conditions of waterways including water quality, physical form, habitat and connectivity (Melbourne Water, 2012). Melbourne Water facilitates the development of Stream Flow Management Plans (SFMPs) in the major sub-catchments of the Yarra River and is the waterway manager for the entire Port Phillip and Westernport Basin. Stream Flow Management Plans are developed by SFMP Consultative Committees and outline how surface water resources are shared among licensed users and the environment. This approach will become increasingly important in the context of future water availability and projected impacts on run-off and stream flow (DSE 2008).
A holistic management approach to water resource planning is required to ensure sustainable and equitable allocation between consumptive and environmental water needs (DSE, 2008). Section 8 of the Water Act 1989 (Vic) provides landholders with private rights to access water in dams, groundwater and waterways for domestic and stock (D&S) purposes. The levels of D&S use are not well documented, as the private right is not registered, licensed or metered. This use includes water for: • Household purposes • Watering cattle or other stock and animals kept as pets • Watering a kitchen garden for household use
• Watering an area around the house (known as the curtilage) for fire prevention purposes (applicable to water sourced from a dam only). Historically, usage has been coarsely estimated by reference to the sources of supply, i.e. an assumed volume per dam, groundwater bore or river frontage. This has generated a relatively high presumed level of consumption. Increased concern for whole of catchment accounting has triggered a desire to better understand the quantum and source of D&S water use at a catchment and basin scale to allow an assessment of materiality and to target future programs. This paper discusses the method developed and the results of a project for estimating D&S water use and the contribution of different tools to improving catchment water management outcomes in the Port Phillip and Westernport Basin, Victoria.
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Several SFMP Consultative Committees, comprised largely of licensed diverters, have expressed concern about the level of unlicensed water use within their catchments. The National Water Commission has also identified the construction of licensed and unlicensed farm dams as a significant water intercepting activity that warrants further research (NWC, 2010). Over the past few decades there has been a significant expansion in the number of rural lifestyle properties in many parts of the Melbourne Water region, particularly on the rural-urban fringe. Many of these developments do not provide a reticulated supply of water and rely on landowners to develop their own domestic water supply. Dams provide a cheap and potentially reliable source of domestic water for such properties, as well as a strategic reserve for fire-fighting purposes. Dry conditions in the last decade have also increased the demands for reliable water supplies for properties on the urban fringe, resulting
in very high and increasing density of small dams in some areas. Other studies using hydrological simulations have indicated that farm dams can reduce stream flow by more than 10%, even in catchments where most dams are small and unlicensed (SKM, 2011). A greater understanding of D&S water use is required to address the potential impacts on stream flow and to respond to community concern. To effectively manage D&S water use, Melbourne Water needs to know the demand characteristics and volume and sources of supply. Having an improved estimate of the total amount of water being used allows the importance of D&S water use in relation to licensed use to be assessed. Knowing the sources of D&S water use will assist in determining how to address impacts on stream flow.
METHODOLOGY OVERVIEW RMCG developed an alternative approach to estimating probable levels of D&S consumption. This is based on an estimate of demand calculated from reliable sources of data, which is then compared with evidence on sources of supply. A threetiered methodology has been developed for estimating D&S water use, where the three approaches allow cross-referencing and triangulation of results to provide for internal cross-checking (RMCG, 2011). The schematic representation of the methodology is shown in Figure 1. HIGH-LEVEL MODEL The first component of the methodology is a high-level model that sources readily available information related to the catchment (ABS, 2010; Ceena, 1983; DPI, 2010; DSE, 2002; DSE, 2010a; DSE, 2010b; DGC and SKM, 2009; Lowe et al., 2009; SKM, 2005; SKM, 2009a; SKM, 2009b;
Figure 1. Schematic representation of D&S assessment methodology. The Public Land Consultancy, 2008). A spreadsheet model analyses and converts this information to produce catchment scale data on total demand and likely supply sources. The model provides resource managers with an understanding of the current and possible D&S use between an upper and a lower limit of probable demand:
resourcing. Combining measures of both demand and supply gives a richer basis for estimating likely use. DETAILED PROPERTY ANALYSIS The second component of the methodology is an analysis of D&S use at a detailed property and sub-catchment scale. This tier examines likely demand based on visual and automated interrogation of Geographic Information System (GIS) data and aerial photography. This approach involves a finer level of discrimination between drivers of demand and modes of supply. This helps validate and critique the results of the high level model. The detailed approach involves three main tasks:
• Upper limit of demand: This provides a maximum development scenario, for future potential demand within the catchment if all properties were to exercise their full D&S right and graze to maximum carrying capacity. The upper figure for demand is often far in excess of the potential capacity of the available sources of D&S supply;
• Likely current demand (lower limit): This represents a projection of probable levels of demand given assumptions about the level of activity and types of demand. This takes account of the proportion of life-style properties and so the level of grazing that is likely to occur. A schematic representation of the highlevel D&S model is shown in Figure 2. This flexible and replicable model can be rolled out across catchments with limited
Detailed land use analysis at the property scale to assess the proportion of the land area used for grazing, irrigation, forest or ‘other’ purposes (e.g. houses, farm sheds). This involves analysis of high-quality (50cm rectified) aerial imagery available. The majority of the catchment area is subject to a visual land use assessment. This includes all houses on private D&S land greater than 0.4ha and not connected to reticulated supply, and grazing estimates on all D&S land greater than 2ha. A high level of time
Figure 2. Schematic representation of high-level stock and domestic model. and resources is required to implement this detailed approach at the property scale, but the aerial examination could be undertaken at a slightly coarser scale if required. 2.
A demand profile of domestic, curtilage, stock and dam losses is formulated at the individual property scale. This is based on the land use analysis and incorporates the number of houses and proportion of grazing area in the demand calculations. Losses from D&S dams include losses due to evaporation and seepage.
Supply side analysis at the property scale from the combination of available D&S sources, including dams, groundwater bores and/or waterways via direct access or off-stream watering. These
Bulk entitlement (ML)
Average annual streamflow (ML)
Number D&S properties5
Proportion of catchment grazed (%)
Licensed allocation (ML)
Little Yarra Don
Density of D&S properties (properties/km2)
Steels, Pauls & Dixons
Woori Yallock Maribyrnong
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Proportion of public land (%)
Table 1. Overview of key catchment information.
