Water Journal December 2009

Page 1

Volume 36 No 8 DECEMBER 2009


Water loss is a US$14 billion problem.

WaterGEMS* - delivers active l eakage control, pressure ma nagement strateg ies and improves the speed and quality of repairs.

HAMMER* - reduces breakages caused by high pressure transients. Bentley* Water - identifies aging infrastructu re and enabl es remediation planning strategies.

w at er

Joumal of tt,e Austral;," Wafer Assoc;at;on ISSN 0310-0367 Volume 36 No 8 December 2009


Distributed Systems Workshop - Reuse09 - see page 34

From the AWA President 2010 and Beyond From the AWA Chief Executive This Year's Christmas Fare: Let Them Eat Cake and Sobering Thoughts My Point of View Crosscurrent Aquaphemera Industry News AWA News Events Calendar Conference Reports



T Mollenkopf 5 A Gregory 6 8 R Knee 10 15 21 28 30

FEATURE REPORTS Water Operator Partnerships - A Simple Way to Help Water Utilities in


Developing Countries MGiesemann, D Roche, SAustin, and T Moulton Troubled Waters: Climate Change Raises the Bar on Australian Water Reform


National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training - On the Road to Success


AWA CONTACT DETAILS Australian Water Association ABN 78 096 035 773 Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, PO Box 222, St Leonards NSW 1590 Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 Fax: +61 2 9436 0155 Email: info@awa.asn.au Web: www.awa.asn.au DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assumes no responsibility for opinion or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers. COPYRIGHT AWA Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without written permission of the AWA. To seek permission to reproduce Water Journal materials, send your request to media@awa.asn.au WATER JOURNAL MISSION STATEMENT 'To provide a journal that interests and informs on water matters, Australian and international, covering technological, environmental, economic and social aspects, and to provide a repository of useful refereed papers. ' PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, April, May, June, August, September, November and December. EDITORIAL BOARD

Water Operator Partnerships - see page 42

information and letters to the editor. Acceptance of editorial submissions is at the discretion of the editor and editorial board. • Technical Papers and Features Bob Swinton, Technical Editor, Water Journal- bswinton@bigpond.net.au AND journal@awa.asn.au Papers 3,000-4,000 words and graphics; or topical articles of up to 2,000 words relating to all areas of the water cycle and water business. Submissions are tabled at monthly editorial board meetings and where appropriate are assigned referees. Referee comments will be forwarded to the principal author for further action. Authors should be mindful that Water Journal is published in a 3 column 'magazine' format rather than the full-page format of Word documents. Graphics should be set up so that they will still be clearly legible when reduced to two-column size (about 12cm wide). Tables and figures need to be numbered with the appropriate reference in the text e.g. see Figure 1, not just placed in the text with a (see below) reference as they may end up anywhere on the page when typeset. • Industry News, Opinion pieces and Media Releases Edie Nyers, Editor, Water Journal - journal@awa.asn.au • Water Business and Product News Brian Raul!, National Sales and Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions - brian.rault@halledit. com.au

ADVERTISING Advertisements are included as an information service to Chair: Frank R Bishop; Dr Bruce Anderson, AECOM; Dr Terry Anderson, Consultant SEWL; Michael Chapman, GHD; Robert Ford, Central Highlands Water (rtd); Anthony readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water sector and objectives of the AWA. Brian Raul!, National Sales and Advertising Gibson, Ecowise; Dr Brian Labza, Vic Health; Dr Robbert van Oorschot, GHD; John Manager, Hallmark Editions - brian.rault@halledit.com.au Tel: +61 3 8534 5014 Poon, CH2M Hill; David Power, BEGA Consultants; Professor Felicity Roddick, AMIT University; Dr Ashok Sharma, CSIRO; and EA (Bob) AWA BOOKSHOP Copies of Water Journal, including back issues, are Swinton, Technical Editor. available from the AWA Bookshop for $12.50 plus postage and handling. Email: bookshop@awa.asn.au EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Water Journal


welcomes editorial submissions for technical and topical articles, news, opinion pieces, business

PUBLISHER Hallmark Editions, PO Box 84, Hampton, Vic 3188 Tel: 61 3 8534 5000 Fax: 61 3 9530 8911 Email: hallmark.editions@halledit.com.au

OUR COVER Tom Mollenkopf (CEO, Australian Water Association) and Anushia Sivanesan (Melbourne Water) celebrated the official launch of H20z careers in water, in con junction with the launch of National Water Week at Parliament House in October. See page 23 for more.

water DECEMBER 2009 1

wat er

Journal of the A-lian Water Assocration ISSN 0310-0367 Volume 36 No 8 December 2009

Water Footprint: A Concept in Need of Further Definition - see page 51



Design for the Replacement of the Melbourne Main Sewer - see page 58




Water Footprint: A Concept in Need of Further Definition BG Ridoutt


Reported by Kate Pemberton


M Dixon


J Chong


M Retamal, A Turner, S White


M Teng


W Ahmed, A Vieritz, T Gardner, A Goonetilleke


S Singh, A Hambly, R K Henderson, SJ Khan


Steps must be taken toward consistent use of this popular new term TRENCHLESSTECHNOLOGY

Trenchless Australasia 2009 A Success!


Design for the Replacement of the Melbourne Main Sewer

Boring a sewer in loose sediments close to a 30 story building requires close control of the TBM


Guidelines, Standards and Specifications for Trenchless Technology

Documents for use as a benchmark for the TT industry RAINWATER TANKS


Energy Implications of Household Rainwater Systems

Results from a preliminary monitoring study

[ii Impacts of Rainwater Tanks on Small System Yield Holiday demand in dry summers cannot be met by 4500 litre tanks

[I] Microbial Risks From Rainwater Tanks In South East Queensland It would seem prudent to disinfect rainwater for potable use WATER QUALITY

Analysis of Recycled Drinking Water Samples from REUSE09 EEM may offer a simple rapid sensitive tool WATER BUSINESS

New Products and Business Information.


Advertisers' Index


2 DECEMBER 2009 water

from the chief executive

This Year's Christmas Fare: Let Them Eat Cake and Sobering Thoughts Tom Mollenkopf AWA Chief Executive Institutional reform , markets and economics are not always considered the most excit ing Christmas fare. Still, we can't always have cake. And since the festive season is almost upon us, let's fin ish the year with some good old macroeconomic bread. Some may have noticed the release of a report by Global Access Partners - a business network and policy think tank on Urban Water Reform a few months ago. Together wit h several other wat er industry and policy experts, I was involved in the d iscussions that led to the development of the report. The report examines the current institutional arrangements for the urban water sector and identifies a vision for the future. It suggests that by establishing a more competitive urban water market, industries and communities will be better able to secure their water supply needs into the future. There is some excellent material in the report that warrants support. A stronger commitment by government to more cost reflective pricing and better functioning markets for water and wastewater - including removal of various constraints - are essential foundations of an efficient and effective water supply. But there are also some important caveats in the report that must be borne in mind as we evaluate these and other market reforms the report recommends. Noteworthy was the acknowledgement that there wi ll continue to be a need for reg ulation and that of paramount importance are: • Water quality and public health • Social Equity; and • Environmental protection As our policy makers consider this report, I trust that these overriding considerations are not lost in a flush of free market reform. Let me also add a few considerations that I suspect have been overlooked. As we seek to direct our energies to truly sustainable water solutions, I suggest that the market reform approach wil l not be adequate, because it misses some issues, like : • Demand management; our water security wi ll depend on more than just supply side solutions, the latter of wh ich tend to be the focus of market reforms • The role that urban planning, building regulations, water efficiency regu lations can play • The need to stimulate and support innovations, education and behavioural change

• The role that can and must be played by civil society - and for that matter the leadership role that governments can play • The benefits that can flow from holistic planning and integration of a suite of options. I wou ld much rather have a rational market than an irrational one; but let's not think that markets alone w ill solve our water quantity - and quality - needs. The more recent news on the reform front has been the release of the National Water Commissions ' 2009 Biennial Assessment of progress on the National Water Initiative. This article of Water includes a fulsome summary of the findings. I have indulged myself with a few observations below, but have refrained from paraphrasing what I consider to be an excellent report overall: it is a sad message but refreshing in its candour, integrity and criticism of governments around the land on their tackling of water matters. It is a timely wakeup call: to the federal government to push on; to t he states t o work together; and to the public in not wavering in their personal comm itment and effort to water conservation. It is critical that Australians recog nise that our water resource issues are not about "getting through drought" - they are long term challenges related to an increasi ngly variable and volatil e environment. It's sometimes a hard message to sell when parts of the nation are flooded, but sell it we must. If I were t o pick three top-of-mind thoughts on water reform, they wou ld be as fol lows. First, wh ilst the bulk of us live in major urban centres, let's not forget the biggest issues in water are those confronting rural users and the environment and this is where our focus must remain. Second, it is outrageous that substantial water abstractions are still unmetered; we can not manage what we do not measure. Finally in the urban sector, governments are sometimes our biggest problem; the depletion of utilities capital reserves through demands for extraordinary dividend payments and ad hoc grants for pet projects, poor pricing policies and an unwillingness to consider potential options like potable use of purified "waste" water are unfathomable. We are fortunate to have a fearless NWC, prepared to give us an honest appraisal and not be a mere mouthpiece for government. Congrat ulations to Ken Matthews, NWC Chair and CEO, and his t eam on an exemplary - if sobering assessment. I wish you all a very safe and happy Ch ristmas holiday.

water DECEMBER 2009 5

from the president

2010 and Beyond Peter Robinson AWA President As we enter the festive season it is timely to reflect on t he year that was and look forward to the challenges and opportunities that face the Water Industry into 2010 and beyond. I am delighted that we have seen unprecedented public int erest and spending in the Australian water sector throug hout the year. Al l areas of water, including municipal urban water sect or, the irrigation sector, groundwat er, stormwater harvesting, recycled water, desalinat ion, rainwater tanks, water efficiency devices, traini ng and education have all received long awaited attention and investment over the past 12 months and long may this continue! Whilst it is unreasonable to expect this high level expenditure to continue for many years to come, it is incumbent upon all of us in the water industry to ensure both the public and politicians alike remain aware of, and committed to, sustainable levels of investment, with pricing regimes to enable this to happen. Mother Nature is a fickle element in everything we do, and plan to do, with water. Indeed one expects "Murphy's Law" to apply once a commitment has been made to a significant level of investment in major infrastructure, such as a desalination plant, and that the heavens will open up as soon as the com mitment is made. This is partially true in some areas of Australia where there has been some 'relief' from drought with good rainfalls. To the other end of the spectrum, we now we see disturbing scenes over the airwaves of severe flooding in places like Coffs Harbour and Nambucca on the NSW coast. Dorothea MacKellar, in her well-known poem 'My Country', reflected on 'a land of sweeping plains, of ragged mountain ranges, of drought and flooding rains'. Therein lies the challenge for all of us.

From a profile point of view, earlier this year we had an audience with our patron, the Governor General of Australia, Ms Quentin Bryce, who has expressed an interest in being actively involved in our Association's activities. We have also secured responsibi lity for the annual Prime Minister's Water Wise Award, the first of which will be presented at next year's Ozwater conference. It is also fair to say that AWA is much more regularly referenced as an industry body in the general media, which is a credit t o Tom Mollenkopf and the team. From a fi nancial viewpoint, we are in a 'better than solid ' position for a ' not for profit' organisation, with an excellent level of retained earnings as well as bettering our budget outcomes for last financial year by more than $200k. From a membership viewpoint, our membership numbers have never been stronger with over 5,000 individuals included as members of AWA - the first time in our history this number of members has been achieved. Our Platinum membership offering has been well adopted by our large corporate members and our You ng Water Professionals goes from strength to strength. From an internal capabilities viewpoint, we continue to invest in our computer hardware and software as well as our website development which wi ll further improve our accessibility and services t o members. From a conference and specialist network viewpoint, the success of Ozwater, now offered as an annual event, has been outstanding and our networks offer more valuable technical sessions to our members than ever before. From a Branch viewpoint, we continue to benefit from the magnificent input from a whole host of volunteers around the country who really are the backbone of our success - without this support and commitment our Association could not exist in its cu rrent form.

I recently attended a meeting of the AWA's Strategic Advisory Council (SAC) in Sydney with my fellow Board members. At that meeting an interesting question was raised, basically along the lines of "how did I th ink the AWA was travell ing". I'm happy to share the comments I made in response to this question. Fundamentally I believe we are in a great space as an Association at the moment for a variety of reasons. I used the explanation 'what grains of evidence' can we present wh ich support the view that we are in a good place.

There are many other positive attributes that are evidence of the health of AWA. As a volunteer based, not for profit organisation with a vibrant and enthusiastic management team , we should all be well satisfied with our current position and looking forward to continuing growth in all areas of our business.

This evidence includes elements of delivery against our strategic planning initiatives.

In closing, I wish all members, staff and supporters of AWA a safe festive season and all t he best for 2010.

4 DECEMBER 2009 water

regular features

my point of view

Beyond the Millennium Drought Alan Gregory is leading the Urban Water Research Theme within CSIRO's Water for a Healthy Country Flagship. The Theme is providing research to assist government, industry and communities in addressing the considerable challenges Australia's urban water sector is facing now and in the future. In the last decade we have responded to climatic constraints well outside historical experience and have confidently embraced new paradigms for urban water management - a quite remarkable period of transition. However, in an already highly urbanised country like Australia, accommodating the equivalent population of another three 'Sydneys' by 2050 is a challenging prospect. Such rapid urbanisat ion will dramatically increase the demand for water, energy, land, materials and food with corresponding increases in waste streams, emissions and nutrient flows through cities. These additional metabolic flows overlaid with the consequences of a warming climate, reduced rainfall, extreme weather events and much higher building densities will exponentially increase existing pressures on stressed urban waterways, urban microclimates, urban heat island effects, access to green space and the conservation of urban biodiversity, thereby compound ing public health and liveability issues. Urban growth of this magnitude in context of these challenges can only occur if we optimise resource management across interrelated urban systems. Of particular growing interest are the connections between urban water, energy and nutrient management in urban water syst ems and the potential to realise multiple sustainability outcomes, over and above the water security challenge. A joint study undertaken by CSIRO and Water Services Association of Australia last year explored the strong nexus between water and energy use in the maj or Australian cities. Research identified that by 2030, energy use for water service provision wi ll increase by at least 130 per cent, possibly by as much as 400 per cent if demand returns to about 300 litres per person per day and desalination intensive supply strategies are pursued.

no substitute for phosphorus in food product ion; it cannot be synthesised. The price of both phosphorus and nitrogenous fertilisers has tripled in recent years and it is expected that prices will continue to climb in response to growing demand, higher energy input costs and diminishing resource availability. So looking forward , the drivers to minimise energy use and recover water, energy and nutrients from our water systems will continue to intensify. We will need to find alternative sources of fertiliser and take every opportunity to maximise the energy efficiency of our water systems. As our cities continue to grow, one obvious large and concentrated source of phosphorus and ammonia is wastewater. Recent analysis by CSIRO explored the theoretical value of carbon , nitrogen and phosphorus in urban wastewater, assuming all of the total organic carbon could be converted t o methane and all of the nitrogen could be converted to ammonia. At 2008 prices for energy and fertilisers in a city of four million people, the annual value of methane would be $31 million, ammonia $23 million and phosphorus $12 million. Such values point to the potential future economic and emission reduction opportunities to be gained by re-configuring current wastewater treatment and management processes to maximise resource recovery, particularly in light of projected increases in energy and fertiliser costs. We are already seeing emerging greenfield eco-city developments such as Masdar in Abu Dhabi where multiple wastewater collection and treatment systems are now being linked with solid waste processing facilities to maximise resource recovery from the city. Whether such concepts can be achieved in an existing major city remains to be seen but the drive to do so will strengthen.

With an expected tripling of wholesale energy costs over this same period, the consequences for the cost of water supply are significant. The study also highlighted the large energy footprints associated with pumping water longer distances to cities, reinforcing the energy and greenhouse emission reduction benefits of sourcing water fit for purpose locally.

Examples of energy and resource recovery technology options that could be further explored include utilisation of anaerobic treatment for methane capture, biological fuel cells, urine or blackwater separation at household scale, composting toilets, struvite precipitation and recovery, ammonia recovery by selective membrane distillation or zeolite adsorption.

From 1960 to 2000, global food production doubled due to a combination of significant investment in agriculture and new technologies, including the rapid growth of a highly energy intensive global fertil iser market. By mid way through the 21st century, we will need to double this output yet again to meet global food demand, in an environment where carbon and water has an increasing price.

Such alternatives would have significant implications for water infrastructure design and management, likely utilising a very different mix of decentralised and centralised systems to what we have today that are more closely integrated with overall energy production and waste management processes within cities.

However, the global availability of suitable high -grade phosphate rock, the current source of most phosphorus-based fertil isers, is expected to peak within a few decades. There is

In addressing the challenges ahead the water industry has an excellent opportunity to lead the transition towards more sustainable cities.

6 DECEMBER 2009 water

Made in Australia by Australians for Australian conditions











setting a clear national ambition fo r growth, and by planning for the infrastructure to support it.


Federal Environment Minister Peter Garrett announced his proposed decision to reject the Traveston Crossing Dam, after deciding the impacts on threatened species including the lung fish - the only fish that can walk on land - and the Mary River turtle would be too great.

The NHMRC, in collaboration with the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, has conducted a review of outdated sections of the 2004 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. NHMRC is seeking comments on the revised content from interested organisations and individuals, with public consultation open until Friday 15 January 2010.

The Federal Government allocated $56 million to develop a faster, more efficient and nationally focused water market system, which aims to deliver better, real time market information, more efficient transactions, and improved interstate trade. The new system wi ll include a common registry for all jurisdictions, and a new national portal to speed up cross-border water trades.

A report mapping the impacts of climate change on Australia's coastal communities was released. The report is the first continental scale mapping of residential buildings at risk from climate change, and details the risks to coastal infrastructure, services and industry in Australia as a result of climate change.

The Australian Government, in collaboration with state and territory governments, is seeking comments on the National Water Initiative (NWI} pricing principles. The public consultation period will close on 18 December 2009.

Thirteen organisations will share $86 million to undertake innovative stormwater capture projects to help secure water supplies for Australian cities. The projects will help reduce the demand on drinking water supplies by harvesting stormwater for watering sports grounds and parks as well as for use in residential areas.

$2.1 million in funding has been announced for three new projects to better manage Australia's groundwater. $1.8 million has been allocated to assess the vulnerability of Australia's coastal groundwater resources to seawater intrusion;$250,000 help assess and improve Australia's groundwater licensing, metering and extraction estimation arrangements and techniques; and a further $75,000 will be used to scope a decision support system that could improve assessment and response times for groundwater trades.

The Business Council of Australia (BCA) released its latest report, 'Groundwork for Growth: Building the Infrastructure that Australia Needs'. The report argues that Australia's governments now have a unique opportunity to address the country's infrastructure challenges ahead of the next economic growth wave, and explains the need for the federal and state governments to respond to this opportunity by

8 DECEMBER 2009 water

The Annual Report of the Australian Water Association was released and is available for download. During the year AWA undertook a comprehensive program of activities and events at national and branch levels. Highlights included an outstanding Ozwater National Conference and Exhibition in Melbourne in March 2009, hosting the Water Industry Skills Taskforce and strong international engagement. www.awa.asn.au

Australian Capital Territory • ACTEW Corporation received the final green light to begin construction of the Enlarged Cotter Dam, with cond itions. The project req uired assessment by the DEWHA under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and was deemed a 'controlled action' due to its likely impact on listed threatened species. Conditions to the approval include the regulation of environmental and downstream flows and the management of fish species. ACTEW has formed an alliance with Abigroup, John Holland and GHD to deliver the project.

Northern Territory The Power and Water Corporation announced that recycled wastewater will be used at sites south of Al ice Springs in central Australia.

Queensland Residents in the Brisbane, Ipswich, Lockyer Valley, Scenic Rim and Somerset local authority areas will all be served by a single, jointly owned water retail and distribution business from July next year. Brisbane City Council's water distribution and retail business units will be the fi rst to operate under the 'Queensland Urban Utilities' name, from November 2009.

Hinze Dam was re-opened for recreation following advice from Queensland Health that the E. Coli bloom is no longer an issue. The dam was opened for boating, canoeing and kayaking, but swimming remained prohibited The Hinze Dam Upgrade is due to be completed by December 2010.

Stormwater from roofs and roads can be harvested and delivered to homes in new estates at a cost comparable to rainwater tanks, according to a survey carried out for the Queensland Water Commission.

New South Wales • A Temporary Water Restriction Order was imposed in the Lachlan Valley. The State Government stepped up plans to help truck water to several towns, while others will be restricted to using water only for critical human needs.

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crosscurrent The Commonwealth provided almost two billion litres of water for wetlands containing endangered species in Yanga National Park, in the State's south. The water from the Commonwealth 's environmental water holdings was released at Mercedes Swamp and Twin Bridges wetland and was the first undertaken by the CEWH for this financial year.

The Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal's (IPART) scheduled review of Sydney Water's Operating license for 201015 commenced, and follows Sydney Water performance over 2005 - 2009. The issues paper is available the IPART website.

The NSW Government announced an $11 million project to improve the water quality of Sydney Harbour by diverting wastewater at risk of overflowing into the main collection system. The project includes a $6.2 million pipeline, $3.8 million rising main and a pumping station.

The Premier of NSW announced a new partnership with the City of Sydney to capture stormwater from the streets of Sydney. The first of its kind partnership will save up to 440 million litres of run-off water, or the equivalent total water used each year by around 2200 families. Initially 50 million litres of water in and around Alexandria will be captured and re-used for irrigation at Sydney Park. New guidelines will make it easier for councils to adopt local harvesting projects through the existing network.

The NSW State Government must consider curbing population growth in western Sydney because there will not be enough water to sustain agriculture, recreation and environmental flows in the region, according to scientists from WISER.

Victoria Water use soared in Melbourne after hot weather in November. The spokesman for the Target 155 campaign says people must t ry harder to save water.

The Australian Government will provide 3.1 billion litres of water to the Hattah Lakes wetlands. The water will be released into Lake Yerang and Mournpall to complement 2.1 billion litres to be delivered by the Victorian Government. It is anticipated that this watering will maintain, and perhaps improve, the health of the River Red Gums as well as improve the extent and diversity of wetland vegetation. Hattah Lakes is listed under the Ramsar convention as a site of international importance.

An independent analysis found the Victorian Government's $620 million investment in science and technology has created thousands of jobs and will contribute to an economic benefit to Victoria of $1.7 billion. The findings of Deloitte's Impact Assessment of the Science Technology and innovation (STI) Initiative shows that for every dollar of Victorian Government investment, the contribution to the economy has been up to $3.

The drinking water for Yarrawonga and surrounding towns were fluoridated. 10 DECEMBER 2009 water

The Department of Sustainability and Environment revealed that it had spent $111 million more than expected on water management and supply projects in 2008-09.

South Australia The State Government released a discussion paper for a proposed Water Industry Act due for introduction in 2010. The paper seeks public comment on a range of issues including water planning, economic regu lation, technical reg ulation of the plumbing industry, environmental and health regulations and other various legislative amendments. Submissions to the discussion paper close on Thursday 31 December.

SA Water announced that it will be going to the market to seek competitive proposals for a 10-year alliance contract for the operations and maintenance of Adelaide's water and wastewater network, after the current contract expires at the end of June 2011.

AQUAPHEMERA Two publications released in October continue to follow their usual lines: Australian water reform 2009, the second biennial assessment of progress in implementation of the NW/, from the National Water Commission (www.nwc.gov.au); and the Business Council of Australia's Groundwork for growth. Building the infrastructure that Australia needs (www.bca.com.au). The NWC consider that some progress has been made in the NWI - for example water trading has been a success and unprecedented budgets have been provided by the Commonwealth including for water buy backs. However, they consider the pace of water reform has slowed on almost every front - for example 40% of local water plans are unfinished and over-allocation of water will not be "fixed" by 2010. There are 18 pages of summarised findings and recommendations and the report calls on Governments to reset their commitments under a renewed round of national water reform. The BCA, if you can get past the rhetoric due to their limited knowledge of the water industry, identifies 3 key steps for urban water - implementation of the National urban water planning principles (COAG, 2008); remove barriers to urban-rural water trading; and the Productivity Commission should review how best to implement urban water reform . For rural water, the BCA wants clearer objectives and frameworks surrounding the 2007 Commonwealth national plan for water security and acceleration of the process. The AWA in its Position paper on Governance (www.awa.asn.au) and WSAA's Vision for a sustainable urban water future (www.wsaaasn.au), both released January 2009, recognise the challenges of these imperatives. However both tend to focus on Governments driving the changes, including developing the structural reforms, in consultation with the water industry. Surely the water industry is best suited to formulating the way forward, by col lating the knowledge we have, providing the facts and developing the options based on optimising social, environmental and economic outcomes. - Ross Knee

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crosscurrent lrrigators in South Austral ia will be able to carry over all of their River Murray water allocations not used in 2009-1 0 into the 2010-11 water year, a move which provides them with an opportunity to continue to better manage the limited water anticipated to be available.

A $10 million federal government program to manage acidification in the Lower Lakes was expanded following promising results in a series of trial projects. Bioremediation work commenced at projects located in Meningie and near Milang.

Work on the irrigation pipeline from Jervois to the Langhorne and Currency Creek region was completed in time to deliver water to irrigators for the 2009-2010 season. The Lower Lakes Pipeline Project is now delivering potable and irrigation water supplies to communities that previously needed to draw water directly from the Lower Lakes.

A new state-of-the-art vessel to monitor salinity levels in the South Australian section of the River Murray was launched. The vessel will be used by the Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation staff to conduct scientific surveys in the River Murray, Lower Lakes and freshwater environments.

Western Australia


The damming of Bow River will remain under consideration, along with seawater desalination and a groundwater replenishment scheme, under the Water Corporation's drinking water source plans for the lower Great Southern region. The damming of the Denmark and Styx rivers has been ruled out.

The WA State Government called for Expressions of Interest (EOI) for pilot water projects and associated works in the Pilbara as part of the Royalties for Regions Pilbara Revitalisation Plan. Regional Development Minister Brendon Grylls said $2.5 million was available through the EOI process.

Reliance on the stressed Gnangara groundwater system for Perth 's public water supply will be significantly reduced ahead of schedule. The draw on the mound for the 2009-10 year wi ll be 110 gigalitres (GL), down 27 GL from last year's draw of 137GL.

The Water Corporation's trial centralised biosolids storage facility is fully operational and received its first full load of biosolids. The trial's primary purpose will be to gauge the effectiveness of preventing fly emergence from the sheds to the environment. Other factors to be monitored include community and social views, odour impacts, leachate control and the facility's structural durability.



World Toilet Day was held on 19th November. Celebrated annually by the WTO, it seeks to increase awareness of the importance of toi let sanitation and each individual's right to a safe and hygienic sanitary environment.

12 DECEMBER 2009 water

The NASA experiment to detect water on the moon was declared a success.

Man-made ponds and rice fields irrigated using groundwater may be responsible for arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh, a study has found. Around 25 million people in the country have been exposed to arsenic through water. Experts have described the situation as the worst mass poisoning of a population in history.

Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF) have launched the ToNi finder, an interactive map showing the locations of urine diverting dry toilets (UDDT) in schools, and the results of nitrate monitoring activities and hence water quality in the villages. These projects have been carried out together with local partners in ru ral areas of Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asian countries.

A European satellite is set to provide major new insights into how water is cycled around the Earth. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) spacecraft will make the first global maps of the amount of moisture held in soils and of the quantity of salts dissolved in the oceans. The data will have wide uses, but should improve weather forecasts and warn ings of extreme events such as floods.

The Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and the Spanish government announced they will provide $100 million in grants and loans to Bolivia in the first stage of a key partnership to tackle water and sanitation problems in Latin America's poorest communities.

Industry News The Model ESD SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSM ENT TOOL received the TEFMA Innovation Award at the 2009 Tertiary Education Facility Managers Association (TEFMA) conference held in Melbourne. Developed as part of Monash University's Model ESD Building Review project, the tool benchmarks the university's buildings in their current condition and assesses opportunities t o improve the environmental performance of existing building assets.

At the annual GreenPlumbersAwards, water products manufacturer DAVEY won the Water Efficient Product of the Year for RainBank2, a rainwater interconnection device. RainBank2 controls rainwater tanks in their provision of water to toilets and washing machines, ensuring low energy consumption and achieving significant water savings.

ACTEW announced that ActewAGL Distribution, a partnership of ACTEW Distribution Limited and Jemena Networks (ACT) Pty Ltd have entered int o an agreement to sell all the share capital in ECOWISE ENVIRONMENTAL Pty Ltd (Ecowise) to Australian Laboratory Services Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Campbell Brothers Limited (CSL). The sale is expected to be completed on 30 November 2009.

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crosscurrent The WETLANDCARE AUSTRALIA National Art and Photography Competition, held to celebrate World Wetlands Day, is closing soon, with entries being received until December 4th. Entry forms are available from the WetlandCare Australia website. (WetlandCare Australia)

CARMEL CLARK has taken over from Rachel -ann Martin in support of the AWA Tasmanian Branch. Carmel has strong event management and secretariat support services background with extensive member association experience. tasbranch@awa.asn.au

BLACK & VEATCH is extending its capabi lities in the water, wastewater and power industries by launching a company infraManagement Group LLC (iMG), which will assist owners in the management of assets. (iMG)

Dr TOM HATTON PSM, Director of CSIRO's highly successful Water for a Healthy Country Research Flagship, will be leaving his current position to become the Director of the Wealth from Oceans Flagship. Tom's leadership has positioned the Water for a Healthy Country Flagship as the pre-eminent water research portfolio in Australia, enabling CSIRO to make critical contributions t o the national water challenge.

Member News SCOTT JOHNSON left WorleyParsons Services.

CHRIS CORR will be taking on the position of Manager of Strategy and Policy with Caliban Water as from 23 November, after 12 years with GHD. chrisc@coliban.com.au

Senior Principal of engineering and environmental professional services firm URS, CHRISTOPHER DANN was awarded the 2009 Sir John Holland Civil Engineer of the Year. The annual award is presented by the Civil College of Engineers Australia to an eminent civil engineer recognised as having made a major contribution to the profession across Australia and internationally.

KIMB ERLEY GRAHAM resigned from WSP Environmental and is now the Executive Officer of the River Basin Management Society. Email Kimberleygr@gmail.com.

GARY BICKFORD has left ACTEW and has com menced his own consulting business for the water industry, specialising in strategy, planning and project delivery. Gary was previously President of the AWA ACT Branch. Branch.graybickford@optusnet.com.au

JAMES STRAYER has joined Black & Veatch's global water business as Director of Infrastructure Planning.

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industry news Australians Lead the Way in Algae Biofuel Australian scientists are achieving the world's best production rates of oil from algae grown in open saline ponds, taking them a step closer to creating commercial quantities of clean biofuel for the future. A joint $3.3 million project led by Murdoch University in Perth and involving the University of Adelaide now leads world algae biofuel research after more than 12 months of consistent results at both universities. " It was previously believed impossible to grow large quantit ies of algae for biofuel in open ponds consistently and without contamination, but we've proven it can be done," says Project Leader Professor Michael Borowitzka from Murdoch University. The project has received $1.89 million funding from the Australian Government as part of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. The project is the only one of its kind in Australia working simultaneously on all steps in the process of microalgal biofuels production, from microalgae culture, harvesting of the algae and extraction of oil suitable for biofuels production. Due to the project's success, construction of a multi-million

New Water Business for Five South East Queensland Councils An agreement between five South East Queensland Mayors wi ll change the face of water and wastewater service delivery for more than 1.3 million people when Queensland Urban Utilities opens for business. The agreement means residents in the Brisbane, Ipswich , Lockyer Valley, Scenic Rim and Somerset local authority areas will all be served by a single, jointly owned water retail and distribution business from July next year. Brisbane City Council 's wat er distribution and retail business units will be the first to operat e under the Queensland Urban Utilities name, from November 2009. Brisbane ratepayers will no longer pay for water and wastewater services as part of their Brisbane City Council rat e notice. From January, customers will receive a separate water bill from Queensland Urban Utilities. Residents of the Ipswich, Lockyer Valley, Scenic

Simplifying Urban Stormwater Designing urban development proposals that meet Water Sensitive Urban Design standards has been made easier with the release of a new version of the popular urban stormwater software, music - which stands for 'model for urban st orm water improvement conceptualisation' . Developed by eWater and its forerunner Cooperative Research Centres, the new version of the popular urban stormwater software responds to user feedback and features major advances to the underlying science.

dollar pilot plant to test the whole process on a larger scale will now begin in Karratha in the North-West in January and is expected to be operational by July 2010. The teams have achieved production rates of 50 tonnes per hectare per year, over half of which is converted to oil. These high production rates are expected to increase at the new pilot plant due t o the even better climatic conditions in Karratha. The first stage is costing $1.5 million and further funding is being sought for future stages estimated to cost between $5-1 0 million. Professor Borowitzka says the cost of producing biofuel from algae has already dropped from $12 a kilo to below $4 in the past year, but the aim is to get it down to less than $1 a kilo. Dr David Lewis from the University of Adelaide's School of Chemical Engineering says a key aspect of the project is to show that commercial levels of algae can be grown without competing for resources with food crops. "The algae will grow on non-arable - even arid - land without any need for freshwater in cultivation," Dr Lewis says. "By contrast, crops such as canola need a lot of freshwater and good-quality farming land . Growing algae at an industrial scale also takes up significantly less land than that required by canola crops to produce the same amount of biofuel."

