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Volume 36 No 4 JUNE 2009


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Journal of the Australian Water Association ISSN 0310-0367

Volume 36 No 4 June 2009

contents REGULAR FEATURES From the AWA President Sustained Commitment to Water P Robinson 4 From the AWA Chief Executive Looking a Gift Horse in the Mouth T Mollenkopf 5 My Point of View T Hatton 6 8 Crosscurrent R Knee 12 Aquaphemera 16 Industry News 20 AWA News Events Calendar 30 Water Education 32

Lid goes on Gold Coast's largest pump station · see page 18

FEATURE REPORTS South Asia Groundwater Colloquium, Academy of Sciences Malaysia 34 Reported by John Radcliffe and Peter Dillon, CSIRO Urrbrae, SA Water and Life in a Changing World - Facing the Challenges of Climate Change, Ozwater '09 YWP Program Review 38 Article prepared by: Grace Tjandraatmadja, Heather Sheffield and Erin Cini


Rainwater Tanks: The Human Factor

MCollins-Roe and KJurd

AWA CONTACT DETAILS Australian Water Association ABN 78 096 035 773 Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, PO Box 222, St Leonards NSW 1590 Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 Fax: +61 2 9436 0155 Email: Web: DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assumes no responsibility for opinion or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers. COPYRIGHT AWA Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without written permission of the AWA. To seek perm ission to reproduce Water Journal materials, send your request to WATER JOURNAL MISSION STATEMENT 'To provide a journal that interests and informs on water matters, Australian and international, covering technological, environmental, economic and social aspects, and to provide a repository of useful refereed papers.' PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, March, May, June, August, September, November and December. EDITORIAL BOARD Chair: Frank R Bishop; Dr Bruce Anderson, ENSR Australia; Dr Terry Anderson, Consultant SEWL; Greg Finlayson, GHD; Robert Ford, Central Highlands Water (rtd); Anthony Gibson, Ecowise; Dr Brian Labza, Vic Health; John Poon, CH2M Hill; David Power, BEGA Consultants; Professor Felicity Roddick, AMIT University; Dr Ashok Sharma, CSIRO; Robbert van Oorschot, GHD; and Bob Swinton, Technical Editor.


EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Water Journal welcomes editorial submissions for technical and topical articles, news, opinion pieces, business

Water and Life in a Changing World · see page 38

information and letters to the editor. Acceptance of editorial submissions is at the discretion of the editor and editorial board. • Technical Papers and Features Bob Swinton, Technical Editor, Water Journal- AND Papers 3,000·4,000 words and graphics; or topical articles of up to 2,000 words relating to all areas of the water cycle and water business. Submissions are tabled at monthly editorial board meetings and where appropriate are assigned referees. Referee comments will be forwarded to the principal author for further action. Authors should be mindful that Water Journal is published in a 3 column 'magazine' format rather than the full-page format of Word documents. Graphics should be set up so that they will still be clearly legible when reduced to two-column size (about 12cm wide). Tables and figures need to be numbered with the appropriate reference in the text e.g. see Figure 1, not just placed in the text with a (see below) reference as they may end up anywhere on the page when typeset. • Industry News, Opinion pieces and Media Releases Edie Nyers, Editor, Water Journal - • Water Business and Product News Brian Rault, National Sales and Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions -

ADVERTISING Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water sector and objectives of the AWA. Brian Rault, National Sales and Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions - Tel: +61 3 8534 5014 AWA BOOKSHOP Copies of Water Journal, including back issues, are available from the AWA Bookshop for $12.50 plus postage and handling. Email: PUBLISHER Hallmark Editions, PO Box 84, Hampton, Vic 3188 Tel: 61 3 8534 5000 Fax: 61 3 9530 8911 Email:

OUR COVER WA Water Minister Graham Jacobs launches WA's first online website of water learning resources. See page 33 for more.


JUNE 2009 1


Journal of the Australian Water Association ISSN 0310-0367

Vibratory Plough Installation of Polyethylene Pipes - see page 52

Volume 36 No 4 June 2009


Lime Addition, Post RO: New Advances - see page 95


[ii Operating Pumps to Maximise Efficiency Energy savings more valuable than load management

S Bunn


M Potts, J Povey


S Hamilton, D Hartley


[I] Vibratory Plough Installation of Polyethylene Pipes to Design Grade Utilising GPS technology

Misconceptions in Acoustic Leakage Detection A correlation requires both accelerometers to hear the leak



[ii Beneficial Use of Coal Seam Gas Water S Oldridge, L Whatman


M Carsen, T Anderson, C Madden, M Pailthorpe


Trade wastes have a higher propensity for molecular fouling

P Borse, M Boake, H Bustamante, DVitanage, C Nicholson


Metal-Polluted Water - Recycling and Reuse The recovered water may be of more value than the metals

Z Slavnic




N B Sammon, K M Harrower, L D Fabbro, R H Reed


S Walkom


R O'Halloran, M Toifl


A unique opportunity for triggering economic development

[ii Measurement of Colour in Trade Wastes and Effluents To guide source control activities

[i] RO Membrane Fouling by Domestic and Industrial Wastewaters


Lime Addition, Post RO: New Advances Make life simpler downstream in the pipelines and storage tanks WATER SUPPLY

[i] Green Tree Frogs: Contamination of Covered Reservoirs in Northern Australia Both Escherichia coli and microfungal spp are excreted RECYCLING

The NSW Water Industry Competition Act Perspectives from Sydney Water


Detecting Cross Connections In Dual Reticulation Systems

Electrical conductivity can easily detect 10% contaminations WATER BUSINESS

New Products and Business Information. Features: Pressure Sewer Systems; Rainwater Tanks Advertisers' Index 2 JUNE 2009


110 128

water education New Water Education Online Tools The Department of Water has launched WA's first online catalogue of water learning resources. Western Austral ia's first online website of water learning resources will enrich water education for students from kindergarten to Year 12, according to WA Water Minister Graham Jacobs. Designed for teachers and students, the new Water Educat ion Tools website covers a wide range of contemporary topics from water recycling and groundwater management to climate change. Launching the project at Applecross Senior High School, Dr Jacobs said that the resource was an important step forward in stimulating interest and improving knowledge about the important role wat er played in the environment. "Th is is an exciting project that breaks down the barriers to accessing information, and will help our students gain a greater understanding of the critical issues surrounding the future of water in Australia," Dr Jacobs said. " Engaging young people to help them learn more about water and providi ng teacher resources that link water issues to the curriculum will elevate the quality of water education in the state. " The interactive multimedia portal built by the Department of Water, brings together resources from a range of water stakeholders in a single portal accessible through the department's website. The tool has different pathways to help

Applecross Year 12 Student Jessica Warriner checks out the new Water Education Tools website.

t eachers and students find the resources they need quickly and easily. Students can search by year, group and topic while teaching resources are catalogued and linked directly to the curriculum. The catalogue includes downloads, posters, activities and video with water-related information for society and environment, science and geography subjects. Initially the majority of resources wi ll be more suitable for high school students, but the number and spread of resources will continue to grow th roughout t he year. Water Education Tools was developed by the Department of Water with guidance from the Curriculum Council and the Department of Education and Training. See it in action at

National Undergraduate Water Prize National Source Management Conference 8-10 September 2009, Melbourne UNSW graduate engineer Alexandra Bennett, now working as a graduate engineer at Hyder Consulting, won the 2009 Australian Water Association National Undergraduate Water Prize for her thesis project, Fill in the Dams?

The annual national Undergraduate Water Pri ze recognises outstanding undergraduate students who have based their final year project on a water-related topic. The AWA is keen to encourage and reward students for excellenc e in the field of water studies and research by providing a forum for students to display their academic excellence and research fi ndings t o future employers and clients. Nominations to the national award must be directed through the Branch competitions. Students are invited t o contact their loc al AWA Branch for more information and closing dates for state awards. Winners from each Stat e/Territory will present their papers as part of the Ozwater' 10 Conferenc e program in Brisbane next March to co mpete for the national Prize.


The Evolution of Trade

-AWA ¡-


The inaugural AWA National Source Management Conference expects to attract over 100 delegates and over 20 exhibitors and will be held over tvvo and a half days. The program will contain informative and thought-provoking sessions as well as a technical tour for those that enjoy watching technology at work. The overall conference theme is "The Evolution of Trade Waste" and will focus on the changing face of trade waste as a transition to wastewater source management and its relevance in the integrated water management cycle.

Call for papers closes 19 June 2009 Sponsorship and exhibition opportunities are available Enquiries - Ph: (02) 9436 0055, email:

Om< the C01fe-erce IM3bsite for further details

Entries to the national competition close on the 30 November 2009. More information about the national Undergraduate Water Prize is available on our website at www s/uwp


JUNE 2009 33

feature article

South Asia Groundwater Colloquium Academy of Sciences Malaysia Reported by John Radcliffe and Peter Dillon, CSIRO Urrbrae, SA In March 2009, the Malaysian Government sponsored an International Co lloquium on Groundwater held under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences, Malaysia and the Department of Minerals and Geoscience Malaysia (JMG). The Malaysian Constitution assigns water to the Malaysian States, but the Malaysian Federal government is increasingly involved in water issues - a position similar to that in Australia. The Colloquium was held in Malaysia's new c apital, Putrajaya, and attended by 160 delegates. It was opened by Yang Berhormat Datuk Douglas Uggah Embas, an economist, who is Malaysian Minister for Natural Resources and Environment. He noted that with a Malayan Peninsula annual rainfall of above 2500mm, and rising to 4400mm in Sarawak and Sabah (East Malaysia), groundwater contributes only about 3% of total Malaysia consumptive use of water. Local people considered water was not a problem. However, the 1998 drought in Kuala Lumpur required terminating water across the city on alternate days, acting as a "wake-up" call. The Minister sought better resource data, monitoring programs, pollution management, control over abstraction, groundwater quality st andards and their enforcement. The risk of subsidence was noted. An holistic approach to groundwater and surface water was stressed. Dr Tushaar Shah from the International Water Management Institute discussed Global Assessment of Groundwater, the likely impact of global warming and consequences of climate change. He highlighted the challenges of over-use in other reg ions of South Asia, noting the compromising impact of subsidies for irrigation, and the need to have strategies in place in Malaysia to avoid economic, social and environmental costs of over-exploitation.

Malaysia Dato Yunus Abdul Razak (Director-General of the Department of Minerals and Geoscience Malaysia) and En Mohammed Hatta Abdul Karim (Deputy Director-General) discussed Groundwater in the Malaysian Context. It is used on ly in rural and remote areas except in the state of Kelantan. About 3000 production wells have been drilled. Sources were shallow alluvium (including peat), deep sands, and fractured rocks. However, there was no complete assessment of resources, lack of management, failure to recognise potential, and some use was non-sustainable. Groundwater for Domestic Needs in Kelantan was discussed, by Wan Mohammad Zamri W. Ismail of the Kelantan Water Authority. Originally the water was used industrially for glove making. Seventy-two "third generation" wells constructed with gravel packing are now available, capable of 184MUday. A SCADA monitoring system is in place. Development of "fourth generation" wells is proceeding in a pilot plant at the Pintu Geng Water Treatment Plant. These have eight horizontal collector wells of 6" diameter and 30 m length onto a main 4 metre diameter caisson. Ozonation has been found satisfactory for the oxidation of Fe and Mn. Up to 20MUday can be treated in ten chambers. Ms Mazatul Akmar Aros from JMG discussed Groundwater Development in Selangor and the impact of the Environment.

34 JUNE 2009 water








Mlnlsrer of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia


Palm Garden Hottt.. KM Re,ort, Putr1J1y1


25 • 2S Htrch 2009


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Opening ceremony - L-R P Loganathan (Academy of Sciences Malaysia), the Minister and Yunus Abd Razak (JMG).

There are 300 wells in Selangor. Yields were 3-15KUhour. However, Megasteel Sdn. Bhd., wh ich operates Malaysia's only integrated flat steel mill at Kuala Langat, produced 100500KUhr from an aquifer at 30-60 metres. Water was high in Fe, Mn, As and nitrates and there was some evidence of contaminants from fish farm ing. Land subsidence over 8 years was 30cm. Any conservation aspects were discussed in physical rather than biological terms. Associate Professor Dr Norhan b. Abdul Rahman described Research and Development at the Technology University of Malaysia, listing projects on regional groundwater modelling and assessment; groundwater contamination; groundwater management; and numerical simulation of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. Mr Zahir Yahya of JMG Malaysia and Dr Saim Suratman Director of the Research Centre for Geohydrology, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM) outlined Hard Rock Aquifers in Peninsula Malaysia . An outline of Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian and Lower Carboniferous geology was given , leading to the formation of the hard rock aquifers in Peninsula Malaysia. Granit e aquifers at 10-22m and 40-50m in fresh rock with recharge were recognised. Wells in sediments could yield up to 90KUhour. Aqu ifers in fractured volcanic rock had low yields of only 6KUhour. Data have been limited to wells of less than 100m depth, though a few private drillers have exceeded this depth. Groundwater has had low priority, but that in hard rock aquifers could be developed using innovative well design to produce much larger supplies for domestic and other purposes Ms Bidasari Bahashim (Selangor Water Management Board) discussed Groundwater in Selangor including the Selangor Water Management Authority Enactment 1999, the first state water management legislation. A groundwater abstraction charge has been levied since 2005. Groundwater licences are only for one year but renewable. Groundwater investigations and development in alluvial aquifers in the State of Sarawak was discussed by Yusuf Bujang, (JMG Sarawak). Groundwater from shallow aquifers is used for domestic supply systems. It can be high in Fe and Mn and can be given primary and secondary treatment including activat ed carbon filtration and ultra-filtration.

feature articles

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feature article Azuhan Mohomed from Sime Darby Energy and Utilities Sdn Bhd, presented a Private Sector View of Groundwater Development. He observed that the private sector faces many difficulties including a myth of limited groundwater resources, poor information about the potential for groundwater, limited drilling capacity and capability, land access issues and opposition to large groundwater abstractions.

Concluding Panel Discussion. (As a result of the Prime Minister's interest in promoting Malaysian Batik, public servants are encouraged to wear batik shirts on Thursdays.)

Groundwater for Agricultural Development was discussed by Ms Noon Hazilah Baharin from the Agriculture Drainage and Irrigation Division of the Ministry of Agriculture . She outlined the requirements for various production systems and considered that the development of groundwater as a source of water supply was timely.

Thailand Groundwater Assessment Investigation, Assessment and Development in Thailand was presented by Somkid Buapeng, Director-General of the Department of Groundwater Resources, Thailand , revealing that groundwater science had advanced further than in Malaysia. The Department conducts geological and hydraulic investigations and drilling exploration. National and regional hydrogeological maps at 1:500,000 have been supplemented recently by maps at 1:100,000. Assessments included quantity, quality and .sustainable (safe) yield in six groundwater regions and 27 groundwater basins. There were 300,000 wells used for domestic water in rural areas and a total of 870,000 private wells. Groundwater is treated to WHO standards and 430 schools are supplied. Pilot telemetry syst ems are being developed. A mobile "Water Quality Clinic" is used to test village water supplies. There is an extensive publicly-accessible data base. Drillers are separately licensed for domestic, commercial, agricultural and wastewater discharge wells. Groundwater demand management including through water pricing is practiced actively in Bangkok with recent conspicuous success in reducing subsidence.

Australia Dr John Radcliffe (CSIRO Australia) discussed Effective Groundwater Governance - issues and Options, describing the establishment of an Intergovernmental Agreement on the National Water Initiative, the subsequent Intergovernmental Agreement on Murray Darling Basin Reform and the impact of these towards improved groundwater management by the States/Territories. Dr Peter Dillon (CSIRO Australia) outlined examples of Managed Aquifer Recharge and the development of Australia's National Water Quality Management Strategy guidelines for Managed Aquifer Recharge, noting positive and negative impacts on groundwater dependent ecosyst ems.

36 JUNE 2009 water

China Dr Zhonghe Pang of the Chinese Academy of Science described Groundwater Issues in China - a Scientific Perspective. Up to 180,000 square km of groundwater management areas are over-exploited. In some areas of Northern China, groundwater levels dropped 100m between 1982 and 1990. In Bejing, which secures 75% of its drinking water from groundwater, there has been a drop of 25m in 25 years. In the provinces of Hebei and Tianjin, 15 square km of land has subsided more than 2 metres due to groundwater extraction. There have been saline intrusions from the Bohai Sea into Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong and Tianjin provinces. Industrially polluted surface water recharging groundwater resources is also a problem. Populus euphratica forests which are natural belts protecting arable lands against wind hazards, can live for 1000 years but have been deteriorating badly in recent years as they need a water table within 5 metres.

The Colloquium concluded with a forward-looking panel session of six speakers dealing with the role for remote sensing technology in groundwater investigation, R&D in groundwater, groundwater quality, groundwater development and information management and groundwater governance for Malaysia.

Conclusions Although Malaysia has had a National Wate r Services Commission for several years, there remains an overlapping jigsaw of laws and responsibilities for the governance and management of water resources, aquifers and wells, and for the abstraction, treatment, transfer and supply of groundwater. It was agreed that Federal and State groundwater-related legislation needs review . The adequacy of Selangor's annual licence tenure for encouraging new investments could be questioned. There are few Malaysian private sector consultants or construction companies and little community engagement with groundwater issues. The need for sound information gathering and continuing monitoring is recognised. Groundwater quality monitoring and resources assessment remain at a preliminary stage. The opportunity to develop sound governance and sustainable management systems before proceeding with further development is recognised as the key to avoiding difficult problems later. The opportunity to learn from the mistakes of others is being grasped.

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feature article

Water and Life in a Changing World Facing the Challenges of Climate Change Ozwater '09 YWP Program Review The YWP Program at Ozwater '09 kicked of on Sunday, 15 March with a great deal of enthusiasm toward making a difference to the impacts of climate change through the power of young water professionals in the water industry. On the Sunday, the YWP Program was opened by Peter Robinson, AWA President, who welcomed YWPs and Alex Paton, SKM , who set the cont ext and spoke about the major challenges derived from climate change. Guest speaker Anna Rose, co-d irector (and a founder) of the Australian Youth Climate Coalition, opened the workshop with a passionate recount of her experiences and lessons learnt in her short but dynamic career. Anna inspired the YWPs to take action withi n the water industry to tackle climate change. Participants were encouraged to thi nk innovatively, explore all the issues around the questions raised and identify actions using the participatory World Cafe conversational process. Participants also identified and developed solutions to the issues raised through this process. World Cafe provided a platform for discussion of the broader topic of Water and Life in a Changing World - Facing the Challenges of Climate Change. Solutions that continuously emerged included the water industry's role in community education toward understanding the true value of water to the community. This included the value of water to the environment as well as local agriculture and sustainable food production. It is the aim of the National YWP committee to support these actions and develop ways to ensure they result in tangible outcomes.

Education The importance of improving education was a consistent theme that emerged in the World Cafe discussions. We should educate our politicians, their advisors, the media, and the public, you ng and older, on water issues, on the value of water, water quality, water scarcity, and promote the fabu lous work we are already doing as an industry to address the chal lenge climate change brings.

Anna Rose, co-director (and a founder) of the Australian Youth Climate Coalition.

capitalise on the knowledge in our industry to set up dynamic water and natural resource management plans before we commence significant development in other areas. We call for an active non-biased decision making body to enforce sustainable land use and avoid inappropriate use of water.

Value We should price water as a commodity, and cal l for big businesses and industries to pay for their water.

The Young Water Professionals recognise the importance of the individual, and as Anna Rose pointed at Ozwater if you own a mobile phone, laptop or blackberry you have more technology in your pockets than the US Government had when they sent the first man to the moon ... wh ich means we are all superpowers.