Technical Features are additional rather than exclusive rights, so a single property may make use of a combination of all of these sources. LANDHOLDER SURVEY The third tier involves ground-truthing via a landholder survey. This is used to validate the demand and supply characteristics of the catchment from the earlier approaches. This approach also allows an assessment of the seasonality of demand and some analysis of the drivers of choice between alternative sources. A purposive sample of landholders is taken from the catchment (De Vaus, 2002). Using a variety of methods, including telephone, web and mail, provides evidence to help adjust and calibrate the assumptions in the high-level model. COMPARISON TO OTHER APPROACHES The primary difference in the methodology developed for this study from traditional approaches is that the probable D&S consumption is calculated from known demand characteristics that can be validated rather than from standardised figures per unit of potential supply.
So, for example, the Victorian Water Accounts estimate D&S use to be 2ML/bore/ year in groundwater areas in northern and western Victoria managed by Goulburn– Murray Water and Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water, and 1.5ML/bore/year in groundwater areas south of the divide managed by Southern Rural Water (DSE 2010b). This assumes that usage is based on a nominal supply volume per unlicensed or unregulated bore, and does not account for potential D&S use from waterways or dams. Furthermore, it does not consider highly variable use characteristics by catchment such as the area of the catchment grazed, realistic carrying capacity and the number and relative demand of D&S properties.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION THE CATCHMENTS ASSESSED The study of D&S demand and supply was undertaken in eight catchments managed by Melbourne Water, seven in the Yarra Basin and one in the Maribyrnong. An overview of the licensed water use and key D&S demand by catchment is outlined Table 1.
The catchments fell into two broad categories: • More rural, drier catchments with a higher proportion of D&S properties, such as the Maribyrnong and the Plenty; and • More peri-urban catchments with higher rainfall and more licensed diverters, in the Yarra Basin. The sections below report on the findings of the study under five main headings: • Demand findings: What insights were gained around the factors that drive higher or lower demand; • Supply issues: What variables were significant in terms of the availability and use of different forms of supply; • Farm dams: The impact of farm dams and options for managing their impact; • Usage characteristics: Evidence from the landholder survey; • Relative materiality: How significant was D&S use and demand in comparison with streamflow and other sources of consumptive take?
Table 2. Key drivers of D&S demand.
Domestic (including curtilage)
How this affects D&S demand
Area of the catchment grazed
The larger the area of the catchment grazed, the greater the stock demand. This figure is highly variable, for example in the Woori Yallock catchment this was 31%, whereas the Don catchment was 20% obtained from the detailed approach.
Commercial carrying capacity for stock grazing (dry sheep equivalent/ ha)
The higher the carrying capacity the greater the stock demand. Carrying capacity is based on growing season, which is the number of months between the autumn break and when pastures go to seed.
Not all grazing land is actively farmed to its capacity. Especially around urban fringes there is a tendency for land not to be used to its full agricultural potential.
Number of D&S properties (houses on private properties greater than 0.4ha not connected to town supply)
The higher the number of D&S properties the greater the domestic demand. This figure is highly variable. In urban areas this is low (due to potable supply), in peri-urban areas this is moderate and in rural areas this is high.
Average per property demand for domestic usage from D&S sources of supply (i.e. dams, bores and/or waterways)
The higher the per-property demand for domestic usage the greater the domestic demand. In urban areas this is low, in peri-urban areas this is moderate and in rural areas this is high. The realistic estimate used in the lower limit of the high-level approach as well as the detailed approach is 0.4ML/house per year.
Not all large properties that are not connected to town water supply have a house on them. In high rainfall zones, many houses rely on rainwater tanks, and their full curtilage right is rarely utilised.
Volume of D&S dams
(volume of all farm dams minus the volume of licensed and registered dams)
The greater the volume of D&S dams the greater the dam losses.
Water loss per dam
This includes evaporation loss and seepage.
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Technical Features KEY DEMAND FINDINGS Drivers of D&S demand There are three main components to D&S demand; these are stock, domestic (including curtilage) and dam losses. As noted above, dam losses are included as part of the total demand assessment even though they do not represent an active consumptive use. The key variables of these D&S components are outlined in Table 2. The analysis in Table 2 shows that the most variable components of total D&S demand are: • The number of active D&S properties drives domestic and curtilage use. The number of D&S properties is directly proportional to the degree of urbanisation. Rural catchments have a higher number of D&S properties but a lower activation rate, while urban and peri-urban catchments have a smaller number of D&S properties, but a higher activation rate and also higher likelihood of town water supply; • The area of the catchment grazed drives stock use. The larger the proportion of the catchment grazed, the greater the stock demand. The utilisation factor for stock demand is a function
of urbanisation (lifestyle properties are not driven by commercial imperatives);
- In rural catchments it was one-to-one (i.e. equal between stock and domestic use)
• Dam losses are a function of the volume of dams. These losses are very significant as they represent between 50% and 80% of total D&S demand.
- In urban and peri-urban catchments it was one-to-two (S:D), i.e. domestic use was more important than stock demand in more heavily urbanised catchments.
The analysis of demand data from the D&S studies showed that (RMCG, 2011; RMCG, 2012a; RMCG, 2012b; RMCG, 2012c):
A hotspots mapping technique was developed to provide a spatial representation of the density of stock, domestic and total D&S use within a catchment. An example is provided in Figure 3. The density of D&S use is based on the land use characteristics within a square kilometre matrix and the assumptions for key variables in the lower limit of the highlevel model and detailed approach.
• The density of overall D&S use ranged from 1 to 3ML/km2/year at a catchment scale: - Use was lower (1ML/km2/year) in those catchments where there was a lower density of D&S properties (≤ 2 properties/km2), moderate proportion of the catchment grazed (≤ 25%) and a high proportion of public land (≥ 60%) - Use was higher (2 to 3ML/km2/year) in those catchments where there was a higher density of D&S houses (2 to 7 properties/km2), greater proportion of the catchment grazed (20 to 40%) and lower proportion of public land (≤ 30%); • Total D&S use in a catchment per D&S property ranged from 0.4 to 1.4ML/ property/year; • D&S dam loss ranged from 1 to 6ML/km2/year; • The ratio between stock and domestic use varied by catchment type:
KEY SUPPLY FINDINGS This section reports on the analysis of the alternative sources of supply drawn on by D&S users. D&S supply can include any combination of dams, groundwater bores and/or waterways via direct access or off-stream watering. These are additional rather than exclusive rights, so a single property may make use of a combination of all of these sources, as shown in Figure 4. The analysis of supply data from the D&S studies showed that: • Stock: 50 to 75% of stock water could be supplied from either dams or waterways
Figure 4. D&S supply options on a property.