Rim and Somerset council areas can continue to contact their local council about water and wastewater services until July 2010. The new water business is being established in response to the State Government's restructure of the South East Queensland water industry. Queensland Urban Utilities will: • Buy water from the State Government-owned SEQ Water Grid Manager and deliver it to more than 1.3 million residents • Collect, treat and dispose of sewage • Manage and maintain $4.4 billion of infrastructure and assets, including water supply mains and sewer networks • Operate water and sewage pumping stations • Provide a specialised recycled water service to a number of businesses • Manage and issue accounts for household and commercial water and sewerage services and trade waste disposal.

Improvements include greater ability to model stormwater technologies, like reuse, as well as a straightforward interface that allows users to rapidly get to work on real-world problems. music offers new features that improve flexibility and usability, including more accurate modelling of bioretention and infiltration systems and capacity to model parameters in addition to total suspended solids, total phosphorus and total nitrogen . For more information visit www.ewater.com.au/music.

water DECEMBER 2009 15

industry news Australian Scientist Overturns Climate Change Assumptions Joint Fellow in the Australian National University's Research School of Earth Sciences and Research School of Biology Dr Michael Roderick has been awarded the 2009 Australasian Science Prize for climate change research that "has raised questions of global significance" . •Now in its tenth year, the Prize recognises world-class science by Australasia's most inspiring minds. Dr Roderick's publications in several peer-reviewed journals during the past 12 months were based on a deceptively simple experiment that measures the rates of water evaporation from about 300 standardised pans distributed around Australia and more overseas. Intriguingly, the pans reveal that although the world has been warming, evaporation has been declining. "London receives about 600 mm of rainfall every year, and the surrounding landscape is green and wet. On average, Canberra also receives around 600 mm each year but the surrounding landscape is much drier and largely brown. The landscape differences are largely due to the different rates of evaporation. Evaporation is much higher in Canberra than London ," explained Dr Roderick of the paradoxical evidence. "Needless to say, there has been a widespread expectation that evaporation would increase as air temperature rises with global warming. It has been anticipated, for example, that wet and green places like London would become more like Canberra should global temperatures rise. "There was surprise amongst the global scientific community when confronted with observations showing that the evaporation of water from pans has been, on average, declining over the last 30-50 years just as global temperatures have been rising. Understanding and unravelling the 'pan evaporation paradox' underpins the whole question of how water availability has changed and might change." Dr Roderick's analysis of radiation, temperature, humidity and wind speed measurements has shown that several factors are at work simultaneously, with declining wind speed and/or declining radiation being the major global factors behind declining evaporation.

'Bio-gills' to Treat Wastewater for Reuse A Sydney company has been granted exclusive rights to commercialise award-winning water treatment technology developed by ANSTO. The technology, which won the ABC's New Inventor's award for best invention of the episode in October 2006, uses microorganisms and biological gills or "biogills" to treat wastewater for reuse. Bio-gills can be differentiated from existing wastewater treatment processes because they do not rely on high energy systems to aerate the water. This offers the opportunity of approaching users and clients on a different costing basis, where it is now cheaper to reuse wastewater instead of discharging it to sewer. With bio-gills the wastewater trickles down between freestanding porous membranes, surrounded by air.

16 DECEMBER 2009 water

Dr Michael Roderick at the 2009 Australasian Science Prize Ceremony. (Photo: Peter Pockley).

Dr Roderick's research has been published since the mid2006 cut-off date for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Report (2007). It therefore updates the IPCC's models, particularly in relation to rainfall forecasts. The awarding of the Australasian Science Prize to Dr Roderick has been lauded by independent reviewers. Research policy specialist Dr Thomas Barlow stated, "This is curiosity-led science that has raised questions of global significance. He starts with very simple but important questions and answers them with extraordinary rigour and originality. In my mind this is truly inspirational stuff - science at its best." Source: Australasian Science Magazine

ANSTO developed the bio-gill technology w ithin its Materials Engineering institute. Bio-gills are manufactured using nanoparticulate membranes that are incorporated into a unique bioreactor that effectively operates as both a "stomach" and a "lung". Bacteria and other microorganisms "eat" waste out of the water and "breathe" air to grow and multiply. The technology has already been demonstrated at various scales with grey water, grease-trap waste, sewage and with many different industrial waste streams such as effluents from breweries, wineries and a detergent factory. The system was successfully piloted at a small scale in September 2008 in an installation at the Lane Cove Tourist Park. Grey water was upgraded to class A standard, water capable of being used for laundry and toilets. The successful pilot is being used to build a decentralised grey water treatment system for commercial applications.

industry news 2009 Civil Engineer of the Year The culmination of 24 years contribution to excellence in civil engineering was recognised this month when Christopher Dann, Senior Principal of engineering and environmental professional services firm URS, was announced the 2009 Sir John Holland Civil Engineer of the Year. The prestigious annual award is presented by the Civil College of Engineers Australia to an eminent civil engineer recogn ised as having made a major contribution to the profession across Australia and internationally. As one of Australia's pre-eminent civil engineers, Chris specialises in the design and project management of dam infrastructure, as well as upgrading and remedial work for existing water supply dams. Chris is currently the design manager for the $380 million Hinze Dam Stage 3 project on the Gold Coast. Commenting on Chris's award win, URS's Asia Pacific Chief Executive Officer, David Williamson, said: "This award is due

Revisions to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in collaboration with the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council (NRMMC), has released the draft revisions to the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) for public consultation from 31 October 2009 to 15 January 2010. Interested parties are invited to make a submission to the NHMRC about the draft Guidelines. A list of the revised material and copies of the draft document can be obtained on the NHMRC website at http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/consult/index.htm The ADWG are intended to provide an authoritative reference on what defines safe, good quality drinking water and how to achieve it. The ADWG provides a framework for management of drinking water supplies which will assure safety at point of use when correctly implemented. Submissions must be provided in writing, or by email, and include your name and address or phone number at which we

Civil Engineer of the Year Christopher Dann, URS.

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can contact you if requ ired. In the submission please note the relevant page number/s that contain the issues on which you are providing comment. Please also provide complete references for any research articles you deem relevant that may not have been considered in the development of the draft ADWG. All comments will be considered by the NHMRC. Please note that your name and organisation will be listed in the final guidelines unless you specifically request your details not to be published. Submissions wi ll also be made available on the NHMRC website following the release of the final guidelines. Please indicate in your submission if you wish for your submission to be de-identified or be kept confidential. Please send your submission to: Mail: Project Officer Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, Evidence Translation Section, NHMRC, GPO Box 1421, CANBERRA ACT 2601, Fax: (02) 6217 9035, Email: water@nhmrc.gov.au The closing date for submissions is 15 January 2010. For further information please contact the Project Officer on (02) 62179013.

Roof Water Harvesting Construction work began last month on Wannon Water's roof water harvesting demonstration site in Warrnambool. The project will utilise the roof area in the new Russell Creek Residential Estate subdivision as an urban catchment to harvest water for future use in the city's water supply system. The pipe network wi ll capture rain water collected on household roofs from the new development and transfer it to the existing Brierly basin via the dedicated trunk main. The roof water will be mixed with other raw water, treated at the Warrnambool Water Treatment Plant and then supplied back to the city. Two kilometres of trunk main pipeline will be constructed, with works expected to be completed in April next year. Connection pipes on properties will be installed once the development has been sold.

18 DECEMBER 2009 water


HARVESTING Once the demonstration site in Warrnambool is completed the harvested roof water will represent 76 per cent of the subdivision's annual household demand, with approximately 21ML a year of roof water harvested to supplement the Warrnambool water supply. The project is believed to be the first of its kind in Australia. Funding for the Roof Water Harvesting Project has been provided through the Australian Federal Government "Water for the Future" program and from the Victorian State Government "Stormwater and Urban Recycling Fund" .



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~~ N"------ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ National Water Week 2009 National Water Week was first held in 1993, and aims to increase community awareness and participation in the protection and conservation of water resources and habitats.

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National Water Week is the only event in Australia that provides a national focus for the achievement of improved water management, awareness and conservation. Since 2005, t he Australian Water Association has been working to provide national coordination and a centralised hub for the event, allowing a national focus but retaining its emphasis on local events and community participation. For the first time, in 2009 National Water Week was hosted by the Australian Water Association in partnership with the National Water Commission.

National Water Week 2009 'Securing Our Water Future' National Water Week 2009

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In the face of cl imate uncertainty, Australia needs to ensure that we have adequate, safe water supplies for critical human needs, agriculture, and the environment. Whilst this is one of the most fundamental challenges facing society, it can be a difficult concept to communicate, especially in a nation with as diverse climates as Australia, and with a population that has generally had unlimited access to cheap water for the decades prior to our most recent drought. National Water Week's theme of Securing Our Water Future aimed to create dialogue between water stakeholders and the community around

these issues and some of their common threads such as diversifying water supplies and increasing efficiency. The key message of National Water Week for 2009 was that water has many sources, many users, and is everyone's responsibility.

Engaging the Community National Water Week provides a special emphasis on fostering grass-roots participation and behavioural change through involvement by community groups, water industry, schools and media. A dedicated online resource functions as the hub for informat ion and activities, allowing comm unity, environment, industry and government groups to plan and promote the events they are holding during National Water Week. The National Water Week website is also an excellent resource for educators. The AWA hosted and provided the content for the national web site which provides access for water and environmental organisations to create, reg ister and promote their water-related events being held during the 3rd week of October each year. It also provides a functional search mechanism for the public to identify and get involved in water week activities, and noncommercial messages and updates for stakeholders to create ongoing communication with the water industry, water educators and the broader community.

Bottom left: Lynne Griffiths (National Water Commission), with Jenny Stauber and Mary Mulcahy (CSIRO Land and Water). Bottom centre: Geoff Henkel (Bill Guy and Partners) and Colin Kish (AWA ACT Branch Committee). Bottom right: Peter Mills and Sarah Campbell (Sydney Water), Kelly Edmunds (URS Austral ia) and Tony La Pila (Melbourne Water).


Water Week

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National Water Week highlights 2009 • Over 420 official registered events across the country • Around 20,000 people took part in small and large events during the week • Thousands more were involved through visiting the website, downloading fact sheets, games, competitions and more • Successful community radio campaign, with over 1,000 x 30 second announcements across 31 stations, reaching over 1,440 500 listeners across the country

Ann Burke and Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize winner Storm Holwill.

• Excellent media coverage of National Water Week, in both regional and metropolitan publications • The official National Water Week launch event in Canberra, which featured The Hon. Dr M ike Kelly, (Parliamentary Secretary for Water), Ken Matthews (CEO, National Water Commission), Tom Mollenkopf (CEO, Australian Water Association), Anushia Sivaneson (Melbourne Water and H20z representative, and Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize winner Storm Holwill • Bunnings Warehouses held 0.1. Y. Water Saving Workshops at all st ores nationally on Saturday October 24 and Sunday October 25 as part of National Water Week • WaterAid held their annual Walk 4 Water • MDBA River Health Conference, a gathering of over 2,500 students from across Australia and the world convergi ng on Canberra to discuss rivers and sustainability

National Water Week 2009 was hosted by the Australian Water Association in partnership with the National Water Commission.

AWA National \Vater Commission

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Victorian NWW poster competition As part of this year's National Water Week celebrations, Victorian water businesses ran a poster competition aligned with the national theme and image. This competition has been running in Victoria since 1994 and is open to all students in Victorian primary schools. It ensures that water is put in forefront of children's minds whilst allowing them to explore the issue on their terms in a creative way. The competition continues to attract thousands of entries with both regional and state prizes being offered. This year has again been a great success; the number, quality and creativity of posters continue to astound even those that have been involved in the competition for many years. The competition is an excellent way of seeing what messages are getting across to our young.

Australian Gover nment


Tom Mollenkopf (Australian Water Association), The Hon. Dr Mike Kelly and Ken Matthews (CEO, National Water Commission).


The continued success of this strongly supported poster competition must be attributed to the efforts of the dedicated Education Officers within the Victorian water businesses.

Below: Peter Mills and Sarah Campbell (Sydney Water), Kelly Edmunds (URS Australia) and Tony La Pila (Melbourne Water).

The above image is by Denis Makaschef from Donburn Primary School who entered and won first prize in the Year 5 & 6 category.

water DECEMBER 2009 25

awa news Young Water Professionals (YWP)

Erin Cini AWA YWP National Committee President

Have you ever had an opinion about how things could be improved in the water industry? Have you thought to yourself 'I know a better way, a simpler way' - whether it was on a small scale within your discipline on a project you worked on, or with large scale national water planning and decision making? If you have, you are probably not alone, but my next question is - what have yo u done to create a change towards that improvement? What is your vision for the f uture of the water industry and the way water (and other resources) are managed in Australia and in our world? And how will you work towards achieving t hat vision? Some big questions. And I don't have the answers for you. I have my own answers to these questions and will continue to do whatever I can to create the future I want to be a part of. You have your own answers, and your own path towards challenges and successes. In the two years I have been National President of the AWA Young Water Professionals, I have had hundreds of conversations with water professionals, and from all of you I have a good underst anding of the position of our industry as a world leader in technology, planning, decision making, and adaptability. We are part of a strong and (usually) forward-thinking industry. But that doesn't mean there is no scope for improvement in the way our society values water, in the education of our communities about the water cycle and in our sometimes short term planning horizons. I leave this role at the end of the year with renewed enthusiasm. I am confident in our industry, and even more confident in the amazing group of emerging leaders which make up the AWA Young Water Professionals, who work hard in their careers and then look for ways to provide development opportunities for their peers.

Over the last two years the AWA Young Water Professional Specialist Network has gone from strength to strength. Membership of the network has more than doubled to more than 980 members, 23% of all AWA members are part of the network. Of t hese network members one third have taken advantage of the scaled YWP membership fees.

26 DECEMBER 2009 water

On average an event is held by an AWA YWP Committee somewhere in Australia every two weeks! Our events range from technical sessions, professional development courses, technical tours , networking events and dinners. Hot topics have included desalination, water recycling, indirect potable reuse, water sensitive urban design, new technolog ies, cl imate change, research and innovation in water, career options and opportu nities, volunteering in water, the emissions trad ing scheme, as well as events such as trivia nights, croquet and lawn bowls. We initiated the annual National YWP Award in 2008, and in 2009 all AWA branches with active YWP committees have awarded a local award, providing a strong contingent of seven National Award nominees. Our enthusiastic YWP volunteers, of whom there are so many across AWA, work hard to raise the profile of the AWA and Young Water Professionals, we represent YWPs on their branches, other industry committees, write news articles for branch newsletters, and together we produce a National YWP Newsletter four times a year. YWPs were instrumental in developing the Water Industry Mentoring Program, which whi le delayed in its start will provide capacity development across our industry. The NSW YWP group has led the introduction of a student subscription program which wil l see tertiary students being exposed to the benefits of AWA membership. There are many people to thank for supporting me in my role as YWP National President, our YWP members; the YWP Branch Committees and t heir executive who run things and maintain passion at the local level; AWA Branch Committees who are instrumental in assisting YWPs in our activities; the Queensland and NSW YWPs who were very patient with me while distracted and on their comm ittees; two years worth of members of the YWP National Representative Committee years; the YWP National Vice President Amanda Hazell ; the AWA National Office in particular Laura Evanson, Lyndell Stone and Corinne Cheeseman; the AWA Board members, especially Christobel Ferguson, Paul Freeman and Lucia Cade, and Tom Mollenkopf. I thin k I can hear wind up music playing so will end with one last than k you. I would like to extend my particular appreciation to my employer. KBR has supported me as YWP National President and provided funding for me to both contribute my time and attend events on behalf of the AWA and Young Water Professionals. My vision is for a sustainable water industry; one which is active, leads the way and does not wait for government policy, but instead sets an agenda and pushes cultural change. I look forward to a long career in water (really long ... I am scheduled to retire in 2050!) to achieve my vision. Erin Cini steps down as National President of the AWA Young Water Professionals at the end of 2009, elections for her replacement will take place in December 2009.

conference reports (and journalism) in the USA demand such figures. If expressed in litres of water per day to ingest a therapeutic dose the results are astronomical. The highest concentrat ion is 1 fivemillionth of a pharmaceutical dose (or one second in 750 years) which is insignificant when put in context with the amounts of a number of t oxins in food and drink (particularly beer!) He has presented his views to a Senate Committee, encouragi ng them to be responsible for the amount of money wasted, not chasing our tail over a never-ending search for less and less, as analytical methods improve. He also stressed that increasing stringency in purification costs exponentially more. In Lake Mead he has observed that the closer the fish are t o a wastewater outlet, the healthier and more abundant they are .. . and the converse. In effect, chemical monitoring alone will not establish safety (a theme endorsed by the Australian Guidelines). The other keynote speakers focused on reuse, NOT of the water, but on the nutrients. Tove Larsen , from EAWAG in Switzerland, t old us that water supply t o Swiss cities, long thought to be limitless, was now subject to water efficiency measures. However, the main focus is on the ancillary aspects: receiving waters, energy, chemicals, sludges. For six years the Swiss have run a project on urine separation. (This has been

discussed in a previous issue of Water). A survey showed that it would be generally acceptable, but there are problems, postprecipitation being the major issue, and transport in an urban situation a particular challenge, which is being tackled in a number of ways. None-the-less, the Swiss are running 26 projects in China, where nutrient reuse is very valuable, and urine collection is certainly an advantage over the traditional practice of watering crops wit h the total " nightsoil". Greg Leslie, of UNSW, reviewed developments in the application of membrane processes to reuse. He foreshadowed that in future there wi ll have to be attention given to recovery of phosphates, since there will be an increasing shortage, but at present it is only economically marginal to recover it from the RO concentrate. The use of N/deN in the preceding BNR wastewater treatment means ammonia may have to be added to achieve the stoichiometry for struvite crystallisation.

He finished with a review of t he research in process at the University, particularly on the application of nano-filtration, and the impact of energy cost increases. Looking through my notebook, I see so many valuable contributions to the practice (and politics) of reuse. However, the memory stick does not cover all the Proceedings, which is a pity.

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Distributed Systems Workshop - Reuse09 Reported by Therese Flapper, Water Futures A cast of many gathered the Friday workshop following the Reuse conference,on how distributed systems can provide for recycled water in a sustainable manner in the urban environment. At the end of a long week, you might think the room filled with dullness and 'sleepyheads '. The opposite was found with an enthusiastic and fabulously interactive day abounding. Sessions focused on regulatory settings across the United States, Asia and Australia, case studies from around the world , providing systems in a risk managed setting, and finishing with a discussion on the issues associated with validation, regu lation and research for distributed systems. When discussing and outlining regulations across the world , it became obvious that regulations have Sunrise at 1770 - recycled water scheme. been driven by environmental flows and public health. The problem with this is that current regulations are not Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling -a task mostly driven by the desire to recycle. Prof Bob Rubin (North achieved during the significant audience participation. Indeed Carolina State University) described how the US EPA Bob could barely get his talk done with the many hands raised guidelines (www.epa.gov/owm/septic) are aimed at local and wonderful insightful commentary and questioning. councils, operating entities and practitioners. Many of the USEPA Recycling and Reuse guidelines are available online An important message delivered was that "Water is Water ... and are mapped to 13 Elements. Many of these documents Water should be regulated as water - not black, grey or can be utilised and amended to suit different operations, and potable". This is the direction the USEPA wil l be taking local utilities. It was determined that a good exercise wou ld be according to Prof Rubi n, and endorsed by all in the audience, to map the US 13 Elements to Austral ia's 12 Elements in the including regulators. Furthermore, NSF standards are being developed for both small and large systems, not ing it was important to create a standard relating to water quality, not the size of the treatment faci lity. A significant difference to the Australian regulatory setting. The aim of the NSF standard is for manufact ures to be able t o 100% Australian owned and manufactured validate their products to the • high surface area encourages standards. It is important that the excellent biological film growth standards are for the end use, • custom modular design for easy irrespective of the tech nology. maintenance and handling The source of the water is not • ideal for commercial & domestic important be it harvested waste-water treatment rainwater, greywater or • cost effective, efficient, reliable blackwater.


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Dr Juliet Willets (Institute for Sustainable Futures) took us on the urban journey in developing countries, with many in the room able to relate to as most had done at least some work or projects in such zones. It was a contrast in many ways to what


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Nubian installation at Dickson Apartments.

had been the focus of discussion Australia and the US - but many principles remained the same. Regulations and planning are fundamental to good delivery and ongoing operations.

A key message from the case study session was that centralised management of distributed systems is a must, and that streamlined risk-based sensible regulations are desperately needed.

Juliet noted that there are incentives for foreign development agencies to build and fund water and wastewater treatment facilities, and that this is creating incentive to go for the larger centralised and highly technical processes - as compared to distributed systems of perhaps lower technology. Overseas agencies and developers (outsiders) often have expensive, highly technical systems pushed upon them, whereas local money is usually spent on septic tanks and basic treatment only. A interesting paradigm that was highly discussed around the room. What level is needed for what purpose? And how that level and purpose changes depending on where you are.

Chris Davis (NWC Commissioner) wrapped up the day wit h some pointed comments:

The case study frenzy took us across residential and industrial settings, across Australia, Asia and the UK, and across a range of sizes from the very small to the fairly large. Most of the audience felt they could easily need to visit the Sunrise 1770 scheme with its beaches and sunny setting. For most case studies the technology description was matched with the regulatory setting and approvals process, and review of operational aspects. This provided a forum for wide ranging discussion on the limiting factors of distributed systems.

• Confusion or sheer complexity in regulatory requirements - must be simplified and coordinated • Integrated water management is key to how we manage recycled water, storm water, rainwater and all water • Different strokes for different folks is key • Many types and levels of treatment are necessary for national and global water security • Training is essential in all facets of distributed systems • Must have certified operators • Climate change is a given and the energy nexus is driving distributed systems into a sustainable future • How are systems managed? How should they be managed? • Validation protocols - weighing best practice and considering the risk profile • Need for broad access t o credible performance data Presentations are available at http://www. thewaterhub. com

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conference reports

5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Sydney, October Reported by EA (Bob) Swinton In Austral ia, for the past few years , Water Efficiency has been a major tool in meeting the gap between diminishing supplies and expanding population, and this has been recognised internationally in the decision by the International Water Association to hold their 5th Conference in Sydney. In his opening address Francisco Cubilo, Chair of the Scientific Committee, from Spain, said that in his opinion Australia was the best in the world for managing urban water. Some 250 delegates were registered from 18 countries.with over 100 papers presented. Stuart White, the Chair of the Organising Committee, opened by saying that it was only 15 years ago that the first water efficiency program was run in Kalgoorlie, spending $3.Sm for a population of 35,000. However, the increasing drought in the southern states resu lted in a huge increase in interest, a major focus being in SE Queensland. This was evident in the papers presented at previous W/E conferences run by AWA, but at this conference, the practical results are evident in a number of papers.

Education, public awareness, restrictions, new technology and leak reduction have all combined to reduce demand by unheard of amounts. The question remains, how much of this economy will be retai ned when the public feels that rain is falling, or t hat their desalination plant is up and running. Kerry Schott reviewed Sydney Water's 4-pronged program, noting that demand management/water efficiency was the quickest and cheapest way to manage the gap, but the 'low hanging fruit' has now been picked and the cost of each kl saved is advancing. The most successful domestic program has been the rebate for front-loading washing machines.

By 2015, the gap will be met by 12% by recycle, 15% by desalinat ion, 24% by water efficiency, and future programs will focus on BASIX for new developments, smart meters and efficiency for high-rise buildings. Sydney Water's new headquarters has a 76% recycle system in operation. In discussion, she noted that the Price Regulator encouraged any efficiency or reuse scheme up to a cost of $2/kl, but beyond that, arguments involving, say, environmental benefits, had to be very convinci ng. The American scene was reviewed by Mary Ann Dickinson, a keynote speaker at a previous AWA conference. She is the Executive Direct or of the Alliance for Water Efficiency, USA, a non-government organisation devoted to helping utilities in planning for sustainable water resource. Most Americans consider that water is limitless, as evinced by a usage of 600 led (compared to Brisbane's 140) and there has been a complete lack of political awareness. The USEPA has only one staff member concerned with water conservation. Yet estimates show that 40 out of 50 states will have a shortage in the future. Of course, California, Nevada and Arizona are well aware of this and are active .

38 DECEMBER 2009 water

But suddenly, President Obama and the Global Financial Crisis have made a difference! The Stimulus Package needed 'shovel-ready ' projects, and, out of the blue, the Alliance was asked by a White House Official whether, in t wo weeks, they could nominat e the odd billion dollar's worth of such projects. It took them two and a half weeks to respond with a wellreasoned case for USD1 OB to attain benefits of about USD1 SB with opportunities for 150,000 to 220,000 jobs and significant reductions in energy usage! 585 projects at USD2.SB would be 'shovel ready'. There are now 16 Bills in progress through the two Houses, so t he USA is finally underway to tackle the future. In a later session she outlined the Water Conservation Tracking Tool, wh ich is available for members of the Alliance to use. Yarra Valley Water in Melbourne has probably been at t he forefront of demand management, and their Managing Director, Tony Kelly, is also Chair of savewater Alliance. As he said, social engineering is a lot more difficult than civil engineering. His method of changing customer behaviour relied more on offering options than by legislation . For example, as dam levels went down and Stage 4 restrictions loomed, he set a target with the message that if we can reach it we can all avoid Stage 4. The authority's website and bill information listed ways in which customers could achieve it. It worked. Large customers are offered choices, save in one direction, use water in another. Supply problems, leakage reports, and options are completely transparent. However, the situation wi ll alter completely in 2011 when both the North-South pipeline and the desalination plant come on stream, e.g. no obvious shortage BUT a doubling in price. Sue Murphy reviewed Perth 's options. Their two desalination plants will hold the fort for the immediate future, but they have to plan for double the population and possibly even less rainfall. There is no simple solution ... the 'Dubai Model' of multi ple desalination plants is far too costly, both in dollars and energy. So first, they have banned the word 'drought' from the public vocabulary. It implies a temporary situation, whereas the reality is that their climate has become even more 'Mediterranean' and life-styles will have to change accordingly. The fantasy of an English garden and kids playing cricket on the back lawn will have to go. Groundwater recharge of purified recycled water is a good option, but IPR needs a change in community perceptions, so their trial plant, which wi ll recharge into a 'spare' aquifer, will be visited by every school in Perth. The next social change wi ll be gradual densification. Perth is currently the most sprawling city, possibly on Earth, so high rise, with replacement of gardens by controlled public open space must eventually take place.

Rainwater tanks, unless large and plumbed into household uses, are inefficient and cost two to three times SWRO, and

conference reports use even more energy, so although encouraged there is no rebate. The total sprinkler ban in winter is working and will be permanent. 'Save Wat er for a Sunny Day' has 93% community support. Their plans, 'Wat er for Ever' for 2030 and 2050 rely on some 20% of reduced use, and this is the great est risk in their portfolio. Robyn Mcleod, recently appointed as the first Commissioner for Water Security in South Australia, reviewed their 'Water for Good' program. They are faced with not only diminishing rainfall, with step changes in yield from the Mount Lofty catchments, but also a dying River Murray. They cu rrently draw 70% from the river, but this must be reduced to 50% by 2012 and population is constantly expanding. Their desalination plant wi ll cope til l the 2030s. There is an active program on capturing stormwater for Managed Aq uifer Recharge. Worley Parsons has done a hypothetical options review. Demand Management is the cheap est, followed by doubling the desalination plant, then purchasing irrigation entitlements from the Murray (but that will entail social implications). Recycling is the most expensive.

The Melbou rne scenario was thoroughly outlined by Bruce Rhodes, backed by Cameron Fitzgerald of City West Water, whose papers, unlike the above keynote speakers, are contained in the Proceedings. Tim Waldron, of Wide Bay Water, focused on leak management, both in the authorities' networks and in the customers' properties, summarising the recent IWA Conference in Cape Town which was reported in the August issue of Water. Carole Howe, ex-CS/RO, is now Director of SWITCH, the global action research program led by UNESCO. She is based in the Netherlands, but works with 33 global partners in 12 cities, from Birmingham to Li ma, aiming at a more sustainable urban water management. Water may be Life, but it is also amongst the world's biggest killers. Not just water-borne disease, but flood and tsunami. Climate change

means less rai n to most Australians ... but it has a completely different challenge for wet countries, particularly the Dutch . Each city has a different perspective, but cooperation and communication are helping. The situation in developing countries was addressed by To ny Gregg, an international consultant. Water efficiency programs are greatly needed but outside aid suffers from the same problems as other donor schemes. If they are based on outside consultant s, the momentum can easily be lost. It is essential to establish a credible public process for developing a national wat er strategy and then provide its own institutions with the independence and resources to develop and implement water efficiency programs that support the national strategy. He spoke with particular reference to Jordan , which will host the next /WA Efficiency conference. But what of the Technical program? Although the streams had a number of titles, they could be simplified to four approaches: management (including forecasting and pricing); social engineering (changing community behaviour); new technology; and leakage detection and management. There are many worthwhile papers in each of these themes and the committee is to be cong ratulated in getting most of them into the Proceedings, as a useful reference for the future. In the final Plenary, Stuart White commented on the change from theory to practice in the last four years, and the vital end-use analyses wh ich have been carried out in Australia. Other speakers commented on the emerging work on the water/energy nexus, and the new direction to nutrient recycling. But a cautionary note was sounded by Larry Powell, a psychologist. No matter how efficiently the authorities run their business they are faced with public policies which encourage the human population to increase beyond the bounds of the environment. Water for agriculture for an increasing food demand is the other elephant in the room. This must change, sometime in the near future.


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conference reports

LGSA Water Conference September 2009, Deniliquin By Dr Therese Flapper, Water Futures Over 160 delegates made their way to Deniliquin NSW, not for the famous Ute Muster, but to discuss water in the regional setting. This years LGSA Water Conference focussed on urban reuse and drinking water security given climate change, drought and changing weather patterns; agricultural water particularly buy-backs; state and local government updates regulatory and projects; risk management and providing due diligence in drinking water management; local water utility amalgamations and models for going forward - and of course doing all this in a sustainable manner. The Conference also featured site visits showcasing Deniliquin's important irrigation infrastructure as well as modern farms that use water wisely. Not too much!!!


During his opening address, Cr Miller (President of the Shires Association) said that instead of concentrating on water buybacks, the focus should be on helping councils and farmers develop better irrigation methods. "There are a range of water needs in the basin - urban, production, irrigation and environmental," he said. "We know that our river systems are in desperate need of protection, but so too are our ru ral communities. There must be a balance, and the Water for the Future grant program is a great example of what we should be focusing on." Professor Ian Law had the task at hand to facilitate the conference and conversation, as the audience was very engaged and participated well. There was much conversation and questioning of the future agenda and changes to State departments such as the newly formed Office of Wat er. Mike Partlin (NSW Office of Water, former DWE) informed us clearly on the status and progress of the Aboriginal Water Supply and Sewerage Program, noting some fantastic achievements and progress to date. Sandy Leask (NSW Health) advised the growing importance in meeting the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 12 Element Framework, delivering safe and reliable water supplies into the future, strongly endorsing their growing uptake across NSW. Dr Therese Flapper (Water Futures) followed with an intensive 'hands-on' experience at just how to

Focus workshop on risk management delivered by Dr Therese Flapper.