We also value environmental wat er and the ecosystems and biodiversity they support. We propose any increases in wat er prices cou ld be reinvested in part to support environmental flows.

The Young Water Professionals plan to harness these superpowers and empower everyone in the water industry to be an agent of change.

As an outcome of Ozwater 09 the Young Water Professionals plan to work together with the AWA and the Industry Sustainability Program, and we support them in the development of a Sustainable Decision Making Framework for the Water Industry, in implementing Benchmarking of Sustainability Performance, and providing the appropriate tools and techniques to facilitate good decision making.

Our local YWP Committees will hold professional development sessions in the next year on leadership and change management, and expect not only Young Wat er Professionals to attend.

Lessons Learnt YWPs want to see attempts to restore the Murray Darling Basin and do not want the situation repeated in our north or west. Surely we have learnt lessons from this experience, and can

38 JUNE 2009 water

Best Practice

We will also liaise with the Sustainability Practitioners and Response to Climate Change Specialist Networks and provide assistance and involvement where we can to achieve the objectives of building capacity within the water sector to respond to the challenges of climate change and sustainability.

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feature article the climate change field as well as network with other YWPs in the industry. It was taken as a great opportunity to follow up on some of the issues and solutions emerging from the YWP Workshop on the previous Sunday. The Breakfast Panel consisted of: Paul Freeman (Sydney Water), Kevin Hennessy (CSIRO), Paul Woods (World Vision), Sejla Alimonovic (AYCC) and Erin Cini (YWP National President).

'World Cafe' style workshop interaction.

Outcomes These key outcomes of the YWP Workshop were documented and presented t o Ozwater 09 delegates by YWP National President Erin Cini on Wednesday 18 March during the conference closing ceremony. The YWP National Representative Committee is also preparing a position paper for YWPs on Climate Change and Sustainability based on the outcomes.

The YWP Program at Ozwater 09 was a great success, allowing YWPs the opportunity to discuss real solutions to our most pressing problems. The support of our sponsor SKM was vital to this success, as were the people involved in the workshop and breakfast and in organising the event. Thank you to Caitlin Scott (SKM) for her organisation and facil itation, to the YWP Ozwater Organising Committee in particular the Chair Grace Tjandraatmadja, to Phil Von Huben (SKM), Laura Evanson (AWA) and Corinne Cheeseman (AWA) for thei r involvement in the event and to our Workshop table facilitators: Nicole Nsair, Caitlin Pilkington, Melissa Toifl, Sabina Fahrner, Heather Sheffield, Victoria Leavold, Gwynneth Rice, Erin Cini, Phil Enlger, and Scott Gould. The next challenge for YWPs is t o convert those passionate and innovative conversations into decisive action for solutions, not just talking and to take ownership of the change required.

The Sunday workshop was followed by a breakfast on Tuesday the 17 March attended by 60 bright and chi rpy YWPs at 7.00am in the morning, a true testament to their commitment to their own personal development.

The Young Water Professionals Specialist Network is prepared to step up, make noise and be leaders in taking action on change in the water industry. But for us to succeed, we need everyone in the industry to walk forward t ogether with us.

The YWP breakfast provided attendees wit h the opportunity to participate in an interactive discussion with professionals in

Article prepared by: Grace Tjandraatmadja, Heather Sheffield and Erin Cini.

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Registration Opens June 2009 Look fo r you r copy of the registration brochu re in the June edition of Water. Earlybird registration closes on 21st A ugust Sponsorship and Exhibition Opportunities Sponsorship and Exh ibition opportunities are available. Check the conference website for further details Enquiries Phone +61 2 9436 0055 Fax +61 2 9436 0155

water JUNE 2009 3 9

feature article

Rainwater Tanks: The Human Factor M Collins-Roe and K Jurd Michael Flynn Award for


The 2009 Michael Flyn n Award sponsored by Ecowise Environmental for Best Poster Presentation was awarded to Michelle and Karenne for their poster on the validity of rainwater tank models (P185). (The Award for Best Platform Presentation was awarded to Jim Morran for his presentation on Factors Affecting NOMA Formation. His paper was published in our May issue.) Michelle Collins-Roe is with Parsons Brinckerhoff and Karenne Jurd is with the Newcastle City Council.

Schemes such as the New South Wales BASIX and the Gold Coast Waterfuture Strategy have essentially mandated individual rai nwater tanks for new residential developments, with the mains as a back-up when the tank runs low. Modelling forecasts show this can achieve replacement of over 40% of mains water with rainwater. At the same time, driven by prolonged drought, many jurisdictions around Australia are promoting the retrofit of rainwater systems to existing housing stock - some jurisdictions offer rebates if the tank is connected to household uses such as the toilet flush and/or the laundry. Such retrofit installations are often under the manual control of the householder, which can present problems. In this study, the Newcastle City Council, the Hunter Water Corporation and the University of Newcastle partnered to investigate a small number of such retrofits over a period of two years. Householders in an established suburb of Newcastle were offered free retrofit installations of varying design, with mains back-up, provided that their water consumption was monitored monthly by three meters. Sixteen households initially agreed to participate; however, data from three households was later excluded as their systems were turned off for long periods for a variety of reasons. All residents had the option to turn off the rainwater supply.

The Michael Flynn Awards are presented at each Ozwater for Best Platform Presentation and Best Poster Presentation during the conference and exhibition and aim to encourage a high level of contribution from both poster and platform presenters. Presentations are judged on their relevance to the conference themes, technical content, innovation and uniqueness, audience connection and engagement, and relevance to the water industry.

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The Michael Flynn Award is sponsored by:

Ecowise Environmental

Residents were able to connect their tank to internal water uses of their choice. The option to connect rainwater to the garden, laundry and toilet was the best fit for residents and houses alike with 56% of the rainwater tank installations using this option. All houses were fitted with water-efficient showerheads, kitchen tap flow restrictors and dual flush toilets. The monitoring period of over two years ensured that once the first flush of enthusiasm had evaporated, the results would indicate the percentage of mains water consistently saved. Surprisingly, the results showed that, on the average, instead of an anticipated saving of over 40% of mains water, the residents achieved savings of only about 20%. The paper discusses the reasons in detail, but they can be summarised as follows: Where rainwater tanks have been turned off for extended periods of time the impact on the rainwater use is clear and obviously nullifies any attempt to optimise a rainwater harvesting system. Wh ile all the rainwater systems had either pump, plumbing or water quality issues, rainwater tanks were also turned off by the householders during periods of no rainfall due to concerns about pumping costs and frequently were not turned on again for some weeks. The following two extremes illustrate the disparity amongst households.

Case 1

Figure 1. Typical rainwater harvesting system. 40 JUNE 2009 water

The residents optimised their rainwater harvesting system with a large, 9090L capacity rainwater tank, which captured the entire roof catchment (115 square metres) and used the water for all possible household water uses. This resulted in significant water savings. Over the two-year monitoring period the total rainwater supplied from the rainwater tank was 145kl

feature articles

feature article and total water consumption for this house was 224kl. This represents a 65% saving on mains water consumption.

Case 2 The residents installed a rainwater tan k of 5.5kl and used the rainwater for toilet, laundry, garden and hot water, but the pump was switched off for several months as a result of pump failure. The total wat er usage for this site was 274kl / year, but the rainwat er tank only supplied 60kl for household uses resulti ng in only 22% saving. Th ere were numerous variables which affected what residents used the rainwater for and how much rainwat er they used . However, looking at the combined total, the rainwater supplied from 13 rai nwater tanks over a year represents only 20.6% of the tot al water use for these households. The 13 rainwater tanks supplied 479kl of water which is equivalent to 2.3 households' average water use for a year - based on an average water usage for the Hunter region of 21 0kl . During the research project, many of the problems encountered with the operation of the rai nwater tank systems related to the pumps. Of the 16 rainwater systems installed seven of the pumps fai led. The pressure pump is a significant component in the rain water systems in terms of both installation cost and potential maintenance costs. We c alculated a pump would need to operate tro uble-free for at least th ree years for pump costs alone to be less than the cost of mains water saved. The majority of pumps failed during the warranty period and on ly incurred plumbers' labour costs. When pumps failed outside their warranty period it resu lted in cost s of up to $600 to replace the pump, including labour. This is a considerable cost for the average Australian household budget. Since the rainwater harvesting system cou ld be bypassed and mains water supplied there was no immediate need to replace the pump - until the household was ready to organise and pay for it. The lack of maintenance undertaken by residents o n t heir harvesting system was also a factor. Blocked gutters, leaf diverters and first flush devices general ly result in poor water quality - so much so that one resident completely bypassed the rainwater systems because they experienced bad water quality. The project showed that residents treat their rainwater systems as a 'set and forget' system . Some of our other observations are summarised in the concl usion of the paper.

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42 JUNE 2009 water

When a house with a rai nwater tank is sold, or a new house is constructed which requires a rainwater tank to meet mandatory req uirements, there is no mechanism to relay information about what water uses are serviced by rai nwater or how the system works. While this is also the case with appliances in the house such as air conditioners and hot water systems there is a fami liarity and often a manual and/or service provider with these appliances. This is currently not t he case for rainwater harvesting systems. Unless information is supplied to the house owner the long-term viability and effectiveness of rainwat er tank systems is not reliable. This situation could result in the following: • Unintended cross connection of mains water and rainwater supply lines. • Residents not meeting plumbing requirements, e.g. the Hunter Water Corporation has a requirement for the Dual Check Valve water meter to be replaced every five years. • The harvesting system not being adequately maintained. • Dissatisfaction with the rainwater due to discolouration or smell. • Disconnection of the rainwater system. Th e provision of maintenance and trouble-shootin g guidelines should be an industry standard required as part of commissioning or handover when a house is sold. Th is would assist in providing greater certai nty of system performance, whether with a retrofitted or new system. Standard rainwater harvesting systems provided in new home packages include an automated device system to bypass the rainwater t ank when the rainwater in the tank is drawn down to a specified level or to default to mains water if the pump fails. Th is raises concerns that if the system is 'fail safe' without the resident knowi ng the failu re has occurred they may not discover the failure for some time. There was a stark difference between the average mains water savings of 20.6% in the research project and the projected 40% savings from models for mandatory water demand management programs. In relation to the long-term viability of rainwater harvesting systems, the importance of the 'human' element cannot be overstated in a decentral ised system which is backed up by centralised infrastructure. If the rainwater system malfunctions, it can be bypassed and because there is little financial incentive to use a rainwater system , we cannot assume that households will keep such a system in good working order - especially without a system/maintenance guide. This has major policy implications for schemes such as BASIX in New South Wales and for water supply planning in general. Without much stronger financial incentives and a support and monitoring infrastructure, we are not confident that potential mains water savings can be realised over the medium to long term. Rainwater syst ems have the potential to provide large mains water savings and lower the impact of urban living in Australia. However, this study has highlighted that decentral ised water management is as much a social as a tech nical challenge. Without investment in institutional capacity and in social capital we cannot expect to reap the potential rewards.

feature articles

pumping & pipelines

~ refereed paper

OPERATING PUMPS TO MAXIMISE EFFICIENCY S Bunn Abstract This paper discusses the application of a novel, fully automatic, operat ions optimisation software for treated water systems which was first developed in NZ in 2000. It summarises results from five years of operation in four major US water utilities. Although this system originally was anticipated to achieve most cost savings from electrical load management against tariff patterns it has been particularly effective at improving pumping efficiency. Results from the four case studies are presented showing how efficiency improvements can be generated from existing assets in pump stations with both matched and mixed size pumps. With improved efficiency comes a reduction in the greenhouse gas footprint of the utility, measured in thousands of tons per year. The methodology used to quantify the CO2 savings is also presented.

Introduction Electricity consumption by water and wastewater utilities typically accounts for three per cent of all energy consumption in the US and the UK. With national electricity production exceeding 3,000 million MWh/yr, this represents net annual consumption of about 90 million MWh. Between 90% and 95% of all energy purchased by a water utility is consumed by pumps; at

water Future Features AUGUST - Disinfection, asset failures, project delivery SEPTEMBER • Wastewater treatment, SCADA, consultation NOVEMBER - Odour, desal ination DECEMBER ¡ Trenchless technology, groundwater 44 JUNE 2009 water

the raw water intakes or wells; at the treatment plants; and at the booster pumping stations. As we will demonstrate, energy efficiency investments can yield excellent reductions in energy consumption and as a consequence also substantially reduce the carbon footprint of the utility. Case history data is presented showing that pump efficiency savings of 5% to over 25% in energy consumption can be achieved, with the inherent accompanying benefit of reducing the GHG footprint of the utilities. Pump energy efficiency A hydraulic engineer typically selects a pump based on the expected discharge head and flow requirements such as being able to re-fill storage overnight within a reasonable time period (typically less than eight hours). This means the pump will satisfy demand on typical days with sufficient pumping capacity in reserve to respond to peak demand days. A pump is then selected so that it runs at its Best Efficiency Point (SEP) on the expected system curve at the calculated head and flow. While significant progress has been made on matching pumps to their duty requirements to achieve good efficiency, these calculations have relied on a single duty reference point. In practice, pump operating requirements are much more complex. In a typical water distribution system, demand changes seasonally and diurnally, from very high demand in the mornings and evenings to almost no demand overnight. Unless the pump delivers to a fixed head with no off-take demand between it and the tan k it is filling it is very difficult to select a pump that will operate efficiently over the entire operating head range. An engineer must also take into account expected growth in demand in an area over the 40 years or so of anticipated pump operating life and will consequentially tend to specify a much larger pump than is required at the installation time, to allow it to cope with future projected demands. This means pumps rarely operate close to their BEP.

In addition, pumping facil ities and water distribution networks have become highly interconnected and complex systems. Pumps therefore do not operate in isolation; in fact due to the incompressibility of water, it is typical that any change in operation of one pump, such as a high-lift discharge from a treatment plant, wi ll change pressures in the transmission pipelines and may affect the operating point of many other pumps. Given the significant ongoing amount that the typical water utility water spends on energy for pumping, one could assume that reasonable effort is made to keep pumps operating efficiently. In practice, that assumption may prove to be the exception, not the rule. For example a major study of pumps comm issioned by the European Commission (EU Commission, 2001) determined that very little if any effort was being made in this area. They recommended three strategies:

1. Obtaining better efficiency information prior to selecting and procuring pumps;

2. Matching pump characteristics to production requirements and operating conditions, and countering efficiency deterioration through a proactive preventive maintenance program inclusive of reconditioning pumps; 3. Scheduling pumps to improve efficiency. Further, the study looked at procurement practices and priorities withi n the water sector to identify the key criteria used for pump selection. Leading the list, in most cases was initial purchase price and delivery followed by reliability and hence likely maintenance costs. Efficiency trailed as a distant third if considered at all. In fact this is almost directly opposite to typical pump lifecycle costs, where the energy

Energy savings more valuable than load management.

technical features

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pumping & pipelines consumed by a pump over its 20 to 40 year life makes up 95% or more of the life cycle costs, maintenance costs only about 4% and initial purchase price only 1% to 2%.

~ refereed paper

Combining Pumps

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Pump Scheduling Solutions Given that energy use by water utilities is significant and that more than 90% of this is used for pumping, then software solutions to optimise pump operations would seem a good idea. A number of solutions have been proposed or developed to establish dynamic pump scheduling systems to optimise pump operation. These are intended primarily to leverage time of use (TOU) tariff structures to minimise energy costs as water utilities are in a prime position to maximise pumping to storage during off peak hours when energy rates are lowest, and draw down during peak energy cost periods. This ability to 'store' energy is almost unique. Due to the complexity of most water distribution syst ems, and the myriad production requi rements and operational constraints, it is generally considered impossible to explicitly solve the scheduling problem to achieve lowest cost through mathematics. However predicting system energy use from a given pump schedule is both relatively trivial and extremely fast to compute, and is already a feature of most off-theshelf hydraulic modelling packages such as EPANET and WaterCAD. A "brute force" approach, modelling every possible pump schedule combination to arrive at the most preferable solution may seem a possible way forward. However, this is not practical. A system with N pumps requiring hourly schedules for a single day has (2N)'24 possible combi nation. So a system with only 11 pumps has about 3 x 10 79 possible schedules, which coincidentally is almost the same value as recent estimates of the number of at oms in the entire universe. Even supercomputers would take more than the lifetime of the universe to run throug h all schedules. Most sizeable water utilities have hundreds or even thousands of pumps. Brute force solutions are therefore impractical and as a consequence, more sophisticated search and opti misation techniques and strat egies have been developed to assist in solving this problem. Most approaches to this problem use multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA), or more specifically Genetic Algorithms (Sotelo, von Lucken, Baran,

46 JUNE 2009 water



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1995). There is a large body of research papers on the application of the most popular form of EA, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to the pump scheduling problem since this is best suited to binary (pumps only being on or off) problems. A good starting point for the interested reader is a paper published by Exeter University (Dragan A Savic, Godfrey A Walters, Martin Schwab, 1995). Related techniques such as swarm optimisation (C Wegley, M Eusuff and K E Lansey, 2000) and simulated annealing (R S Powell, and G McCormick, 2004) have also been successfully applied to theoretical problems. Typically energy cost savings of 10%, 15% or more are predicted. The GA approach uses a hydraulic model to trial likely pump schedules but has sophisticated tools to guide the schedules towards useful results meaning that only a few hundred thousand or million combinations may need to be tested to find suitable schedules. The problem has always been one of implementation of these systems into real-world applications. Solutions based on GA have always suffered from relatively slow speed of solution, especially in systems with more than a trivial number of pumps, as even fast computers take time to run millions of hydraulic simulations. More recently the European based Potable Water Distribution Management (POWADIMA) project has looked at speeding up some of the bottlenecks in solving this type of problem through the use of Artificial Neural Nets (ANN). These solve the hyd raulic equations thousands of times faster than a hydraulic model can. In one

study (Zhengfu Rao and E Salomons, 2007), modelling a modest sized system for Valencia in Spain that includes seventeen pumps, and using standard PC hardware, solutions were arrived at in about ten minutes. Solutions to optimise pump scheduling and also integrate energy efficiency have remained elusive. Our solution, Aquadapt™ , avoids GA techniques in favour of the speed of Linear Programming combined with heuristic and non-linear formulations (Bunn, 2005). Th is software also explicitly models pump efficiency based on live (i.e. realtime) dat a. Solution times for systems with up to 200 pumps are arrived at in less than 2 minutes.