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Figure 3. Total D&S use hotspots (ML/km2) in the Maribyrnong catchment.
This mapping approach provides catchment managers with a rapid assessment tool to identify priority locations for further review.
Table 3. Intensity and demand of D&S dams. Catchment
D&S dam loss intensity (ML/km2)
Dam losses as a proportion total D&S demand (%)
Steels, Pauls & Dixons
based on available sources of supply at the property scale. However, the landholder surveys suggested that most stock watering is likely to come from dams; • Domestic: 20 to 50% of D&S properties do not have access to a dam, bore or waterway to supply domestic needs. In this case, domestic water is most likely being sourced from rainwater tanks, which have the capacity to supply the majority of domestic needs; • Bores provide a minor source of D&S supply; • Waterways were little used as a source of D&S supply. SUPPLY AND DEMAND FROM D&S DAMS Dams play an important role in D&S supply and demand. D&S dams contribute a large proportion of the D&S supply, ranging between 65% and 80% of the total take.
Dam losses were consistently equal to or greater than the total volume of active D&S use across the catchments sampled (RMCG, 2011; RMCG, 2012a; RMCG, 2012b; RMCG, 2012c). These dam losses are not included in the traditional assessment of D&S use. The intensity of D&S dam losses ranges between 1ML/km2 to 6ML/km2 across the catchments, representing between 50% and 80% of the total D&S demand (Table 3). This analysis suggests that D&S dams should be the priority target for future programs as they represent the largest single component of total D&S demand. A number of alternative approaches could be adopted to reduce their impact on total catchment flows, including: • Restriction on the construction of any new dams; • Retirement of existing dams to reduce current interceptions;
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• Incentive programs that seek to minimise the effect of current dams by, for example, re-profiling to reduce their size and surface area and improve water retention through lining, or low-flow bypasses. Estimating the impact of farm dams on stream flows is challenging. The standard approach is to attribute an annual ‘demand factor’ to each dam that represents the percentage of the dam volume that is consumed each year. Traditionally this ‘dam demand factor’ has been set at a figure of 40–50%. In practice, the ‘dam demand factor’ in the Yarra Basin catchments could be as low as 10% due to the large number of small aesthetic dams and the urbanised nature of the region. This figure is supported by a D&S study undertaken in the Werribee catchment, which found an annual dam demand factor of 8% (Lowe et al., 2009). Dams being built on smaller properties will generally have a lower demand factor as they are built largely for aesthetic value rather than for commercial watering. Dams that have lower demand factors will remain at a higher level during more of the year. As a result they will intercept and capture less run-off. This may reduce the impact on streamflow. However, the greater volume means a larger surface area and so an increased rate of evaporation. From a resource management planning perspective a more accurate dam demand factor could be useful in determining demand limits and interception levels, the justification or otherwise of new dam development. This would complement the SFMP process. QUALITATIVE USAGE CHARACTERISTICS The landholder survey provided validation of the demand and supply characteristics of the catchment, as well as evidence on qualitative usage characteristics. The key messages from a number of landholder surveys were:
• The majority of properties with a material D&S demand in the Yarra Basin catchments were used for lifestyle/ small acreage purposes, whereas in the more rural catchments in the west (Maribyrnong) grazing was the predominant land use. This influenced how landholders accessed water for D&S purposes; • Cattle, followed by sheep and horses, were the predominant stock type grazed in the catchments; • Stocking rates were generally below standard commercial carrying capacity (Saul & Kearney, 2002); • Rainwater was the primary source of domestic water, while dams were the primary source of stock water. However, rainwater was used as a supplementary source for stock; • A number of properties have access to waterways via direct access and off-stream watering; however, this is underutilised and held as a supplementary source of D&S supply; • Dams, bores, waterways, rainwater tanks and town supply are used year-round to supply water for household and garden purposes; • All sources were used year-round for stock watering purposes. Supplementing sources such as waterways, bores and town supply were all identified as being used in summer, as were dams and rainwater tanks. Landholders may supplement their primary source of stock water with these sources during the drier months. MATERIALITY OF DEMAND The section reviews the evidence on the relative materiality of D&S demand when compared with annual streamflow and other sources of consumptive demand. In this section the term ‘D&S use’ reflects only active consumptive use and excludes dam losses, because this places the estimate on a consistent basis with the published figures for diversion licences. Active D&S use represents approximately 2% of average annual stream flow, ranging from less than 1% to 5%. Clearly if dam losses were included in the usage estimate then the percentage would at least double. However, even a total of 5% is unlikely to represent a major impost on ecosystem functionality, particularly as the ‘take’ occurs year-round and is not concentrated in summer months when flows are lower. The relative materiality of D&S use in proportion to other forms of extraction
Table 4. Comparison of D&S use to average annual stream flow, licensed allocation and bulk entitlement. Catchment
Proportion of average annual stream flow (%)
Proportion of licensed allocation (%)
Proportion of bulk entitlement (%)
Steels, Pauls & Dixons
varies by catchment. The following analysis compares D&S use with water taken under a Section 51 Diversion Licence or as part of a bulk entitlement (as shown in Table 4). D&S use was proportionally lower (8–22%) in those catchments with a relatively high volume of licensed allocation, in high rainfall zones in the Yarra Basin (Little Yarra and Don, Olinda, Steels, Pauls & Dixons, and Stringybark). By contrast, D&S use was proportionally higher (>40%) in drier rural catchments where there are relatively low licensed volumes (Maribyrnong, Plenty).
LESSONS AND NEXT STEPS The study demonstrates that a simple methodology can be employed to generate robust and defensible evidence on likely D&S demand by catchment. This approach is more reliable than traditional approaches based on extrapolation from the sources of supply, and can be applied on a consistent basis across catchments. The outcomes of this study and others will form the basis of Melbourne Water’s new Unregulated Rivers program. This program will address water uses not covered by Stream Flow Management Plans. The program lacks the statutory nature of Stream Flow Management Plans and will rely primarily on engagement, education and possibly financial incentives where value-for-money can be demonstrated.