40 DECEMBER 2009 water

Prof Ian Law as Conference facilitator.

go about meeting the ADWG risk management philosophy, guiding participants through worksheets to complete, in order to earn their dinner! The Welcome Reception held at Peppin Historical Centre was a culinary delight and all enjoyed the festivities both inside and out (although a little cool out), with the ability to view the historical centres displays which included a travelling art show

Audience participation.


conference reports on Australian Beaches across the century. I myself took the opportunity to grab some local produce and am still delighting in the lime marmalade. Keynote addresses from Richard Mcloughlin (DEWHA) and Stewart Ellis (Murray Irrigation) kicked off the second day and drew much heated questioning from the audience, not always sticking to the topic at hand, but indeed transgressing what was on peoples minds. Water buy-backs became the next topic of conversation led by Terry Hogan (RAMROC) and discussion of their 'Water for Food' campaign. Balancing water needs was discussed as a panel session with some controversial and nicely aligned (and cross-aligned) participants including Lawrence Arthur (NWC), Hon Pam Allan (former NSW Environment Minister), Tim Stubbs (Wentworth Group) and David Harris (NSW Office of Water). Ian Law earned his keep when control ling both the participants and many direct questions from the delegates. The main concern was why were things taking so long to get real action on the ground in the Murray, and if in fact we were going to make a difference in time, and then what the impacts might be on small rural and regional centres - wi ll some become ghost towns and how wi ll they be compensated. The social side of water became very obvious to many of us engineers and scientist in attendance. Concurrent sessions were then followed by site technical tours and a Water Directorate Forum which focussed on integrated water cycle management, low pressure sewerage systems and streamlining reporting requirements - a diverse topic set. Robert Freeman , Chief Executive of the Murray-Darling Basin Authority, opened the last day and highlighted the authority's new basin water management plan - the Murray Darling Basin Plan. It was viewed by the audience that if it was developed the rig ht way, the Plan has the potential to offer a coordinated approach to dealing with red uced water availability, providing a sustainable future for local centres. Chris Davis (NWC Commissioner) overviewed the role and relationship between NWC programs and strat egic vision and delivering for local councils and local needs. Chris described the visions and opportunities for striving to water reform across Australia with a foundation on solid planning. Jim Martin (Consultant) described the experience with restructuring local water utilities across Victoria and recently

Field trip.

Tasmania. He offered great insight for NSW councils to consider as they embark on the soul searching deliverance of Alliance's to keep the NSW government both happy with the outcome and at arms length, allowing local councils to remain locally concerned . Technical streams ran concurrently and addressed as broad a range of techn ical cont ent as the broad range of attending delegates. They all did have some central themes though how wi ll local centres and councils survive and be sustainable; how will water management decisions drive them - and how can they be the driver instead; how can we secure water and provide a diversity of options - given the regulatory and funding uncertai nty, particularly associated with the Basin Plan; and climate change, climate change, climate change - a resound ing undertone. At the conclusion, as we all enjoyed the last of Deni's hospitality, we were all a little awe-struck at the task at hand over the next decade. And indeed it seemed to me that as most of the people in the room wont be working through the next decade - just how will we get it all done? More information - http://www.lgsa-plus.net.au/ www/ html/2864-speakers-and-presentations. asp

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feature article

Water Operator Partnerships - A Simple Way to Help Water Utilities in Developing Countries M Giesemann, General Manager Engineering, City West Water; D Roche, Manager Asset Performance, City West Water; S Austin, General Manager Sustainable Development, Yarra Valley Water; and T Moulton, Team Manager, Operations, Yarra Valley Water The concept of Water Operat or Partnerships (WOPs) was developed at fourth World Water Forum in Mexico as a strategy to help achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established in 2000. The rationale behind the WOPs concept was that the greatest capacity for improving water and sanitation operators lay with the operators themselves. Most water operators are local or municipal and only modest improvements in many of these operators would go a long way towards meeting t he MDGs. However there were no existing organisations that had the capacity to reach the many thousands of water operat ors located in developing cou ntries. The best way to make rapid progress was to allow water operators to directly engage with each other without having to wait for aid donors, international fi nancial institutions or other organisations to establish contacts and develop projects. The WOPs are based on mechanisms that permit these operators t o exchange ideas and transfer skills. WOPs are sometimes referred to public-public partnerships to contrast them with the public-private partnerships that were strongly promoted in the 1990s. There are at least 250,000 public water operators in the world and entities such as UN Habitat, United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) have been trying to tap into these and establish WOP programs. Since 2006 a number of WOPs have commenced on a trial basis, and what works and what doesn't work has largely been sorted out. It remains for many more water operators to join a WOP program, become a twin, and help contribute to achieving the MDGs.

Repairing a broken water main in downtown Ceb.

Waterlinks WaterLinks is a WO Ps initiative and was established jointly by the International Water Association (IWA), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to develop and implement three principal activities throughout Asia, each of wh ich draws on a range of partner resources and capabilities to achieve tang ible results in terms of expanded or improved access to safe water and sanitation and increased capacity.

• Twinning Activities: Each WO P is composed of a mentor twin and a recip ient twin. Twinning activities include peer review, technical assistance in developing and implementing improved policies and practices, specialised on-the-job training, technology demonstrations and information exchange. Twinning partners develop memoranda of understanding and work plans that identify specific commitments, activities, resources, timeli nes and outcomes. WaterLinks development partners facilitate and co-fund twinning activities. • Regional Capacity Building: WaterLinks supports reg ional capacity building of Asian water and wastewater operators through the development and implementation of training programs and toolkits and applied research . As part of its capacity building efforts, WaterLinks highlights the results of tw inning partnerships through its training programs and toolkits.

Carrying out leak detection in Cebu.

4 2 DECEMBER 2009 w ater

• Information Sharing and Networking: WaterLinks disseminates best practices via publications and this website. It also organises regional networking events t o share twinning partnership results and broker new partnerships.

feature articles

feature article Recipient Twin Recipient twins gain a number of benefits from the WOPs program including: • Transfer of knowledge - a WOP can provide opportunities for a recipient twin to increase its knowledge on various technical issues and implementation techniques pertinent to its utility. Having a mentoring twin who also runs a utility means that there is an immediate bond when the twins meet, wh ile commu nication is made easy through the common language of utilities - "utility speak"

Twins CWW and MCWD celebrating their birthday.

The first WaterLinks forum was held in Bangkok in September 2009 and was attended by Matthew Giesemann and Danielle Roche from City West Water who presented a case study on its WOP with Metropolitan Cebu Water District in the Philippines. AWA was invited to increase its understanding of the role Australian utilities can play in this program. A brief report on the forum was included in the November Journal.

Being a Twin has its Benefits Twinning has benefits to both the mentoring and recipient twins. These benefits are not financial but rather derive from the involvement of staff from each of the twins worki ng together to improve water supply and sewerage services in developing countries.

Mentoring Twin There are various reasons why mentoring twins participate in WOPs. These include: • Helping others - some mentoring twins see twi nning is the most direct and cost effective way of exercising their corporate social responsibility to help developing countries improve the water and sanitation services being provided, particularly in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries • Exposure - being a twin places the mentoring twin's business name firmly on the world water stage th rough various publications, meeting other water businesses and attending twinning and twinning related forums • Expanding interests - some mentoring twi ns are privatised wat er supply companies and twinning is a way of being introduced to new countries and markets

• Institutional capacity - find ing out how utilities work in other countries and the policies, practices and tech nologies they use, can help a recipient twin better understand its own business • Networki ng - the recipient twin also has the opportunity to attend forums and workshops to further seek and share information and also develop friendshi ps with other WOP participants both mentoring and recipient • Staff development - through WOPs staff at the recipient twin form a relationship with their counterpart which can provide guidance, advice and assistance on various issues they might have.

Twins in Action City West Water City West Water (CWW) began twi nning with Metropolitan Cebu Water District (MCWD) in the Philippines in early 2008. MCWD supplies water to customers on the island of Cebu, one of the most densely populated islands in the Philippines. MCWD has around 120,000 connections and is recognised as one of the better performing water utilities in area. However MCWD wanted to improve its performance in a number of areas, particularly non-revenue water, information management and corporate planning. After an initial diagnostic visit from Matthew Giesemann and Danielle Roche from CWW and Bob Hood from the ADB a project plan was developed which included a twelve month program mainly focussed on non-revenue water. The project centred on a small area within the MCWD wat er supply network called Sunrise. This area was used as a trial area where the impact of different non revenue water reduction techniques could be measured. Over the course of the twelve months a variety of reduction techniques were implemented resulting in non revenue water in the area dropping from 39% to 11%, exceeding the target for the project of 15%.

• Perspective - helping wat er businesses in developing countries brings a perspective to the mentoring twins own water business and provides a hands on appreciation of the water problems faced around the world • Networking - there is no better way of networking than being a mentoring twin. There are vario us twi nning forums held throughout the year and a camaraderie is quickly built up between twins sometimes leading to lasting friendships made • Staff development - one of the biggest benefits from being a mentoring twi n is the opportunity it gives to deve lop staff. Experience shows that by becoming involved in these sorts of projects staff develop a broader appreciation of the water industry and are invigorated by the experience

Inspecting the customer service system in Hai Phong.

water DECEMBER 2009 43

feature article • Preparation and documentation of long term corporate plans • Staff training and development • Development IT planning and systems • Maintenance operations and construction activities • Leak detection and non revenue water The next step in this twinning is a planned visit by people from Hai Phong to Melbourne in November 2009 to study YWV work practices, processes and management frameworks. This in turn will lead t o the development of specific projects for YVW and HPW to work together on.

The birth of the YW./ and HPW Twins.

The project also included workshops on asset management, business planning, key performance indicators and financial management. Some of these areas were added to the project as the relationship between CWW and MCWD developed and a better understanding of the underlying issues faci ng the MCWD developed. A delegation from MCWD visited CWW in January 2009. This visit enabled MCWD staff to experience first hand the processes, systems and management practices of CWW and fu rther develop the relationship between the twins. Over the course of the twinning project CWW staff with engineering, technical and management backgrounds have visited MCWD and have found the experience to be enjoyable, challenging and rewarding. CWW and MCWD have developed a strong friendship over the period of the project and continue to work together on non reven ue water and other focus areas for MCWD with the support of the ADS.

Yarra Valley Water Yarra Valley Water C'(VW) entered into a twinning arrangement with Hai Phong Water Supply Company (HPW) in the City of Hai Phong in Vietnam in mid 2009. The city of Hai Phong is located in the North of Vietnam on the East coast, approximately 150 Km to the west of Hanoi. Hai Phong is the third largest city in Vietnam with a population of over 1.8 million people The city was founded 1905. Since 1993 HPW has made significant improvements in its delivery of its water supply services. For example water losses have been reduced from 70% in 1993 to around 20% today. Over the same period the number of connected properties has grown from 22,000 to over 180,000. HPW is now recognised as a good water company in the Asian area, and has previously provided support to other Vietnamese water companies through a twining program but is now keen to further enhance its performance through further twin ning with an experienced water company in a developed country. A delegation from YVW comprising Sam Austin and Tim Moulton, together with Bob Hood from the Asian Development Bank travelled to Hai Phong in August 2009 to identify the areas that YVW could potentially be able to provide advice and support. This initial t ri p concluded with the execution of a Twinning Agreement wh ich included the following areas for the two companies to focus on.

44 DECEMBER 2009 water

YVW believes the twinning program provides staff with the opportunity to directly contribute to improving the provision of water supplies in developing cou ntries and compliments other programs it has such as its support for Water Aid.

How to Become a Twin Becoming a twin is easy. As a first step cont act the ADB's officer in Australia, Robert (Bob) Hood at rhood@adb.org. If you would like to hear first hand about what its like to be a twin, and what sort of work is involved, contact Matthew Giesemann at mgiesemann@citywestwater.com.au, Danielle Roche at droche@citywestwater.com.au or Ann Hinchliffe at ahinchliffe@awa.asn.au. Information on twinning can also be found on the ADB website http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2009/ water/inks-partnerships/default.asp or the WaterLinks website http://www. water/inks. org!.

Millennium Declaration In September 2000 the United Nations Millennium Summit prepared the Millennium Declaration wh ich was adopted by 189 nations and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the Summit. The Millennium Declaration included eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) wh ich address the world's main development challenges of poverty, education, child mortality, gender equality, maternal health, disease, environmental degradation and development. Targets were set for each of these goals with the aim of achieving them by 2015. Embedded in the goals were plans to address the water supply and sanitation problems being experienced in developing countries. In March 2006 during the fourth World Water Forum in Mexico the United Nations Secretary General's Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (UNSGAB) reviewed the progress towards achieving the MDGs over the previous five years. This review resulted in a Compendium of Actions (COA), which aimed to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals on water and sanitation. The COA is now called the 'Hashimoto Action Plan' after the UNSGAB's late Chairman. Amongst other things the Action Plan proposed the creation and implementation of a global mechanism to promote Water Operators Partnerships (WOPs). These were to be established on a not-for-profit basis, between public water and sanitation operators themselves, or between a public operator and any other interested party, for the improvement of the public sector's performance.

feature articles

feature article

Troubled Waters: Climate Change Raises the Bar on Australian Water Reform Too many Australians still pin their hopes on the mantra "When the rains come again ... " - rather than recognising the reality in their ra in gauges, dams, rivers and bores, a major new report finds. As drought tightens its grip on the nation's throat and a changing climate foreshadows dry times ahead, Australia's leading water experts have warned that we must go faster and further in changing the way we use and care for our scarce and precious water. Despite steady deterioration in both quantity and quality of wat er over large areas, Australia as a whole is fail ing to meet the challenge of emerging scarcity, Australian Water Reform 2009, the second major review of the state of the nation's water management warns . This two-yearly assessment by the National Water Commission (NWC) is the sharp end of the National Water Initiative, a regular report on progress under the agreement by Austral ian governments to make our water use more efficient, secure and sustainable. The report details significant and heartening progress towards water reform in many areas - but finds that, overall, reform has been t oo slow and fragmentary to keep up with the changing c limate. " In many places water is still seriously overallocated and overused. Water markets are not functioning as freely as they should, and this is dragging out the uncertainty for farmers and other users. The Australian landscape is still not getting its fair share of water, and many iconic places are it a critical state. All told there needs to be a far greater sense of urgency in how we manage our water," says Commission Chair Ken Matthews Symbolising the situation facing most of Australia's fresh waters and their management nationwide, overallocation and overuse contin ue t o bedevil efforts to put the Murray-Darling Basin's waters on a planned and sustainable footing, the NWC says. Irrigation industries and their communities are struggling, native ecosystems dying, surface and groundwater wat er quality and supplies declining. Behind this lies stubborn wrangl ing between the partner governments over the meanings of 'overallocation' and 'overuse', a fail ure t o introduce and implement effective water plans in some cat chments badly needing them, obstacles to trade in water which hinder adjustment, efficiency and development, disputes over the environment's share of water and a still widespread reluctance to accept that surface and groundwater are often connect ed. Despite these setbacks, however, the report finds real improvements both in our understanding of how much water we actually have - and in our ability to trade in wat er so it flows more freely to the most efficient and competitive end -use. If Australia doesn't measure up to its own exacting standards of what needs to be done in water, there is nevertheless internat ional admiration for what has been achieved so far from a world in which nearly every country has yet to come to grips with the realities of a climate radically different from the one in which humans have evolved. "The take-home message for every Australian is that, notwithstanding some progress, our water is still in trouble and reform must be driven farther and faster than ever," Ken says.

Central pivot irrigator, SA. Photo: CSIRO, courtesy of National Water Commission.

Planning Water planning may sound like a dry argument to the public, but it holds the key to Australia's future. Not on ly does it involve understanding how much water we have, but good plans set out clearly how it can be best shared between the economy, the community and the environment. Australia's states and t erritories have committed to completing 195 water plans. So far, they have only completed 112 plans. Only 22 new plans have been introd uced in the last two years, when the nation was supposedly pursuing major changes. This situation, in the words of the Commission, is "critically inadequate". It calls for a renewed sense of urgency about rolling out good quality water plans by local authorities. Also while most water plans provide well for the physical resource and its economic uses, many are weak when it comes to the social and environmental uses of water. There is, in particular, a need to ensure enough water is returned t o the environment to protect the Australian landscape and its iconic places, the Commission says. Many plans also fail to properly take account of likely future drying in the climate. There is a lack of openness about telling the community what changes in wat er availability really mean, especially when it comes to how wat er plans will deal with trade-offs between com peting uses. There is also a failure to engage Ind igenous people in water planning. Progress in mapping the links between surface and groundwater and building them into plans has been slow. Climate change wi ll have a big impact on whether these plans succeed - or whether they fail, with disastrous consequences for the industries, towns, people and ecosystems affected. For example, the Commission estimates that in the order of 30%

water DECEMBER 2009 45

feature article Following the advice that, if you can't measure it you can't manage it, there has been good progress in developing national standards for water accounting, the NWC says. It urges individual jurisdictions to adopt these quickly, along with plans for metering and measuring all their water resources. In what cou ld prove a 'watershed' for Austral ian attitudes to water (as a precious substance rather than a free gift) the Commission makes the far-reaching recommendation "that governments commit to a shared ultimate national goal of universal licensing and metering of all surface and groundwater extractions, including for stock and domestic purposes." To give it teeth , it urges a national approach to compl iance and enforcement, to catch the water cheats.

A Thirsty Landscape Without water even the drought-hardy Australian landscape dies - and many of its iconic places are now at great risk, the report notes: "Widespread and prolonged drought has resulted in critical environmental degradation in the Murray-Darling Basin. High profile cases of ecological decline, like the Lower lakes and Coorong ... have been linked t o a combi nation of drought and unsustainable extraction." While the ideal of giving a share of water to the environment is honoured in most water plans its practical implementation often lags far behind. Indeed, many plans still lack tools for making good decisions about where, when and how much to water. Farmer growing melons using tape irrigation, Kunnanurra area on the Ord river irrigation system, 2004. Photographer: Arthur Mostead, courtesy of National Water Commission.

less water could be available for irrigated agriculture in northern Victoria in the years ahead. Critical to effective water planning is knowing the size of the total water resource - and the Commission's latest report foreshadows the end of casual exploitation of water as a "free good" that anyone could harvest by scraping up a small dam or sinking a bore. In future all bores should have a licence, it says.

One Resource The report also foreshadows the end of the un-metered private bore. Although knowledge of Australian groundwater resources is patchy and often poor, there are clear signs in some areas mainly from sinking water tables - that they are being emptied faster than nature can replenish them. The drying climate wi ll make this worse. In view of this, the NWC argues that all groundwater be regarded as connected to surface water, unless there is good scientific evidence to the contrary - in effect, every litre taken from a bore should be regarded as coming from a connected river or major surface water source. All states and territories have now passed laws that regard surface and groundwater as a single resource, other than Western Australia, which has recognised connectivity through its planning processes. In order to better map our underground water, its surface connection and how quickly we are using it, all bores should be from now on be licensed and metered, with priority for those systems known to be heavily-exploited, the NWC says. It urges a nationwide effort to quantify Australia's groundwater resources more accurately.

Measuring Water With the Bureau of Meteorology now in charge, Australia is for the fi rst time creating a central set of accounts for water.

46 DECEMBER 2009 water

The NWC wants all water jurisdictions to state clearly the environmental outcomes they aim to achieve, and how their water use will achieve them. In times of extreme scarcity, any decision to take water away from the environment must be publicly explained and justified. The Commission strongly supports buybacks, large and small, to augment environmental water and is critical of State barriers to water trade that undermine this. It wants environmental water to be registered and reported in a consistent national fashion, and a national scientific approach to list the ecosystems most in need of watering.

Ending Overuse Overallocation is when the total of all water extraction entitlements adds up to more than the sustainable level of extraction. Overuse is when more water is actually taken than is sustainable. Unfortunately, despite these being fairly straightforward concepts, most water jurisdictions in Australia still do not define or observe them. There remains a 'fundamental lack of agreement" between jurisdictions and even states as t o what they mean - and th is is sapping confidence in Australia's ability to manage its water wel l, the NWC warns. It sees as a serious problem the fact that in many places where water is overallocated, the community has not been informed - and needs to be, so they can be returned to sustainable levels. Another is that water is sometimes recovered for the environment without a clear public explanation of how it is to be used, and this imperils community support. It urges the Council of Australian Governments to speed up its development of guidelines for environmentally sustainable extraction, to bring greater certainty both to irrigators and the Australian landscape. At the same time, states and territories should not delay practical actions to address overallocation and overuse.

feature articles





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feature article Secure Access to Water At its root, the goal of Aust ralian water policy is to give users confidence about the security of their supply - but achieving this in a drying climate spells painful adjustment for many along the road to greater certainty. This is a message the National Water Commission does not back away from, arguing that the quicker we complete the needed reforms, the sooner certainty wi ll return. All water entitlements should be backed by the law. They should be clearly defined, registered, protected and not linked to land. They should specify who bears the risks from any future changes in water availability. They should be tradeable. This combination will give holders much greater control of their own destinies, the NWC says. Most Australian jurisdictions are fairly well advanced with these measures, though the Commission has told Western Australia and the Northern Territory to hurry up. In New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia there have been efforts to improve the flexibility of entitlements to better manage the risk of low water availability - and the Commission encourages this, along with being up-front with users about how water shortages are to be handled.

Trading Water Since the reforms began large volumes of water have been bought and sold both withi n and outside the Murray-Darling Basin as water users grow accustomed to a new era in which water can flow from one use to another according to its val ue. This water market remains the centrepiece of national water reform. "Significant benefits are flowing to buyers and sellers ... movements in water have facilitated industry adjustment and economic development," the Commission finds. Water allocations and entitlements are the most widely-traded products, though others may emerge to suit the needs of different kinds of users. It noted that the length of time taken to process water trades and transfer entitlements - mostly a month but up to a year in extreme cases, is a big cost on users and a brake on the market, though there are signs this is improving. However, the 4 per cent limit on water being traded out of certain irrigation areas in a year has "impeded the use of buyback programs, unfairly and arbitrarily penalised willing sellers ...distorted patterns of water trade .. .inhibited structural change and complicated interstate collaboration". It should be axed, the Commission st ates. It found that whi le the link between water entitlements and land has now been generally severed, further progress is required. The delay in bringing in water plans to 40 per cent of Australia's jurisdiction has also hindered efficient trade. The NWC wants a close eye kept on 'market intermediaries' middlemen - to ensure they do not undermine public confidence in a fair water market, and it wants water users to be better informed of their rights.

Pricing Water It is essential that the price of wat er encourages its efficient use and sound investment, the NWC says. The right price signals will encourage innovation, w ise infrastructure spending, efficient industries and household use. This, it adds, is a better system than imposing water restrictions (which have hidden costs) because prices are out in the open and everyone can see what water really costs.

48 DECEMBER 2009 water

Windmill near Bourke NSW. Photography: Arthur Mostead, courtesy of National Water Commission.

NWI consistent water pricing does not yet apply everywhere in Australia. The Commission is concerned that state and local governments are sometimes still hiding the real costs of water from their urban consumers by subsidising the cost of new infrastructure projects. It wants to discourage the use of grants and subsidies that distort the signals reaching all users. Progress in meeting the National Water Initiative's goals for recovery of the costs of water management has been very limited, the Commission warns, especially in Queensland, Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia. It urges a far more rigorous economic approach to water. And while most states have had success in curbing householder use of water through restrictions, they would do better to employ price signals too. For irrigators especially it is important that future charges for water be transparent, especially in cases where there is big spending on upgrading infrastructure.

Who Bears the Risks? In a drying, drought-prone climate, there is always the risk that water will not be available in the future to fulfil an entitlement or meet one of the major economic, social or environmental goals of the NWI. While water plans and water markets can give users greater certainty and more options, they cannot guarantee future supplies. To provide users with greater certainty over how changes in water availability will be dealt with, the NWI sets out a formula for sharing the risks between water users, government and the environment in a known and predictable way - and most users see this as absolutely vital. But this is not yet happening, the Commission says. "There is widespread debate and uncertainty about the best approach to risk assignment.. .. in the Commission's view it is important to address that unc ertainty in order to provide entitlement holders with greater planning and investment certainty over how changes in water availability wi ll be dealt with." It calls for all water jurisdictions to clarify how risk will be shared in the event of shortages, and the decision to be c learly explained to the public and users.

Adjustment Structural adjustment is the natural process of change in sectors of the economy. It is pivotal to water reform. In the

feature articles

irrigation industries and irrigation-dependent communities there are bound to be winners and losers from the changed circumstances, but it is important they have the freedom to make their own best choices, for example to sell water or to buy it, quickly and easily.


The Commission argue strongly that all artificial barriers, impediments and subsidies that interfere with this process must be removed , as they only protract the pain and delay the arrival of a truly sustainable water system and viable reg ional economies. If the barriers to water trade are removed , users will make their own best decisions whether and when t o buy or sell water, it argues. The unavoidable fact for Austral ia's irrigation industry is that, due to dryi ng and the need to ensure an environmental share, there will probably be a lot less water available in future for irrigated agriculture: in northern Victoria , for example, in the order of 30 per cent less. It is vital for irrigators in all areas to know what they are facing, so they can make plans accordingly. "Until we remove the current obstacles to trade in water, farmers and farming communities will not be able to see their future clearly, or invest with confidence. They will remain trapped in a black hole of uncertainty," says Ken Matthews, who grew up on an irrigation farm .

City Water Urban water has become front page news in recent years, with almost all big cities imposing rest rictions on consumers and searching for new sources of supply. However the Commission cautions that wat er restrictions alone are unlikely to deliver reliable supplies, and urges they be seen more as a last resort than a first option. Despite these and other measures Australian city water has failed to achieve security in most places. There has been a general move to diversify sources of water supply away from reliance on big rain-filled dams towards desalination, domest ic rainwater tanks, mining of wastewater and recycling of non-dri nking water.

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However Australia's cities could be doing more and implementing it more quickly, the Commission feels. Many need to improve the way they plan for and manage their water in a ti me of climatic uncertainty and erratic rai nfall, it says. If we are to have "water-sensitive cities" there must be better ways to quantify the real costs and benefits of wat er use and wider adoption of water markets to ensure efficiency. These wou ld improve the price signals to all urban water users.

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Despite much progress, the National Water Commission says there have been unconscionable delays in all areas of water reform, made worse by the changing cl imate. "So far as water is concerned we can see clearly where this is heading and, unless we act now, we know there is more and probably worse - to come ," Ken Matthews says.

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"The take-home message for all Australians is that further reform of our water management system is unavoidable - and cannot be delayed. Too much time is being wasted. Let's get on with it."

water DECEMBER 2009 4 9

feature article

National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training - On the Road to Success The new National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training (NCGRT) aims to make groundwater a topic for everyday conversation, as well as boosting Australia's capacity in groundwater research and trained personnel.

"With severe droughts and climat e change placing extreme pressure on existing water supplies, the need to expand our knowledge base is urgent."

Four of the research programs focus on core groundwater science. Innovative hydrogeological research methods will be pioneered to improve scientific knowledge The Centre was formal ly established relating to aquifers and aquitards; to water in June 2010, with a five year $29.SM flows in complex subterranean systems grant from the Australian Government and how to model them; and to the largely through the Australian Research Council Professor Craig T Simmons. unexplored link between surface water and and the National Water Commission. groundwater. NCGRT research teams are Cash contributions from the Centre's 20 also studying groundwater-dependent ecosystems and the partners have boosted the initial funding by a further $10M. potential impact of climate change. An innovative fifth program The Centre has since received an additional $15M over four examines the learnings from the other four programs in a years to establish groundwater research infrastructure, as part socioeconomic, legal and environmental management context of the Australian Government's Super Science (Marine and to help formulate effective policy and management practices. A Climate) funding initiative, administered by the Department of key focus for this program will be on how to reduce Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. uncertainty in groundwater decision making and how to better Professor of Hydrogeology at Flinders University and now understand the social determinants that are critical in that Director of the Centre Craig Simmons says that this is the process. most significant investment in groundwater research and The NCGRT's research will be carried out at the 12 partner training in Australia's history. "We are looking at massive universities in South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory, capacity building, trai ning and upskilling on an unprecedented New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and Western scale," Professor Simmons said. Australia. The Centre will also carry out field work in a number "The Australian Government also has a legitimate of these Stat es. The Super Science fund ing will extend the expectation that the Centre will become an Australian Centre's field operations into the Northern Territory. groundwater institution and wil l ultimately play a role in setting The Centre's 8 private industry and government agency the national agenda for groundwater priorities." partners are contributing expertise t o the Centre. In some The new Centre has absorbed the former Centre for cases they have staff who wi ll be directly involved in research Groundwater Studies, which has c onducted industry and projects, and who will jointly supervise students with the professional training in groundwater with outstanding success university-based researchers. Professor Simmons says that over 20 y ears. The NCGRT is committed t o growing and this broad partnership base ensures that the Cent re 's activities prospering national short course training for the professional respond to the needs of those who can make most effective groundwater industry sector. use of its research. In addition to its research and training mandate, the NCGRT has a goal to communicate the outcomes of its research to the general public. The Centre wi ll work closely with State and Commonwealth agencies including the National Water Commission to create public awareness about groundwater and the importance of managing this hidden resource for the future. The NCGRT's research will be conducted through five major programs, involving an initial thirty-five researchers who wi ll be joined across the five years by a further 150 postgraduate students, postdoctoral fellows and technical and research staff. The Centre's initial recruitment drive has attracted over 400 expressions of interest in these positions from all over the world - an outstanding success. Professor Simmons says that the Centre has developed an ambitious five-stream research program to address current knowledge gaps. "Although groundwater accounts for over 30 per cent of Australia's water consumption , we simply do not know enough about this vital water resource, and how to manage it," he said.

50 DECEMBER 2009 water

"In building this consortium, we have emphasised current capabil ity, future opportunity, wi llingness to invest, and ownership," he said. "The membership is not closed: we wi ll certai nly be looking at bringing on new partners during this five year fu nding period, and some new partnerships are already under discussion." This new Centre has a very ambitious program and mandate. Professor Simmons says that the Centre's leadership already has a further funding cycle in its sights. "We aspire to excellence in our research and training , and to ensuring groundwater is at the forefront of public consciousness and discussion when we are talking about our water resources", he said. "We must rise to the challenge of creating a long lasting focus for groundwater research, training and priority setting in this country - a groundwater institution for the nation." Further information about the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training can be found on the Centre's website at www.groundwater.com.au. Future articles in the Water Journal will provide further information and updates about Centre research and training activities.

feature articles

~ refereed paper

water resources

WATER FOOTPRINT: A CONCEPT IN NEED OF FURTHER DEFINITION B G Ridoutt Abstract With water scarcity now recogn ised as a critical global issue, there is rapidly increasing demand for water-related analysis and reporting by public and private sector organisations alike. Much interest has been shown in the concept of water footprinting, largely because of its potential to make transparent both direct and indirect water use. In this paper, it is argued that the water footprint concept is in need of further defin ition in order to meet the diversity of applications being proposed and to avoid the potential for misunderstanding and confusion.

The Global Context Freshwater has become a scarce and overexploited natural resource in many parts of the world, with serious consequences for global food security and the health of freshwater ecosyst ems. There is now more than one billion undernourished people in the world (FAO, 2009) and this humanitarian crisis has t he potential to escalate with demand for food forecast to double by 2050 (FAO, 2008). The availability of freshwater is one of the greatest constraints on current and future food production. Freshwater ecosystems are also being impacted by t he cu rrent level of human water use and regulation of flows. On average, freshwater species populat ions have halved since 1970, a sharper decline than for any other biome (UNESCO-WWAP, 2006). Th e depletion of groundwater and mining of fossil water further represents a loss of resources for future generations. As such, there is now a growing awareness throughout societ y of the seriousness of global water scarcity (Circle of Blue and Globescan, 2009) and a recognition that the impact s of human production systems and consumption patterns on freshwater resources must reduce in intensity. One complicating factor is that for most individuals and businesses, their burden on freshwater systems is largely indirect. At the consumer level, indirect (or virtual) water use through the consum ption of food and other goods and services is far greater than direct water use, perhaps by a factor of ten or more. The same is true for many businesses, where the majority of burden on freshwat er systems occurs in their supply chains. Agriculture is, by far, the largest consumer of freshwater, accounting for around 70% of withdrawals. A further comp licating factor is the interconnectedness of global business, meaning that the local consumption of products and services is now interven ing in the hydrological cycle throughout the world and to an extent that is rarely understood or appreciated. Therefore, despite the acknowledged need to mitigate the impacts on freshwater systems, there is at present a lack of transparency, and this has led to much recent interest in the concept of water footprinting.