Optimising pump schedules with explicit incorporation of efficiency Scheduling for electricity tariff alone only achieves part of the savings available. In the four US sites discussed in this paper up to 40% of annual energy cost savings was fou nd to come from efficiency gains. To incorporate efficiency information into a solver we first need a methodology to accurately model efficiency over the expected operating range of each pump. To be able to effectively operate pumps close to their best efficiency point as well as to track significant deviation from the manufacturer's curve, an energy management system should have the capability to calculate actual pump head/ flow curves and system curves in real time and then match the best available pump or selection of pumps to the current instantaneous duty. If a pump only needs to run 8 hours in a day to

technical features

pumping & pipelines

~ re fe reed pap er

Table 1. Statistics for Four US Utilities. Customer System

East Bay MUD, CA Eastern Municipal, CA WaterOne, Kansas Washington Suburban, MD

Pop. Served

Storage tanks

Pressure zones

Pump Stations


Auto Valves

Demand (MLD)

660k 630k


26 44

20 58 26 18

66 143 84 81

4 9 11 25

160 to 480 333 to 643 190 to 400 640 to 900

570k 1.6m

satisfy demand and replenish storage then th is permits operational flexibility as to which hours t o use during the day. There may be a requirement to have no more than a designated number of starts per day p er pump, but even with these constraints there can be significant flexibility. Shown in Figure 1 are the pump curves for a single pump and for two of these pumps operating in parallel. These are actual plots obtained from a Californian water uti lity. The corresponding efficiency curves are also given. Actual telemetry data, after validatio n, has been overlaid as the black "x" marks clustered on each line. Note that t wo pumps working together do not give twice the flow of a single pump, as the higher flow creates higher back-pressure through frictional losses in the pipes which make the pumps operate higher on their curves (i.e. the operating points move up in pressure and to the left on flow). One pump was recorded as operating between 40 and 60 feet of head but two pumps operated between 65 to 100 feet of head as a result of the increase in flow rate creating increased back-pressure. Note also that the black 'x 's indicating telemetry value are not a sing le point but cover a range on the pump curve. , This is the effect of chang ing diurnal d emand and static lift changes such as changing level in the destination storage tank. Operators

68 25 57

3 15

tended to use a single pump most of the time under the basis that they got 6 MGD of flow from the one pump but only 10 MGD from two pumps. Their reasoni ng was that the "missing 2 MGD" meant using one pump was a better operating regime. However careful review of the chart shows that using two pumps is almost always significantly more efficient that operating one pump. Pump efficiency is measured off the dotted lines by tracing upwards from the points on the solid line, so in this case using one pump has an efficiency range of 60% to 74% while using two pumps has an efficiency range of 75% to 88% . So the operators reasoning in this case is misleading, operating of two pumps being more efficient than operating a single one, despite the increase in dynamic head and hence requiring less net energy to move the same q uantity of water. Even this simple example illustrates that experienced operators wou ld have difficulty in determining what combination of pumps would meet prod uction req uirements at the minimum cost expenditure. The situation facing the operator becomes even more complex where stations have multiple pumps, with differing sets of pump curves.

Results From Four Case Histories Derceto Aquadapt™ software is a realtime operations optimisation program

that attaches to a SCADA system to fully automate a water distribution system. It continuously reads live data from the SCADA system including current storage levels, water flows, and equipment availability and then creates schedules for treatment plant raw and finished wat er flows, pump operation, variable speed drive settings and automated valve setpoint schedules throughout the system for the next 24 to 48 hours. It can achieve a solution within two minutes, even for a system inclusive of hundreds of pumps. Every half an hour it runs again to adapt t o changing conditions, primarily demand changes and equipment failure. Controls are automatically initiated by Aq uadapt via the SCADA system allowing for fully automated unattended operation of even very large distribution systems. The first system was installed in Wel lington , NZ in 2000. The fi rst Australian system went into Maroochy Wat er Services on the Sunshine Coast, OLD in late 2005. The first US system went live in July 2004 for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) in Oakland California. This was followed by systems installed for Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC) in Maryland , Water District No 1 of Johnson County (WaterOne) in Kansas and Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD) of Southern California. Each system


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water JUNE 2009 47

pumping & pipelines

( ] refereed paper

Table 2. Energy efficiency improvements achieved for four US clients. Customer System

Average MWH per Year

Average Efficiency Gain under Aquadapt

PA eGRID 2004 CO2 Emissions (Tons/MWh)

Extrapolated CO2 Reduction per Year (Tons)

East Bay MUD, CA

26,000 7,000 99,000 94,000

6.1% 8.4% 8.3% 6.0%

0.502 0.515 0.547 0.845

800 300 4,500 4,800

Eastern Municipal, CA WaterOne, Kansas Washington Suburban, MD

imposed unique chal lenges in creating a real-time water distribution optimisation solution to red uce operational costs, mainly energy, in widely varying physical distribution systems. Significant customisation was required for each implementation. Table 1 presents some indication as to the relative size and complexity of these systems. At all four systems, energy efficiency improvements of between 6% and 8.4% overall were realised. For each US State where Derceto Aquadapt operates we obtained greenhouse gas data from public records. More data on greenhouse gas contribution of fuel types is being generated in the US as a consequence of state initiatives due to concerns on climate change. This is particularly evident in California, where Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has made greenhouse gas reduction a state-wide mandate and introduced Assembly Bill 32 (AB32). Other states are following suit in the absence of a clear directive at the federal level. The greenhouse gas (CO2) reductions achieved by Aquadapt are shown in Table 2. In Figure 2 we have categorised the original pump efficiency into ranges for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) in Oakland California. This is based on 6 years of data, two years prior to Aquadapt and four years post Aquadapt. This dataset contains over 600 accurately measured monthly energy and flow data points. The first group is all pumps that were runn ing at 45% and 50% original efficiency, then all pumps between 55% and 65% and so on. The Y Axis shows the efficiency improvement after Aquadapt and as you can see there is a close to linear relationship. Pumps that were ru nning at lower efficiencies made the most efficiency improvements (about 18% on average gain in the first group for example) whereas pumps that were relatively new and performing well, i.e. in the 65% to 75% range showed a 9% improvement after Aquadapt.

48 JUNE 2009 water

If we plot the number of pumps by efficiency range both before and post Aquadapt the results are very interesting. In Figure 3 the big improvements in the least efficient pumps means that now no pump runs below 65% efficiency whereas before Aquadapt there were many pumps operating between 55% and 65% and half run ning

g .,

between 65% and 75% efficiency figures. None were running at better than 75% yet now 80% of pumps and pump stations are achieving this outcome, all done purely through Aquadapt software selecting the right pump or pumps at the right time. This is made possible by Aquadapt's real-time optimiser being able to deduce the moving system curve responding to changing diurnal water demand.

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technical features

New Agilent 7000A Triple Quadrupole GC/MS

The first Agilent 7000A GC/ MS triple quad will be delivered to CSIRO Land and Water this month. The system will be used for low level analysis of environmental samples including pesticides and endocrine disruptors in waters, sediments and treatment plant effluents.

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combines outstanding reliability with femtogram-level sensitivity in complex matrices.

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A linear acceleration design and novel helium-quenched system reduces neutral noise and contributes to outstanding high-speed performance without ion ghosting or cross-talk. A wide mass bandwidth optimizes sensitivity while eliminating the need to tune on a specific compound.

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To help meet the increasing demand for trace-level detection of target analytes, the 7000A system offers routine fem tog ram-level sensitivity, as well as ultra-low noise and superior selectivity. In addition, acquisition speeds of up to 500 MAM (multiple reaction monitoring) transitions per second match the front-end performance of the fastest chromatography without compromising data quality- enabling users to automatically quantify and confirm more targets in a single method. High reliability and simple operation

Agilent's proprietary inert ion source and heated, gold-plated hyperbolic quartz quadrupoles keep routine MS maintenance to a minimum. Advanced set-up, configuration, and tuning tools enable quick start-up for quantitative analyses.

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Gold-plated hyperbolic quartz quadrupole Ag1len!'s unique mass analyzer design offers high temperature stability, and can be heated to 200 C Because the quadrupole can be kepi at 1h1s l11gh temperature, 1t stays clean even with complex. high boiling samples-el1mtnat,ng ume-consum,ng maintenance and ensunng supenor mass analyzer performance.


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pumping & pipelines Variable speed pumps The special case of variable speed pumps is also explicitly solved by Aquadapt using a patent-pending technique. Variable speed pumps were promoted as a method of better matching a pump's performance to its duty requirements by altering the speed of the pump and thereby altering its pump curve. In theory this should improve efficiency, especially in the case of over-sized pumps which generate excessive head and flow. The realit y is that in many of the variable speed pump installations analysed the vast majority operated less efficiently than was the case for installations consisting of fixed speed pump stations. In one particular example in the United Kingdom we found that two operators ran the same variable speed pump differently; one preferring 60m of discharge head and the other 66m. The first achieved an average efficiency of 40%, while the second achieved an average efficiency of 66%. It must be noted that neither operator was aware of this fact since efficiency information was not available to the operator.

Displaying pump performance data Presenting continuous efficiency information for pumps is expensive. Aquadapt carries out calculations in real time to determine how each pump is operating. It is useful to display this information in suitable formats to accommodate both real time viewi ng for system operation and for analysis of historical performance. The Aquadapt Dashboard fulfils these requirements. Figure 4 is a typical dashboard screen, running as an Intranet web page displayed using Int ernet Explorer. This particular page shows operational data for all pump stations, as a bar chart ranked from the most efficient station to the least efficient. You can easily understand how useful this data is in asset management planning. By holding the cursor over a bar a pop up appears to display individual pump data. In this example on ly pumps 2 and 3 were operated during the course of the week. As you can see pump 3 operates a little more efficiently than pump 2. The best measure of energy is the kWh/MG/ft of lift. Th is pump station is operating at 4.77 kWh/MG/ft or 66% efficiency. This efficiency is quite typical based on the hundreds of pumps we have analysed. Operational efficiency of the pump before implementation of Aq uadapt is

50 JUNE 2009 water

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refereed paper


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Figure 4. Drilling in to the data for one pump station to see 1 week of operation on the Dashboard. also displayed based on the average of the previous 2 years prior to Aquadapt. For this week the pumps have run 13% more efficiently than did prior to Aquadapt. Th is data all generated with a single flowmeter for the whole pump station and only discharge pressure being read. Having exposed this level of performance data for the pump station the Dashboard goes even deeper and shows actual performance of each pump. In Figure 5 actual operation of a single pump for one week is displayed. The manufacture's curve is the upper pink line. The calibrat ed pump curve is shown as a yellow line. Actual measured operating points at differing Total Dynamic Head (TOH) are shown as dots on the curve, each dot representing half an hour's operation. The red parabola is the efficiency curve. The red dots on the efficiency curve match the operating points on the pump curve. The histograms at the bottom and side of the graph summarise frequency of operation at each point. In this case, efficiency values are clustered at the top end of the efficiency range, a good sign that Aquadapt is worki ng well. In the real-life example shown in Figure 6 we see a quite different picture. Although the two pumps at this station are nominally the same size and capacity, as shown by the manufacturer's pink curves, one is worn much more than the other as evidenced

by the yellow calibrated pump curve for pump 1. Even though this pump shows significant wear it actually operates well as shown by the efficiency histogram. Pump 2 with less wear should be expect ed to be the better pump to operate, yet it is poorly matched to the duty and is 'running off its curve' at less than 70% average efficiency. Without a visualisation tool all of this is hidden from the operator, the client and t he engineers.

Conclusions The benefits of optimal pump scheduling, both to minimise operational costs and net energy consumption, long a theoretical objective and the subject for academic research, is now achievable in practice. In the changing focus on climate change it is foreseeable that energy efficiency improvements could be more valuable to the utility and indeed the environment, than cost savings through load management. The US water utilities use approximately 50 million MWh of electricity to pump potable water. A reduction of 6% to 10% in this energy consumption through efficiency improvements would therefore lead to saving between 3 and 5 million MWh of electricity production per year. The US average CO2 emission per MWh of electricity production is about 0.5 tons. The potential CO2 reduction therefore, is between 1.5 million and 2.5 million tons.

technical features


pumping & pipelines

refereed paper

This is c ertainly not inconsequential and provides another compell ing reason for water ut ilities to consider operations opt imisation.




The Author


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Simon Bunn , an elect rical engineer, used his 21 years experience in The Beca Group t o design the complex software at the heart of th e Aq uadapt product , t he world's first commercially available real-time pump sched uling optimiser. In 2002 Derceto software for Wellington City was j udged t he top engineering project in New Z ealand by ACENZ. In 2005 he was named the "Engineering Entrepreneur of the Year" at the New Z ealand Engineering Excell ence Awards. Email sbunn@der

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References Bunn S., (2005) "Optimal pump scheduling for East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland , CA, using the Derceto package", CCWl '05, Exeter, UK. European Commission (2001) "Study on improving the energy efficiency of pump s", February, AEAT-6559/ v 5.1 Mackle G, Savic D , Walters G "(1995) "Application of Genetic Algorithms to Pump Scheduling for Water Supply", GALESIA'95, London.



Powell R S and McCormick G (2004) "Derivation of near-optimal pump schedules for water distribution by simulated annealing ". Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 55, pp. 728-736.

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Sotelo L, von LUcken C, Baran B .. (2002) "Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms in pump scheduling optimisation" , Proceedings of the third international conference on Engineering com putational technology, Stirling, Scotland, Pages: 175 - 176. Wegley C, Eusuff M , Lansey K E. (2000) "Determining p ump operations using particle swarm optimisation". [ed.] R.H. Hotchkiss and M . Glade. Minneapolis, USA: s.n., Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and M anagement.






Savic D, Walters G , Schwab M. (1997) "Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms for Pump Schedu ling in Water Supply" . London , UK: Springer-Verlag , ISBN:3540- 63476-2. Rao Z, Salomons E, (2007) "Development of a real-time, near-optimal control process for water-distribution networks", Journal of Hydroinformatics Vol 9 No 1 pp 25-37








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JUNE 2009 51

pumping & pipelines


refereed paper

VIBRATORY PLOUGH INSTALLATION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES TO DESIGN GRADE M Potts, J Povey Abstract The Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project - Supply System 5 is a large water supply infrastructure project of regional significance in northwestern Victoria undertaken in 2007/08 by Nacap Australia and WorleyParsons Services as a design and construct contract with Grampians-Wimmera-Mallee Water (GWMWater). This paper presents the successful innovation developed by Nacap Australia (Construction) and WorleyParsons Services (Design) for the installation of the smaller diameter pipelines to design grade utilising GPS technology applied to a vibratory plough. This was a first for the Australian water industry.

Introduction The scope of the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project - Supply System 5 was to design and construct within ten months over 800km of pipes (DN63 DN375), five pumping stations, three storage reservoirs, two storage tanks, a filtration treatment plant and SCADA systems. This was an ambitious project of high political, comm unity and landowner significance. The pipeline network passed through numerous environmentally sensitive areas. The very tight project timel ine together with the concerns by the Department of Sustainability and Environment and landowners about construction impacts, required the team to develop a construction method to install pipe quickly, with minimal impact and to a minimum design grade, Achieving the design grade was particularly important to ensure no air

Utilising GPS technology. 52 JUNE 2009 water

with diameters up to 110 millimetres has been around for several years but it had not been developed to install to a vertical design grade.

Developing the Technology Nacap Australia engaged two vi bratory ploughs to install PE pipe of DN1 10 and less to a minimum required grade. The vibratory plough consists of a bulldozer with a plough attachment to which a hydraul ically powered vibrating moto r has been attached.

\ ! Figure 1. View into cavity created around the pipe.

pockets were caused in the pipe network resulting in blockages and reduced system capacity. As part of the value engineering workshop held between WorleyParsons and Nacap during the tender phase of this project, pipe installation using the vibratory plough method was identified as an attractive alternative to meet the key criteria of the project delivery in terms of environmental, community, program constraints, financial benefits, OH&S and stakeholder's satisfaction. With enormous advances in technology over the last few years there has been a successful trend towards using high accuracy global positioning survey equipment (GPS) for machine control of bulk earthworks. Generally referred to as Real Time Kinematic GPS (RTK), this eq uipment links the receipt of horizontal and vertical positions to the design position and then the machine hydraulics.

The plough unit is similar to a flat bladed ripper that cuts rather than rips the ground. The boot of the ripper is fitted wit h a hole reaming device that has a slightly larger diameter than the PE pipe being installed. The vibrating action of the plough effects an oscillating vibration at the boot and creates a round hole through which the PE pipe is towed. The dozer acts as the tow unit whilst the vibrating boot does the significant portion of the work (to pull harder doesn't increase installation rates). Vibratory plough installation of PE pipe has the distinction of being a rapid rate pipe installation method that could be classed as a Semi Trench less Technology due t o its low environmental impact.

While this equipment has been attached to trenching machines so that a vertical design can be excavated, it is still labour intensive and still requires clear and grade and ext ensive work in the trench.

Development of the construction technology was led by Nacap Australia and design and installation assurance by WorleyParsons and the equipment was supplied by Lehmann Ploughs. The team set about design modifications t o integrate the GPS syst em with the plough. Nothing, of cou rse, is ever straight forward as the vibrations of the ripper made it impossible to use a direct connection of the GPS antenna and therefore called for a unique solution to separate the two.

Vibratory plough and the technique for ploughing polyethylene (PE) pipe

Once th is had been developed an intensive field evaluation was

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ark Bumpstead - Managing Director atthew O'Connell - General Manager Reaman - Business Development Manager

Please call (03) 8878 2822 Fax (03 8878 2855 Email: Website:


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refereed paper

Figure 2. Key Components of the Vibratory Plough.

Figure 3. Close-up of Key Components of the Vibratory Plough.

undertaken to ascertain whether the PE pipe could be ploughed to a true vertical design and without damage to the pipe. Several kilometres of pipe were ploughed into the ground and test holes dug at 10 metre intervals for survey checks to be undertaken.

9. Dampener arrangement

The trial conclusively proved that various sizes of PE pipe up to 110 millimetres in diameter could be ploughed to true vertical design grades with the equipment also recording accurate horizontal and vertical asbuilt locations. Fig ures 2 and 3 illustrate the components of the plough machine. Description of key components: 1. GPS Antenna - Receives radio waves from the satellite 2. Dampening frame - to isolate vibration from the plough to the GPS antenna 3. Plough bullet - Creates a circular shape for the pipe as the plough moves forward 4. Pipe holder - fastens and holds the poly pipes 5. Flexible electrical conduit 6. D6 Dozer (Size) - Main vehicle to pull the vibrating plough 7. Hydraulic lines 8. Plough-in traili ng wheels

10. Anten na frame dampener arrangement

Demonstration Trials and Approval by Client Nacap conducted the field installation trials during the tender and pre-award period in soils similar to those expected on the Project. WorleyParsons undertook an assurance process including auditing and surveillance of the technology to provide confidence to GWMWater that the installed pipeline wo uld meet Australian Standards and GWMWater's specifications for structural integrity and installation horizontal and vertical grade tolerances. Representatives of GMWWat er were also present for some of the final trials and acceptance of the methodology after this process was approved by all proponents. The methodology of the plough trial for installing pipe to specified grade was in the following order: 1. Survey of the ground profile along the trial pipeline alignment for three pipes sizes (1 10, 90 and 63mm) 2. Design the pipeline to grade along the proposed three routes. 3. Transfer of the design alignment (as a 3D polyline) into the GPS unit installed on the vibratory plough machine 4. Inst allation of approximately 200 metre length polyethylene pipes by the plough method. 5. Automatic as-built survey of the installation with the GPS unit installed in the plough machine to various intervals 1Om, 5m and 1m for verification against design. 6. Excavation of pits at 1Om intervals along each alignment for the purpose of secondary as-built survey. 7. Secondary as-built survey of the installation using hand held GPS to confirm automatic as-built information 8. Testing of the ground characteristics using cone penetrometer prior to the installation, after the installation and after the compaction. 9. Removal of the pipe and reinstatement of the ground. The installation process of the PE pipeline using the plough method to specified grade was successful, however prior to the commencement of the pipe installation for System 5, the following improvements and revised procedures were identified:

Figure 4. View of Plough in Operation - note very little heave.

54 JUNE 2009 water

• Mechanical modifications were needed to the dampening frame and plough wheels t o minimise the potential for error caused from the lateral distance between the two wheels.

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t UX.O

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Figure 5. Horizontal Alignment Comparison.

Figure 6. Vertical Alignment Comparison.

• The as-built data was required at the closest interval possib le to find any installation error for post design review and subsequent rectification of the issue. Data intervals of at least meter were preferable.

advance of operations and c ol lect as-built data in accordance with specification req uirements.

• The dampening frame required mi nor modifications to avoid errors caused by the dozer as it is towed . The frame and GPS antenna needs to remain vertical at all times. • Detailed proced ures were developed for the operat ors to assist them with the GPS shut down to avoid loss of data. All switches loc at ed in close proximity to the operator were shielded from unexpected engagement or shut down. • Areas of soft gro und were assessed prior to ploughing and procedures developed to avoid issues ob served during the 110mm PE run t r ial. • Procedures wer e written for the instances where the dozer is bogged and w here manual override is used. • The alignment prior to ploughing must be free of local high points and undulations to prevent or mini mise installation issues with the G PS frame.