• Evaporative losses from unlicensed dams exceed active D&S use in most catchments. These losses should be a priority target for future work; • A dam has proportionally more impact on stream flow in drier catchments in the north and west than wetter catchments in the east;
• Traditional estimates of D&S demand have relied on an extrapolation from the number of groundwater bores. This approach generates an overestimate of likely overall demand; • D&S water use can be significant compared with licensed allocation in drier catchments that do not support intensive horticulture. The study is validated by others that indicate that unlicensed D&S water use can have an impact on stream flows and needs to be addressed to protect the riparian environment and security of other users (SKM, 2011). Because water use under Section 8 of the Water Act 1989 (Vic) is unlicensed, any change program will need to be addressed by engagement and education rather than regulation, as is the case with licensed use through Stream Flow Management Plans. These messages will need to be articulated to and accepted within the community for the impacts of D&S water use to be effectively addressed. The program will engage the community through empowering ‘early adopters’ and local organisations. Articulating the main findings to the community will be supported by case studies that demonstrate the findings and benefits of addressing D&S demand and supply issues at the property scale. A key message will be that addressing these issues improves individual users’ security of supply, as well as environmental outcomes. The program will rely on existing community contacts established through successful river health programs that fund physical works such as revegetation and weed removal.
Case studies may take place at the scale of an individual property or at a larger subdivision or sub-catchment scale. For example, if it can be demonstrated that a landowner replacing their dam supply with rainwater tanks would have a measurable impact on downstream flow, Melbourne Water may provide funds to help. Alternatively, the fire fighting supply for a new subdivision could be a bore with a tank and standpipe or a single deep and readily accessible dam, rather than small and unreliable individual property dams. Initial case studies will be accompanied by intensive monitoring efforts to quantify their benefits. It is hoped that these case studies will help to engage others to identify similar solutions across the catchment in question. Before any widespread adoption of financial incentives, a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of on-ground works will be required.
THE AUTHORS Carl Larsen (email: carll@ rmcg.com.au) is a SocioEnvironmental Scientist at RMCG. He works in integrated water resource management, evaluation and planning of natural resource management programs, climate change and stakeholder engagement. Matthew Toulmin (email: matthewt@ rmcg.com.au) is a Water Economist and Policy Analyst, and Duncan Wallis (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) is a Water Resource Engineer, both at RMCG. Bill Moulden (email: bill.moulden@ melbournewater.com.au) and Sarah Gaskill (email: sarah.gaskill@ melbournewater.com.au) are Environmental Flows Planners and Anna Lucas (email: email@example.com) is Acting Manager Environmental Flows, all at Melbourne Water.
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The key findings of this study that will shape the structure of the program are:
• D&S demand in peri-urban areas is likely to be low due to reduced demand for stock watering and the reliance on rainwater tanks for domestic demand;
Technical Features REFERENCES Ceena PB (1983): Victoria’s Water Frontage Reserve, Department of Crown Lands and Survey, Melbourne. Department of Primary Industries (2010): Livestock Drinking Water Requirements Guidelines, March, Ellinbank. De Vaus DA (2002): Surveys in Social Research Fifth Edition, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2002): Notes on Aesthetic Dams, Water Act 1989. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2008): Climate Change in Port Phillip and Westernport, Victorian Climate Change Impacts Program, East Melbourne. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2010a): Guidelines for Domestic and Stock and Aesthetic Dams – Calculating Reasonable Use, December, State Government of Victoria, East Melbourne. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2010b): Victorian Water Accounts 2009–10; A Statement of Victoria’s Water Resources, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2011): Victorian Water Register, Take and Use Licence and Registration Licence Statistics, waterregister.vic.gov.au/Public/Reports/ WaterLicenceStatistics.aspx
DGC and SKM (2009): Domestic and Stock Assessment of the Campaspe Basin; Determination of Reasonable Domestic and Stock Allowance, 10 July, Melbourne. Environmental and Health Council of the Australian Government (2004): Guidance On Use Of Rainwater Tanks. Larsen C, Wallis D, Toulmin M & Gaskill S (2012): The Importance of Estimating Stock and Domestic Water Use in the Context of a Water Constrained Future – Lessons from the Woori Yallock Catchment, Victoria, Water and Climate: Policy Implementation Challenges; Practical Responses to Climate Change National Conference proceedings, Canberra, 1–3 May 2012, Barton, A.C.T.: Engineers Australia, 2012: pp 208–215. Lowe L, Vardon M, Etchells T, Malano H & Nathan R (2009): Estimating Unmetered Stock and Domestic Water Use, 18th World IMACS / MODSIM Congress, Cairns, Australia, 13–17 July. Melbourne Water (2012): Draft Healthy Waterways Strategy; A Melbourne Water strategy for managing rivers, estuaries and wetlands, October, Melbourne.
RMCG (2012a): Stock and Domestic Water Use Estimates: Little Yarra and Don Catchments, April, Report prepared for Melbourne Water. RMCG (2012b): Stock and Domestic Water Use Estimates: Maribyrnong Catchment, July, Report prepared for Melbourne Water. RMCG (2012c): Stock and Domestic Water Use Estimates High-Level Approach Olinda, Plenty, Steels, Pauls & Dixon and Stringybark Catchments, October, Report prepared for Melbourne Water. Saul GR & Kearney GA (2002): Potential Carrying Capacity of Grazed Pastures in Southern Australia, Wool Technology Sheep Breeding, 50 (3), pp 492–498. SKM (2009a): Improving Estimates of Farm Dam Distributions and Attributes in Victoria, Melbourne. SKM (2009b): Domestic and Stock Assessment in the Campaspe Basin. SKM (2010): Review and Update of REALM Model and Scenario Modelling, Melbourne.
National Water Commission (2010): Position Statement on Intercepting Activities, May, Australian Government, Canberra.
SKM (2011): Farm Dam Impacts in the Maribyrnong Catchment – Update, Report prepared for Melbourne Water, December.
RMCG (2011): Stock and Domestic Water Use in the Woori Yallock catchment: Estimating usage, October, Report prepared for Melbourne Water.
The Public Land Consultancy (2008): A Review of Management of Riparian Land in Victoria, Melbourne.
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WATER BUSINESS MAKING WAVES WITH WATER TREATMENT Managing Director of Australian Innovative Systems (AIS), Kerry Gosse is making global waves in the water treatment industry with his company’s innovative solutions for water disinfection. The award-winning Australian company has issued a challenge to public and private enterprise: “Embrace new thinking and technology now or face the consequences of contributing to the world’s ongoing water crisis.” With an onsite team of researchers, engineers and industrial designers, AIS has developed a range of water treatment systems. AIS exports to over 50 countries and their chlorine generators are in operation in small and large scale commercial projects in the mining, agriculture, aquaculture, horticulture, industrial waste, leisure, offshore and marine, chemical, cooling and utility water supply industries.
chlorine generator capable of producing chlorine from water of any salinity; and ‘Chlorogen’, an on-site, off-line chlorine generator which uses salt (or seawater) to produce chlorine, which is then stored in a separate on-site storage tank, ready for use as required. With all three systems, water of any temperature can be used and all are able to operate in extreme environmental conditions of up to 100% relative humidity and up to +60°C ambient air temperature. AIS’s CEO, Elena Gosse, said that AIS was now seeing new applications for its technology.