The Origins of Water Footprinting Wat er footprinting has its origins in the concept of virtual water, which was introd uced in the 1990s and used t o explain how physically water scarc e MENA (Middle East and North Africa)

Figure 1. Rangeland-based beef production systems have minimal impact on the availability of freshwater resources. Photo: Malcolm Paterson.

countries met their domestic food requirements (Allan, 1998). Virtual water refers to the volume of freshwater req uired to produce a product , much of which is not physically present in the product. In the case of agricultural commod ities, virtual water relates mainly to crop evapotranspiration. Allan (2003) reasoned that, "It requires about 1,000 cubic metres of water to produce a ton of grain. If the ton of grain is conveyed to a political economy short of freshwater and/ or soil water, then that economy is spared the economic, and more importantly, the political stress of mobilising about 1,000 cubic meters of water." Subsequently, the virtual water flows between nations as a conseq uence of trade in agricultural commodities were calculated (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2004). This led to the notion of a nation 's water footprint, wh ich has been used to demonstrate that some nations, through their consumption of goods and services, take advantage of a disproportional share of the Earth's scarce freshwater resou rces (Chapagain and Orr, 2008). A further recent development has been the attempted application of water footprinting at the business enterprise and product levels. In Australia, the term water footprint has become part of the local vernacular, being added in 2008 to t he Macquarie Dictionary. Water footprints for a range of products are now regularly reported in the popular media, much like carbon footprints. For example, the Melbourne Age reported data from studies in the Netherlands indicating that it takes 140 litres of freshwater to produce a cup of coffee (125 ml), 200 litres for a glass of milk (200 ml), and 2000 litres for a cotton t-shirt (Gordon, 2007). The Australian reported that it takes somewhere between 50,000 and 100,000 litres of water t o produce a kilogram of beef (Warren, 2008). While it is encouragi ng that freshwater scarcity and overexploitation have been recognised as important issues, the danger is that the water footprint indicator has the potential to be misleading and confusing. Wat er footprints calculated and reported in this manner give no indication of the potential impact of consum ptive wat er use, whether it be in relation to businesses operations or product life cycles. If water footprints

water DECEMBER 2009 51


water resources are to describe the potential to contribute to global water scarcity, in the very least, they need to differentiate between the type of water used (e.g. irrigation water compared to natural rainfall over agricultural lands) and the local water scarcity where the use occurred (Ridoutt et al. , 2009a, 2009b). In contrast to the abovementioned claims about the water requirements to produce beef, rangeland-based livestock production systems would be expected to contribute little to global water scarcity (Figure 1).


- --

refereed paper








The water footprint quantifies the potential contribution to global water scarcity of a product (or service) arising from consumptive water use throughout the product 1 life cycle.

Product level sustainability reporting Product design Green procurement Corporate supply chain risk management

Watershed-oriented assessment


The water footprint of a business is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used directly and indirectly to run and support that business.2

Resource stewardship Corporate social responsibility reporting

National or regional assessment

National or Regional

The water footprint of a nation is defined as the total volume of water that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the 2 inhabitants of that nation.

Policy development in relation to agriculture, trade, domestic food security and water resources management

Product-oriented assessment

1 2

Ridoutt and Pfister, 2009 http://www.waterfootprint.org

Figure 2. The water footprinting concept is currently being applied in at least three ways.

There is endeavour to apply the water footprint concept in at least three ways, at scales rangi ng from the product, to the watershed and to the nation or region (Figure 2). Data needs and outcomes differ substantially between these three application areas, hence the need for careful definition of concepts.

Assessment), meaning that water footprints can be compared with carbon footprints and other environmental burdens. Such comparisons are necessary t o avoid burden shifting from one impact category to another (Finkbeiner, 2009). Many companies in the food and beverage sector are now piloting product water footprint studies of their supply chains. This is being motivated by corporate social responsibility and the desire to manage risks.

1. Product-oriented assessments

2. Watershed-oriented assessments

The critical issue at the product level is that the water footprint must describe the potential impact of consumptive water use and not simply the volume. The word potential is used intentionally because many real world products (as distinct from agricultural commodities) have diverse and variable supply chains that may be impacting local hydrological systems in many parts of the world, often far from where the final production and consumption takes place. It is not practical to measure the actual impacts of consumptive water use on a global basis and at high geographic resolution. Furthermore, the actual social and environment al impacts arising from consumptive water use vary according to location. For example, in the Murray Darling Basin the major impact arising from consumptive water use is damage to freshwater ecosystems. In contrast, in the western United States where water is abstracted from the Ogallala Aquifer for agricultural production, a major impact is freshwater resource depletion. As such, at the product level, the current focus is on quantifying the potential contribution to global water scarcity, taking into consideration the consumptive water use occurring across the entire product life cycle. Such a method has recently been developed (Ridoutt and Pfister, 2009), based on the global Water Stress Index (WSI, Pfister et al., 2009).

Water footprinting at the product level seeks to act as a driver of sustainable production and consumption and thereby reduce pressure on global water resources . However, being global in scope, product water footprinting cannot be expected t o effectively address local issues pertaining to the sustainable management of specific watersheds and ensure that specific environmental flow requirements are met. Attempts to apply water footprinting at the local watershed level, by organisations such as the Alliance for Water Stewardship (www.allianceforwaterstewardship.org), should be viewed as an application discrete from product water footprinting. For a particular freshwater ecosystem, the natural variability in flows can be great and the relationship to ecosystem health extremely complex. The data requirements and modelling necessary to determine environmental flow requirements and sustainable levels of abstraction may be able to be met on a case-by-case basis to support local watershed management; however, the ability to conduct this form of impact assessment on a global scale is not currently feasible.

Differentiating Application Areas

This new method has been used to quantify the wat er footprint of two case study products for Mars Austral ia, namely Dolmio速 pasta sauce and Peanut M&M's速, and used to show that the Dolmio速 pasta sauce (575 g jar) had a potential to contribute to global water scarcity more than ten times that of Peanut M&M's速 (250 g), even though the virtual water content of the latter was more than five times greater (Ridoutt and Pfister, 2009). Another application involved water footprinting of Australian fresh mango (Ridoutt et al. , 2009c). An important feature of this method is its compatibil ity with LCA (Life Cycle

52 DECEMBER 2009 water

In the context of water stewardship, a proposed starting point is an inventory of water use and discharge by an organisation within a specific watershed. It has been suggested that this invent ory is itself a water footprint (Gerbens-Leenes and Hoekstra, 2008). However, this is probably a less satisfactory use of the term water footprint compared to that described above in the context of productoriented assessment. This is because the inventory itself does not convey meaningful information about water stewardship until it is assessed in the context of the local sustainable level of abstraction and the relationship to other users who share the resource (i.e. the cumulative withdrawal). An outstanding issue for the water stewardship community is whether a significant, yet highly efficient, water user within an

technical featur s

unsustainably managed hydrological system cou ld be regarded as a good water steward - from the perspective of environmental sustainability, perhaps not.

3. National or regional assessments The thi rd major application area for the water footprint concept is at the national and regional levels where it is being used to understand the impacts of agricultural and trade policies on water resources. From the perspective of resource efficiency, water- intensive agricultural products should be grown in regions with abundant water resources and traded with water-scarce nations and regions, thereby reserving water in scarce locations for domestic uses and high value-add ing industrial applications. To some extent, this is what naturally occurs. Allan cites the example of decisions made by Israel in the 1980s to scale back exports of water-int ensive citrus products on the basis that it was an economically inefficient use of scarce local water resources (Allan, 2003). Internationally, trade in agricultural commodities is estimated to save 352 km 3 yr·1 in freshwater consu mption (Chapagain et al., 2006). However, other studies have shown that national policies on food and agriculture have led to the intensification of prod uction in areas of limited wat er availability, leading to unsust ainable levels of freshwater consumption and the need for elaborate engineering solutions to provide inter-basin water transfers (Verma et al., 2009). National assessments of consumptive water use typically differentiate between the internal water footprint (i.e. water resources used within the country to grow food and manufacture products) and the external water footprint (i.e. the water resources used to produce imports). For example, the internal and external water footprints of the UK have been estimated at 38.6 and 63.6 Gm3 y·1 (Chapagai n and Orr, 2008). Analyses of this ki nd have been used t o suggest that Australia is the largest net exporter of (virtual) water - 64 Gm3 y·1 (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2004) - predominantly as a result of the export of cereals. That said, it is important to note that the majority of Australia's cereal crops are rainfed, produced without the use of supplementary irrigation. Therefore, Australia's trade in cereal crops occurs with little impact on the availability of water resources. This example of Australia's grain exports highlights the need to differentiate between green water, which is natural rainfall that occurs over agricultural lands, and blue water, which is abstracted from surface and groundwat er resources. It has been argued that the consumption of green water per se does not contribute t o water scarcity. Until it becomes blue water, green water does not contribute to environmental flows which are needed for the health of freshwater ecosystems nor is it accessible for other human uses. Green water is only accessible through access to and occupation of land (Ridoutt and Pfister, 2009). Changes in land use can influence the proportion of precipitation that recharges groundwater and contributes to stream flow. However, th is author cautions against the use of the term water footprint in contexts which combine green and blue water consumption from water scarce and water abundant regions. Such assessments give no clear indication about the level of potential harm from freshwater consumption. In the context of regional and national assessments of trade in agricultural and other commodities, Allan's original term virtual water is much preferred.

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water resources carbon footprinting, which is already in widespread use (Ridoutt et al., 2009a). This will avoid stakeholder confusion and maximise the potential of water footprinting to act as a driver for sustainable freshwater use. It is suggested that t he term water footprint is reserved for assessments which describe the impact of consumptive water use on freshwater availability. In order to address the unsustainable use of global freshwat er resources, an indicator is needed which makes the impacts of production systems and consumption patterns transparent in terms of their pot ential t o contribute to water scarcity. Today more than ever, this is needed because the increasing interconnectedness of global business means that the local consumption of products and services is intervening in the hydrological cycle throughout the world to an unprecedented extent. By making t hese impact s transparent, capacity is created for change throug h public policy as well as corporate and individual action (Ridoutt and Pfister, 2009). Use of the term water footprint in situations which describe vol umetric water use is discouraged because, in the absence of information about the kind of water used (e.g. blue versus green water) and the local water scarcity, meaningful information about potential harm is not conveyed. The consumptive water use associated with Australian cereal crops is a locally relevant illustration of this. The virtual water embedded in Australia's grain exports may be large, but t he potent ial to contribute to global water scarcity is likely small consideri ng the majority of Australian cereal crops are rainfed only. Rangeland-based catt le production syst ems provide a further illustration. On the basis of volumetric water use, rangeland-based systems probably differ little from feedlotbased systems utilising irrigated grains. However, the pot ential to contribute to g lobal water scarcity will be very different, especially if the irrigation water used to produce the grain is abstracted from a water scarce location or a non-renewable fossil groundwater resource. Water footprinting has become a popular concept in response to the growing awareness and concern about global water scarcity and t he associated social and environmental consequences. In light of the diversity of ways in which the t erm is now being app lied , it is crit ical that steps are taken t oward c onsistent use of the term. This will avoid misunderstanding and confusion which could ultimately retard the potential of the concept to act as a driver of fair, efficient and sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources. This paper offers one suggestion about the future use of the term water footprint. Professionals in the fields of agriculture, trade and water resources management are encouraged to engage in the ongoing discourse about water footprinting to ensure that the concept evolves in a way that facilitates meaningful cross sector dialogue and leads to beneficial outcomes for the world's wat er resources.

Acknowledgment Parts of this paper were presented at the Water Footprint Network Partner Forum during Stockholm World Water Week, August 19, 2009.

The Author Dr Brad Ridoutt (email brad.ridoutt@csiro.au) is a Principal Research Scientist with CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Private Bag 10, Clayton, Victoria 3169, Australia.

54 DECEMBER 2009 water

References Allan , J.A. (1998). Virtual water: A strategic resource: Global sol utions to regional deficits. Groundwater 36, 545-546. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual water - the water, food, and trade nexus. Useful concept or misleading metaphor? Water International 28, 4-11. Chapagain A.K. and Orr, S. 2008. UK water footprint: The impact of the UK's food and fibre consumption on global water resources. WWF, Surrey, UK. Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2004). Water footprints of nations. Value of Water Research Report Series No.16, UNESCOIHE, Delft, the Netherlands. Chapagain, A.K., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Savenije, H.H.G. (2006). Water saving through international trade of agricultural products. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 10, 455-468. Circle of Blue and Globescan. (2009). Water Issues Research. http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/wp-content/ uploads/2009/08/circle_of_blue_globescan.pdf FAO [Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations]. (2009). http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/20568/icode/ FAO [Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations]. (2008). http://www.fao.org/docrep/011 /i0291 e/i0291 e00.htm Finkbeiner, M. (2009) . Carbon footprinting - opportunities and threats . International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 14, 91-94. Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008). Business water footprint accounting. Value of Water Research Report Series No.27, UNESCO-I HE, Delft, the Netherlands. Gordon, J. (2007). Australian households world's worst at water use. The Age (Monday May 21), p.3. Pfister, S., Koehler, A. and Hellweg, S. (2009). Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 4098-4104. Ridoutt, B.G. and Pfister, S. (2009). A revised approach to water footprinting to make transparent the impacts of consumption and production on global freshwater scarcity. Global Environmental Change - Human and Policy Dimensions (in press), doi:10.1 016/j.gloenvcha.2009.08.003. Ridoutt, B.G., Eady, S.J., Sellahewa, J., Simons, L. and Bektash, R. (2009a). Prod uct water footprinting: How transferable are the concepts from carbon footprinting? Proceedings 6th Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment: Sustainability Tools for a New Climate, Melbourne, Australia, 16-19 February, 2009. Ridoutt, B.G., Eady, S.J., Sellahewa, J., Simons, L. and Bektash, R. (2009b). Water footprinting at the product brand level: Case study and future challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production 17, 12281235. Ridoutt, B.G., Juliano, P. , Sanguansri, P. and Sellahewa, J. (2009c). Consumptive water use associated with food waste: Case study of fresh mango in Australia. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 6, 5085-5114. UNESCO-WWAP [United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization-World Water Assessment Programme]. (2006). Water: A shared responsibility: The United Nations World Water Development Report 2. http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr2/ Verma, S., Kampman, D.A., van der Zaag, P. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2009). Going against the flow : A critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India's National River Linking Program. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 34, 261-269. Warren, M. (2008) . Slim pickings. The Australian (Thursday October 2), p.13.

technical features


trenchless technology

refereed paper

TRENCHLESS AUSTRALASIA 2009 A SUCCESS! Reported by Kate Pemberton Trenchless Australasia 2009 took place at Melbourne Park in Melbourne (in the lead up to the AFL Grand Final). The consensus from international guests, delegates and exhibitors was fantastic - many commented it was the best trade show they had ever visited. The 8th National ASTT Conference and Exhibition was the biggest national trenchless conference ever held in Australasia. The event attracted hundreds of local delegates as well as visitors from Canada, China, Germany, Kuwait, Netherlands, Singapore, Thailand, UK and the United States.

• Trenchless Technology for pipe laying and rehabil itation. After the successful completion of the massive Deep Tu nnel Sewerage System, PUB plans to rehabil itate 1,000 ki lometres over the next five years using GIPP, spiral wound lining and fold and formed. They will also use pipe jacking and microtunnelling to extend the sewer network.

The event was supported by platinum sponsor lnterflow, silver sponsor Vermeer, bronze sponsor PB and DCI and WestNet Infrastructure Group.

Technical talk Victorian ASTT Councillor Chris Frangos worked tirelessly as Program Chair to put together an outstanding technical program with a range of quality papers that included an impressive range of international speakers. The keynote sessions included addresses from ISTT Chairman Dr Dec Downey, ISTT Vice Chair Dr Samuel Ariaratnam, Director of the Water Reclamation Department PUB Singapore Tan Thai Pin, Executive Director of the Institute of Public Affairs John Roskam, and Executive Director of the Water Services Association of Australia Ross You ng. Dr Downey spoke about the old problems of underground infrastruct ure


Future Features FEBRUARY 2010 • Recycling, reuse, water efficiency, energy effi ciency, climate chan ge impacts APRIL • Managed aquifer recharge, sto rmwater harvesting , pumps and pipeli nes, skills shortages, educati on MAY - Ozwater Report, Business/ Policy Aspects, Project Delivery and Fin anci ng

ISTT Chairman Dr Dec Downey addressing the conference.

req uiring new solutions; trenchless solutions. Recent technolog ical developments, such as leak detection and improvements in welding technologies, can improve how assets are managed. He advised that through adequat e funding and forethought trenchless tech nology can minimise disruption and also get ahead of the cycle of deterioration. Furthermore t renchless techniq ues improve OH&S, reduce the need for soil disposal, and are sustainable and better for the environment than traditional open cut methods. Dr Ariaratnam, a specialist in tech nology such as horizontal direction drilling, outlined the green credentials of trenchless methodology. The industry is developing technology such as the online e-Calc to compare the carbon emissions of trenchless versus open cut, highlighting the sustainable advantages of minimising surface disruption.

John Roskam explored the industry from a public policy perspective. Mr Roskam said "you are all in t he infrastructure industry. You're not in the trenchless industry, you're not in the hole industry, you're not in sewerage, water or telecommunications. You 're in infrastructure, and I think that's one of the key issues." He explained that industry players needed to locate the advantages of trench less technology into the three economic drivers; productivity, population and participation in order to con nect the debate about urban renewal with the renovation and upgrade of infrastructure networks. Ross Young spoke to delegates regarding the unprecedented changes experienced by the water industry in recent years. Mr You ng said that the urban water industry has received profound signals regarding cl imate changes resu lting in a need to diversify water supplies and become "water literate".

PUB manages the c omplete water cycle in Singapore. Tan Thai Pin said Singapore faces chal lenges as more lucrative land use competes with the need for urban water catchments. The solution is three pronged: • Membrane technology to filter sewer water • Timely implementation

Director of the Water Reclamation Department PUB Singapore Tan Thai Pin.

water DECEMBER 2009 55

trenchless technology

~ refereed paper

Presentations throughout the two-day event covered a range of topics including in-depth discussion of asset management, case studies of relining, pipejacking and microtunnelling and horizontal directional drilling. In addition the event hosted a free 'bootcamp' to introduce participants to trenchless technology and following the conference a day of training on condition assessment, pipe bursting, pressure pipe rehabilitation and HDD with trenchless experts Dr Downey and Dr Ariaratnam.

Trenchless on Show The exhibition kicked off with an opening cocktail party where ASTT Chairman Trevor Gosatti welcomed representatives from across the trenchless industry to the event. There were over 60 companies exhibiting the full range of trenchless machinery, products and services. Trade visitors packed the 2,200 square metre space and traffic was high throughout the two-day event. Exhibitors reported 'a quality crowd' of over 650 delegates, speakers, exhibitors and trade visitors attending the exhibition. This year's best booth award went to TT Asia Pacific. The impressive TT Asia Pacific booth attracted a constant stream of visitors with the genuine Grundodrill and other equipment on display and the TT Asia Pacific team on hand to answer all the questions.

The Social Side The social events at Trenchless Australasia 2009 allowed networking to take place in a relaxed environment. The River Cruise, sponsored by Vermeer, was a fabulous night. Many attendees dressed up for the gangster theme, which was complemented by a casino with roulette and black jack. The evening aboard the Voyager was made complete with a tasty buffet dinner and dancing. The Gala Dinner and Awards, sponsored by lnterflow, was a highlight of the conference. Dinner was held in the Member's Dining Room offering spectacular views of the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). AFL-themed entertainment provided by Hawthorn alumni Robert 'Dipper' Di Pierdomenico was a hit. The industry celebrated another

56 DECEMBER 2009 water

TT Asia Pacific won best booth of the exhibition.

successful conference in style with excellent food, a live band, and plenty of dancing.

Trenchless Awards The Gala Dinner is the industry's opportunity to recognise the achievements of companies and individuals and celebrate excellence in Trenchless Technology. The finalists for Project of the Year were: • Onslow Road Stormwat er Upgrade Advanced Pipeline Services • Rehabi litation of sections of the North Georges Submain (NGRS) - lnterflow • Sewer Rehabilitation Program - Project Max and North Shore City Council • Lining of Stone Arch Stormwater Conduit, Haymarket - Water Infrastructure Group

ISTT Chairman Dec Downey presented the award for 2009 Project of the Year to lnterflow's rehabilitation of sections of the North Georges Submain (NGRS) for Sydney Water. The Lifetime Achievement award, presented by ISTT Chairman Dec Downey, is a special award that recogn ises an outstanding contribution over many years to the trench less cause. This year the award recognises Menno Henneveld. Mr Henneveld was the inaugural Chairman of the ASTT and served in the role from 1991-2009. He was instrumental in the promotion of the trenchless industry throughout Australasia and the world. Alan Sutton from Kembla was recognised as Person of th e Year and Joel Chong from Calibre Projects was awarded Young Person of the Year.

Until Next Year See you next year in Coffs Harbour 17-20 October for Trenchless Live 2010, an experience like no other. A chance to see, hear and touch trenchless technology in action. For more information visit www.trenchless2010.com

The Author

Delegates gather at the exhibition opening.

Kate Pemberton is Managing Editor of Trenchless Australasia magazine. Email: kpemberton@ gs-press.com.au

technical features


trench less

Pipeline Rehabilitation Specialists

RA ",




Same People ... Same Experience & Expertise ... Different Name ... New Era As of 1 January 2009, CLM Trenchless will be trading under a new name ITS Trenchless. ITS - Innovative Trenchless Solutions better reflects what we do, providing innovative rehabilitation answers to Clients' pipeline problems.

Our new Contact details are:

24 Anvil Road, Seven Hills NSW PO Box 318, Seven Hills NSW 1730 Phone: (02) 8603 2000 Email: enquiries@itstrenchless.com.au Web: www.itstrenchless.com.au

This is an exciting time for our company and we look forward to growing our business successfully through the ongoing support of our clients and partners.

trenchless technology

~ ref ereed paper

DESIGN FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF THE MELBOURNE MAIN SEWER M Dixon Abstract The Melbourne Main Sewer Replacement project (MMSR) involves the replacement of a 2.2km, 110 year-old sewer by a new gravity sewer main with six key manhole shafts, known as the Melbourne Main Reliever (MMR). The majority of the MMR sewer tunnel is situated south of the Yarra River and will be constructed using an earth pressure balance (EPB) tun nel boring machine (TBM) and w ill be lined with precast concrete segments. The tunnel will be 2.4m internal diameter and will have a 1 .8m diameter Glass Rei nforced Plastic (GRP) sewer pipe positioned within it. This project represents the first largescale, modern, mechanised tunnel project in Melbourne's Yarra Delta Quaternary sediments. There is little precedent for similar scale tun nelling projects in these particular geological units. The MMSR project has a capital cost of approximately $220 million with the construction of the new MMR sewer tunnel which commenced in mid-2008. The new sewer system commissioning is scheduled for completion by mid-2012.

Introduction Melbourne Water is undertaking the replacement of the existing 2.2 km long, 110 year-old sewer Melbourne Main Sewer (MMS) between the north bank of the Yarra River and the Hobsons Bay Main Sewer (HBMS) in Port Melbourne. The original MMS was constructed in the late 1890's to collect sewage from the City of Melbourne and adjacent residential areas. The existing sewer transfers flows from the city, parallel to the north bank of the Yarra River, t o the downstream side of the Charles Grimes Bridge. It then crosses the Yarra River and flows southwest to join the HBMS in Port Melbourne. This paper is a highly condensed version of the paper presented at 'Trenchless Australasia' - ASTT Conference 2009, September 2009.

58 DECEMBER 2009 water

Figure 1. The Proposed Alignment of the MMR through Port Melbourne.

The MMS was constructed by the Melbou rne Metropolitan Board of Works (MMBW) in the late 1890s using a variety of techniques. One section was constructed using seven different tun nel shields, another section of the tunnel was lined using a cast iron shell with concrete lining whilst other sections were lined using concrete blocks. Compressed air was used only in one section where the tunnel alignment came close to a number of brick houses on the surface. This new infrast ructure wi ll consist of 2,088 m of driven, segmentally lined sewer tunnel, having an internal diamet er of 2.4 m providing the structural support

Boring a sewer in loose sediments close to a 30 story building requires close control of the TBM.

for the new sewer. The new sewer, known as the Melbourne Main Reliever (MMR), has by means of a secondary hydraulic liner w ith an internal diameter of 1 .8 m made from Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) will provide increased hydraulic capacity. Difficult ground conditions, crossing of the Yarra River, extensive new surface development s in the area and the risk of settlement damage to buildings have all been major design obstacles to overcome. Simply selecting a horizontal and vertical alignment for the tun nel was very difficult. To find a solution that achieved the best, least cost community solution for the project required considerable effort to inform and liaise with stakeholders, asset owners and the community. The project's design and construction is being delivered under a partnering incentive based arrangement involving GHD as designer, John Holland as

technical features

~ refereed paper

trenchless technology constructor and Aurecon (formerly Connell Wagner) as project manager.

Proposed Sewer Scheme The horizontal alignment for the northern end of the MMSR project starts with connection works to the existing MMS north of the river and then a crossing of the Yarra River just upstream of the Charles Grimes Bridge. The sewer tunnel work then begins and passes within a narrow corridor adjacent to the new Melbourne Convention Centre (MCC) that has just recently been completed. The tunnel then traverses south along Johnson Street and down to the light rail reserve at Boundary Street. The tunnel then heads south along the light rail reserve until it sweeps westerly under the Graham Street overpass along Swallow Street. Here it via a relined section of the existing MMS connects into the HBMS. Figure 1 provides an overview of the proposed sewer scheme. The new sewer wil l be constructed using a variety of construction t echniques. Table 1 provides a summary of these different methods. Overburden cover to the crown of the tun nel ranges from 9 m to 13 m. The sewer will operate under gravity with a design gradient of 1 in 800. There will be six new major sewer manhole shafts constructed along the alignment to facilitate access for sewer operation and maintenance. These shafts will be constructed as both rectangular and circular reinforced concrete structures using cast insitu techniques. The intrados of the manholes wi ll be lined with a polyethylene plastic corrosion liner to achieve the required 100-year design life.

Geological Setting

figure 2. Regional Extent of Yarra Delta Group Shown as Central Shaded Orange Area. (Figure Source: Geology of Victoria page 349, Geological Survey of Australia (Victorian Division)).

by low strength granular and cohesive soil types of the Yarra Delta Group.

Key Geotechnical Issues Groundwater

Geological transitions often occur near the proposed tunnel and/or undulate through the tunnel zone. The potential for rapidly changing mixed face conditions is expected to be challenging ground for the TBM and will require fine balancing of pressure and ground conditioning to keep the sensitive face material stable and minimise ground loss during excavation.

The MMR sewer tunnel is to be constructed below the groundwater table. At least two significant aquifer systems have been identified along the alignment, which the tunnel will intersect, these are: • Port Melbourne Sand (Qrp) Unconfined Aquifer. • Fishermens Bend (Qpf1) - Semi confined aquifer (granular sub-unit).

Corestones and Cemented Strata

Uncontrolled groundwater inflows have the potential to not only cause tunnel face instability but to also trigger settlement in the sensitive Goode Island Silt.

The Tertiary Older Volcanic basalt presents a deeply weathered upper profile. The erratic nature of weatheri ng in this volcanic unit can result in the formation of harder corestones within the weathered soil material. Minor inclusions of gravel to cobble sized basalt corestones were evident in the investigation drill core.

The Yarra Delta Group is a geologically young sequence of clays, silts, sands Soil variability and strength and gravels deposited during the Quaternary period within the last 2 The geological materials within the million years. Soil type and depositional t unnelling horizon are mainly dominated modes within the Yarra Delta Group have been significantly influenced by multiple changes in Table 1. Summary of MMR Construction Techniques sea level occurring through the interglacial Quaternary period. Length (m) Construction Technique The extent of the Yarra Delta Group in relation to t he proposed tunnel alignment is presented in Figure 2.

60 DECEMBER 2009 water

Pipe jacking 1.8 m reinforced concrete pipes


Yarra River crossing using a wet cofferdam Segmentally lined 2.4 m ID driven tunnel

142 2088

Cementation within the Brighton Group has been of concern where it has been encountered by other tunnelling projects in the Melbourne area. Rare occurrences of siliceous layers sometimes described as

technical features


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with: - Jacking loads up to 1,000 tonnes - Stiffness class up to SN1 ,000,000 - Thinner pipe walls means major cost savings in boring and excavation - No timber packing/spacer rings needed - giving best possible and longest lasting seal o Future-oriented - Quality throughout for consistent, leak free, long term reliability o Sizes range from 150mm to 2200mm

For jacking or open cut, HOBAS CC-GRP will suit all of your sewer or potable water pipe needs. HOBAS is proudly distributed in Australia by Global Pipe Global HOBAS Pipe Australia Pty Ltd Free call 1300 4 HOBAS (1300 446227)



trenchless technology 'silcrete' or 'grey billy' are known to exist as in sandy layers within the Brighton Group. These layers are typically much rarer and discontinuous than the common ferruginous cementation described above, but can be of extremely high intact strength (UGS >400 MPa) and be highly abrasive.

Other naturally occurring subsurface obstructions The presence of preserved logs and stumps has been documented as occurring near the base of the Goode Island Silt Layer. Notable examples include a large ancient red gum stump, which was uncovered during construction of the Spencer Street Bridge foundation at approximately 20m depth, near the base of the Goode Island Silt Unit.

Man made obstructions - timber piles The presence of preserved logs and stumps together with old timber piles is a problem. These are now paved over but from old maps they are likely to be encountered near the breakthrough into the South Wharf manhole shaft.

Potential trapped soil gases No evidence of gas emissions were detected during drilling investigations for the MMR, however peaty layers were noted in the soil profile and strong sulphurous odours were noted in most of the GIS soil samples recovered.

Ground settlement due to consolidation of Coode Island silt

~ refereed paper

wet concrete that was trem mied in place around the pipe by divers. A 1 m thick block of concrete protects the top of the sewer pipe from river scour and debris.

times when work might increase the chance of localised turbidity.

Figure 3 shows inspection of the MMS Yarra River crossing during construction.

The MMR sewer tunnel will be constructed as a 2.4 m diameter segmentally lined tunnel. The tunnel will be excavated using an earth pressure balance (EPB) TBM. Precast steel fibre reinforced concrete segments wil l be used to line the driven tunnel behind the TBM. Steel fibre reinforcement was chosen for the segments to keep the segment thickness to a minimum. The thickness of the segments would have been at least 50 mm thicker if conventional steel bar was specified in the design. Other advantages such as lower risk of corrosion and lower cost of production helped to justify this decision.

The new 142 m river crossing wi ll not be tunnelled and wi ll use a t emporary 'wet' cofferdam instead, serviced by a floating barge and crane. It will move across the river in three stages allowing two thirds of the river to remain open at all times. From within the cofferdam, steel piles wi ll be driven up to 28 metres below the river level into the Werribee Foundation to support concrete headstocks that wi ll hold the new sewer in place. Divers working almost blind in the muddy water will then bolt supports into place and lay the steel pipe that will act as a protective casing for the new sewer, wh ich has been designed to withstand the comb ined effects of a king tide and a once-in-100-year flood.

The MMR Tunnel Lining

When water has been emptied from the steel pipe, the GRP pipeline wi ll be grouted in place. Because current sediment levels mean the bottom of the Yarra is higher than the original riverbed, the riverbed wi ll be excavat ed to the original level and later backfilled to provide a firm and supported base for the new sewer.

The current segment arrangement is for a triple ring system (left taper, right taper and parallel rings). The taper on the rings has been calculated for the design 250 m radius curves within the alignment. An additional margin of 10% has been allowed for to account for possible TBM misalignment. The segments are joined on the circumferential joint using dowels and on the longitudinal joint using spear bolts. All joints will be sealed with an EPDM rubber gasket. The gasket provides a seal once the ring is in compression.

