Page 1

Volume 37 No 5

AUGUST 2010

AWA JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATION

ex, 0 0 0

~ u=; U"J

N N Cl. Cl.

0

~

0

a: Cl. Cl.

,:x: IC/)

0

Cl. 1-

2

ci:

Cl.


water

Journal of the Australian Water Association ISSN 0310-0367 Volume 37 No 5 August 201 0

contents REGULAR FEATURES From the AWA Chief Executive My Point of View

Global Opportunities

T Mollenkopf 4 MYoung 5

Crosscurrent Aquaphemera

RKnee 8

8

Industry News

14

AWA News

16

Events Calendar

20

Conference Reports

22

Taswater'10 - see page 22

FEATURE REPORTS The Importance of Water in the Australian Economy

ASpeers

28

Shorty Jangala Robertson: Singing the Rain

32

Water and Sanitation - A Remaining Priority

34

About WaterAid

36

waterAUSTRALIA: Selling our Capabilities

L Targ

AWA CONTACT DETAILS Australian Water Association ABN 78 096 035 773 Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, PO Box 222, St Leonards NSW 1590 Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 Fax: +61 2 9436 0155 Email: info@awa.asn.au Web: www.awa.asn.au DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assumes no responsibility for opinion or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers. COPYRIGHT AWA Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without written permission of the AWA. To seek permission to reproduce Water Journal materials, send your request to media@awa.asn.au WATER JOURNAL MISSION STATEMENT 'To provide a journal that interests and informs on water matters, Australian and international, covering technological, environmental, economic and social aspects, and to provide a repository of useful refereed papers. ' PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, April, May, June, August, September, November and December. FDITORIAL BOARD Chair: Frank R Bishop; Dr Bruce Anderson, AECOM; Dr Terry Anderson, Consultant SEWL; Michael Chapman, GHD; Robert Ford, Central Highlands Water (rtd); Anthony Gibson, Ecowise; Dr Brian Labza, Vic Health; Dr Robbert van Oorschot, GHD; John Poon, CH2M Hill; David Power, BEGA Consultants; Professor Felicity Roddick, AMIT University; Dr Ashok Sharma, CSIRO; and EA (Bob) Swinton, Technical Editor.

AWA

EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Water Journal welcomes editorial submissions for technical and topical articles, news, opinion pieces, business

41

About WaterAid - see page 36

information and letters to the editor. Acceptance of editorial submissions is at the discretion of the editor and editorial board. • Technical Papers and Features Bob Swinton, Technical Editor, Water Journal- bswinton@bigpond.net.au AND journal@awa.asn.au Papers 3,000-4,000 words and graphics; or topical articles of up to 2,000 words relating to all areas of the water cycle and water business. Submissions are tabled at monthly editorial board meetings and where appropriate are assigned referees. Referee comments will be forwarded to the principal author for further action. Authors should be mindful that Water Journal is published in a 3 colu mn 'magazine' format rather than the full-page format of Word documents. Graphics should be set up so that they will still be clearly legible when reduced to two-column size (about 12cm wide). Tables and figures need to be numbered with the appropriate reference in the text e.g. see Figure 1, not just placed in the text with a (see below) reference as they may end up anywhere on the page when typeset. • Industry News, Opinion pieces and Media Releases Helen Ketton, Editor, Water Journal- journal@awa.asn.au • Water Business and Product News Brian Rault, National Sales and Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions - brian.rault@halledit.com.au

ADVERTISING Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water sector and objectives of the AWA. Brian Rault, National Sales and Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions - brian.rault@halledit.com.au Tel: +61 3 8534 5014 AWA BOOKSHOP Copies of Water Journal, including back issues, are available from the AWA Bookshop for $12.50 plus postage and handling. Email: bookshop@awa.asn.au PUBLISHER Hallmark Editions, PO Box 84, Hampton, Vic 3188 Tel: 61 3 8534 5000 Fax: 61 3 9530 8911 Email: hallmark.editions@halledit.com.au

Ngapa Jukurpa (Water Dreaming) by Shorty Jangala Robertson. Shorty Jangala Robertson is one of the leading 'water dreaming' painters of the desert. Robertson's canvases relate the pow erful 'water dreaming' stories of his Warl piri people. See article on page 32. © the artist and Warlukurlangu Artists Aboriginal Corporation.

water AUGUST 2010 1


water

Journal of the Australian Water Association ISSN 0310-0367

Why Ozone and BAC Treatment? - see page 46

Volume 37 No 5 August 201 0

contents

Sustainable Success In Rural Tanzania - see page 71

TECHNICAL FEATURES (rn] INDICATES THE PAPER HAS BEEN REFEREED) WATER TREATMENT

[ii

Why Ozone and BAC Treatment? K Fernando, W Franklin, J Thomas

46

R Morgan, P Swaim, L Schimmoller, C Bele

54

B Neal, C Meneses, D Hughes, T Wisener

60

F Spaninks

65

DYoung, P Ochre

71

A Cunningham, A Micaleff

75

B Balta, M Hoang, TTran

80

A Torbaty, GAmblin

84

Establishing that cumulative rather than individual impacts take precedence A Davison, T Flapper, D Deere, N O'Connor, R Franklin, S Macindoe

86

Dealing with a combination of contaminants ADVANCED OXIDATION

[I]

The Luggage Point UV/AOP System

Design and operational considerations for indirect potable reuse DEMAND MANAGEMENT

[ii

The Impact of Restrictions on Regional Urban Demand

Statistical analysis of data from country towns

[i]

Estimating the Savings from Water Restrictions in Sydney

Restrictions saved about 575 gigalitres in 6 years INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS

[ii]

Sustainable Success in Rural Tanzania

Safe water for better health, the MSABI project WATER SUPPLY

lffi

The Anglesea Borefield Project Fast-tracked as Geelong's water storages fell below 20 per cent DESALINATION AND MEMBRANES

[i]

Aquaporins - Useful Leads to Low Energy Desalination Membranes?

Can man emulate nature? PRESSURE SEWERAGE

[i]

Innovation in Design of an 11 km Sewer Pipeline Challenges included incorporating a gravity main and predicted subsidence from underground mining

CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT

[I]

Drinking Water Protection: A Victorian Supreme Court Decision

WATER BUSINESS

New Products and Business Information. Special Features: Sludge Management & Biosolids; Desalination; Sewerage Systems Advertisers' Index 2 AUGUST 2010 water

92 104


See our systitm animation and request a DVD online. The World Leader in Vacuum Sewer Technology

AIRVAC Vacuum Sewerage Systems are clean, efficient, easy to maintain, easy to install and typically less expensive than other collection systems. It is a proven t echnology with a long history of success and reliability. The AIRVAC Vacuum Sewerage System is . ..

THE economical and ecological wastewater collection system.

UlaterCon Ingenious Sol utions

I Imaginative Engi neerin g


industry news

International Honours for Australian Water Projects Australia's position as a global leader in water management has been recogn ised by the International Water Association's (IWA) Project Innovation Awards (PIAs) for Asia Pacific. Australian organisations dominated the awards, winn ing eig ht out of the twelve honours awarded. The awards were announced at the awards ceremony during the Singapore International Water Week on 30 June 2010. Congratulating the Aust ralian winners, Tom Mollenkopf, Chief Executive of the AWA, said, "Australia is leading the way in developing new and innovative solutions to water management. I am delighted that t his work has been recogn ised at an international level. It reinforces t he fact that the Australian water sector has world class skills and expertise." The Australian projects honoured at the IWA Asia Pacific PIAs 2010 include:

Applied Research Honour Award: BioFilter - An Environmentally Friendly Pre- Treatment for Reverse Osmosis in Seawater Desalination Centre for Technologies in Water and Wastewater, University of Technology, Sydney Design Honour Award: Western Corridor Recycled Water Project WaterSecure

Winners of the IWA Project Innovation Awards.

Honour Award: A Combined Optimisation and Multi-Criteria Analysis Process for Pipe Network Interconnectivity Planning SA Water, Optimatics, United Water and University of Adelaide Small Projects Winner: Flinders/Shoreham Pressure Sewer Project - 'us' Utility Services and South East Water Honour Award: 8/ackmans Swamp Creek Stormwater Harvesting Project - Orange City Council and Geo/yse Pty Ltd A number of the successful Australian projects were also recognised at a national level at the AWA National Water Awards, held earlier this year. The FutureFlow Irrigation Modernisation Project was the winner of the AWA Infrastructure Project Innovation Award and the Swamp Creek Stormwater Harvesting Project was judged a highly commended paper.

Operations/Management Winner: FutureF/ow Irrigation Modernisation Project Gou/burn-Murray Water's FutureF/ow Alliance

The IWA PIAs recognise excellence and innovation in water

Planning

engineering projects around the world, and highlight the belief and emphasis t hat solutions to our water chal lenges can be achieved through innovative and practical solutions.

Winner: Clarence Valley Gaffs Harbour Regional Water Supply CHCC, NSW Public Works and Leighton Contractors

winners from Europe and North America for an international

eve,

Honour Award: Gold Coast Water's Four R's Project - From Vision to Reality - Gold Coast Water

Public Concern for Australian Water Supplies The majority of Australians are concerned that Australia's cu rrent water supply will not be able to support a significant population increase in t he next five years, according to new research commissioned by MWH Australia. MWH Australia Water Gauge 2010 research reveals widespread preference for more infrastructure to ensure adequate water supply in the future. Seventy six per cent of Australians said they wou ld prefer increased wat er infrastructure as opposed to 18 per cent opting for a restricted water supply.

14 AUGUST 2010 water

The winning projects will now compete with the regional award, which w ill be announced in September at the World Water Congress in Austria.

Peter Williams, Managing Director of MWH Australia, said, "We need to think about the future of water in a drier Australia. Our nation's water issues boil down to a question of supply versus consumption. Governments must encourage Australians to reduce, or further reduce their wat er usage. In addition, our water supply must increase through greater investment in water infrastructure. This big issue must be addressed if we are to ensure water security for the f uture." Although 95 per cent of respondents to the survey agreed that every Australian is responsible for making good use of water, 50 per cent said they would be less carefu l if water restrictions were lifted in their area.


industry news

Household Water Bills Increase Water utilities across the country have announced a rise in the average household water bill in 2010-11. Residents in five South East Queensland local government areas face an increase of an average 10.7 per cent to their water and sewerage bills per quarter. Queensland Urban Utilities has cited the increased cost of buying bulk water from the Queensland Government-owned water grid as one of the reasons for the rise in prices. Queensland Urban Utilities Chief Executive Officer Noel Faulkner said, "The rise in the cost of buying treated water from the State Government-owned water grid wi ll be felt by our customers, in addition to increases t o maintain the pumps and pipes and keep pace with the infrastructure needs to support population and housing growth. "Price increases are unpalatable at any time. However, we have worked hard to ensure that, as a new water business, we deliver value for money by investing in the maintenance and expansion of the water and sewerage infrastructure." However, Queensland Treasurer Andrew Fraser has made clear that bulk water charges account for only $44 of the $107

increase in the average water bill. The remaining $63 goes to council-ow ned water businesses who deliver their dividends and payment s back to Brisbane City Council. Mr Fraser has urged the council to be more transparent about the payments it will take from Queensland Urban Utilities. Sydney Water has also announced that the average household bill in Sydney, lllawarra and the Blue Mountains will increase by seven per cent in 2010-11. The price rise covers an increase in the cost of 'bulk' or raw water that Sydney Water purchases from the Sydney Catchment Authority and the desalination plant. Sydney Water Managing Director Kerry Schott outlined the reason for the price increases. She said, "The new prices are necessary to cover the costs of Sydney's water and sewerage services, as well as two new large recycling schemes at Rosehill-Camellia and at St Marys in Western Sydney. Water from the desalination plant is now being supplied to Sydney homes and businesses, and has been since 28 January. The cost of this water is included in the price rises. "

Call for Action on Water Interception The National Water Commission has called for all Austral ian governments to take action on the issue of water interception. This follows the release of Australia's first ever nation-wide baseline assessment of water interception activities which fou nd that a combined volume of 5600 gigalitres of water is intercepted annually. The 'Surface and/or groundwater interception activities: initial estimates' report shows that the total volume of water unaccounted for as a result of land use activities outside our current water entitlement regimes and planning frameworks equates to almost one quarter of all the entitled water on issue in Australia. From the 5600 gigalitres of water that is intercepted every year, forestry plantations use approximat ely 2000 gigalitres a

year (GUyr), farm dams 1600 GUyr, stock and domestic activities 1100 GUyr, and overland flows (floodplain harvesting) on average 900 GUyr. According to National Water Commission CEO Ken Matthews, "These are clearly significant uses of water which need to be brought within the water planning and management fold, both to manage current activities and guide future growth. "These important fi ndings underscore the urgency of the Commission's recommendations in Australian Water Reform 2009 that water interception activities be immediately identified and quantified, and a process for addressing them clarified within the next six months." One major step in addressing interception is to quantify its impact on wat er systems. This report assists governments t o understand the extent of unaccounted water use, and to identify the reg ions where water interception activities are of greatest concern in t heir respective jurisdictions.

Victorian Gala Dinner Victorian Wat er Minister, Tom Holding, will be the guest speaker at the 48th Victoria branch annual dinner. Over 750 water professionals wi ll attend the 2010 annual dinner at Palladium at Crown. Mr Holding recently announced that 22 gigalitres of environmental wat er wi ll be returned to the Yarra and Thomson rivers earlier than planned. The additional flows wi ll be released at optimum times to improve the health of both rivers.

water AUGUST 2010 15


awa news Australian Government National Water Commission

disciplines, in management and in technical and trades areas in the foreseeable future, although not evenly across all sectors.

Consultation on the National Water Skills Strategy Business Plan

Following this consultation period, the Business Plan w ill be finalised and presented to the Water Industry Skills Taskforce in September before being submitted t o Government.

The COAG National Water Skills Strategy was prepared to respond to the findings of a national audit of labour and ski lls shortages in the water sector, completed by the International Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Management (ICEWaRM) in July 2008. This audit demonstrated that there is an existing and worsening skills gap in the industry. Key ski lls shortages will exist in science and engineering

WI '

i. Attract and retain skilled staff in the wat er industry, whilst giving due consideration to the effects of market forces on staff availability, including in rural and regional areas; ii. Augment the technical skills base in the water industry, through actively promoting demand for ski ll s development and training; iii. Improve the training and skills support base for rural water managers (such as cou ncils and property managers); and

COAG National Water Skills Strategy

Wa er

iv. Develop a capacity building strategy for remote and regional communities, particularly indigenous communities, to build practical skills in water resource management and planning. The COAG National Water Skills Strategy is available at www.awa.asn.au/ski llsbusinessplan.

WAJER luf~IA'S

MOST

PRECIOUS RESOURCE

AWA is once again coordi nating National Water Week (NWW) this year. As part of NWW activities, AWA is launching the National Water Week Ambassador Initiative to improve water literacy in schools and local communities. We are inviting all AWA members to take part in this exciting new initiative by registering to become a NWW ambassador. As a NWW ambassador you wil l have an opportunity to visit schools and community groups in your local area and present on a range of wat er topics during National Water Week.

MMfftNIICU. w.HfUIU, t'rU'laC'l llllllUiSNMl..m

WWW.NATIONALWATERWEEK.ORG.AU

17-23 OCTOBER 2010

These topics include the following: • An introduction to water • Water sources • Water at work • What happens to our wastewater? • Working in water • Water and the environment • Water around the world A database has been developed for volunteers to submit their details to become an ambassador and be approached by local schools and commu nity groups for presentations during 17-23 October.

16 AUGUST 201 0 water

~

The objectives for the National Water Skills Strategy are to:

Individ uals and organisations are now invited to review and provide feedback on the Draft Business Plan. The Draft Business Plan and details of how to submit feedback are available at www.awa.asn.au/skillsbusinessplan.aspx. Submissions close 31 Aug ust 2010.

-

~

On 7 December 2009, COAG agreed to redouble its efforts to accelerate the pace of reform under the National Water Initiative (NWI) and endorsed the National Water Skills Strategy.

AWA, on behalf of the Water Industry Skills Taskforce, has developed the Draft National Water Skills Strategy Business Plan, with funding from the National Water Commission. The Business Plan will operationalise the COAG National Water Skills Strategy. The Business Plan defines specific outputs, roles and functions needed to implement the strategy.

Become a National Water Week Ambassador

.'

AWA

australian water association

'T

To support ambassadors and to reduce the time com mitment of taking part in this initiative a selection of presentations and guidance notes have been prepared that can easily be taken and used when visiting schools and community groups. This is a fantastic opportunity to raise awareness and educate commu nities across Australia about some of the key water issues affecting Australia, and the rest of the world. If you are interest ed in becoming a National Water Week ambassador please go to www.nationalwaterweek.com.au to register your interest.

AWA respects your privacy. Your contact details wi ll only be available once schools/community groups have been approved to get access.

There are other ways to support National Water Week. The focus of National Wat er Week 2010 is 'Australia's most precious resource' which aims to encourage Australians to think carefu lly about how they use water and to manage their water use as efficiently as possible. Hosting an event for staff or the local community or runn ing a local competition are effective ways to raise awareness of water matters in Australia. The National Wat er Week website has a number of tools to help you plan and promote events. This includes a guide to running your event, template media releases, posters and leaflets. For more information, go to www.nationalwaterweek.org.au.

re u ar


PENSTOCKS


awa news AWA Director Elections AWA is notifying all members of the Australian Water Association of a call for nominations for positions on the AWA Board of Directors. AWA Board members will be elected by the Strategic Advisory Council on Friday 29th October. The elected cand idates are then presented for ratification by the members at the Annual General Meeting on the same day. At least four re-nominating Directors, including the President and President Elect, must be re-appointed to the board, subject to ratification at the Annual General Meeting. The full provisions regarding appointment to the Board are contained in the AWA Constitution which is available on the AWA website. Candidates must have a record of active involvement with AWA for at least one year and good knowledge of the water industry in Australia. To support their application for election to the Board, candidates are required to provide the following information: • Appl ication form, including contact information • Curriculum Vitae • Statement from sponsor (an AWA member) supporting the candidate

Guidance material and nomination forms can be downloaded from the AWA website or obtained by contacting Clare Beer 02 9436 0055. Members interested in joining the Board of Directors are also encouraged to discuss the matter with the Chief Executive or the President. Nominations close COB on 30th August 2010.

President-elect Lucia Cade has been appointed as the President Elect of the Australian Water Association. Lucia joined the AWA Board of Direct ors in 2007 and been a member of AWA since 2002. Lucia's career spans many facets of t he water industry. She was recently appointed General Manager - Growth at Comdain Infrastructure. Lucia is also a Director of Western Water in Victoria. Lucia wi ll take over the role of President of the AWA at Ozwater in May 201 1.

• Response to key competencies

18 AUGUST 2010 water

regular featu

5


SLUDGE REMOVAL, CONTAINMENT AND DEWATERING

GeotubS

Ten Cate Nicolon

TURNKEY SLUDGE REMOVAL AND DEWATERING NOW AVAILABLE

With the arrival of our brand new remote controlled unmanned cutter suction dredge and coupled with the proven Geotube® dewatering technology, CRS can now undertake turnkey sludge removal and dewatering projects quickly, efficiently and economically. Call Bill Kelly for more information on 02 9899 7811.


awa news EVENTS CALENDAR This list is correct at the time of printing. Please check the AWA online events calendar for up-to-date listings and booking information at www.awa.asn.au/events

AUGUST

Wed , 04 Aug Wed , 04 Aug Wed, 04 Aug Wed, 04 Aug Fri, 06 Aug Wed, 11 Aug Wed, 11 Aug - Th u, 12 Aug Thu, 12 Aug Sun, 15 Aug Tue, 17 Aug Tue, 17 Aug - Wed , 18 Aug Wed , 18 Aug Wed, 18 Aug Thu, 19 Aug Fri, 20 Aug Tue, 24 Aug - Thu, 26 Aug Tue, 24 Aug Tue, 24 Aug - Wed, 25 Aug Tue, 24 Aug Wed, 25 Aug Tue, 31 Aug

OLD Branch Committee Meeting, Brisbane OLD SA Committee Meeting, Adelaide SA NSW YWP Committee Meeting, Sydney NSW 2010 Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis Roadshow, Melbourne VIC Heads of Water Gala Dinner, Sydney NSW ACT Branch Committee Meeting, Canberra ACT 201 O NQ Regional Conference, Brisbane OLD 48th Victorian Branch Annual Dinner, Melbourne VIC Water to Wine Gumboot Tour, Canberra ACT TAS Branch Committee Meeting, Hobart TAS Australian Water Industry Essentials Short Course, Sydney NSW NSW Committee Meeting, Sydney NSW OLD Monthly Technical Meeting, Brisbane OLD YWP Seminar: Major Projects Overseas and Australia, Melbourne VIC SA Branch Conference and Annual Dinner, Adelaide SA AWA VIC State Road-show - "Talking Water", Regional VIC Onsite Waste Wat er Management, Hobart TAS Odours Speciality Conference, Sydney NSW ACT YWP Evening Seminar: Murray-Darling Basin Plan, Canberra ACT NSW YWP Water Seminar Series - Water Reform, Sydney NSW WA Technical Event, Perth WA

SEPTEMBER

Wed, 01 Sep Wed, 01 Sep Thu, 02 Sep Wed, 08 Sep -Thu, 09 Sep Wed, 08 Sep - Fri, 10 Sep Wed, 08 Sep Thu, 09 Sep Mon, 13 Sep - Wed, 15 Sep Mon, 13 Sep Tue, 14 Sep Tue, 14 Sep Thu, 16 Sep Fri, 17 Sep Mon, 20 Sep Tue, 21 Sep Tue, 21 Sep Wed, 22 Sep Tue, 28 Sep Wed, 29 Sep

NSW YWP Committee Meeting, Sydney NSW OLD Branch Committee Meeting, Brisbane OLD AWA Operator of the Year Award, Bendigo VIC Master Class: Water Infrastructure Project Management, Sydney NSW Trade Waste Workshop, Mackay OLD SA YWP Industry Breakfast, Adelaide SA OLD Monthly Technical Meeting, Brisbane OLD AWA National Operations Conference, Sydney NSW SA Committee Meeting, Adelaide SA Smart Systems, Melbourne VIC Dry Drains - Reduced Flow, Hobart TAS AWA YWP & Young Engineers: NCWRS, Canberra ACT NT YWP Water in the Pub, Darwin NT The WAS H Roadshow Specialist Network, Australia ACT Branch Committee Meeting, Canberra ACT TAS Committee Meeting, Hobart TAS NSW Committee Meeting, Sydney NSW ACT Branch Awards Judging Night, Canberra ACT NSW YWP Wat er Seminar Series - Climate Change Adaptation, Sydney NSW

OCTOBER

Wed, 06 Oct Wed, 06 Oct Thu, 07 Oct Thu, 14 Oct Mon, 18 Oct Tue, 19 Oct Tue, 19 Oct Wed, 20 Oct Wed, 20 Oct Wed, 20 Oct Thu, 21 Oct Fri, 22 Oct Fri , 22 Oct Wed , 27 Oct

NSW YWP Committee Meeting, Sydney NSW OLD Branch Committee Meeting, Brisbane OLD Australian Water Industry Essentials Short Course, Brisbane OLD Debate on the Lake, Canberra ACT Integrated Water Management, Melbourne VIC ACT YWP Evening & BBQ Near the Lake, Canberra ACT TAS Branch Committee Meeting, Hobart TAS NSW Committee Meeting, Sydney NSW AWA OLD Awards Night, Brisbane OLD SA Committee Meeting, Adelaide Water Leaders Dinner, Canberra ACT WA Wat er Awards, Perth WA Water In the Bush Conference, Darwin NT NSW YWP Water Seminar Series - Water & Society, Sydney NSW

20 AUGUST 2010 water

regular featu

s


awa news New Members AWA welcomes the following new members since the most recent issue of Water Journal:

NSW Corporate Gold Burkert Fluid Control Systems Corporate Silver Downer

Corporate Bronze Eurobodalla Shire Council Merriman Controls Enware Australia Ply Ltd AMP Abrasive Blasting OLD Corporate Gold The Water and Carbon Group IPOWER SOLUTIONS Corporate Silver Humes Heggies Ply Ltd Corporate Bronze Harvest Water Management Consultants Ply Ltd VIC Corporate Silver SICE PTY LTD Keppel Prince Engineering Global Pipe Australia Corporate Bronze Garland Hawthorn Brahe

VIS Water Services WA Corporate Silver 360 Environmental Ply Ltd Corporate Bronze Rotech Water Overseas Corporate Silver Pump Systems Ltd

WA P. Calneggia, G. Kerlin, M. Rhodes, G. Bateman, P. Wiseman, L. Hughes, A. Richard, C. Annison, P. Fitton, C. Boehl, B. Agarwalla, J. Petersen Overseas McEwen, Y. Na Eeo, R. Barnes

ACT Y. Zhu NSW R. Yap, J. Cen, G. Dharmasena, K. Phetsaya OLD B. Taylor, B. Cayford, D. Berry SA L. Macadam

WA J. Hartley, C. Loi ACT R. Ogden NSW J. Gray, K. Bevitt, R. Muller, S. Rewell, S. Ireland, A. Mclean, D. Taylor, C. Waterhouse, C. Hoey, A. Deen, S. Sivabalakan, P. Herath, M. Saunders, C. Moloney, J. Whitten, J. Ellis, K. Smit!, A. Crowther, M. Breakenridge, C. Bell, S. Raishbrook, P. Degnan, S. Lin, Y. Gokhale, S. Krishnamurthy, G. Philip, D. Bryant, J. Kennedy, M. Hazell, S. Alam, B. Zalloua, H. Abeysekara, R. Scott, C. Young, Y. Shi, J. Walsh OLD D. Bannigan, A. Christie, R. Tolley, M. Moore, C. Pancutt, D. Drapper, B. Walls, G. Flood, T. O'Neill, S. Bow, P. O'Kane, A. Brown, K. Naidoo, R. Strom, R. Dryden, G. DjordJewitsch, M. Porter, J. John, C. Teske, J. Postlethwaite, I. Canham, G. Adams, Y. Hughes SA P. Auckland, S. Haures, J. Voortman, L. Harnett, S. Nettle, B. Asche, G. Roeszler, E. Rossi, K. Taylor

VIC N. Whithers, C. Chiam, D. Kirby, D. Rose, T. Rhodes, Y. Adihkary, J. Cheung, A. Guerra, R. Lane, T. Luo, K. Choong Quah, D. Steedman, M. Nelson, M. Majeed, D. Porat, P. Williams, H. Sheffield, A. Stacpoole, C. Langcake, A. Holman, A. Tourney, R. McDonnell, A. Brault

Bermad Water Technologies has 21 Years of experience in helping you optimise your design in the Control of Water and Wastewater in pipelines from 25mm up to 3.5 metre in diameter. This means and includes:

• Maximising pipeline flow rates • Minimising pipeline water hammer We specialise in Problem solving. We also provide on site training from "one on one'' to large groups in the use of Control valves and Air release valv1s in your pipeline systems to help mal(e them the best they can be!

ACT McRorie NT Sheehan, M. Edwards OLD Radbourne, N. Broom, F. Milnes SA Gay, B. Ibbotson, T. Qiu, C. Mccallum, Y. Yan Ou, S. Lasslett TAS M. Barrenger

VIC F. Boodhna, A. Emmerson, W. Gielewski, B. Santosi, M. Hardy WA Buckeridge

If you think some new activity would enhance the membership package please contact us on our national local call number 1300 361 426 or submit your suggestion via email to membership@awa.asn.au.


conference reports

Taswater'10 In his opening remarks at Taswater'10, Lochlan Gibson of GHD observed that there are still many challenges facing water managers in Tasmania, and he reminded us of the importance of sharing knowledge and networking to better manage these challenges. Taswater'10 in June was a great opportunity to do both, with 12 speakers presenting a wide range of topics, 125 people attending and 22 exhibitors including laboratories, consultants and manufacturers. Presentations included challenges in catchment management and monitoring, waste wat er treatment, asset management and AWA's programs. The day opened with a presentation from Malcolm McCausland, Hydro Tasmania Consulting, who told us about managing a blue green algal bloom in Lake Trevallyn, a water supply and popular recreation site near Launceston, in northern Tasman ia. He showed results illustrating the effects of drought and water regulation on water flows and quality in the dam, and how management can reduce the likelihood of another bloom occurring. Malcolm Warnecke of ASL spoke about new techniques to identify and rank the risk of faecal contamination. He presented resu lt s from an investigation of human and ruminant contamination of the Yarra River by a program funded by the Victorian Smart Water Fund.

Tubesettlers , For Desalination Plants (Installed in Sydney and Brisbane)

And other applications , PP material is approved for high standards of potable water ,

Flexible dimensions

, Easy handling can be assembled on site , Sophisticated support

Dandenong VIC 3175 Australia tel: (6 1)(3) 9793 7269 email: BRUN0@ 2h.com.au

www.2h.com.au 2 2 AUGUST 2010 water

Daryl Polzin, State President, opens Taswater'10.

Just before morning tea, we heard about the damage aquatic pests and pathogens have done to waterways around the world from Kaylene Allan, NRM South. A new manual Keep it Clean presents simple measures to protect our waterways and fisheries from devastating pests like Rock Snot (didymo spp) that smother rocks and plants with tissue like algae. David Marshall, Hydro Tasman ia, explained the delicate balancing act of managing levels in Great Lake, Arthurs Lake and Woods Lake to provide for power generation, protect threatened galaxid fish, and provide for new irrigation schemes and anglers and tourists. Next, we heard about a major project to upgrade 14 water treatment plants for Caliban Water, Victoria. The project presented considerable tech nical and contract management challenges for project manager Pat Cullinane, who having achieved success has subseq uently moved to Tasmania to work for SKM. Eric Geibel, Pall Australia, gave as a passionate presentation about membrane technology and its use by more small communities in the US for drinking water treatment. Higher standards for drinking water quality and advances in design, that have made them easier to use, have increased t he popularity of microfiltration. AWA members wou ld no doubt have been happy to hear about a number of new initiatives from Clare Porter from AWA These included the Communities of Practice for Environmental Managers, Biosolids Partnerships, the new AWA website and the National Water Week Ambassador Initiative. Our guest speaker Grant Atherton, President of Tasmanian Division of Engineers Australia, introduced the Infrastructure Report Card, focusi ng on the water assets in Tasmania. The report card is designed to raise awareness of the need for better long term asset management. It seems to have had some success because it's been mentioned many times in Parliament since its release. Water infrast ructure in Tasmania ranked between B- and C-, assuming promised investment occurs. A great follow up to this presentation was given by Lance Stapleton of Southern Water who spoke about the recent review of wastewater treatment plants in southern Tasmania and the path he and his team have mapped out to achieve co mpliance with environment al standards. Many of the 49

regular e t res


conference reports and the imminent launch of new standards later this year and the implications for calculating the bottom line. Roger Jeffery then explained the variety of approaches to water metering used in Austral ia. He showed that metering is not just about counting water use, but rather it can also transform the way a business operates. And he outlined a number of potential pitfalls during roll-out of this type of system overhaul. After a day well spent, it was of course necessary to retire to the exhibitors area for some celebratory drinks. And to draw the winner of the delegates vote for 'speaker of the day' award that went to Lance Stapleton, Southern Water. Congratulations Lance! Lochlan Gibson, State Manager, GHD (Taswater'10 Premium Partner).

systems req uire upgrades to meet the standards. These have been ranked according to risk and, following discussions with the Environment Protection Authority, work to complete more detailed environmental assessment to better quantify risks and t he upgrades will commence. The day concluded with two presentations from Deloitte on very different topics. The first from Darryn Rundell outli ned different approaches to valuation of water infrastructure. He explained t he lack of c larity in current accounting standards

Aniela Grun, Tasmania Branch Committee

Thank you to the speakers for preparing high quality presentations, the exhibitors and our premium partner GHD, our silver partners SEMF, ITT, and Stornoway, Pitt & Sherry, Grundfos and Tennix for their support. Taswater'10 certainly is a team effort. And thank you to everyone who attended. This is a new record for Taswater10, now in its third year following two previous 'Water Forum' events, which is quite a thrill for the Tas Branch Committee. A special thank you to Carmel Clark our Branch Manager for pulling it all together.