Pipeline Design Process Given the rapid duration of the project, pipeline design survey and engineering were conducted in a manner that provided the most efficient m eans of progressing the work at the lowest possible cost whilst meeting the design and as built data criteria. GWMWater had gathered LIDAR data (Li ght Detection and Ranging - a tech nology t hat employs an airborne scanning laser rangefinder t o produce detailed and accurate topographic surveys) of the entire project region. This data is accurate to an extent enabling detailed design without the need for detailed e ngineering survey of the pipeline alignment. Pipeline alignment sheets were prepared on a progressive basis for approval by GWMWat er using the existing LIDAR data enabling pipe laying work to commence withi n 6 weeks of award. A pipel ine route verificat ion inspection was conduct ed immediately fol lowing award to identify any areas in which issues may arise. As design was finalised and approved by the team and client for construction the design was then transferred into the GPS unit on the plough via a 3D polyline. Construction set out and as-built functions on the pipeline were com pleted by a dedicated surveyor working on each pipe laying front. This surveyor set out construction in

As-Built Vs Design Comparison The plots below are a comparison of design vs as-built data for a 7.2km DN90 pipeline installed as part of the project. Figures 5, 6 are a co mparison of design vs as-built data for a 7.2km DN90 pipeline installed as part of the project.

Benefits of the Approach The key benefits to the project have been: • Behavioural Modifications - Ploughed Pipe vs Open Cut • Improved Safety • Reduced Environment and Landowner Impacts • Increased speed of pipeline construction

Behavioural modifications - ploughed pipe vs open cut The opportunity to trial and use the vibratory plough installation technology was presented to Nacap through a relationship fostered within the company. Whi lst at ground level this technology has significant impacts, the mindset required change across the whole business. Nothing has had the potential t o revolutionise the pipeline industry to this extent since the introduction of large scale HDD to Australia in the early 90s. At a managerial level, there was a need to embrace an untried techn ique of pipeline construction which on a large contract such as the WMPP presented a lot of unknowns and hence risk. This was red uced through a detailed engineering assessment and subsequent refinement of the equipment and method prior to mobilisation. At a project level the vi bratory plough presented challenges that were reviewed and closed out. A key initial task was to break the vibratory plough installation process down into discrete tasks capable of being clearly defined and resourced . The traditional Clear and Grade Spread bec ame a Bell Hole Crew w hilst the Trenching, Pipe Laying, Bedding/ Haunching Spreads combined to become the Vibratory Plough Crew An example was ensuring the upkeep of pipe to the production front towards the end of the project when installation rates were exceeded 8kms per crew per day! At ground level the vibratory plough process provided a significant change in construction methodology. The plough removed the clear and grade, trenching, laying and

water JUNE 2009 55

pumping & pipelines


r ef eree d p a per

Stringing crew w/ 200m length of pipe, inc. haulage truck, roll out trailer & anchor vehicle.

Figure 7. Stringing crew setting out pipe to be installed.

Figure 8. Pipe holding sock used for stringing out coiled pipe.

bedding/ haunching activities from the pipeline construction process along with their associated risks including manual handling, working around trenching machines, worki ng in and around open trenches etc.

operation to verification of design data ahead and keepi ng the GPS link from the base station to the bulldozer.

As a new construction methodology, the vibratory plough gave the opportunity for field employees to contrib ute t o the refi nement of certain aspects of construction includ ing safety. At nearly all stages of the process there was a reduction in the number of unskilled labouring st aff either in favour of skilled operators or throug h technological red undancy (i.e. padding machine 'swampy', pipe layers). A departure from traditional cross country open cut pipelining has also seen a change in the alignment layouts by survey crews. Previously, aft er the RoW had been clear and graded, a survey crew would move through and peg out an alig nment for the trenching machin e t o follow. With the plough this st ep has been eliminated and the data previously pegged out on the ground is now fed into the computer onboard the bulldozer to provide automatic depth control wh ilst the machine operator manoeuvres the machine to the correct alignment. Behavioural changes weren't only required by the constructor; the cl ient, GWMWater, needed confidence that this method of pipe installation would satisfy the requirements of the project. Such an innovation was a significant departure from the proven practice of open cut pipe laying and necessitated project staff at all levels to develop an understanding of the process to ensure criteria of quality, safety and environment were adhered to.

56 JUNE 2009 water

Pivotal to the success of the venture was Nacap's early alignment with a reput able pipe material supplier. An engineering review was conducted of the HOPE pipe system against the installation method with the conclusion that there was no limit to the diamet er of pipe that could be ploughed (other factors became limiting ie transport, material configu ration etc) or the length of pipe that could be installed per run.

Improved safety It became obvious during the field evaluation that there were other significant benefits in addition t o efficiency and accuracy when laying small bore PE pipe using the vibratory plough. A major shift in the interaction between men and the machinery with inherent safety risks has occurred. This was confirmed in the real world of construction when the plough teams were required to perform and have pipe in the ground . The dangerous mix of bulldozers, graders, trenching machines, side booms, semi trai lers and padding machines with surveyors, operators and the many additional workers was gone. From a survey perspective the approach to this type of work has totally changed. The only contact with machinery is to load the design data into the GPS unit within a stationary bulldozer and then a similar download of as-built data also from a stationary machine. Typically the survey crews are at risk of injury while pegging for clear and grade followed by trenching and then the as-built surveys historically withi n the trench and now still involving leaning over the trench. Our work focus is now removed from the pipe laying

With any activity in pipeline construction there is an associated risk. It is the responsibility of all people involved to identify, assess and when required, act to red uce the risk. In the instance of t he Vibratory Ploug h, there are still risks associated with this technology but they are relatively few when weighed up against the alternative of open cut. The vibrat ory plough removes the requi rement for clear and grade, trenching, pipe laying, bed ding/haunching and reinstatement activities on a large scale. Each of these activities have associated risks including fast moving machinery on clear, grade and reinstatement, slips, trips and fall s around open trenches and manual handling hazards such as sprains and strains associated with pipe laying. Along wit h the removal of the above activities, there was also a change in emphasis for others such as pipe stringing and RoW preparation. With pipe stringi ng, individual 'short ' lengt hs were replaced with 1OOm or 200m coils of pipe wh ich were manoeuvred from crane truck onto a trailer mounted with a special turn table to facilitate the unravelling of the coils using a 4wd vehicle mounted with a specially designed 'sock' to hold the end in place (Figures 6, 7). This act ivity utilised 2 labourers and a truck/crane driver and was designed to minimise manual handling risks whilst maximising outputs. A risk that was co untered by the holding 'sock' was pipe 'memory', encountered when the pipe was cold and difficult to unravel. In the larger

technical features

pumping & pipelines

~ refereed paper

diameter, a pipe with 'memory' has significant stored energy with high impact potential if not managed with caution , (likened to a large, stretched elastic band). The risk of pipe 'memory' was significantly red uced on warm/ hot days when the pipe heated up and 'relaxed' during the unravelling phase. Another manual labouring role in the plough installation process was pipe joining. During ini tial trials, two types of joint were trialled for HOPE pipe, butt welded and electro fusion. Both method s provided a weld join with butt welding providing a pipe face to face weld whilst an EF weld provided a coupling that fused to the outside of the pipe. Due to the simplicity and ease of use the EF weld was the method used on mainline activities. EF welding provided a safe, quality join through the employment of a computer driven weld unit connected to a power source and then hooked to the EF coupler. The computer would gauge the parameters of the coupl ing and feed power into the unit accordingly thus creating a sound weld . Not one weld failed over the course of 519kms of HOPE pipe installed and tested. Whilst there were some minor strain injuries associated with this emerging technology, the safety performance of this installation method was excellent with no LTis throughout the entire plough operation. In times of high liability and the need to conti nually strive for improvements in safety, the vibratory plough has not only provided a major leap in the technology of water pipeline laying but an equally large leap in construction safety. There is of course a risk of becoming complacent with safety when the perception is that there are no risks. It is still essential to continually reinforce the safety issues wit h the comprehensive approach of team briefings and too l box meetings as practiced by Nacap Australia.

Landowner impacts Landowners affected by this project were over 600 with zero landowner complaints for this project. This is a t estament t o the success of the plough, commitment to sound construction and design management and strong environmental practise.

Quicker construction Vibrat ory ploughing is a far less involved process than that for open cut pipe laying. Ploughing involved stripping of vegetation and topsoi l for vi bratory plough works only in areas where the RoW had localised elevation changes that required removal for pipeline performance reasons or where the vertical profile was unsuited for ploughing such as at washouts, channels (dry), water courses {dry) and the like.

Pipe stringing and ploughing Pipes were delivered in coils to the ROW and laid out in preparation for ploughing.

Jointing and fittings Jointing of pipe was undertaken at jointing pits, excavated prior t o ploughing. These pits had sufficient length t o provide for overlapped pipe ends t o be cut and stress free connection of the pipe. Jointing methods were by either electro-fusion or butt weld.

Reinstatement Immediately followi ng the compaction of the rip line and installation of appurtenances, the reinstatement of the ROW was conducted. The number of mechanical items requi red on site was markedly reduced as was the manual handling of materials and equipment and the exposure to working near trenches. The rate of laying was also substantially quicker than traditional methods with four kilometres of pipeline laid per day per machine possible (in favourable ground conditions we achieved an installation rate of over ?km/day). Landholder impact was substantially reduced with the pipeline const ructed and land reinstated t o pre-construction condition within 1 to 2 days.

Major Lessons Learnt There were several lessons learnt on this project, particularly: • Adopting a close worki ng relationship within the t eam broke down traditional approaches to the design process. This was critical and was achieved by co-locati ng client, construct or and design personnel. • Pipe supply was critical so a business partnership with a pipe

supplier was established to ensure pipe supply had surety of delivery to suite the project requirements. • Wh ile this was a lump sum contact Nacap, WorleyParsons and GWMWater cooperated in an 'alliance' style relationship which enabled this innovation to be achieved and deliver efficiencies on th is complex project.

Conclusion With the technology in very early stages it is clear, based on the multifronted success of this project, that there is a place for this technology within the Austral ian pipeline industry. A brief review of current projects in Australia point to the possible application of this installation method in the field of Coal Seam methane extraction (which is currently being demonstrated by Nacap on HOPE pipelines up to DN315 in Chinchilla, Queensland). The use of vibratory plough technique significantly red uced the impact on vegetation and farm ing land and reduced safety hazards that are normally associated with pipeline construction. The vibratory plough technique for laying small bore PE pipe is seen as an innovation that will have significant benefit for the wider Australian water industry.

Acknowledgment We acknowledge the support of GWMWater in this process.

The Authors

Malcolm Potts is the Engineering Manager for the Victorian wat er business of Worley Parsons Services Pty Ltd,

James Povey is a Project Manager for Nacap Australia Pty Ltd,

water JUNE 2009 57

pumping & pipelines

MISCONCEPTIONS IN ACOUSTIC LEAKAGE DETECTION S Hamilton, D Hartley The Problem Many engineers see acoustic leakage detection as the answer to their water loss problems and often believe that by simply installing equipment the leak can be found regard less of pipe material, diameter, pressure or the distance between the fitments . This highlights t he misconceptions that many nonexperienced engineers have of acoustic leakage detection, and often means the difference between success and fail ure. Maybe an easier way to understand acoustics is the concept of the 'tin can telephone'. Everyone understands that to make this work the cord between the cans had to be pulled taught to enable the voice to be heard at either end, and if the string was allowed to slacken, then the voice could not be heard. The same basic assumption can be used to understand why leak noise transmits easier in metallic pipes (taught cord) than on non-metallic pipe (slack cord). It can also be assumed that the piece of cord can be any length. If for hypothetical reasons the cord was 1000m long, would we expect the voice to be heard at either end? Of course the answer is 'no'. Again , using this assumption in acoustic leakage detection, why is it often assumed that the sound waves from a leak can be heard by the correlator sensors over the same distance that the radio transmitters can transmit? The most basic principle and fundamental requirement of correlation is that the sound waves from the leak (leak noise) must be heard at both sensors to allow the leak to be located. Obviously if the radios can transmit 1000 - 2000m and the leak noise is 'weak' due to leak type or pipe material and hence can on ly travel 500m, then this leak noise wi ll not be heard at both sensors and the leak wi ll not be located using leak noise correlation techniques (being heard at one sensor is not sufficient to complete a correlation). To emphasise the all too This article is part of the continued special series of articles for Water21 by the IWA Water Loss Task Force, highlighting practical developments over the last decade.

58 JUNE 2009 water

frequent lack of understanding that exists, below are some questions and answers recently asked during a t ender process for the supply of acoustic leak detection equipment - in this case a correlator - where the responses show why the questions reveal a lack of understanding.

How far from the correlator can the sensor be? This depends upon local conditions, but when referring to radio transm ission distances this may on certain occasions be up to 2-3km. This wil l be less if digital frequency is selected (which depends more heavily on 'line-of- sight'). However, in a practical situation, to locate a leak, the leak noise must travel this far along the pipe, and this wil l be heavily influenced by many factors including water pressure, pipe material and pipe diameter.

Which is the maximum measura ble pipe length a leak can be located depending on the material? Theoretically, the distance measured is entirely irrelevant, as in reality this distance is dictated by how far the leak noise travels. To ensure success the 'leak noise' must travel to both sensors and due to local conditions this can vary on every occasion.

Can you guarantee the equipment can transmit a minimum distance of 1 km in a built-up area? No - this cannot possibly be guaranteed, and the radio transm ission distance has no relevance in regards to leak location. To ensure success the 'leak noise' must travel to both sensors and due to local conditions this can vary on every occasion.

Why acoustic leak detection doesn't work as effectively in soft materials The sound propagation or wave from an energy source in a pipe structure that

A correlation requires both accelerometers to hear the leak.

does not contain a pressurised pillar of water, is sufficiently complex that this alone would not be suitable for an effective correlation. But luckily, with the pipe diameters and audible leak frequencies within a pressurised water distribution pipe network, there is a very homogenous mode of propagation of plain waves, which is ideal for correlation. What one measures is always - ALWAYS - the sound propagation in water; whether measured with a standard sensor 'accelerometer' on an outside contact point, or with a 'hydrophone' immersed directly in the water. Sound waves are in fact pressure waves which propagate in the water along the pipe network. If the pipe wall wou ld be totally rigid, the sound would propagate wit h a velocity of approx. 1485 m/sec. But in fact, the pipe material is never total ly rigid. It is what we refer to as 'elastic' (even steel). This very fact enables us to 'measure' the pressure wave in the water with highly sensitive sensors (referred to as accelerometers) on the outside of the pipe wal l. The usual point of contact is on the metallic valve spindle of a fu lly open valve. • To make things more complicated, this pressure wave not only travels in the water within the pipe (longitudinal) , but it can always also 'resonate' outwards (circumferent ial), with the effect that it is no longer pressed forward with the same vehemence . This has the effect that the sound velocity slows down to about 1200 m/sec in common metallic pipes. But since metal absorbs only a fraction of the sound energy, the sound with in the pressurised pillar of water still travels quite far. In plastic pipes the effect is quite different. Plastic pipes are much softer or as above much more 'elastic', typically reducing the sound velocity to between 300 - 600 m/sec, and in addition also absorbing sound energy. Therefore the sound waves become weaker and weaker as they travel along the pipe. There is also an additional and sometimes a more troublesome effect withi n plastic pipes this being the lack of high frequency noise. The high frequencies are much more 'deadened'

technical features


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pumping & pipelines per running meter than that of low frequencies, hence why on longer distances of plastic pipes, the low frequencies should always be measured to ensure that as much data as possible is recorded to optimise the correlation result. To summarise this point the actual sound velocity in water pipes depends upon and is influenced by the pipe material or the 'elasticity module' and ratio between diameter and wall thickness. There is a formula to calculate the sound velocity, though unfortunately, the operator does not normally know the wall thickness and elasticity module; this is why t he theoretical sound velocity as found preprogrammed in most correlators is always only an approximate value. This is why, to optimise t he accuracy of results from a correlation only, a professional operator should always measure the real on-site velocity and use this in the calculation, but in reality this is seldom completed so to confirm the result of leak position prior to excavation a ground microphone is used to surface sound above the indicated leak position. As a rule, the use of correlators is not always considered viable at extremely low frequencies, and so in many cases, especially on plastic pipes with low system pressures, the most practical methods of locating a leak available today still depend heavily on verification by means of 'surface sounding' along the path of the buried pipeline, with an electronic ground microphone or other similar device. Other acoustical methods can be devised, such as echosounding, but in reality the application in a water distribution network may prove hugely inhibitive, since a great number of echoes will occur from bends, service pipe connections, dimension changes and similar, and will prove to be extremely confusing to the operator.

And for the scientists amongst us With basic active leakage control knowjedge it may be possible to locate a leak, but it must be understood that acoustic leak detection is very complex, though it relies upon proven scientific theories .

Acoustics in pipes The general expression for the speed of sound in water is: C

= 1410 + 4 ,21t - 0,037t2 + 11,4s + 0,018d m/s

60 JUNE 2009 water

where t = temperature (degrees C) s= salinity (%) d= pressure (m water head) This equation is, however, only val id in a 'free field' (such as the ocean), but it can be used for assessing the influence of temperature, pressure and salinity. Salinity does of course not occur in water distribution pipes, and can be set to zero. It can be seen that pressure also plays a role, albeit a minor one. Temperature also has an influence over results, but in many countries the temperature in the water distribution system does not vary much over the year. In a pipe, there is no 'free field' , because the water body is confined by the pipe wall and so a sound will propagate only in one d irection; although it can, while propagating, bounce against the pipe wall. The speed of sound will be influenced by the wall

Conciu~onsandSome Thoughts on Future Research It can be seen that many factors have to be considered when looking at acoustic equipment for leakage detection and much thought has to be g iven to why leaks can sometimes be located and sometimes not. It must also be considered that when purchasing such equipment that a good understanding of the equipment should be had and one should not be fooled into believing that the equipment will find a leak every time in every situation on distances greater than 1 km, in reality and in practical urban site use, due to the surrounding influences, this is commonly less than 500m. The research conducted in recent years has provided a much greater understanding of the way in which leak noise propagates in softer 'elastic' plast ic water distribution pipes, and subsequently this has assisted

material - diameter, wall thickness, and its elasticity modulus. A general expression has been derived for the

manufacturers and research facilities in development of improved signal

speed of sound in water-filled pipes:

processing. To further improve the efficiency of acoustic leak detection, it

Vp= __ V0

J 1 + (EW.

_ __


(Ep. d) Where VP= sound velocity in the pipe V0 = sound velocity in free-field water Ew = modulus of elasticity of water Ep = modulus of elasticity of the pipe material D = inner diameter of pipe

is necessary to continue to explore techniques of measuring the wave speed in buried plastic water distribution pipes.

Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge help and assistance from Dr Claude Gutermann, Dr Helmut Lang and Dr Gosta Lange.

The Authors

d = pipe wall t hickness Evidently this expression is not suitable for use during normal practical field work, and the leakage technician will instead use pre-programmed tabulated values, or those derived from local experience and on-site velocity checks. But looking into the expression, it is clear that the softer a material (Ep ), the lower the velocity of sound in the pipe (Vp ) w ill be. And, as a generalisation, the larger the pipe diameter (D), the lower the velocity of sound (Vp). In reality, the sound veloc ity depends on the relatio nship between pipe diameter (D) and its wall thickness (d}; but as the pipe diameter (D) increases, so does its pipe wall thickness (d), explaining the decreasing sound velocity with increasing diameter.