Strict environmental controls will be in place and John Holland wi ll use vegetable oi l instead of hydrocarbons for pi ling works with a silt curtain used at

The segmental lining will provide the long-term ground support for the tunnel. To address the issue of corrosion to the concrete from sewerage gases, a series

The Goode Island Silt is a problematic, highly compressible cohesive soil unit that is sensitive to consolidation deformation due to loading (Nielson, 1996). Most of the alignment selected for the new sewer runs below parkland or road reserve and is remote from residential properties. The use of an earth pressure balance TBM wi ll assist in minimising tunnel groundwater leakages that may if poorly managed result in consolidation of the Goode Island Silt above the tunnel potentially causing surface settlement.

Crossing the Yarra River The current MMS Yarra River crossing was constructed using a cast iron tube to act as a partial siphon. The top of the cast iron lining is approximately 6m below the low water level in the river. The tube was laid in a trench that was excavated across the bed of the river. Bags of concrete were used to retain

62 DECEMBER 2009 water

Figure 3. Inspection of the MMS Yarra River Crossing during Construction in 1895 (MMBW 'Blue Book').

technical features

~ refereed paper

trenchless technology

of durable DN1800 glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) liner pipes will be grouted in position inside the segmentally lined tunnel. These pipes have been designed to withstand the external hydrostatic load. The GRP liner pipes wi ll be installed within the segmentally lined tun nel in 3 m and 6 m lengths. The plastic liner pipes will be supported internally using spider supports and locked in place against the segmental lining using timber blocks and wedges. The annulus between the segmental lining and the liner pipe will be fil led with a controlled low strength backfill material consisting of cement grout.

Tunnel Design Considerations The detailed design of the MMR sewer tunnel has recently been completed and production casting begun earlier in 2009. A number of key design considerations have been addressed through this process. Of major concern has been the structural performance of the segmentally lined tunnel within the very weak and soft Quaternary silts of the Yarra Delta. The moment-thrust combinations in the lining were determined using both closed-form elastic methods as presented by MuirWood (1975) and finite element models (FEM) for the anticipated live and dead load combinations. These moment-thrust combinations were then checked against structural capacity envelopes for the steel fibre reinforced concrete. The primary capacity envelope was developed using Eurocode ENV 1992-1-1 and verified by Bekaert. Of particular interest was the section of tunnel north of the Fennell Reserve Shaft. At a distance of 200 m from the shaft, the tunnel is anticipated to transition from the Older Volcan ics into the Goode Island Silt over a distance of 3-5 m. As outlined earlier, the stiffness of the Older Volcan ics could be as much as 100 times the stiffness of the overlying silt. Following a detailed analysis of the lining at this location, these concerns were dispelled. All results were found to be within the capacity of the section with an adequate factor of safety. Relatively low overburden loads assisted in this regard.

Long-term Settlement Long-t erm consolidation settlement of the sewer was another critical consideration of the design.

Figure 4. Fennell Reserve Manhole and Predicted Long-term Settlement of the MMR Tunnel.

The two most likely causes of the large scale settlements in the Yarra Delta sediments are: 1. Consolidation of the Goode Island Silt under its own weight and due to burial by Port Melbourne Sands (circa 8,000 years ago) 2. The reclamation fi lling of the low-lying areas with localised and long term lowering of the groundwater table (circa 100 years ago). In both cases the primary component of settlement has already occurred. A significant proportion of the MMR sewer tun nel alignment is either within the Goode Island Silt or has Goode Island Silt under the tunnel invert. A critical location was identified just north of the Fennell Reserve manhole shaft. Th is shaft is locat ed mainly within the Brighton Group and the Older Volcanics. As the tunnel heads north out of the shaft it is also within the Older Volcan ics and Brighton Group for a distance of 30 m. The tunnel is then predicted to pass into the Goode Island Silt. Details of the geological conditions at the Fennell Reserve manhole shaft are provided in Figure 4.

structures a compressi ble filler material will be used to fil l the annulus between the segments and the GRP liner. A "rocker" pipe will also be used with an additional coupling to help compensate for any long-term ground consolidation effects.

Key Project Construction Issues Ground movement The assessment of possible ground movements due to volume loss was undertaken using empirical methods developed by the UK construction industry organisation, CIRIA (Mott, Hay and Anderson , 1996). Assessment of potential for possible surface settlement above the MMR tunnel took into account the depth to the tunnel , its diameter, the thicknesses of granular and cohesive soils and the expected volume loss through the TBM. The analysis considered a range of volume loss val ues rang ing from 1% to 4%. Settlement profiles (trough shapes) were developed at several tunnel cross sections targeting distinct changes in geology and significant buildings and structures adjacent to the tunnel.

A rubber sheet bond breaker has been specified between the low strength backfill grout and the outside surface of the GRP liner pipe. In addition, shorter lengths of GRP pipe with couplings that can take up to 1-degree angular deflection will also be used at location.

Ground movement potential due to localised dewatering during shaft construction was analysed during the detailed design phase of the project. The prediction of ground movements associat ed with this dewatering was undertaken using the numerical modelling software Plaxis, taking into account the size and depth of the shafts, ground cond itions, temporary shaft support systems and the rate and duration of dewatering. Significant changes in effective stress conditions were expected to yield relatively large surface deflections.

At the interface between the sewer tun nel lining and the manhole shaft

Several major third party assets, including pipelines and commercial

If the apparent regional settlement trends continue then it is predicted that the surface at this location may settle up to a further 300 mm during the design life of the MMR with subsurface ground movement in the order of 100 mm at tunnel level.

water DECEMBER 2009 6 3

trenchless technology structures were fou nd to be within the potential settlement profile zone. Monitoring wi ll be undertaken to verify the assumptions and methodology and along the length of the MMR to assess the ongoing performance of the tunnelling operations and demonstrat e that the target levels have not been exceeded. In addition, John Holland wi ll be required to conduct property condition surveys along the alignment before construction.

Melbourne Convention Centre

~ refereed paper

To date the maximum groundwater inflow rate recorded has been 2 litres per second at the Fennell Reserve shaft. Results of the groundwater analysis indicate: • TDS (salt) concentrations ranging from 500-30,000 mg/L. In general, groundwater quality becomes more saline closer to the (tidal) Yarra River; • Organic parameters were generally below detection level; • Ammonia is detected in all of the samples. Some metals were detected in most samples including arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, selenium and zinc.

The possible impact of the MMR tun nelling works and risk •A number of treatment and of damage is not restricted to disposal were considered but it such properties on this was decided that groundwater project, the MMR sewer tunnel from the Swallow Street, Fennell passes within 3 m of the Reserve and Johnson Street western boundary of the new shafts would be disposed to the $1 billion Melbourne Figure 5. 'Lucy Loo' TBM ready for Launch at Fennell Reserve sewer following primary Convention Centre (MCC). At treatment. Shaft. this location, the MCC development consists of an up Construction Progress to 30-story high-rise building. The The construction of the MMR piles, with reinforcement only at the top building will be supported on a piled commenced in mid-2008. The works are 16m (4m below tunnel horizon), were foundation. progressing well and in accordance with structurally adequat e when compared to As the tunnel passes the piles, the project program. The main TBM (AS 2159) load the required piling code horizontal and vertical soil movement will launch shaft at Fennell Reserve is configurations. occur. Vertical soil movement toward the complete and the TBM has commenced tunnel will place additional axial load into Groundwater Control, Treatment and tunnelling from the shaft. The TBM has the piles. The horizontal soil movement Disposal been named 'Lucy Loo' after a around the piles wi ll cause some lateral was held with one of the competition Groundwater disposal volumes predicted deflection and increased the bending local primary schools (Figure 5). during shaft excavation works were moment. estimated initially using groundwater The John Holland temporary works Soil movement toward the tunnel will inflow potentials based on numerical shaft support at Fennell Reserve consists be limited via the use of the earth groundwater modelling and empirical of secant bored piles with reinforced pressure balance type of TBM . However, data respectively. These initial flow concrete ring and capping beams. The some percentage of volume loss around estimates were refined and finalised with temporary shaft support at Swallow the TBM is typical for operations of this input from John Holland based on their Street is expected to involve the use of kind. The amount of soil passed through experience of minimising groundwater diaphragm wall construction, whilst the the head of the machine should equal inflows for shaft excavations in similar temporary shaft support at Johnson the cut diameter of the tunnel. However, ground conditions. Street is likely to involve the use of a it is common to have volume loss as reinforced concrete caisson. A summary of the predicted mentioned earlier. The amount of vol ume groundwater inflow volumes at each The Yarra River Crossing has loss is directly related to the magnitude shaft is provided below: commenced in late May 2009 with the and extent of ground movement. The MCC piles were analysed for a volume first cell of the temporary cofferdam • Swallow Street Shaft - 44% of total having been constructed in the river. The loss range of 1 % to 4%, and compared groundwater volume against their structural capacity once the 6m wide cofferdam is being constructed • Fennell Reserve Shaft - 45% of total using 20m long steel sheetpiles and steel existing in-service loads were added. groundwater vol ume frames. The cofferdam is being Using results for pile bending moment, • Johnson Street Shaft - 10% of total const ructed from south to north in three shear force and axial load, a detail groundwater vol ume stages (Figure 6). The longest stage, structural analysis was conducted. This stage 1, is 49m long. A number of old • South Wharf, North Wharf, Wurundjeri compared the analysis resu lts against the timber wharf piles were removed to Way Shafts - 0.33% of total piles inherent structural capacity. The enable full excavation of the first cell. groundwater assessment indicated that the MCC

64 DECEMBER 2009 water

technical features

~ refereed paper

trenchless technology

Conclusion Construction on t he Melbourne Main Sewer Replacement Project commenced in mid-2008 and sewer system commissioning is schedu led for completion by mid May 2012. There is little precedence for large-scale mechanised tunnelling activities within Melbourne's Yarra Delta sediment units. Conseq uently, sign ificant effort has been spent during the investigation and design phase activities on the project to better predict and understand the effect of underground construction in the complicated soft ground conditions. It is known from past experience that limiting settlement of structures on the surface above the tun nel in this area wi ll be of paramount importance to t he success of t he project. Therefore, the use of an EPB TBM with seg mental lining wi ll provide the best possibility of limiting ground movement as t he tunnel excavation face advances. Monitori ng during construct ion will help to ensure that identified ground movement limit levels have not been exceeded. Careful TBM alignment control and adherence to tight segment installation tolerances wi ll resu lt in a quality finish for the tunnel lining. Ongoing consultat ion and liaison with the developers of the MCC and other new projects in the area will be critical to minimis ing disruption during construction. The MMR sewer t unnel is a vital piece of infrastructure for Melbourne's future and cooperatio n wi ll be sought and required from all adjacent third party asset owners along the alignment to ach ieve t he sewer operation target of 2012.

The Author

Figure 6. Stage 1 of the temporary wet cofferdam structure across the Yarra River.

References Bekeart, 2005. Tunnelling is an Art, pp 341 (Bekaert: Belgium). EN1992-1-1 :2004 - Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. GHD, 2007. Melbourne Main Sewer Replacement Project - Factual Report on Geological, Geotechnical, and Hydrogeological Investigations (Phases 1 and 2), Report No. 31 /207775/05/133487, October 2007. GHD, 2007. Melbourne Main Sewer Replacement - Draft Interpretative Report on Geological, Geotechnical, and Hydrogeological Investigation, Report No. 31/20748/ 07/ 122978, August 2007. GHD, 2007. Report for Melbourne Main Sewer Replacement, Ground Movement and Third Party Asset Impact Assessment, Report No. 31 / 20748/08/136956, November 2007. Neilson, JL, 1996. The Geological Setting of the Goode Island Silt - Building on Goode Island Silt Lecture Series, sponsored by Australian Geomechanics Society (Victorian Division) and The Institute of Engineers Australia.

Malcolm Dixon is a Pri ncipal Tunnel Engineer with over 10 years experience in t he detailed design, planning and specificat ion of civil works for road, rail, sewerage and electrical cable tun nels in Australia and the Asia Pacific Region. He has ext ensive experience in underground excavation and permanent support design. Email : malcolm.dixon@ghd.com.au

Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works, 1900. 'Blue Book', Sewerage Scheme -A history of its inception and description of the engineering works carried on in connection with the scheme, (Periodicals Publishing Company: Melbourne). Mott, Hay and Anderson, 1996. Prediction and Effects of Ground Movements Caused by Tunnelling in Soft Ground Beneath Urban Areas, CIRIA London. Muir Wood, AM , 1975. The Circular Tunnel in Elastic Ground; Geotechnique, 25:115127.

Water Advertising To reach the decisionm a k e rs in the water field,



consider advertising in Water Journal, the official journal of the Australian


Association. For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rault at Hallmark Editions, Tel (03) 8534 5000 or email brian.rault@halledit.com .au


DECEMBER 2009 65

trenchless technology

~ refereed paper

GUIDELINES, STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY J Chong Abstract The Trenchless Technology (TT) Industry in Australia and New Zealand has grown dramatically over the last five years. The Australasian Society for Trenchless Technology (ASTT) receives numerous enquiries from both members and nonmembers on the availability of trenchless guidelines, standards and specifications to assist with proposed or current projects. In accordance with one of the key objectives of the ASTT Business Plan , the society has initiated the development of Guidelines, Standards, and Specifications in the three most common ly applied trenchless methods, namely Horizontal Directional Drilling (HOD), Pipe Bursting, (PB) and Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking (MT & PJ). The current set of documents has been developed to incorporate information collected from not only Australian and New Zealand based manufacturers, consultants, councils, and TT operators but also many internationals TT societies such as the North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT), International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTn , and the United Kingdom Society for Trenchless Technology (UKSTT). The final documents developed will assist Trenchless Technology users with many of the questions regarding on which TT methods are potentially suitable for their projects. This set of documents provides the users a basic understanding of how each TT functions and the ability to differentiate types of each TT applications. In conclusion, the users will be able t o determine whic h available TT method is appropriate for their project.

This presentation was mad e to the ASTT conference in Melbourne, September 2009. It was followed by a workshop during the conference to incorporate comments, with many more by email after the conference. Final drafts are expected to be on the ASTT website early in 2010.

66 DECEMBER 2009 water

This paper describes the framework and methodology on how the Guidelines, Standards and Specifications were prepared.

Introduction Currently due to the lack of industryrecognised Guidelines, Standards and Specifications; many contractors, consultants, agencies and clients have developed their own in-house Standards and Specifications that may not adequately define the solution they req uire or do not specify all the key performance parameters. For example, in 2005 TTI Consulting Engineers et al undertook a study to elicit industry feedback and prepare a Literature Survey Report for Main Roads Western Australia and the ASTT. It was recognised by the ASTT that since this report was completed in 2005, there had been an increasing demand t o develop suites of Guidelines, Standards, and Specifications for commonly used TT applications.

Having a standard set of documentation is also an effective way of increasing the general construction industries' education and understanding of the capabilities and reliability of these TT construction methods. Recognising this, the ASTT engaged Calibre Projects to prepare documents suitable for the application of TT in the three major categories of Horizontal Directional Drilling, Pipe Bursting, and Micro Tunnelling & Pipe Jacking. (Calibre Projects is a consultancy providing Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management (EPCM) services to the mining, minerals and energy resource sectors. Independent and privately owned, it has offices in Perth, Adelaide and Brisbane. Calibre Projects is part of the Calibre Global group which includes Calibre Controls, Calibre Safety Services and Calibre Engenium). These documents will be utilised throughout Australia and New Zealand . Th e aim of development of these

documents was to facilitate the commonly available applied Trenchless Technology (TT) methods for both new and rehabilitat ed pipeline installation. The development of these documents not only aligned with the ASTT business and strategic plan to facilitate the advancement of TT in Australia and New Zealand, it also provides an industry baseline for these three TT methods. The need t o develop these documents is further validated by the increase of TT activities and an increase in ASTT membership w ithin Australia and New Zealand. ASTT expect that the TT industry will consider the presented documents and provide constructive feedback. The aim is to incorporate any further industry input and finalise the documents so that they are able to be available to the public and other agencies for use in TT projects.

Methodology The scope of work for this project was very specific and involved the preparation of Guidelines, Standards and Specifications for only HOD, PB and MT & PJ. In summary, the approach was as follows: • Solicit ASTT members and industry feedback on th eir views on what should be included in the documents to be produced • Undertake a literature review of the trenchless technology methods under consideration and any existing TT guidelines, standards or specifications • Prepare draft documents based on the above for industry review and comment.

Industry feedback ASTT supplied a copy of thei r membership database to Calibre Projects

Documents for use as a benchmark for the TT industry.



~ refereed paper

to identify stakeholders to approach for input into the reference documents being prepared. In the Trenchless Australasia magazine published in 1st quarter 2009, an article was included indicating the commissioning of Calibre Projects for development of the documents, should any reader be interested in providing input. ASTT also supplied a letter template to Calibre Projects for contacting all member organisations and individuals requesting their input to the documents. In addition, contact was made with all ASTT councillors req uesting they supply other possible contacts that are not on the list, for example from local councils and other State authorities t hat could possibly contribute to this project. Therefore, every member on the ASTT membership database and numerous other industry participants had received a brief survey containing key questions related to the three TT methods. Th is short questionnaire required each member to complete with some general questions, taking less than 10 minutes. The intention was to elicit a greater number of responses, which could be followed up with a telephone interview to collect additional information if required, at a later dat e. The survey contained the following questions:

trenchless technology • South African Society for Trenchless Technology (SASTT)

new members and non-members were re-issued the questionnaire email.

• Japan Society for Trenchless Technology (JSTT)

Reminders were sent out to follow up with all recipients to ensure those who missed out during the first survey request received a copy of the questionnaire. The overall response and feedback received from this email exercise was, however, limited to some 5% of the active industry.

• International Pipe Bursting Association (IPBA) • Pipe Jacking Association (PJA). Organisations within Australia and New Zealand who received this assistance request and questionnaire were: • Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) • Department of Commerce NSW (DoC) • Australia Drilling Industry Train ing Committee (ADITC) • Standards Australia (SA) • Australia Water Association (AWA) • New Zealand Standard (NZS). One of the unexpected outcomes of the dat a collection process was the need for updating and adding new member informat ion onto the ASTT membership database. Th is was done with the assistance of ASTT councillors from each state. Once the updating was completed ,

Other Research Resources Many resource texts were researched such as: • Trenchless Technology Pipeline and Utility Design, Construction, and Renewal; Mohammad Najafi, 2004, Water Environmental Federation • Geotechnical Baseline Reports for Construction; Randall J. Essex, 2007, ASCE • Horizontal Direction Drilling Good practices Guidelines; Samuel T. Ariaratnam, 2004, HOD Consortium • Horizontal Directional Drilling Utility and Pipeline Applications; David A. Willoughby, 2005, McGraw Hill Companies

• Information of respondent • Type of Trench less Technology provided or used • Type of Guidelines, Standards or Specifications provided or used • Comments and remarks • Willingness to be contacted to further discuss and provide information of any of the Trenchless Technology provided or used. Organisations outside Australia and New Zealand who received th is assistance request and questionnaire were: • North American Society for Trench less Technology (NASTT) • International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT) • National Association of Sewer Companies (NASSCO) • American Society of Civil Engineering (ASCE) • ASTM International- formerly American Society for Testi ng and Materials • United Kingdom Society for Trench less Technology (UKSTT)

water DECEMBER 2009 67

trenchless technology


refereed paper

• Pipeline Design for Installation by Horizontal Directional Drilling; HDD

committee, 2005, ASCE • Pipe Bursting Projects, ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No 112; Pipe Bursting Committee,

2006, ASCE • Pipe Bursting Good Practices; Samuel

T. Ariaratnam, 2005, NASTI


• An Introduction to Pipe Jacking and Microtunnelling Design; Pipe Jacking


Association committee, the Pipe Jacking Association

_ _ .,, ....,fy,og Tronc:hless methods from HUCA·TAG web baa program o,, ASTT webMe


• Guidance on the design of hand excavated pipejacks; Pipe Jacking

Association committee, 2006, the Pipe Jacking Association. Conference proceedings from NASTI, ISTT, ASCE, UKSTT, and other organisations with in South East Asia were also studied to assist in developing the documents. The organisations listed in the previous section also directly and indirectly contributed some documents (related guidelines, standards or specifications information) that assisted the final development of these seven documents.





New.,)~HOOorMT &PJ

+ _,

1--+ YES




e,...,e MT&PJ


Re-Vtsit GwJeinff kl identity Oflol' TT me<hods

ObUiin HOOSl.and3ro toundet1t~poss!ble appl'tea1ionsonproject

--..,. . ---



The one Guideline and each of three Standards and Specifications that Calibre Projects has prepared have clearly indicated which reference documents contributed to their development. NO

Guidelines, Standards and Specifications

1-+--·+TT SOKi- r

The goal of developing this suite of documents was to promote TT and set an industry baseline. One of the goals of these documents was to function as a reference and or a starting point for anyone who was unsure about TT application to their project. Three TT categories were developed and a breakdown of what each category consisted of were outlined as fol lows: • Guideline for Horizontal Directional Dril ling, Pipe Bursting, and Microtunnell ing and Pipe Jacking • Standard, and Specification, for Horizontal Directional Drilling • Standard, and Specification, for Pipe Bursting • Standard, and Specification for Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking. A decision matrix is shown in Figure 1 to illustrate how a user would get through each stage wit h each document within the matrix. Each set of Guidelines, Standards, and Specifications was developed, based on the same

68 DECEMBER 2009 water


I ,-;-

Mod,fy geoetic specilicmn IO sult projocll<,(lud;nginoutby MalMJfactortfsfsupplier/

Coosultaln iltl'ldoilors~


0 Figure 1. Trenchless Technology Application Decision Matrix framework and decision matrix. The goal was to provide sufficient information for the user to make a decision on which type of TT application to use for their project. The emphasis of these documents was to clarify any possible confusion about the TT application capabilities and possible direction on where further information could be obtained.

Guidelines The fundamental framework and decision on the developing of the Guidelines

(HDD, PB, & MT&PJ) was to provide basic overview of specific TT applications. During the data collection and research, much information about TT guidelines was found, w hich is similar to those prepared in ASTT and ISTT websites. Many of the guidelines found not only provided basic TT information but also included portions of standards and specification that could be confusi ng for many users who are exposed to TT for the first time.

technical features

~ refereed paper

The goal of developing a guideline was to provide an overview of each category of TT t hat comprises the basic information of t he method and provides sufficient background knowledge to the user. The objective was simply to provide adeq uate information for users to make logical decisions to choose the appropriate TT for their project. Upon complet ion of a review of the guideline or in conjunction with other references, t he user would determine the type of possible TT that suite this project and progress t o the next level outlined in Figure 1, reviewing the applicable TT standard. The user would then understand further the application options within t he selected TT. Three Guidelines were initially developed for each of the TT methods, but after review by ASTT committee, the outcome was to have just one condensed version of Guidelines to cover all the three TT methods. This was to ensure the condensed Guideline was able to provide the full advantage to the TT users. The Guidelines main content illustrates t he following information: • Background • Definitions • Introduction, (overview of t hree type of TT) • Trench less Technology Process and methods, (Basic information on how the TT system operate) • When to apply TT and fields of applicat ion, (Capability and applications) • Front-end Engineering. Standards Standards referred to something considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison; an approved model. The set of standard documents provides t he user in-depth understanding on how t he selected TT operat es. More sub-categories of t he selected TT applications were listed in this document to demonstrate the additional difficulties within each major TT category . The goal of this document was to demonstrate the capability and limitation of each sub- category to suit different project applications and cond itions. The user will have more information about the selected TT to just ify the correct application for the project this way. Each Standard's main

trenchless technology content contai ns t he following information: • Background • Definitions • System Design Concept and Parameters Considerat ions • Materials and Equipment, (Materials, Equipment and installation method selections for the TT system) • Inspection and testings • Construction (construction sequencing).

were still being received by ASTT from its delegates after the conference. Many of these const ructive comments provided very helpful information on practical projects that will be incorporated into these documents. Further industry participation is now required to mould these documents such that they are suitable for as many users as possible within Australia and New Zealand, with a view to release on ASTT website early next year.

The Author

According to Figure 1, the user is sti ll able t o return to the guideline and reassess the TT options if the initial selected method does not suit the proposed project. However, if the assessment of the standard document demonstrated success, the user could process to t he Specificat ion next document of the selected TT.

Technology) from Arizona State


University in 1998 and 2002. Joel

Specifications outlined in this section were formulated t owards generic clauses with t he objective to cover as many situations as possible. It is in t he user's interest to review this document and work wit h those parties associated with t he project such as contractors, manufactures, consultants or engineers. Figure 1 also explains how the user could integrat e t he input of all these people to provide more specific specifications that suit an individual project. Each Specifications main content contains t he fo llowi ng information: • Introduct ion • Definit ions

Joel Chong graduated B.A.Sc. (Civi l) and M.S. (GIS and Trenchless

accepted the role of Operations Engineer in Townsvi lle when he moved to Australia in 2006 but now works for Calibre Projects. Joel received the Young Person of the Year Awards during the September NoDig conference in Melbourne for his passion and enthusiasm in the field of Trenchless Technology. Email joel.chong@calibreprojects.com.au .

References http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ standards Industry Feedback and Literature Survey Report, TTI Consulting Engineers Pty Ltd et al, November 2005

• Specification format • Submittal • General Requirements • Contingency • Measurement and Payments.

Conclusions It is envisaged that when t hese documents have industry endorsement, they can be used as a benchmark for the TT industry in Australasia. The establishment of these documents would also provide the impetus to encourage the development of other TT guidelines, standards and specifications. Many constructive comments were received at the workshop and comments

Drafts ASTT Guidelines for Horizontal Direction Drilling, Pipe Bursting and Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking, July 2009. ASTT Standards for Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking, July 2009. ASTT Standards for Horizontal Direction Drilling, July 2009. ASTT Standards for Pipe Bursting, July 2009. ASTT Specifications for Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking, July 2009. ASTT Specifications for Horizontal Direction Drilling, July 2009. ASTT Specifications for Pipe Bursting, July 2009.

wat er DECEMBER 2009 69



rainwater tanks

refereed paper

ENERGY IMPLICATIONS OF HOUSEHOLD RAINWATER SYSTEMS M Retamal, A Turner, S White Abstract The energy intensities of a range of household rainwater systems were monitored in Sydney and Newcastle as part of a study carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) in collaboration with the Australian Commonwealth Scientific Investigat ion and Research Organisation (CSIRO). The study found that the energy intensity of these rainwater systems varied depending on syst em configuration, rainwater end uses and the water efficiency of the household. Preliminary results indicate that the energy intensity varies between 0.9 and 4.9 kWh/kl with a 'typical' household rainwater system using approximately 1.5 kWh to deliver each kilolitre of rainwater.

Introduction Recent droughts in Australia have driven the water industry to find new and diverse ways of providing water services. This has ranged from large scale desalination plants and major inter-basin water transfers through to lot-scale distributed systems such as rainwater tanks and greywater reuse systems. Whilst this diversity has major benefits it may also have significant consequences if the impacts of these new systems are not addressed. Recent research has shown that the energy intensity of centralised water supply systems in Australia's major cities prior t o the recent droughts ranged from 0.1 t o 0.85 kWh/kl (Kenway et al. 2008). However, in cities such as Sydney, Adelaide and Perth where major augmentation works have been undertaken in response to drought, the range of energy intensities is currently between 1.0 and 1 .8 kWh/kl (Kenway et al. 2008). As more major augmentation works are completed, these figures are likely to increase as urban water systems become more energy intensive. In addition to major augmentation works at the centralised scale, there has

Results from a preliminary monitoring study. 70 DECEMBER 2009 water

been a major increase in distributed systems, such as estate-scale water recycl ing systems and household rainwater tanks. A plethora of local, state and federal regulations and incentives has resulted in a large increase in the number of rainwater tanks installed across the country, which wi ll contin ue to grow. However, despite the widespread use of rainwater tanks as an alternative water supply, to date, very little evaluation of these systems has been undertaken, both in terms of water savings and energy consumption.

Evaluation of the energy consumed by new water supply systems is needed to ensure that the energy intensity of our water supply is not increased unnecessarily. Water supply systems can be modified to improve energy efficiency, particularly if problems are identified early.

Limited available studies investigating water savings associated with rainwater tanks indicate a saving of approximately 20 kUhousehold/a in South East Queensland (Snelling et al. 2006; Turner et al. 2007), significantly lower than the theoretical potential savings of 70 kUhousehold/a in that area (Coombes et al. 2003). Another study by Lee et al (2008) found that savings in the ACT were as low as 12 kUhousehold/a. In both studies these results reflect programs dominated by rainwater tanks used for outdoor purposes only. It must be noted that water savings are very dependent on factors such as the roof catchment area, tank size, end uses to which the tank is connected and the climate of the region in question.

Consequently, a research collaboration was established between ISF and CSIRO with the aim of researching the waterenergy nexus and investigating the energy implications of emerging urban water systems. As part of this broad research project, ISF undertook a preliminary monitoring study in 2008/09 to investigate the energy intensity of a range of household rainwater systems in Sydney and Newcastle. The full results of this preliminary monitoring study and water-energy nexus research can be found in Retamal et al. (2009a); Retamal et al (2009b). This paper concentrates on the findings of the preliminary monitoring study of rai nwater systems.

While further verification of the actual water savings achieved by these systems is required, energy consumption is now also emerging as an unknown and a potential issue for concern. One of the few available studies into the energy intensity of rainwater systems was carried out by Beal et al. (2008). This study examined the energy intensity of a cluster scale rainwater system (Silva Park) in South East Queensland and found that the pumping system and UV treatment had a combined energy intensity of approximately 5 kWh/kl, wh ich is similar to that of desalination treatment.

Due to the di verse characteristics of households and their rainwater systems, such systems can be quite different and difficult to compare. Firstly, rainwater system co nfigurations differ with different pump types , pump controllers, mains water back up systems and pressure aids such as pressure vessels. Secondly, the end uses for which rainwater syst ems are used vary, and these end uses require different flow rates , depending on whether rainwater is being used for cistern refilling or running a shower and/or irrigation system. Thirdly, the water efficiency of the appliances being used in each house and the water using behaviour of the householders is unique to each household . All of these factors affect how much energy and water is consumed by a rainwat er system.

While there is growing awareness of the need to mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts, there is evidence that the move towards both large and small scale diversification of water supply is actually increasing energy intensity.

The high energy intensities fou nd at Silva Park by Beal et al. (2008) and the lack of data regarding the energy consumption of new urban water systems warranted further research.

Rainwater Systems

technical features


rainwater tanks

refereed paper

Monitoring Approach

Table 1. Features of monitored households and their rainwater systems

In order to gain an understanding of the potential range of energy intensities associated with household rainwater systems, it was decided to monitor a spectrum of different systems. The feat ures of each household monitored are described in Table 1. The table shows that the monitored households represent a range of d ifferent system configurations, with rainwater used for either toilet, laundry and outdoor or for all household end uses. The household sizes ranged from 1 to 5 people with the exception of one small suburban office. The approach was to monitor each system under normal operating conditions and t hen to replace specific components, such as pressure vessels, to test how t his might affect the energy intensity of the system in question. Two examples of the household systems that were monitored are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 illustrat es


Pump type

Other features

End uses

No. people


Fixed speed

Automatic switch to mains supply

Toilet, laundry, outdoor



Fixed speed (Venturi)

Manual switch (test with and without pressure vessel)



Newcastle Variable speed Small pressure vessel, house #1 trickle top up


2 to 3

Newcastle Fixed speed house #2

Trickle top up




Fixed speed

Automatic switch to mains supply

Toilet, laundry, outdoor



Fixed speed (Submersible)

Automatic switch to mains supply


10 workers


Fixed speed

Automatic switch to mains supply Toilet, laundry, outdoor (test with and without pressure vessel)


Variable speed Small pressure vessel, automatic switch to mains supply

what appears to be the most common rainwater system configuration, that is, a fixed speed pump with an automated switc h to the mains supply when the water level in the tank falls to a certain

5 people

Auto mains

Toi lets Laundry

switch Garden Ra in Tank


Filte r

speed pump Mains Water

Figure 1. Schematic of a typical household rainwater system using a fixed speed pump with a mains switching valve to supply rainwater to toilets, laundry and garden.