“Our primary focus has always been to create affordable, energy-efficient, low-maintenance onsite water treatment solutions that eliminate the need for dependence on third party chlorine suppliers, not to mention the financial and environmental costs involved with handling, transporting and storing it,” Kerry said.
“The worrying effects of climate change and the impacts of natural disasters, particularly in the past few years, have also created a need for our technology,” Elena said. “In the case of humanitarian aid or remote communities it’s vital that a safe water supply is maintained. On-site, onor off-line systems that can be powered by generator, solar or mains electricity such as ours are the way of the future.
Examples of AIS technology at work include: • Ugandski intake facility, Chita, Russia: Ecoline is operating at a remote residential community with the intake facility treating up to 40 litres per second of water flow of potable water for a community of over 10,000 people. Local government authorities are now looking to expand the use of AIS’s technology into other cities. • Talison Recourses Mine, Port Hedland, Western Australia: AIS is providing clean drinking water to over 1,200 mining staff. • Grand Hyatt Hotel, Dubai, UAE (lagoon pool, pictured): Ecoline is providing safe, clean water for the 2.5ML decorative stream. • SkyCity Casino Hotel, Darwin, Australia (lagoon pool): Ecoline is providing safe, clean water for the 2.9ML lagoon. You can find AIS at Ozwater’13, Stand #2P3. For more information go to www.aiswater. com.au
AGNES WATER/SEVENTEEN SEVENTY PROJECT An integrated water project servicing the towns of Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy in Queensland will create a foundation for future population growth across the region without causing environmental damage to pristine marine and onshore habitat, abundant wildlife and picturesque coastline.
In 2008 the company pioneered ‘Ecoline’ technology, an on-site, in-line freshwater chlorine generator which produces chlorine using only the natural salts and minerals present in the water. Other systems include: ‘Autochlor’, an on-site, in-line saltwater
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water Business The project was instigated by the previous Miriam Vale Shire Council, with Gladstone Regional Council resolving in 2008, after the amalgamation of councils in the region, to proceed with building an alternative water supply and wastewater treatment capacity for the towns. Phil Boshoff, Manager of Water and Sewerage at Gladstone Regional Council, said water supplies for the area had traditionally been sourced from the area’s limited groundwater resources. “Without additional water and improved use of all existing water resources, Council had real concerns that supplies would be exhausted and the surrounding environment irreversibly harmed,” he said. It was decided that constructing a desalination plant, installing a reticulation system and building a new wastewater treatment plant offered the best whole-oflife cost solution with minimal impacts on the community and environment. Given the properties in Seventeen Seventy were on septic systems there was a concern aquifers could be contaminated with the nearby Red Pit Bores drawing water from the aquifers for drinking water. This formed the core of the Council’s integrated water management strategy and revolved around four subprojects: • A Water Treatment Plant able to treat raw water from two sources, providing a reliable water supply for Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy. The Desalination Plant treats seawater, while a Multimedia Filtration Plant treats bore water; • A Reticulated Water Scheme for Seventeen Seventy, including a 1.4ML reservoir; • A Low Pressure Sewerage Scheme for Seventeen Seventy; and
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• A Wastewater Treatment Scheme with beneficial reuse. The desalination plant has a capacity of 1.5ML/day with the potential of being upgraded to 7.5ML/day. This is augmented by the multimedia filtration plant, which is able to produce 0.5ML/day. The new wastewater treatment plant has a capacity of 0.6ML/day and discharges effluent to an irrigation system. The project scope comprises the design and construction of each of these four facilities, plus the operation and maintenance of the water and wastewater treatment plants. To deliver the works, Council entered a 10-year, $40 million design, construct and operate contract with Australian water services company TRILITY, to create a reliable, long-term potable water supply and provide an improved level of water and wastewater services for the communities. “Without this solution the towns would face significant consequences for development, employment and lifestyle of local residents,” said TRILITY Managing Director Francois Gouws. The project faced a series of environmental challenges. Much of the surrounding area is home to pristine land and marine habitat, including Deepwater National Park and nearby conservation parks. It was critical that TRILITY work with relevant authorities to consider the plant’s footprint, visual amenities, performance requirements, monitoring requirements, noise and energy use. Extensive environmental investigation was required to determine and protect flora and fauna in and around the plant’s facilities. The township of Seventeen Seventy – the location where Captain James Cook first landed the Endeavour when exploring
northern Australia – is heritage listed, so any new infrastructure required exhaustive investigation around a future environmental impact. “TRILITY and Council worked extensively with the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and the Department of Environment and Resource Management to negotiate the best possible location for the plant,” Mr Boshoff said. “There was particular consideration given to the turtle nesting and hatching season when TRILITY programmed the construction activities such that no work in the Coastal Management District or offshore was conducted during the five-month turtle hatching season.” The focus on protecting the marine habitat intensified with the introduction of a Horizontal Directional Drilling program that ultimately enabled the installation of a 600-metre section of ocean intake and outfall pipelines. This work required the use of a 1.1 million pound Horizontal Directional Drill and TRILITY had a small window of opportunity to finalise the program in order to work around the turtle season. Another critical step was establishing a community engagement capability, with a comprehensive consultation program created to ensure all community stakeholders were aware of the project and that ongoing dialogue would ensure future impacts were mitigated or minimised during construction. The project’s engineers designed the plant to meet stringent noise levels, energy efficiency and environmental requirements. Construction was strictly monitored by the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management. All Seventeen Seventy properties have now been provided with a connection to the new water supply, while self-sufficient
water Business properties have a water connection for immediate or future use. Seventeen Seventy property owners are now being connected to the Council’s reticulated sewerage system. This eliminates the need for disposal trenches on private properties, while providing a safe and environmentally sustainable sewerage solution for residents. For more information, please visit www. gladstone.qld.gov.au or www.trility.com.au
FINE GRIT REMOVAL ENGINEERING Advanced Smith & Loveless grit removal technologies relevant to Australian wastewater treatment plants will be presented by CST Wastewater Solutions to the Ozwater’13 Conference and Exhibition in Perth from May 7–9. Presentation of the technologies follows a recent educational initiative by CST Wastewater Solutions and Smith & Loveless, which partnered to host a series of Grit Seminars earlier this year focusing on grit removal, testing, pumping and dewatering. The seminars were well attended by the Australian professional engineering
Attendees at the Sydney Grit Seminar. community, and discussed the latest developments in grit removal system design, technology advancements and performance. One of the main points discussed by Mr Chuck Miller (Smith & Loveless, USA), which is particularly pertinent to the Australian market, was the analysis of grit particle size for coastal regions. He highlighted that as much as 40–80% of the grit contained in typical municipal wastewater is in the 105–200 micron size range, whereas most grit removal systems are only designed for removing grit in the 200–300 micron range. Mr Miller discussed the development of the S&L PISTA® and V-FORCE BAFFLE™, which is designed to remove 95% of all grit particles down to 105 microns, setting a new industry benchmark for grit removal efficiency and performance.