The Bray Park Water Treatment Plant is NSW's largest ultra-filtration water treatment plant. With a commitment to excellence, The Reed Group's Water division successfully managed the project throughout all phases of construction. In a growth centre environment, th is project also incorporated environmental benefits through its ergonomic design, construction and architectural featu res. From water and wastewater plants to tunnelling, reservoirs and membrane technology, The Reed Group continues to build on its reputation for projects completed on time, on budget and without compromise. When considering your next infrastructure, design and construction or refurbishment project, contact The Reed Group at reedgroup.com.au or phone 02 9965 0399.


conference reports

Biosolids 5 June 2010 Reported by E A (Bob) Swinton and Diane Wiesner As a long-time reporter it was interesting to look back through back issues of Water to see how the business has advanced. The first mention of biosolids (as distinct from sludge) was in 1995, w ith a report on the use of biosolids in the Sydney region. Then nothing, until 2001 when vermiculture raised its head. But starting in November 2002, a whole series of papers emanated from the first Biosolids Specialty Conference. The most notable of which were those from the diverse groups of state and water utility supported research under the CSIRO coordinated National Biosolids Research Program. Th e focus then was on the identifyi ng and quantifying the residues, both beneficial and potential hazardous (such as metals and pathogens) in biosolids with implications for national and state based regulations. So what was different about 2010, how far have we advanced? The Biosolids 5 conference, held in June, was a useful blend of research, mainly on pathogen and endocrine disrupter compounds (EDC), pragmat ic reports on treatment and technology and case studies principally focused on managing emissions, such as biogas and odour. For the first t ime, sustainability was mentioned, with assessments of the carbon footprint of various technologies for digestion, dewat eri ng , storage and distribution. A significant development has been the take-up of BNR plants, which yield a more difficult biosolids to dewater and store, but which contain valuable and bio-available phosphorus. The first keynote came from Professor Ian Pepper of the Arizona Water Institute. 'Threat or Saviour?' in which he compared natural hazards to the potential hazards of biosolids. Natural living soil has potential hazards for humans: anthrax (omnipresent, in varying degrees) Legionel/a, C/ostridium and Naeg/eria as well as numerous viruses, bacteria and helminths. Incorporating animal manures and biosol ids will accentuate the numbers, but the introduced biota decay to background in a matter of days, !=)xcept for helminths, so the soil is a saviour, and safety following bio-amendment is guaranteed by normal hygiene with temporary sit e restrictions Dust generated from dry soil can be hazardous. Bronchitis can be induced by bacteria, but their range is limited, yet there are spores and toxins which can be transported large distances. Distribution of biosolids by slingers wou ld increase the hazard, but effects can be minimised by simple precautions. Prions (as in Mad Cow Disease) have been found to be com pletely degraded by digestion at 37°C for 15 days. Dr Pepper refe rred to global warm ing and pointed out that there is more potential for soil to act as a carbon sink than water (oc eans) . Increasing t emperatu res would promote plant growth - a positive. Bi osolids sequester carbon, and more work shou ld be done to build the

24 AUGUST 2010 water

required proof of their value in order for them to be c lassed as carbon credits. The other keynot e was delivered by Dr John Novak, of Virginia Tech, who summarised the trends in Anaerobic Digestion in USA, covering pretreatment, multistage digestion, odour, pathogens and recent research in thermal hydrolysis. Anaerobic engineering dates from the 1950-60s but t here was little change until 1995, when thermophilic systems were investigated. The current trends aim for increased reduction of solids to form biogas, and 'higher quality' biosolids. Pretreatment by sonication and high shear are being studied, but in US the benefits are not proven. Thermal Hydrolysis improves solids destruction, about 20 per cent more gas, better dewatering, and lower odour potential, but at a cost. Multi-stage systems range from thermophilic- mesophilic (TPAD) , acid- gas, 4-stage thermophilic, anaerobic-aerobic. All are successful and some red uce odour more than others. Solids destruction ranges from 45 per cent up to nearly 70 per cent for thermo-mesa-aerobic. Once again, cost is an issue. With regard to product quality Novak and his team fou nd that EDCs actually increase with anaerobic digestion , and anti-biotic resistance genes are persistent. Aerobic digestion is better. The question of odour generation is anot her important issue. Dr Novak considered that measurement of hydrogen sulfide is not a good predictor of odour because the odour emanates from the organic sulfur compounds. At Virginia Tech, recent research has been focu sed on thermal hydrolysis followed by anaerobic, then aerobic digestion , w hich has been demonstrated to yield very high solids reduction. However, more ammonia is formed and w ith a slight increase in pH to 7.85, most of it is unionised. They have found that this compound is toxic to the methanogens which convert acetate to methane. However, the shift to the hydrogen route may reduce the formation of the odourous su lfur compounds. The presentations by Australian authors tackled many of the problems such as odours and pathogen survival. Paul Darvodelsky, from PSD, noted that management of biosolids is a significant part of the water industry. Australia produces about 300,000 tonnes of biosolids on a dry basis or over 1.5 million tonnes of biosolids on a wet basis each year. The an nual cost of managing these biosolids is about $100 million per year, not including the processing costs. The total capital c ost committed to processing these biosolids is about $1 billion and the total annual operating costs of processing around $100 million. Currently, about 60 per cent goes to agriculture, and the 15 per cent going to landfill is reduc ing. Five per cent is composted for landscaping, and 15 per cent is stockpiled,

regular features


Disinfecting Your Water. We are proud to have played a rol e in advancing ultraviolet light technology. And we're comm itted to provid ing the world with more efficient, environmentally-friendly water treatment solutions fo r years to come. So what's next? For starters we're enhancing and expanding our product offering, so that more people around the world can benefit from safe and clean water. In addition, we're growing our global support network, offering around-the-clock technical assistance, service and solutions. Proven history, bright future. UV innovation continues at trojanuv.com.

We've Got You Covered . .. :···:..

TROJAN UV" Represented by: Aquatec-Maxcon Pty Ltd f: +61 (7)38137199 e: sales@aquatecmaxcon.com.au t : +61 (7)38137100

Australian Regional Office: Trojan Technologies e: ecueno@trojanuv.com

t: +61 (0) 458704611


conference reports mostly in Victoria. The top issues have been dewatering (to reduce transport costs), odour, wh ich is linked to commu nity acceptance, and efficient implementation (including regulations, contracting and legal issues). Now we add a fifth: emission of greenhouse gases, which include methane and nitrous oxide which are respectively 21 and 300 times more damaging than CO2 . Sonication was discussed in a number of papers, notably by Alexander Houy, from Ultrawaves, based in the Netherlands. He described the development of a more efficient technology, which has overcome the shortcomings of previous systems. It has been applied fu ll-scale at Bamberg, Germany, and the cost benefit resulting from enhanced conversion of solids to gas was very positive. (Royce Water Technologies have taken on the local agency and a trai ler-mounted test rig is soon to be trialled by Sydney Water). Carol Martinson, from CH2M Hill, also reviewed sonication. She observed that gas production can be increased as a result of the process, but there will be more nutrients in the recycled filtrate from the subsequent dewatering. Another useful technology involves two digesters in series, a highly loaded "acid phase" reactor with a short SRT (typically 1-2 days) and low pH (typically 5-6) to promote hydrolysis and the production of volati le fatty acids (VFAs), fo llowed by a more lightly loaded "gas phase" digester to maximise gas production. Almost all of the methane formation (greater than 95 per cent) occurs in the second stage.

in WA, reported on field trials of the sludge produced by alum precipitat ion of P in the underflow liquid. It was found that although the nitrogen was available, the plants suffered from P deficiency, at least in the two years of the trial. The odour of biosolids is a significant fact or in the acceptance, or rejection, of land application to recycle the nutrients and soil ameliorants. The concepts discussed by Novak above have been applied by Sydney Water to assess, and thereby control, odour formation. The prese_ntation by Mark Leszczynski, from Sydney Water, reported on the cu rrent status of their investigations. They have previously been assessing parameters such as volatile solids reduction, etc. but found them inconclusive. They placed sampling hoods over fresh stockpiles of biosolids from eight plants, four using aerobic digestion, four anaerobic, measured the organic sulfur compounds by GS/ MC, and correlated the results with odour panel assessments. The results show a strong correlation but not as linear as the American results. The reason may be due to synergy, or time lag after sampling, and investigations are continuing. Although GS/MC is not a suitable tool for plant operation, it may be possible to devise a colorimetric tube system. The management of land application is not simple. Sunietha Katupitiya, Sydney Water, undertook and reported on a comprehensive review of the international scene, and endorsed the Australian desire for land application , despite some of the trucking dist ances involved. Public accept ance will grow as stabilisation technologies improve. On the other hand, incineration is used overseas.

Peter Griffiths, a senior wastewater engineer, also with CH2 M Hill disagreed with the prevalent view that anaerobic digestion should always be applied, particularly when biological nitrogen removal (BNR) systems are used upfront. Gas production in anaerobic digestion is mainly dependent on the primary sludge fraction. With BNR, particularly in Australia, the high nitrogen input necessitates that the rapid ly acidifying chemical oxygen demand (RACOD) fraction in the primary material be used as a carbon source, and the resultant waste activated sludge (WAS) does not generate as much gas, so aerobic digestion is feasi ble. However, care must be taken to ensure that the phosphorus is not solubilised and, recycled back to the plant in the belt press underflow. Microbiological investigation has fou nd that nitrite breaks apart the polyphosphate floes, so aeration must be controlled to eliminate its formation (which also reduces the likelihood of nitrogen dioxide (N 20) emissions). Despite the diurnal variation in incoming sewage concentrations, he found that the 17 day hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the bioreactor enabled him to optimise aeration at a constant level. The plant now reduces phosphorus (P) from 14 to less than 0.2 mg/L and all that P is bio-available in the biosolids. Volatile solids destruction was about 30 per cent , similar to conventional anaerobic processes. Dewatering was little different from typical anaerobic sludges. He concluded by saying that more microbiological research was necessary to ensure confidence, but the technique was well worth application.

For the first time, the AWA Biosolids Specialist network comm ittee presented a Best Paper in Conference award. This Award was won by Bradley Clarke from Imperial College, London for his Paper on 'Emerging Organic Contaminants and their potential Significance for the Agricultural Recycling of Biosolids'.

The recycling of phosphorus for agriculture wi ll become more important because sources of mineral phosphorus are finite, and 'peak P' looms in the not too distant horizon. Hannah Rigby, a post doctoral researcher at Curtin University

For a full set of Bioso/ids Specialty V Conference Proceedings please contact AWA Bookshop bookshop@awa.asn.au A CD ROM is available at $85 plus postage.

26 AUGUST 2010 water

However, land application must fit in with the farmers' routines. Storage becomes a problem, particularly in Western Australia where breeding of the vicious Stable Fly became an epidemic. Previous work by entomologists, reported in the previous conference , est ablished that ammonia was the attractant, and it was essential to design a fly-proof storage facility to deal with the 20,000 tonnes a year exported from Perth to the farming belt 150 km away. Nancy Penney described the process of overcoming NIMBY for the site, and the design of a large building. Trucks tip the biosolids onto a concrete bay, and a front-end loader transfers them through a roller door. Loading into farmers' vehicles is only allowed when entomologists estimate that fly breeding is at a minimum. Comparison of fly traps both around the facility and at 1 km away show that it is worki ng. A 'sniffer panel' monitors odours and confirms that odour is reduced 10-fold within days and there have been no complai nts.

regular features


Seacell™ and Seablock™ - the green alternative is here Drawing on our experience in the re-use ind ustry, Siemens has developed t he latest innovation in mem bra ne technology which offers unparalleled seawater pret reat ment capa bil ity for RO desalination. Seacell'~ and Sea block™ provide eff ect ive, chemical-free f i lt ration with less waste wh i le the co mpact design mi ni mises t ransport and co nstruct ion costs . Rece nt ly awarded a mu lt i-mi ll ion dol lar contract to provide ultrafiltra t ion mem bra ne t reat men t equipment for Water Corporation's desali nation plan t in Pert h and Adelaide, Siemens Seacell™and Seablock™ offe rs a new green al ternative for sust aina ble water. For more informa t ion, pl ease co nt act 13 1 773. To learn more about ou r solutions in the areas of water, energy, environment, healthcare, productivity, mobil ity, safety and security, please visit our website. www.siemens.com.au/purifiedwater

Innovation for generations.

SIEMENS


feature article

The Importance of Water in the Australian Economy Andrew Speers, National Manager - Policy, AWA 'Every reform was once private opinion.' Ralph Waldo Emerson

And so if one is to progress reform, one should take the opportunity to share knowledge and ideas, and information about progress on key initiatives. Knowledge sharing and networking are, of course, key aspects of the AWA. So t oo with the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE), which convened a unique international workshop "Water and its Interdependencies in the Australian Economy" in Sydney on 22-23 June. The workshop was developed by the Academy's Water Forum led by John Radcliffe, Brian Spies and Tom Connor with support from National Water Commissioner and former AWA Chief Executive Chris Davis. The workshop was notable for the calibre of those invited to address it and for the evidently careful planning that had gone into securi ng speakers that would bring a wide-range of perspectives to the discussion. The framework around which the presentations were structured was the relationship between wat er, the economy and the goods and services provided by the economy in its broadest conception. This provided the chance for speakers to emphasise the fact that in thinking about and planning for a water-secure future we must consider the water system holistically, not narrowly, and globally, not just domestically. Thus, for example, Dr Tony Priestley, recently retired senior scientist at CSIRO Land and Water, reviewed work on urban metabolism modelling wh ich, in part, explored the link between water supply and energy use. Dr Priestley noted that while energy use for water supply and wastewater treatment will likely rise in future as we move increasingly to manufactured supplies and enhanced treatment processes, all of the energy use by urban water suppliers in this country could be offset if just 15 per cent of the hot water systems currently used by Australians were converted to solar power. Others too highlighted the link between water and energy management and use. Dr Barney Foran, Adju nct Research Fellow, Charles Sturt University, spoke from a related perspective about tri ple bottom line analyses and the lessons that emerge from quantification of such analyses, particularly with regard t o the relationship between water supply, nutrients, energy and other factors. Th e take home message here was clearly that an integrated approach to the quantification of system impacts is essential, lest our actions cause unintended and significant consequences elsewhere Similarly, Dr Colin Chartres, Director, International Water Management Institute, cited a report on global food production which claimed that our food requirements would be met as demand would increase the value of food production. However, as Dr Chartres pointed out, the report never considered limitations on that increase imposed by economic and actual water shortages. Dr Chartres's comments paved the way for later discussion about the relationship not just between systems, but between disciplines. The need for inter-disciplinary discussions was also addressed, in part, by Ken Matthews, CEO and Chair of the

28 AUGUST 2010 water

I

Professor Chris Moran from the University of Queensland outlines water mining interrelationships.

National Water Commission. Mr Matthews spoke about the importance of sound governance and, in this context, called for better integration between science and policy, describing Australia's current approach to science strategy as fragmented and characterised by poor priority setting, weak linkages between policy and science and lacking in cross-d isciplinary integration. A further interesting perspective was provided by Karlene Maywald former South Australian Minister for the River Murray and Water Security. Ms Maywald delivered a witty and insightful presentation about the milieu in which politicians operated and the challenges of delivering sound evidencebased policy within the adversarial environment which is our parliamentary democracy. Ms Maywald's comments promoted later discussion about how better relationships can be forged between political representatives, scientists and operators. Unsurprisingly, the Murray-Darling Basin featured in discussions, particularly as the water plan for that catchment is shortly to be released. Laurie Arthur, Rice-grower and Commissioner of the National Water Commission, gave a very practical illustration of the effect that the reduction in water allocations, climate change, drought and rising water costs is having on primary producers in the basin. Mr Arthur described both the impact on his existing MOB operations of reduced water availability and his experiment in growing rice in the Ord River area of the Northern Territory. His presentation highlighted the fundamental shift in agricultural production in this country that the challenges we face will produce. Interestingly, the crop to be harvested in the NT has been substantially more water efficient than similar crops grown in the Southern Murray area. Hearing the practical implications of developing wat er policy and science was a perspective changing experience. A similar catharsis occurred following a unique presentation given by Brad Moggridge, Indigenous Water Research Project Officer, CSIRO Land and Water. Mr Moggridge explained the deep and enduring knowledge of many indigenous Australians about water in the environment and set out the case for consideration of 'cultural flows', being the allocation of water that allows the cu ltural and spiritual significance of water in the environment to be maintained .

feature a rti c I es


PLASTIC PIPING SOLUTIONS :

c AHFJo,nStlppt Co.

AIIFlow Supply delivers Australia's most extensive stock range of premium Industrial Plastic Piping Systems, including products from global leader Georg Fischer. Our durable plastic pipes are easy to install and of premium quality. Plus we also stock fittings, valves, instruments, flow meters and automation to complete your piping and flow control needs. Suitable for use in: Water Treatment, Waste Water Treatment, Sewerage Treatment, Chemical Processing, RO Systems, Desalination Systems, Food & Beverage Systems and more.

PtyL~

Piping & Flow Control Specialists .

www.allflowsupply.com.au A.C.N. 099 341 509

T: (07) 3909 9400 F: (07) 3395 5515 E: sales@allflowsupply.com.au

www.allflowsupply.com.au

FOR LESS STRESS, ALLOW ALLFLOW TO DELIVER ON ALL YOUR PLASTIC PIPING NEEDS

-

Authorised Stockist Distributor for:

GEORG FISCHER

PIPING SYSTEMS

I-

.

"'

Turn your r eg u lar time consu ming water meter reading effort into a quick 10-m inute task w ith A M S's remote-access Meter Readi ng Systems.

Action has been helping companies measure, monitor and control water for more than 20 years.

Our team can customise and fit a Smart Metering system that suits your company's needs. We are industry specialists with over 20 years experience equipping multi-dwellings, shopping centres, commercial buildings and resorts with our timesaving technology. We supply, fit and troubleshoot Australia wide.

Our instruments can help yo u measure and analyse:

-I

• Water Quality- Flow- Level - Oil in Water • Le ak Detection - Turbidity - Chlorine - Gas • DO - pH - ORP - UV - IO N - Depth - Ozone • Temperature - Pressure - Salinity • Pipe Tracing - Auto Diallers

CALL US TODAY T (07) 3395 5936 I F(07) 3395 5509 sales@actioninstruments.com.au www.actioninstruments.com.au

~

....

A.C.N. 134 005 459

-AMS 1s a South East Queensland Group of Councils approved supplier


feature article managed in future and which will potentially impose financial costs on this industry.

Delegates exploring priorities in one of the interactive discussion sessions.

It should be self-evident that the fulfilment of customer requirements is the highest priority for water service providers, but in a water constrained environment where rising water prices and water restrictions reduce the 'value-proposition' made to customers, utilities face new and unique challenges. Shaun Cox, Managing Director, South East Wat er spoke about his organisation 's new strategic directions which promoted commun ity engagement, diversification of services (not just the pumping of water to home and the removal of wast ewater, but the provision of water services, being reticulation maintenance, sales of water-related equipment and the like). Mr Cox placed his business in the forefront of a holistic approach to wat er provision, which considers water as an integrated aspect of urban services and an integral aspect of the urban environment. Water reform has delivered much to Australia and considerable achievement s were reported by James Horne, Deputy Secretary of the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, who reinforced the Commonwealth's comm itment to the Water for the Future initiative. It was therefore interesting to hear from Gary Wolff of Alameda County in California who spoke about the challenges in wat er ¡ management emerging in that jurisdiction. Mr Wolff noted the parallels between water management in California and Australia, both of which struggle with the challenges of over-allocation and shortage, but also spoke about the different conceptions of water - as a right versus a commodity - and about the subsequent difficulty in using price as an instrument for demand management. He spoke too about difficulties of gathering accurate data about water consumption in the face of competing interests and the impact this has had and continues to have on water planning in that State. Prof. Mike Young, Director Environment Institute, University of Adelaide explored the issue of water pricing and the development of water market s, themes that recurred throughout the 2-day event. Prof. Young strongly supported the correct pricing of water, but noted that the development of markets was inhibited on a number of levels by incomplete implementation among other things. Aspects of a presentation by Greg Leslie, Deputy Director, UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology, also touched on pricing issues and the effectiveness of decision-making when he pointed out the significantly lower cost of producing recycled wat er as opposed to desalinated water. Jurg Keller, Director of the Advanced Water Management Centre at the University of Queensland, looked at the 'cost' of water production from the point of carbon impact, noting that aspects of water management - particularly the sewerage system and various forms of treatment, may produce greenhouse gas intensive emissions that will need to be

30 AUGUST 2010 water

It is almost accepted wisdom that there is a significant and almost insurmountable 'yuck' factor associated with indirect potable reuse in the mind of the community, such that attempts to introduce such practices are doomed to failure. Yet in a water-short future, and as pointed out by Tom Hatton, Director, CSIRO Wealth from Oceans National Research Flagship, recycling will almost certainly have to be part of the mix if we are to obtain sufficient secure wat er supplies to cat er for urban and rural needs. Thus, a presentation by Blair Nancarrow, Consultant, Syme and Nancarrow Water, was of particular importance. Ms Nancarrow described the social research carried out by her firm looking, in part, at community attitudes to water management. She explained that one of the very key drivers of community acceptance of recycled supplies was trust in the management of the system and that th is was more significant that community concern about the source of the water. However, Ms Nancarrow pointed out that on a number of occasions this trust had been undermined by uncertainty and arguments among those influencers- scientists and politicians alike - who the community feel should be showing leadership and commitment. The suggestion can be made then that recycling could be part of Australia's water future if water sector leaders show commitment and certainty and involve the community in decision-making. The presentation by Eun Namkung, Professor of Water Management Engineering, Myongli University, Seoul spoke, in part, about leadership. Prof Namkung described the South Korean Government's comm itment to transform that nation 's economy from one focused on economic growth and development to one that couched that development within an ethos of sustainability. Prof Namkung specifically described his country's commitment to the restoration of the four major river systems in South Korea to achieve improved wat er quality, environment protection and restoration, flood management and an increase in recreational opportunities for citizens. The positing of these developments as national goals gave the audience pause to think about national commitment in policy, commitment to large and iconic water management goals and means to gain the support of the community in achieving these goals. The ATSE workshop had a brief beyond the immediate goal of getting water sect or leaders together to share experiences and knowledge. The Academy is also launching a research project int ended to build on the outcomes of the workshop by identifying the dominant interdependencies within the Australian economy and drawing out the policy implications for water in Australia to 2050. The project, entitled Green growth in Australia: examining the linkages within - and potential of sustainable resources management to enable environmentally responsible economic growth, is being supported by a Linkage Learned Academ ies Special Projects grant from the Australian Research Council. Participants helped to frame this future research by identifying the key challenges facing the sector, and the interconnectedness of these challenges. It is rare to be able to gather such a diverse range of speakers, each of whom are leaders in their fields and to stimulate interaction between the speakers and their audience in such a meaningful way. Clearly, it is through such exchanges that policy and science can be progressed. To return to transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson's quote 'Every reform was once private opinion.' Opinions, backed by science and collaboration were a cornerstone of this seminal event.

feature articles


PIPING&-a fAUTOMATION SYSTEMS SUPPLIERS OF INDUSTRIAL PLASTICS Pipe, Valves and Fittings A A A • A A

Grey PVC-U Sch80 and Metric C-PVC Sch80 ABS Polypropylene PVDF Polyethylene

Instrumentation +GF+ SIGNET A

Flow - Mag, Turbing & Paddle

A A A A A

PH ORP Conductivity Resistivity Turbidity

Jointing Technology and Accessories A A A A

Solvent Cement Socket Fusion Electro Fusion IR Welding

A Oakleigh South 4 Jacks Rd , Oakleigh South VIC 3167 Ph: 03 9563 7666 Fax: 03 9563 7722

• Laverton North Factory 6 /3-5 Weddel Court, Laverton North VIC 3026 Ph: 03 8360 8944 Fax: 03 8360 8573

Email : sales@paas.com .au

Website: www.paas.com .au


feature article

Shorty Jangala Robertson: Singing the Rain Susan McCulloch With their rhythmic curves depicting floodwaters carvi ng the land, small bands of colour denoting dense rain clouds and freely painted circles for water soakage sit es, Shorty Jangala Robertson's shimmering canvases relate the powerful 'water dreaming' (Ngapa Jukurrpa) stories of his Warlpiri people. While rain is plentiful in Australia's north, in Robertson 's homelands of the central and western desert and other inland regions it is both sporadic and unpredictable and droughts may last many years. Yet, as Robertson's paintings show, and has been so over the last two years , there are also bursts of abundant rains that sculpt the desert, feed underground reservoirs and sustain majestic eucalypts whose roots reach deep into the soil. Traditionally, a deep knowledge of the location of waterholes, soakage sites and underground water sources in these reg ions is crucial for survival. Here the ceremonies for 'increasing' rainfall at specific times are of special significance. So too is the maintenance of waterholes both physically (clearing of debris and animals that may have died in and poisoned the water) and by the performing of regular ceremonies. These, it is believed, replenish the 'life essence' of the spirits of the creation ancestors that live in the waterholes as well as the rain itself so that water is both plentiful and pure. Today's Aboriginal art, such as Robertson's vibrant work , are contemporary manifestations of the imagery drawn in the sand , on rock walls and the body painted for ceremonies that relate these stories. Images depict the paths of creation ancestors and the events that occurred at specific sites and can be painted only by those entitled to do so by Shorty Jangala Robertson, Ngapa Jukurrpa, (Water Dreaming), Puyurru, 2009, acrylic on canvas, birthright. They are an integral part of 'the 122 x 61 cm. Collection Australian Water Association. Dreaming' or Jukurrpa - the belief system wh ich is at one past, present and future and more aptly described as the laws and spiritual codes that govern Aboriginal societies. At the major public collections and highly sought after by private core of this belief system is the interdependence of land and collectors. people. Due to the importance of water in arid regions, 'water dreaming' paintings are especially meaningful. 'Water dreaming' paintings include some of the most famous and highly-prized images of modern Aboriginal art such as those by Shorty Lungkarta Tjungurrayi and Johnny Warangku la Tj upurrula, two of the founders of the seminal 1970s Papunya school of art. Today, Shorty Jangala Robertson is one of the leading 'water dreaming' painters of the desert. His works are in many

32 AUGUST 2010 water

Shorty Jangala Robertson's was born c. 1925 at Jila (the Warlpiri word for 'spring '). Also known as Ch illa Well, Jila is a large soakage and claypan region off the Tanami Track approximately 400 kilometres north west of Alice Springs, and is a significant ceremonial site. As a child, Robertson lived a nomad ic hunter-gatherer life with his parents, older brother and extended Warlpiri family, having little contact w ith the western world and travelling vast distances across the lands. His childhood memories include stories of the Coniston massacre

feature articles


feature article of Aboriginal people. Close to Jila, families were shot and he remembers leaving Jila for Mt Theo to hide. His father died at Mt Theo and Robertson moved, with his mother, to Mt Doreen Station and subsequently to the settlement of Yuendumu established as a ration , housing and educational centre for Warlpiri people in 1946. In 1949 he, with 24 other Warlpiri from the area, were trucked 400 kilometres north to the governmentestablished Warlpiri settlement at Lajamanu on the lands of t he Gurindji. Twice, in the ensuing years the entire community walked the 400 kilometres back to their traditional lands Robertson and his mother returning to Chilla Well. His subsequent working life was f ull of adventure and hard work for different enterprises in the Alice Springs and Yuendumu area. Since 1967 he has been based at Yuendumu and in 1987 was an instrumental w itness in t he hearings for the Chilla Well land rights claim that ret urned this one time pastoral lease to Warlpiri control. He has always maintained st rong links with his homelands. Robertson came to painting relatively late in life in the 1990s, working with Yuendumu's arts centre Warlukurlang u Artists. Established in t he mid-1980s Warl ukurlangu is now one of t he top Aboriginal arts centres supporting the work of some 600 artists whose paintings are exhibited throughout Austral ia and internationally. The site depicted in t his Ngapa Jukurrpa (Water Dreaming) painting is that of Puyurru, near Jila. It was t his land and his

people's long connection to it that Robertson related in the successfu l 1980s land claim. In this painting, he says, he's painted the water soakages or naturally occurring wells in a usually dry creek bed as well as the land's creation story: 'Two Jangala men, rainmakers, who sang the rai n, unleashed a giant storm. It travelled across the country, with the lightning striki ng the land. This storm met up with another storm from Wapurtali, to t he west, was picked up by a 'kirrkarlan' (brown falcon [Falco berigora]) and carried further west until it dropped the storm at Purlungyanu, where it created a giant soakage. At Puyurru the bird dug up a g iant snake, 'warnayarra' (the 'rainbow serpent') and the snake carried water to create t he large lake, Jillyiumpa, close to an outstation in t his country. This story belongs to Jangala men and Nangala women '. Now in his 80s Robertson lives w ith his wife, artist Lady Nungarrayi Robertson at Yuendumu and remains an active member of Warlukurlangu Artist s. His recent water dreaming paintings such as this lyrical work have a special vitality as he celebrates the dramatic effects of water on his lands as they burst into life after two years of good rains.