Mains WaterTrickle top up

2-3 people

All outdoor Variable speed pump

8 L pressure vessel


level defined by a float sensor. The rainwater is used for the toilet, laundry and garden . Figure 2 d isplays a less common rainwater system wh ich makes use of a variable speed pump (connected to a small pressure vessel) and a mains trickle top-up system. This system also uses a number of filters as the rainwater is being used for all household end uses. At each site, water and energy consumption of the rainwater systems were monitored and simultaneously recorded by a data logger. Rainwater consumption was measured by the use of a Manu-Flo MES-MR flowmeter with a pulse output of 61.5 pulses per litre. The pulse lead from the flowmeter was connected to the combined data logger and energy metering unit develo ped by Testi ng Certification Australia (TCA). The data was sampled and recorded at one minute intervals. An antenna attached to t he data logger was then used to t ransmit data via GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) so that it could be downloaded remotely. An example of t he metering set-u p is shown in Figure 3. Each site was monitored for a minimum period of two weeks and the energy intensity was calcu lated over the entire monitoring period.


All end uses

Rain Tank


Fi lters

Figure 2. Schematic of a household rainwater system using a variable speed pump, small pressure vessel and trickle top-up to supply rainwater to all household end uses.

As mentioned previously, the monitored households represented a spectrum of different configurations, household sizes and end uses. The monitoring results for this range of systems varied w idely, with energy intensities ranging from 0.9 to 4.9 kWh/kl. These results have been grouped and analysed according to system configuration and rainwater end use in order to characterise some of the factors influencing energy intensity.

wat er DECEMBER 2009 71

~ refereed paper

rainwater tanks Results for households with similar system configurations

low flow rates, thus increasing the energy intensity.

Systems using a fixed speed pump and automatic mains switching system

These results show that the types of end uses and the efficiency of water using appliances all factor in the energy int ensity of a rainwater system. As can be seen from t he graph in Figure 4, energy intensity must be considered in conju nction with total water and energy use as low energy intensity may be due to higher water consumption. The average energy intensity for this configuration from t he households consi dered is approximat ely 1 .5 kWh/k l.

Water meter

The fixed speed pump and automatic switch to mains Energy meter appeared to be the most and data logger common household rainwater system configuration, following discussions with Pump rainwater system installers (Hockings, B. & Caley, J. 2008). The results from four test sites using this configuration are shown in Figure 4, including daily rainwater consumption, daily energy consumption and Figure 3. Example metering set up including water meter connected to energy intensity. Their energy a combined energy meter and data logger intensities varied from 0.9 kWh/ kl at Padstow to 2.3 kWh/kl at Enmore. However, allow the pump to operate more this variance may be largely due to efficiently and result in a lower energy differences in water use, as Padstow Systems using variable speed pumps intensity. Rainwater pumps tend to represents a 5 person suburban Two households with very similar have a relatively flat power curve with household with inefficient water fixtures configu rations were tested in Newcastle regards to flow rate, which means that and Enmore represents a 1 person and suburban Sydney. Both low flow end uses will use a similar inner city household with highly households used variable speed pumps amount of energy to high flow end efficient water fittings and appliances. fitted with a small 8 l pressure vessel uses, regardless of the volume of water The Padstow household uses more to supply rainwater t o all household being delivered. water outdoors wh ich tends to have a end uses. These systems had energy higher flow rate compared to other end With a large proportion of outdoor intensities of 3.0 and 2.9 kWh/kl uses, such as a toilet cistern. As most watering t he Padstow household wi ll respectively, as shown in Figure 5. rainwater pumps are designed to have a low water intensity. In contrast, Theoretical ly, a variable speed pump optimally run at high flow rates (i.e 20the household at Enmore uses should be able to overcome the rainwater primarily for a highly efficient 30 Umin); a situation where rainwater is differences in f low rates required for the predominantly used outdoors wou ld toilet and washing machine, w hich have spectrum of household end uses (i.e. low flow req uired for t oi let flushing and high f low required for outdoor irrigation) to reduce energy consumption . As, unlike fixed speed pumps, the power used by variable speed pumps varies accord ing to flow rate. However, these tests indicate that the variable speed pumps currently avail able for household use may not be operat ing • Energy intensity (kWh I optimally, with energy intensities that kl) are 100% higher than that of the most • Oaily pumping energy common system configuration using a (kWh /day) fixed speed pump. • Oaily rainwater consumption (kl/ day)





Figure 4. Energy intensity and daily energy and rainwater use for three households and one office using fixed speed pumps and automatic mains switches (for non-potable end uses only). 72 DECEMBER 2009


The two householders with variable speed pumps advised that t heir pumps required significant cal ibration and several visits from the pump manufacturer before they operated satisfactorily. At Newcastle 1, the system initially had an energy intensity of 3.8 kWh/kl as it had been cycling on and off when rainwater was not in use. This was thought to be due to the pump pressure controller being set

technical features

~ refereed paper

rainwater tanks remaining roughly the same. That is, the energy intensity appeared to drop by approximately a third with the introduction of the pressure vessel.

• Energy intensity (k Wh/ kl ) • Daily pumping energy (kWh / day) • Dail y rainwater consumption (kl / day)



Figure 5. Energy intensity and daily energy and rainwater use for two households using a variable speed pump (rainwater is used for all household end uses). below its design intention. After the pump manufacturer adjusted the pressure set point and tolerance interval, t he energy intensity dropped to 3.0 kWh/kl. Even with adjustments, the energy intensity and total energy consum ption of household systems using variable speed pumps was far higher than for households using standard fixed speed pumps. Pumps from different manufacturers may yield d ifferent results. As mentioned previously in the comparison between the systems at Enmore and Padst ow, the dominant type of end use affects the energy intensity of a system. This is due to the fact that household rainwater pumps are primarily fixed speed and use the same power regard less of the flow rate. For example, energy is not being used effectively when a pump set to deliver rainwater at a rate of 20 Umin is primarily used t o fi ll a toilet cistern requi ring a flow rate of only 5 Umin. In principle, this issue of mismatched flow rat es wou ld be remed ied by the use of a variable speed pump. However, the resu lts at these two households appear to indicate that there is significant opportunity for improvement in the design of variable speed pumps for household applications. Systems with and without pressure vessels

At two of the monitored households in inner city Sydney it was possible to add and remove pressure vessels in order to examine the difference in performance. Th e existing system at

the house in Newtown had an unusual configuration in that it used a venturi jet pump (fixed speed) to supply rai nwater to the whole house. The venturi pump was used t o d raw water from a rainwater storage blad der located under the house. The unusual pump used a lot of energy in stan dby, and th is combi ned with very low water usage resu lted in a very high energy intensity of 4.9 kWh/k l . When the pressure vessel was introduced, the energy intensity dropped t o 3.4 kWh/ kl, with water consumption

The system at Enmore used a pressure vessel in addition to the standard configuration of a fixed speed pump and automatic switching syst em, which resulted in an energy intensity of 1.6 kWh/ kl . When the pressu re vessel was removed , the energy intensity increased to 2.3 kWh/ kl ; similarly indicating that the energy intensity reduced by approximately a third with the inclusion of a pressure vessel. As mentioned previously, the house at Enmore used rainwater primarily for low flow end uses, such as an efficient toilet and washi ng machine. It appears that the pressure vessel effectively reduced pump cycling for these low flow end uses and reduced both energy intensity and total energy use. A study on the energy intensity of rai nwater syst ems at Silva Par k (Beal et al. 2008) noted that the number of pump start-ups were a significant factor in increasing energy intensity. Th is would imply a higher peak in energy consu mption at the beginning of each end use event. Such peaking in energy use was not observed for any of the households in th is study; however, this issue may warrant further investigation. The energy intensities, daily water and daily energy consumption of these




• Energy intensity (kWh / kl )

3 • Daily pumping energy (kWh / day)


2 1.5

0.5 0 Newtown

N ewtown (with pressure vessel)


En more (with pressure vessel)

Figure 6. Energy intensity and daily energy and rainwater use for two households with and without a pressure vessel (for all end uses at Newtown and for toilets, laundry and outdoors at Enmore).

water DECEMBER 2009 73

~ refereed paper

rainwater tanks rainwater systems both with and without a pressure vessel are shown in Figure 6. At another household (Newcastle 2), a 24 L pressure vessel was added to the existing system which included a fixed speed pump and trickle top up system. However, the pressure settings of the pump and the pressure vessel were not matched and consequently the user experienced significant variation in water pressure, which became particularly evident during showering. This was an unacceptable loss of service and the pressure vessel had to be removed. This incident highlighted the difficulty in retrofitting a pressure vessel to an existing system. Many householders would not be aware of the need to buy a pressure vessel that matches the pressure settings on their pump. The coupling of pumps and pressure vessels by manufacturers may be useful if pressure vessels are to be used to their ful l potential. The results from these tests indicate that pressure vessels may be effectively used to reduce the energy consumption of rainwater systems. However, if the pressure vessel is not matched to the pump, then there may be a reduction in the level of service.

Results for households using rainwater for the same end uses Results for systems using rainwater for toilet, laundry and outdoor

Three of the households that were monitored used rainwater for the toilet,

Table 2. Water use characteristics and energy intensities for three households with similar rainwater system configurations and end uses. House




Characteristics of water use (data observations)

Mix of long and short duration events, mostly low flow

Longer duration, high flow events

Short duration, low flow events

Outdoor use

Garden watering

Significant garden watering

Energy Intensity (kWh/kl)

Almost no garden watering 2.3*



Rainwater use per person (Uperson/day)



Pump power (Watts)



*Note: this energy intensity resulted from a test without a pressure vessel

laundry and outdoors. These households also share the same system configuration with fixed speed pumps and automatic mains switching devices and are therefore readily comparable. The resu lts from these households are set out in Tab le 2 along with some observations from the data.

intensity for the rainwater system at Padstow.

Two of these households (Balmain and Enmore) are located in the inner city with small gardens and highly efficient appliances. The house at Padstow differs from the other two as it has a larger garden, a less efficient toilet and was hing machine, and consumes more water. The water usage data at Padst ow also reveals more high flow, long duration end use events which are an indication of garden watering or other outdoor water use. The presence of more high flow rate end use events appears to have reduced the overall energy

These observations suggest that the flow rate required by end uses could be more effectively mat ched to the design pump flow rate in order to improve energy efficiency.

• Daily pumping energy use per person • Daily rainwaterconsumption per person • Energy intensity




+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- --

~ 0.05


-;: 0.06




l ~ ~ C ~


'.!1 C





~ 0.03 +---- - - - - - - - -


On the other hand , the dominance of short duration , low flow end use events at Enmore has driven up the energy intensity, as rainwater is primarily being used for efficient toilet flushing and an efficient wash ing machine.

The results shown in Table 2 have been plotted along with energy use per person in Figure 7. Daily pumping energy use per person and water use per person correspond to the left hand axis, wh ile energy intensity corresponds to the right hand axis. This graph illustrates a few things. The resu lts for Padstow show that low energy intensity is not always an indicator of low energy use. Water efficiency is still an import ant factor in reducing energy co nsumption as can be inferred from the result s for Balmain and Padstow. The results for Enmore highlight the inefficiency of using a high flow pump for primarily low flow end uses .


i ~ 0.04 + - - - - - - - - - - .. ,!!;.

31 890


0.02 0 .5 0.01 0

0 Balmain Terrace

Padstow House

Enmore Terrace

Figure 7. Energy intensity, daily energy use per person and daily rainwater use per person for three households using rainwater for the same end uses. 74 DECEMBER 2009 water

Conclusions The energy intensity of a household rainwater system is affected by the types of end uses and the efficiency of water use within the household as wel l as the system configuration. A typical household rai nwater system supplying rainwater to the laundry, toilet and garden appears to have an average energy intensity of approximately 1.5 kWh/kl. The range of energy intensities recorded, however, indicate that there may be many variations on system types which use a lot more energy per kilolitre.

technical features

~ refereed pape r

More research is required to define t he elements of an energy efficient rainwater system configuration. Once these elements are understood , the next steps might be to develop standards and guidelines for system design and installation to ensure t hat the energy efficiency of new systems is optimised. This may include advice on choosing a pump that matches t he most likely end uses to improve efficiency. It may also include a shift in t he industry towards more efficient p umps and where possible the use of gravity syst ems, including header t anks and gutter storages which can be integrated wit hin household upper walls at t he construct ion stage. Results from this preliminary monitoring study indicate that pressure vessels co uld be used to red uce the energy consumpt ion of rainwater systems. Further t echnical development of variable speed pumps at the household scale may also lead to improved energy effic iency together with the matching of end uses to pump flow rates. Alternat ively, low flow pumps dedicat ed t o low flow end uses may be a good option for some households. Aside from the systems themselves, efficient water use has also emerged as an important means of reducing overall energy consumption. All except one of the household rainwater systems t hat were monitored had higher energy intensities than mains wat er supply. The cu rrent mains water supply in Sydney has an energy intensity of approxim ately 1 kWh/kl (Kenway et al. 2008), and th is is set to rise when the d esalinat ion plant comes online. With t he energy int ensity of ou r water supplies rising, it is vitally important t hat energy efficiency is maximised in emerging water syst ems such as those being installed at the estate an d household scales. Distribut ed systems have enormous pot ential t o aid the water industry in diversify ing water supply and potent ially increasing the resilience of the system. However, these systems must be monitored and evaluated, so t hat whe re possible, design modifications can be made and guidelines set to ensure t hat the trade-off between water and energy use is opt imised.

rainwater tanks ANOTHER STUDY: SIMILAR RESULTS Julian Shortt, Water Conservation Group As noted in E-News, Sout h East Water Ltd and Water Conservation Group have also studied the energy consumpt ion of residential rainwater systems in South East Melbourne. The study included 31 residences, 11 of which were equipped to have both rainwater and energy consumption monitored every minute, whi le 20 of t he residences were equipped to have the rainwater supply monitored every minute and the total energy recorded over t he entire monitoring period. The monitoring period was for at least 3 months. The results obtained indicate an average specific energy of 3.12kWh/kL and a median specific energy of 1.98kWh/kL. Both these figures com pare unfavourably with traditional water treatment and distribution methods (particularly for Melbourne, at

The Authors

Monique Retamal is a Research Consultant at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, within the University of Technology, Sydney. Email: monique.retamal@uts.ed u.au, Ph:+61 2 9514 4622. Andrea Turner is a Research Director and Professor Stuart White is t he Director of the Institute.

References Beal, C., Hood, 8., Gardner, T., Lane, J. & Christiansen, C. 2008, 'Energy and water metabolism of a sustainable subdivision in South East Qld: a reality check', paper presented to the ENVIRO'08. Caley, J., Personal communication, Ecological Design Consultant, 2008. Coombes, P.J., Kuczera, G. & Kalma, J.D. 2003, 'Economic, water quantity and quality impacts from the use of a rainwater tank in the inner city', Australian Journal of Water Resources,

vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 101-110. Hockings, 8. , Personal communication, Former President of the Association of Building Sustainability Assessors, 2008. Kenway, S.J., Priestley, A., Cook, S., Seo, S., Inman, M., Gregory, A. & Hall , M.

0.14kWh/kL), but are still well below desalinat ion needs (3.6kWh/ kL); A key parameter which the study found t o cause energy inefficiency was pump sizing. because pumps are generally oversized for the intended end use. While this effect minimised the effect of ot her parameters, the results also suggested that the end use of rainwater and t he system configurat ion have an effect on energy efficiency. The significance of t hese effects warrants further investigation. In accordance with this conclusion, the study recommends t hat pumps used in rainwater systems should be correctly sized for t he flow rates they will typically be delivering, and t hat pump manufacturers should optimise their systems for typical rainwater applications which use small amounts of water, such as toilet flushing.

2008, Energy use in the provision and consumption of urban water in Australia and New Zealand, CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship. Lee, L., Plant, R. & White, S. 2008, THINK WATER, ACT WATER: Evaluation of the ACT Government's Water Demand Management Program [prepared for Territory and Municipal Services], Institute for Sustainable Futures. Retamal , M.L., Abeysuriya, K.R., Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2009a, Water energy nexus: Literature review [prepared for CSIRO], Institute for Sustainable Futures, Sydney. Retamal, M.L., Glassmire, J., Abeysuriya, K.R., Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2009b, The Water-Energy Nexus: Investigation into the energy implications of household rainwater systems [prepared for CSI RO], Institute for Sustainable Futures, Sydney. (http://www.isf.uts.edu.au/publications/ retamaletal2009waterenergynexus.pdf) Snelling, C., Simard, S., White, S. & Turner, A. 2006, Gold Coast Water Evaluation of the Water Demand Management Program, Institute for Sustainable Futures for Gold Coast Water and QLD EPA. Turner, A.J., White, S., Kazaglis, A. & Simard, S. 2007, 'Have we achieved the savings? The importance of evaluations when implementing demand management', Water Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 5-6, pp. 203-210.

water DECEMBER 2009


~ refe reed paper

rainwater tanks

IMPACTS OF RAINWATER TANKS ON SMALL SYSTEM YIELD MTeng Abstract The Victorian resort town of Apollo Bay has a relatively dry summer and high holiday water demand, but a relatively small storage basin. These characteristics mean the system will have a plentiful supply in winter and spring, but requires supplement in summer months. The daily saving time series from the rainwater tank model were factored into a water resource allocation model (REALM) to estimate water savings based on historical data and determine the impact of the rainwater tanks on the system yields. It was found t hat water savings from rainwater tanks would have little or no impact on the system yields.

Introduction The coastal t own of Apollo Bay has been a popular tourist destination in western Victoria for many years. This is likely to continue into the future, and is enhanced now the Geelong Bypass is completed. The estimated permanent population in Apollo Bay in 2007 was 2258. This figure can however swell to a peak of more than 12,000 people in the month of January. The Apollo Bay region has been under summer water restrictions since 2001. An extensive number of alternative water resource options have since been investigated, including on-stream and off-stream surface water storages, groundwater, recycled water and seawater desalination. The physical and geological constraints in Apollo Bay area have created a significant challenge in finding a suitable site for a water storage. Steep hills, flood-prone plains, high groundwat er table, geological instability of the region with a history of landslips mean that there is an extremely limited number of potential sites for a storage, and that the construction cost could be significant. Barwon Water therefore is exploring all avenues to augment supply to Apollo Bay system including the potential water savings of retrofitting rainwater tanks to all feasible properties in Apollo Bay. The objective of t his study was t o determine the water savings from rainwater tan ks and the implications for the Apollo Bay syst em long-term yields.

Brief Description of Method The installation of residential rainwat er tanks in urban areas has been part of a broader quest to supplement water supply and to improve the sustainability of urban water systems in recent years due to diminishing resource and potential climate change. In this regard the Victorian Government and Barwon Wat er are co mmitted t o The Water Smart Gardens and Homes Rebate Scheme, which provides rebate up to $1000 to residential customers for purchasing and installation of a large rainwater tank between July 1 2007 and June 30 2009.

Holiday demand in dry summers cannot be met by 4500 litre tanks. 76 DECEMBER 2009 water


2 .00






0.5 0

I; ,,



I ¡.



0.00 Jan












Figure 1. Seasonal Water Consumption Factors. The performance of rainwater tanks is dependent on many factors such as the dwelling sizes and characteristics, household sizes, water use behaviours and climate variables. A generic analysis of pot ential water savings using annual or quarterly average demands and cli mate data is commonly used. However these average assumptions can result in considerable errors, particularly in the Apollo Bay region where the monthly demand pattern varies considerably and therefore requi res analysis over shorter time scales. In this study a daily water balance model was developed to model the performance of different sizes of rainwater tanks and to estimate water savings based on historical climate data. However, the water savings or yields from the rainwater tanks may not translate into system yields for the combined rainwater tank and reticulated water supply in Apollo Bay, which has a relatively small storage basin, and a relatively dry summer but with high holiday water demand. Th ese characteristics mean the system will have a plentiful supply in w inter and spring, but requ ires supplement in summer months. Water savings from rainwater tanks therefore wi ll have little or no impact on the system yields in those winter months when the basin is often full . The daily saving time series from the rainwat er tank model therefore were factored into a water resou rce allocation model (REALM) to determine the impact of the rainwater tanks on the system yields.

Household Water Demands The water use in Apollo Bay reg ion shows distinct monthly variations where the average demand in January is more than twice the demand in winter months as shown in Figure 1. The household water consumption in this study has been divided into two cat egories - indoor and outdoor water uses. The seasonal water consu mption factors provide some insight into the outdoor water demand, and it is assumed that the months from June to September have insignificant outdoor water use where the seasonal factors are close to 1. These are also the months with highest rainfall in Apollo Bay. The model considers two types of rainwater tanks installations: Rainflush System, based on con nection to toilet flushing, garden watering

technical features

~ refereed paper

rainwater tanks

and washing machine and Hotwater System, with additional connection t o the hotwater supply. Water use est imates and assumptions are est imated based on local and Melbourne data as show n in Tables 1 and 2.

demand management conservation, the forecast consumption per household wou ld fall from approximately 380 Uhh/ day in 2007 to 250 Uhh/ d in 2055. This w ill have significant impact in term of yields from connected rainwater tanks.

Table 1. Household % of water use. Toilet Laundry Indoor Outdoor Hot water (other months) Hot water (winter)

Yields from Rainwater Tanks

18% of indoor use 24% of indoor use 80% of total 20% of total

Types of Rainwater Tanks

32% of indoor use 43% of indoor use

As mentioned earlier, the yield from a rainwater tank depends on many factors. For Apollo Bay, the following assumpt ions are used in t he modelling:

There are many different types of tanks. The two most common types are polyethylene tank and steel tank, and are supplied and installed by Barwon Water. Polyethylene tanks do not corrode, are relocatable, are made from a very strong material and are generally, t he longest lasting tanks. Generally, high quality polyethylene materials are used, which don't give out any taste or smell. UV stabi lised, food-grade polyethylene is generally an industry-standard. The steel tanks are generally more expensive and have limited life span. In th is exercise it is assumed that polyethylene tanks are installed as Apollo Bay is not in a high fire risk area and less than five per cent of connected properties are in bushland.

• Average Roof Size (sq.m) - 150

Modelled Results

• First Flush Diversion (mm) - 0.25

A daily water balance model is used to run the simulations from 1970 to 2007 based on current and forecast consumption per household.

Apollo Bay lies in a relatively high annual rainfall region of Victoria. It has an average annual rainfall of about 1100 mm , with the average over summer months (Jan-Mar) being approximately half t hat of the winter months. The region has experienced a rainfall reduction of approximately 10% since 1997 (see Figure 2) and this has been considered in the analysis. The daily rainfall data used in the modelling for 1970 - 2007) is taken from t he LWRDDC, SI LO website (1997).

• Rainfall Red uction (prior 1997) for Climate Change (%) - 10 Barwon Water has com mitted to a com prehensive water conservation program si nce 2003, and set a target to further reduce the current level of demand by 20% by 2020. As t he yields f rom the rainwater tan k are dependent on t he household demands, the model has considered yields from rai nwater tanks at current and future level of development. It is assumed that the penetration rates for rainwater tan ks are 75% and 10% of the houses and units respectively. The equivalent number of houses that would connect to rai nwater tanks in future (2055) is based on t he Apollo Bay St ructure Plan (2007) up t o 2030, and then a growt h rate of 0.5% per annum as per "Victoria In Future" rate for Colac Otway region at 2031. A climate-corrected demand model is used to si mulate daily water consumptions. Based on targeted

Current Development (2007)

The modelled results show t hat a 1000 litre tank has reliabilities (ability to meet its demand) of 77% for t he Rai nflush system, and 63 % for the Hotwater system, while a 9,000 tank has reliability of 98 % and 88% respect ively. In summer months


Rainflush system (Oct-May) Rainflush system (Jun-Sep) Hotwater system (Oct-May Hotwater system (Jun-Sep)

47% of monthly total

31 % of monthly total 72% of monthly total 74% of monthly total


100.0 E E



Table 2. Total Demand from Rainwater Tank.



·;; a:

- ,-



60.0 - ~ 40.0 20.0




r ,-I',

- - p ,-






-I' - - Ii -



,. ,-



,- 1,, 1,


May Jun


0.0 Jan Feb Mar Ap,

Aug Sep Oct




D 1970-1 997

• 1997-2007

- ,~

Nov Dee

Figure 2. Average Monthly Rainfalls.

Polyethylene Lined Steel Tanks from 26,000 Litres to 2 Megalitres water DECEMBER 2009 77

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rainwater tanks

l: ::~::: 120"



-- -·····--···------··············



···-· - ··················· ········


·····-······ -····················

250 -Rel ia bil ity of Supply -

Reliability of Supply



L--===~==---- ~:::~r~mand 10000


Tota l demand (Jan-Ma rl


Figure 4. Rainflush System (2007). 400

---------------------- -- - - --- --·

,so -·····-··········· . -


Unmet Demand




Tota l Demand


Waters aved


u nme t Oe1Nnd (Jan-Mar)


Reliability ofsuppty (Jan -Mar)

•• • • • • • • ••• •••••• • •• • ••• • ••••• •• •


,oo --·· ··--- --········· .. .. - ..

Rel labll ily of Supply



Wate,s awd (Jan-Mar)


: .~ 5000



············-·-· ················

0% ' - - - - ~ - - ~ --

WuerSavitd Total Demand



Figure 3. Rainflush System (2007).



~ 1S0


Ta nk Ca pacity (litres)



~ 200


o" ' - - - - ~- -~ - - ~ 5000

------- - ---------------------·····-

Total Demand (Ja n-M,u )

~ 5000




100% 90% -


Reliability of Supply


·-·-··········· ············--


Unmt1tDe m.1nd

:1 : d:= · · · · · · · · ~

- WaterS.i ved


--- - - --------------··-···-----


Total Demand


Wate r ull'td (Jan-M ar)


-····--·----···-····· ······· - -



Re liability

Unmet demand

~ · - · · · · - · · - - - - · · - - --


of suppy 50% ' - - - -- - - - -10000

Tot.ti demand (J<1n-M<1r)

Pa n-M;u)




Tank Size (litres )

TankCa pa city (li tres)

Figure 8. Rainflush System (2055).

Figure 7. Rainflush System (2055). 120%


--------- - ·---------------------

················· -·- ····· · ········ -

250 -




- - -- ····························

ReHa bi!ity of Supply

Rel iabllity of supply (Ja n-Mar)



Tank Capaclty(litres)

Unmet Demand


Wa terSaw:d


Tota l Demand



Water saved (Jan-Mar)



unmet demand


(Jan-Mar) Total Demand (Ja n-Mar)

l oo j1so

L - -- ~ - - - ' - - - - - '


The modelled results of the two types of installations of rainwater tanks are given in Figures 3 to 10.

Impact on Apollo Bay System Yield

Figure 6. Hotwater System (2007).

Figure 5. Hotwater System (2007).


The proj ected future costs per kilolitres of water use (4500 litres tank) are $3.94/ KL and $2.98/KL respectively for Rainflush system and Hotwater system installations.

Ta nk Slze(lltres)

Tank Capacity(l itres)

60 %

The optimal size (least cost per KL) for the water tank is a 2250 litres tank; however a larger tank (4500 litres) has a comparable cost per KL. The reliabilities of supply (4500 litres) are 99% and 92% respectively for the Rainflush system and Hotwater system installations. The average water savings are 81 MUa (39 KUhh/a) and 128 MUa (61 KUhh/a) respectively.



Ta nk Ca pacity(litrcs)

Figure 9. Hotwater System (2055).

Figure 10. Hotwater System (2055).

(Jan - Mar) however, the reliabilities dropped to 45% and 31 % respectively for a 1000 litres tank, and to 92% and 59% for a 9000 litres tank.

litres tank) are still comparable to the current costs of rainwater tank installations in major cities in Australia, with levelised costs of $3.34/KL and $2.23/KL respectively for Rainflush system and Hotwater system installations. This is primarily due to a relatively high annual rainfall of about 1100 mm (or 1000 mm in the last 10 years) in the Apollo Bay region.

The optimal size (least cost per KL) for the water tank is a 2250 litres tank for Rainflush system installation; however both 2250 litres and 4500 litres tanks have similar cost for Hotwater system installation. The reliabi lities of supply (4500 litres tank) are 93% and 83%, for Rainflush system and Hotwater system installations respectively. The corresponding total average water savings are 61 MUa (54 KUhh/a) and 91 MUa (81 KUhh/ a). Apollo Bay has a lower average daily consumption figure per household (380 Uhh) than Geelong (630 U hh) or Melbourne as it has a significantly higher number of holiday homes. However the costs per kilolitres of water use (4500

78 DECEMBER 2009 water

Future Development (2055)

The modelled results show that a 1000 litres tank has reliabilities (able to meet its demand) of 87% for the Rainflush system, and 76% for the Hotwater system, while a 9,000 tank has reliabi lities of 100% and 98% respectively. In summer months (Jan - Mar) the reliabilities dropped to 62% and 45% respectively for a 1000 litres tan k, and at 100% and 91 % for a 9000 litres tank.

A common assumption is to equate the water supplied from rainwater tanks to potential savings or yields in a water supply system. While this is approximately true for a large system with a large storage, a small water supply system with a small storage and abundant resource in winter (when the demand is low) such as Apollo Bay would behave quite differently. The Marengo Basin (125 ML) in Apollo Bay will be filled up every winter/ spring , which means that savings from rai nwater tanks do not generally contribute to the system yields except for the months in summer. It will be necessary to input savings from rainwater tanks into a water resource system model to determine the impact it has on the system yields. Therefore, time series of weekly savings (derived from daily savings) from rainwater tanks was factored into a REALM model to determine the impact on the Apollo Bay system yield. Current Development (2007)

The modelled results show that although the total average annual volumes supplied from the 2 types of installation are 61 ML and 91 ML respectively, the incremental yields to the system are only 30 MUa and 40 MUa. This is not surprising as the incremental yield wou ld on ly benefit from the savings in summer months which have significantly lower reliabilities of 74% and 49 % compared to annual figures of 93% and 83% respectively for Rainflush system and Hotwater system installations. Future Development (2055)

The modelled results show that the total average annual volumes supplied from the 2 types of in stallation are 81 ML and 128 ML respectively, and the

t chn1cal features

[:;) refereed paper

rainwater tanks


~ WA I I:. K.\.U

Water, the liquid of life corresponding incremental yields to the system are 70 MUa and 80 MUa. The summer months have reliabil ities of 95% and 73% compared to ann ual figures of 99% and 92% % respectively for Rainflush system and Hotwat er system installations. These are significant ly higher than the reliabilities of the current development due to projected lower water consumption per household in 2055. Based on the reliabil ities of supply for summer months (Fig. A3 , Fig. B3 and Fig. D3) it is evident that a larger rainwater tank would increase the reliabilities of supply significantly, and t herefore enhance t he system yields. However this has not been considered f urther as a 4500 lit res tank is expected to be the average upper limit t hat would fit comfortably into the backyard of a block.

Conclusion The modelled results show that although t he average annual volumes supplied through t he Rai nflush and Hotwat er system (4500 litres tank) are 64.4 ML and 95.8 ML, t he incremental yields to t he system are on ly 40 MUa and 70 MUa. The estimated unrestricted current demand for Apollo Bay, with 10% buffer is approximately 440 MUa, which means the rainwat er tank options (yields of 360 370 MUa) wil l not be able to meet the current demand. The forecast long t erm demand with conservation (2055) for Apollo Bay region is 500 MUa. Allowing a 10% b uffer means t hat a long-term system yield of 550 MUa is required. Preliminary investigation and analysis show that connect ing all feasible premises in Apollo Bay region with rainwater tanks for indoor and outdoor uses would be able to supply 81 MUa (Rainflush) and 128 MUa (Hotwater). The incremental yields however are only 70 MUa and 80 Ml/a, which will increase t he system yield t o 400 MUa and 410 MUa. Therefore, t he rai nwater tank option is also unable to meet the future requirements. From t he above it can be concluded that rai nwater tanks of up to 4500 lit res capacity per block, would on t heir own, not be sufficient to meet current and future demand in Apollo Bay. The capital costs for the rainwat er tank option (4500 litres tanks) at current level of development are between $4.3m to $5. 1 m, and between $8.0 m to $9.5 m for future level of development (2055). The above costs cover only t he provision of tanks , pumps and associated installations, and exclude operation and

maintenance, and f uture replacement costs which are assumed to be at the onus of the property owners. There are a number of issues and risks associated with rainwater tanks option that require consideration:


• Uncertainty of availability of sites for tanks on properties. • Monitoring or policing of continued customer usage is difficult. • Uncertainty of ongoi ng servicing and maintenance to ensure acceptable water quality and continual operat ion of the tanks, especially if it involves significant expense to replace t he pump. • Uncertai nty of take-up even if costs are covered by Barwon Water due to land tenure and aesthetic issues. • Difficulties in ensuring tanks are not refilled from mains supply in summer months.