The seminars also covered an important, but often neglected, consideration – sampling and testing of grit removal system performance. Most grit systems are supplied based on a performance specification, yet this is rarely tested and verified. Smith & Loveless has conducted over 150 certified field performance tests and developed a standard methodology for grit sampling. Understanding how grit moves and flows in pipes and channels is critical to the effectiveness and accuracy of any sampling regime, and various field data and CFD models were presented to illustrate this. “Although grit is not the most glamorous of subjects, it is critically important in the design of modern wastewater treatment plants,” says Managing Director of CST Wastewater Solutions, Mr Michael Bambridge. “It was tremendous to see the high evel of interest in the seminars, which serve as a great way to bring together industry experts and to keep up to date with the latest issues, research and technology developments in this field,” he said. CST Wastewater Solutions is an Australian supplier of Smith & Loveless technologies.
Main photo ©CSIRO
Put it all together at the
Membranes & Desalination Conference
Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, Australia
1-4 July, 2013
Join us at this important event to: • Stay up to date on a decade of desalination developments
• Network and create new connections and business opportunities.
• Explore a future of climate resilient innovations
• Learn through themes including: desalination research; membrane distillation; desalination for sustainability and more!
• Hear from a world-class list of speakers including Dr Harry Ridgway (USA) and Professor Kim (South Korea).
CSIRO, AECOM, Salt Water, UTS, Qatar University, Veolia Water, UTS, Parsons Brinckerhoff and more!
Fre ee to t ntry Asi a he Rec P ycl acific ing Co Wate nfe r ren ce.
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Water Business CST has been providing a broad range of industrial and municipal water and wastewater solutions for 25 years, with projects also completed in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. For more information please visit www.cstwastewater.com
NEW TECHNOLOGY SET TO REVOLUTIONISE WASTEWATER INDUSTRY NOV Mono® has announced the launch of a major new technology that is set to revolutionise the wastewater industry. The InviziQ™ Pressure Sewer System (PSS) delivers enhanced performance, increased reliability and greater durability than conventional alternatives, and allows sewerage systems to be implemented in areas where they were not previously practical.
The highly engineered system features an advanced dry well design that makes it unique in the PSS market. Unlike conventional alternatives that place the motor inside the wet area of the tank amid the raw sewerage, the InviziQ™ motor is located in a ‘dry’ compartment at the top of the system. This dry, compartmentalised design greatly simplifies maintenance operations and removes the need for entry into a confined space. Along with other safeguards it also minimises the risk of anyone falling into an exposed unit. According to David West, Sales and Marketing Director at NOV Mono: “Mono’s
The InviziQ™ system does not need gravity to operate, and offers controlled removal of wastewater in a far more efficient footprint than conventional sewerage systems. This allows customers to create wastewater systems in more areas than ever before, providing unlimited sewering possibilities in areas which have previously proved challenging.
When it comes to telemetry and network monitoring, the PCB-based design of the InviziQ™ offers adaptable software that can be used to program upgrades, run diagnostics or self-monitor to ensure system protection. This allows the unit to meet not only the demands of today’s operators, but also those of tomorrow. The control platform features two-way telemetry to support remote monitoring, and allows multiple InviziQ™ systems to be linked to create an expanded infrastructure with centralized network management. This results in outstanding system performance, better network control and improved reliability, no matter how many units are connected together. The impressive performance and enhanced reliability of the InviziQ™ system are due to to Mono’s industry-
australian water association
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experienced development team in Australia has created a truly advanced alternative for the PSS market. Its feature-rich design and holistic approach to engineering and performance means that the InviziQ™ represents a genuine step change for the industry. From its powerful cutter through to its telemetry-ready enhanced controller, InviziQ™ sets an entirely new standard for PSS technology.”
International Water Association
water Business leading progressing cavity pump technology, which lies at its heart. Mono’s proven track record of designing and developing engineered solutions stretches back over 75 years and has resulted in the world-class range of pumps, grinders, screens and packaged pumping systems that the company offers today. For more information on the new InviziQ™ PSS technology, please visit www.monopumps.com.au/InviziQ
CELEBRATING OVER TWO DECADES OF SERVICE In 2013 Aquacorp celebrates 21 years of dedicated wholesale supply and service to the water treatment industry. The business has been proudly Australian-owned and operated since 1996, after its original establishment in Adelaide in 1992 by Autotrol Corporation of Wisconsin. Aquacorp’s initial offering was the Autotrol brand of softener and filter valves, alongside complementary products including pressure vessels and media. Under local independent ownership Aquacorp has maintained and expanded this original core product range.
From its beginnings, Aquacorp devised a business formula to serve and support the water treatment industry. As a dedicated wholesale supplier, Aquacorp is a onestop-shop for the latest water treatment components from the world’s leading brands. With warehouses in Adelaide and Brisbane, Aquacorp has built Australia’s most comprehensive range of water treatment components and a range of spare parts available for immediate delivery unequalled in this market. Across the years Aquacorp has established and maintained excellent relationships with the world’s leading brands including Pentair for Autotrol, Fleck, Aquamatic valves and stagers, Siata valves, pressure vessels, distribution systems and membrane housings, Homespring UF, Wave Cyber for pressure vessels and membrane housings and MyronL for hand-held and in-line water testing meters. Aquacorp also stocks RO membranes from leading manufacturers as well as a range of C&I RO and UF machines. The extensive range of media for both water-softening and filter systems includes Turbidex for sediment removal down to 3 micron. Recently
added to the stable is a range of Wonder Light UV systems for POU, POE and large commercial applications. The Watermart™ range provides a comprehensive choice of cartridges and housings for both domestic and industrial use in addition to POU and POE systems, including the Pentair PRF RO. Full technical support and training are key to Aquacorp’s offering. Support and guidance are available, from system design right through to everyday problem solving. Training is offered on every product sold, through industry education sessions or for individual companies. Aquacorp’s team of technicians is supplemented by representatives from product manufacturers, conducting training sessions at the Aquacorp offices or on-site at customer premises on a regular basis. To find out more please call (08) 8324 9411 or visit aquacorp.com.au.