Susan McCulloch is a Victorian-based art writer, book publisher, curator, art consultant and critic. She has written and published on Australian art for more than 30 years for leading media and travels regularly to Australia's art producing regions. mccullochandmcculloch. com. au

We welcome your participation in this premier event for the global desalination and water reuse industry. We are seeking original work (not previously published) on a wide variety of topics. Abstracts and all required documents must be submitted electronically via the IDA Congress Paper Management System.

IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse Desalination: Sustainable Solutions for a Thirsty Planet

September -9, 2011

This World Congress Technical Program will be led by Cocha1rs, Mr. Neil Palmer and Mr. Gary Crisp, both of whom are experts in the field of desalination and water reuse. Mr. Palmer, IDA Director and General Manager of Technical Services for Osmoflo, and Mr. Crisp, IDA Board committee member and Global Business Leader; Desalination at GHD Pty Ltd, together represent Australia.

Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre, Western Austra lia The Theme The theme of the World Congress 2011 is "Desalination: Sustainable Solutions for a Thirsty Planet". It reflects IDA's commitment to environmental responsibility in desalination and the efforts of the global desalination industry to further reduce energy requirements for desalination as its use becomes an increasingly important part of global water solutions for the 21st century

,_

\~DA AWA

~

Who Should Atte nd IDA's World Congresses bring together stakeholders from all parts of the global desalination and water reuse industry, including end users (utilities), manufacturers and suppl iers of complete systems and various components including chemicals and materials, researchers, consultants and members of academia. More than 1300 delegates attended the 2009 World Congress in Dubai, the most successful event to date. Sub mission To be considered for placement in the program. you must submit an extended abstract online by visiting our website. Download the complete Call for Papers and submit your abstract at www.idadesal.org. Log into the IDA World Congress Paper Management site between July 15 and October 1, 2010. Previously presented or published work will not be considered for inclusion In the program or published proceedings. This policy will be strictly monitored.


international feature

Water and Sanitation - A Remaining Priority Kim Wuyts - Project Manager - Specialist Networks, AWA Having access to a source of clean and safe water is a priority for communities everywhere. The real ity is that more than a billion people around the world do not have access to safe drinking water and that more than two and a half bi llion people (42 per cent of the total population) lack access to basic sanitation facilities. The global crisis in water and sanitation has astounding human costs, affecting women and ch ildren the hardest. Water sources in many communities are contam inated by parasites, bacteria and viruses, and these can lead to a wide variety of diseases like diarrhoeal disease, typhus, guinea worm and malaria, and others. Four thousand child ren die needlessly each day from preventable diseases caused by poor sanitation, inadequate hygiene and unclean wat er1 . The worst part is that the crisis could be prevented with access to safe water supplies, use of toilets and good hygiene behaviours. The Water Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Communities Network (WASH) is one of AWA's fifteen Specialist Networks and came together to contribute to a sustainable response to the water and sanitation crisis. Its mission is to promote the availability of skilled, educated and effective water and sanitation specialists to assist developing communities. The WAS H network is generally striving to achieve results through: • Organising events, such as roadshows and conferences for people to share expertise, network and learn from each other;

(It LOWARA

Hydrovar is the world's first pump mounted microprocessor based pump controller. lt does much more than just change pump speed, it truly manages your pump to match a wide range of system conditions. Energy savings of up to 70% can be achieved.

Contact us now about your specific application. Melbourne

03 9793 9999 Sydney

02 9671 3666 Brisbane

07 3200 6488

Web: www.brownbros.com.au Email: info@brownbros.com.au

~n n , Bro~n Brothers i l?jj1 Engineers

Iii Australia Pty Ltd 34 AUGUST 2010 water

• Providing a forum to promote and facilitate the sharing of knowledge and access to appropriate technologies via monthly e-updates; • Promoting awareness of the issues and complexities of water supply, sanitation and hygiene throug hout the Australian Water Industry; • Providing an interface with other organisations and build on synergies for networks, education and training. The WASH network has been particularly active in the last year, organising a roadshow from 20-23 September 2010, while continuously strengthening links with ot her WASH organisations in Austral ia. The upcoming roadshow is designed to provide delegates with professional development opportunities, tools, tips, insider information and lessons learned on why and how to work on water and sanitation in developing communities. The international expert touring Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne and Adelaide is long term WASH network supporter Kathryn Harries, currently Water and Environmental Sanitation Specialist for UNICEF in Jaipur, India. She is responsible for supporting the Government's water, sanitation and hygiene programs to increase child survival and development in Rajasthan. She has worked in Australia managing water and wastewater treatment plants, in Philippines and East Timar for development and emergency response, and in Geneva coordinating the development of interagency best practice in emergency response as part of the WASH Cluster. Kathryn is very keen to share, "Ten things I wish I had known before working in international humanitarian response and development, including best practices, great resources and results". Each seminar wi ll also feature two local experts with recent water and sanitation field experience. This WASH roadshow is targeting not only the young water professionals but also experienced professionals willing to know more about working in WASH, looking for career options or networking opportunities. The WASH Specialist Network knows all about networking. It has successfully positioned itself over the last few years, participating in the WASH Reference Group helping influence AusAID's water and sanitation policy, collaborating on content and opportunities with the Australian Development Gateway through a content partnership and coordi nating activities with long term partners Water Aid Australia and Engineers without Borders Australia. The WASH Net work offers great opportunities to its members. If you or a colleague would like to keep updated on the latest developments and events through the network's monthly e-update or get directly engaged in the activities, then join the WASH Network! Membership is open to all AWA members - just register via your member profile. If you are interested in attending one of the seminars, please visit the roadshow's webpage and register online.

1

WHO (2008) Safe Water, Better Health: Cost s, Benefits and Sustainability of Interventions to Protect and Promote Health.

feature articles


international feature

About WaterAid WaterAid's mission is to transform lives by improving access to safe water, hygiene and sanitation in t he world's poorest commun ities. They work with partners and influence decisionmakers to maximise their impact. Safe water and sanitation are fundamental to life and everyone has a right to these basic services. However, one in eight people do not have access to safe drinking water and two in five people do not have adequate sanitation. Compounded by a lack of good hygiene practices, the result is extreme poverty and ill health among millions of people. WaterAid believes that water, hygiene and sanitation form t he first essential step in overcoming poverty. But, despite water being consistently cited as a top priority by poor commun ities and the fact that sanitation brings one of the greatest returns on investment of any development intervention (estimat ed to be approximately $9 for every $1 invested), they have been overlooked in the global development agenda. WaterAid now works in 26 countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific region to improve their quality of life throug h lasting improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene education using local skills and practical, sustainable tec hnologies.

WaterAid in the Pacific WaterAid in Timor-Leste In Timor- Leste, WaterAid expanded their work in 15 villages in Liquica district, benefiting around 1860 people and bringing the total number of villages to 32 since the program began in 2006. As is integral to the sustainability of WaterAid's work , they have continued to support and monitor the communities they have worked with in previous years. Data from the health post withi n Liquica district shows 39 per cent reduction in diarrhoeal disease in WaterAid program vi llages - a promising indicator of impact in this area. WaterAid also works with the Government of Timor-Leste and other organisations to share lessons learned on the sustainability of their program. As a mark of their increasing influence, the Government of Timor-Leste, joined WaterAid's

Plitu - ····

Maria lives in Lquica district, Timor-Leste. Here she is pictured harvesting vegetables she has grown using her new water source.

global sanitation awareness-raising event The World's Longest Toilet Queue on World Wat er Day in March 2010.

WaterAid in Papua New Guinea UN statistics show Papua New Guinea (PNG) makes up 80 per cent of the total population of the Pacific and also by some margin, the poorest country in the region. A key factor keeping the majority of PNG' s people in poverty is water related disease from a lack of access to an improved water supply and very few effective forms of sanitation. WaterAid has been working in PNG since 2004 and has developed a reputation as a reliable actor and supporter in the WASH sector there. WaterAid has continued to work with three key local partner organisations to implement a program whic h focuses on sanitation and safe water for remote rural schools and communities. As a result, in the 12 months leading up to April 2010, WaterAid was able to assist 5200 people gain improved access to sanitation and 5100 with access to safe water.

WaterAid in Africa and Asia Wat erAid currentl y works in 26 of the world' s poorest countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific region. These countries are Ango la, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Liberia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi , Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia in Africa; Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan in Asia.

Solomon - ,siands

I

Vanual u

Key

CouobiM whtff W'4.erAid works In 2009

PropoStd MW tountr1&s .1nd areas of WOC"k

WalerMd members- .Amt11u;Austr1lla; Sweden; UK

36 AUGUST 2010 water

Potential new countries include Cambodia and Indonesia in SouthEast Asia and the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu in the Pacific. As part of their contribution to the global reach of Wat erAid, they continue to explore the possibility of expanding into the regions of greatest need and allow supporters from all over the world to contribute towards their international work .

feature articles


19 out of 20 of the world's leading consultants use MIKE by DHI

-

. -~ Why have the leading -~· . . - . .,,,,,, consultants chosen MIKE ~ ~~~'!.t} r·'. by DHI software for water MIKE URBAN WO modelling? ~

l,. ,,. .

Increased productivity Outstanding technical support

... _.

>"Mt;~-"

"/"/ _-::,

~

All of the above

- ...

....... . .

~ ~

MIKE URBAN CS

.

.

. •

.

• • l ,\c_,

MIKE 21

MIKE3

~ --

- ·------r

MIKE FLOOD

MIKE SHE

~

,,

,p ...r,.

• •

I

-

J

>-

Integrated modelling tools Worldwide training programme

~- ',..

fr. -' i·--~,nr ....

-~ MIKE BASIN

---

MIKE 11

-_ .

-

-

c-

~LITPACK

Survey based on New Civil Engineer's list of t op glo bal firms by water and environment.

-... . . . ~

DHI is a global organisation dedicated to the development and practical application of knowledge and technology related to water, environment and health. Our leading edge MIKE products are used by professionals worldwide and backed by 950 experts in DHI offices in 29 countries. Tel: +61 1300 655 592 www.dhigroup.com


international feature Some examples of this include: WaterAid in India

With UNHABITAT fu nding, WaterAid in Australia is supporting an Urban Water Supply & Environmental Improvement Project, w hich aims to provide improved water and sanitation access to 20,000 households (approximately 100,000 people} in 40 slum areas in four cities in Madhya Pradesh State. Thi s project forms part of WaterAid in India's urban slums program. WaterAid in Tanzania

Oxfam's Water for Survival program has supported one project in Tanzania th is year (as well as contributing to our work in Timor-Leste). This project is in the second year of a three year project which w ill increase the accessibility to safe water supply for the targeted communities, and reduce their walking dist ance to water points and their time spent on water collection. This project wi ll support 4,500 people gaining access to WASH facilities. WaterAid in Australia

Wat erAid has always received magnificent support from the Australian Water Industry with contri butions through memberships, customer bill inserts and fundraising event s amounting to 64 per cent of their total annual income.

A young Indian boy poses in front of a new latrine block with hand washing illustrations.

The South Australia Gala Dinner and the Victorian Ball remai n two of the flagship fundraising events and these incredible affairs are organised by teams of dedicated volunteers. "We never cease to be amazed at the ongoing commitment and support of those who raise funds for us," says Adam Laidlaw, Chief Executive of WaterAid in Australia.

Accelerate your MODFLOW and FEFLOW modeling workflow Hydro GeoBuilder* is the next generation in modeling technology offering a completely flexible conceptual modeling environment, independent of the simulator and mesh type. Modeling experts now have a full range of graphical tools for rapidly developing the model properties, without being constrained to the grid/mesh type or simulator. • Flexible: generate regional and local-scale models and convert to FEFLOW™or Visual MODFLOW* • Time-Saving: define complex geologic layers and lenses in the conceptual model and automatically assign to the appropriate grid cel ls or finite elements • Visual: render contaminant plumes, contour maps, and water quality field data in 2D or 3D • Convenient: use your raw data in native units and co-ordinates and minimize data pre-processing Download a trial version or register for a webinar at www.swstechnology.com ©Schlumberger ·Mark of Schlumberger IM FEFLOW is a Trademark of OHI-WASY

Schlumberger WATER SERVICES

www.swstechnology.com sws-into@slb.com


Innovation in action

Pipe and Civil prides itself on doing things differently and we understand that no two jobs are exactly alike. As such, our team of highly ski lled engineers and technicians consider each project as a blank sheet, taking a fresh look at how we can improve on what was done before.

We work with our clients to come up with solutions aimed at getting the job done ahead of both time and budget. This approach has resulted in our people designing a number of unique pieces of equipment that give us the edge when it comes to safety, the environment, quality and production. Located in Brisbane, we also have offices throughout Australia.

Brisbane - Head Office Tel: 07 3262 4600

Melbourne Office Tel: 03 9024 5420

Adelaide Office Tel: 08 8233 5941

Perth Office Tel: 08 9288 1805

www.pipeandcivil.com.au


international feature These regional fundraising committees put WaterAid on the social map with a diverse and exciting range of activities around Australi a. Most notably, the 2009 Walk 4 Water held throughout October, saw 1400 people walk a combined 50,000km and raised over $80,000 for WaterAid's essential programs. Corporate supporters accounted for nearly 70 per cent of all registrations and demonstrated the strong corporate support, which WaterAid enjoys in Australia.

WaterAid supporters are entertained at the 2009 Victorian WaterAid Ball held in November last year.

"From marathon runners to chocolate-sellers, individ uals, groups and schools - thousands of dedicated Australians give so much time to WaterAid, organising a range of excellent activities to support our work. "

2009 Victorian WaterAid Ball Held at Melbourne's brand new, 6-star green Convention and exhibition Centre, this annual affair celebrated its fourth year on Friday 6 November 2009. Co-hosted by Yarra Valley Water, Melbourne Water and South East Water the 2009 Victorian WaterAid ball took on a stunning Cirque de Soleil theme, complet e with flame-throwers, acrobatics, roaming performers and light shows. Guests were treated to wonderful entertainment by a 10-piece band and world-class fundraising activities overseen by Ring Master and MC Jean Kitson. The event was an overwhelming success, raisi ng an unprecedented $274,000 for our programs. The long-term commitment of our committee supporters is vital, as this income enables us to plan our work well into the future. We will continue to invest in fundraising and are very grateful to all those who support us.

A Day in the Life of ... Jose "Rui" de Oliveira Pires, 26 Management and Maintenance Supervisor, WaterAid in Timor-Leste I started working with WaterAid in 2008 when I undertook my "on the job" training while I was studying for my Diploma of Engineering at the University of Timor-Leste.

I grew up in the mountains about 100 kilometres from Dili, Timor-Leste's capital, but now I live in the city with my mother and my two little sisters. Every morning I wake up at 6am and have my breakfast of paung (bread rolls), sweet potato and banana. I love coffee and like everyone in TimorLeste I drink it black, hot and very sweet. I take a bath after breakfast, dress and jump on my motorbike to ride to the rural parts of Timor-Leste that I visit for work. I usually ride for around one hour, but sometimes longer, depending on which villages I am visiting that day. Since 2005 WaterAid has worked in 32 vi llages in Timor-Leste and I return to each one every 3 months but sometimes sooner if there are some maintenance needs. I work with the Grupo Maneija Facilidad (Water Management Committee or GMF) in communities where WaterAid has implemented programs. WaterAid works closely with the GMF to ensure the maintenance of the water systems, sanitation marketing and ongoing procurement of spare parts with communities. I arrive at the village around 9am and I have a coffee and talk to the chief of the GMF who leads the local group. We discuss the GMF's plans for the maintenance of the water system and I spend some time reviewing their accounting records. As all members of the community are required to contribute money towards the maintenance of their water system (In Timor-Leste this is US25c a month) I often help the GMF with their accounting and with acquiring replacement parts such as taps, small pipes and bags of concrete.

40 AUGUST 2010 water

'Rui' works with GMF Chief in Liquica.

I then eat lunch with the local GMF, this is usually rice and vegetables and some corn. The GMF wil l usually plan their next meeting for few months later and I will note this down. The average temperature in the mountains is 27 degrees celsius and it's always very humid so I am sure to drink a lot of water whi le I am working . Around 5pm, I jump back on my motorbike and ride home for dinner of rice and vegetables with my family. At night I usually play football with my friends - we' re the best team in Timor-Leste by far! I head to bed around 11 pm after I've played some music on my guitar. My favourite band is Firehouse and I sing their music in English. I enjoy my work with WaterAid. I like that I learn so much from the team in Timor-Leste and I'm getting better at my job every day.

To learn more Head to www.wateraid.org/australia or ca/11300 858 022.

feature articles


international feature

waterAUSTRALIA: Selling our Capabilities Les Targ The Australian water industry is well positioned to win more market share domestically and to be successful internationally. Water scarcity has forced us to develop unique approaches to water policy, management, distribution and efficiency. We are at the forefront in the world for governance arrangements, for innovative water policy settings and unique and valuable collaborative arrangements between the private and public sectors. We also have world class capabilities in research and development, project management, engineering and technology to provide solutions for addressing water scarcity at affordable cost. Our governance innovations are widely respected, however, in the international marketplace Australia's water sector is

not widely acknowledged for our other capabilities They may not be fu lly appreciated even by our major domestic procurement agencies. waterAUSTRALIA is the new organisation formed to be the international flag carrier for the Austral ian water industry's advanced knowledge and products. Other countries such as Israel, Singapore and the Netherlands have been very successful in presenting an image and reputatio n of their national wat er industries internationally. Creating awareness of Brand Australia has been ranked by key exporters as a vital missing link in the wat er sector's export efforts. The Australian Government has also recog nised the need for an industry-led

body to coordinate high-level export related activity for the water sector. The National Water Commission, the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Resources and Austrade have all provided fund ing, support and encouragement to see the waterAustralia initiative into being. An establishment Board has overseen waterAUSTRALIA's establishment and development to this point. The interim Board is comprised of senior, well-known sector executives: • Dr Jim Gill, Chairman. Former CEO of the West Australian Water Corporation • Nick Apostolidis, Deputy Chai rman . General Manager Client Development, GHD Group Pty Ltd

Enulronmental -

Just like our planet, we live for water. ALS Water Resources Group offers a leading range of chemical, biological and microbiological testing solutions to the greater water industry, including: · Drinking/Potable Water • Catchment Management/Water Resource • Desalination • Waste Water Treatment/Industrial Water

· Recycled Water · General Water Quality Monitoring · Trade Waste • Sampling of Catchment/Drinking Water

Drink it in. Visit www.alsglobal.com or call 1300 32 69 47 to get started. N~

V

All ALS WRG laboratories are ISO 17025 (NATA) accredited to ensure laboratory results meet the highest standards. ALS also employs multiple layers of data verification to ensure its accuracy.


international feature • Chris Bennett, CEO, Irrigation Australia Ltd • Graham Dooley. Director, Osmoflo Pty Ltd, Chairman, Summit Water Holdings Pty Ltd and Director, Australian Water Association • Nigel Hennessy. Chairman and principal shareholder, Cleantech Business Accelerator Pty Ltd • Ken Matthews. CEO, National Wat er Commission • Tom Mollenkopf. CEO, Australian Water Association. Les Targ is the CEO of waterAUSTRALIA.

The Potential The global market for water products and services is estimat ed at $500 billion annually (Janey's Water Indices, 2009). The Australian market alone annually exceeds $3 bil lion . These markets provide opportunities for construction, consulti ng, supply of equipment, research and development, training and operat ions. Advice from private industry, industry bodies and government agencies involved in the water sector has highlighted that the sector has the capability and capacity to win a greater share of the domestic market and its export performance is not reflective of our national capabilities. waterAUSTRALIA's vision is "to offer Australia's water success to the world". Its mission is "to stimulate growth of the Australian water sector by facilitating national and export sales growth". Ultimately, waterAUSTRALIA's success will be judged on increases in exports and domestic market share by the Australian water sector. The waterAUSTRALIA Board has settled on interim targets - it will work with its subscribers to substantially increase their exports wit hin five years of commencing operations and to increase domestic market share of the Austral ian water sector during the same time. Five years may seem a long measurement horizon but major projects have lengthy tendering and contracting cycles and it will take a little time to establish Brand Australia, especially internationally. The targets wil l be refined in the light of experience and an industry survey that waterAUSTRALIA wi ll undertake.

42

AUGUST 2010

water

Core Services waterAUSTRALIA will, when fully operational, provide a range of core services to its subscribers and the wider water sector. These wi ll include: • Creation and international promotion of the waterAUSTRALIA brand. • Raising the profile of the Austral ian sector with major Australian procurement agencies and to identify and address any barriers to success in conjunction with the Commonwealth Government's Water Sector Supplier Advocate and the Industry Capability Network. • Generation of business leads and contact development by coordinating with Austrade to focus its global attention on sector priorities, strengths and capabilities. • Provision of an international gateway to the Australian sector's organisations and capabil ities. This will be done by creating an interactive web-site. • Conduct of out-bound and in-bound missions aimed at high priority markets and opportunities. • Arrangement of networking events to provide opportunities for organisations in the sector to "cluster" or form teams and alliances. • Provision of support to achieve "export readiness" where requested. • Assistance to unlock knowledge, capabi lities and potential assistance in t he Government sector which would strengthen the sector 's prospects in specific opportunities. • Licensed use of the waterAUSTRALIA brand for cobranding purposes. • Conduct of a showcase event to which groups of key decision makers would be invited. One initiative being pursued by waterAUSTRALIA is to position the Australian water sector positively for World Bank opportunities. During May 2010, waterAUSTRALIA Directors were heavily involved in a visit to Australia by World Bank officials. During the visit, waterAUSTRALIA promoted the capabil ities of the industry, developed some important contacts and also learnt more about the World Bank and its programs. Over the next 12 months, waterAUSTRALIA wi ll build these relationships further with the aim of

providing opportunities to its subscribers.

Funding WaterAUSTRALIA wi ll have three principal fu nding sources: 1. Government grants and assistance

2. Annual fees from subscribers 3. Fees for services General services, such as for example the promotion of the waterAUSTRALIA brand, will largely be funded from annual subscriptions while specific services, such as net worki ng events, for example, would be charged on a fee reimbursement basis. During February 2010, the Minist er for Climate Change, Energy Efficiency and Water, Senator the Hon. Penny Wong, approved financial assistance of up to $100,000 for waterAUSTRA LIA in its establishment phase. The balance needs to be fun ded from subscriptions. The Company has also received financial support from Austrade and the Department of Innovation , Industry, Science and Research has contracted waterAUSTRALIA to undertake a muchneeded survey of the Australian water sector. In addition to the fu nding already received from the Commonwealth Government, waterAUSTRALIA will also seek funding from the state governments. The Australian Government has demonst rated its commitment and waterAUSTRALIA is now turn ing to the private sector to show its commitment through subscriptions. waterAUSTRALIA has established three initial subscription categories Major Sponsor, General Subscriber and Public Sector Export Supporter. These were detailed in an information paper sent to companies recently. There is a subscription option t o suit all enter prises, from small to large. The Australian water sector has a challenging but exciting futu re. waterAUSTRALIA wi ll perform its part to help the sector achieve greater success on both domestic and international stages. For more information and to subscribe, contact Les Targ on 02 9467 8431 or at ceo@wateraustralia.org.

feature articles


~ ITT

Water & Wastewater

Flygt pressurised sewage systems For homeowners, residential associations and professionals

Moving wastewater can be an uphill battle. Obstacles, such as bedrock and tough topographical conditions, present challenges. For t imes like these, conventional gravity sewer systems don't make t he grade. Pressurised sewage systems do. A pressurised sewage system consists of a collecting tank, a pump and the pipes required to feed wastewater into the sewer main. Several t anks and pumps, or pump stations, and pipes form a pressure sewage network. With stricter environmental regulations calling for smarter wastewater transportation, pressurised sewage systems have proven to be a safe, flexible and reliable way to move wastewater cost-effectively.

~ IIT

_iJd.11ii1, •

• •, ._ _

ITT Wat er & Wastewater uses software specially designed for PSS systems with Flygt pumps.

Who

Single homeowners. vacation homeowners, priva te homeowners associations.

Real estate developers, contrac tors and municipal wastewater professionals.

What

• Complete package with single-phase electrical connection • Single pump

• Single or three phase pumps • Communications with advanced SMS and remote supervision

When

• For single-family homes

• For a single-family residence. several households or an entire residentia l commun ity • High reliability in harsh conditions • Higher availability required

Why

• Economic • Alarm

• Economic for highest possible availability • Remote control for increased sa fety and reliability

Where

• In hilly or flat areas • For places, such as golf courses and camping grounds, situated outside populated areas • Where bedrock or groundwat er present a challenge • Wherever minimum disruption is requ ired or desirable

131914

Engineered for life

enquiry.au@itt.com www.ittwww.com


Extensive Range, Depth of Expertise

As the world leader in serving science we are uniquely positioned to combine our unrivalled depth of product, application and service expertise with our extensive range of Scientific, Healthcare, Environ mental and Industrial Process products to provide tailored solutions for each and every customer. We are a team of dedicated people, passionate about helping our customers succeed. When you reach your intended purpose, we in turn , meet ours. With industry aligned sales and service teams, we make it easier for customers to connect with all our capabilities and leading global brands.

At Thermo Fisher Scientific we enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner & safer.

1300-735-295

I

www.thermofisher.com.au


Environmental and Industrial Process We meet t he robust, yet precise needs of the enviro nmental, industrial, municipal and research sectors with an extensive range of testing, measurement, monitoring and control devices, as we ll as their associated consumables . We provide both manufactured an d distribu ted brands to supp ort these key market segments. Equipment and Instrument service and ca libration performed in our fo ur NATA accredi ted facilities forms a vital part of t his offering. We also recognise the need to offer flexible, economical solutions via our established equipment rental service. Our diligent application experts are able to provide customers with relevant and considered advice.

Our range includes: • • • •

Air Quality Monitoring Systems Data Acquisition Environmental Simulation Industrial Hygiene Instruments

• Gas Monitoring • Material Characterisation & Testing • Pressure, Flow, Density & Level Measurement

• • • •

Soil Monitoring Sound, Vib ration & Stress Monitoring Wat er Monitoring & Treatment Workplace Safety

• • • • • • • •

Oda l og® PCB Pi ezotron ics QED Envi ronmental SKC Inc. So nTek Thermo Scientific Aq uaSensors Thermo Scientifi c Orion Thermo Scientifi c

We proudly supply: • • • • • • • • •

Ange lanton i lndustrie Aquaread™ Ltd Brookfield Buehler BWTechnologies by Honeywell Convi ron dataTaker.., EnviroEquip Eutech Instruments

• • • • • • • • •

GE Sensing Geotechnica l Instruments Hach Honeywell Ana lytics In-Situ Inc. Konica Minolta Lovibond® MEDC MTS Systems

• WTW

Thermo Fisher SCIENTIFIC


Environmental and Industrial Process We meet t he robust, yet pre cise needs of th e environmental, industrial, muni cipal and research sectors with an extensive range of testi ng, measurem en t, moni toring and contro l devices, as well as th eir associated co nsu mables. We provide both man ufactured and distributed brands to support t hese key market segments. Eq uipment and Instru men t service and ca librati on performed in our fo ur NATA accredited facilities forms a vita l part of th is offering. We also recognise th e nee d to offer flexible, economical so lut ions via our established equi pment rental service. Ou r dilige nt ap plic ation experts are able to provide customers with relevant and considered advice.

Our range includes: • • • •

Air Quality Mon itoring Syst ems Data Acq uisition Environmental Simulation Industrial Hygiene Instruments

• Gas Mon ito ring • Material Charact erisation & Testing • Pressure, Flow, Density & Level Measurement

• • • •

So il Mon itorin g So und, Vibration & Stress Mon itoring Water Mon itoring & Treat ment Workplace Safety

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

OdaLog® PC B Piezot ronics QED Enviro nmental SKC Inc . SonTek Thermo Scientific AquaSe nsors Thermo Scientific Orion Thermo Scientific WTW

We proudly supply: • • • • • • • • •

Angelantoni lndust rie Aquaread™ Ltd Brookfi eld Buehle r BWTechno logies by Honeywell Conviron dataTaker® EnviroEquip Eutech Instruments

GE Sensing Geotech ni cal Instruments Hach Honeywell Ana lytics In-Situ Inc. Konica Minolta Lovibo nd"' MEDC MTS Systems

Thermo Fisher SCIENTIFIC


~

water treatment

refereed paper

WHY OZONE AND BAC TREATMENT? K Fernando, W Franklin, J Thomas Abstract Rous Regional Water Supply (Rous Water), located in northern NSW, operates three main sources of raw water and two main water treatment plants. The raw water supplied from the Rocky Creek Dam and the Wi lsons River is treated at a 70 MUd dissolved air flotation and filtration treatment plant located at Nightcap. The raw water supplied from the Emigrant Creek Dam is treated at a 7.5 MUd membrane fi ltration plant. In order to ensure a safe consist ent drinking water quality, Ozone and biologically activated carbon (SAC) treatment is provided downstream of the main processes at both plants. This paper compares the objectives and design paramet ers of Ozone and SAC treatment at the two water treatment plants and discusses various operational and maintenance issues faced and resolved.

Introduction Rous Water supplies bulk water to a population of approximately 95,000 in the NSW local government areas of Lismore, Byron , Ballina and Richmond Valley, which increases by some 30,000 in the tourist season. The current demand is about 12,500 MUa and is expected to increase to 18,000 MUa by year 2025. Rous Water draws raw wat er from thr ee main sources; Rocky Creek Dam (RCD), Wilsons River (WR) and Emigrant Creek Dam (ECD).

water

Table 1. A comparison of raw water quality. Parameter

RCD

ECO

WR

True colour HU

6 - 121

7 - 38

10 - 100

Turbidity (NTU)

1 - 7.1

1.16 - 36

0.02 - 82 6.1 - 8.7

pH

1.5 - 7.8

6.3 - 8.1

Algal toxins

L

H

H

Algae

M

H

H

Cryptosporidium

L

Bin 2

Bin 3

Giardia

L

Bin 2

Bin 3

Iron (dissolved)

0 - 1.6

0 - 1.2

0 - 2.8

Manganese

0 - 0.05

0 - 0.27

0 - 0.33

1 - 19

9 - 48

10 - 44

Total hardness

H- High risk, L - Low risk, M - Medium risk

Rocky Creek Dam, (14,000 ML), was built in 1953, and is locat ed approximately 20 km north of Lismore The catchment, approximately 31 km 2 , is protected and there are no farming or agricultural activities or any level of urbanisation. Emigrant Creek Dam (800 ML) was built in 1968 to supply Ballina. The 20 km 2 catchment is subject to farming , agriculture and urbanisation. The raw water quality of Rocky Creek was considered very good . Recently, however, RCD has been subjected to seasonal outbreaks of Asterionel/a which can create some taste and odour problems. A risk assessment undertaken for Emigrant Creek (Egis, 2001) identified a number of risks, including protozoa, pesticides and traffic spills, together with approximately 185 septic tanks in 1998 with potential to increase to over 400.