Acknowledgments The aut hor would like to than k and acknowledge the support of Peter Morgan, Manager Asset Planning, Barwon Regional Water Corporation, Geelong, Victoria.

Capable of processing up to 396 m3 /hr. Suitable for commercial, industrial, municipal and water treatment applications.

MULTICYCLONE CENTRIFUGAL FILTER No fi lter media to clean or replace. 3m3/ hr to 30m 3/ hr Suitable for commercial and water treatment applications.

The Author Mee L Teng has a B. Eng. (Hons), University of Malaya, and a M. Eng .Sc degree from University of Melbourn e. He is cu rrently a Senior Water Resources Engineer in Barwon Regional Water Corporation, Geelong, Victoria. Email: mee.teng@barwonwater.vic.gov.au

CARTRIDGE AND BAG FILTERS Capable of withstanding up to 600kPa. Suitable for commercial and water treatment applications.

Relevant Sources Australian Conservation Foundation, Nature Conservation Council (NSW) and Environment Victoria: 2007. The economics of rainwater tanks and alternative water supply options


LWRRDC, 1997. SILO, LWRRDC website http://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/

Precipitates and coagulates a wide range of contaminants.

G. Mitchell, D.T. McCarthy, A. Deletic, T.D. Fletcher,2007. Urban stormwater harvesting: sensitivity of a storage behaviour model P Coombes 2008. Rainwater Tank Evaluation Study for Metropolitan Melbourne

Suitable for grey water recycling applications.

Briefing note on results from Stages 1 and 2: Analysis of spatial climate, water demands, rainwater yields and stormwater impacts. 2008 Marsden Jacob Associates, March 2007. The cost-effectiveness of rainwater tanks in urban Australia. P Roberts June 2005. Yarra Valley Water 2004 Residential End Use Measurement Study

NSW (Head Office) 02 9898 8686

OLD 07 3299 9900

SA / NT 08 8244 6000

VIC / TAS 03 9764 1211

WA 08 9273 1900

NZ 09 525 7570


- ~:•::-~ © ~.::: WATl?.R

~! ~ •

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rainwater tanks

MICROBIAL RISKS FROM RAINWATER TANKS IN SOUTH EAST QUEENSLAND W Ahmed, A Vieritz, T Gardner, A Goonetilleke Abstract Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) analysis was used to quantify the risk of infection associated with the exposure to pathogens from potable and non-potable uses of roof-harvested rainwater in South East Queensland (SEQ). A total of 84 rainwater samples were analysed for the presence of faecal indicators (using culture based methods) and zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens using binary and quantitative PCR (q PCR). The concentrations of Salmonella invA, and Giardia lamblia ~- giradin genes ranged from 65 -380 genomic units/1000 ml and 9-57 genomic units/ 1000 ml of water, respectively. Aft er converting gene copies to cel l/cyst number, the risk of infection from G. lamblia and Salmonella spp. associat ed with the use of rai nwater for bi-weekly garden hosing was calculated to be below the threshold value of 1 extra infection per 10,000 persons per year. However, the estimated risk of infection from drinking the rainwater daily was 44-250 (for G. lamblia) and 85-520 (for Salmonella spp.) infections per 10,000 persons per year. Since this health risk seems higher than that expected from the reported incidences of gastroenteritis, the assumptions used to estimate these infection risks are critically discussed. Nevertheless, it would seem prudent to disinfect rainwater for potable use.

Introduction Roof-harvested rainwater has received significant attention as a pot ential alternative source of potable water supply in water-scarce regions. To encourage the use of roof-harvested rainwater, government bodies of many countries such as Australia, Denmark, Germany, India and New Zealand are providing rebat es to residents who use rainwater for domestic purposes. The use

It would seem prudent to disinfect rainwater for potable use. 80 DECEMBER 2009 water

of rai nwater is quite common in Australia, particularly in rural and remote areas, where reticulated mains or town water are not available. Recent water scarcity in several capital cities prompted the use of rainwater as an alternative source. For instance, the Queensland State Government initiated the 'Home Water Wise Rebate Scheme' that provides rebates to South East Queensland (SEQ) residents who use rai nwater for nonpotable domestic purposes (Spiller 2008). Over 260,000 t anks were granted rebates up to December 2008, when the scheme was concluded. There is a general community sense t hat roof-harvested rainwater is safe to drink, and this is partially supported by limited epidemiological evidence (Heyworth et al. 2006). Some studies have reported that roof-harvested rainwat er quality is generally acceptable for potable use (Di llaha and Zolan 1985). In contrast, the presence of potential zoonotic pathogens in rainwater samples has been reported (Lye 2002; Simmons et al. 2001; Ahmed et al. 2008). Such organisms can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, with nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhoea occurring within 6 to 48 hours (e.g. Salmonella Typhimurium) to 9-15 days (Giardia lamblia) after ingestion of contam inated wat er. Direct routine monitoring of microbiological quality of source water for al l possible pathogens is neither economically, technologically nor practical ly feasible. Consequently, traditional faecal indicators, such as faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci have long been used as surrogates to determine the presence of pathogens. Most studies assess the quality of roof-harvested rainwater based on the concentration of these faecal indicators (Dillaha and Zolan 1985; Sazakil et al. 2007). However, the major limitation in using faecal bacteria as indicators is their poor correlation with the presence of pathogenic microorganisms (Horman et al. 2004).

An alternative is the measurement of pathogens using traditional cultural methods. However, there are several limitations of traditional culture based methods and include the underestimation of the bacterial concentration due to the presence of injured or stressed cells (Delgado-Viscogliosi et al. 2005) whilst certain microorganisms in environmental waters can be viable but not cultivable (Oliver 2000). Culture based methods are also generally laborious and costly. Rec ent advances in molecular techn iques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology enable rapid, specific and sensitive det ection of many pathogens. Advances in PCR methodology also enable the quantification of potential pathogens in source waters that are otherwise difficult and/or laborious to cu lture using traditional microbiological methods. In view of this, we used binary PCR (presence/absence) and qPCR (quantitative) based assays to respectively detect and quantify potential zoonotic pathogens in samples from roofharvested rainwater in SEQ domestic dwellings. The aims of the research study were three-fold: (1) to compare the water quality in rainwater tanks using traditional faecal indicators E. coli and enterococci with the presence of bacterial and prot ozoan pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, Legionella pneumophila, Salmonella spp., Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum measured using binary PCR based methods and (2) to quantify the concentration of selected pathogens using qPCR based methods and (3) to apply Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) analysis to pathogen concentrations in order to quantify the risk of infection from potable and nonpotable uses of roof-harvested rainwater. The uniqueness of this study stems from the fact that instead of measuring faecal indicators, the pathogens that are

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capable of causing illness were measured and combined this information with QMRA to assess human health risk.

Materials and methods Sources of samples. A total of 84 tank water samples were collected from 66 residential houses in Brisbane and Gold Coast reg ions in South East Queensland in 2008. Water samples were collected in sterilised 10 L containers from the outlet taps located close to the base of the tanks. Before sampling, the tap was allowed to run for 30-60 s to flush out water from the tap . Samples were transported to the laboratory on ice, and processed within 8-10 h. Enumeration of E. coli and enterococci. The membrane fi ltration method was used to process the water samples for E. coli and enterococci enumeration. Sample serial dilutions were made, and filtered through 0.45-µm pore size nitrocellulose membranes (Advantec, Tokyo, Japan), and placed on modified mTEC agar (Difeo, Detroit, Ml, USA) and mEI agar (Difeo) for the isolation of E. coli and enterococci, respectively.

rainwater tanks value (Cr value). PCR amplification was performed in 25-µL reaction mixtures (described in Ahmed et al. 2008) using Platinum® SYBR® Green qPCR SuperMix-UDG (lnvitrogen , Carlsbad, CA). To separate the specific product from non-specific products, DNA melting curve analysis was performed for each PCR experiment. PCR limit of detection. To determine the PCR limit of detection, known gene copies of the pathogens (5 x 103 to 5 x 1o0 gene copies) were tested with the PCR. The lowest concentration of gene copies that were detected consistently in replicate assays was considered as the PCR limit of detection. The test showed that the PCR limit of detection was as low as 5 gene copies for bacterial pathogens. For G. lamblia ~-giradin gene, and C. parvum COWP gene, the detection limit was 7 gene copies. Lower levels (i.e. 1 copy) were tested for each target, but the results were not reproducible.

Selected path ogens and t arget genes for binary PCR and qPCR analysis. A hydrophi/a lip, C. coli ceuE, C. jejuni mapA, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli VT1, VT2 and 0157 LPS, L. pneumophi/a mip, Salmonella invA and spvC, G. lamblia ~-giradin and C. parvum COWP genes were selected for binary PCR analysis. Of these, C. jejuni mapA, Salmonella invA, and G. lamblia ~-gi radin genes, were selected for qPCR analysis.

PCR inhibitors. An experiment was conducted to determine the potential presence of PCR inhibitory substances in rainwater samples collected from 3 different tanks. Each sample (i.e. 1 L) was concentrated using the membrane filtration tech nique as described above. DNA was extracted using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen), and tested with the PCR. DNA was also extracted from ultra pure DNAse and RNase free st erile distilled water (l nvitrogen) in the same manner for comparison with the tank water. All samples were spiked with 103 gene copies of S. Typhimurium DNA. The Cr values obtained for the DNA samples from spiked tank water were then compared to the DNA samples from distilled water. No significant differences were observed between the Cr values for spiked distilled water, undiluted DNA, and serially diluted rainwater thus indicating the tested rainwater samples were free of PCR inhibitor.

Primers and qPCR standard curves for PCR analysis. Previously published primers were used for this study and the primer sequence have been described elsewhere (Ahmed et al. 2008). For qPCR assays, the standards were prepared from the genomic/ plasmid DNA of select ed pathogens. A tenfold serial dilution was prepared from the calculated genomic and plasmid gene copies, ranging from 106 to 101 gene copies/µL of DNA. For each standard, the concentration was plotted against the cycle number at wh ich the fluorescence signal increased above the t hreshold

Recovery efficiency of th e qPCR assays. The recovery efficiency was det ermined by spiking distilled water (n=3) and tank water samples (n=3) with known concentration of S. Typhimurium cells. Initially, samples were collected from several rainwater tan ks and were tested for the presence of Salmonella spp . using binary PCR. Water samples that were PCR negative for Salmonella spp. were selected for this experiment. The samples were autoclaved to destroy background microbial flora. The S. Typh imurium strain was grown overnight in LB broth and cell concentrations were

DNA extraction from rainwater samples. For binary PCR and qPCR analysis, 1-2.5 L water sample from each tank was filtered through 0.45-µm pore size membrane (Advantec). DNA was extracted directly on the membrane using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), and stored at -80°C until further analysis.

determined using membrane fi ltration method. Ten-fold serial dilutions were made and spiked into 250 ml of deionised and rainwater samples. The samples were filtered through membranes, and DNA extraction was performed according to the method described above. Samples were tested in tripl icate for each concentration, and the recovery efficiency(%) was calcu lated using the following equation: Recovery Efficiency (%) = (No. of cells after filtration/ No. of cells before filtration) x 100. The recovery efficiency in autoclaved distilled water samples ranged from 68% to 93% with the great est variabi lity occurring at lower cell counts. The mean recovery efficiency was 80% ± 10%. The recovery efficiency in autoclaved rainwater samples ranged from 58% to 91 % with the greatest variability occurring at lower cell counts. The mean recovery efficiency was 75% ± 12% . All results presented in this paper were corrected according to their relevant recovery ratios. Quantitative M icrobial Risk Assessment (QMRA). QMRA, as described by Gerba et al. (1996), is a four-step process for assessing the human health risk from exposure to specified pathogens. The first step, Hazard Assessment, identifies the pathogen present in the rai nwater which we achieved using binary-PCR analysis. Step 2 is Exposure Assessment where the pathogens present in the environment and the amount of pathogen ingested by a person active in the environment are quantified.

The number of infective units ingested by a person active in the environment was calculated as: Ingestion Dose (no. of infective units) = C x V .. ..... (Eqn. 1) Where C = concentration of infective units (number per ml of roof-harvested rainwater). Although qPCR analysis quantified the pathogens detected in the roof-harvested rainwater, it was necessary to first convert the genomic units of the pathogen genes to cell numbers. Assumptions were then made concerning the proportion of the cells that were viable and infective since PCR cannot distinguish between viable and nonviable cells and does not provide information on the infectivity of the target pathogenic microorganisms. V = volume of rainwater ingested (ml). Two possible scenarios were considered, (1) ingestion occurred deliberately due to

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rainwater tanks drinking of rainwater daily, and (2) accidental ingestion of rainwater occurs whilst watering the garden with a hose twice a week. Volumes were assumed to be 1000 ml per day for drinking (US EPA 2004), and 1 ml per event for hosing (Tanaka et al. 1998 assumed 1 ml ingested for golf-course irrigation exposure whi lst Olivieri and Seto (2007) suggested that water intake due to park irrigation could amount to 0.01 to 1% of the daily total water intake, with a median ingestion value of 6 ml). The third step of QMRA involves establishing t he dose response model to use to describe the relationship between ingestion dose and level of infection that results from a single exposure . The dose response relationships used for this study were obtained from the literature. The fourth and final step was to combine the exposure data and dose-response relationship to estimate the risk probability (expressed as likely numbers of infections per 10,000 persons per year) for the urban SEQ community, and compare this with the arbitrary but commonly accepted risk level of one extra infection per 10,000 persons per year (US EPA 1992). To convert the risk probability per single exposure to the risk probability per year, the following equation was used. No. infections per 10,000 persons per year = 1 - (1 - P;)E .. ...... (Eqn. 2) where E = the number of exposure events per year. P; = the infection risk from a single exposure. For this final step, it was assumed that the pathogen distribution indicated by the sampled roof-harvested rainwater tanks was representative of the tanks in urban SEQ. However, it was necessary to

35 • Escherichia coli


• Enterococci



= 20

<:I rJ)


Q <II t,J)







Po. 10 5




Aeromonas hydrophila lip gene Campylobacter coli ceuE gene Campylobacter jejuni mapA gene Escherichia coli 0157 LPS gene Escherichia coli VT1 gene Escherichia coli VT2 gene Legionella pneumophila mip gene Salmonella invA gene Salmonella spvC gene Giardia lamblia ~-giradin gene Giardia parvum COWP gene

82 DECEMBER 2009 water

11- 100


> 1000

CFU/100 ml Figure 1. Concentrations of faecal indicators in water samples collected from roofharvested rainwater tanks. know how many people within the urban SEQ community would be exposed to rainwater through drinking or hosing. Market survey data from Gardiner (2009) was used to establish the number of households in Brisbane that have a rainwater tank and use it for potable purposes. Out of all the households in urban SEQ (807,555), the survey estimated that 208,100 had tanks retrofitted to existing dwellings and 5,876 were new dwellings with mandated tanks with internal connections. Within each of these groups, 22% and 19% respectively used the rainwater for cooking/drinking purposes frequently. Th is suggests that almost 30% of urban SEQ households possessed a rainwater tank, and that 6.3% of urban SEQ households use the rainwater for potable purposes and therefore could be at risk of exposure to the each pathogen identified in the tank water samples.

Table 1. PCR positive results for potential pathogens. Target pathogens

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PCR positive results/ Number of samples tested

7/84 10/27 1/84 0/84 0/84 0/84 8/84 17/84 0127 15/84 0/84

% of samples positive 8 37 1 0 0 0 10 20 0 18 0

Results and Discussion Roof-harvested rainwater quality determined by faecal indicators using traditional culture based methods, and direct pathogen measurement using binary PCR. Of the 84 roof-harvested rainwater samp les tested for faecal indicators, 57 (65%) and 72 (82%) were found to be positive for E. coli and enterococci, respectively. The concentrations of E. coli and enterococci in these positive samples are shown in Figure 1. In the 84 samples tested , 56 (64%) samples exceeded the Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) recreational water quality guidelines for fresh and marine waters of 35 enterococci/100 ml for primary contact (ANZECC 2000). In the 84 samples tested, 54 (61 %) were positive for both indicators, and 75 (89%) were positive for at least one indicator.

Using binary PCR, C. coli were the most prevalent among all the bacterial pathogens test ed in this study (37% of samples, Table1 ). However, only one sample was positive for C. jejuni mapA gene. The C. coli and C. jejuni detected could potentially have originated from bird faeces (Kapperud and Rosef 1983), although other potential sources such as possums or lizards cannot be ruled out. The presence of Campylobacter spp. in roof-harvested rainwater samples has also been reported in New Zealand (Savill et al. 2001) and "campylobacteriosis" was found to be epidemiologically associated with the consumption of roofharvested rainwater (Eberhart-Phillips et

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al. 1987). A. hydrophila lip gene, L. pneumophila mip gene, and Salmonella invA gene were also detected in rainwater samples from a number of tanks. A. hydrophila has been reported as one of the most common Aeromonas spp. associated with human intestinal disease (Kuhn et al. 1997). The Salmonella invA genes enable the bacteria to invade human cells and are reported to be present in all 2,000 Salmonella serovars. Aeromonas spp. , Legionella spp. , and Salmonella spp. have previously been detected using culture-based methods in the United States and New Zealand and in the tropics in roof-collected rainwater cisterns and/or from tanks (Broadhead et al. 1998; Simmons et al. 2001 ).

In the 84 samples we tested, 15 (18%) were positive for the G. lamblia p-giardin gene. Giardia cou ld be derived from bird faecal matters deposited on the roof. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Australia that reports the presence of G. lamblia in water samples from domestic rainwater tanks. Although L. pneumophila was found in 10% of the rainwater samples, the results are neither presented nor discussed further in this paper because of the need to quantify aerosol size distribution that can lodge in the human lung which is a necessary precursor to undertake QMRA of this respiratory pathogen. These issues are discussed elsewhere (Ahmed et al. 2009). Importantly, none of the samples tested were positive for enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0 157 lPS, VT1, VT2, Salmonella spvC or C. parvum COWP genes. Binary logistic regressions were also performed to identify the correlations between the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria and the presence/ absence of potential pathogens. The presence/absence of the potential pathog ens did not correlate with any of the indicator bacteria concentrations. The poor correlation between faecal indicators and pathogens, especially viral and protozoans, has been reported previously (Horman et al. 2004). Of the 84 samples tested, 52% were found to be positive for at least one pathogen, compared with 89% of samples positive for at least one indicator and hence un suitable for primary contact. However, such values do not indicate the magnitude of the infection risk.

rainwater tanks Table 2. Concentrations of pathogens in tank water sample. Target pathogens Salmonella spp.

G. lamblia

Range of genomic units/1000 ml of tank water sample

Range of cells/ 1000 ml of tank water sample

Range of viable and infective cells*/1000 ml of tank water sample


65-380 0.6 - 3.6 cysts

0.1 - 0.9 cysts

9 - 57

16 - 95

• Assumes 25% of the cells were both viable and infective

Concentrations of C. jejuni mapA, Salmonella invA and G. lamblia ~-giardin genes using qPCR. C. jejuni mapA gene, though detected in one sample by binary PCR analysis, could not be quantified due to its concentration being below the qPCR detection limit. However, Salmonella invA, and G. lamblia p-giradin gene were detected in 11 and 13% of samples, respectively, and their concentrations ranged from 65-380 genomic units/1 000 ml and 9-57 genomic units/1000 ml of water respectively (Table 2). Salmonella invA are single copy genes such that 1 gene copy = 1 cell. G. lamblia p-giradin gene copies were converted to cysts number assuming that 16 gene copies = 1 cyst (Guy et al. 2003).

Salmonella and G. lamblia, it was conservatively assumed that at least 25% of the cells were both viable and infective. Hence, the concentration of viable and infective Salmonella spp. cells and Giardia lamblia cysts in the rainwater were estimated to be 16-95 infective units per 1000 ml, and 0.1-0.9 infective units per 1000 ml respectively (Table 2). Determining the human health risk from potable and non-potable uses of roof-harvested rainwater. Estimates of the ingestion dose of each pathogen by people exposed according to the two scenarios are shown in Table 3. For drinking, 16 - 95 Salmonella cells and 0.14 - 0.9 G. lamblia cysts may be ingested, whilst for garden hosing 0. 02 0.1 Salmonella cells and 0.0001 - 0.0009 G. lamblia cysts may be ingested.

Only a proportion of the cells/cysts may be both viable and infectious. It has been suggested from a cell culture-PCR study that the percentage of Cryptosporidium spp. that were both viable and infective may be 37% (leChevallier et al. 2003). In the absence of similar published information for

Dose response relationships used for non-typhoid Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia are shown in Figure 1. Infection risk per 10,000 exposed persons indicated by these relationships ranged from low (0.02-0.18 for garden hosing) to high (18-1 76 for drinking) for each event

Dose response relationships for single event -+-Salmonella typhosa

---- Giardia larrblia __._ Salmonela (nontyphoid, except S. pullorum)

10000 0 0



...--- - - - - - - =:::::;;;::;:;:::;;;::;::.;::;::;::;:;:::;;;::::;::.;::;::;::;::;:::;;~ ......- -.............-......,

9000 8000

-i-- - - - --t-- - -- - - - ----....-:::::::=~-;r"L-- - - - - - - i

..- 7000 +--- - - - ~ f - -- - -- - - - - -,t~ - - --






+-- - - --+-------,-.,--,,--- + - - - - - - --=.-~

5000 4000 ¡-1 -- - ----- - - - - - --

r --

- - ---:;;~- - - -----j

~ 3000 +-- - ---J-- - -- -- - -+-- - -~ ,,..- -- -- -- - - - - i C:

-: 2000 0

P1=10000 [1-(1+ N/6097)"0

1086 ]

Z 1000 ~----:-::-Jll"-- - - - - ---=,l:"""--- ----..,K'-- - - - - -- - - -- - - i 0 s:i:----,+,j~A.;~t::!::~-..........,_.,.....,,_ _ _...._.~----++-+---1 100




Dose (No. Infective Units) Figure 2. An exponential dose response relationship was used for Giardia lamblia (Rose et al. 1991) and a beta Poisson dose response relationship for nontyphoid Salmonella was used for Salmonella Typhimurium) (Haas 1999). The less infectious relationship for Salmonella typhosa (causing typhoid disease) is shown for comparison. All dose response relationships relate N, the number of infective units ingested to Pi, the expected infections per 10,000 people.

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rainwater tanks {Table 4). The fraction of the urban SEQ population that was potentially exposed to each pathogen was then calculated to be at least 3.2-3.9% from garden hosing, and fewer (0.68-0.83%) from drinking rainwater (Table 4), assuming that the proportion of tank samples containing these pathogens (18% for G. lamblia and 20% for Salmonella spp.) are representative of the tanks in urban SEQ. By multiplying these infection risks with the fraction of the population that was exposed to each pathogen, the infection risk from Salmonella spp. or G. lamblia per 10,000 urban SEQ persons for each event was found to range from 0.0005 to 0.007 infections from garden hosing and 0.12 to 1.5 infections from drinking (Table 4). Using Equation 2, the risk of infection per 10,000 people per year was calcu lated to range from 0.06 to 0.72 for garden hosing, but from 44 - 520 for drinking (Table 4). The exposure risk to Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia from drinking far exceeds the threshold value of 1 extra infection per 10,000 persons per year and indicat es that if undisinfected rainwater were ingested by drinking, then the gastrointestinal diseases of Salmonellosis and Giardiasis is expect ed to be high with infection incidence ranging from 44-250 (for salmonellosis), and 85-520 (for giardiasis) cases per 10,000 people per year. These predictions were not supported by the incidence of these diseases reported in the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System Database (http://www9. health. gov. au/cd a/Source/ CDA-index.cfm) where cases of Salmonellosis is reported at an incidence of 5.7 cases/10,000 in Queensland. A number of explanations are possible including the naturally high incidence of gastroenteritis in the community e.g. 8,000 cases per 10,000 people per year (Hellard et al. 2001) masking the actual diseases; the fact that Giardiasis is not a notifiable disease in Queensland; the fact that not every individual will seek medical attention if the illness is mild in nature and lasts for few days; t he fact that a number of households will use UV

Table 3. Exposure and calculation of possible dose for individuals exposed to contaminated tank water. Risk scenario

Ingestion via drinking Ingestion via hosing

Pathogens exposure

Volume per event (ml)

Salmonella spp. G. lamblia Salmonella spp. G. lamblia


disinfection or boil the water before potable use; the possibility of individuals acquiring immunity to certain pathogens due to frequent exposure; a possibly much lower ratio of viable organisms to gene copies that was assumed in the analysis; a possibly lower percentage (than the assumed 25%) of measurable pathogens which are both viable and infective; or more likely, that pathogens do not occur at concentrations reported in Table 3 for 365 days of the year, as was assumed in the risk model calculations. This latter hypothesis is being pursued by a longitudinal study using fortnightly sampling over three months.

Conclusions This study adds to the growing body of evidence that traditional faecal indicators E. coli and enterococci are not satisfactory surrogat es for the presence of human enteric pathogens, showing no significant correlations with any of the pathogens measured. The use of qPCR or similar techn iques which permit direct quantification of pathogens and QMRA to interpret the pathogen concentrations in terms of infection risks will greatly enhance both the understanding and control of pathogen risks in potable water supplies such as roof-harvested rainwater tanks. Of all the 84 samples of roof-harvested rainwater collected in SEQ, 37% containing C. coli, 20% with Salmonella (non-typhoid), 18% with G. lamblia, 10% with L. pneumophila, 8% with A. hydrophila and 1 % with C. jejuni. No C. parvum nor enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The QMRA analysis

Range of Dose (infective units per event)

No of events per year

16 - 95


0.14-0.9 0.02-0.1 0.0001 - 0.0009


indicated that potable use could present a significant health risk due to infection from G. lamblia and Salmonella spp. However, the overall health risk indicated by the qPCR analysis (44-250 infections per 10,000 persons per year by Salmonella spp. and 85-520 infections per 10,000 persons per year by G. lamblia seems higher than expected from reported incidences of gastroenteritis. This suggests that further work is needed to improve the assumptions made in the analysis. One critical assumption is the proportion of gene copies that represent both viable and infective organisms since qPCR does not provide information regarding viability or infectivity. To overcome this limitation, qPCR could be integrated with cell cu lture to obtain information regard ing the viable and infective proportion of the target pathogen, and this will be pursued in further work. The assumption co ncern ing the occurrence of pathogens in rainwater throug hout the whole year is being tested in a longitudinal study. Until these issues concerning the assumptions are resolved, it wou ld seem prudent to disinfect rainwater for potable use. This c ou ld involve filtration using under-sink units, ultra violet disinfection units or more simply, boilin g the water. Acknowledgments This study was funded by the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM). This was a joint project between DERM and Queensland University of Technology (OUT).

Table 4. The infection risk for individuals exposed to contaminated tank water for two risk scenarios. Risk Scenario

Ingestion via drinking Ingestion via hosing


Infection per 10,000 people with rainwater tanks from single event

% of population exposed to pathogens

Infection risk per event per 10,000 people

No. of events/yr

Infection risk per year (No. per 10,000 persons)

Salmonella spp. G. lamblia Salmonella spp. G. lamblia

18-101 28 -176 0.02 - 0.10 0.03 - 0.18

0.68 0.83

0.12 -0.69 0.23 -1 .50

44 - 250

3.2 3.9

0.0005 - 0.0033 0.001 - 0.007

365 365 104

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85 - 520 0.06 - 0.34 0.11 - 0.72

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The Authors Dr Warish Ahmed (emai l shuhat@yah oo.com) is a Water Microbiologist at DERM and QUT. His area of expertise includes faecal pollution tracking and detection and q uantification of pathogens in alternative water sou rces. Alison Vieritz is an Envi ronmental Modeller with DERM. Ted Gardner is a Chief Scientist with DERM and an Adj unct Professor at O UT. Ashantha Goonetilleke is a Professor in water/environmental eng ineering at OUT.

References Ahmed,W., Vieritz, A., Goonetilleke, A. & Gardner, T. 2009, 'The risk of infection associated with the use of roof-harvested rainwater in Southeast Queensland, Australia', (in preparation). Ahmed, W., Huygens, F., Goonetilleke, A. & Gardner, T. 2008, 'Real-time PCR detection of pathogenic microorganisms in roof-harvested rainwater in Southeast Queensland , Australia', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, pp. 5490-6. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservations Council with the Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand. 2000. The Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality. National Water Quality Management Strategy. ANZECC and ARMCANZ, Canberra, Australia. Broadhead, A.N., Negron-Alvira, A., Baez, L.A. , Hazen, T.C. & Canoy, M.J. 1998, 'Occurrence of Legionella species in tropical rain water cisterns', Caribbean Journal of Science, 24, pp. 71-3. Delgado-Viscogliosi, P. , Simonart, T., Parent, V., Marchand, G., Pierlot, P. E. et al. 2005, 'Rapid method for enumeration of viable Legionella pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, pp. 4086- 96. Dillaha, T.A. & Zolan, W.J. 1985, 'Rainwater catchment water quality in Micronesia', Water Research , 19, pp. 741-6. Gardiner, A. (2009) Domestic Rainwater Tanks: Usage and Maintenance Patterns in South East Queensland. AWA Water Journal 36:1 , 151-156.

samples and sewage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, pp. 5178-85. Haas, C.N., Rose, J.B., & Gerba, C.P. 1999, 'Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment', John Wiley & Sons, Inc (Pub). New York. Hellard, M.E., Sinclair, M.I., Forbes, A.B. & Fairley, C. K. 2001, 'A randomised, blinded, controlled trial investigating the gastrointestinal health effects of drinking water quality', Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, pp. 773-7. Heyworth, J.S., Glonek, G., Maynard, E.J., Baghurst, P.A. & Finlay Jones, J. 2006, 'Consumption of untreated tank rainwater and gastroenteritis among young children in South Austral ia', International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, pp. 1051-8. Horman, A., Rimhannen-Finne, R., Maunula, L. , von Bonsdorff, C.-H., Torvela, N., Heikinheimo A., & Ha"nninen, M.-L. 2004, 'Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp ., Cryptosporidum spp., noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern Finland, 2000- 2001 ', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, pp. 87-95. Kapperud, G. & Rosef, 0. 1983, 'Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus sub spp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 45, pp. 375-80. Kuhn, I., Albert, M.J., Ansaruzzaman , M., Bhuiyan, N.A., Alabi, S.A., Sirajul Islam, M., Neogi, P. K.B. , Huys, G., Janssen, P. , Kersters, K., & Mollby. R. 1997, 'Characterization of Aeromonas spp. isolated from humans with diarrhea, from healthy controls, and from surface water in Bangladesh'. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35, pp. 369-373. LeChevallier, M.W., Di Giovanni , G.D., Clancy, J.L., Bukhari, Z., Bukhari, S. , Rosen, J.S., Sobrinho, J. & Frey, M.M. 2003, 'Comparison of method 1623 and cell culture-PCR for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in source waters, 'Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, pp. 971-9. Lye , D. J. 2002, 'Health risks associated with consumption of untreated water from household roof catchment system ', Journal of American Water Research Association, 38, pp. 1301-6. Oliver, J. D. 2000, 'The public health significance of viable but nonculturable bacteria', p. 277-300. In R. R. Colwell and D. J. Grimes (ed.), Nonculturable microorganisms in the environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Gerba C. P., Rose J. B., and Haas C. N. 1996, Quantitative microbial risk assessment for reclaimed wastewater. Water Tech Sydney AWWA, pp. 254-60.

Olivieri A.W. & Seto, E. 2007, 'Application of microbial risk assessment techniques to estimate risk due to exposure to reclaimed waters', Watereuse Foundation. Alexandria VA, 84pp.

Guy, R.A., Payment, P., Krull , U.J. & Horgen, P.A. 2003, 'Real-time PCR for quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental water

Rose JB; Haas CN, and Regli S. 1991, 'Risk Assessment and Control of Waterborne Giardiasis', American Journal of Public Health, 81, pp. 709-13.