Stuart Hamilton established Hydrosave and is now with the global water-loss company Miya.

Dale Hartley is Managing Director of Gutermann International. Both authors are currently part of a IWA initiative investigating acoustic leakage detection and the find ings will be produced later in 2009. Should anyone wish to contact the authors please do so at

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8 !i!!~nl}c!!J Factory 14, 11 Havelock Road, Bayswater VIC 3153 PO Box 640, Bayswater, Vic 3153 Ph: 03-8727 7800 Fax: 03-9729 8699 Email: .. au Web: Aerodyne is a leading supplier in our field of Valve Automation we boast one of the largest ranges of actuation and control products in the market, names such as Limitorque, Mastergear & Noah etc. Many of these products are stocked locally and can be provided as individual components through our vast reseller network or as custom designed assemblies providing creative solutions to end users many and varied application needs.

Contact: Ian Rowbottom Email: Ph: +612 8295 3600 Fax: +612 9262 5060 Web: When it comes to meeting the challenges of today and tomorrow, AECOM 's water team (formerly Maunsell AECOM) is working with industry developing competitive winning strategies and technical solutions. By applying class-leading management and engineering expertise to the planning, design, analysis and construction management of water systems, AECOM's water team is helping clients meet the needs of continued water efficiencies and alternative water sources.

Agilent Technologies ¡\ ( Agilent Technologies Tel: 1800 802 402 Email: Web: Contact: Sue Broughton Worldwide industry leader Agilent Technologies has launched the new resource for water analysis providing the latest information on modern analytical methods. Agilent provides instruments and technical applications to reliably measure trace levels of previously undetected compounds in water including pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, and endocrine disruptors. Specialists in environmental analysis with regulatory expertise Agilent Technologies has the solutions for all your water analysis needs.




Represented by: WaterCon 6 Juna Drive, Malaga, WA 6090 Tel: (08) 9248 1234 Fax: (08) 9248 1235 Email: Web: Contact: Danny Chrisp AIRVAC is a leading manufacturer and supplier of vacuum sewerage collection systems and WaterCon is its Australian representative. Expertise focuses on the design, construction and commissioning of water and wastewater pump stations, vacuum sewerage systems, chemical dosing and water treatment systems and associated infrastructure. AIRVAC Vacuum Sewerage Systems offer a cost effective environmentally sound alternative to traditional gravity sewerage systems. AIRVAC is the world leader in vacuum sewerage system technology with over 700 systems installed worldwide since the early 70s. Australia has over 1DD AIRVAC systems.

advertising feature

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See your Billing and Customer Management Specialist today!


Air & Hydraulic Systems Pty Limited

Andritz Pty Ltd



Aqualab Scientific Pty Ltd


E: W: Contact: John Coffey

Contact Details: 7 Darrambal Close, Rathmines NSW 2283; PO Box 557 Toronto NSW 2283 Phone: 02 4975 3633 Fax: 02 4975 3405 Contact: Peter Godwin,, Mob: 0448 817 745

AHS is a privately owned Australian company, specialising in the supply of Valves, Instruments, Tube, & Fittings for Water Treatment, Chemical Dosing, Desalination, Sewage Treatment and the Food Industry; all industries where Quality, Reliability and Long Life are essential. One of our most significant functions is our role in supplying quality valves and instruments to water filtration plants who in turn, provide communities with reliable supplies of safe, clean and healthy drinking water.

Andritz is a leading supplier of equipment for solidliquid separation including screens and sludge thickening/dewatering equipment. Our product range covers the entire spectrum of technologies for mechanical and thermal treatment of sludge from municipal and industrial water and wastewater treatment plants. It includes screens, gravity drainage decks, belt presses, chamber and membrane filter presses, centrifuge and continuous sand filters. Installation and repair services available.

Aqualab Scientific, industry leader in water quality and level monitoring instruments. HYDROLAB Water Quality Multiprobes for temp, pH, conductivity, luminescence dissolved oxygen, self-cleaning turbidity, chlorophyll a, blue-green algae, redox, depth etc. DIVER Temperature/Level/Conductivity Data Loggers for groundwater monitoring. TURNER DESIGNS Fluorometers for chlorophyll a, blue-green algae and dye trace studies. HACH/SIGMA Automatic Water Samplers and Flow Meters. OTT Level & Discharge Sensors.

ALS Laboratory Group

Aquacell Pty Ltd

Aquatec Environmental Group Pty Ltd

Air & Hyd,aullc


Pty Ltd

PO Box 419 Brookvale NSW 2100

T: 02 9939 6199 F: 02 9938 5972


aquacell _,,..*Y ""O


36/10 Gladstone Rd Castle Hill NSW 2154 Ph: 02 9894 4511 Fax: 02 9894 4522 Email: Web: .au Contact: Adam Merhab



Sydney, Australia: Phone: + 61 2 8784 8555 Direct: + 61 2 8784 8504 Fax: + 61 2 8784 8500

1/26 Megalong St, Katoomba NSW 2780 Australia P: 02 4782 3300 F: 02 4782 3211 Contact: Colin Fisher CEO

Largest range of NATA accredited services via the ALS national network of environmental laboratories and offices in Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Newcastle, Adelaide, Mackay, Townsville and Launceston.Specialist testing capabilities tailored towards catchment, drinking, recycled and general water quality monitoring including Algae, Trace Nutrients, MIB, Geosmin, NDMA, 1,4 Dioxane, Dioxins, PCB, Ultratrace Metals and Organics. Superior quality backed by a strict QA/QC protocol and compliance reporting. Superior service delivery/ Project management/Technical support.

Water is a precious commodity. At Aquacell, we're committed to preserving it. We provide world - leading water recycling solutions to business, industry and government organisations.Recycled water schemes require expert support. For organisations that value confidence, Aquacell recycled water solutions combine innovative design with total project expertise. We provide an integrated approach including consulting, systems, installation, project management and on-going service. Aquacell Water Recycling Solutions offer world leading technology, expertise and experience.

Amiad Australia Pty Ltd

Aqua Environmental

g ~JIII~.~138 Northcorp Boulevard, Broad meadows Vic 3047 Ph 03 9358 5800 or 1300 4 AMIAD Fax 03 9358 5888 Email Web: CEO: Nir Lang Amiad Water Systems is a professional water filtration and flow control valve company, with 30 years operation and service to the water industry in Australia. Our products and services include Amiad manual and automatic screen, disc, thread, and pressure media fi lters; ARI air valve products, (raw, potable, and wastewater application); Dorot automatic control valves; Amiad Water Treatment and packaged equipment solutions (including membrane systems); Amiad Service Team supporting field installations.

Phone: 1800 264 262 Locations: Australia Wide. Email: Website: Contact: Hugh Chapman Aqua Environmental are providers of high quality water main leak detection services throughout Australia. We have over thirty years experience in the water industry and are able to customise our services to meet client requirements. Our dedicated team is focused on exceeding client expectations by continually attaining outstanding results. Specialists in: Leak Detection Surveys, Acoustic Leak Detection, Trunk Main Leakage, Leak Correlation, Urgent Call Outs.

PO Box 841 , Shepparton VIC 3631 Freecall: 1800 852 782 Fax: (03) 5831 4588 Email: Web: Aquatec Environmental Group specialise in supplying products and services to the water and wastewater industries. Aquatec's products and services are ideally suited to meet the needs of consulting engineers, councils, water authorities, civil contractors, plumbers, and developers. Aquatec offer a wide range of products including: Concrete, Fibreglass and Polyethylene Pump Stations; Sewerage, Stormwater & Pollutant Removal Products; Pressure Sewer; Water Supply; Dosing, Metering & Monitoring; Greywater Reuse; Sewerage Treatment.

Aquatec-Maxcon Pty Ltd



119 Toongarra Road, Ipswich, Old, 4305 Ph: 07 3813 7100 Fax: 07 3813 7199 Email: Web: Contact: Paul Kwong/Ron Howick Aquatec-Maxcon Pty Ltd project manages, designs, fabricates, installs and commissions a comprehensive range of water and wastewater treatment equipment for municipal and industrial applications based on world's best practice. Equipment sourced by Aquatec-Maxcon, under contract are: Trojan UV systems, Siemens Turbomachinery blowers, Capstone micro-turbines generators, Vortisand centrifugal pressure sand filters, GVA and Suprafilt fine bubble diffusers and Paques anaerobic digestion processes.


JUNE 2009 63

Danfoss (Australia) Pty Ltd

DHI Water and Environment Pty Ltd



Drives Division Ph: 03 9703 5148 Mob. 0438 014 510 Email: Web: Contact: Ben Ziccone, Pacific Business Area Manager - Water & Energy Danfoss Drives is a leading supplier of Variable Speed Drive and Soft Starter solutions to the Water & Wastewater sector in Australia, with over 35 years experience. The extensive product range includes the VLT" AQUA Drive type FC202 and VLT" Soft Starters type MCD100/200/500, as well as advanced harmonic filters, application & communication options. The company offers technical sales and service support facilities in all major Australian states, including 1800 afterhours contact service.

DCM Process Control

~p~~ Ph: 1300 735 123 (Only available in Australia) Ph: 03 9417 0254 Fax: 03 9417 0294 422A Brunswick Street, Fitzroy, Vic, 3065 James Laverty - Senior Technical Specialist

Suite 1801 /Level 8, 56 Scarborough St Southport QLD 4215 Tel: +61 7 5564 0916 Fax: +61 7 5564 0946 Contact: Stefan Szylkarski, Managing Director Email:

Dwyer Instruments is a world leader in instrumentation solutions, offering products for level, pressure, flow, and temperature applications. With corporate offices in Michigan City, Indiana, products are sold globally via Dwyer offices in Australia and the UK. Dwyer Instruments Pty Ltd was formed in Australia in 1987 to ensure better local availability, through conveniently held stock and weekly airfreight shipments. We have factory trained technical back-up staff with experience and understanding of the needs of the local market.


Ecolab Water Care Services

l)e TMAlf Victoria & Tasmania 30-32 Garden Boulevard, Dingley VIC 3172 Tel: +61 (03) 9552 4444 Fax: +61 (03) 9552 4400 Email: dotvic Web: Contact: Mishel Metcalf BRANCHES: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia & Northern Territory, Western Australia Dotmar is Australia's leading engineering plastics company specialising in the distribution, design, and manufacture of high quality engineering plastics, polyurethane and spare components to the water industry. We provide technical guidance support to complement our comprehensive range of materials such as UHMWPE (Polystone, Nylon (Ertalon), Polypropylene (PP) or HOPE (Polystone P300). Dotmar carries a wide range of products and spare parts which are used by firms operating across various segments in the water industry.

Dematec Water

Dow Chemical (Australia) Ltd



by dosogn.

Australian and NZ representative for the FTC panel water storage tanks 0439 520 020 08 837 4 7600 Contact: Robert Debelle, General Manager Dematec Water supplies externally reinforced GRP panel water tanks in Australia and the Pacific region. These enormously strong and light tanks are approved ASNZS4020 for potable water and can be assembled in buildings as new or replacement tanks. Externally reinforced GRP tanks are ideal for desalination and water treatment plants because there is no metal inside the tank. Tanks are completely sealed and made precisely to order, leaving a clean and safe work site.

66 JUNE 2009 water

9 Contact: Andre Jonker Email: Ph: (02) 4272 2055 Fax: (02) 4272 4055 Web:

DHl's leading edge MIKE by OHi water modelling software and solutions software are the global industry standard for urban water, marine and water resource management and planning. MIKE by OHi software is used by water utilities, government agencies and consultants globally and within Australia. DHl's products and services are provided by a local team of water modelling specialists across Australia, backed by our global network of over 800 technical specialists.

DCM Process Control is a specialist supplier of nutrient analysis equipment to the water and wastewater industries, for process control and monitoring purposes. Our philosophy is to provide specialist knowledge not only of the analysers themselves but also of the process control possibilities available. This is achieved by utilising the data supplied by the sensing systems. Our aim is to take out the guesswork. Full analyser driven diversion packages and mobile environmental monitoring stations are available in addition to the simple supply of equipment.

Dematec Water

Dwyer Instruments Pty Ltd

~ Water & Process Solu tions




ECOLAB. Freecall 1800 022 002 Freecall Fax 1800 655 679 6 Hudson Avenue, Castle Hill NSW 2154 Private Bag 24, Castle Hill NSW 1765 Email: Web: National Marketing Manager: Frank Rodriguez Ecolab is one of Australia's largest specialty chemical companies and the largest provider of industrial chemical specialty products and services in the Southern Hemisphere. Water Care Services provides a total system approach that begins when water enters the plant continues at each point of use and then ensures that any water leaving the plant meets local regulations. Ecolab's total system approach incorporates consulting, technical service, equipment and chemical solutions.


Ecology Partners Pty Ltd


ecology partners 420 Victoria Street, Brunswick, 3056

PO Box 237, Frenchs Forest NSW 1640 Tel: (03) 9226 3500 Fax: (02) 9776 3196 Contact: Cushla Connolly Email: Web:

Contact: Cameron Amos, Senior Aquatic Ecologist


Dow Water & Process Solutions has a 50 year legacy of providing innovative water and process solutions to both communities and industries. A business unit of The Dow Chemical Company, offering a broad portfolio of ion exchange resins, reverse osmosis membranes, ultrafiltration membranes and electrodeionisation products, with strong positions in a number of applications including industrial and municipal water, industrial processes, pharmaceuticals, power, residential water and waste and water reuse.

Ecology Partners Pty. Ltd. is a professional ecological consultancy providing high quality technical services in the field of ecological assessment, research and management. We provide effective and innovative terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna advice to a range of government agencies and private clients. Services include water quality and macroinvertebrate monitoring, fish surveys, riparian assessments, IWC and ISC, threatened species management plans, and strategic and statutory aquatic ecology planning advice.


PO Box 298, Brunswick, Vic 3056 Phone: (03) 99401411 Fax: (03) 9381 0700 Email:


Spcci;i lists 111

prov i:;1011 of l1in l1 q u;il1ty lri;1k ci f) l (cClio 11 SCIV IC()S.


Willer 111;1 i11

1800 26-4 262 www.aQuaenvironmental .com Reducing Water Leakage across Australia

Ecowise Environmental 611 l~I~

Ecowise Environmental .au Telephone: 1300 326 947 Facsimile: 02 62707631 Ecowise Environmental is Australia's leading provider of specialist environmental services delivering innovative, efficient and cost effective solutions through tailored services. These include: 1. Analytical Services 2. Monitoring and Technical Services (MATS) 3. Consulting 4. Geographic Information Solutions (GIS). Ecowise has 17 offices across Australia. All laboratories are NATA accredited and are equipped with modern laboratory instrumentation to ensure reliable and timely results.

E.D.A.C. Electronics Australia Pty Ltd



Suite 6, 173 Boronia Road , Boronia, Victoria 3155 Ph: 03 9762 6244 Fax: 03 9762 6255 Email: Web: Contact: Bill Kennedy/Mark Barrie E.D.A.C. Electronics has been the leading supplier of Process & Industrial Alarm, Monitoring and Control equipment for nearly 20 years to Utilities and a host of Industrial and Government clients. Our products include: Auto alarm diallers - voice, SMS & email, Land Line or Cellular (GSM & NextG/3G); SMS alarm monitors, remote controllers & data loggers (GSM & NextG/3G); Radio Telemetry (license free & licensed) & Industrial Wireless Modems (UHF, Spread Spectrum 900MHz & Wi-Fi); ScadaPhone software auto alarm dialler - uses voice, SMS & email to convey alarms etc from SCADA packages

Eimco Water Technologies


1/398 The Boulevarde, Kirrawee NSW 2232 Tel: 02 9542 2366 Email: Web: Contact: John Koumoukelis, National Sales Manager - Industrial/Municipal EIMCO Water Technologies (EWT) delivers sustainable engineered solutions to the water industry in both the industrial and municipal sector. AJM Environmental Services Pty Ltd is now part of Eimco Water Technologies. AJM specialise in the field of industrial wastewater treatment, water repurification and offer a range of proprietary solid liquid separation equipment. Process equipment includes AJM EnviroDAF™ Dissolved Air Flotation, EnviroSEP™ Oil Separation, HUBER Technology, J+A/Brackett Green Intake Screens, EnviroEquip® Bio-Plants and EWT Clarification.

Environdata Weather Stations Pty Ltd

EPCO Australia


42-44 Percy Street, Warwick OLD 4370 Tel: (07) 4661 4699 Fax:(07) 4661 2485 Email: Contact: Matthew Probets

PO Box 111 Sumner Park OLD, 4074 Ph: 07-3279-3276 Fax: 07-3279-4250 Email: Web: Contact: Grant Cobbin

Environdata is the Australian weather station specialist. We design and manufacture weather stations and weather sensors in Australia for Australian conditions. 28 years experience and technical expertise provides you with a weather monitoring solution to suit your needs with service and support to back it up. Track odour drift, monitor evaporation rates, rainfall totals and intensities, to truly know your local weather so you can make the best decisions possible.

EPCO Australia has over 35 years' experience in the wastewater treatment industry. We design, manufacture, install and commission all types of wastewater treatment systems including comprehensive water reclamation plants and upgrades to existing facilities. Our systems range in size from 25 person compact package plants to the more extensive systems suited to 250 DOD person municipal works. We specialise in providing solutions for remote and environmentally sensitive areas.

Environmental &Process Technologies (a division of Biolab Aust Pty Ltd)


& Process Technologl es _,._~tl<H.AI

Phone: 1300 735 295 Contact: Jeremy Bell Email: Environmental & Process Technologies excel in delivering a range of specialised technology focused products, professional applications support and instrumentation servicing into the municipal, industrial and environmental analysis, monitoring and treatment markets. We source cutting edge technology to provide laboratory, environmental and process solutions. Our products and services cover applications for field, laboratory, on-line analysis, monitoring and treatment in the market segments of potable water, wastewater, sludge, air, gas and industrial processes.

Environmental Systems &Services


8 River Street Richmond VIC 3121 Australia Tel + 61 3 8420 8999 I Fax + 61 3 8420 8900 Email: Contact: George Dutka ES&S is an advanced technology company, specialising in solutions in environmental and allied fields such as meteorology, hydrology, seismology, oceanography, air quality, and geotechnical engineering. ES&S manufactures, distributes SENSORS, LOGGERS and TELEMETRY solutions for monitoring rivers, dams, catchments tide levels, channels and other waterways. MONITORING SOLUTIONS: Water Monitoring, Structural Monitoring, Seismic Monitoring, Level & Flow, Piezeometers, Blast Monitoring, Turbidity & Salinity, Tiltmeters, Earthquake Monitoring, Weather Stations, Inclinometers, Tide Gauges, Accelerographs.

Exel Composites


991, Mountain Hwy, Boronia, Vic 3155 Tel: 03 8727 9600 Fax: 03 8727 9688 email: Web: Contact: Stephen Smith - National Sales Manager. Exel Composites is a global leader in the manufacture of high strength fibre reinforced composites with nine manufacturing plants worldwide. The Melbourne and Brisbane operations specialise in Engineering, Design and Construction of a range of corrosion resistant solutions for the water treatment industry including Odour Covers, Access Stairways, Platforms, Safety Handrail and Cable Management.

Gentrack Pty Ltd

Gentrack Level 9, 390 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004 Ph: 03 9867 91 DO Fax: 03 9867 9140 Email: Web: Contact: Bill Fisher Gentrack is a specialist billing and CRM solutions provider for Australian water utility companies. Backed by local support and development teams, and built for rapid and low risk deployment, our flagship products - Gentrack Velocity and Gentrack NOW! are 'Best of Breed' solutions, proven in over 40 utilities worldwide. Gentrack's solutions deliver exceptional value with integrated workflow tools, a web-browser interface and utility specific CRM capabilities to support water conservation strategies and to transform the customer experience.