Consequently, the potential exists for downstream wat er to be drawn upstream. Cattle grazing is widespread , even adjacent to the extraction point. The primary horticulture is macadamia, stone fruit and coffee plantations. Glyphosate is likely to be the predominant chemical used on macadamia plantations for weed control. Within the catchment, the majority of the population live on rural residential properties with on-site sewage disposal. Bangalow is the largest village within the catchment and where the only current sewage treatment plant (STP) is located. An STP is also planned for Clunes. Lismore is located 5 km downstream and there is a potential for discharges from the South Lismore and East Lismore STPs to be carried up to the extraction point via the tidal influence, particularly in low flow conditions. Stormwater from the urban areas flows into the river, including a creek from part of Goonellabah immediately downstream of the proposed pump station (Commerce, 2004b).

A Strategy Study undertaken in 1995 recommended the Wilsons River as the most suitable next source for Rous Water (Public Works, 1995). This source was developed and put into operation in 2008. Numerous sub-catchments drain into the Wilsons River and the extraction point is subject to tidal influence.

A risk assessment undertaken for th is source identified an overall total of forty six (46) hazardous events including sixteen (16) for the "Catchment" and thirty (30) for the " River" (Commerce, 2004b).

membrane processes, customer service

Dealing with a

The identified hazards in descending order of importance are:

DECEMBER - Trenchless

combination of

Future Features SEPTEMBER - Wastewater treatment , water sensitive urban design, environm ental water management NOVEMBER - Odour management,

tec hnology, grou ndwater

46 AUGUST 2010 water

contaminants

• Pathogens and turbidity; • Blue-green algal toxins and algal taste and odour compounds;

techn1ca features


Q

water treatment

refereed paper

• Colour/ natural organic matter; • Iron; and • Pesticides.

From ___,~ECO I I I I

A comparison of t he raw water quality of the above three sources is provided in Table 1.

In 2001 , it was decided to treat the Emigrant Creek water by a 7.5 MUd WTP consisting of potassium permanganate dosing, lime/ carbon dioxide stabilisation, coagulant dosing, membrane filtration, ozone and BAG treatment and chloraminat ion, as shown in Figure 1. With t he decision to source water from Wi lson River water it was decided to upgrade the WTP at Nightcap. (Commerce, 2004a). maintaining its maxim um design f lowrate of 885Us (70 MUd). An enhanced treat ment was required to remove the extra hazards.

Cryptosporidium and Giardia were ranked as the most difficult to remove. At t he time of design there was no accepted standard in Australia that set a def initive level of Cryptosporidium removal that would meet health guidelines. The USEPA' LT2ESWTR was therefore adopted as a de-facto standard for the design of t he t reatment upgrade. Under t his Guideline the river water was classified as Bin 3 and, to meet the guidelines, required a total of 5 log Cryptosporidium removal. The existing coagulation and DAFF t reatment provi d ed on ly a 3 log removal. The most efficient and economical way to achieve a further 2 log removal at the time of design was by the use of ozone. The risk assessment study also highlighted the need to manage the risks of algal toxins and pesticides in the Wilsons River water. The original Nightcap WTP did not have any capabil ities to handle t hese risks successfu lly. Hence it was decided to provide Ozone and Biologically Activated Carbon (Oi BAC) treatment downst ream of t he

I

I

Ir'°":- I

11Llme ,

,J_':::c. ___ ., ,Potassium , :Pannanganate :

Water Treatment In 1992, Rous Water , to ensure the supplied water is aesthetically p leasing and safe for human consumption on a continuous basis,. built a 70 MUd WTP at Nightcap, incorporating coagu lation/flocculation, dissolved air flot ation/gravity filtration (DAFF), lime/carbon post dosing and chloramination to treat the Rocky Creek water.

I I

I

I

6 X Drying Beds

Figure 1. Flowchart of the Emigrant Creek WTP. 1-:---

r---,

1 Lime 1 1

From RCD

--r---~

co,

1

1--- ----

New Inlet Mixing Tank

lnline mixer

Mixer

Flocculators

From Wilson +..c= f--1 Magflow River Meter

Floatation I Filtration

Backwash Storage

~o~:

1- - -

Ozone Contac Tank

,-------1 Sodium I ,Hypochloritel ___ ---1

:-Clarified-:

,__Lime 1

Supernatant Tank

BAC

Water Collection Tank

Magflow Meter

,

Clearwater Collection Pit

Filters

lnline Mixer

Clearwater Storage Tank

Figure 2. Flowchart of the upgraded Nightcap WTP. Table 2. A comparison of treated water quality. Parameter

Original Nightcap WTP

True colour (HU)

ECD WTP

Upgraded Nightcap WTP

55

Turbidity (NTU) 100% of time

5 0.3 5 0.1

95% of time Ph

5 0.3 5 0.1 7.5-8

7.5-8

7.5-8

A*

A*

40-60

40-60

40-60

Cryptosporidium Log removal

2.5 2.5

4 4

5

Giardia Log removal

50.02

50.02

50.02

Taste and odour Calcium hardness (mg/L)

Total Fe (mg/L) Total Mn (mg/L)

5

50.01

50.01

MIB/Geosmin (ng/L)

510

510

Saxitoxins+ (µg/L)

53

Microcystin (µg/L)

51

53 51

5 0.25

DBPs (mg/L) £Coli

0

0

0

• A = Acceptable, +STX equivalents

original treatment process at the Nightcap WTP to manage both of t he above risks. It was also recognised that Ozone/BAG would address the occasional taste and odour problems in

Rocky Creek arising from Asterione/la. During t his upgrade, Rous Water also decided to relocate the lime and carbon dioxide treatment to t he front end of t he plant.

water AUGUST 2010 47


~

water treatment The process flow chart of the upgraded Nightcap WTP is presented in Figure 2.

Table 3. A comparison of WTP streams. Water Quality Issue

A summary of the treated water quality expected from the above two plants is provided in Table 2.

A comparison of the water treatment processes and their specific objectives at the upgraded Nightcap WTP and the ECO WTP is provided in Table 3. As seen from this comparison the Ozone/SAC treatment at two plants are provided for slightly different reasons. However these differences have required several major changes in the design. At the ECD WTP, membrane fi ltration is used for many reasons including the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Ozone/SAC treatment is used on ly as a barrier against algal toxins and pesticides and taste and odour. At the upgraded Nightcap WTP, Ozone/SAC treatment was provided as a barrier against Cyptosporidium, Giardia, algal toxins, pesticides, taste and odour. A comparison of the design parameters of the Ozone/SAC systems at the two plants is provided in Table 4.

Ozonation Systems Ozone is a strong oxidant and a powerful disinfectant. Ozone is first used for WTPs in 1906 in Nice, France. Since 1960 many European WTPs have used ozonation for disinfection and lately for many other reasons (Kerwin, 2005).

Process flow diagrams of the ozonation syst em at the ECO WTP and the upgraded Nightcap WTP are provided in Figures 3 and 4.

Upgraded Nightcap WTP

Turbidity

Membrane filtration

Coagulation and DAFF

Coagulation and Membrane filtration

Lime/CO 2

Lime/CO2

Corrosiveness

Dissolved air floatation

Membrane filtration

Algal toxins

Ozone/BAG

Ozone/BAG

Pesticides

Ozone/BAG

Ozone/BAG

Taste and odour

Ozone/BAG

Ozone/BAG

Cryptosporidium

Ozone/BAG

Membrane filtration

Giardia

Ozone/BAG

Membrane filtration

Disinfection

Chlorination

Chlorination

Table 4. Design parameters. Parameter

Ozone residual at the ozone tank outlet Minimum ozone contact time EBCT of BAC filters

Ozone generation g/Nm3

At the ECD WTP, 30 ozone is generated on-site using a Trai ligaz ozone generator. This system generates approximat ely 1 kg/h of ozone d irectly from dried ai r. At the upgraded Nightcap WTP, up to 100 g/Nm 3 of Ozone is generated onsite using three (3) Wedeco ozone generators. In this system up to 95% oxygen is first generated from air using three Pressure Swing Adsorbance (PSA) systems. Each PSA system comprises of two vessels of vanadium pentoxide catalyst. The oxygen is then fed to three ozone generators each capable of producing 5 kg/h of ozone from oxygen. Due to the high ozone dosage requ ired at the upgraded Nightcap WTP, a PSA system was considered to be the most economical system over the other available systems. Ozone demand tests on the Wilsons River wat er showed that an ozone dose of 3.0mg/L was required to achieve the above CT req uirements. This was adopted as the maximum dose rate.

Exhaust

Ozone Generator

Air Reclever

Oessicant Dryers

Ozone Contact Tank

Figure 3. Flowchart of the Ozone System at Emigrant Creek Dam WTP. 48 AUGUST 2010 water

ECO WTP

Dissolved air floatation and filtration

Colour Algae

Design Parameters

Ozonation systems at a WTP generally include feed air/oxygen preparation, ozone generation, ozone dosing system, ozone contact tank, ozone residual analyser and the excess ozone destructor.

referee d paper

Upgraded Nightcap WTP

ECO WTP

0.4 mg/L

0.2 mg/L

20 min 18 min

18 min

10 min

Based on a maximum WTP design water flow of 885Us this requ ires a maximum ozone production rate of 9 .558kg/hr. This is supplied by two 5.0kg/hr duty generators w ith a third generator as standby. To achieve th is production rate, these generators are set to a maximum power setting of 56kW. As oxygen is being used for the ozone production the machi nes are capable of being set to a higher power rating and thus a great er ozone production rate. Th is will cover the future 1OOMUd WTP upgrade requirements.

Ozone dosing system At the ECD WTP, ozone is injected into two separate compartments in the ozone contact tank throug h an array of ceramic diffusers. At the upgraded Nightcap WTP, ozone is dosed into the feed line to the ozone contact tank through an inline mixer arrangement. This system is considered superior compared to the diffusers at the ECO WTP due to less maintenance work and higher efficiency of ozone diffusion.

Ozone contact tank The ozone contact tank at the ECD WTP is 5m tall and has three compartments separated by underflow and overflow baffles. The water flows vertically downward and upward wh ile being ozonated within the tank. In contrast to the above design, the ozone contact tank at the upgraded Nightcap WTP provides a serpentine horizontal flow inside the tank. The USEPA T10 method of calculation was used based on a serpentine channel

technical features


Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) is a global leader when it comes to designing and delivering strategic infrastructure for water. Right now we are working on major water projects around Australia - and more are in the pipel ine . That means we're looking for innovative professionals to take up roles that matter withi n our organisation including Design Managers, Project Managers and Design Engineers. GLOBAL. INNOVATIVE. LEADING. FLEXIBLE. MAJOR PROJECTS. CAREER BUILDING. Are you ALL OF THE ABOVE? Visit www.pb.com.au

PARSONS 7~ BRINCKERHOFF =-=a. 25

YEAR.$


water treatment design contact tank and inline ozone mixing to determine the CT requirement. This requires an integrated CT val ues under the curve of 7.8 CT for 2 log removal wh ich equates to a 15 min contact time with an end ozone residual of approximately 0.35mg/L to 0.4mg/L. When river wat er and dam water are blended t he required CT value is lower with a 15 min contact time end residual in the order of 0.25mg/L to 0.3mg/L needed. This CT value is more t han adequate for the removal of all the other identified hazards such as algae toxins, M IB, herbicide and pesticide residuals. This design is considered superior to the contact tank at the ECO WTP due to the lower entry losses and higher diffusion efficiency. In addition the construction and maint enance of a serpentine tank is much easier than an overflow/underflow baffled tank.

~

( Oxygen train 1 I I I I I I Air I I.---~--, I Air

I I I

Pressure Swing

I I

Absorbance System I

Air

Compressor

Oxygen Trains 2&3

refereed paper

I Oxygen ,-----,---, I Recleve r I .----, I Arter Cooler I I I I I I

Ozone Destructor

Vent

t--- - - - - - Water to BAC Filters

Filtered Water

lnllne mixer

Figure 4. Flowchart of the ozone System at the upgraded Nightcap WTP.

BAC Filters Granular activated carbon removes contam inants such as algal toxins, taste and odour etc. through adsorption process. Once the activated carbon is biologically activat ed, these cont aminants are removed through bioassimilation process giving a longer life span of the carbon. (Thiel et al., 2005). There is some debate as to what constitutes a BAC filter as distinct from a GAC filter. There are also demonstrated data that normal sand filters cou ld also be operated in biologically activated mode if operated under right conditions for a long time. (Wang et al. 2006). In this paper BAC filtration refers to a GAC filter that has been designed to operate in a biologically act ivated mode. A comparison of the design parameters of the BAC fi lters at t he two plants is provided in Table 5. At both plants, granular activated carbon was pre-washed before delivery to site. Although the activated carbon still needed to be washed in the fi lters after placing, pre-washing helped to reduce t he time, volume of wash water and wastewater required to be handled during the placi ng of the media. BAC filters at both WTPs have been provided to adsorb any ozonation byproducts, algal toxins and pesticides etc. Hence at both plants an empty bed contact time of 18 min has been provided at the design flowrates. Two (2) epoxy coated mild steel gravity BAC fi lters have been provided at the ECO WTP. There are six (6) concrete gravity BAC filters at the Nightcap WTP.

50 AUGUST 2010 water

Nightcap WTP. BAC filters at both plant s are backwashed using filtered water prior to chlorination. The BAC filters at the ECO WTP are backwashed approximately once in 1O0hrs of

operation. Each filt er is backwashed for 400 sec at 15 m/h (380 m 3/h). No air scour is provided at the ECD WTP. At the Nightcap WTP BAC filters are backwashed every 144 hrs. Each filter

Table 5. A comparison of design parameters. Parameter

ECD WTP

Upgraded Nightcap WTP

Material of construction

Mild steel

Concrete

Number of filters Type of filter

2

6

Open gravity Circular

Open gravity Rectangular

18min

18min

EBCT Minimum GAG depth GAG type

4m

4m

Coal based

Coal based

GAG activation

Steam

Steam

Iodine number

>500kg/m 3

>50Dkg/m 3

Hardness No

>85 1.0-1.2mm

>85 1.0-1.2mm

Uniformity coefficient

<1.5

<1.5

Water soluble ash

<4%

<4%

Effective size

Table 6. A comparison of power consumption. Nightcap WTP

ECD WTP

DAFF only

80 kWh/ML

DAFF+Ozone/BAC RCD water

100 kWh/ML

DAFF+Ozone/BAC RCD + WR water

150 kWh/ML

Membranes only

140 kWh/ML

Membrane+ Ozone/BAG

170 kWh/ML

technical features


GPS AQUAMETER™ The new GPSAQUAMETER™ is the world's most sophisticated, yet easy-to-use mutiparameter water quality test system. No other equipment available today can match the AQUAMETERT"' and associated AQUAPROBES ™ in either specification or value for money. Available parameters include pH , turbidity, ORP, dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, TDS, atmospheric pressure and GPS coordinates Tough, high impact, IP67 waterpoof case with sure grip rubber gasket Integral atmospheric pressure sensor for fullly automatic correction of dissolved oxygen readings Readings can be logged automatically at a pre-determined rate or instantaneously along with calibration status data Integral GPS receiver and antenna for position tagging of read ings (non GPS version also available) Large, high contrast display for perfect sun light readability, backlit in low light conditions with a soft white light Easy-to-use AQUALINKT"' software enables exporting of data to spreadsheets or Google rM Maps where readings can be overlaid on maps or satellite photos

GPSAQUAMETER™ 1300-735-295 www.thermofisher.com.au lnfoEnviroAU@thermofisher.com

To receive more information on the new GPSAQUAMETER™ , call 1300 735 295 or email us today.

1300-735-295

I www.thermofisher.com.au I lnfoEnviroAU@thermofisher.com

Thermo Fisher SCIENTIFIC


~

water treatment is backwashed for 680 sec at 7m/ h (280 m 3/ h). In addition , air scour is also provided at the Nightcap WTP.

--

1.8

'

1.6

Power Consumption Power consumption at each WTP varies depending on the ozone dosage and whether the ozonation system was on or off. Table 6 provides a summary of the power consumptions at the two WTPs. Sinc e t he Nightcap WTP has been upgraded, irrespective of whether the Wi lsons River water is fed through or not, wat er is ozonated. However when water is drawn only from the RCD , the target is to achieve only a 0.2 mg/ L of ozone residual at the outlet of the contact tank. When water from the Wilsons River is also pumped then a residual of 0.4 mg/L is targeted. This is reflected in the power usage figures provided in Table 6.

1.•

/

--r --- - - -- -' -·,-'"'~ --- - - . . -----•

1.2

- .,,,,,,,

·,

'I,............

/

0.8

__

Operational Aspects There are three main operational and maintenance aspects common to both WTPs: • As Ozone/SAC treatment is still not widely used in NSW water supplies Australia, find ing operators with appropriate level of experience or finding suitable training courses on operation and maintenance of Ozone/SAC systems is difficult at present; • It is difficult to find competent service staff locally. Hence there are delays in getting contract competent service staff to site to rectify faults; and • Some parts take a long time to arrive from overseas. Hence it is necessary to keep critical spare parts on hand but they may be very expensive. Two main maintenance issues that Nightcap WTP has experienced during last year are: • Water leaked into the destructor damaging the catalyst bed. This required catalysts to be replac ed; and • Two (2) oxygen sensors were burnt out: the first time it took almost two

52 AUGUST 2010 water

-a- Fittff&d -..t. • Ozooate<I

-

,,,--· · --·- ·-•

• BAC

o.• 0.2

Doy•

Figure 5. Emigrant Creek BDOC curves.

,, r-----2.:5

~ ~

2

1.5

1

Table 7 provides a comparison of DOC and BDOC in different stages of the treatment stream in both WTPs. These results indicate that BAC beds actively remove BDOC and DOC.

- - Raw

-- - - - - · - · ·

0.6

Performance During the initial stages of the operation of the plants, the performance was assessed by monitoring DOC and BDOC in water. The test results are presented in Figures 5 and 6.

refe reed paper

u

- -

- -

-

- - -

-

-

-

_.. ..... -

-

- · -- ;;-.._.,--;_,:,_~":._

- -

-

-- ....... -

- -

---- -

-

-

- • -

-

-

-~

- -· · -

~-· ..:-:....·.-._ ..__

-

-

-

-- -

-

- --

------

-

- -

-

- -

-

-

- -

-

-

-

-

~ R&w

- -

- - ..

• -- . - -

-

•• -

•• -

••

- -

- -

- - - Fikcrod ___,. • Ozonated • SAC

~ -- r,o- .. -:.-- --.= ~ -=- -= =..-:. ':.--- I - - - -

- ----------------------- -

---

---------------------------------------

Doy•

Figure 6. Nightcap BDOC curves.

months to get the system up and running due to the delays in getting a new sensor. The second one was replaced soon as it happened th ree days after a previously ordered spare part arrived. Three main maintenance issues that ECO WTP has experienced during last few years are: • During first few years, many ceramic diffusers cracked. This affected the

Table 7. DOC and BDOC results. Sample Location

DOC (mg/L) BDOC (mg/ L)

ECO WTP

Raw water

1.7

0.3

Filtered water

1.3

0.2

Ozonated water

1.5

0.6

Downstream of BAG

0.7

<0.1

Upgraded Nightcap WTP Raw water

3.7

0.8

Filtered water

1.7

<0.1

Ozonated water

1.7

0.3

Downstream of BAG

1.3

<0.1

efficiency of ozone transfer causing higher power consumption ; • Surge protectors are being replaced regularly; • The type of ozone generator used is no longer manufactured . This may cause problems in getting spares or replacement parts in future. As expected, the Ozone/BAC upgrade at Nightcap resulted in a further reduction in dissolved organic carbon compounds in the finished water. Based on this Rous Water successfully trialled changing from chloramination to straight chlorination thus avoiding the nitrifying bacteria problems associated with chlorami nation

Conclusions Ozone/SAC treatment when designed, installed and operated properly would provide a very effective barrier against many contaminants such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia , algal toxins , pesticides, DOC, taste and odour etc. This treatment becomes economically more attractive when there is a

technical features


combination of above contam inants in water. In Australia Ozone/SAC treatment is not widely used yet. Hence ECD WTP design team had to face many challenges. These challenges were resolved through discussions with the equipment manufacturers. Many lessons learnt from ECD WTP have been incorporated in the Nightcap WTP. In addit ions many other lessons were learnt at the Nightcap WTP upgrading which would be incorporated in future designs. With the increasing knowledge of contaminants in water and increasing demand on alternative water sources, Ozone/SAC treatment is expected to be used in many more water supplies in future. This will further improve the knowledge of Ozone/ BAG systems making it much easier to operate and maintain in future.

Acknowledgment Authors acknowledge the assist ance provided by Belinda Fayle of Rous Water and Murray Colville of NSW Public Works in collating the data for this paper. The detailed design and construction of the ECD WTP and the upgraded Nightcap WTP were undertaken by United Group Infrastructure and Water Infrastructure Group respectively. The samples were tested at the Research Laborat ory Services P/L.

References Egis Consulting (2001). Raw water: Drinking Water Quality Assessment Review. Fernando, K. , Franklin, W. , Thomas, J., Formosa, M. (2006). Full Scale Application of State-of-the-art Water Treatment Process Stream. Kerwin L. Rakness (2005). Ozone in drinking water treatment: process design, operation, and optimization. NSW Department of Commerce (2004a). Lismore Source; WTP Location study. NSW Department of Commerce (2004b). Wilsons River Risk Assessment. NSW Department of Commerce (2005). Upgrading of the Nightcap WTP; Concept Report. NSW Department of Public Works and Services (2002). Emigrant Creek Dam WTP; Options Study. NSW Public Works (1995). Strategy Study; Rous Regional Water Supply. Thiel, P., Cullen, P. (2005). Operation and maintenance of BAG filters for optimum performance. Wang, H. , Newcombe, G. ,Lewis, D., Brookes, J. Ho, L. (2006). Adsorption and biological removal of microcystins in GAG filter.

The Authors Kamal Fernando is the Principal Engineer, Water Services at NSW Public Works. He is a chemical engineer with 20 years of experience in water treatment and water supply infrastructure in NSW. Email: Kamal.Fernando@services.nsw.gov.au.

Wayne Franklin is the Director Technical Services of Rous Water.

John Thomas is Dams and Treatment Assets Manager of Rous Water.

SIIIMIII allll' Js the ultimate pull-out resistant pipe joint for all metal pipes, plastic pipes or plastic to metal pipes.

ll1'IIAUIII-FLE and STRAUB-OPEii-FL are for all pipe materials and absorb noise, vibration, expansion and contraction.

S1RM1B a IIT is the ideal clamp for safe and

...,â&#x20AC;˘.~..,

reliable repair of damged pipes of any material.

Call KCES for further information: Phone: +61 3 9728 3973 Fax: +61 3 9728 2973 Website: www.kces.com.au Email: info@kces.com.au

water AUGUST 2010 53


advanced oxidation

[s]

r e f e re e d p a per

THE LUGGAGE POINT UV/AOP SYSTEM R Morgan, P Swaim, L Schimmoller, C Bele Abstract The recycling of wastewater into potable supplies has received only limited application in the past, due to both public perception issues and also technological limitations. Recent advances in advanced oxidation have removed the impediment of tech nological limitation, and allow water to be created that is of significantly better quality that most traditional drinking water supplies. In Brisbane, south-east Queensland, three water recycling facilities have been constructed as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme. The Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTPs) prod uce water equal to or better than Australian Drinking Water Guidelines standard. To achieve this water quality, a dual membrane approach is utilised, with the RO permeat e then passing through an ultraviolet radiation/advanced oxidation (UV/AOP) process. This paper discusses the design and operational considerations associated with the UV/AOP facility at the Luggage Point Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP).

Introduction Previous papers (Morgan 2008) {Traves and Davies, 2008) have detailed the circumstances in south-east Queensland which realised the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project. Once the determination to allow for indirect potable reuse was made, t he process flow requirements were established. UV/AOP was included as a basic requirement for each plant for the following reasons: 1. To provide an additional, verifiable barrier in the multi-barrier process 2. To remove microcontaminants, which in some cases are not removed fully by RO , including: NOMA and other nitrosamines; 1,4-dioxane and other solvent compounds; pesticides and herbic ides; taste and odour causing compounds and algal toxins; endocrinedisrupting compounds (EDCs); This is an updated version of the paper presented at Ozwater'10.

54 AUG UST 201 0 water

SBS dose

I

H20 2 dose

Flow Monitoring

P'!II liiiil

Online UVT measurement

Power Monitoring

Figure 1. Process Flow Schematic UV/AOP. pharmaceutical and personal care compou nds; synthetic organic chemicals and volatile organics. Other forms of advanced oxidation are available and were considered, however none were proven on the scale of the project, within the economic constraints.

dosed downstream to quench hydrogen peroxide (Figure 1}. Due to the requirement of the UV/AOP system to remove many compounds, two compounds were selected to design the facility. These are: 1. NOMA

UV/AOP

2. 1,4-dioxane

UV/AOP is, in simple terms, the incorporation of ultraviolet disinfection into an advanced oxidation process. By doing this, the UV/AOP provides three highly effective methods of contaminant removal/inactivation:

These indicator compounds were selected firstly due to the difficulty of their removal, but also because they can be used to design the two principle components of the UV/AOP syst em. NOMA is not impacted by H20 2 or OH-, so it can be used to size the UV component of the UV/AOP. Meanwhile 1,4-dioxane removal relied almost exclusively on oxidation by H20 2 and OH-, so it can be used to size the hydrogen peroxide (advanced oxidation) component.

1 . Photolysis 2. H20 2 oxidation 3. OH- oxidation The OH- radicals are formed when H2 0 2 is subjected to ultraviolet light.

Design of UV/AOP The design principles of the UV/AOP system were developed on previous installations, as has been discussed in Swaim 2008, and modified for the particular demands of the project. The plant capacity is 70MUd and the UV/AOP units are coupled to dedicated RO units, in a 3 duty/1 standby arrangement. As such each UV/AOP unit is to treat 23 .3MUd. UV transmissivity (UVT) is monitored online, to allow dose control, whi le sodium bisulphite (SBS) is

World 's best practice, principally developed by t he California Health Department, was used in establishing the req uired removal for the two indicator contaminants: 1. NOMA to > 1.2 log removals 2. 1,-dioxane to > 0.5 log removals

Design and operational considerations for indirect potable reuse.

technical features


+GF+ READY FOR ACTION Open or closed, automatic or manual: With flicks of the wr ist t he new diaphr agm valve can increase flow or turn everything completely off. The lockable hand wheel is a stan dard feat ure. You can connect actua tors, such as the OIASTAR or an elec trically self adj usting feedback unit. And because we have maximised the tightness and flow, while maintaining the installation dimensions, you can install the new diaphragm valve in a flash - Plug and Play. The new generation of diaphragm valves from Geor g Fischer Piping Systems. Innovation is profitable. For types 514,5 15,517,519 and Oiastar six, ten and sixteen.

Contact Us for further Information: t: 02 9502 8000 or 1300 130 149

f: 02 9502 8090 e: australia.ps@georgfischer.com www.georgfischer.com.au


advanced oxidation

Figure 2. Trojan UVPhox System.

Feedwater The UV/AOP system was designed to treat the RO permeate, and as such the fol lowing design parameters were included: • UVT > 95% • Monochloramine 1-2mg/L (as Cl 2) The cleanliness of the RO permeate provided the benefit that automated cleaning mechanisms were not required.

UV Reactor Design

The EEO (a measure of the amount of energy required per log removal of the target contaminant - in this case NOMA) selected was based on previously validated results from the same units at other facilities. The EEO is used to determined the required number of lamps and required energy input. The hydrogen peroxide dose was select ed based on scavenging tests carried out on the feedwater, and compared w ith rates used on similar projects. At the minimum UVT of 95%, a dose rate of 6mg/L was required (Figure 4). Computational fluid dynamics (CFO) analysis was carried out on the reactor design, to minimise short circu iting, and ensure all flow that passed through the react or received equivalent dose (Figure 3).

Trojan UVPhox units were utilised in triple-deck arrangement. The units utilised low pressure, high output (LPHO) lamps operating at 254nm (Figure 2).

H2O 2 Quenching The UV/AOP utilises only 15% of the applied H2 0 2 dose, leaving approx 85%

7-.-~------------------------6----

~ 5 -·t - - - - 0)

S4 s r ---------~~------------ -~ <'II

~ GI

3 +--------------:::::....-s:::-----------:i

VI

8

remaining in the product water. This H2 0 2 must then be quenched. Various quenching mechanisms are possible, but the two commonly employed are quenching w ith sodium hypochlorite or sodium bisulfite. Quenching w ith sodium hypochlorite requ ires a considerable quantity of sodium hypochlorite. It was determined in bench scale testing that approximately 18mg/L NaOCI was required (based on 5mg/L H2 0 2 residual). This was determined not to be feasible on account of storage req uirements, and also potential generation of chlorate, which was expected to become a reg ulated water quality parameter. The design therefore allowed for quenching of H2 0 2 w ith sodium bisulfite. During initial operation this quenching was not successful, as the reaction between H2 0 2 and SBS did not proceed quickly enough, and realised an extremely high sodium hypochlorite demand (the plant req uires a free chlorine residual of 2mg/L). It was determined that the addition of lime and consequent increase in pH was slowing the reaction. Modifications were made to dose the SBS further upstream, allowing some reaction time before lime addition. Quenching was then able to be carried out with approx 12mg/L S8S.

Validation

2

O r - ---.--- -- -,------,------,------,------'! 94%

refereed paper

Figure 3. CFO Analysis Extract.

Add itional cond itions established were a typical continuous dose of 500mJ/cm 2 and a continuous online validation of 4 log virus removal. A concentration limit of 1O ppt was also set for NOMA.

Q

95%

96%

97%

98%

UVT(¾)

Figure 4. Scavenging Test Results showing required H2 02 dose.

56 AUGUST 2010 water

99%

100%

In establishing the multi-barrier process for these AWTPs, it was determined that each barrier must have critical control parameters that were to be subject to validation, to ensure the integrity of the barrier. For the UV/AO P, the parameters used are the present power ratio (PPR)

technical features


Thermo Fisher SCIENTIFIC

For customer service, call 1300-735-295 Email lnfoWaterAU@thermofisher.com Visit us online: www.thermofisher.com.au C2010 Therm o Fisher Scientific Inc. All rights reserved. A.8.N. 52 058 390 917


and the hydrogen peroxide dose. The PPR is a ratio of the applied power divided by the required power, and is monitored continuously - it must always be greater t han 100%. The hydrogen peroxide dose rate is also monitored continuously via a dedicated flowmeter, and this must always be above the design value (of 6mg/L).