Savill, M.G., Hudson, J.A., Ball, A., Klena, J.D., Scholes, P., White, R.J. McCormack, R.E. , & Jankovic. D. 2001 , 'Enumeration of Campylobacter in New Zealand recreational and drinking waters' , Journal of Applied Microbiology, 91, pp.38-46. Sazakli, E., Alexopoulos, A. & Leotsinidis, M. 2007, 'Rainwater harvesting, quality assessment and utilization in Kefalonia Island, Greece', Water Research, 41, pp.2039-47. Simmons, G., Hope, V., Lewis, G., Whitmore, J. & Wanzhen, G. 2001 , 'Contamination of potable roof-collected rainwater in Auckland, New Zealand', Water Research, 35, pp. 1518-24. Spiller D. 2008, 'Policy forum: Urban water pricing and supply. Water for today, Water for tomorrow: Establishment and operation of the SEQ Water Grid. The Australian Economic Review, 41, pp. 420-7. Tanaka, H., Asano, T., Schroeder, E.D., & Tchobanoglous, G. 1998, 'Estimating the safety of wastewater reclamation and reuse using enteric virus monitoring data', Water Environment Research, 28, pp. 39-51 . USEPA. 2004, 'Estimated per capita water ingestion and body weight in the United States - An update. Based on data collected by the United States Department of Agriculture's 1994-1996 and 1998 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals'. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Washington , DC. 20460. EPA-822-R-00-001. October 2004. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/ criteria/drinking/percapita/2004.pdf. Accessed Sept 2009.

Editor's Note The issue of relative safety of potable use of roof-harvested rainwater has been debated for some years. A recent epidemiological study by the WORA (Kari n Leder) suggests that there was little benefit in filtering such water. The issue is perhaps clouded (pun not intended) by t he re-suspension of sediment by recent rainfall events, as thoroughly discussed by Magyar (2008) , in relation to risks from lead and other metals. During the recent water efficiency conference, a delegate from India, S Vishwanath, spoke to me. He is Secretary General, International Rai nwater Catchment Association, Bangalore, set up firstly to replace the arsenic-laden bores in Bang ladesh, but now operating throughout India. He quoted that microbial levels immediately after rain were high, but two days of settlement reduced t hem to 'safe' levels. None t he less, their website, www.ircsa.org recommends some form of disinfection. Ahmed 's word 'prudent' seems appropriate.


DECEMBER 2009 85

water quality technical note

ANALYSIS OF RECYCLED DRINKING WATER SAMPLES FROM REUSE09 S Singh, A Hambly, R K Henderson, S J Khan Abstract The use of fluorescence technology is an emergi ng tool for monitoring recycled water treatment performance and drinking water distribution system integrity. Fluorescence spectra, acquired as a contour map representing an 'excitation-emission matrix' (EEM) can be used to compare t he range and relative concentrations of fluorescing dissolved organic matter in any water sam ple. While further development is still required , it is antic ipated that this approach may offer a rapid , sensitive, simple and reliable solution to these important water quality assurance needs. Two types of bottled recycled water were supplied at a recent conference for taste-testing and drinking. One sample of each was brought back to t he University of New South Wales (UNSW) Water Research Centre laboratories for analysis. The results demonstrate that both recycled water types were more pure -in terms of fluorescing d issolved organic matter- than potable tap water collected at UNSW. One of the recycled water types was of comparable purity to laboratory-grade purified water. This experiment provides a demonstration of the simple visuallyinterpretable fl uorescence EEM analysis of a diverse range of water types.

Introduction The first decade of this century has been characterised by diminishing drinking water resou rces in many Australian cities. The emerging imbalance between t he supply and demand for clean water has been addressed, in part, by efforts to capture and reuse waters that were until recently considered a nuisance in need of rapid disposal. This change in water management has required the implementation of additional natural or engineered treat ment processes for the production of high quality drinking water from w hat was previously municipal wastewater or stormwater. Current research being undertaken at UNSW has focused on the development of a f luorescence technique for assessing and monitoring recycled water quality.

86 DECEMBER 2009 water

l'n frared

sensitive measurement of residual trace constituents.

Why Fluorescence? Red

610 590 570

Orange Yellow Green

500 Blue

450 Violet



Longwave UV Midrange UV

300 Shortwave UV

2001-------Extr-e me UV

Figure 1. Spectral wavelength range in nanometers (nm). The project involves the development of a fluorescence-based protocol for online monitoring of advanced water treat ment membrane performance (Singh et al. 2009) as wel l as for t he detection of cross-connections between potable and recycled water in dual reticu lation systems (Hambly et al. 2009). Attendance at REUSE09 by four members of t he project team presented an ideal opportunity to compare the characteristics of the two bottled water samples using fluorescence spectroscopy and to compare these to laboratory-grade water and a sample of our local tap water. This experiment was not intended as a co mprehensive analysis or validation of the emergi ng fluorescence technique, but merely to provide an illustration of how drinking water samples from diverse sources may be quickly characterised by an extremely

EEM may offer a simple rapid sensitive tool.

A large proportion of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in all env ironmental water samples has fluorescent properties. However most of this fluorescence is emitted in the UV range and is thus invisible to the naked eye. This includes wavelengths of arou nd 200- 380 nm as depicted in Figure 1. Most modern fluorescence spectrophotometers can generate a contour map of 'optical space', called an excitation emission matrix (EEM), where excitation and emission wavelengths (),ex and A eml are the co-ordi nates. An EEM enables a si mple, visual comparison between fluorescence sample types wh ile containing a wealth of information. The flu orescent material in water is largely dissolved organic matter (DOM), most of which has characteristic fluorescence signatures, typically categorised as 'humic-like' and 'protein-like'. Humic- like fl uorescence originates from plant matter and arrives in water sources via terrest rial run-off or from decomposing vegetation. Protein-like fluorescence tends to be derived from anthropogenic sou rces and animal matter. Humic-li ke fluorescence peaks are observed at excitation-emission wavelength reg ion pairs Aexfem = 237260/400-500 nm (known as 'Peak A') and Aexfem =300-370/400-500 nm (known as 'Peak C'). Protein-like peaks are further categorised as tyrosine-like and detected at A exfem = 225-237/309-321 nm (' Peak B') and tryptophan-li ke, observed at A exfem = 275/340 nm (' Peak T 1 ') and A.ex/em = 225-237/340-381 nm ('Peak T2 ') (Coble 1996; Hudson et al. 2007). The term 'like' is used since t he DOM fluorescent components share similar optical space to humic acid and amino acid standards, but are not necessarily assumed to be t hese precise chemical species. Previous research has indicated that the presence as well as the relative intensity of these peaks can be used as indicators of water quality, signifying the purity of water (Baker and lnverarity 2004; Baker et al. 2003).

technical features

technical note water quality A recent literature review revealed the very high potential for the use of fluorescence as a monitoring tool for recycled water quality (Henderson et al. 2009). The find ings of this review highlighted the need for a better understanding of the stability and distinctiveness of recycled water fl uorescence in relation to the treatment processes used. It also revealed that further work is required to properly understand the impact of matrix effects, in particular oxidation; as well as the need to resolve some calibration issues for effective online monitoring.

Samples Figure 3. Varian Cary Eclipse Fluorescence spectrophotometer.

Two different bottled drinking water samples from recycled water sources were collected as free samples to delegates at REUSE09 in Brisbane (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Bottled drinking water from recycled sources supplied at REUSE09.

a) The Recharge drinking water was sourced from reed bed -filtered, urban stormwater from the City of Salisbury, South Australia (CSIRO, 2009). Purificat ion steps included in the preparation of this water included:

main drinking water reservoir, Lake Wivenhoe. The blended water wi ll be treated at the Mt Crosby drinking water treatment plant prior to distribution to customers.

• natural filtration through a limestone aquifer

c) UNSW Tap water is supplied as part of the reticulated drinking water supplied to Sydney by Sydney Water Corporation. This water is sourced from surface water and treated by direct filtration to a standard that complies with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. Organic matter, sediment and minerals such as iron and manganese are removed, the water is disinfected with chlorine and fluoride is added to prevent tooth decay. The tap water was run freely for five minutes before sampling.

• activated carbon filtration • microfiltration • ultraviolet (UV) and ozone disinfection b) The Purified Recycled Water was packaged and supplied by Queensland Water Commission. Water sourced from municipal wastewater treatment plants was treated to produce high quality drinking water (The Queensland Water Commission, 2009). Purification steps included in the preparation of this water included: • current wastewat er treatment standards

d) Laboratory-grade purified water was generated using the Milli-O® Integral 3 water purification system (Millipore). Purification steps included:

• microfiltration

• reverse osmosis

• reverse osmosis

• ion exchange

• advanced oxidation

• final organic removal/polishing by activated carbon

It is intended that water from this source will eventually be used to augment natural inflows to Brisbane's

• membrane filtration (0.22 µm) for removal of entrained particulates.

Table 1. Methods used in EEM acquisition.

Scan rate (nm

min· 1)

Excitation range (nm) Emission range (nm) Ex/Em Slit widths (nm) PMT Voltage M Signal averages

Method A - low sensitivity

Method B - high sensitivity

9600 200-400; 5 nm increments 280-500

9600 200-400; 2 nm increments


10/10 900




Method Fluorescence EEM spectra were measured with a Varian Cary Eclipse Fluorescence Spectrophotomet er (Figure 3). Two different methods were used to analyse t he samples. Method A is of a lower sensitivity than method B. Method A was developed and previously used for monitoring river water samples in the UK (Baker 2001; 2002). Method B was developed at UNSW by the modification of Method A, specifically for the purpose of monitoring very high-purity waters. The key modifications included increasing the slit width settings of the excitation and emission monochromat ors to allow more light to access the photom ultiplier tube (PMT) detector and increasing the PMT detector voltage to amplify the current. Increased signal averaging was then applied to improve the signal-to-noise ratio . The key instrument parameters for Method A and Method B are summarised in Table 1.

Results and Discussion Data from the water samples were initially acquired using the low sensitivity method (Method A). However, the fluorescence intensities recorded were too low to make adequate comparisons of the nature of fluorescent DOMs (Figure 4). A tertiary treated wastewater EEM (acquired using the same method) has been included to illustrate typical fluorescent peaks observed in treated wastewater (Figure 4a). The Raman and Rayleig h-Tyndall scatter lines indicated on the EEM are inherent in all water samples and should be disregarded. A second fluorescence analysis was conducted using the higher sensitivity method {Method B). No wastewater sample EEM is provided as the

water DECEMBER 2009


water quality technical note

400 376


.s.C .., 0






737 .4








437,4 276

362.4 287.4


212.3 137.3


62.3 200











Emission (nm)




l~:...~j.:j 1:1-:



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Figure 4. Fluorescence EEMs acquired using Method A: (a) tertiary treated waste water (b) Purified Recycled Water (c) laboratory-grade purified water (d) Recharge treated stormwater (e) UNSW tap water.


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88 DECEMBER 2009 water


fluorescence peaks are too concentrated to be analysed with this method. The Recharge treated stormwater showed the presence of humic-like fluorescence peaks, Peak A and Peak C (Figure 5a). Similar peaks were observed for UNSW tap water sam ples but at much higher concentrations (Figure 5b). The ratio of Peaks C/A was 0.3 for both water samples, suggest ing t hat these contained comparable compositions of humic-like components. No fluorescence peaks were observed in the EEMs acquired for the Purified Recycled Water sample (Fi gure 5c), indicating the thorough removal of humic and fu lvic substances (as well as microbially-derived substances) during t he advanced t reatment processes. The quality, in terms of fluorescent DOM, was similar to that of laboratory grade purified water (Figure 5d). These results illustrate the potential application of fluorescence as a monitoring tool for recycled water quality. Furthermore, they demonstrate the simple, visual interpretation of the EEMs that can be achieved without significant expertise or training. While no conclusions can currently be drawn regarding the safety of any water samples by this technique, the quantitative interpretation of specific regions of the EEMs has the potential for applicat ion in treatment performance or compliance monitoring. The tech nique is simple, non -destructive and rapid. Entire EEMs can be acquired within 1-5 minutes, and there are minimal or no sample preparation requi rements. These advantages in add ition to the sensitivity, denot e the potential of fluorescence as an online performance monitoring tool for the t reatment of drinking water recycled from a diverse range of sources.

Conclusion Fluorescence EEM spectroscopy has been shown to be a highly sensitive technique for the comparison of drinking water from recycled and non-recycled sources. Humic-li ke fluorescence was the prime component for distinguishing the different water samples. There is potential for numerous applications in water quality monitoring, including online monitoring of advanced water t reatment processes and detection of crossconnections between potable and recycled water in dual reticu lation systems.

technical features

technical note water quality

::: I

The Authors


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371.2 297.2

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Sachin Singh and Adam Hambly are PhD cand idates in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at The University of New South Wales (UNSW). They are investigating the use of fluorescence as a sensitive technique for monitoring the integ rity of recycled water treatment and distribution. Dr Rita Henderson is a Research Associate and Dr Stuart Khan is a Sen ior Research Fellow and leader of the 'trace o rganic c hemicals' research st ream at the UNSW Water Research Centre (WRC). Email: s. k han@unsw.edu.au.

400 -



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Baker, A. (2002). "Fluorescence excitationemission matrix characterization of river waters impacted by a tissue mill effluent." Environmental Science and Technology, 36(7), 1377-1382.

Coble, P. G. (1996). "Characterization of marine and terrestrial DOM in seawater using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy." Marine Chemistry, 51 (4), 325-346. CSIRO (2009) http://www.csiro.au/science/ recharge.html Hambly, A. , Henderson, R. K. , Baker, A. , Stuetz, R. M., and Khan, S. J . (2009). "Probabilistic Analysis of Fluorescence Signals for Monitoring Dual Reticulation Water Recycling Schemes." In: 7th IWA World Congress on Water Reclamation and Reuse, 20-25 September 2009, Australian Water Association , Brisbane, Australia. Henderson, R. K., Baker, A., Murphy, K. R., Hambly, A. , Stuetz, R. M., and Khan, S. J. (2009). "Fluorescence as a potential monitoring tool for recycled water

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Baker, A., and lnverarity, R. (2004). " Proteinlike fl uorescence intensity as a possible tool for determining river water quality. " Hydrological Processes, 18(15), 29272945. Baker, A., lnverarity, R. , Charlton , M., and Richmond , S. (2003). " Detecting river pollution using fluorescence spectrophotometry: Case studies from the Ouseburn , NE England. " Environmental Pollution, 124(1), 57-70.




References Baker, A. (2001). "Fluorescence excitation Emission matrix characterization of some sewage-impacted rivers." Environmental Science and Technology , 35(5), 948-953.







-~ 300 0



:~~ 813.3 738.6

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Figure 5. Fluorescence EEMs acquired using Method B: (a) Recharge treated stormwater (b) UNSW tap water (c) Purified Recycled Water (d) laboratory-grade purified water.

systems: A review. " Water Research, 43(4), 863-881. Hudson, N., Baker, A. , and Reynolds, D. (2007). " Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic matter in natural, waste and polluted waters - A review." River Research and Applications, 23(6), 631649. Queensland Water Commission (2009) http:/ /www.qwc.qld,gov.au/

Singh, S., Henderson, R. K. , Ward , D. , Baker, A., Stuetz, R. M., and Khan, S. J. (2009). "Towards the development of a fluorescence-based membrane integrity monitoring protocol. " In: 7th /WA World Congress on Water Reclamation and Reuse, 20-25 September 2009, Australian Water Association, Brisbane, Australia.


DECEMBER 2009 89

NEW VERSION OF SOFTWARE RELEASED MWH Soft has released version 10.5 of lnfoWorks, lnfoNet, and FloodWorks. "Our industry-leading workgroup and asset management tech nology continues to improve with each new version, and this major release is no exception," said Andrew Brown, EMEA Regional Manager for MWH Soft. "We have incorporated significant advancements as a result of feedback from customers worldwide. MWH Soft's core commitment is to provide the world's engineering community with flexible and comprehensive solutions that enable improved work processes for tangible business benefit and competitive advantage."

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Water Business aims to keep readers alert to business news and new product releases within the water sector. Media releases should be emailed to Brian Rault at brian.rault@halledit.com.au or Tel (03) 8534 5014.

AWA wishes to advise readers that Water Business information is supplied by third part ies and as such, AWA is not responsible for the accuracy, or otherwise, of the information submitted. lnfoWorks RS combines a 1D & 2D simulation engine, data management, geographical analysis and a relational database in a single environment. The result is a single tool that can import, clean up and store survey and time series data; build detailed and accurate models; analyse model results; and present outputs in engineering reportquality formats. lnfoWorks RS includes fu ll-solution modelling of open channels, cu lverts, floodplains, embankments and hydraulic structures. It also simulates rainfall runoff using both event-based and conceptual hydrological methods. Version 10.5 adds the ability to trigger a 2D point source from a remote location, as well as greatly enhanced simulation results in the 3D Terrain View. lnfoWorks WS is a modelling and management package for water distribution systems. Drawing on information from high quality all-pipe lnfoWorks WS models enable offline management decisions to be made with confidence. By providing an accurate view of water distribution system performance, including water quality, supply and demand, infrastructure problems and investigation of remedial measures, lnfoWorks WS helps engineers deliver a sustainable supply of high quality wat er to users at an acceptable pressure and flow rate with minimal leakage loss. New features in v10.5 include: leakage location simulation, time

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The EPCO MBA has three basic platforms ""'.ith capacity for municipal wastewater of 40, 70 and 100m3/ day respectively. With a smaller footprint than similar capacity systems, the design is easily expandable and allows for staged installation of the membrane package as production demand increases. The EPCO MBA module is completely dry mount (not submerged), a t rue UF membrane, and features optional cleaning in place for improved serviceability. All of these features

water DECEMBER 2009 9 1

new products & services Spectroquant® Pharo 100 (VIS) and 300 (UVNIS) spectrophotometers. You can use the validated pre-programmed Spectroquant® test kits; program your own methods, measure concentration, absorbance or percentage transmission. Recording and manipulating spectra and kinetics profiles or performing complex multi-wavelength measurements is also possible. Whether you're working in research or consultant laborat ories, t he drinking water or wastewater industry, performing analyses of foods, monitoring disinfection procedures or analysing trade waste Merck can supply you with high quality, validated test kits. From aluminium to zinc, t he company offers over 150 tests for different measuring ranges and citation forms for routine and keyless operation with the Spectroquant® Pharo range. With ready-to-use preconditioned cell tests and inexpensive reagent tests w ith limits of detection all the way down to ppb range, the applications are limitless! Merck has incorporated comprehensive instrument-supported Analytical Quality Assurance (AQA) features into the Pharo spectrophotometers. The company supplies certified standards for checking instruments and methods. Pharo instruments support your evaluation of results: the unit automatically signals whether the measured val ue lies within the specified tolerances. Pharo spectrophotometers lend support in performing GLP compliant operations. Working with validated analytical methods combined with instrument-assisted Analytical Quality Assurance (AQA) functions, the users measured results are converted into verifiable analytical results. A user management tool is also incorporated in t he units.

For pricing and further information including full specifications for the UV/Visible or Visible Pharo spectrophotometers contact Merck on 1800 335 571 or visit website at www.merckchemicals.com.au. Email: merck@merck.com.au

• water management planning and sustainable yields • water trading , entitlement management & portfolio valuations • infrastructure planning and program management • technology upgrades and data analytics • capital investment • risk and security management • irrigation system management and efficiency • metering and performance • verifications and entitlement accounting • data analytics Deloitte in Aust ralia is a member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, one of the world's leading professional services organisations. Deloitte provides audit, tax, consulting, and financial advisory services to public and private clients spanning multiple indust ries. With a globally con nected network of member firms in more than 140 countries, Deloitte brings worldclass capabilities and deep local expertise to help cl ients succeed wherever they operate. Deloitte has more than 169,000 professionals worldwide who are committed to becoming the standard of excellence.

Contact Teresa Buisman Marketing Manager, Industry Marketing Programs, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, 07 3308 7159 tbuisman@deloitte.com.au www.deloitte.com.au

WORK STARTS ON EUROBODALLA PLANT Water Infrastructure Group has commenced construction of the $24 million Northern Water Treatment Plant for Eurobodalla Shire Council on the NSW south coast. Federal Parliamentary Secretary for Water, Dr Mike Kelly, officiated at a sod turning ceremony for the new treatment faci lity on 10 November 2009. The Australian Government contributed $5 million to the project, which is scheduled for completion in late 2010.

MULTl DISCIPLINARY TEAM Deloitte's Water Industry team comprises multidisciplinary expertise across the ful l complement of consulting, tax, audit and advisory services and is part of the firm's Energy & Resources Industry Group. Specific services for key water industry stakeholders - including government and policy makers, water distributors, retailers and wholesalers, as wel l as irrigators and regional suppliers - are as follows:

92 DECEMBER 2009 water

Left to right: Hugh McGinley, Water Infrastructure Group Manager Major Projects and Proposals; Dr Mike Kelly, Parliamentary Secretary for Water; Fergus Thomson, Eurobodalla Shire Mayor; and Mike Healy, Water Infrastructure Group Project Manager.

water business

new products & services The Eurobodalla Coast is a popular holiday destination with over 100 ki lometres of spectacular coastline from Bateman's Bay to Narooma. The Shire has a permanent population of 33,000 with typical water use of 11 million litres per day. Duri ng the peak tourist season, water use can rise to as much as 18 million litres per day. Hugh McGinley, Water Infrastructure Group's Major Projects and Proposals Manager, said that the new plant wi ll treat 20 million litres of water per day and can be upgraded to treat 30 million litres per day in the future. "Our early involvement in the project enabled us to work with Council and NSW Public Works to optimise the design of the treatment plant. Water Infrastructure Group owns and operates its own treatment plants and we focus on improving performance for the whole life of the plant and reducing operating costs. This is the best way to deliver value and sustainable infrastructure for the community," Hugh explained.

Th is project builds on Water Infrastructure Group's previous successful project delivery with NSW Public Works in the upgrade of the Nightcap treatment plant that supplies the Lismore area in northern NSW.

A$18,710,000. By 30 June 2009, turnover had tripled from the previous year to push us past A$50,000,000," said Mr Euler. "We are doubly pleased that Pipe and Civil won a major contract to complete the Northern Pipeline lnterconnector that, when completed , will supply up to 65 megalitres a day of treated water from the Sunshine Coast to Brisbane. This type of project links in with ATC's mandate for sustainable growth th roughout Brisbane and South East Queensland ," concluded Mr Fraser.

For more information visit www.australiatradecoast.com.au or www.pipeandcivil.com.au, or call at 07 3720 0773.

WORKS AT SUGARLOAF PIPELINE Pipe and Civil has expanded its business to include pump station works and has secured the pump station pipe works contract for the Sugarloaf Pipeline project. The Sugarloaf Pipeline project team is made up of an alliance, comprising Melbourne Water, John Holland, Sinclair Knight Merz and GHD. This alliance is responsible for planning and environmental assessments, engineering, design, comm unity and landowner relations, and project management associated with delivering the Sugarloaf Pipeline. The 70km pipeline wi ll transfer Melbourne's share of the water saved through the Northern Victoria Irrigation Renewal Project t o Sugarloaf Reservoir. Pipe and Civil's contract works include complete fit-out of two pump stations, Goulburn River Pump Station (GAPS) and 'Sheoak' High Lift Pump Station (HLPS) along with the installation of the outlet works at the

Contact: www.wigroup.com.au

PIPE AND CIVIL WINS BUSINESS AWARD Australia TradeCoast is the proud sponsor of the Lord Mayor's Business Award for Business Growth and congratulates company Pipe and Civil Construction for winning the hotly contested category. ATC General Manager Brett Fraser said that during difficult economic times, it was incredibly heartening to see such a strong selection of compan ies that had still experienced significant growth in the last twelve months. "Sustainable growth is what we are all about at ATC , so sponsoring this award was a natural fit for our business and we are delighted to see a company of Pipe and Civil 's cali bre take out the award," Mr Fraser said. "The five finalists covered a range of industries; from technology through to construction and consumer goods and the ultimate winner, Pipe and Civil, represented the strongest growth in that category," Mr Fraser said. Pipe and Civil Director, Brenton Euler, said that the three directors are extremely proud to accept this award and it brings some recognition to the hard work and dedication that so many have put into our company at Pipe and Civil. "To say that the com pany has been successful in its short history would be an understatement. Our employment numbers have increased from 3 to 220 in less than two years from 2007 to 2009. People are the key focus of the culture and success of Pipe and Civil. Employing excellent people and looking after them is a key part of our business strategy. In our first financial year of operation (2006/07), we turned over a modest A$260 ,000. However, by the end of 2007/ 08, our turnover had increased by more than 70 times to

water DECEMBER 2009 93

new products & services Sugarloaf Reservoir. "The average life expectancy of a pump station is about 40-50 years but these pump stations have been designed to have a life expectancy of double the average. Therefore, a much greater quality standard and care is required in terms of installation of fittings, weld preparations and welding" said Pipe and Civi l's Mechanical Superintendant, Lloyd Melville.

is running on schedule and is expected be completed ahead of schedule.

Goulburn River Pump Station.

"The conference is a fun and educational forum for water and wastewater professionals to share important up-to-date information and ideas related to infrastructure plan ning, management and the real- world use of modelling tools," said Paul Banfield, Conference Co-Chair.

'Sheoak' - High Lift Pump station.

Meeting the project t imeline was the biggest challenge due to the dynamic nature of t he project. During the construction phase, the design was reviewed frequently for the best options for future operations and maintenance works and finalised design included expert knowledge and feedback from Pipe and Civil's ground staff. Strict controls in accordance with state and federal environmental protection legislation were implemented and maintained by the Sugarloaf Pipeline Alliance throughout the duration of the works to protect the health of waterways and aquatic life. There were different disciplines of work such as civi l structure, electrical, pipeline and the mechanical carried out at the same time within a narrow construction corridor adding constraints to the timeline. The Pipe and Civil team, as a major contractor on the project, had to constantly plan, communicate and coordi nate with various other teams so as not to have a negative impact on each other's work. Pipe and Civil 's team has been working to complete the Goulburn River Pump Station works one month ahead of schedule and the High Lift Pump Station

94 DECEMBER 2009 water

The 2010 conference builds upon the 2009 conference, which was a great success. The 2009 conference was coorganised by MWH Soft and Gold Coast Water, and was sponsored by many water utilities and associations from around Asia Pacific, including Water Malaysia, Singapore International Water Week, Hobart Water, GWMWater, Watercare, Cairns Regional Council, Tweed Shire Counci l, Gladstone Regional Council, Metrowater, Riverina Water County Council, Sunshine Coast Water and South East Water.

With over 250 people from around the For more information visit www.pipeandcivil.com.au or call at 07 3720 0773.

DATES FOR MODELLING CONFERENCE The third annual Asia Pacific Water and Sewer Syst ems Modelling Conference will be held on 21-22 April 2010 in Surfers Parad ise on Queensland's Gold Coast. The event, to be held at 01, the world's tallest residential tower, is widely regarded as the most comprehensive and significant hydraulic modelling, design and management technology conference of its kind. The conference wi ll feature keynote presentations from leaders in hydraulic modelling representing USA, Malaysia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, as well as presentations detailing cuttingedge projects undertaken by local water and wastewater utilities. It will also offer another prime opportunity for engineering professionals, technologists and managers to network, learn and be inspired by their peers from around the globe.

Asia Pacific region expected to attend the

2010 conference, early bookings are essential to guarantee a place. For more information, and to register, visit www.asiapacificwater.com

THE COST OF POOR ALARM MANAGEMENT What is alarm management? Most plant personnel equate alarm management with reducing alarms; however, this is only one piece of the puzzle. The whole puzzle involves provid ing operators with enough information to prevent abnormal situations and to prevent t he escalation of those abnormal situations that cannot be prevented. This article aims to provide a brief insight into the thought processes behind identifying alarm system issues and t he real world benefits that can be ach ieved by working with a professional organisation to perform an alarm rationalisation project. Poor alarm management results in bil lions of dollars lost every year to accidents, equipment damage, unplanned outages, bad production, regulatory fines and huge intangible costs related to environmental and safety infractions. At the end of the day it is

water business

clear that alarm management can bring significant hard benefits to your organisation. Good alarm management practices are becoming recognised as the cornerstone of regulatory compliance, improved productivity and enterprise-wide business improvements that repay investment in such initiatives. It has been shown that improved alarm management provides further business benefits: • Studies show that facilities experience 3 - 8% in production losses due t o abnormal situations throughout a year. This only represents smaller cum ulative losses and not the larger, well-publicised catastrophes. • Alarms identify problems that cost money. If you have nuisance alarms, you need more operators or run the risk of encountering significant upsets. If they are legitimate alarms, it is an indicator that the operation is not healthy and costing money. Fundamentally, alarms are indicat ors of lost revenue or profit. The Alarm Management Problem A couple decades ago, hard-wired alarms were the main mechanism for alerting control room operating staff to potential problems. Given the cost of run ning wire, the addition of alarms was done very sparingly, so operators were rarely flooded with alarms during abnormal situations. The advent of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) provided significant benefits in improving control, as wel l as alerting operators to potentially costly or dangerous situations. As a result most facilities alarmed virtually every reading, creating a much more costly issue of alarm floods. Some operators simply gave up and started ignoring the alarm syst ems. How do you go about tackling the alarm management problem? Phase 1: Installation of enterprise alarm and event historian A history of alarm system performance is necessary to provide concrete evidence of your facility's performance. First it makes it possible to define concrete goals within you r alarm philosophy that are realistically achievable. More importantly, it is this information t hat wi ll guide your alarm management process, enabling you to focus on problem areas and achieve measurable improvements. Phase 2: Create an alarm philosophy Once you know how your facil ity is operating it is possible to document objective goals in your alarm phi losophy. Creating an alarm philosophy is an essential part of the process. The alarm philosophy is the guiding principles and targets by which you measure alarm performance. It is strongly recommended to consult the Engineering Equipment Materials Users Association (EEMUA) #191 publi cation available on the www.eemua.co.uk website. Phase 3: Top 20 Review The Top 20 review meeting is intended to identify problematic alarms and fix them. The Top 20 review is incorporated into a site's existing operational policies. This review is done regularly because the process, equipment, and outside environment are constantly changing. Periodic monitoring keeps alarm counts down and helps identify other problems, such as tuning, valve sizing,

Secure your profile in this targeted book on infrastructure. Securing Australia 's Future is the third in a series of books providing a clear, independent and targeted overview of the capabi lities of compan ies in the infrastructure sector. A corporate profile in Securing Australia 's Future will help you to achieve your strategic marketing , corporate affairs and investor relations objectives. By giving you direct access to key decision makers in government, business and media, your profile will function as a highly cost-effective marketing tool. For further details contact Richard Hanney, Senior Project Manager richard h@focus.com.au Phone: 02 8923 8020 Mobile: 0410684 707 ~ www.focus.com.au


new products & services transm itter issues, and many other performance-limiting or safety-related issues. Phase 4: Documentation and Operator Assist

In some cases a more comprehensive alarm rationalisation is required. The objective is to re-engineer the alarm priorities and trip limits consistently, and to provide the operators with online documentation of:

Alarm Resolution a Modify Trip V•lue or Remove

• the causes of a specific alarm, • how to verify it is in fact the problem suspected, • corrective actions, • and the consequences if the alarm is not handled properly Phase 5: Management of Change

This is the monitoring and verification of any authorised or unauthorised changes to the engineered alarm-related settings. This includes trip points, priority, controller mode, setpoint, alarm creation, deletion, disabling, and inhibiting on any tag.

•Improve the Instrument or Device

Redund•nt Al• rm

aModlfy Instrument R•ng• or CV R•ngo

c Retun• Controll«

almprove Co ntro l System Logic

Dlmprov1 Procen Unit

almprove Oper.ition Method

O Othtr

Providing operators with enough information to prevent abnormal situations and to diminish the impact of unpreventable abnormal situations is the key to an effective alarm management philosophy. The phased alarm management approach offers a proven, measurable and easily implemented methodology that wi ll guide a plant to a higher level of safety, environmental and production standards. Alarm

management is not just about reducing alarms; it is about responsible plant management, increased profitability plant efficiency. For further information or to arra nge an audit, please contact Automation IT on

07 3299 3844. References: Matrikon Inc. Edmonton , Canada, Email: geoffb@automationit.com, Web www.AutomationlT.com


Acacia Filtration Systems


James Cumming & Sons



KSB Australia


Allflow Supply Co




AWMA Water Control Solutio ns




Orica Watercare


AWMA Water Contro l Solutions




Bentley Systems, Inc

inside front cover

Pipe & Civil


Bentley Systems, Inc


Pipe Lining & Coating








PPI Corporation


Environmental & Process Technologies




Epco Australia






Rhino Water Tanks


Global HOBAS Pipe Australia


Rubicon Systems Australia


inside back cover


Tyco Water

7 outside back cover

Hanna Instruments


Wallingford Software



Wastewater Futures


ITS Trenchless


Water Infrastructure Group






96 DECEMBER 2009


water business


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