JUNE 2009 67

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Thermoplastic Components and Vessels for Dosing,

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. Desalination, Water Treatment and Water Storage

: • ""• (Includes sprockets, gears, water chain, wear strips, I.~ .. •• •• · ' ;1 sedimentation flights, scrubbers, screens etc.) UI



International Chemicals Engineering Pty Ltd

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Phone: 03 9792 4844 Email: www. Kym Williams, Glenn Alford I.C.E was established in 1992, and is the Australian home for all Pulsafeeder products. The Pulsafeeder range includes solenoid driven dosing pumps, mechanical diaphragm pumps, hydraulic backed diaphragm pumps, specialised gear and centrifugal pumps, measurement & control instrumentation, including pH and Conductivity. Level and calibration gauges. I.C.E prides itself on customer satisfaction. We provide detailed solutions from design, engineering and fabrication commissioning and training of all chemical injection and metering projects.

International WaterCentre INTERNA T IONAL





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Level 16, 333 Ann Street, Brisbane, OLD 4000 PO Box 10907, Adelaide St, Brisbane, OLD 4000 Tel: 61 7 3123 7766 Fax: 61 7 3103 4574 Contact: Mark Pascoe, CEO The International WaterCentre (IWC) is dedicated to providing the most advanced education and training , applied research and consulting to develop capacity and promote whole-of-water cycle approaches to water management around the world.

Invisible Structures Pty Ltd Invisibl Structurp_q~7~.,,..-


Jaybro Civil &Safety Products


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Pip c li11 cs


1800 170 001

lplex Pipelines (Aust) Pty Ltd

Corner South Pine and Johnstone Roads (PO Box 5160), Brendale, OLD 4500 Ph: 13 18 40 Fax: 13 18 60 Email: Web: Contact: Don Tasevski

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Ph: 1300 885 364 Fax: 1300 885 374 E: W: Contact: Trent Joyce

At lplex Pipelines, we offer Australia's most complete range of thermoplastic and ductile iron pipes and fittings, ranging from DN15 to DN3000. Whilst our focus is on the carriage of water, our pipes are suitable for the carriage of gas, oil and cabling. Our markets include Infrastructure, Water Supply, Sewerage, Plumbing, Irrigation, Gas, Stormwater, Electrical and Telecommunications. Our engineers, polymer technologists and technicians are available to assist in all aspects of pipeline design and installation.

Jaybro is a supplier of safety, civil & site supplies to the construction industry. Jaybro is a family owned business with warehouses in all states. Jaybro offers large stocks and very fast delivery direct to site; these products include, signs, road safety, harnesses, gas detectors, confined space entry equipment, tools, site supplies, environmental products, access equipment and much more. Jaybro can offer very competitive prices as we manufacture or import over 70% of our own products ... call now for priced catalogue.

ITT Residential &Commercial Water

Kellogg Brown &Root Pty Ltd

&ITT Unit 3/1 Federation Way, Chifley Business Park, Mentone, VIC 3194 Phone: (03) 9551 7333 Fax: (03) 9551 0321 Contact: Joan Christie Email: Web: ITT is one of the world's premier manufacturers of pumps, systems and services for the movement and control of water within the Residential, Commercial and Agricultural/Irrigation markets. Our leading position comes from customer trust, brand loyalty and great quality products. Major Brands in Australia and New Zealand include Lowara's Stainless Steel pumps and Hydrovar variable frequency drives and controls & Goulds Pumps for agricultural, commercial and light industrial applications.

ITT Water &Wastewater Australia Limited


ph 03 5263 1997 fx 03 5263 2024 e Main contact - Jack Droomer

Contact Details: 13 19 14

Rainstore3 - Safe, secure stormwater management. Modular, underground system, manufactured in Melbourne from 100% recycled high spec polypropylene and warranted. Unique design flexibility - depths in 100mm increments over any footprint. Ideal for large scale projects - recent installations up to 3.5MI. Economical - installed can be under $0.20 per litre! Extreme load bearing capacity. Simple and rapid site assembly - surface is immediately trafficable by any road legal vehicle.

ITT Water & Wastewater is a leading global player in the water business. The company's products and integrated solutions make the transportation and treatment of water and wastewater possible for customers worldwide. We are the grand total of our outstanding product brands, Flygt, Sanitaire, Wedeco and Leopold. As a leader in product innovation and system engineering technology, the company creates value for customers by offering complete product, design, installation and service packages.


200 Greenhill Rd , Eastwood, SA 5063 Ph: (08) 8301 1234 Fax: (08) 8301 1301 Email: Contact: Mark Gabbie, Director, Water - Asia Pacific KBR is one of Australia's leading providers of design and engineering services to the water industry, with over 500 full time staff engaged on water projects throughout the region. Our award-winning work over 50 years for both private and public sector customers includes: Total water cycle management; Water and wastewater treatment; Sewage collection and water distribution; Desalination and other membrane technologies; Large scale pipeline and pump station schemes incorporating near-shore engineering inputs; Advanced configuration and 30 modelling with Optioneer®; Biosolids management and odour modelling and control.

KSB Australia Pty Ltd

Ksa 6J 27 lndwe St Tottenham Vic, 3012 Ph: 03 9314 0611 Fax: 03 9314 7435 Email: Web: Contact: Harry Katunar KSB is one of the world's largest pump and valve manufacturers with production and sales facilities in more than 100 countries. With a full range of pumping equipment suitable for water and wastewater industries, including a newly expanded mixer program, design flexibility is increased. KSB also service the Building, Fire Services, Energy, Industry, Process and Mining markets. All KSB pumps are backed by a comprehensive 24 hour emergency breakdown service worldwide.


JUNE 2009 69

McBerns Pty Ltd ~


69 Running Creek Rd, YANDINA OLD 4561 PO Box 304 YANDINA OLD 4561 PH: 61 7 5446 7167; FAX: 61 7 5446 7162 Email: Web:



Nirosoft Australia Pty Ltd


Level 2, 39-41 Chandos St, St. Leonards, NSW 2065 Ph: (02) 9493 9700 Fax: (07) 9493 9799 Email: Web:

McBerns Pty Ltd specialise in problems associated with maintenance and odour management in sewage collection systems. McBerns Odour Filters are a fast & economical way to eliminate odours. McBerns Safety Lids are custom made and seal tight to prevent odour emission and rain infiltration. Safety Grate enhances WH&S at open wells. McBerns AutoWellWasher™ keeps pump stations clean and fat free, reduces corrosion and odours using as little as 1OOlts water per day.

MWH is a global engineering, construction, technology and consulting company, recognised for its leadership in water, wastewater, infrastructure development and environmental management. MWH combines global experience and expertise with local knowledge and understanding to serve the Australian market. Our clients include local and international organisations from both public and private sectors. MWH offers a wide range of services in the following discipline areas:Engineering & Technical Services; Program Management & Management;Consulting.

Microns to Measure

Natural Resources Commission ,_

natural • resources

c ommi ss i o n


42 Ramsden Street, Clifton Hill VIC 3068 POBox 335, Clifton Hill VIC 3068 Ph: 03 9481 3451 Fax: 03 9481 3451 Contact: Pearson Cresswell Mob: 0419 396 049 Email: Web: .au Since 1995, Microns to Measure has been providing customers all over Australia with a fast and economical Particle Size Analysis service, determining particle size in everything from Acrylics to Zircon. We measure particle size of suspended solids and sediments in waters of many types, including natural waters, water supply, irrigation, process water, cooling water and waste water. We also analyse powders, dusts, pastes and emulsions.

Monadelphous Group Ltd

II Monadelphous Lvl 6, 19 Lang Pde (PO Box 1872) Milton QLD 4064 Tel: +617 3368 6700 Fax: +617 3368 6777 Email: Contact: Kevin James Monadelphous has a team of experienced professionals with specialised water industry knowledge and expertise. Our team has a track record in water resources management and water and wastewater design, construction, operation and maintenance. Capabilities extend across the lifecycle of water infrastructure, from concept, design and construction to commissioning and operation of water facilities. Projects include: Burpengary East STP Upgrade, Wyndham WTP, Bargara WWTP and Lake Cathie/Bonny Hills STP.

70 JUNE 2009 w ater

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GPOBox 4206 Sydney NSW 2001 Level 1O, 15 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, NSW, 2000 Tel: 02 8227 4300 Fax: 02 8227 4399 Email: Website: www.nrc. The Natural Resources Commission (NRC) provides credible, independent advice to the NSW Government on managing the state's natural resources in an integrated manner to maintain landscapes that are resilient, function effectively, and support environmental, economic, social and cultural values. The NRC reports to the Premier, reflecting its independent nature.

NHP Electrical Engineering Products Pty Ltd


We know th e va l u e of w at e r

Ravid Levy, Regional Manager 737 Burwood Rd. Hawthorn VIC Australia 3122 P: +61 (0)3 8862 6405 F: +61 (0)3 8862 6600 M: +61 (0)414 271 773 E: W: Nirosoft provides advanced tailored water treatment solutions, including process & engineering design, manufacturing, commissioning, training and service for a wide range of applications, such as: Seawater and brackish water desalination for drinking & irrigation using UF & RO membranes; Municipal and industrial effluent recycling using DAF, media filtration UF & RO membranes; Ultra-Pure/ demineralised water for industrial, pharmaceutical & power applications, using RO & EDI.

NOV Mono

II Mono® Contact Person: Mr James Wyatt Email: and 1800 333 138 Mono provides the waste water industry with a complete range of PC transfer & sludge pumps, pressure sewer systems (PSS). screening solutions, grinding, macerating and muncher products along with a full range of quality spare parts and Universal parts to suit all major brands of PC pumps. We also provide further solutions through installation, commissioning and service contracts to enhance the longevity of your equipment.

Nubian Water Systems

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Website: Email: Ph: 1300 NHP NHP Fax: + 61 3 9429 1075 Contact: Alastair Dwyer

Unit 3 Gateway Business Park, 63-79 Parramatta Road Silverwater, NSW 2128 P.O. Box 7039 Silverwater BC, NSW 2128 T: +61 2 9647 2633 F: +61 2 9647 2977 www. .au

NHP Electrical Engineering Products Pty Ltd specialises in industrial switchgear and automation, bringing together leading products, systems and solutions from key application categories - motor control, power distribution, hazardous location, sensing and detection, safety and protection, monitoring and display, enclosures and termination, control and switching and power quality. NHP are also specialists in the Automation and Communication area and are now authorised distributors for Rockwell Automation and their Allen-Bradley® products. This means NHP is now partnered with the leading global provider of industrial automation solutions and switchgear components.

Nubian's vision is to be the primary source of recycling and purification systems at the local level. Nubian manufactures innovative and robust waste water and recycling products for the Australian market with an intention to compete and export in the global market. In addition Nubian selects products for import and distribution that ensure a comprehensive portfolio of products are available to customers for water treatment and management in Australia. Nubian is owned by investors with the vision and commitment to address the great challenge faced by Australia, and globally in the 21st Century, the maintenance of adequate supplies of clean drinking water.

Odour Control Systems (Aust) Pty Ltd

Patrick,Charles Pty Ltd

Peril Pty Ltd

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Phone (02)9439 0000, Fax (02)9437 9299 email web Contact: Sales - John O'Loughlin, Admin: Jane Allen


With 20 years experience and specialist knowledge in the wastewater field, OCS provide a diverse range of technologies in liquid or air phase odour control, as well as septicity monitoring and investigation. Our services include supply, operation and maintenance of chemical dosing systems for odour control, biofilters, activated carbon filters, odour neutralising systems, as well as the McBerns range of vent filters, well washers and pump boots.

PCPL is an Australian company that commenced business in 1987. It specialises in the design and supply of water and wastewater treatment equipment, with particular specialisation in aerators and aeration. Brand names include ASPIRO and ASPIRO PLUS aspirating aerators, SURFAIR surface aerators, slow speed and submersible aerators and mixers, AOUAFLOAT Induced air flotation aerators and systems, D-CANT floating liquid decanters.

Peril Water Ply Ltd manages the design, commissioning and operation of water treatment, wastewater and reclamation plants and is a provider of other water project engineering services. Peril Water Ply Ltd specialises in the commissioning of large water and waste water infrastructure projects (Southern Regional Water Pipeline Alliance). With our many years of experience, Peril Water Pty Ltd is well practiced in commissioning to deadlines.

Orica Watercare

Peerless Industrial Systems Pty Ltd

Philmac Pty Ltd

PO Box 179, 8-12 Power St, Islington NSW 2296 Tel: +61(0)2 4961 6185 Fax: +61 (0)2 4969 4218 Email: Web: Contact: Brad Levey

e - 78 Underwood Road, Eight Mile Plains, OLD 4113 Contact: Greg Peril- Director m - 0438 380 453

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1 Nicholson Street, Melbourne Victoria 3000 Phone: 1300 555 040 Fax: 1300 555 070 Email: Web: Contact: David Hardy +61 3 9665 7496

Perth (08 9477 3788), Melbourne (0408 949 368), Brisbane (0411 734 642)

Orica Watercare has over 80 years experience in the manufacture, delivery and application of chemicals in water treatment processes. We are also manufacture ultraviolet disinfection and membrane equipment. We can design any chemical storage and dosing system through a dedicated team of in-house specialists. Orica Watercare offers a turn-key solution for integrated water projects, with in-house design, manufacture, installation and commissioning all under IS09001 Project Management trained engineers.

Contact: Nick Subotsch Making and marketing the Epigen range, products include linings for Potable & WWTP's, acid & aggressive chemicals, process tanks, non-skid flooring, pump repair & rebuilding, joint sealants, adhesives, grouts & backing compounds. Projects include the full provision of linings for the Merrimac WTP on the Gold Coast, Rosedale Auckland WWTP. Past projects include Perths WA21 innovative WWTP, and Landers Shute Water TP north of Brisbane. Water Industry products are AS4020 approved.

Pall Australia

Pentair Water Australia

@y Pall Corporation 1-2 Wandarri Court, Cheltenham, VIC 3192 Phone: 03 9584 8100 Fax: 03 9584 6647 Email: Web: Pall Corporation is a $3 billion company and market leader in specialist filtration and separation technologies operating throughout the world and based in Australia for 30 years. For the water processing market Pall Aria™ filtration systems feature Microza rM the toughest membranes in the industry. Aria are flexi bl e, pre-engineered systems designed to filter ground and surface waters, sea water and secondary effluent for reuse.


2 Redwood Drive, Notting Hill Victoria 3168 Australia Tel: 1300 050 973 Email: Web: Pentair is a leading global provider of water technology and equipment for the commercial, industrial, agricultural, municipal and residential markets; making filtration, purification, water treatment, pump and systems solutions. With 2008 revenues of $3.35 billion and approximately 15,000 employees, Pentair is thoroughly immersed in major projects and water businesses all over the world.

The connection you can trust:

Ph: 1800 755 899 Contact: Jason Mitchell Philmac is a global leader in the design and manufacture of specialist pipe fittings and valves, providing cost-effective solutions for the transfer, control and application of water. Philmac developed the world's first all-plastic compression fittings for polyethylene (PE) pipe in 1968 and remains a world leader in PE connections.

Pipe and Civil Constructions Pty Ltd

60 Kingsford Smith Drive, Albion, OLD 4010 Tel: 07-3262-4600 Fax: 07-3262-6448 Email: Website: Contact: Jim Campbell Pipe and Civil Constructions (P&C) is a leader in the water pipeline industry. P&C has been involved in Australia's largest water infrastructure projects including construction of pipelines, pump stations and associated structures. P&C has implemented an integrated management system that ensures the highest level of quality, safety and environmental management in our projects. Our expertise and experience, along with our professional management team, a dedicated workforce and our modern plant fleet are keys to our success. P&C offers tailored solutions that consistently exceed our clients' and stakeholders' expectations.


JUNE 2009 71


Rad-tel Systems Pty Ltd

·~ t e l h tegoted Wo'.e< Monogemool

Ph: 03 9563 7666 Fax: 03 9563 7722 4 Jacks Rd, Oakleigh South, Victoria 3167 Email: Web: Contact: Nigel Langridge

19/10 Pioneer Avenue , Thornleigh NSW 2120 Phone: 02 9479 3900 Fax: 02 9875 4393 Email: Website: Contact: Adrian Nisbet

Piping & Automation Systems is a supply and solutions company for the broad industrial and process piping industries. Specialising in Hi strength PVC-U, C-PVC, ABS, PP-H, PVDF and HOPE. A stocking distributor for George Fischer Australia, we hold a comprehensive range of pipes, valves, fittings, variable area flow meters and flow instruments from signet scientific.

Rad-tel Systems is an Australian based engineering company focusing on automation and control in the water and sewerage industry. Our customers include over 100 shire and regional councils and water authorities between New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. These range in size from small regional towns to cities like the Gold Coast and Mackay Regional Council.

PPI Corporation Pty Ltd

RePipe Pty Ltd


Rubicon Systems Australia RUBICON SYSl EM5 AUSTRALIA

1 Cato St, Hawthorn East, Melbourne, VIC 3123 Ph: (03) 9832-3000 Email: Website: Director: Tony Oakes Rubicon is leading the world in the modernisation of irrigation systems. Total Channel Control® technology has set a new International benchmark of 90% distribution efficiency. The FlumeGate ™ provides accurate flow measurement and control for TCC®. Rubicon has pioneered water delivery technology for more than 1Oyears. Rubicon is a Motorola Reseller Partner, offering Moscad and ACE RTU solutions for management and control of Water and Wastewater for urban and rural Utilities.

Siemens 40 Prosperity Place, Geebung OLD 4034 PO Box 55, Geebung OLD 4034 Tel: (07) 3860 0388 Fax: (07) 3860 0392 Email:, Contact: Ph ii Stolz PPI is a leading manufacturer and supplier of products for water supply, drainage, irrigation and domestic watering with manufacturing sites, warehouses and sales facilities in Australia and New Zealand. PPI manufactures polyethylene pipe up to 800mm. Our capabilities include special colours, solid, striped or jacketed pipe. PPI now offers an extensive range of Elofit Electrofusion fittings which has been introduced to provide quality products and support for the expanding polyethylene pipe market.

Promains Group

Tel: 1300 REPIPE Web: Email: Address: 4 Roxburghe Drive The Vines, WA 6069 Contact: Jaqueline Outram, Chief Executive Officer Direct: 08-9297-4459 Mobile: 04-1888-1333 Email: RePipe provides premier-quality underground pipe replacement services. As part of our service, RePipe holds the exclusive rights to a wide range of worldleading trenchless technologies, originally developed and patented by TRIG Inc (USA). Whilst RePipe's exclusive technologies replace underground pipes, our service teams manage the risks. RePipe's own internally-developed risk management framework goes well beyond zero harm to ensure our activities echo positive benefits (Echo-Nomics™).

Research Laboratory Services Pty Ltd


a=Jg~ ae~ RESWCK~fJlv LTO

P: 1300 PROMAINS E: W:

PO Box 50, 17/23 Susan St, Eltham VIC 3095 Phone: (03) 9431 2595 Fax: (03) 9437 2611 Email: Website: Contact: Peta Thiel

Promains are specialty suppliers of pipe, fittings and valve packages in DI, PVC, GRP and PE to the Australian Water Industry. With over 300 years collective industry experience, our expert staff set the standard for reliability in service and supply for water, irrigation and mining supply, and reticulation piping systems. With capabilities including estimating, design, warehousing and supply logistics under our IS09001 :2000 accredited Quality Assurance management system.