Other Operational Issues Ot her operational issues observed in running the UV/AOP units were as follows: • UVT meters requi red to be calibrated regularly to ensure accurate measurement • Monochloramine dose pre-RO has a significant impact on UVT (and hence req uired power input).

Water Quality Al l samples taken over the operational period have shown NOMA and 1,4-dioxane at below the limit of detection. All other Australian Drinking Water Guideline parameters have been met.

Conclusion

13-17 SEPTEMBER 2 MUNICH

The UV/AOP system design for the Luggage Point AWTP is into its second year of operations and has proven to be reliable, and verifiable. It has assisted in ensuring product water quality at all times in excess of t he drinking water standards applied.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to t hank the following: • WaterSecure - owner of the Western Corridor faci lities • Veol ia - operator of the Luggage Point AWTP • Trojan Technologies - UV system supplier.

-t Future-oriented innovations, technologies and trends -t All application fields, all products, all services -t Technology leaders, specialists and newcomers from

The Authors

around the world -t The right solution for every application and every use -t First-rate related-events program for information and

networking Detailed information and presentation schedule: www.ifat.de

Rory Morgan is Project Manager, Gold Coast Desalination Plant, with WaterSecure, Brisbane, Qld. Email rory.morgan@watersecure.com.au. Paul Swaim and Larry Schimmoller are Senior Technical Consu ltants with CH2M Hill, Denver, USA.

Information: German-Australian Chamber of Industry and Commerce

Cecile Bele is a Process Engineer with Veolia Water, France.

Tel. (03) 9602 2320

References

gccmel@germany.org.au

ENTSORGA A WORLD OF ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS

Morgan, R, Solley, D, Thew, R, Edge, D, Schimmoller, L, 2008. Advanced Nutrient Removal for Indirect Potable Reuse, Ozwater 2008. Swaim, P, Morgan, R, Foster, L, Mueller, P, Vorissis, M , Erdal , U, Carter, W 2008. Implementing and Effective UV Advanced Oxidation Process, ACE Water Reuse Conference. Traves W, Davies K (2008) The Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, Water. 35, No 4. June 2008.

58 AUGUST 2010 water

technical features


A cleaneG greener approach to water sterilisation for water treatment plants! Australian Innovative Systems Pty Ltd (AIS) has specialised in products that disinfect water via electrolysis since 1974 and now has developed the world's first eco-efficient system, Ecoline™, which sterilises drinking, waste and swimming pool water. EcolineTM is changing the way water is being disinfected and treated. Utilising the natural salts and minerals already existing in the water, Ecoline™, through a process of electrolysis, instantly sterilises water. Ecoline™ eliminates the risks involved with chemical handling including transporting, storing and dosing to the water supply. Ecoline™ lowers operating costs and achieves a complete automatic process that requires minimal operator attendance. .

.

I,_,.•

.

' - -

'f...;. .

Applications: Drinking water, Recycled water, Grey water, Sewerage and wastewater, Irrigation water, Food processing plants,Cooling towers, Reverse

\

osmosis / desalination, Agricultural lagoons, Swimming pools e,- Water features.

co eco line™ WATER TREATMENT OF THE FUTURE

A W A

.

• • eco

R D

I NNER

GAiA A V. ms

fie 2000/10

W

AustraHan Technology Showcase

2009

GCLD


demand management

~

refereed paper

THE IMPACT OF RESTRICTIONS ON REGIONAL URBAN DEMAND B Neal, C Meneses, D Hughes, T Wisener Abstract The water savings achieved under water restrictions in Victoria were previously estimated by a VicWater technical working group. This group estimated that a 14%, 44%, 67 % and 98% reduction in restrictable demand occurred at Stages 1 to 4 of restriction respectively. These figures were based on demand information collated for the Melbourne supply system prior to the 2006/07 drought and were recommended for application throughout Victoria. This paper presents information collated from a number of non-metropolitan urban wat er utilities to assess the water savings achieved under restrictions in recent drought years, including 2006/07, for comparison against the VicWater working group results. It also presents a simple but rigorous method for assessing the statistical significance of reductions in demand using two sample t-t ests on residuals of observed minus estimated unrestricted demand . Whilst there was generally a greater reduction in restrictable demand under Stage 1 restrictions than anticipated , the wide range of consumer response to restrictions meant that there was insufficient evidence to alter the previous VicWater recommendations. The ability to draw firmer conclusions from the analysis could be improved by adopting a consistent assessment method across all water utilities in Victoria and Australia in the future.

Introduction The demand reduction associated with the implementation of restrictions in most water resource models across Victoria is currently based on the outcomes of a VicWater technical working group paper from 2005 [rWGWSA, 2005). That paper recommended that the reduction in restrictable demand should be 14%, 44%, 67% and 98% at Stages 1 t o 4 respectively. Restrictable demand is that component of total demand which can be affected by restrictions. It typically includes non-essential activities such as garden wateri ng, and it typically excludes most in-house and industrial water use. Th ese figures from VicWater were based on a combi nation of analysis of demand

60 AUGUST 2010 water

Ia Stage 1 a Stage 2 mStage 3 â&#x20AC;˘ 500 450 C/1 C: 400 ~ 350 300 0 250 ...(I) .c 200 150 E :::, 100 z 50 0

Stage

41 ~

- ,_

...-

II-

,-

- -

~

-

-

t-

-

t-

-tt-

- ,-

-

I-

-

t-

- - ,-

-

t-

t-

-

-

I-

~

,-

I-

,-

,_ ,_ ,_ ,_ -

II-

-

,_ -

,_

Figure 1. Many towns on restrictions and many on severe (Stage 4 of 4 stages) restrictions in 2006/07 (DSE, 2008).

data during periods of restriction, surveys of end user water use behaviours and market research during restriction periods. These figures were developed prior to the 2006/07 drought, in which severe restrictions were implemented across much of Victoria. Throughout Victoria each stage of restrictions was a standardised reg ime, limiting the tim ing and purposes of water use, such as garden wateri ng, but not affecting usage within the home or by industry. The drought conditions th roughout Victoria for some years had resulted in stream flows in 2006/07 being the lowest on record (DSE, 2008). In consequence many towns had been on restrictions, including many on severe (Stage 4) restrictions, as shown in Figure 1. This paper draws on actual data from three regional towns supplied by North East Water during 2006/07 when restrictions were imposed, compared with similar analyses undertaken by Goulburn Valley Water and Coliban Water. Th is project was commissioned by Goulburn Valley Water as part of its Drought Response Plan update.

Statistical analysis of data from country towns.

North East Water Data Analysis North East Water is an urban water utility wh ich supplies water to 38 towns, vi llages and cities in North East Victoria, serving an estimated population of 100,000 people (NEW, 2009). Most of North East Water's towns were on some form of water restriction in 2006/07. For this analysis, three of North East Water's larger supply systems were selected. These towns are Benalla, Bright and Wangaratta. It was considered that supply data from larger towns would be less susceptible to short-term variabil ity in losses or consumer behaviour than smaller towns. This allows the effect of restrictions to be more readily isolated.

Historical periods of restriction Bulk meter consumption data was provided for these three towns from July 2003 to June 2008. This period was selected to provide a period of analysis that included some restrictions . This period was considered short enough to be reasonably representative of current cond itions and relatively stationary, but long enough to allow inferences to be drawn from the data. The charts (Figures 2.3.4) indicat e that the first three years of data were unrestricted, with a range of restriction stages progressively put in place in the last two years of the data set.

technical features


8]

demand management

ref ereed paper

Permanent water saving measures were introduced in North East Water's supply area in September 2003, which was prior to t he period of analysis.

Demand estimation model A demand estimation model was fitted to the unrestricted data for each supply syst em. The input variables for t he demand estimation model were obtained from previous analyses (SKM, 2008; SKM, 2006) and included monthly rainfall and evaporation. Other model forms could equally be applied provided that t hey replicate observed behaviour well and provided t hat suitable input data is available. Popu lation growth at the three towns was smal l (0-0.6% p.a. from DPCD, 2008) and there were no time trends visibly evident in recorded winter demands over the period of analysis, hence time was not included as an additional explanatory variable in t he model fit. The demand estimation models were extended using more recent c limate dat a and were re-fit to suit the common period of analysis. When fitting the models, care was taken to ensure t hat t here was random variance over time and over the range of the dependent and independent variables. The normality of residuals was also examined , however t he two-sample t-tests subsequently used in t his analysis are quite robust against non-normality of the popu lation and more robust than one-sample t-tests (Moore and McCabe, 1993). An est imat e of the unrestrictable or base demand was made for each supply system. This was initially calculated as 85% of the average of the unrestricted demand in the three months of the year with t he lowest demand , or t he minimum observed demand (after excl usion of any outliers), whichever was lower. The model fit for Benalla is shown in Figure 2. The model was only fitted to unrestricted demand data. The fit was considered good, with a monthly coefficient of det ermination (R2) of 0.87 and a standard error of estimat e of 20% of the mean. Base (unrestrictable) demand for Benalla was approximately 45% of the average annual unrestricted demand. The model fit for Bright is shown in Figure 3. The model was only fitted to unrest ricted demand data. The fit was considered poor to fair, with a monthly coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.62 and a standard error of estimate of 19% of the mean. Base (unrestrictable) demand for Bright was approximately 42% of the average annual unrestrict ed

300 1----- - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- -- 250

~ 200

1! 1

150

j 100

so

· · ,o. ··Recorded Unre5trkttd Demand - - Base dermnd

- -+< -

_ . , _ Eitlmated demand

Oec-02

Jun-03

Jan-04

Au1-04

Feb-OS

Recorded rHtrlcted demand Sep-OS

Mu-06

Apr-07

Oct-06

Nov-07

Jun08

Figure 2. Model Fit for Benalla. ii ~

3

I

1

I

2

150

1---------------------

,.

140

130 120

110 100

I !

l ,!l

¥

90

II

,,II,

~

80

~ ~ ~

70 60

so 40

•.

.

. ",o.:

30

20

· · ,o. · · RMorded Unrestricted Demand - - Base demand

10

-..-. Estimated demand

Oec-02

Jun-03

Jan-04

Auc-04

- -+<- Recorded restrkted demand Feb-OS

Sep-OS

M;u-06

Oct-06

Ap<-07

Nov-07

h.in-08

Oec-08

Figure 3. Model Fit for Bright.

demand.The model does not capture demand in wint er very well, possibly due to tourists visiting the snow fields in wi nter and staying off mountain at Bright. The number of these winter visitors has however declined in recent years due to the greater availability of accommodation at the snow fields. Peak tourist numbers at Bright occur at Christmas and Easter and can be around four times the resident popu lation, which potentially creates additional uncertainty in interannual peak demand variability for t his town. The fitted unrestricted demand model is visibly lower than the restricted demand in some months of the last two years of t he data set when restrictions were in place. The model fit for Wangaratta is shown in Figure 4. The model was only fitted to

unrest ricted demand data. The fit was considered good, with a monthly coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.85 and a st andard error of estimate of 12% of t he mean. Base (unrest rictable) demand for Wangaratta is estimated to be higher than the other towns at around 55% of average annual unrestricted demand, with a high proportion of this demand attributable to major industrial users.

Reduction in restrictable demand The demand reduction at each stage of restrictio n was assessed by calcu lating the difference between t he observed and estimated data (i.e. the model resid ual) on each ti me step and then aggregating those differences over the period of restriction. The results of this are shown in Table 1. This table also shows t he

water AUGUST 2010

61


~

demand management aggregated model residual over the period of model fit, which highlights any bias in the model fit which would cause the estimate of demand reduction to be over- or under-stated. When analysing the data, only months where t hose restrict ions occurred for the whole month have been included. Where there was not a single c omplete month with the given stage of restriction, the reduction in restrict able demand was specified as "n/ a" .

-. • I t f-------- - =- - -"----~

, I"_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _,,,..,.._ _ _ _ _ _ __

]

2

600

-

1

500

~

1!

e

<()()

li

It can be seen in Table 1 that the model fits for Benalla and Wangaratta were unbiased , with a 46-52% reduction in restrictable demand being achieved during periods of restriction. For Bright, there is bias in the model fit and the difference between observed and estimated unrestrict ed data is a similar order of magnitude in periods with and without rest rictions. There is a 64% increase in restrictable demand at Bright under Stage 4 restrict ions, indicating a high degree of uncertainty in the model fit and/or consumer behaviour. The statistical significance of the reduction in demand for all restrictions was investigated using a two sample ttest of t he restricted and unrestricted data for each supply system. According to the historical summary in SPSS (1999), the t-distribution was found by Gosset using the pseudonym of "St udent" (1908) and was applied as a two sample t-test of difference in means by Fisher (1925). This test of statistical significance ensures that any differences in the unrestricted and restricted data can be discerned from the uncertainty in the demand model fit. The use of model residuals allows comparison of unrestricted and rest ricted data without the need for any further cl imate correction. The two sample t-tests were also undertaken on some individual stages of restriction, however the sample sizes were considered to be too small to

300

100

• • <> • •RecOfded Unrestricted Oem;1nd

- - 8;1se demand

___.,._ Estima ted dema nd

- i< -

~ E

0

-;;;

::,

..

-0

~ 'ii

Re<orded restrkted demar'ld

100

DK-02

Jun-03

Jan-04

Aua-04

Feb-OS

Sep.OS

Mat-06

Qct.06

Apr-07

0«·08

Supply system Benalla

Bright

Wangaratta

0%

19%

0%

All restrictions

46%

11 % 51% 62% n/a

19% 14% 12% n/a -64%

52%

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Aggregated model residual for unrestricted data (% of restrictable demand) Average reduction in restrictable demand (% of restrictable demand)

reliably quot e those results and hence only the effect of restrictions as a whole have been quoted. All analyses have been performed using Systat9 for Windows (SPSS, 1999). The distribution of residuals for Benalla is shown in Figure 5, which shows t hat the two distributions are visibly different. The difference in means of 49 ML (46% of restrictable demand) was found to be statistically significant at the 5% level of sign ificance.

38% n/a 78% 76%

The dist ribution of residuals for Bright is shown in Figure 5, which shows that the two distributions are not visibly different. The difference in means was only 2 ML (- 0% of restrictable demand) and was not found to be statist ically significant at t he 10% level of significance. Bright is the smallest of the three supply systems and is more likely to be influenced by fluctuations in demand not accounted for in the model fit.

50

:2

e

~

:::r :l? .,

0

-;;;

..

::, -0

.

~

-50

~

I

(

'ii

-0

-0

0

LVL

:l?

Unrest ricted d ata x Restrict ed data

0

LVL

:l?

20

10

0

Count

10

20

30

Count

Figure 5. Distribution of residuals for unrestricted and restricted data for Benalla. 6 2 AUGUST 2010 water

Unrestricted data x Restricted data

0

0

30

Jun-08

Table 1. Estimated reduction in restrictable demand.

-100

-200

Nov-07

Figure 4. Model Fit for Wangaratta.

100

:::r ~ .,

refereed paper

-100 25 20 15 10 5 Count

0

5 10 15 20 25 Count

Figure 6. Distribution of residuals for unrestricted and restricted data for Bright.

technical features


demand management

ref ereed pape r

Table 2. Historical consumption for 2007/08.

100

ÂŁ

E

0

.

-100

::r ~

"'

::, -0 111

~

~

Supply system

.:; -0 0

::.

-200

LVL Unrestricted data x Restricted data

0

-300 L_...J___.L.._ _ J L - . . . L _ _ I __ _ J_ ~ _ J 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 Count Count

Figure 7. Distribution of residuals for unrestricted and restricted data for Wangaratta. The distribution of residuals for Wangaratta is shown in Figure 7 , which shows t hat t he two d istributions are visi bly different. The difference in means of 117 M L (52 % of restr ictable demand) was fou nd to be statistically significant at the 5 % level of sig nificance. T he conclusion from t his analysis is that there was a statis t ically significant difference in consumpt ion during periods of rest riction in Benalla and Wangaratta, but not at Brig ht.

Results From Other Water Utilities Demand reduction analyses were undertaken independently b y two o t her water utilities and results provided for comparison w ith the Vicwater recommendations. Goulburn Valley Water undertook a similar approach of fitting a mu ltiple reg ression demand model to the unrestricted data and calculating model residuals during periods of restriction . They excluded results where they considered that they had insufficient data to assess t he reduction in demand for a given stage of restriction. The assessment met hods used to derive estimated red uctions in restr ictable demand for Col iban Water are not known to the authors. Each of the supply systems for which data was available is relat ively large and hence the analyses are unlikely to be affected by isolated short-term fluctuations in consumption due to events such as burst mains or cultural events. This historical consumption for each tow n in 2007/ 08 is included in Table 2 to give an indication of the comparative size of each town 's demand. The data in this table has not been adjusted for any restrictions which may have occurred in

2007/ 08.

Historical consumption 2007/08 (restricted and unrestricted) (MUyr)

Water utility

Euroa

Goulburn Valley Water

662

Mansfield

Goulburn Valley Water

582

Shepparton

Goulburn Valley Water

8,334

Benalla

North East Water

1,205

Bright

North East Water

324

Wangaratta

North East Water

3,124 1,101

Goulburn System

Coliban Water

Murray System

Coliban Water

2,978

Coliban System

Coliban Water

9,551

The outcomes of these analyses are listed in Table 3. These results show that t here is a high degree of variability in the reduct ion in demand achieved under each stage of restriction. The arithmetic average for Northern Victoria is typically higher than the VicWater recommendations, most notably for Stage 1 restrict ions. The red uction in rest rictable demand under Stage 1 restrictions indicates t hat non-metropolitan urban populations may be more sensitive to mild restrict ions than t hose in Melbourne. It was however c ommented b y GVW that this large red uction in t heir supply systems is partially due to the ongoing effect of more severe restrictions w hich preceded t he return to milder Stage 1 restrictions. It is also noted that the reduction in restrictable demand for Benalla and Bright was equ ivalent to the Vicwater recommendations. This analysis also highlights the need for operators to be flexible in implementing their drought response plans and to carefully monitor consumer response to restrictions. The timing of d rought response actions would need to be adjusted accordingly if anticipated demand reductions are not achieved for any given su pply system. Extend ing the analysis undertaken for the three North East Water towns to other parts of Victoria would enable a more robust estimate of reductions in demand due to restrictions to be prepared. Results wo uld be d irectly comparable because Victoria has a standard restriction policy adopt ed by all urban water utilities. Extending the analysis throughout Australia could be undertaken, however the results would not necessarily be comparable between supply systems because restrict ion pol icies vary from State to State and for some Stat es also vary from region to region.

Table 3. Comparison in restrictable demand reduction. Authority Gou lburn Valley Water (GVW)

Stage 4

56%

n/a

83%

n/a

100%

n/a

40%

n/a

n/a

96%

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Benalla

11 %

51 %

62%

n/a

n/a

Bright

14%

12%

n/a

n/a

-64%

Wangaratta

38%

n/a

78%

n/a

76%

Goulburn System

35%

60%

75%

90%

100%

Murray System

40%

63%

83%

98%

100%

Coliban System

30%

59%

83%

94%

100%

35%

48%

77%

94%

95%

14%

44%

67%

83%

98%

Average Northern Victoria Vicwater

Stage 3A

Euroa Shepparton

Coliban Water

Stage 3

Stage 1

Mansfield North East Water (NEW)

Stage 2

Township

Melbourne

Note: The result for Bright under Stage 4 was a 64% increase in demand when a decrease was expected. The average for Victoria excludes results for Bright, which were not statistically significant.

water

AUGUST 2010 63


demand management Conclusion This study collated reductions in restrictable demand under water restrictions as reported for three urban water utilities in Northern Victoria. A simple but robust method of analysis was presented for one of those water utilities, including an assessment of the statistical significance of any reductions in demand. The reduct ions in demand achieved in Northern Victoria are not consistently different enough to the Vicwater recommendations to warrant a change in t he assumed red uctions in restrictable demand. An increase in the assumed reduction in rest rictable demand under Stage1 restrictions was considered, but the data for Benalla and Bright indicates that the reduction in restrictable demand is not always higher than that anticipated by the Vicwater data. Similarly, GVW indicated that the high reduction in demand may be due to the fact t hat periods of Stage 1 restrict ion were preceded by Stage 4 rest rictions for some of their supply systems. The ability to draw fi rmer conclusions from the analysis could be improved by adopt ing a consistent

assessment method across all water utilities in Victoria and t he other States in Australia in the future.

refereed paper

Terry Wisener is the drought response manager with North East Water in Wodonga.

References

Acknowledgment This project was commissioned by Goulburn Valley Water as part of its Drought Response Plan update. The authors acknowledge t he provision of data from all water utilities involved in this project.

The Authors

Brad Neal (bneal@skm.com.au) is the practice leader for water resources planning at SKM and is based in Melbourne. Chriselyn Meneses is a water resources engineer with SKM in Melbourne. Daniel Hughes is a senior engineer of strategic plan ning at Goulburn Valley Water in Shepparton.

THE HYDROSENSE• Portable warer content system lnstonr measurements I 2 cm or 20 cm probe option

Full Featured Supp ort Software.

Q

Caliban Water. 2008 . Annual Report 2008. Caliban Water. 2009. Water Contingency Strategy. Our Response to Climate Change. Living Document at February 2009. Department of Planning and Community Development (DPCD). 2008. Towns in Time. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2008) Victorian Water Acc ount s, 2006/07. Fisher, R.A. 1925. Statist ical methods for research workers. London: Oliver and Boyd. Goulburn Valley Water. 2008. Annual Report 2007/ 2008. Moore, David S. and McCabe, George P. (1993) Introduction to Practice Statistics. 2nd edition. North East Water (NEW). 2009. Annual Report 2008/ 09. SKM. 2006. REALM Model Development for the Upper Ovens River Catchment. SKM . 2008. REALM Model Development for the Lower Ovens River Basin. Final. Updated 29 August 2008. SPSS. 1999. SYSTAT 9 Statistics II "St udent". 1908. The probable error of a mean. Biometrika , 54, 1-25. Technical Working Group on Water Savings Assessment rJWGWSA) 2005. Water Savings from Restrict ions: Techn ical Report. August 2005. Prepared for the Metropolitan Drought Coordination Group and the Victorian Water Industry Associat ion.

~CAMPBELL ~ SCIENTIFIC ~ Australia, Pty Ltd

• • •• •

• •••••

MAXON MODMAX - Next G™ Module Robust, compact solution to provide 3G connectivity.

data loggers sensors weather stations monitoring systems interfaces software

ETl 07 We athe r Station No wiring required; Uses sealed connectors for sensor hook up.

64 AUGUST 2010 wat er

OBS-3A Monitors suspended sediment, rurbidity, salinity, temperature, depth & wave height CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC DATA LOGGERS & period. Versatile, stand-alone measurement & control. Rugged, reliable data acquisition systems.

technical features


~

refereed paper

demand management

ESTIMATING THE SAVINGS FROM WATER RESTRICTIONS IN SYDNEY F Spaninks Abstract Drought rest rict ions applied in Sydney from October 2003 to June 2009. Th is paper analyses the reduct ion in demand from restrictions using a model of water demand t hat combines seasonal decomposition and multivariate regression. The model al lows one to est imat e what demand wou ld have been without restrict ions, taking into account customer growth, weather con ditions and wat er conservation activities other than rest rictions. Annual reductions in demand associat ed with level 1, 2 and 3 restrictions were about 12%, 16% and 17% of the est imated unrest ricted demand.

Introduction Mandatory Level 1 drought restrictions came into force in Sydney Water's area of operations in October 2003 when total dam storages were at about 60%. Th is followed a period of voluntary restrictions that started November 2002. Level 2 restrictions applied from 1 June 2004 and Level 3 rest rictions from 1 June 2005. Water Wise Rules replaced drought restrictions on 22 June 2009. The main feat ures of each level of restrict ions were: Level 1: • No use of sprinklers or other watering systems (excluding drip irrigation) at any t ime. • No hosing of hard surfaces (build ings, windows, driveways, paths, paved areas) and vehicles (cars, trucks, motor bikes, caravans , boats) at any time. Level 2: • All restrict ions included in Level 1 as described above. • No hosing of lawns and gardens, except hand-held hosing before 10am and after 4pm on Wednesdays, Fridays and Sundays. • No filling of new or renovated pools greater than 10,000 litres except with a permit from Sydney Water. Level 3: • Al l restrictions included in Level 1 and 2 as described above.

• The number of days on which hand held hosing of lawns and garden is allowed is reduced to two (Wednesdays and Sundays).

paper cannot separate t he red uction due to the mandatory rest rictions from any such vol untary changes in behaviour during restrictions.

Under Water Wise Rules, all hoses must have a t rigger nozzle. Hand held hoses, sprinklers and watering syst ems may be used only before 10 am and after 4 pm on any day. Hosing of hard surfaces such as pat hs and driveways is not allowed.

Any reference to t he "reduction in demand due to restrictions" in the remainder of t his paper should therefore be read as "t he reduction in demand due to the mandatory restrictions as wel l as any vol untary changes in behaviour in response to restrictions". Sydney Water is currently undertaking a separate analysis to measure the extent of any reduction due to voluntary behavioural changes.

The main chal lenge to estimat ing demand reduct ions due to drought restrictions is establishing the base against wh ich to measure t he reduction . A simple comparison of restricted demand and pre-restrictions demand is not val id. Th is assumes that in the absence of restrictions, demand would have stayed at pre-restrictions levels. This is clearly not a valid assumpt ion. The demand for water in t he absence of restrictions is not stat ic. Demand varies from year to year due to varying weather conditions. Growth in t he customer base will increase demand over time whi le water conservation prog rams ot her than water restrictions will reduce demand. In this paper we present the results of an analysis of t he impact of rest rictions that account s for the impact of these other factors. The analysis is based on a statistical model of demand . The model allows us to estimat e what demand would have been if restrictions had not been introd uced , given the actual weather cond itions, growth in popu lation served and the savi ngs from Sydney Water's water conservation strategy. Th is estimate provides t he base against which to measure the red uction in demand that can be attributed to water restrictions. During the restrictions Sydney Water ran several commun ication campaigns which encouraged voluntary changes in water use such as reducing shower times, on ly using the washing machine for full loads and using the half flush on t he toilet. The method presented in t his

Restrictions saved about 575 gigalitres in 6 years.

In the remainder of t his paper we describe the model specification, data and t he resu lts of the analysis.

Method Conceptual model We cannot measure the impact of restrictions on demand directly. This would require detailed measurements on the amount of water used for t he end uses of water covered by restrictions, both before and during rest rictions. Such detailed data is not available. However, it is possible to estimate the savi ngs from restrictions indirectly. Concept ually, the observed demand at time t can be written as follows:

Ct = Bt - s tonR - S 1R

(1)

where C1 = observed demand 8 1 = baseline demand

S t 0 nR = savings from water conservation S 1R = savi ngs from water restrict ions Baseline demand, 8 1, is defined as the demand t hat would have been observed if no water conservation activities or water restrict ions had been implemented. Equat ion (1) stat es t hat t he observed demand in some month equals baseline demand for that month minus the savings from restrictions and the savi ngs from water conservation programs other t han restrictions. By rewriting equation (1) it follows that we can estimate the reduction in demand that is due to rest rictions as:

water AUGUST 2010 65


~

demand management S tR = Br - s tonR - Ct

(2)

ref ereed paper

70

The first and second term on the right hand side of equation (2), i.e. baseline demand and savings from water conservation, cannot be observed directly. However, it is possible to estimate them. In the remainder of this section we discuss the methods that were used to estimat e these two terms.

60 50 ~

-~

40

'ii

<3'"

30

Ba seline demand model 20

Baseline demand is the demand that would have been observed if no water conservation had been undertaken and no water restrictions were in place. Baseline demand cannot be observed directly. However, by analysing observed demand prior to the implementation of water conservation programs and restrictions we can develop a model of baseline demand. This model can then be used to estimate what baseline demand would have been during the period of interest. To develop the model we used dat a on monthly demand prior to restrictions between July 1997 and June 2002. Demand shows a clear seasonal pattern with demand being highest during the summer months and lowest during the winter mont hs - see Figure 1. To develop a model for baseline demand using this data we used the following approach. First, we converted observed monthly demand to an estimate of the per capita demand in litres per capita per day:

(3)

where

C'f = average per capita daily demand

N 1997

1998

N 1998

1999

N 1999

2000

N 2000

2001

N 2001

2002

Month

Figure 1. Monthly total demand for potable water between July 1997 and June 2002. in the model are the average of maximum daily temperature , total rainfall, and total evaporation in month t. Instead of using the actual values of these variables in a particular month we used the deviation from thei r "seasonal average" between June 1997 and July 2002. For example, for January 2001 , the measure of rainfall is the difference between total rainfall in January 2001 and the average of tot al rainfall in January 1997, January 1998, January 1999, January 2000 and January 2002. The seasonal fact ors model the seasonal pattern due to the average variation in the weather variables. Any remaining variation in deseasonalised demand, i.e. after dividing by the seasonal factors, is considered t o be a consequence of the weather variables being above or below their seasonal average. Hence the use of the deviations from seasonal averages in the regression model for deseasonalised demand.

r;,

Let Ri and Ei denote the average of maximum daily temperature , total rainfall and tot al evaporation in month t, where the asterisk denotes that they are measured in terms of the deviation from the seasonal average. For example,

Cr = total monthly demand

Pr = estimated population served

= number of days in month t t = time in months st arting from July 1997, i.e. t=1

10

01

is July 1997,

t=2 is August 1997, etc.

R'25 -R - ( R1 + 25

R 13 +R25+ R 37+ R4 9)

5

(S)

Converting total demand to per capita daily demand removes the impact of population growth. It further removes any differences in monthly demand that are simply due to differences in the number of days in the month.

That is, the deviation of total rainfall in June 1999 (t=25) is the total rainfall in June 1999 minus the average of total rai nfall in June 1997, June 1998, June 1999, June 2000 and June 2001 (t=1, 13,25,37,49, respectively).

Next, we applied seasonal decomposition to the monthly per capita demand figures to estimate monthly seasonal factors. Roughly speaking, seasonal factors quantify how much demand in a particular month is above or below average monthly demand. For example, if the seasonal factor for December is 1.2 then, on average, demand in December is 1.2 times the average monthly demand.