XYLEM ACQUIRES MULTITRODE Xylem Inc., a leading global water technology company, has acquired Multitrode Pty Ltd, a privately owned Australia-based water and wastewater technology and services company.
HYDROVAR, the modern variable speed pump drive is taking pumping to a new level of flexibility and efficiency. Call us to discuss your applications: Melbourne 03 9793 9999 Sydney 02 9671 3666 Brisbane 07 3200 6488 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.brownbros.com.au DELIVERING PUMPING SOLUTIONS
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Water Business With its advanced monitoring and control technologies, Multitrode helps municipal and private water and wastewater authorities realise significant savings on operating costs, reducing energy consumption, callouts, failures and overflows. Multitrode’s technology and services portfolio includes pump station controllers, level-sensing devices, web-based monitoring services, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software, panels and engineering and integration services. Xylem Water Solutions Australia has 16 branches located across Australia and New Zealand. Its proven track record of strong installation and reference base, plus its ongoing commitment to customers’ needs including sales, service and rental options, have enabled the company to keep at the forefront of the submersible pumps and wastewater handling business. Based in Brisbane, Multitrode Pty Ltd was founded in 1986 and has approximately 60 employees. With additional offices in the US and the UK, the company has extensive distribution channels throughout the world. Water authorities in more than 20 countries rely upon Multitrode’s solutions to control
and optimise some of the largest pump and lift stations in the world. For more information, please visit www.xyleminc.com.
A CHALLENGE TACKLED – AND A PROBLEM SOLVED Acromet Australia Pty Ltd has been an innovator in the design and manufacture of metering, feeding and special-purpose pumping equipment since 1962. The company stocks an extensive range of pumps, feeders and chlorinators to meet a wide range of customer requirements.
The challenge: To monitor the chlorine levels in water being supplied to their customers in remote locations. The major challenge: No 240-volt power supply. The solution: To supply and install an analyser package with integrated solar power. The package: Each analyser monitors free chlorine and is packaged in a user-friendly cabinet, with integral battery charger and battery. The solar panel is mounted either
Greg Slattery, Service Technician at Acromet, tells of a recent challenge the company faced and the successful outcome: The customer: GWM Water.
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Water Business above the cabinet or remotely (on a tank stand or adjacent to an access ladder). Each system is custom-built to best suit the individual site conditions. All that is required for installation is a concrete “pad” for the unit to be anchored to and a sample water supply. The system is then installed and commissioned. GWM chose to supply their own GSM module (which is fitted inside the cabinet), which provides feedback to SCADA. The Outcome: Problem solved. For more information please visit www.acromet.com.au
PUMP RECEIVES POSITIVE FEEDBACK AFTER FLOODS Dowdens Pumping client, Orica Water, has relayed positive feedback over the performance of the Gorman-Rupp VS4 Pumping Unit during the massive Queensland rain events in 2013. The Gorman-Rupp VS4 pump is an engine driven, wastewater pump capable of handling solids and stringy materials. The pump was installed at the Orica Water Treatment Facility in Yarwun, Queensland in November 2012.
stormwater. Orica Water also appreciated the efficiency of the other two GormanRupp, Electric Drive U6 units installed at the Water Treatment Facility. The three GormanRupp pumps operating at the plant were able to endure the floods while maintaining their performance, resulting in a rapid disbursement of the excess waters. Hydro Innovations are the exclusive Gorman-Rupp Pump distributors for Australia, with staff and offices based in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. Go to http:/www.hydroinnovations.com.au for more information.
The unit pumps from a stormwater catchment approximately 6.5 metres deep, then to a treatment system, before discharging offsite. The unit pumps 35 litres per second @ 63.1 metres head. The unit was recommended for this application by Dowdens for its high performance, high head and ability to handle solids. In January 2013 the pump’s capabilities were challenged with the extreme weather conditions and massive rainfalls to the area. The customer was impressed with the pump’s ability to cope with this level of
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water Business NEW GIGABIT WAN/LAN INDUSTRIAL ROUTER
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Weidmuller, has created a new gigabit WAN/LAN industrial Ethernet router that delivers comprehensive security features. The WAN/LAN industrial Ethernet router translates addresses between different networks using protocols such as port forwarding, 1:1 NAT or masquerading to protect all the Ethernet devices of the hidden network and to ensure safe integration into the network. The router also enables access to infrastructure from around the world, supporting up to 10 VPN connections using OpenVPN as well as IPSec technologies to deliver high-level security with minimum effort. It boasts an inbuilt SPI firewall to prevent unwanted remote network access. Better still, the fully functional firewall can be configured to meet individual rules for both Layer 2 (Ethernet) and Layer 3 (IP) transport to deliver top-level security. Highly intelligent, the firewall also has an auto-learning feature that adapts automatically to the network traffic it sees. This feature provides inexperienced network people with highly effective protection. Generated rules can be edited or deleted.
The new WAN/ LAN industrial Ethernet Security Router from Weidmuller.
Performance driven, the industrial security router is highly reliable and robust. It supports Modbus TCP commands and also features two digital inputs and outputs for functions and alarms. The gigabit WAN/LAN ports enable highspeed throughput of data in corporate networks. For peace of mind, the router
Housed in a rugged DIN rail mount case to withstand demanding environments, the router is suitable for use in mining, road and transport, water industries, and for remote access for automation companies during commissioning and warranty. Easy to set up and truly value-packed the security router is available with a threeyear warranty. For more information call Weidmuller on free call 1800 739 988 or email info@ weidmuller.com.au
WATER RECYCLING PLANT FOR MONKEY MIA DOLPHIN RESORT Water Infrastructure Group is designing and building a 150kL/d Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Water Recycling Plant for the Monkey Mia Dolphin Resort in Western Australia. Dean Massie, General Manager WA, said that the water recycling plant was a key part of the environmental sustainability of this world-famous resort. “Monkey Mia Dolphin Resort is the only accommodation in Monkey Mia and can accommodate up to 1,200 visitors. People from around the world come to see the famous wild dolphins, dugongs and other marine life set among spectacular landscapes, one of the true wonders of Australia. Stephen McConnell, Water Infrastructure Group Project Manager, said the MBR process was the ideal technology for this location. “Water Infrastructure Group has a lot of experience with MBR treatment plants.