A consulting and testing company specialising in ozone and activated carbon. Plant auditing, optimisation, treatment recommendations and operator training; Activated Carbon Application Studies - which carbon is best for your requirements; Carbon Testing - make sure your product meets your suppliers datasheet; Specialist water testing Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Carbon (BDOC), Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC); BAG aging profiles - determine the life of your long term asset. "Over 10 Years Serving The Water Industry"

72 JUNE 2009 water

SIEMENS 885 Mountain Highway, Bayswater Vic 3153 Tel: 131 773 Fax: 1300 651 280 Email: Website: Contact: Tony Handakas Siemens is a diversified technology based solutions provider specialising in the areas of water, energy, environment, healthcare, productivity, mobility, safety and security. We offer an extensive range of solutions, specifically designed to meet the pressing needs of the water and wastewater industries. Our innovative technologies encompass a comprehensive range of solutions in water re-use and purification including membrane technologies, biological treatment, clarification, biosolids management, odour control, chemical feed, disinfection and filtration.

Spray Nozzle Engineering

~ SprayNozzle ENGINEERING Tota l Spraying Solutions

1-8/27 Shearson Crescent, Mentone VIC 3194 Phone: +613 9583 2368 Fax:+613 9585 0218 email: web: Contact: Dirk LaBrooy Spray Nozzle Engineering supply industrial spray nozzles anywhere in industry where liquid and/or air is to be used for cleaning, coating, cooling, scrubbing or environmental control. We specialise in Clean In Place systems and water-saving washdown spray nozzles, such as the Mini-M70LF washdown gun, which recently received the Smart Approved WaterMark.


Sydney Water Monitoring Services Sy dney

WATER Contact: Ian Mackenzie Email: Ph: (02) 9800 6825 Mob: 040043541 4 Fax: (02) 9800 6741 Web: Our analytical services cover a wide range of NATAaccredited, algal,microbiological and chemical tests in a single Sydney facility. Services delivered by Sydney Water Monitoring Services include the analysis of: saline/desalination water samples; cryptosporidium, bacteriophage and viruses in water/recycled water; water/wastewater samples from local and state government bodies.

Tenix Alliance

I Tenix¡ Level 5, 600 St Kilda Road Melbourne VIC 3004 Phone: 03 8517 9000 Fax: 03 8517 9062 Contact: Paul Miller - Business Development Manager, Water Tenix Alliance provides innovative water, wastewater, recycled water and drainage infrastructure solutions, tailored to meet the needs of an increasingly challenging market. With over thirty years experience in the water sector, we provide cradle-to-grave services for water infrastructure delivery, including project management, design, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation and asset management. Customers include water corporations, councils, irrigation companies, power generators, food and beverage manufacturers, and mining and resources companies.

Teralba Industries

Tyco Flow Control Process &Control

1:qca I Flow I Process

f Control / & Control

Percival Road, Smithfield, NSW, 2164 Ph: 02 9612 2340 Fax: 02-9612 2324 Email: Web: Contact: Tim Shipton Tyco Flow Control offers a complete solutions approach to the water and environmental industry by providing a range of proven solutions from the dam to the household and everything in between. Key area where our quality products are used include: Water storage, Treatment, Wastewater systems, Desalination, Distribution, Industrial process water, Re-use & Irrigation. Our products and services are supported by a national network of customer centres.

'us' - Utility Services 'US' ....,..,.,. Utlllty Str'YICH

40 Commercial Drive, Lynbrook VIC 3975. P: 03 8788 4200 E: Contact: Steve Webb 'us' - Utility Services provides a fully integrated, cost effective, 'turn key' approach to design, development, construction, operations, maintenance and service delivery for the utilities sector that delivers REAL Value For Money. Providing services to water authorities and other utilities across Australia, 'us' - Utility Services is able to take advantage of the latest technologies and deliver significant operational improvements for clients and their customers.

Wallingford Software Pty Ltd

ÂŁ:IllWallingford Software Level 20, Darling Park Tower 2, 201 Sussex St Sydney NSW, 2000 Ph: 02-9006-1603 Fax: 02-9475-1002 Email: Web: Contact: Paul Banfield Wallingford Software develops data management and network modelling software to support planning and operations in water distribution, sewerage provision, river management and coastal engineering. Wallingford's flagship solution, lnfoWorks, is the only integrated modelling package that spans all these separate disciplines. Other products include lnfoNet and FloodWorks.

Water by Design - AProgram of the South East Queensland Healthy Waterways Partnership

water12Ydesign Hitachi Building, Level 4, 239 George St Brisbane Qld 4001 PH: 07 3403 4206 Fax: 07 3403 6879 Email: Web: Contact: Leah Mather

Vinidex Pty Ltd

Water by Design is a capacity building program that supports the uptake of water sensitive urban design in South East Queensland. It was established by the South East Queensland Healthy Waterways Partnership in 2005, as an integral component of the SEQ Healthy Waterways Strategy. The program brings together knowledge, experiences and expertise in water sensitive urban design (WSUD) and sustainable urban water management (SUWM) to assist the land development industry and government make the transition towards smarter water management.


Water Conservation Group Pty Ltd

Systems & Sol utions

15-19 Kialba Rd (PO Box 1639) Campbelltown 2560 Tel: (02) 4626 5000 Fax: (02) 4625 4591 Email: Web: Contacts: Alan Baker; Greg Haak, Sales Manager; Heat Exchangers: Andrew Baker; Mixers: Brent Ovenden

19-21 Loyalty Road (PO Box 4990) North Rocks, NSW 2151 Ph: 02 8839 9006 Fax: 02 8839 9152 Email: Web: Contact: Robert Du Tait

Established in 1976, Teralba Industries design and manufacture Dimple/lo tubular heat exchangers, in stainless steels and titanium, to process viscous, slurried and difficult products. Dimple/lo tubular heat exchangers are used to heat sewerage sludge for anaerobic digestors. Teralba also produce under license in Australia, Mueller Accu-Therm plate heat exchangers. A range of Mixquip Agitators and Mixers completes a full range of locally made and internationally sourced fluid process equipment.

Vinidex Pty Limited is Australia's leading manufacturer of thermoplastic pipe systems for the transportation of fluid, data and energy. Vinidex is wholly owned by the Metal Manufactures Group and has a significant presence in the Asia-Pacific Rim. Vinidex pipe and fittings systems are used in a broad cross-section of markets such Plumbing, Electrical, Water Supply, Sewerage & Drainage, Mining & Industrial, Rural & Irrigation, Gas & Power and Telecommunications.

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conservation GROUP

Head Office: 15/33 Ryde Road Pymble NSW 2073 Tel: (02) 9949 8795 Fax: (02) 9499 4950 Email: Contact: Guenter Hauber-Davidson We do whatever it takes to help large water users save water. From finding out where water is used, identifying water efficiency measures, rainwater and stormwater harvesting or grey and black water recycling to smart metering and monitoring. Water Conservation Group provides a complete consulting and turnkey design and construction service to save potable water.

water JUNE 2009


Waterform Technologies

~ aterform T ECHNOLOGIES

22 Ramsay Court, Kangaroo Flat VIC, 3555 VIC: 03 5447 3045 Fax: 03 5447 2845 NSW: 02 6895 3219 Fax: 02 6895 3026 Email: Web: Specialist solutions for the water and wastewater treatment cycle. Municipal: UV Disinfection System Specialists - Closed reactor & channel type, LP, LPHO & MP, Validated UV Systems. Corgin scum harvesters & sludge thickeners, Fuchs Aeration; Industrial: Posiflo AGP tradewaste treatment modules, BioCel MBR water recycling, UV equipment, MF, UF & RO systems; Wholesale to OEM's: Aquashell media filtration vessels & valves, ROShell membrane vessels, Harmsco filters, PosiSan iron oxidation systems, Nextsand filter media, water reuse system treatment components, UV units.


Water Infrastructure Group ~

Wide Bay Water Corporation

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Water Infrastructure

Boy Wot. ,


Level 8, 499 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne VIC 3004 Tel: (03) 9863 3500 Fax (03) 9863 3511, Gen. Manager: Peter Everist Email:

27-31 Ellengowan St, Urangan, Hervey Bay, Old 4655 Ph: 1300 808 888 or (+61) 7 4197 4197 Email: Web: Contact: David Wiskar

Water Infrastructure Group provides design, build, operate and maintenance services. We offer solesource accountability for streamlined delivery of sustainable water infrastructure to meet community and business needs. Water Infrastructure Group is Australia's largest supplier of Class A recycled water for farming and residential use. As one of Australia's leading infrastructure maintenance and rehabilitation specialists, we also provide services such as pipeline inspection, assessment, linings, coatings and major valve work.

Wide Bay Water Corporation is a world-leader in water management and a preferred partner in delivering safe water supplies to communities locally, nationally and internationally. Through our consulting practice, we partner with clients to develop more effective operations, particularly in demand management, asset management, water recycling and water sustainability including waterloss management and pressure control. We operate with the intention of leaving a positive impact wherever our footprint is felt.



WorleyParsons Services Pty Limited

1ml WorleyPa rsons resources & energy

Specify and use Link-Seal® seals to seal pipe penetration

Slide the assembly into the space between the pipe and wall opening


Qld/NT: Selwyn Mcfaul, +61 7 3239 7400 NSW, Vic & SA: Andrew Chitty, +61 2 8456 7310 WA: Vince Ginanni, +61 8 9211 8517 International: David Griffiths, +61 2 8923 6807 WorleyParsons is a leader in water and wastewater consulting, engineering and program/project delivery, using specialist expertise, innovation and a multi-disciplinary, committed approach. Our services include process, hydraulic, mechanical and electrical design, instrumentation, SCADA and telemetry. Our engineering capabilities include studies, process evaluations, design, project and construction management, commissioning and O&M support. Through our Improve and EcoNomics offerings we can provide brownfield operations improvements and sustainability assessments of your business.

When the bolts are tightened , Link-Seal modular seals expand to create a gas and water tight seal. Available in Australia and New Zealand

Projex Group Pty Limited Telephone: 02 8336 1666, Facsimile: 02 8336 1670, email : mail

7 4 JUNE 2009 water

dve t1 in


Low Harmonic VLT® AQUA Drive Danfoss Low Harmonic Drives offer well known VLT®Drive features without putting unnecessary strain on the power grid The perfect solution for Meeting toughest harmonics recommendations/ standards Generator-powered installation Insta llation w ith generator backup Soft power grid Installation of drives in grids with limited spare power capacity

Voltage range • 380 - 480 V AC, 50 - 60 Hz Power Range • 132 - 630 kW High Overload/ 160 - 710 kW Normal Overload (No te: Standard VLT" AQUA Drive covers powerronge 0.25 kW - 1.4 MW)

Danfoss Drives are a leading supplier to the water & wastew ater sector in Australia, with over 35 years experience. For further information please contact your local specialist: Danfoss(Australia) Pty Ltd / Danfoss (New Zealand) Ltd Melbourne:Tel. (03) 9703 5100 • Sydney:Tel. (02) 88451800 • Brisb a n e:Tel. (07) 3630 1899 • Adelaide:Tel. (08) 8150 7400 Perth:Te l. (08) 9333 3800 • Auckla nd: Tel. 64 9 259 2500 • Christchurch: Tel. 64 3 365 6 123 THE REA L DRI VE

www.danfoss .com/pacific • Email: m otio nco ntro

industrial wastes

[;] refereed paper


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. ::

A primary by-product of coal seam gas extraction is brackish deep groundwater. This water is called CSG water and, in the face of long-term serious drought conditions, CSG water could become a viable alternative source of water.

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A unique opportunity exists in the Surat Basin , regional Queensland, for an integrated economic development approach, triggered by the construction of a water grid to service both community (i.e. potable) and commercial water requirements, with a supply of CSG water.

I I Boondoomat>a




This paper outlines and discusses the future of CSG water in the Surat Basin in relation to:






• future CSG production and associated water yields

• current CSG water management solutions

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• potential commercial and beneficial uses as a stimulus for economic development.




Coolmund• !o-

The Surat Basin water supply is predominately sourced from a combination of regu lated and unregulated sources, such as weirs, rivers, privately owned dams and local bores. Water users from regu lated sources in the Surat Basin are currently limited to the water allocations outlined in the draft resource operation plan (ROP) for the Condamine-Balonne Basin and the ROP for the Fitzroy Basin for the areas abutting the Dawson

A unique opportunity for triggering economic development. 76 JUNE 2009 water



' - - - - - - -J~Bl!I. - - - - - - -


_ __,,,.._,


By mid-2009 many countries throughout the world are on the verge of, or have entered, recession, and economic analysts suggest that Austral ia is expected to continue to grow but at a much slower pace.

The Surat Basin in regional Queensland provides a unique opportunity to implement such an integrated development approach , taking advantage of the supply the by-product water from coal seam gas (CSG) extraction. This opportunity could be triggered by the construction of a water grid to service current and future commu nity and commercial water requirements. The water grid would provide CSG producers with reliability in the management of their CSG water, and guarantee water supply to the coal industry, to the community (i.e. potable), and to the agricultural sector.



• supply and demand for water in the region

In his mid-year budget review to deal with the economic crisis, Andrew Fraser, Treasurer of Queensland, noted, 'If you are going to be anywhere in the world it's Australia, and if you're going to be anywhere in Australia, it's Queensland' (Queensland Treasury 2008). It is the belief of the authors of th is paper that this will only be true when a holistic and integrated approach to development and infrastructure is taken.


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• relevant Queensland legislation and recent policy changes

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500 1,000






Surat R~ional Geok>gy Area

Figure 1. Surat Basin locality.

River near Taroom. Artesian or sub-artesian water sourcing is not currently covered in the Condamine Draft ROP. To date there has been limited use of CSG wat er in the region. Secure and sustainable sources of water are an important State Government priority for Queensland. However, the majority of regulated and unregulated water sources in Queensland are fully allocated, and there is a need for an alternative source, such as CSG water. For example, the Chinchilla Weir supplements stream flows upstream and downstream of the weir for use by irrigators. In 2007 SunWater's Draft Resource Plan shows that the actual delivery was 788 MUa contrasted with the customer allocation for irrigation of 2,869 ML.

CSG Water CSG is primarily methane that is found underground in coal seams. A primary byproduct of the CSG extraction process is water that is generally high in salts and other minerals. This water is called CSG water.

industrial wastes The beneficial use of CSG water depends on its quality. TDS levels typically vary from low at 2,000 mg/L to approximately 12,000 mg/L. Water markets, such as industry, agricultural and urban uses, have certain water quality requirements that are likely to require treatment of CSG water. The quantity of water produced from CSG operations is affected by the following factors: • differences between gas fields • the depth of the coal seam • permeability of the source coal seam • porosity of the source coal seam • well completion technique • efficiency of the well extraction processes. It is expected that production of CSG water in the Surat Basin wi ll increase in line with the production of gas. The Department of Mines and Energy (DME) has indicated that 'coal seam gas from the Surat Basin will become a major source of gas for both the Queensland and other Austral ian markets' (DME 2007).

CSG Water Resource Areas The main locations in Queensland for CSG production are the Surat and Bowen basins, which have considerable thermal coal and CSG resources. The Surat and Bowen basins boundaries overlap and DM E notes that 'coals in the Surat Basin were not buried as deeply as those in the Bowen Basin and therefore are less thermally mature, with generally lower gas contents compared to those of the Bowen Basin' (DME 2007). DME also states that in the Surat Basin 'coal is generally shallower, with higher permeability resu lting in lower drilling and completion costs' (DME 2007). In addition, the ratio of water to gas produced is greater in the Surat Basin than in the Bowen Basin. The existing commercial production of CSG is occurring in: • Surat Basin: in Kogan North (west of Dalby), Berwyndale South (south-west of Chinchilla) and Tipton West (southwest of Dalby) • Bowen Basin: in the central and southern parts of the basin near Moranbah, lnjune, Moura, Fairview, Spring Gully, Peat and Scotia

7 8 JUNE 2009 water

[SJ • other Queensland basins that have potential CSG resources, including Clarence-Moreton Basin, Galilee Basin, Ipswich Basin, Laura Basin, Maryborough Basin and Nagoorin Graben Basin.

The major players in the CSG industry are Origin Energy, Queensland Gas Company, Santos, Arrow Energy, and Anglo Coal.

CSG Water Legislation The Queensland Government has undertaken regu latory change to provide CSG water producers with a clear pathway to access the necessary approvals and licences to enable provision of CSG water for various uses. The approval process provides regulatory pathways that accommodat e the needs of CSG water producers and their potential customers. CSG water is regulated by the following legislation: • Petroleum and Gas (Production and Safety) Ac t 2004 (PG Act) • Environmental Protection Act 1994 (EP Act) • Water Act 2000 (Water Act). A regulatory approval process was identified through a consultative process involving CSG water regulators (i.e. DM E, Department of Natural Resources and Water (DNRW) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)) and presented in a confidential report prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) for the Department of Infrastructure and Planning (PB 2004). Th e Queensland Government (DIP, 2008) further c larified the management of CSG water in October 2008, when it announced the following guidelines for CSG producers: • evaporation ponds are to be discontinued as the primary means of disposal of CSG water • CSG producers are responsible for treating and disposing of CSG water • ponds for water balancing or brine management must be fully lined to a standard determined by t he EPA • water in excess to t hat which can be injected underground or beneficially used must be piped elsewhere or disposed of without the use of ponds • ponds will on ly be approved if they are required as part a water treatment facility.

refer eed pap er

The combined efforts of regulators and CSG water producers have so far focused on the best net environmental and social outcomes for the management of CSG water. These outcomes can now be considered within a realistic economic framework that balances supply and demand, and provides flexibility in how preferred outcomes are achieved.

CSG Water Management Currently, t he most common method of disposing of CSG water is to discharge it to evaporation ponds. This method, which discards the water rather than considering it as a resource to be developed, has been challenged by the above guidelines. The success of the opportunity to use CSG water as a resource to stimulat e economic growth hinges on persuading producers, government -owned corporations and government to find alternative ways of managing and using it. Management options that are currently being applied or tested by producers include reinjecting CSG water to groundwater, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment and subsequent discharge to waterways, treatment for potable uses, and treatment for use on feed lots. The quality of the CSG water in terms of salinity is one of the most important factors when it comes to reusing it safely and beneficially. The ways that CSG water can be used are subject to the quality of each harvest of water, which can vary from site to site. Some form of treatment is always required and RO is the most common treatment option. Some users generally do not req uire treatment due to f lexible water quality requirements (e.g. coal-washing); however, that is always subject to t he site-specific water quality and associated water quality threshold that allows its reuse (Figure 2). Given the current economic climate and change in approach by government, there is an opportunity for CSG producers, in conjunction with a government-owned water operator, to develop an integrated approach to the management of CSG water in the Surat Basin. Th is opportunity involves the construction and operation of a water grid for the commercialisation and beneficial use of the water for mining, industrial, agricultural and urban (i.e. potable} uses. Potential users and purchasers would be influenced by factors such as:

technical features


industrial wastes

refereed paper

• the cost of CSG water in comparison to other sources • the availability and reliabil ity of alternative water sources, both current and in the future

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• the quality of supply (e.g. t reated to drinking quality)

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• the quantity of CSG water supply over time

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• the cost and abil ity to construct a water grid


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• t he location of the grid and access points for users

Brdoaiuso domno<roqure-,·


• the demand risk associated with the start phase of a grid • other viable solut ions for CSG producers to manage or dispose of CSG water.

CSG Water Supply and Demand Gas production CSG exploration to date has resulted in t he discovery of commercial CSG resource areas, mainly the Surat and Bowen basins in Queensland. Figure 2 shows that the CSG product ion in Queensland has increased more t han 20fold since the 1998-1999 financial year. The rise in gas production combined with geological dat a (i.e. CSG reserves) suggests that t here are sufficient reserves of CSG in Queensland for production to continue to increase at this rate for t he next 30 years.