The specification of the regression model for deseasonalised per capita demand can now be written as fo llows:

Dividing the monthly per capita daily demand for each month by the relevant seasonal factors gives so-called deseasonalised demand , that is demand with the "average" seasonal variation removed: c,s _

Ct

Cf

--

Ft

Cf's= a + /31T/ + {3 2 R; + {3 3 E; +

/3 4 Tr~, + {35 R;_1 + {36 Er_1 + {37 / + Er (6)

where Ti_1 , Ri_ 1 and E;_ 1 denote the lagged (one month) measures of t emperature, rainfall and evaporation. These were included in the model to allow for any lag effects from weather on demand. a, {31 to {37 are the regression coefficients and E is the disturbance term. To allow for any structural upward or downward trend in demand we also included a linear trend in time, denoted by t.

Estimated savings from water conservation (4)

Fr = seasonal factor

Sydney Water has developed a comprehensive water conservation strategy aimed at improving water use efficiency in the residential and non-residential sector, reduction of system leakage, and source substitution , in particular rainwater tanks and recycled water (Sydney Water, 2009).

We then fitted a multivariate linear regression model to the deseasonalised per capita demand. The independent variables

Sydney Water's Operating Licence includes specific targets for demand reduction and requi res Sydney Water to reduce

where

C'f,s = deseasonalised per capita daily demand

66 AUGUST 2010 water

technical features


[g

demand management

re f ereed paper

during the latter part of th is period. Therefore, strictly speaking the observed data cannot be used to estimate a model of baseline demand w hich is, by definition , demand in the absence of w ater conservation and water restrictions. However, if we deleted the months affected by water conservation from the dataset the remaining dataset would have too few observations for a robust analysis, in particular t he seasonal decomposition analysis.

70 ~ - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -~ 60 50

~ C0<rected demand -- Demand

20

We therefore corrected t he observed demand by adding on t he estimated savings from water conservation. The c orrected demand is shown in Figure 2. The difference between t he observed and c orrected demand reaches a maximum of just under 2% by June 2002.

10

O ,..__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __, Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

1997

1998

1998

1999

1999

2000

2000

2001

2001

2002

Month

Population data

Figure 2. Total monthly demand corrected for savings from water conservation.

Sydney Water prepares estimates of the populat ion served with water at 30 June of each year. These estimates are based on estimat es of resident population by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the NSW Department of Planning which are then adjusted to correspond more closely with Sydney Water's area of operations.

demand on storages to 329 litres per capita per day by 2011 , a 35% red uctio n compared to 1991. The NSW Government's Met ropolitan Water Plan (NSW Government, 2006) also sets out specific targets for Sydney Water's programs.

We used linear interpolation to derive estimates of population served at each month in between. During the period used to calibrate t he model, i.e. July 1997 and June 2002, the population served grew by about 5% from about 3.9 to about 4.1 million people. During the period that drought restrictions applied, i.e. October 2003 to June 2009, it grew by about another 5%.

Sydney Water estimates and reports the savings from all water conservation programs annually in its Water Conservation and Recycling Implementation Report (Sydney Water, 2009). Estimates are prepared using a range of methods depending on the type of program and available data. Because of the large number of programs we only provide a brief, general discussion of methods used to estimate savings here.

Weather data We used weather data from t wo Bureau of Meteorology stations, Sydney Airport and Prospect Dam. These were chosen because they are the only two stat ions in Sydney Water's area of operations whic h have long term , uninterrupted data on evaporation.

Savings from residential programs are typically est imated by multiplying t he number of participants by an estimate of the average savings. Average savings are estimated using various methods, including end use analysis and statistical methods for program evaluat ion such as c ontrol group methods.

The observat ions from these t wo stations were combi ned into a single observation by calculating a weighted average. The weights were 0.27 for Sydney Airport and 0. 73 for Prospect Dam. These weights were taken from an unrelated analysis.

Some est imates, in particular estimates for non-residential programs, are based on detailed submetering of water use. Estimates for leak red uction programs are based on number of leaks detected and estimated leak rates for each detected leak. Savings from recycled water programs are mostly based on met ered supply of recycled water.

Data Demand data Sydney Water data on daily, reservoir corrected demand was used to c alculate total monthly demand between July 1997 and June 2002 as shown in Figure 2. We chose th is period because it is the most recent period of unrestricted demand that is available. Water rest rictions applied between November 1994 and October 1996. Volu ntary restrict ions were announced in November 2002. Some water conservation activit ies were implemented

~ ..:;.-na/glilX Pt;yUd . A

Ph: 1800 643 339 Fax: 02 9524 1447

www.m;croana/yUx.com.au

FOR OVER 20 YEARS, MICROANALYTIX HAVE BEEN PREMIER SUPPLIERS OF QUALITY LABORATORY CONSUMABLES AND EQUIPMENT IN AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND AND THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION

ADVANTEC

• Membrane and Syringe Alters • Glass Fibre Filters • Quantitative/Qualitative Alter Papers • Extraction Thimbles • Vacuum & Pressure Filtration Equipment • Chromatography Papers • pH& Test Papers

~ foJ:~ttA•j1 /

C'

_

• Laboratory Safety Signs • Laboratory Prtnters • Labels & Visual Warning Signs • Site & Safety Signs

M(C,ro-s ~ • • • •

Syringe filters Plastlcware Syringes FIitration products

• Incubators & Water Baths • Sterilizers & Cenlnfuges • Laminar Flow Cabinets • Muffl e Furnace

• Glass & PolypropyleneVials • Gaps & Plugs • Septa/Liners and Inserts • Vial Racks • Decappers & Crtmpers

SYDNEY • MELBOURNE • BRISBANE • AUCKLAND water AUGUST 2010

67


demand management

~

,r

1.2 1.05

7,000

J

0.88

'7

5,000

3,000

,..

~

I!

IIi~

0.8

,-

0.6

,I~.. ,..''!

0.4

Ii

14,000

i

u.~J

1,

2,000 1,000

1; ~

~

~

~

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

~

~

~

~

~

~

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Sep

I~

~

I\

- - -Oct

Nov

0.92

~

l'1;•i -

Figure 3. Monthly savings from water conservation.

-,,

0.91

,_i

,.·

,.,

Aug

1.00 ...

le

r-i'

(~. Jul

~

,,p

o.o

Month

1.08

;

0.2 ~

I. IJ

~

1.02

n OR

1.0

6,000

refereed paper

Dec

_ L.i., _

Jan

Feb

~--

~

Mar

Apr

May

-

Jun

Month

Figure 4. Seasonal factors for per capita demand. Savings from water conservation

600 . - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - ,

Estimates of water savings were prepared by Sydney Water using various methods as described in the preceding section. To illustrate the growth in monthly savings, Figure 3 shows the estimated monthly savings at June of each year since 1999.

500

,.,_

Since the introduction of restrictions, savings from other water conservation programs have more than tripled.

. ..

-- Demand (corrected)

- s easonally adjusted

Results

100

Baseline demand model Multiplicative seasonal factors were estimated using the seasonal decomposition procedure in Predictive Analytics Software (PASW, formerly SPSS), a widely used statistical software package. PASW uses the ratio-to-moving average method for calculating seasonal factors (Makridakis et al, 1983). The resulting seasonal factors are in Figure 4.

01------------------------~ 1997

*

1998

N 1998

*

1999

N 1999

2000

N 2000

2001

N 2001

2002

Month

Figure 5. Average daily per capita demand. 600 . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

As per Equation (4), dividing monthly demand by the relevant seasonal factor gives deseasonalised monthly dem and. Figure 5 shows the original per capita demand as well as the deseasonalised per capita demand. The coefficients of the regression model for deseasonalised demand were estimated using stepwise regression in PASW. Results are in Table 1.

.. Seasonally adjusted

~

The st epwise regression selected evaporation, temperature and rainfall in the preceding month for inclusion in the final model. The trend variable was positive but not statistically significant and hence not included in the final model. All coefficient estimates have the expected sign. Demand increases as evaporation and temperature increase and goes down as rainfall increases.

Modelled

100

0>---------------------~ N 1997

1998

N 1998

1999

N 1999

2000

N 2000

2001

N 2001

2002

1 ·.

-

Month

Figure 6. Modelled deseasonalised demand.

Table 1. Coefficient estimates and other model statistics. Variable

Coefficient estimate

Constant

Ei r1 R"1- 1

R2 Adjusted R2 Durbin-Watson N

68 AUGUST 2010 water

422.938 0.800

255.69 4.86

8.581 -0.075

4.08 -2.54

0.74 0.73 2.15 60

I

40

8

30

;;;

-- Demand (corrected)

20

---·-·-·-------············

I , Modelled

·-· -

10

0'--- - -- - -- - -- - - - - - - - - - N 1997

1998

N 1998

1999

N 1999

2000

~ 2000

2001

N 2001

2002

Month

Figure 7. Observed and modelled monthly total demand.

technical features


Care shou ld be taken in interpreting the regression coefficients. The weather variables measure deviations from the seasonal average. The regression coefficients therefore measure how much deseasonalised demand will vary from average deseasonalised demand for every unit that the weather variable deviates from its seasonal average. For example, the regression coefficient for evaporation is 0.8. This means that for every one mm of evaporation above the seasonal average evaporation, deseasonalised demand wi ll increase by 0.8 litres per capita per day. Or, conversely, for every mm of of evaporation below the seasonal average, deseasonalised demand will decrease by 0.8 litres per capita per day. The coefficients cannot be used to estimate demand based on "raw" weather data, e.g. the demand for a month with evaporation of, say, 150 mm. The raw figure first needs to be converted to a difference compared to the seasonal average before it can be used to estimate deseasonalised demand. The (adjusted) R2 is 0.73. Note that this R2 only applies to the model for deseasonalised demand. As shown below, the explanatory power of the "fu ll" model, i.e. including the seasonal factors is significantly higher. The Durbin-Watson statistic equals 2.15 which indicates that t he model does not suffer from statistically significant serial correlation in the residuals. Figure 6 shows deseasonalised demand as estimated by the model. The model is able to closely replicate the original data. To convert the estimates of deseasonalised daily per capita demand as estimated by the regression model t o estimates of month ly total demand we multiply the estimate for a particular month by the seasonal factor for that month and the number of days and the population served in the month. Figure 7 shows the actual monthly total demand and the estimated month ly tot al demand. The R2 of the full model for total monthly demand is 0.87. The percentage error ranges from -6.1 % to 7 .6%. The mean of the absolute percentage errors is 2.4%. On an annual basis, i.e. after aggregating the estimates of monthly demand over a year, the error ranges between -1.0% and 1.2%, with a mean absolute error of 0.8%.

Estimated reduction due to drought restrictions We used the baseline demand model as described in the preceding sections to estimate what baseline demand would have been during the period that restrictions applied, given the actual weather conditions and population served during that period. We then deducted the estimated savings from water conservation programs. The result is an estimate of unrestricted demand. That is, an estimate of what demand would have been if no restrictions had applied given the actual weather cond itions, population served and water conservation programs.

Leading the world in the modernisation of Irrigation Infrastructure Rubicon is leading the world in the modernisation of irrigation systems. Total Channel Control(!) technology has set a new International benchmark of 90% distri bution efficiency. The FlumeGate'" is the cornerstone of TCC(!) and provides accurate f low measurement and control. Rubicon has worked with the University of Melbourne for over 10 years pioneering innovative approaches to water delivery technology. Rubicon is Motorola's Distribution Partner, offering MOSCAD and ACE RTU solutions for management and control of Water and Wastewater for urban and rura l Uti lities. • • • • •

SCADACon nect'" FlumeGate'" SlipGate'" SolarDrive'" Total Channel Control(!) (TCC)® • FarmConnect'" • Australian Premier Distributor for Motoro la MOSCAD and ACE.

The difference between this estimate of unrestricted demand and the observed, restricted demand is our estimat e of the reduction in demand that can be attributed to restrictions. It is the equivalent of the righthand side of Equation 2. This procedure is illustrated graphically in Figure 8. The top, blue line is the estimated baseline demand. The aqua line below that is the estimated unrestricted demand, that is,

-

RUBICON www.rubicon.com.au Rubicon Systems Australia Pty Ltd 1 Cato Street Hawthorn East VIC 3123 Australia Telephone + 61 3 9832 3000

1A Wheeler Street Shepparton VIC 3630 Australia Telephone +61 3 5820 8800 www.rubicon.com.au


demand management

~

[g

80 ~ ~ - - - -- - - ~ -- - - - - - - - - ~ Level 3 Voluntary Level 1 Level 2

35%

70

30%

60

25%

50

20%

~

~ 40

15%

Cl

a

30 10%

..

..

,,J . . . ''

20 5%

I

('

. I\

',·. ,~

I

I

.. i

•' '..e

.. •

I

I

/.

' .. I

·"'

• I

~

.,

refereed paper

\r l

I\

,,..

\

' ' t\ I

..

'

.

• I

~ :}

.

\

10

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

Jul

Jan

2002 2003 2003 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009

l-

Baseline demand (estimated) - Restricted demand lobservedJ

• Unrestricted demand (estimated)] - Reduction from restrictions

Month

Figure 8. Estimating the savings from restrictions.

Figure 9. Monthly percentage reductions due to restrictions.

baseline demand minus estimated savi ngs from water conservation. The black line below that is the observed demand. The orange lines indicate when the various levels of restrictions were introduced.

overestimated by 10%. Th is results in total savings over the period that restrictions applied of about 600 and 546 GL. In relative terms, t his is equivalent to an error of about 5%.

The difference between the estimated unrestricted and the observed demand is the reduction in demand due to restrictions. This difference is shown as the green line in Figure 8. It is t he equivalent of the righthand side of equation (2). Total savings over the period during which drought restrictions applied, i.e. October 2003 to June 2009, were about 575 gigalitres (GL). At 2008-09 levels of consumption, this is equivalent t o about 1.2 years of consumption. Level 2 restrictions were in place for one year and saved about 100 GL during that period. Level 3 rest rictions saved about 104 GL per year. Level 1 restrictions were not in place for a full year. However, we estimate that if t hey had been, they would have saved about 78 GL. Percentage reductions in demand due to Level 1, 2 and 3 restrictions were about 12 %, 16% and 17%. That is, demand was about 12%, 16% and 17% less than it wou ld have been wit hout restrictions. Savings are seasonal, i.e. tend to be higher in summer than winter. This is not surprising given that restrictions applied to outdoor water use mainly. Outdoor use tends to be higher in summer than winter. Therefore, potential savi ngs are higher in summer than winter. Percentage savings tend to be in t he range of 5-10% during the winter months and 20-25% during the summer months see Figure 9. The baseline demand model was able to replicate historical data to a high level of accuracy. Therefore, we are confident t hat the estimates of baseline demand for the period with rest rictions are robust. Unlike for the baseline demand model, the accuracy of the est imated savings from water conservation can not be checked easily by comparing the est imates to direct measurements. However, we consider it highly unlikely that the relative error in these estimates would exceed ±5%.

Therefore, given that a 10% error in estimated savings from water conservation is highly unlikely and the high level of accuracy of the baseline demand model, w e consider it highly unlikely that the relat ive error of the est imated savings from water restrictions exceeds 5% .

Conclusions This paper has estimated the reduct ion in demand that is associated with drought restrictions, taking into account other factors that have affected demand during the period restrictions applied, i.e. weather conditions, customer growth and other water conservat ion activities. We estimate that the reduction t hat can be attributed to restrictions is about 575 gigalitres over a period of just under 6 years. We consider it highly unlikely that t he error in this estimate would exceed 5%. In percentage terms, Level 1, 2 and 3 restrictions reduced demand by about 12% , 16% and 17%, respectively. These estimated reduct ions may include reductions due to voluntary changes in water use behavio ur that customers undertook in addition to the mandatory changes included in the restrictions. Savings are seasonal, i.e. tend t o be higher during summer than winter. This reflects the higher savings potential during summer when outdoor use is highest.

The Author

Frank Spaninks is Demand Analyst for Sydney Water (frank.spaninks@sydneywater.com.au).

References

It should further be noted that the large number of programs that are included in the estimated savings means that errors in the estimated savings of individual programs may cancel out.

Makridakis, S., S.C. Wheelwright and V.E. McGee, 1983. Forecasting: Methods and Applications. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

For illustration, we recalculated savings from restrictions assuming savings from water conservation were under or

Sydney Water, 2009 . Water Conservat ion and Recycling Implementation Report 2008-09. www.sydneywater.com .au.

7 0 AUGUST 2010 water

NSW Government , 2006. 2006 Metropolitan Water Plan. www. waterforlife. nsw .gov. au .

technical features


~

refereed paper

international projects

SUSTAINABLE SUCCESS IN RURAL TANZANIA D Young, P Ochre Abstract MSABI - a Swahili acronym meaning "safe water for better healt h" is a small non-government organisation (NGO) based in Kilombero Valley, Tarizania. MSABI is working in collaboration with disadvantaged ru ral Tanzanian communities in a rural area covering more than 5,000 km 2 and a populat ion of 450,000 people, to improve health st andards related to water and sanitation. With a team of 25 local staff, the project delivers education and infrastructure interventions. MSABI uses simple, low-cost technology approaches to deliver safe but affordable water and sanitation installations. By using local materials, local skills and adapted low-cost technologies, MSABI staff can install water and sanitation infrastructure for as little as one fifteenth of the usual cost. For infrastructure investments, community groups contribute money, materials and labour equivalent to around 50% of the total cost. Water is sold back to the commu nity resulting in a sustainable business and water asset management system. Community support for the program is strong. Since operations commenced in June 2009, MSABI has completed community education in 4 vil lages, installed 61 new water access points, 13 new split system compost latrines and is in the final stages of developing a clay pot water filter in conju nction with a local women 's pottery group. MSABI also welcomes young professionals to join the team and obtain valuable development work experience. This provides the advantage of skills transfer to our local team and contributes to a low overhead project.

Introduction Access to clean and safe wat er is a widespread problem throughout Africa that has serious conseq uences for both health and economic independence. There is an existing trend to use top-down management approaches and expensive, difficult to repair and maintain foreign pump tech nologies. Consequently, the roll out of these programs and the capacity of the community to maintain the infrastructure is limited. A recent study in 2009 by the International Institute for the Environment and Development concluded there are over 50,000 abandoned water access points in Africa, representing a waste of USO 215-360 million (Skinner, 2009). MSABI was started by Dale Young , a young Australian water and wastewater engineer. In 2007, Dale took a leave of absence from GHD to live in the rural Tanzanian town of lfakara with his partner Tanya, who is a researcher in the prevention of malaria. Upon arrival he was asked to investigate reports of a serious cholera and typhoid outbreak in two remote vi llages. Dale realised the problem was serious, widespread and prolonged. At the time, local residents were restrict ed to collecting water from polluted, shallow hand-dug wells. Polluted sources included surface run-off during seasonal rains, and subsurface contamination of the water table from

Safe water for better health, the MSABI project.

Figure 1. MSABI education team providing safe water, sanitation and hygiene information to local Namwawala village residents. latrines, rubbish pits and animal pens. With limited formal education and a lack of knowledge of water sanitation, the village residents were suffering. After consulting with local commu nity leaders, government officials and multiple NGO's, Dale prepared a detailed proposal for action and received seed funding from GHD enab ling him to start the MSABI project.

MSABI Objectives To work in collaboration with disadvantaged rural Tanzanian communities to improve health standards related to water and sanitation, through education programs and infrastructure improvements, resulting in community empowerment leading to sustainable management of water and sanitation assets.

Project Solutions MSABI has developed a replicable and scalable commun ity based model that aims to improve health using the following interventions: • Hyg iene and sanitation education • Creation of new safe and clean water points • Introduction to home based water treatments • Introduction of new latrine pit designs and practices

Community Education The MSABI education team travel to local community vi llages teaching a structured program consisting of environmental awareness, measures to improve their environment, a nd ways to ensure safe water and improve sanitation. They also promote MSABI community infrastructure services.

Infrastructure Project Description MSABI is focused on improving com munity health. Knowledge sharing and new technologies are introduced with the aim to educate, capacitate and empower. These technologies are:

water AUGUST 2010 71


international projects

[i]

refereed paper

Figure 2. Rota Sludge drilling in action. The technology is essentially manual percussion drilling. The gentleman at the front controls the pressure in the drilling pipe, releasing the pressure at the top of the motion to release cuttings from the bottom of the borehole. • low cost • simple • easy to maintain and repair

Figure 3. Rota Sludge drill bit attached to the drilling weight.

• use local materials • can be built locally • can be operated and managed locally • are environmentally sound • are sustainable.

Adopted Technologies MSABI is introducing four key technologies that meet the above criteria: • Rota Sludge manual borehole drilling • Rope pumps • Split system compost VIP latrines • Clay filter pots.

Figure 4. The Rota Sludge equipment fully loaded onto a tricycle. The MSABI team has the capability to reach remote locations where conventional truck-mounted or trailer rigs cannot. 72 AUGUST 2010 water

'Rota Sludge' manual borehole drilling is the primary technology employed for the excavation of bore holes, a techn ique that enables drilling to depths of up to 40m using human power. The rig can be transported on the back of a tricycle. MSABI recently completed a borehole where the nearest road is 27 km away. Today, MSABI owns 5 'rota sludge' drill rigs and is investigating other potential drillin g technolog ies that will enable drilling to greater depths and through soft rocks. Rope pumps are installed above the bore holes to draw water. The community loves this technology. It is a sensible alternative to foreign hand pumps which have multiple expensive and difficult to obtain parts which regularly break. The drill rigs and pumps are manufactured locally in lfakara which provides a way of providing economic returns to the local community.

Figure 5. Typical MSABI rope pump installation.

technical features


[i]

refereed paper

international projects Involvement with Young Professionals It is difficult for young engineers to gain experience in the aid and development field. Even as volunteers, younger staff in particular have difficulty finding meaningful opportunities to assist with technically and logistically ambitious projects. In paid development work, international clients prefer the involvement of experienced professionals rather than graduate level engineers and scientists.

Figure 6. Before MSABI a dirty shallow well was the sole source of drinking water for a group of Sukuma people. Throughout the region the water table is very high , on average 3 to 5m below the surface. Existing deep pit latrines resu lt in direct contamination of the primary drinking water source, particularly in areas where people are accessing wat er from hand dug open wel ls. MSABI is promoting the use of shallow composting latrines t hat protect the underlying shallow aquifers and also provide a valuable fertiliser product for crop production . MSABI is working with a local women's group on the production of clay filter pots for home-based water filtration. As part of this project a large kiln (oven) and weather proof work-station for filter production has been built. It is planned the pots wi ll be sold to the commun ity for around $5.

With this context in mind, in partnership with Engineers Without Borders (UK chapt er) and the GHD Young Professionals group in Brisbane, MSABI is providing a unique opportunity for young professionals to gain exposure t o engineering, scientific and project management tasks in the aid and development field. Through a volunteer program, young professionals can gain practical project management skill s in a rural African environment, technical skills and the opportunity to work with a local t eam of Tanzanians. The advantage to MSABI is that knowledge is transferred to the local team and project management overheads are kept to a minimum.

MSABI Operations Summary 2009/10 MSABI has had a very successful first year of operations with strong local support and demand for the program. The MSABI team has grown to 25 locally employed st aff operating over 15 villages. They are largely responsible for day to day operations giving them a sense of project ownership, engagement

Figure 7. After installation of a MSABI borehole the water quality improvement is significant. The leader of this family group has reported a decrease in worms and diarrhoea.

and pride for their community work. Dale is currently working with the team to develop business and managerial skills within the team with the aim of management handover to the local team by 2012. Since infrastructure operations commenced in June 2009, MSABI has completed 61 rope pumps installations including 43 new boreholes, 9 open well conversions and 9 replacements of broken foreign pumps. The program has recently com pleted 13 new split system

Sustainability not Dependency To receive a new water access point or latrine, a commun ity group must contribute money, materials and labour around 50% of the total cost. This joint subsidy prog ram is delivering new water access points at a cost that is over 15 times lower than other NGOs operating in Tanzania. Community commitment is vital to ensuring a strong sense of ownership which also promotes upkeep and maintenance of asset s. MSABI encourages group owners to sell water back to their community. At 2c per bucket and 100 regular users, the asset can be paid-off within 4-months. This business model approach is creating a responsible and sustainable community management culture.

Figure 8 and 9. Shallow split system compost latrines are designed to keep waste dry and above the wet season water table. Compost and diverted urine can be used for fertiliser.

water

AUGUST 2010 73


international projects

[ii

refereed paper

Tanzania working in collaboration with disadvantaged rural communities to improve health standards related to water and sanitation. Through education programs and infrastructure improvements, comm unity empowerment can lead to the sustainable management of water and sanitation assets.

Figure 10. MSABI assisted a women's pottery group construct a kiln. compost latrines and is in the final stages of developing a prototype clay pot water filter in collaboration with a local women's pottery group. The community education program has been completed in 4 rural villages and is currently worki ng in the regional town centre of lfakara.

Conclusions The MSABI project has demonstrated the significant positive achievements that can be realised in countries such as

Specify and use Link-SealÂŽ seals to seal pipe penetration

Donations and Further Information Figure 11 . The filter pot is designed The future of the MSABI to fit into a standard water project is reliant on collection bucket. continued public and institutional support. The project has low overheads (no complex administration, no car or office) - all money raised goes directly to the project. MSABI would like to acknowledge the support from the GHD Foundation who kindly donated $30,000 over 2009/10 and the GHD Young Professionals who fund-raised over $3000. MSABI is a registered NGO in Australia under the Global Development Group. Donations are tax deductible. A donation of $500 will provide a new safe water access point (borehole and rope pump) and the donor name will be sign written on the pump. $300 wi ll cover the cost of a new latrine. More information on the project is available at the MSABI website, www .msabi.org; and from Dale Young's Blog, http ://tanzani awater. blog spot. com.

Acknowledgments The authors would also like to thank the assistance of GHD Young Professionals Yi Ling Wong and Toby Turner in preparing this paper.

The Authors

Dale Young (africadale@gmail.com) started the MSABI project and is currently undertaking succession planning for the management of the project.

Slide the assembly into the space between the pipe and wall opening

PR â&#x20AC;˘jEX

When the bolts are tightened, Link-Seal modular seals expand to create a gas and water tight seal. Available in Australia and New Zealand

Projex Group Pty Limited Telephone : 02 8336 1666, Facsimile: 02 8336 1670 www.projex.com.au, email: mail @projex.com.au

74 AUGUST 2010 water

Pip Ochre (pip.ochre@ghd.com) is a member of GHD's Water

Group in Brisbane and has been a keen supporter of the MSABI project.

References Skinner James, March 2009. Where every drop counts: tackling rural Africa's water crisis, International Institute for the Environment and Development Briefing Paper, http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/ 17055IIED.pdf

technical features


[ii

water supply

refereed paper

THE ANGLESEA BOREFIELD PROJECT A Cunningham , A Micallef Abstract This paper reports on the establishment of a new borefield to provide muchneeded water to the Geelong region. It covers hydrogeological investigations, planning, approvals and environmental actions as well as construction and commissioning to provide up t o 20 MUd.

Introduction Barwon Water (Barwon Region Water Corporation) is Victoria's largest regional urban water corporation, centred in Geelong, providing world class water, sewerage and recycled water services to more than 275,000 people across 8100 square ki lometres from Little River and the Bellarine Peninsula in the east, to Colac in the west, and from Meredith and Cressy in the north, to Apollo Bay on Victoria's sout h-west coast. In October, 2006, the Victorian Government released the Central Region Sustainable Water Strategy (CRSWS). The CRSWS is a comprehensive plan for the sustainable use of water resou rces in the central region of Victoria. The CRSWS anticipated that the lower average stream flows experienced since 1997 could possibly represent a permanent stepped change in inflows linked to cl imate change, which means that Barwon Water: • could expect an immediate shortfall of water under a continued low flow scenario and • would require an additional 8,000 ML per year by 2010, increasing to 10,000 ML per year by 2015. The CRSWS identified a broad range of actions to address projected water shortfalls within the central region. As part of the extensive technical investigations undertaken in developing the CRSWS, Victorian groundwater resources were reviewed. This included a reassessment of the Jan Jue

Fast-tracked as Geelong's water storages fell below 20 per cent.

---= ·~··\-----· -1--(

~--

, _ ,_ _ l,tONI

Figure 1. 079-Conceptual Hydrogeological Model. Groundwater Management Area's Eastern View Formation aquifer, located near the Anglesea townshi p. The CRSWS identified the potential for higher yiel ds from the aquifer than initially anticipated in earlier studies, suggest ing a potential yield from the Lower Eastern View Formation (Lower EVF) aquifer system in the order of 7,000 ML per year. As a result, this aquifer was identified as a viable water supply option for the greater Geelong water supply system. The CRSWS identified a delivery date of 2011 for this project. Compared to other alternative augmentation options, this project was selected by Barwon Water for implementation due to its ability to be fast-tracked and delivered during 2009. The need to fast track the project was critical. Geelong 's water st orages had just dropped below 20% for the first time in 20 years and Stage 4 water restrictions were in place. The project also represented a new source of water to Barwon Water and was of a comparative or lesser cost than other augmentation options. Barwon Water prepared a Business Case for the project, wh ich was approved by the Department of Treasury and Finance. The project was named by

Barwon Water as the Anglesea Borefield Project.

Investigations Hyd rogeological investigations undertaken in the early 1990s indicated that two main aquifer systems are located in the Ang lesea region, the upper and lower Eastern View Formation referred to as the UEVF and LEVF, respectively. The aquifers are separated by a low permeability layer of clays and shales referred to as the middle Eastern View Formation or MEVF. Two synclines exist in the aquifer. The Anglesea Syncline runs in a north-west t o southeast direction from the upper reaches of Salt Creek, deepening towards the township of Anglesea and continuing offshore. The Jan Jue Syncline runs in a west-east direction extending from the flanks of the Otway Ranges, then deepening towards the coast at Jan Jue (Figure 1).

To deliver the project ahead of the timeframe given in the CRSWS, hydrogeological investigations were undertaken in parallel with other activities, such as statutory approvals, infrastructure design and dril ling works. Dri lling undertaken during this investigation phase involved the

water AUGUST 2010 75


water supply

[i]

construction of two bores, one located in the Jan Jue Syncline or Northern Borefield and the other located in the Anglesea Syncline or Southern Borefield. Construction of these bores was complet ed during 2008. Each bore was pump tested to obtain valuable aquifer parameters, evaluate t he likely yield from each production bore and to assess if t he proposed bore spacing was suitable. The pump tests identified t hat the proposed bore spacing in the southern borefield was not suitable and that two bore sites would need to be relocated further west to increase t he d istance between each site.