We not only design and build treatment plants, we also operate and maintain them. Our operational experience has really led us to focus on reliability for the whole life of the plants we deliver. “Our MBR plants are very robust and operate reliably to achieve regulatory and performance objectives. We focus on automation and remote monitoring and control through our Virtual Control Room to reduce the whole-of-life costs and ensure that our plants are easy to maintain and operate, particularly in remote locations like Monkey Mia. “An advantage of MBR technology for the Monkey Mia site is flexibility. We’ve designed the plant so that it can be upgraded to 300kL/d to cater for future needs. And of course a major advantage is that MBR technology is energy efficient and has a very small footprint. Both of these are significant pluses for reducing environmental impact,” Stephen said.
CONCRETE REMEDIATION Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials, particularly in the water and wastewater industry. Reinforcing concrete with steel creates a composite material with high compressive and tensile strength. However, steel is vulnerable to corrosion attack from the surrounding environment, which can reduce the overall strength and integrity of the structure.
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water APRIL 2013
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water Business In the wastewater industry, Hydrogen Sulphide gas (H2S) is produced, leading to the formation of sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The acidic water can lead to severe degradation of the structure, potentially resulting in the exposure of the supporting steel re-bar, prone to corrosion in the absence of concrete cover. This problem is most commonly experienced in enclosed environments such as anaerobic digestion tanks, sewer linings and manholes. It is hard to believe that similar deterioration is seen in the clean water industry – not because of corrosive H2S, but due to soft water, which is very pure. It is known to eat away at the cement within the concrete because it tries to strip away the minerals that are absent from the water. Over time, without protection, all concrete structures deteriorate to the point where the structures and the owner are faced with the loss of a valuable asset or contamination of the surrounding area. The cost and time implications of unplanned remediation are severe, and often in the water and wastewater industry this is not possible as some areas cannot be shut down for extended periods of time. A more effective solution is to embed a maintenance ritual
protective coatings can be used in a maintenance context to significantly extend the service life of an existing asset, or at the construction phase to provide long-lasting concrete protection, minimising future maintenance.
Chemical attack on concrete. into the plant’s existing schedule to include any necessary remediation of the structure prior to treating the asset with a highly waterproof, protective coating. The use of protective coatings not only reinstates the water-retaining characteristics, but also increases the longevity of the concrete structure, thus increasing the return on the initial investment. International Paint has introduced the Intercrete product range, a compact group of products used for concrete repair. They are Portland cement-based and show excellent compatibility by chemically reacting with the concrete substrate to become ‘one’. These repair mortars and
The use of Intercrete 4840 significantly enhances the durability of the concrete in an acidic environment. It is a technologically advanced epoxy and polymer modified cementitious coating, with enhanced chemical resistance as well as impact and abrasion resistance. Test reports demonstrate that Intercrete 4840 shows good chemical resistance to H2SO4 even at 20% concentration. The key benefits of the product are that it is easy to install, no substrate primer is required and it can be applied on damp concrete, making it an economic and practical solution to speed up the remediation process. For cases where steel reinforcement bars are exposed, 2 x 1mm coats of Intercrete 4871 may be brushed over to rapidly reinstate the passivating layer, providing long-term corrosion protection. A repair mortar such as Intercrete 4801 may be applied to fill large defects before using Intercrete 4840 to provide lasting protection.
APRIL 2013 water
water Business For protection against soft water attack, Intercrete 4841 is designed for the water industry. It demonstrates no detrimental effect on the quality of drinking water and is commonly used internally on water towers, tanks and reservoirs. For leaking joints, cracks and areas where movement is expected, International Paint offers a range of solutions including Intercrete 4872, a crack-bridging flexible tape, and Intercrete 4842, a modified polymer-rich flexible cementitious coating to ensure all your protection requirements are met. The Intercrete product range is waterborne, limiting H&S issues commonly encountered when performing maintenance in confined spaces. The Intercrete range is a compact selection of highly engineered products that can be applied rapidly and effectively in damp conditions with short drying times, enabling fast return to service. All the products provide cost-effective waterproofing, resisting positive and negative pressure of up to 10 bar. The advantage of having a concise range of highly engineered products is that it simplifies product selection, allowing immediate focus on solving the actual problem. Intercrete complements our existing range of coatings that have resistance to H2S and AS4020 approval for potable water such as Polibrid® 705E Elastomeric Urethane and Interline® 975, solvent free epoxy tank lining. For more information, contact International Paint: Toll Free Australia on 131 474; Toll Free New Zealand on 0800 808 807, email: email@example.com or visit www.international–pc.com
water APRIL 2013
Advertisers Index 3M Australia 101 ABB 160 Acromet 30 Aerofloat 166 AIRVAC 82 AkzoNobel 11 Alltype Engineering 37 Aqua Consultants Australasia 41 Aquacorp 29 Aquatec-Maxcon 19 Aurecon 31 Australian Harvestore Products 33 Australian Innovative Systems 16&17 Australian Vinyls 26 AWMA 8 BASF 35 Bintech 22 Brown Brothers Engineers 163 Campbell Scientific 122 Codesafe 14 Comdain 13 CRS Industrial Water Treatment Systems 69 CST 167 DCM Process Control 159 Degrémont 15 DHI Water & Environment 75 Franklin Electric OBC Hach Pacific 21 IDE IFC Iplex Pipelines 61 Irrigation Australia 106 ITS Trenchless 65 James Cummings & Sons 165 Kamstrup 50 KASA Redberg 47 KCES 60
Maric Flow Control 164 McBerns 40 New Water Corporation 162 Nov Mono Pumps 39 Pentair 71 PMT Water Engineering 111 Proco Products 163 Quantum Filtration Medium 168 RPC Technologies 51 Schneider Electric 45 Siemens Australia 23 Siemens Australia 25 Siemens Australia 27 Smith & Loveless 79 Solarwasser 18 Solid Dynamics 81 Sulzer Pumps 20 SWA Water Australia 107 Sydney Water Corporation 134 Tenix 2&3 Transfield Services Australia 91 TRILITY 12 Trojan Technologies 93 UGL – United Group Infrastructure 97 Vega 7 Vinidex 99 WAT 24 Waterco 10 Water Infrastructure Group 116 Weidmuller 9 Xylem Water Solutions Australia 57 Xylem Water Solutions Australia 87 Xylem 117 Zetco IBC Zinfra 123
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