Anglesea borefield system The Anglesea borefield system generally consists of: • seven bores, including the two investigation bores completed during 2008 • a pipeline to collect the extracted groundwater and t ransfer it to a pretreatment plant • a pump station to transfer the pretreated water via a pipeline to t he

Wurdee Buloc Reservoi r, Geelong's main water storage and a • significant amount of monitoring infrastruct ure. The remainder of this paper explains the processes involved in delivering the project.

Planning and approvals Planning approvals were subject to the Planning and Environment Act 1987 and the provisions of the Surf Coast Planning Scheme. In the case of this project, it was considered appropriate to prepare a planning scheme amendment pursuant to t he Planning and Environment Act 1987, with the Minister for Planning being the authority for all works. Two separate amendments were soug ht and received. The second amendment was req uired d ue to relocation of the two bore s ites, one of which was outside the original planning envelope. Other approvals were required for the project and included: • Cultural Heritage Management Plans (Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006)

Experience the difference Monadelphous is a leading national engineering group providing engineering construction, maintenance and industrial services and electrical and instrumentation services to the resources, energy and infrastructure sectors. As principal contractors in construction of major water infrastructure, we have earned a strong reputation for:

• Delivering innovative, high-quality solutions • Providing reliable and flexible services • Developing strong customer relationships by delivering on our promises. Our capabilities extend across the lifecycle of water infrastructure, from concept design and construction to the commissioning and operation of water facilities. To make your next water project a success, consider Monadelphous.

II Monadelphous Email: monadelwater@monadel.com.au

Perth (Head Office):

Brisbane:

Tel: (08) 9316 1255

Tel: (07) 3368 6700

76 AUGUST 2010

water

www.monadelphous.com.au

refereed paper

• Section 27 Agreement (National Parks Act 1975) between Barwon Water and Parks Victoria for the construction and operat ion of project infrastructure proposed in t he Great Otway National Park • Section 138 Agreement (Land Act, 1958) between Barwon Wat er and Alcoa Australia Ltd. for construction and operation of project infrastructure proposed in the Anglesea Heath • Business Case, subject to approval from the Department of Treasury and Finance • Referral t o the Victorian Minister for Planning for a decision o n whether further assessment was req uired under the Environment Effects Act 1978. No further assessment was deemed to be required • Referral to the Commonwealth Minister for Environment, Heritage and the Arts to determine w hether the project required formal assessment and approval under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The project was deemed not to be a controlled action. • Bulk Entitlement application to the Victorian Minister for Water to allow Barwon Water to extract groundwater from the Lower Eastern View Fo rmation (LEVF). This Bulk Entitlement was the first for a groundwater project in Victoria. • Submission of a monitoring and assessment program to the Vict orian Minister for Water's delegate, t he General Manager Office of Water at the Department of Sustainability and Environment. All relevant approvals were received in time for construction to beg in.

Consultation A consultation program was implement ed to add ress the int erests and concerns of stakeholders. Consultation took many forms and included: • a Project Information Centre was established, including a phone number, email address, website and a project office in Anglesea • an Agency Reference Group was established comprising representat ives of relevant govern ment agencies. The purpose of the ARG was to understand agency requirements and facilitate a stream lined approach to approvals. Focused meetings and site vis its were

technical features


~

water supply

ref ereed paper

also held with certain representatives as required • focused consultation and negotiation with landowners affected by pipeline works and associated easements • commun ity information bulletins • information days • community forums with representatives of local interest groups • focused meetings with local environmental groups to discuss sp ecific issues • public information sessions held in Anglesea • media releases throughout the duration of the project to keep the public informed about key milestones and progress. Barwon Water undertook consultation with local conservation group ANGAIR before construction at sensitive sites. The consu ltation proved valuable as not only was vegetation of high value identified, but strategies were developed to minimise potential impact. Barwon Water's website was also used to provide information to the public. A

c ompleted during construction showed that the treatment process would meet water quality targets.

simple animation demonstrating how the aquifer system works was developed and displayed on the website. Project update newsletters were also available for download via the website.

Other key assumptions regarding bore spacing, aquifer drawdown and bore yields were made to allow design to continue in parallel with hydrogeological investigations and critical procurement items to be selected , including bore pumps and pipes.

In February, 2010, a project video was released. The video was a first for Barwon Water and is a useful tool for explaining the project to interested groups. A web version was placed on the website.

The fi nal design included sufficient flexibility and contingencies for variances in water qualities and yields from the borefield.

Design, procurement and construction Detailed design commenced in Sept ember, 2007, and was completed in February, 2008. To complete the detailed design within t he ti me-frames, design packages were complet ed in parallel across regional and overseas offices of GHD and involved civil, electrical, structural, geotechnical, groundwater, process and mechanical specialists.

Procurement of longer delivery time items was managed by Barwon Water. These items included:

Without detailed water quality analysis and jar test results, detailed design of the pre-treatment plant proceeded on some key assumptions regarding expected raw water qualities. Subsequent jar testing

Pipe Lining & Coating PTY Limited www. pipelining.com.au

• approximat ely 35 kilometres of pipe and fittings for the borefield collection pipeline and transfer pipeline. Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipe was selected for the borefiel d collection pipeline due to the bore water's low pH and Mild Steel Cement Lined (MSCL) pipe for the transfer pipeline used to pump the treated water. • seven bore pumps ranging in size from 11 0kW up to 290kW. The grade

Steel Pipe Fabrications (AS1579 / AS1554) Cement Lined Pipes (AS1281) Surface Treatment (AS2312)


water supply

refereed paper

implemented and received praise from Parks Victoria and ANGAIR.

316 stainless steel pumps were manufactured in Germany and had delivery times of up to 60 weeks. The pumps were sized to lift the water up to 300 metres at flow rates of up 60 litres per second , thereby eliminating the need for an intermediate aboveground pump st ation (Figure 2).

Project commissioning Major pipeline construction for the project was completed during June and September, 2009. Testing and commissioning of bore site and pretreatment plant infrastructure commenced in October, 2009, and involved the staged activation and testing of individual components of the syst em. Groundwater extraction commenced on October 5, 2009, from one bore, with the remaining available bores progressively test ed and commissioned as they were completed.

• riserless inflatable packer systems for installation with each bore pump. The riserless inflatable packer system is an innovative technology whereby the bore casing is sealed above the pump and utilised as a pressure pipeline to transfer the bore water to the borefield collection pipeline. This technology eliminates the need to install conventional riser pipes inside the bore and reduces pumping costs due to the lower friction losses associated with conventional riser pipes. • two 355kW transfer pumps used to pump the treated water approximately 20km from Anglesea to the Wurdee Buloc Reservoir. • fibreglass reinforced plastic bore casing for the seven bore sites. The casing procured was designed to withst and high internal and external pressures associated with deep bores. In September, 2008, the Department of Sustainability and Environment approved the Construction Environmental Management Plan and native Vegetation Offset Management Plan and issued a permit to remove protected flora under the Flora and Flora Guarantee Act 1988. Construction commenced during September, 2008, on four main contracts, being: • borefield collection pipeline - a nine kilometre GRP pipeline ranging in diameters from 300mm up to 600mm. The pipeline traversed various land tenures, including Anglesea Heath (Alcoa Lease Land), Alcoa freehold land, three private properties and road reserves. The pipeline also crosses the Anglesea River in an above ground section of flanged ductile iron pipeline wit h special corrosion resistant internal lining. • transfer pipeline - a 20 kilometre 600mm diameter MSCL pipeline. The pipeline traversed through a section of the Great Otway National Park, road reserves, existing Barwon Water easements and 12 private properties. • stage two drilling works - five production bores ranging in depths

78 AUGUST 2010 water

Following the filling of the 80 megalitre storage basin, water from the project was first pumped to the Wu rdee Buloc Reservo ir on November 23, 2009.

Figure 2. Borehole pump being lowered. from 300 to 800 metres. Bore diameters up to 500mm were required to allow the bore pumps to fit inside. However, during construction, diameters up to 1100mm were required for the installation of st eel casin g. • pre-treatment plant, transfer pump station and bore sites - the pretreatment plant consists of an aerator structure, re-lift pump station, three treatment tanks, chem ical building and the constructi on of three large baffle walls within an existing 80 megalitre onsite decommissioned storage basin for use as a settling process for the removal of iron and manganese. A transfer pump station was connected to the storage basin to pump the water via the transfer pipeline to the Wurdee Buloc Reservoir. Aboveground works at each bore site were also complet ed. New power supplies or upgrades were required at all seven sites around Anglesea. Due to the relocation of two bore sites in the southern borefield, the borefield collection pipeline was extended by 3.5 kilometres to con nect to these two sites. The timing of this relocation occurred during the peak of construction and required the project team to return to the planning, design and procurement process. One branch of this extended pipeline traversed along a narrow track adjacent to significant vegetation, including rare orchid populations. The works in this sensitive area were extremely well managed and

By March, 2010, five of the seven bores had been commissioned providing a maximum capacity of around 20 million litres per day. The final two bore bores are expected to be completed during 2010. The comm issioning of the project contributed to the decision made in February, 2010, by the Barwon Water Board to relax water restrictions from Stage 4 to Stage 3. This decision was announced by the Victorian Premier John Brumby and Minister for Water Tim Holding onsite at the Anglesea borefield on February 19, 2010.

Bulk Entitlement and monitoring program The Minister for Water granted Barwon Water a Bulk Entitlement on June 30, 2009. The Bulk Entitlement authorises Barwon Water to extract 35,000 megalitres of groundwater from the LEVF over any five year period. Extraction limits of 40 megalitres in any one day and 10,000 megalitres in any one year must not be exceeded in the borefield's operation. Barwon Water's Bulk Entitlement req uires it to have an approved Monitoring and Assessment Program. Th is program was approved by the Department of Sustainability and Environment in July, 2009. The purpose of the program is to provide data and information about the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources in the area and to protect the environmental values and health of groundwater dependent ecosystems. The aquifer system is located in an area that contains ecosystems of environmental

technical features


[i]

water supply

refe r ee d p ape r

significance and includes the Anglesea estuary, swam p lands in the lower parts of the Anglesea River and Salt Creek catchments, the upper Anglesea River and Breakfast Creek. Under the program, Barwon Water monitors: • groundwater level in 38 monitoring bores within the LEVF, UEVF and perched water tables • groundwater salinity • surface water flow, level and quality at six sites • frog popu lations at eight sites • fish populations at 11 sites • vegetation composition and abundance at eight sites • hydraulic regime of six swampland and wetland sites and • subsidence at 30 sites. Three of the groundwater monitoring bores are nominated as trigger bores. The trigger levels in these bores have been set to protect ecosystems associated with the upper catchments of t he A nglesea River and Salt Creek,

the

including a system of perennial pools containing a species of pygmy perch. These ecosystems have been identified as those being most likely to be impacted on as a result of groundwater extract ion. Barwon Water will operate the borefield to ensure that these trigger levels are not exceeded. Within 18 months of t he program commencing , Barwon Water is requi red to review the groundwater model to evaluate t he impacts of long -term pumping. Major reviews of t he program are required at intervals of no greater than five years with the first review to be completed by 31 December 2012.

Conclusion The Anglesea Barefield Project has provided the Geelong region a new wat er resource at a time when surface water resou rces have become less reliable. The fast-tracked project was delivered on time and below budget. Extensive consu ltation and investigations proved invaluable to the project's success. The com prehensive monitoring program will ensure t he environment is protected. The project is one of several

TASMAN TANK CO.

projects delivered by Barwon Water to secure the long term water su pply of the Geelong region and complements a diversified system that combines surface water, groundwater, recycling and conservation.

Acknowledgments The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of Adam Fletcher, Katrina Wi lliams, Rod Jensen and Peter Palmieri, of Barwon Water, and Jeff Morgan, of GHD.

The Authors Adam Cunningham is an environmental engineer and is a Project Manager at Barwon Water. He was the project manager for the Anglesea Barefield Project. Email adam.cunningham@ barwonwater. vie .gov.au. Amos Micallef is a Senior Water Systems Engineer at GHD and was GH D's project manager for the investigat ion and detailed design phases.

1800 826 526 www.tasmantanks.com.au

water AUGUST 2010 79


desalination and membranes

G

refereed paper

AQUAPORINS - USEFUL LEADS TO LOW ENERGY DESALINATION MEMBRANES? B Bolto, M Hoang, T Tran Abstract The 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Agre and MacKinnon, who contributed to the fundamental chemical know ledge on how cells function. They discovered a system of molecular reticulation in cell membranes: ch annels, gates and valves all of which are needed for cells t o function . It is an excellent model for designing the ultimate in practical low energy, high fl ux desalination membranes that transport water, but not salt.

Introduction Water crosses cel l membranes by two routes: diffusion through a liquid bilayer, or diffusion through water channels called aquaporins. Progress in understanding the structure and function of aquaporins has been rapid, with the topic being the subject of detailed reviews (Agre et al., 2002; Beitz, 2009). Aquaporins transport solute-free water across cel l membranes via exclusive water channels that are not permeable to ions or other small molecules. More than t en different mammalian aquaporins have been identified to date (Nobel Foundation, 2003). They are composed of proteins of molecular weight -28,000 Da, are very widely distributed and have different important specific functions. Aquaporin-1 from human red blood cel ls was the first to be discovered and is the most studied; it exists in the kidney, eye, brain and lung. Each pore faci litates water transport through the cell membrane at the rate of th ree bi llion water molecules per second, in a movement that appears to be bidirectional depending on the osmotic gradient. Based on hydrophobicity and plot s of the amino acid sequences of the proteins, aquaporin units are predicted to have six membrane-spanning segments, as shown in Fi gure 1 for aquaporin-1 , which is known as AQ P1 . This aquaporin appears to exist as a tetramer or four such units, w ith each aquaporin monomer cont aining two hemi-pores w hich fold onto each other in a unique

80 AUGUST 2010 water

Figure 1. Postulated structure of aquaporin-1 way to form the water channel. There are thus four channels per structure. To maintain an even pressure in the cells it is important that water can pass through the cell wall, as has been known for a long time. The appearance and function of these pores remained one of the classical unsolved problems of biochemistry. It was not until around 1990 that the first water channel was discovered. Like so much else in the living cell, a protein was the dominant factor. Water molecules are not the only entities that pass into and out of the cell. For billions of cells t o be able to function collaboratively, coordi nation is required, so communication between the cells is necessary. The signals sent in and between cells involve ions or small molecules. These start cascades of chemical reactions that control all our bodily functions. The signals in the brain also involve such chemical reactions. As early as the middle of the nineteenth century it was understood that there must be openings in the cel l membrane to permit a flow of water and salts. In the middle of the 1950s it was discovered that water can be rapidly transported into and out of cells through pores that admit water molecules only. During the next 30 years this was studied in detail and the conclusion was that there must be some type of selective fi lter that prevents ions from passing through the membrane, while uncharged water molecules flow freely. Although this was known, it was not until 1992

Can man emulate nature?

(adapted from King and Agre, 1998).

that the molecular machinery was identified as to which protein or proteins formed the actual channel. In the mid1980s Agre studied various membrane proteins from red blood cells and cells in the kidney (Nobel Foundation, 2003). The hypothesis was tested in a simple experiment where cells that contained the protein in question were compared with cells that did not have it. When the cells were placed in a water solution, membranes containing the protein absorbed water by osmosis and became swollen, while those that lacked the protein were not affected. Trials were also run with artificial cells, or liposomes, which are really surfactant bubbles surrounded on the outside and inside by water. It was found that the liposomes became permeable to water if the protein was planted within their membranes. In 2000, together with other research teams, Agre reported the first highresolution images of the threedimensional structure of the aquaporin. With these data it was possible to map in detail how a specific water channel functions wh ich admits water molecules but not other molecules or ions. Selectivity is a central property of the channel. Water molecules worm their way through the narrow channel of the hour glass structure by orienting t hemselves in the local electrical field formed by the charged functional groups in the channel wall. Cations are stopped on the way because of the positive charge at the centre of the channel (Figure 2), which rejects like-charged species such as hydrated protons which wou ld otherwise cause a pH change.

technical features


CS M

®

Your Complete Membrane Provider

All CSM products are:

* Manufactured to the highest standards in fully -automated and state-of-the-art facilities compliant with ISO 9001 & 14001 * Supported technically with services including RO system

design, installation, troubleshooting and training * Reliable and have been accepted by global OEM and EPC companies for over a decade * Innovative, such as the recently developed FLR-a low pressure fouling resistant RO membrane ideal for generating energy-saving results!

•shots ofCsM· reference sites from left to right: PUB Bedok Phase II Expansfon Lu gage Point WRP, lllawarra WRP, Yabulu Water Recycling Facility

C SM®

Your Complete Membrane Provider

Learn more about our capabilities. Its quite easy to reach us. Woongjin Chemical Co Ltd is the manufacturer and supplier of CSM products. Contact us and our authorized distributors to learn more about our products and services (or look for us at major water treatment exhibitions).

WoongJln Chemical Co Ltd 23rd Floor Kukdong Building· Chungmuro 3-ga • Jung-gu •Seoul• Korea tel: +82 2 3279 7000 • fax: +82 2 3279 7088 • email: csm@wjchemlcal.co.kr

WWW.CSMFILTER . COM


desalination and membranes

Q

Studies of the water channel aquaporin-Z from E. coli have shown that it transports less than one ion per 109 water molecules (Pohl et al., 2001).

electrical potential over the cell membrane. For example, L-g lutamate is the major neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, acting in one way through ligand-gated ion channels, or ionotropic receptors (Bristol University, 2003).

Structural Details of Water Channels

Water channel

Cell membrane

Hundreds of proteins have been identified in water channels from all forms of life (Fujiyoshi et al. , 2002). The strict selectivity for water raised many questions about the structural basis Figure 2. Passage of water molecules through an aquaporin responsible for these from Nobel Foundation, 2003). remarkable properties. The structure is based on a motif centre of the pore, thus inhibiting the or seq uence of three specific amino permeation of cations (Law and Sansom , acids (asparaginine, proline and alanine, 2002). abbreviated as NPA) and the unique During the past ten years, water aquaporin fold. channels have developed into a highly The three amino acids are of different topical research field. The aquaporins types: the first is hydrophilic and polar, have proved to be a large protein family. and the other t wo are hydrophobic. They exist in bacteria, plants and Mutation of residues around the NPA animals. In the human body alone at least motif reduces water permeability, eleven different variants have been suggesting that these regions contribute found. The function of these proteins has to format ion of the aqueous pore (Jung et now been mapped in bacteria and in al., 1994). Also relevant among many plants and animals, with a focus on their others are seven further amino acids physiological role. In humans, the water (valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalan ine, channels play an important role in, cysteine, arginine and histidine). among other organs, the kidneys. The Molecular dynamic simulations of water kidney is an ingenious apparatus for permeation through AOP1 show that disposing of substances the body wishes water molecules are strongly oriented in to remove. In its windings or glomeruli, the chan nel interior, with their dipoles wh ich function as sieves, water, ions and rotating about 180° during flow t hrough other small molecules leave the blood as the chan nel (Murata et al., 2000). There is primary urine. Over 24 h, about 170 L of a large t ilt of about 30° of the a-helices primary urine is produced. Most of this is that embrace the central pore reg ion, re-absorbed by a series of mechanisms where the NPA motifs contact each other so that final ly about 1 L of urine a day (Fujiyosh i et al., 2002). The right-handed leaves the body. From the glomeruli, arrangement of the a-helices was initially primary urine is passed on through a controversial, but other examples of winding tube where about 70% of t he strongly tilted ones have since emerged. water is re-absorbed into the blood via Many helix-helix interactions stabi lise the aquaporin AQP1. At the end of the tube, system. Water-water hydrogen bonds are another 10% of water is re-absorbed with weakened at the narrowest part of the a similar aquaporin, AQP2. pore, 0.2 nm across. This suggests that the NPA reg ion is a major selectivity filter. The midpoint of the rotation of t he water molecules is located in this NPA region. About half of the channel wall along the selectivity filter can be considered hydrophobic and the other half hydrophilic (Sui et al. , 2001 ). The hydrophilic face provides the sites that are essential for displacing certain waters of hydration, thereby establishing a pathway for coordinating water transport. The terminal amino groups of t he NPA loop might be expected to form a region of positive electrostatic potential in t he

82 AUGUST 2010 water

Channels exist t hat can admit and transport ions. There is a well-developed knowledge of the central functions of ion channels, which are able to admit one ion type selectively, but not others. Cells must also control the opening and closing of the ion channels. Th is is achieved by a gate at the bottom of the channel which is opened and closed by a molecular sensor, situated near the gate. Certain sensors react to certain signals, such as the binding of a signal molecule of some kind, an increase in the concentration of calcium ions, or an

refereed paper

Implications for Water Treatment There is undoubtedly much to learn yet about aquaporins at a basic mechanistic level. (adapted Nevertheless, work is proceeding on ways of incorporating aquaporins into membranes that are aimed at improving permeabi lity, which for an aq uaporin saturated lipid membrane is claimed to be more than 100-fold that of normal water treatment membranes (Jensen et al. , 2006, using data of Pohl et al., 2001), obtained with aquaporin membranes of 150 Âľm diameter. Patents have been filed on water filtration and desalination applications (Jensen et al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2009), and one firm is aiming to release its membrane to the market place in 2011 (Anon., 2010). The intricacies of biological membranes mean that manmade versions of them for desalination purposes are some way off, especially as they wi ll have to avoid the hydrolytic instability of proteins under acid or alkaline conditions. Adequate physical integrity is another hurdle. There is a considerable challenge overal l. The open path channel through the species offers a fast flow that is not necessarily impeded by the central constriction in the hour glass pores, as it is of very short depth. Polyimide membranes that have been thermally rearranged have an hour glass configuration (Park et al., 2010). They are useful for gas separations such as CO2 removal from mixtures with methane, where transport of the larger molecule is facilitated, as it has a long thin shape versus the larger roughly shaped spheres for the smaller species. The nearest unfunct ionalised analogues so far are carbon nanotube structures that can provide a conti nuous channel capable of rapid flows. An example of the rapid flow possible, which has been described as slip or frictionless flow, is that achieved with nanot ubes with a pore size of 2 nm, wh ich have water permeabilities several orders of magnitude greater than commercial

technical features


refereed p a per

polycarbonate membranes , despite having pore sizes an order of magnitude smaller (Holt et al., 2006). Their usefulness in desalination has been discussed (Corry, 2008). However, constructing membranes from the nanotubes is not a trivial problem. Binding them in a matrix , but ensuring that there is no leakage between it and the fibre, is a major challenge. There is some progress: because of their very high adsorption capacity for salt, oxidised carbon nanotube sheets have been proposed for sea wat er desalination (Togfighy and Mohammadi, 2010).

References Agre, P., Borgnia, M. J. , Yasui , M ., Neely, J. D., Carbrey, J., Kozono, D., Beitz, E. , Hoffert, J., Leitch, V. and King, L. S. (2002). Discovery of the aquaporins and t heir impact on basic and clinical physiology. Current Topics in Membranes 51, 1-36. Anon. (2010). Aquaporin receives award for its biomimetic membrane. Membrane Technol., No. 4, 4. Beitz, E. and Agre, P. (2009). Aquaporins, Springer, Berlin., Bristol University (2003). Glutamate receptors structure and functions. http://www.bris.ac.uk/ Depts/Synaptic/ info/glutamate.html Corry, B. (2008). Designing carbon nanotube membranes for efficient water desalination. J. Phys. Chem. 112, 1427-1434.

desalination and membranes Fujiyoshi, Y., Mitsuoka, K., de Groot, B., Philippsen, A. , Grubmuller, H., Agre, P. and Engel, A. (2002). Structure and function of water channels. Current Opinion in Structural Biol. 12, 509-515. Holt, J. K., Park, H. G. , Wang, Y., Stadermann, M., Artyukhin, A. B. , Grigoropoulos, C. P. , Noy, A. and Bakajin, 0. (2006). Fast mass transport throughsub-2-nanometer carbon nanotubes. Science 312, 1034-1037. Jensen, P. H., Keller, D. and Nielsen, C. H. (2006). Membrane for filtering of water. International Patent Application WO 2006 122566. Jung , J. S., Preston, G. M. , Smith, B. L., Guggino, W. B. and Agre, P. (1994). Molecular structure of the water channel through aquaporin CHIP: the hourglass model. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 14648-14654. King, L. S. and Agre, P. (1998). Pathophysiology of the aquaporin water channels. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 58, 619-648. Kumar, M., Clark, M. M., Zilles, J., Brzelakowski, M. Nehring, R. and Meier, W. (2009). Highly permeable polymer membranes. International Patent Application WO 2006 076174. Law, R. J. and Sansom, M. S. P. (2002). Water transporters: How so fast yet so selective? Current Biol. 12, R250-R252. Mishina, M. , Sakimura, K., Mori, H., Kushiya, E., Harabayashi, M., Uchino, S. and Nagahari , K. (1991). A single amino acid residue determines the Ca2â&#x20AC;˘ permeability of AMPA-selective glutamate receptor channels. Biochem. & Biophysical Research Communications 180, 813-821.

Murata, K., Mitsuoaka, K., Hirai, T., Walz, T., Agre, P., Heymann, J. B. and Engel , A. (2000). Structural determinants of water permeation through aquaporin-1. Nature 407, 599-605. Nobel Foundation. (2003). The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003. http://nobelprize.org/ chemistry/laureates/2003/public.html Park, H.B., Han, S. H. , Jung, C.H., Lee, Y. M ., and Hill, A. J. (2010). Thermally rearranged (TR) polymer membranes for CO 2 separation. J. Membrane Sci. in the press; available on line at doi:10.1018/j.memsci.2009.09.037 Pohl, P. , Saparov, S., Borgnia, M. J. and Agre, P. (2001 ). Highly selective water channel activity measured by voltage clamp: Analysis of planar lipid bilayers reconstituted with purified AqpZ. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 98, 9624-9629. Sui, H. , Han, 8.-G. , Lee, J. K., Wallan, P. and Jap, B. K. (2001). Structural basis of water-specific transport through the AQP1 water channel. Nature 4 14 , 872-878. Togfighy, M. A. and Mohammadi, T. (2010). Salty water desalination using carbon nanotube sheets. Desalination 258, 182-186.

The Authors Dr Brian Bolto, Dr Thuy Tran and Dr Manh Hoang (email: brian.bolto@csiro.au; thuy. tran@csiro.au; manh.hoang@csiro.au) work for CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria.

Works better under pressure.

That's why he's the perfect Mono employee. He thrives on pressure, and we have the highest pressure PSS pumps on the market. He knows great pressure can mean great freedom. Because the more of it you have, the further it'll take you.


G

pressure sewerage

re fere ed p a per

INNOVATION IN DESIGN OF AN 11 KM SEWER PIPELINE A Torbaty, G Amblin Abstract The vi ll age of Appin has been identified by the Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water as high priority for provision of sewerage under the NSW Government Priority Sewerage Program (PSP). Sydney Water's preferred scheme is to provide a pressure sewer network for t he existing vi llage, and transfer the sewage t o the Glenfield sewerage system some 10.9 km to the north and ?Om lower in elevation. The route initially rises 30 m then d rops 104 m before rising in its final section. It is also underlain by coal measures w hich are being mined, causing significant ground subsidence. Concept design of the transfer system comprised a pumping station in Appin and a pumping main or com binat ion of pumping main and gravity sewer to the Glenfield system, possibly via a second pumping station at Rosemeadow.

â&#x20AC;˘

Legend Forested Area Transfer Pipeline

Scale 0

--

""-,

\~

Q

--..... , I

,

The proposed pipeline route is shown in Figure 1 and t he ground profile in Figure 2.

Challenges The task of developing a detailed concept design for the scheme was assigned to the Parsons Brinckerhoff- MWH joint venture. The

84 AUGUST 2010 water

.,

-

I

,I

I

Although the ground surface falls more than 100 m from its highest to lowest points along the route, t here are int ermediate high and low points wh ich would create air pockets and stretches of stagnant flow on a gravity main following the grou nd profile. The pipeline wou ld be prone to sedimentation and slime growth. Designing this section of the pipeline with al l positive slopes along the route would require significant lengths to be constructed using direct ional drilling or deep trenching, even allowing for some minor route deviations to avoid some of t he hillcrests and valleys. Although expensive, this could be achieved with the existing ground profile. However, the option proved to be impractical due to the underground mining which is pred icted to cause subsidence of up to 1.8 m in t he south, 3.4 m in the north, and nothing in the central section (as mining opportunities there are limited by geological fault lines). Th us a gravity main solution for this section would require a flushing cycle to clear sediments from t he low poi nts and prevent slime build-up.

....,.....

'

.. ,. fÂŤ

Introduction The village of Appin 11 km south of Campbelltown, NSW, has been identified by the Department of Environment, Figure 1. Climate Change and Wat er as high priority for provision of sewerage under the NSW Government Priority Sewerage Program (PSP). Sydney Water's preferred scheme is to provide a pressure sewer network for t he existing vi llage, and transfer the sewage to t he Glenfield sewerage syst em some 10.9 km to t he north and ?Om lower in elevat ion.

1 (km)

0.5

length; air movement in and out of the pipeline; odou r control; filling and emptyi ng sections of t he pipeline during and between pumping; controlling sedimentation and sl ime growth; and accommodating mine subsidence, hydraulically and physically. There are also th ree small forested areas along the route corridor wh ich need to be traversed by d irectional drilling so as to protect t he habitat of en9angered species of fauna and flora.

( Pipeline route.

design of the transfer system with its combi nation of relatively flat and steep rout e sections with hills and valleys presented several challenging issues. These included designing for low flows in t he early years of the scheme; long residence time in the pipeline due to its

Challenges included incorporating a gravity main and predicted subsidence from

By 2040 the t ravel time t hrough t he 10.9 km pipeline would be more than 24

underground mining.

hours. In the early years of the scheme,

technical features


pressure sewerage

r e fereed p a p e r

before planned development in Appi n takes place, the flows will be less and the travel time considerably more. Septicity wi ll give rise to H2S production and any air release from airvalves on the gravity section wi ll require odour control.

260 -

Hills 3

2

240

4

220

I

Pipe drainage and fi lling through the pump cycle would create significant air movement in and out of the gravity pipeline section and this in turn creates operational restrictions on pumping, requ iring ramp-up time to push the air out of the system. The undulating pipeline profile with several intermediate gradient changes between high and low points also necessitates a large number of airvalves and consequent large number of odour control units. A better strat egy is therefore to maintain a full pipe system throughout the pump cycle.

200

C

...,

~ >

180

w

--+----+---------

160

--,

140

.

120 100 L

...

0

Rosemeadow

N

Nl

"'

"'

""

Distance (km)

a,

......

Figure 2. Pipeline ground profile.

Solutions To keep the pipeline full, one option is to install a control valve at the outlet and synchronise the pumps and the valve operation. This is not without some operational risk especially given the 10.9 km distance between the pumping station and the valve. A solution to this condition is to hydraul ically divide the pipeline with a balancing tank so that the valve and pumps operate independently of each other. At the start of the route are four small hills of similar but decreasing height. A barometric loop on Hill 4 effectively extends the length of the pumped section from Hill 1 to Hill 4 and keeps this part of the pipeline full throughout the pump cycle. (The barometric loop would take the form of an inverted 300 mm diameter steel U tube projecting some 8 m above the ground.) This

obviates the need for airvalves and odour control in the vicin ity of Hills 1, 2 and 3 which are close to planned housing. The balancing tank would be installed on Hill 4 next to the barometric loop. By providing a 50 m3 balancing tank and a reduced diameter pipeline downstream, the pipeline will be flushed for 15 minutes at a time, enough to carry sediment from low points and also prevent slime growth. The sewage in the tank will be controlled by a valve at the discharge point in Rosemeadow. When the tank is fu ll, the valve will open to allow flows through the pipeline until the tank is almost empty whereupon it will close. By keepi ng the pipeline full of sewage at all times, any problems with air inflow, release and odour along the route can be avoided. There will need to

be ventilation and odour control only at the tank, the pumping station and the final discharge point. Th is solution also avoids the need for a second pumping station at Rosemeadow. The resultant hydraulic gradient is placed over the ground profile in Figure 3.

Conclusion The proposed combination of control valve and balancing tan k provides a safe and robust solution, the balancing tank acting as a break tank for the pumped flow and the valve ensuring that the downstream pipeline is kept fu ll thus minimising potential slime growth wh ilst obviating the need for air and odour control. It is also a cheap solution as the cost of a relatively small tank is offset by a significant red uction in pipeline diameter.

Acknowledgments Other key members of the concept design team for the transfer system were Satinder Randhawa, Tom Fawcett and Michael Simpson of PB and Saviz Gharavi of MWH.

260 240 220 200

IC 1so

1160 140

The Authors

i1

120 -IL . -HGL

100 ,--o

N

"'

"'

Distance (km)

Figure 3. Pipeline profile and hydraulic grade line.

....

""

a,

... 0

......

Ali Torbaty and Geoff Amblin are senior and principal civil engineers with the Parsons Brinckerhoff-M WH Joint Venture. Email: ATorbaty@pb.com.au, GAmblin@pb.com.au.

water AUGUST 2010 85


~

catchment management

refereed paper

DRINKING WATER PROTECTION: A VICTORIAN SUPREME COURT DECISION A Davison, T Flapper, D Deere, N O'Connor, R Franklin, S Macindoe Abstract This paper presents the findings and background to the drinking water catchment planning dispute case : Rozen v Macedon Ranges SC (2009] VCAT 2746 ('the Rozen case'). So important is this case in t erms of the findings, that it has been recognised as a ' Red Dot' decision. Red Dot cases are those which "contain principles that can be followed, or applied, in planning decision making by both the tribunal and by responsible aut horities" and in particular to guide decisions to:

Tap

catchment

-

'Multfple barrltrs' may consist of: • Catchmtnt m anagtmtnt and saurct wat<r prattdion • Larg< rtstrvalrs with long dtttntian tfmts • Wattr trtat~nt • Dislnftctlon • Gtntral 'Good Wat<r Supply Optratfng Practfcts' such as closed distribution rtstrvo/rs, backf/aw prtvtntfon, ust of approvtd supplitrs, complying mat<r/als and chemicals, wattr quality awartntss training of staff and contractors

• Promote consistency in decision making by t he Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribu nal (VCAT); • Guide planning decision making by municipal counci ls, other responsible and referral authorities; • Establish sound principles for interpret ing and applying policy and like provisions in planning schemes and legislation; and • Increase transparency in decision making. The summary of the case can be found at: http://www.thewaterhub. com/ legal- and-guideline/case-law. The findi ng represents the culm ination of several years of dispute through the cou ncil planning process, VCAT and the Supreme Court of Victoria and not on ly endorses, but provides greater clarity on the application of the precautionary principle and the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines in drinking water catchment management and sou rce water protection.

Introduction Catchment management forms the first barrier in t he multiple barrier approach reflected in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines' (ADWG; NHMRC/ NRMMC, 2004) Framework tor Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) (Figure 1). The Framework is underpinned by a risk-based approach which begins with the management of hazards at t heir source i.e. at the

86 AUGUST 2010 water

=

Increasing Water Quality

Figure 1. Multiple barriers in the drinking water supply chain context (Source: Water Futures unpublished).

cat chment level. At the heart of the guidelines lies a set of guiding principles, which set the tone for the whole ADWG (Table 1). Increased emphasis on catchment management allows for improved inherent reliability in public health protection as well as ecological benefits compared to relying solely on t reatment processes within the water supply chai n (Davison and Ford, 2006). With the demand for land increasing in line with the concurrent enlargement of the peri-urban areas of cities, water utilities are increasingly faci ng development applications within water supply catchments, or to 'open up' drinking water reservoirs for recreational purposes. It is well understood that both development and recreation can lead to adverse outcomes from both a public

Establishing that cumulative rather than individual impacts take precedence.

health and environmental perspective (Krogh et al, 2008). Health risk concerns result largely from t he release of pathogens that typically reside in t he intestinal tract of infected individuals. Drinking water source protection objectives centre on excluding poll ution and maintaining steady flows of clean water to mitigate microbial risks. Recreation in catchments is known to cause raw water contamination and must be considered as a risk to drinking wat er. Treatment barriers located downstream of the catchment barrier are at risk of failing or becoming overwhelmed (e.g. see examples in Table 2), t herefore it is more prudent, where possible, to maintain and draw from the best possible raw water sources. Further, water contamination incidents have brought down government representatives in other jurisdictions and have resu lted in the jailing of a water treatment operator (Davison, 2006). Pathogen microorganisms have historically been considered t he most significant threat to public health from

technical features


~

catchment management

refereed p a per

water supplies (ADWG Guiding Principles, Table 1). Disease burdens posed by compromised raw water sou rces and barrier fai lures are hard to predict and are related to multiple variable factors including t he degree of contami nation, the health of t he population, the virulence of any pathogenic microorganisms present and t he performance of t reatment barriers. Therefore , the protect ion of source waters to the maximum degree practicable (as noted in the A DWG Guidi ng Principles) could be seen as an obligation for catchment and water source man agers as part of t heir duty of care in minimising risks of adverse health outcomes. While there are many tools t hat the catchment manager can use in protecting water supply catchments, it is often the interpretation of those legal powers within case decisions which sets precedents and hence, the practical application of t hose powers (Davison and Ford, 2006). In this pap er, we discuss how the catchment, as th e first barrier in the water supply chain, was protected t hrough t he legal interpretation of the precautionary princi ple, underp inned by the significance of the ADWG Guiding Principle Number 1.

Background to the Rozen Case Legal Context Water supply systems in Vict oria are managed by a range of geographicallybased authorities - these being the met ropolitan authorities (Melbourne Water and t hree retailers), 12 regional authorities w ith catchment to tap responsibilities as well as some ski resorts and nat ional park authorities. The reg ional authorities operate under the Water Act 1989. Western Water, the utility which issued the appeal o f the first VCAT decision in the Supreme Court is one of the regional authorities. The rest of this sect ion will be focused on information pertaining to its legal context.

Table 1. ADWG Guiding Principles (NHMRC/NRMMC, 2004). Principle

Description The greatest risks to consumers of drinking water are pathogenic microorganisms. Protection of water sources and treatment are of paramount importance and must never be compromised.

2

The drinking water system must have, and continuously maintain, robust multiple barriers appropriate to the level of potential contamination facing the raw water supply.

3

Any sudden or extreme change in water quality, flow or environmental conditions (e.g. extreme rainfall or flooding) should arouse suspicion that drinking water might become contaminated.

4

System operators must be able to respond quickly and effectively to adverse monitoring signals.

5

System operators must maintain a personal sense of responsibility and dedication to providing consumers with safe water, and should never ignore a consumer complaint about water quality.

6

Ensuring drinking water safety and quality requires the application of a considered risk management approach.

The Water Act 1989 contains powers which enable authorities to issue notices to landowners to cease an action considered to place the water supply at risk. Other legislative powers are contained in the:

• Planning and Environment Act 1987; • Environment Protection Act 1970 (EPA Act); and • Catchment and Land Protection Act 1984 (CALPA). The CALPA identifies t he major open drinking water catchments in the State in Schedule 5 classifying t hem as "Special Water Supply Catchments". Under the planning controls, water authorities are designated as 'Referral Authorities' for any development application in these special catchments. This provides them w ith the power to refuse any inappropriate development application. Any person aggrieved by the refusal of their application m ay seek a review before the VCAT. The Victorian Planning Provisions also contain specific State and local policy statements for water quality prot ection which planning authorities must have regard to. U nder the EPA Act, State Protection Pol ic ies and various guidelines for onsite wastewater management (Code of

Table 2. Recent drinking water contamination cases (Source:

Practice - Onsite Wastewater Management, Publ ication 891.2, December 2008) have been prepared and these requi re enhanced levels o f risk management withi n the specia l water supply catchments (for more information: www. thewaterhub .com/distributed systems/regulations-australia). The Safe Drinking Water Act 2003 has also been introduced in Victoria, and with its subseq uent reg ulations mandate a risk management approach to the supply of d rinking water (and some non-potable waters) (Davison and Ford, 2006). At the tim e of the appeal of the first Rozen decision to the Supreme Court, also in effect was t he: • Interim Gu ideline for Planning Permit Applications in Open, Po table Water Supply Catchment Areas Au gust 2000 (Vic), Department of Planning and Commun ity Development (Int erim Guideline). This guideline has since been finalised, was relevant at t he time of t he Rozen case, and is: • Planni ng Permit Applications in open, potable water supply catchment areas , May 2009, Department of Planning and Community Development (DPCD Guideline).

Incidents Online, www.thewaterhub.com).

Location

Hazard

Impact

Jindabyne, NSW, Australia (2009)

Sewage

Tourists and residents had to boil water or drink bottled water for around two weeks

Smiggins Holes, NSW, Australia (2009)

Unknown

Close to 120 guests were struck down with gastric illness

Alamosa, Colorado, US (2008)

Salmonella, Giardia & Cryptosporidium were all found in the town's water supply

400 cases of illness and up to 16 people being hospitalised

Galway, Ireland (2007)

Cryptosporidium

Historically high precipitation levels and the lake reaching the highest level on record were linked to exceedances above the guidel ine level of less than 1 oocyst/10 litres in the finished water. 182 cases were reported (Pelly et al, 2007).

water AUGUST 2010 87


~

catchment management Importantly for the case, setting a 'limit' of acceptability is an important component of understanding and appropriately managing water supply hazards (Elements 3 and 9 of the Framework). Both the Interim and the DPCD Guideline set a criterion of 1 onsite system per 40 hectares (ha) as their critical limit for onsite sewage management systems. In the water industry, guidelines are increasingly becoming mandatory inst ruments through their incorporation into statutory documents such as operating licences and 'Risk Management Plans' (e.g. Safe Drinking Water Act 2003 (Vic); Water Supply (Safety and Reliability) Act 2008 (Qld); Water Industry Competition Act 2006 (NSW)). Therefore, the value of 1:40 ha in the DPCD Guideline effectively becomes a limit for further subdivision development in catchments.

r e f e r eed pape r

Box 1. Key points arising from the Western Water appeal (Western Water v Rozen and Ors [2008] VSC 382). 1. VCAT did not correct ly identify or address the concept of risk of 'serious' as distinct from irreversible damage to the environment. 2. VCAT did not assess the gravity of t he risk against the relevant test but rather substituted a misconceived test requi ring a risk of irreversible damage. 3. VCAT did not in terms find that there was no foreseeable risk of damage to the environment.

Service Area

Historical Context The Rozen case was initiated in 2003 when an application for a planning perm it was submitted to the Macedon Ranges Shire Council ('Council'). The applicants, Maurice and Esther Rozen, submitted a permit application for the use and development of four dwellings, one on each of the four individual allotments (outlined in Box 2) i.e. greater than the benchmark 1:40 ha density set out in the DPCD Guideline for open water supply catchments. The development proposed was within an open water supply catchment (Campaspe River), supplyi ng water to the township of Woodend via the Campaspe Reservoir (Figure 2; Box 2), for wh ich Western Water was a referral authority. At t he t ime of the application, West ern Water was not made aware of the planning permit application and was therefore unable to exercise its powers. Macedon Ranges Shire Council subseq uently refused the permit application in 2005 (on grounds other t han water protection grounds}. The applicant appealed to VCAT in 2006 at which time, VCAT duly informed Western Wat er of the review based on its statutory referral authority status. In 2007, VCAT upheld the applicants' appeal and directed t hat t he Council issue a permit for the proposed development with conditions. Western Water issued a proceeding in the Supreme Court of Victoria appealing t he decision of VCAT on t he grounds, inter alia, t hat VCAT had made its decision based on an error in the interpretation of t he precautionary principle and t he

88 AUGUST 2010 water

Legend Waterway, reservoir or dam Western Water Service Area

M111ic1pal bo<fldary Great Chiding Range Waters Weter Atration Plant â&#x20AC;˘

Recycled Weter Plant

Figure 2. Western Water's service area showing the town of Woodend in the mid top left (Source: Western Water 2008/09).

Box 2. Summary of the site subject to the permit application (Source: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/vic/VCA T/2009/2746.html).

Four crown allotments: CA111 L (lot 'A') - 15.45 ha; CA111 L1 (lot 'B') - 16.11 ha; CA1 11Q5 (lot 'C') - 16.71 ha; CA11 1 P (lot 'D') - 24.08 ha Tota l area - 72.35 ha The site is within a rural landscape located along Ashbourne Road near the hamlet of Ashbourne about 7 km south-west of Woodend. The land is irregular in shape. It abuts Ashbourne Road and Chambers Road. The Campaspe River forms the south western and western bound ary. Three of t he lots have a frontage to the river. It is mainly cleared grazing land with a few patches of remnant native vegetation particularly close to the Chambers Road side of the site. The site forms part of the Campaspe River Catchment Area which is a subcatchment of the larger Eppalock Water Supply Catchment. The Campaspe River drains into the Campaspe Reservoir , which is located downstream from the site and supplies the Township of Woodend. consequent impact on water supply water quality risk, and the 1 :40 ha density grounds (DPCD Guideline). The Supreme Court of Victoria upheld

Western Water's appeal (Box 1). Osborn J found t hat VCAT had misstated and misapplied the precautionary principle in circumstances where it was plainly

technical features


~

catchment management

r e fereed pap er

relevant because the Interim Guidelines and planning scheme policy requi red the Tribunal to consider t he quest ion of cumulative risk created by otherwise individually appropriate septic tank systems. His Honour directed that the matter be remitted for hearing in VCAT by a differently constituted tribunal.

The Importance of the Rozen Case for Catchment Protection In reaching its decision in the Rozen case, t he Tribunal grouped its discussion around the following key items of consideration: • Consideration of the meaning of the precautionary princi ple; • The assessment of cumu lative risk in the context of the relevant planni ng guideline (DPCD Guideline) and the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG); • That relevant guidelines shou ld be applied cumulatively not individually; and • The interests of net commun ity benefit and sustainable development.

Table 3. Comparisons of 'serious and irreversible harms' between the environment and public health. Category

Example of Serious Harm

Example of Irreversible Harm

Environment

Fish kill

Salinisation of soils

Public Health

Disease

Sequelae from disease e.g. kidney failure from contracting £. coli 0157:H? Death

public health impacts, it is relatively easy to show how 'serious or irreversible harm' can relate to public health impacts (Table 3). The precautionary principle's meaning within the Intergovernmental Agreement on t he Environment (referred to by Osborn J in Western Water v Rozen and Anor) is stat ed to be: "Where there are th reats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of fu ll scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation. In the application of the precautionary principle, public and private decisions should be guided by:

The precautionary principle The precautionary principle is now captured in many examples of contemporary legislation. Wh ile the precautionary principle has largely been applied to envi ronmental rather t han

(i) Careful evaluation to avoid, wherever practicable, serious or irreversible damage to the environment; and (ii) an assessment of the risk-weighted consequences of various options."

In t he Rozen case, t he importance of the Tribunal's fi ndings for catchment planning lies in the following: "The proper application of the precautionary principle requires consideration of the cumulative risk of the adverse impact of onsite waste water/septic tank systems on water quality in open, potable water supply catchments resulting from increased dwelling density." [Tribunal emphasis] That is to say, that the impacts of development need to be considered in their entirety (i ncluding public healt h as well as environmental impacts) and not on an individual basis. The Tribunal's fi ndings were founded not on ly on consideration of t he interpretation of the precautionary principle as considered by Osborn J in the Supreme Court judgement, but also w ith reference to explicit guidance in supporting legal and guideline documents such as the ADWG (specifically Guiding Principle Number 1) and the DPCD Guideline, as well as the

Table 4. Key principles applied to the Rozen case. Principle

Description

Evidence

Pathogens can kill

It is well known that excreta, and human excreta in particular, is an established and potent source of human pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms). Excreta-contaminated water sources have been known to cause harm to humans, and occasionally to kill humans.

Wallis Lake, NSW, Australia (Reynolds, 2004; Pengilley, 2003). The impact on public health from onsite sewage management systems in catchments has also been described by Linich (1999).

Treatment systems do fail

Systems are known to fail which is why the ADWG contain Guiding Principle Number 2: The drinking water system must have, and continuously maintain, robust multiple barriers appropriate to the level of potential contamination facing the raw water supply.

Failure of water treatment - Walkerton, Ontario, Canada (O'Connor, 2002; R. vs Koebel 2004, Canlll 48879 (ON S.C.) Davison, 2006). Failure of onsite sewage management systems (Charles et al, 2005). Performance of onsite systems (Beavers et al, 1999).

Institutional limitations

Within Australia, onsite sewage management systems are managed through a number of bodies resulting in the potential for failure or lack of oversight.

Failure of systems (Flapper 2005) Auditor General of Victoria, 2006).

New eventually becomes old

While onsite sewage management systems are capable of producing good water quality outcomes at first installation, much of the focus is on that performance capability. New systems eventually become old and therefore, cumulative increases in onsite sewage management systems could eventually lead not only to increased risk of failure but also to an increased number of systems failing in any one catchment.

Auditor General of Victoria (2006).

Human error factors

Human psychology and human nature must also be taken into account in the assessment of onsite sewage system management and the potential for risks to be generated to drinking water quality.

Figure 3. Audited onsite systems review (Flapper, 2001 )

ADWG

While many people focus on the 'numbers' in the ADWG, it is the guiding principles and the Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality that are also important in assessing and managing risks to water quality.

NHMRC/NRMMC (2004); Table 1

water AUGUST 2010

89


Q

catchment management

r e f e r e ed p a p er

preference for expert public healt h microbiology evidence over expert soil science evidence. Western Water's case was largely successful because it was based on a set of principles, which, represented in their entirety, are a solid body of evidence which could be applied within a precautionary principle as well as a risk-weig hted context.

Conclusions What t his case has shown is that cat chment protection is largely about the applic ation of principles and cumulat ive risk, rather than looking at applications on an individual basis. While it may be possible to show that one development may have little or no impact on water quality, the precedent set in the Rozen case upholds and supports the words within the many planning documents present in Victoria and Australia in general i.e. that cumulative rather than individual impacts must be taken into account when considering development applications within open water supply catchments. The case provides a considered and credible basis to set limits on development density within drinking water catchments. From a catchment management perspective, it is possible to use the risk management approach recommended in the ADWG Framework to develop a validated catchment preventive measure, with target criteria and critical limits, that can form part of t he utility's risk management plan. An example of how such a preventive measure might be presented is given in Table 5.

Figure 3. Onsite sewage management system breaching two rules: irrigation of nonvegetated area (foreground) and proximity to natural waterway (background). Photograph by Dr Flapper.

Table 5. Example of potential catchment preventive measures in accordance with the ADWG Framework. Process Step: Risks Mitigated: Hazard/s Controlled: Preventive Measures: Operational Monitoring

What Purpose

Where

How When

Acknowledgments The authors thank Peter Donlon of Western Water for reviewing the manuscript and Michelle Quigley (Barrister, Owen Dixon Chambers) for helpful comments in developing the supporting material used in the case.

Who

Target Criteria Alert Limit

Dr Annette Davison has more than 20 years experience in the environment and water fields in academia, consulting, government and industry. annette@waterfutures.net.au.

Internal audit activities

Dr Daniel Deere has ext ensive experience in water quality management including in the public, private and academic arenas.

preventive measure and target criteria

Validation of

Correction What

DA received by Council for development within the water supply catchment

Review DA

Who

Water Quality Officer

How

Review of DA and discussion with other officers within utili On receipt of DA from Council

When

Develop men! Limit

The Authors

90 AUGUST 2010 water

Density of development To limit excessive and inappropriate development in water suppl catchment At Council DA department and on Council's DA records on website By liaison with Council and through exercising of referral powers Through monthly meetings, weekly website checks (depending on development activity for each area) and as each case arises Water Quality Officer

Excessive and/or inappropriate development (such as encroachment and excessive density) leading to exceedance of land and water capability resulting in adverse consequences for water quality and environmental values. Primarily biological and chemical hazards (pathogens, pests, weeds and nutrients , secondaril some physical hazards turbidi . Catchment Protection through Planning powers and instruments.

DA must specify development density of no more than 1:40 ha

Objection to DA

Who How

When

Utiltty Letter is sent to Council from Manager, Water and Waste Once review of DA is completed

Water Quality Officer checks that letter of objection/approval has been received by Council - one week after sending letter. Water Quality Officer checks records of letter receipt and DA progress with Council officer at monthly meetlnos. Planning Permit Applications in open, potable water supply catchment areas, May 2009, Department of Planning and Community Development. Decision in Rozen v Macedon Ranges SC [2009] VCAT 2746. Davison, A.O., Deere, D. and Mosse, P. (2008) Practical guide to understanding and managing surface water catchments. Water Industry Operators Association Publication. ADWG Guiding Principle 1: The greatest risks to consumers of drinking water are pathogenic microorganisms. Protection of water sources and treatment are of paramount importance and must never be compromised.

tee h n i ca I features


catchment management

re fe r ee d p a p e r

Dr Therese Flapper has extensive applied engineering and scientific skills that deliver practical solutions to the water industry. All three are Principals in Water Futures P/ L. Dr Nick O'Connor is involved in management of chemical and microbial risks for water supply and wastewater systems. He has prepared expert witness statements on several occasions for court cases. Ecos Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd. Rob Fran klin is General Manager Sustainability at Western Water and has nearly two decades of experience in land development. Rob is passionate about the protection of water supply catchments for future generations. Sally Mcindoe leads Norton Rose's Planning and Environment Practice and has 20 years experience in advising authorities and developers in relation to the use and development of land. She regularly represents water authorities in relation to applications that pose a risk to water quality within open, potable water catchments.

References http://www. vcat .vie.gov .au/CA256902000FE 154/ Lookup/ Media/$file/media_release_planning_ guidelinejudgments.pdf#xml=http://search. justice.vic.gov.au/isysquery/irl6c8b/8/hilite.

Krogh M., Davison A., Miller R., O'Connor N., Ferguson C., McClaughlin V. and Deere D. (2008). Effects of Recreational Activities on Source Water Protection Areas - Literature Review. Water Services Associati on of Australia, Melbourne, Australia.

Auditor General of Victoria (2006) Protecting our environment and community from fail ing septic tanks. June 2006 ISBN 1 921060 24 7. http://archive.audit.vic.gov.au/reports_par/ agp114_sewerage_report. pdf.

Linich, M. (1999). On-site disposal: catchment management and public health issues. Conference proceedings. On-site 99. Armidale, NSW, Australia.

Beavers, P., Tully, I. and Woolley, A. (1999) Performance evaluation of on-site aerated wastewater treatment systems. Conference proceedings. On-site 99. Armidale, NSW, Australia.

NHMRC/NRMMC (National Health and Medical Research Council and National Resource Ministers Ministerial Council) (2004) Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. ISBN Online: 1864961244.

Charles, K. J. , Davies, C.M., Ashbolt, N.J. , Baker, D.L. , Souter, F.C. , Schijven, J.F. , Ferguson, C.M., Deere, D.A. and Banens, R. (2005). Onsite sewage management in Sydney's drinking water supply catchments: virus transport experiments and risk assessment. Conference proceedings. On-site 05. Armidale, NSW, Australia.

O'Connor, D.R. (2002) Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: The Events of May 2000 and Related Issues. Part One: A Summary. Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General. ISBN: 0-7794-2558-8.

Davison, A. (2006) Public health is your responsibility. Waterworks. June 2006. Pages 16-17.

Pelly H., Cormican M., O'Donovan D. , Chalmers R., Hanahoe B., Cloughley R., et al. (2007) A large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in western Ireland linked to public water supply: a preliminary report. Euro Surveill; 1 2(5): E070503.3. Available from: http://www. eurosurveillance.org/ew/2007/070503.asp#3.

Davison, A. and Ford , R. (2006) The Powers and the Glory? Legal Tools for Managing Catchments. Paper e6156. Enviro06. Melbourne.

Pengilley, W. (2003) The Wallis Lake Oyster Litigation: Appellate Precedents in Relation to a Gallimaufry of Product Liability C laims. James Cook University Law Review. 8.

Flapper, T .G. (2001) AWTS annual accreditation sampling and monitoring program, NSW Health, 2001.

Reynolds, C. (2004) Public Health Law and Regulation. Federation Press, 2004 ISBN 186287512X. With contributions from Howse, G.

Flapper, T.G. (2005) Review of onsite legislation for blackwater and greywater treatment. Alchemy Sciences. Client Report.

Western Water (2008/09) Annual Report (available from Western Water's website).

wigroup.com.au

MELBOURNE

SYDNEY

Peter Everist Hugh McGinley 039863 3535 02 8904 7504 peverist@wigroup.ccm.au hmcginley@wigroup.ccm.au

ADELAIDE

BRISBANE

Owen Jayne 08 8348 1687 ojayne@wigroup.ccm.au

Graeme Anderson 07 3866 7860 ganderson@wigroup.com.au

¡~--

&.'l &1 ~

Water Infrastructure Con-.ianv GROUP A Tyco lntemational

water AUGUST 2010 91


AQUA PLUS™ PORTABLE DISSOLVED OXYGEN METER The latest innovation in portable dissolved oxygen meters was launched in June. The Aqua Plus™ from UK manufacturer Aquaread Ltd, is the only Optical DO System that measures salinity directly.

water business Water Business aims to keep readers alert to business news and new product releases within the water sector. Media releases should be emailed to Brian Rault at brian.rault@halledit.com.au or Tel (03) 8534 5014. AWA wishes to advise readers that Water Business information is supplied by third p ar t ie s an d as such, AWA is no t responsible for the accuracy, or otherwise, of the information submitted.

The Aqua Plus TM is available from Thermo Fisher Scientific Australia. Tel: 1300 735 295, Email: lnfoEnviroAU@thermofisher.com. To accurately calculate the DO content in a sample of water, it is essential to know the temperature and salinity of the sample as wel l as t he atmospheric pressure. The Aqua Plus™ meter includes all sensors necessary for this calculation: a precision barometric pressure sensor; an optical DO sensor; a precision temperature sensor; and an electrical conductivity (EC) sensor. From measurements taken by t he EC sensor, the salinity of the sample can be accurately determined.

KSB PUMPS FOR ABU DHABI KSB Group received an order for four large water pumps in the million euro range to be installed in the Shuweihat pump station in the Abu Dhabi emirate. At this station, t en pumps of the same type series are in operation which KSB delivered in 2003.

Optical DO technology eliminates the problems of Clarke electrodes such as membrane foul ing, cal ibration instability and oxygen consumption. Optical technology enables high precision, membrane-free, long-term st ability along with infrequent calibration and immunity to fouling by sulphides and other gases. The Aqua Plus™ also differs from other portable DO meters through the features of GPS and data logging. Up to 2000 sets of readings tagged with time, date and position can be taken, then downloaded and exported to spreadsheets as wel l as Google™ Maps, where the readings can be overlaid on either maps or satellite photos.

stainless steel. The pump sets' hydraulic efficiency wi ll be at least 87 per cent. Once complete, all four pump sets will be submitted to a so-called string test by specialists at a KSB factory. Unlike common practice with pumps of such size, the pumps will be tested using the original drive components instead of the test field motors. To th is effect, the transformer and frequency inverter, as well as the motor belonging t o the individual pump are set up to be tested as one complete unit. The German pump manufacturer was awarded the contract because the customer is completely satisfied w ith the other KSB pumps in use at the station and because KSB was able to guarantee very high levels of efficiency. Delivery is scheduled for t he beginning of 2011. For further information on RDLO high pressure pumps, please contact KSB Australia Pty Ltd, Mauricio Cle, Mobile: 0417 337 837 or visit www.ksb.com.au.

ACCIONA SHORTLISTING FOR M ETRO AD ELAIDE WATER SERVICES PROJECT A rapidly growing portfolio of potential projects for ACC IONA in Australia has been bolstered by the shortlisting of the company's consortium for the operation and maintenance of water supply, wastewater and recycled wat er services in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. As a partner in t he Metro Aqua Al liance, ACCIONA's specialist water division, ACCIONA Agua, joins United Utilities Australia and Thiess Services to form one of two consortia shortlisted by SA Wat er for this Alliance project.

Each of the RDLO 600-1200 B pumps weigh ing around 20 tonnes will handle 5,746 cubic metres of water per hour at a head of 190 metres. To ensure optimum corrosion protection, the casings, impellers and shafts are made of duplex

WaterGEMS®

"South Australia is a key growth market for ACCIONA in Australia, including our water, renewable energy and infrastructure operations," said ACCIONA Group Managing Direct or Asia-Pacific, Brett Thomas. ACCIONA Agua Development Director - Australia, Jose Maria Ortega, said he was delighted that awareness of ACC IONA Agua as a global innovator in

~

~~r.!!~~y

BRINGING TOGETHER ADVANCED WATER DISTRIBUTION MODELLING AND EASE OF USE WaterGEMS comes equipped with everything engineers need in a flexible multi-platform environment, from automated fire flow and water quality simulations, to criticality and energy cost analysis, to flushing and water loss analysis. WaterGEMS can be r un in ArcGIS, AutoCAD, MicroStation or as a stand-alone application. For more information, see the inside front cover of the August issue of Water Journal, visit www.bentlcy.com/A WA, e-mail salcs.hacstad@bentley.com, or call +61 (0)3 9699 8699.

92 AUGUST 2010 water

b

Profile for australianwater

Water Journal August 2010  

Water Journal August 2010