Water potential Water production from CSG wells typical ly starts at a high vol ume and generally fal ls dramatically over time as the coal seam bed becomes depressurised. The potential CSG water supply based on estimated gas production, including export and domestic markets for LNG, may range between 30,000 MUa to 80,000 MUa over a 20 to 25 year period, depending on CSG production including production cycles, extraction rates, and water to gas ratio.

Water demand Analysis indicates four key customer categor ies of potential demand for CSG water in the Surat Basin: com mercial or industr ial (i.e. mines, power stations), urban (i.e. potab le) supply, agricultural and environmental. Accordi ng to Schandl and Darbas (2008) 'the Queensland government has identified mining and energy production as priority sectors within Queensland




lncutrypn)COIS WQIGf'

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Figure 2. CSG water management options. economy with an outlook for future g rowth '. Their report notes that the Surat Basin plays an increasing role in Queensland's future economic development.

• Peabody Energy - Horse Creek mine

A key input to mining (coal) and energy (power stations) production is water. The potential demand for CSG water stems from coal-washing , dust suppression and wash ash mixing for pumping back into the coal mines. The Surat Basin has a large resource of open-cut t hermal coal and is set to become a major source of coal for exporting in the future (Surat Development Association 2008). The following mining companies are expected to expand or open in the next 3 to 4

• Waratah Coal - Strathine mine

years: • Xstrata - Wandoan mine • Anglo Coal - Taroom mine • Cockat oo Coal - Guluguna mine

• Northern Energy Corporation (NEC) Elimata mine • Syntech - Cameby mine

• CS Energy - Kogan Creek mine • Tarong Energy - Glen Wilga mine. Power stat ions require wat er for cooling towers. Current developments in the Surat Basin include the new Kogan Creek Power Stat ion and t he expansion of the NewGen Power Station. In addition, Stanwell Corporat ion is considering a power station in the Surat Basin. The Surat Basin covers a large area of 122,655 km 2 . Its main townships are Dalby, Miles, Chi nchilla, Wandoan, Surat and Co ndamine. The population in t he Surat Basin in 2006 was estimated to be

100 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 90 BO

70 60 50

40 30 20


_______ / /~-- --- ---------

----7 ---------------------

0 +------- ~ -- - - - - ~ - - -- -- --1 1998-99



Figure 3. Growth of CSG production 1998-2007. Source: Adapted from DME (2007).

water JUNE 2009 79

industrial wastes over 19,000, and most of the towns are forecast to grow to well over 33,000 in 2026. Owing to the lack of a reliable water source, many townships are examining alternative sources of water for urban supply. For example, Chinchilla's primary source of water is from the Chinchilla Weir. However, the tow nship is investigating alternative sources such as a bore into the Great Artesian Basin and partnering with a CSG producer for CSG water. This would involve the c onstruction of a treatment plant and pipeline. While many of the townships are looking at partnering with CSG water producers, not all of the agreements outlined above have been finalised. For example, Dalby township has recently decided not to proceed with a joint venture with Arrow Energy for a desalination plant. However there is still an opportunity for the Queensland Government and CSG producers to build an integrated solution for the supply of water in the Surat Basin as an avenue to drought-proofing the region and fostering economic development. In terms of agricultural use, untreated CSG water is likely to have limited application in irrigation for commercial crops, for lot-feeding/ stock water, and aquaculture. However, if the water is treated to a quality that could be used for broad agricultural use, the current unmet demand by irrigators in the region cou ld be met. For example, water from the Chinchilla Weir supplements stream flows upstream and downstream of the weir for use by irrigators. SunWater's Draft Resource Plan (Ju ly 2007) shows that customer allocation (MUa) for irrigation in 2006-2007 was 2,869 ML, compared to an actual delivery of 788 MUa. This represents an unmet demand of 2,081 MUa. The upper Condamine reg ion currently provides alternative surface water supplies to irrigators along the north branch of the Condamine River. Drought conditions in the upper Condamine over recent years , coupled with a steady demand, have brought storage levels down. SunWat er data indicates for the upper Condamine only 5 MUa Was delivered in 06/07 to irrigators compared to a forecasted allocated demand of 30,363 MUa. This represents an unmet demand of 30,358 MUa. The average delivered from 03/04 to 07/08 has been 10,784 MUa, representing an average unmet demand of 19,579 MUa over a five year period.


JUNE 2009


~ refereed paper

The relatively high unmet demand experienced in the Surat Basin by the irrigators, resulting from low availability of water supply, creates an opportunity for the beneficial use of treated CSG water. The region is a large food- and agricultural-producing area and, with a supply of reliable water, could grow significantly. The beneficial use of CSG water is not limited to the community and commercial outcomes highlighted above. Positive environmental outcomes that change traditional , nonbeneficial approaches to wastewater disposal are also viable. Such options may include the use of natural cond uits such as river and creek systems for the disposal of treated water. Using it in this way could supplement water from natural runoff and potentially recharge local aquifers or assist in the rehabilitation of the Murray- Darling rivers.

Infrastructure Glebe Weir and the proposed Nathan Dam on the Dawson River north-east of Taroom are potential futu re sources of water. Glebe Weir is an existing small weir located on the Dawson River upstream of the proposed Nathan Dam. Nathan Dam has a proposed yield of 70,000 MUa of high priority water and a capacity of 880,000 ML. In 2006, the Department of Natural Resources released the Central Queensland Regional Water Strategy which identified the construction of Nathan Dam as a water option to supply mining demands in the upper Dawson, and agricultural, urban and industrial demands in the Dawson Valley. The option includes a proposed major pipeline which wou ld connect Nathan Dam to the Surat Basin. SunWater, the Government Owned Corporation (GOC) is also considering raisi ng Glebe Weir to supply water to the Wandoan Coal Mine. The weir raisi ng would be undertaken on the basis that it forms part of the overal l long-term water supply solution to Wandoan Mine. The Glebe Wei r option also includes a pipeline to Wandoan and is likely to follow the same route as the proposed Nathan- Surat pipeline. SunWater is examining the feasibil ity of constructing the Glebe-Wandoan pipeline to a larger-than-required capacity, wh ich would allow the pipeline in the future to be extended beyond Wandoan should Nathan Dam proceed.

If Nathan Dam does not proceed, the Glebe-Wandoan pipeline would continue to supply water to the Wandoan mine exclusively. If Nathan Dam proceeds it wi ll inundate Glebe Weir whereby the water allocation from Glebe would be transferred to Nathan Dam. The potential reliable future water supply for the Surat Basin outlined above centres on the availability of the GOC to deliver and construct Nathan Dam. Nathan Dam is currently at the investigation stage and is still pending Federal Government approval. The dam currently faces political opposition in the community where a number of anti dam action groups are very vocal. At t his stage there is no guarantee that Nathan Dam will be approved, let alone constructed. In terms of raising Glebe Weir, this option could be seen as a narrow, short-term solution for the supply of the Wandoan Mine only. At this stage, the option does not propose to supply water to other potential coal mines such as NEC, Peabody Energy nor to local urban centres that are located near Wandoan. An opportunity exists for the commercial or beneficial use of CSG water and the construction of an integrated water grid for the Surat Basin that would guarantee water supply for the short, medium and to a lesser degree the long term. The use of treated CSG water provides the Queensland Government and GOC with flexibility and time in the planning and developing alternative and future water sources such as Nathan Dam. This proposal brin gs forward the construction of a water pipeline similar to that outlined above; however, instead of con necting to Nathan Dam the pipeline would connect CSG water producers with urban centres, mines and agricultural areas in the Surat Basin. In the long term the Surat Basin pipeline could be integrated into a 'greater water network', which could be extended through to Roma, Toowoomba and, in turn, connect to the south-east Queensland water grid.

Economic Development Market analysts and policy makers have suggested that in times of uncertain economic growth, governments are well advised to invest in large-scale infrastructure projects. The authors of

technical features

refereed paper

industrial wastes

this paper take this approach one step f urther by suggesting that a hol ist ic and integrated approach from both private and public sectors is required for investment in infrastructure projects. In terms of the Surat Basin, coal and coal seam gas and t he correspondi ng production of water, provides a unique opportu nity for large-scale investment by private industry and government to fund a water infrastructure project. This project would not only secure the current developments proposed within the region , but could sti mulate the Surat Basin to become a large regional development centre within Australia. A stud y in the US of 15 rural and urban communities , which had water/sewer projects undertaken in their region , showed that the projects generated greater economic benefit than the actual cost of t he initial construction. The study also noted that by fac ilitating a water system supply rural towns t hat had relied on only one or two main industries were able to g row a wider mix of local businesses and diversify the local economy.

Conclusion The Surat Basin with its large natural reserve of resources has the potential to become a regional powerhouse. To ensure success, t he region requires water not only for busi ness development, but also to sustain the local population and the ag ricultural sector. With water becoming an increasingly scarce resource in the basin and the growing uncertainty around future water sol ut ions, the time is right to develop an integrated approach by the CSG producers in Surat Basin and the Queensland Government to supply water and create certainty in the reg ion and trigger future economic development.

The Authors

Dr Sanja Oldridge is a Senior Water Engineer with Parsons Brinckerhoff. She has conducted coal seam gas water supply and demand stud ies throughout Queensland for government bodies and private companies. Email: S0ldrid

Linda Whatman is a Senior Consultant with Parsons Brinckerhoff. She is an expert in t he government and political

processes involved in shaping public policy as well as t he commercial and financial analysis of complex business issues.

References Bagi, F.S. 2002. Rural America: Economic Impact of Water/Sewer Facilities on Rural and Urban Communities, Volume

17, Issue/Winter 2002. Department of Infrastructure and Planning (DIP). 8 December 2008. Article on water supply options in Surat region, (Information available at: water/nathan-dam .html) Department of Infrastructure and Planning (DIP). 30 October 2008. CSG water to be put to good use. (Article available at: Department of Mines and Energy (DME), 2007. Queensland Coal Seam Gas 2006-2007 Update, Brisbane. Oldridge S., Cameron I. and Stolz D. 2008. 'Coal Seam Gas Water - A new resource?', poster presentation and paper presented at Enviro08 Australasia's Environmental and Sustainability Conference and Exhibition, May 5-7 2008. Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB). 2004. CSG Water Report, Report prepared for the Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Water. Queensland Treasury. 2008. Treasurer Media Release 9/12/ 08, (Information available at: http://www.treasury.qld. media/releases/2008. shtml) Schandl, H. and Darbas, T. June 2008. Surat Basin Scoping Study, Enhancing regional and community capacity for mining and energy driven regional economic development, CSIRO Canberra. SunWater March 2008. Nathan Dam Initial Advice Statement March 2008, (Information available at: pdf/ currentprojects/Nathan_Dam_lnitial_ Advice_Statement.pdn Surat Development Association . 10 December 2008. Article on Surat Basin, (Information available at: http://www.suratbasindevelopments.

Choice of glass or poly-bottle configurations Weather-proof IP67 sealed enclosure Foam-insulated base holds ice to preserve samples even in extreme conditions Plug-in pH & flow modules SDl-12 input for water quality sensors, rain gauge and multiprobes Internal data logger & optional telephone modem


John Morris Scientific Service plus Solutions

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industrial wastes

refereed paper

MEASUREMENT OF COLOUR IN TRADE WASTES AND EFFLUENTS M Carsen, T Anderson, C Madden, M Pailthorpe Abstract Water authorities are interested in managing colour of sewage treatment plant effluent as it can influence the visual impact of ocean outfalls, affect attitudes to recycled water for indoor use and impact on ultraviolet disinfection effectiveness. The Melbourne water authorities have undertaken a program investigating the benefits of source control. A key innovative feature of this program has been the application of colour science principles used in the textile industry. Th is paper explains the methodology and shows how it has been used to identify the most appropriate focus for source control activities.

Introduction Water authorities are interested in managing the colour of sewage treatment plant effluent for three key reasons. Firstly, colour is an influencing factor on the visual impact of ocean outfalls particularly in cases where there is low initial dilution. Secondly, Class A recycled water is increasingly being supplied to dual pipe estates for garden watering and toilet flushing. Often treated effluent can have colour that is noticeable in toilet bowls so it may be important to understand the potential options for addressing it. Finally, colour levels in effluent impact on the efficiency of ultraviolet disinfection systems, as higher colour levels often correspond with reduced UV transmittance.



Figure 1. Example of visual determination of tri-stimulus values.

options for determination of the most appropriate combination of source control, treatment and/or end use management. A key innovative feature of this program has been the application of colour science principles used in the textile industry. These principles have been applied to sewage and effluent in order to quantify the visual impact of individual trade wastes at the point of effluent discharge or reuse. Quantification of the impact of individual trade wastes on treatment plant effluent colour is not possible with data collected using traditional measures such as


The water authorities in Melbourne have developed and undertaken a colour investigation program, with the aim of identifying the sources and quantifying the opportunities and costs associated with reducing colour at source, in particular, at individual trade waste customer sites. Ultimately, the information generated in this study will be integrated with assessment of end-of-pipe treatment

To guide source control activities. 82 JUNE 2009 water


Figure 2. Depiction of L,a,b colour space.

Adams-Nickerson or Platinum Cobalt units. The following sections describe the colour science principles and methodology used, the results of the application of this methodology and the conclusions that have been drawn on the adequacy of the method and the potential to reduce effluent colour by reducing the colour of individual trade waste discharges in a large catchment.

Methodology, Results and Discussion Colour measurement and colour science Trade waste samples in Melbourne traditionally have been assessed by firstly employing a laboratory biodegradation step to simulate the biological treatment process in t he full scale sewage treatment plant, then by using a spectrophotometric method to report non-readily biodegradable colour in Adams-Nickerson (AN42) units. This is a measure of difference in colour from colourless. By contrast, the colour of treatment plant effluent has traditionally been measured using a visual comparison method and reported as true colour in Platinum Cobalt (Pt/Co) units. There are a number of difficulties with these two traditional measures. Firstly, Pt/Co measurements are only suitable for samples of yellow-brown hue and therefore cannot be used for many trade waste samples. In the case of AN42 measurements, the key difficulty is that it does not provide a means of numerically adding or subtracting colours, which means that the relative impacts of different colour sources on effluent colour cannot be estimated. In addition, there is no clear means of relating the two measures. The method outlined here addresses these issues, and uses a spectrophotometric method to do so. Spectrophotometric methods are based on the concept of tri-stimulus values. In principle, every visible colour can be created by mixing varying amounts (i.e. intensities) of 3

technical features

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refereed paper

primary colours, or primaries. The tristimulus values are the amounts of each of those primaries which when added together visually match the t est colour. The method by which tri-stimulus values are visually determined is shown in Figure 1, to illustrat e the concept. The key features of Figure 1 include a screen which is divided by a partition. One side of the screen is illuminated by the three primaries and the other by the test colour. The observer can vary t he intensities of each of the three primaries to prod uce a colour match. With the development of more sophisticated equipment, instead of an observer looking at the colour and manually altering the amounts of each of the primaries, absorption spectrophotometry can be used to calculate the tri-stimulus val ues. Light of different wavelengths is shone through a sample and the amount of light transmitted is measured at each wavelength. From this transmittance data, chromaticity co-ordinates are calculated, wh ich are the normalised amounts of each of the primaries which, added together, look the same as the colour being observed. These are denoted x, y and z and represent one colour space. However, this colour space is not uniform; that is, the locus of colours which are perceived by t he human eye as equally different varies depending on the location in colour space. This feature of the x,y,z colour space prevents addition and subtraction of colour. The x, y and z values can be transformed to L, a, b values which represent a uniform colour space, known as CIE (International Commission on Lighting) L, a, b colour space. This colour space is depicted in Figure 2. Figure 3 illustrates how the use of a uniform colour space allows addition (and by extension, subtract ion) of colours and shows how the observable colour difference, t.E, between two point s is defined. The colour of a mixture of two coloured liquids will lie on a line between the colours of the two liquids, with the location dependent on the relative vol umes. The observable colour difference between two coloured liquids (or between a sample and colourless) is the square root of the sum of the squares of the differences in position on the three axes. The textile industry has establi shed criteria to interpret t.E values. For example, a t.E of 0.3 is a just-noticeable colour difference. This can be related to the ability to det ect a colour difference between the body and the sleeve of a shirt. A t.E of 1 .0 is a very



Sample 1 • Mixture of 1 and 2

Sample 2

•"-.llE = ..,/(!lL2 +lla2 +llb2 )


b Figure 3. Examples of how the properties of L,a,b colour space can be used. close match and can be related to the ability t o detect a colour difference between two items side by side. A t.E of 3.0 is a close match and can be related to the ability t o detect a colour difference between two items seen on different occasions. Key parameters that need to be defined to calculat e L, a, b are path length and light source. In the present work, an indoor light source (typical of an incandescent light bulb) has been used, along with a path length of 10cm. These conditions are considered to best represent the observation of colour of recycled water in a t oilet bowl, which has been chosen as the end point at which to assess the impact of changes in effluent colour as it is t he most readily calibrated and is the easiest to define. However, suitable path length and light source could also be defined to assess the visual impact at an ocean outfall, for example. The colour science outlined here is discussed in more detail in Judd and Wyszecki (1975).

Validation of assumptions A key assumption of colour science is that, when two liquids are mixed, there are no chemical interactions t aking place that would increase or reduce colour; that is, colours are conserved and the visual result is the sum of the original colours. An experimental program was undertaken to determine whether this assumption was valid in the context of effluent and trade waste discharges. This involved collecting samples of sewage treatment plant effluent and three different trade wastes, producing mixtures and then comparing the measured and calculated t.E values (from colourless) for each of the mixtures. Table 1 shows t he results of the testing undertaken to validate the assumption that chemical interactions are insignificant. The table includes the measured t.E value (in this case, the difference between the measured colour and colourless) for an effluent sample, the three samples of different trade wastes and a tot al of six different mixtures. Table 1 also contains the calculated t.E

Table 1. Comparison of measured and calculated observable colour difference (from colourless) for mixtures of 3 trade wastes with effluent and each other. Sample or mixture Effluent

t.E measured

t.E calculated

% difference


Trade Waste 1


Trade Waste 2


Trade Waste 3


TW1 + Effluent 50:50



TW2 + Effluent 50:50



-15% -3%

TW3 + Effluent 50:50




TW1 + TW2 50:50



TW1 + TW3 50:50



4% 11 %

TW2 + TW3 50:50




water JUNE 2009 83



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~ ~


> ·;;;

80.0 70.0













• •

..· ..·· ......··

AE ~.

Treatment plant effluent Treatment plant effluent wi thout TW discharge 1

.)--------------- a

40.0 30.0 360

TW d ischarge 1







Wavelength (nm)

Figure 5. Visual representation of the observable colour difference (t.E) calculated for each trade waste sample.

Figure 4. Typical plot of transmissivity versus wavelength for a trade waste sample.

Evaluation of colour contribution

value for the six different mixtures assuming that there is no chemical interaction. This shows that the maximum difference between the measured and calculated observable colour differences for any of the mixtures looked at was 15%. On this basis, it has been concluded that the precision of the method is adequate for the purposes of identifying the large colourcontributing customers.

To assess the colour impact of each individual trade waste, a random sample of sewage treatment plant effluent was collected and the L,a,b values determined spectrophotometrically. A calculation was then performed to determine the L,a,b values for this effluent with the individual trade waste colour subtracted from it. t.E between t his calculated effluent (i. e. real effluent minus the trade waste) and the real effluent was then determined and th is represents the colour impact of the trade waste (as observed in a toilet bowl). Figure 5 provides a visual representation of t his process. As there were up to 18 samples collected for each trade waste customer, this produced up to 18 t.E values for each.

Measuring colour of individual trade wastes Practically, only a relatively small proportion of the trade waste customers in a catchment the size of Melbourne can be intensively sampled to provide data for a program such as this. To prioritise, existing colour (non-read ily biodegradable AN42) and volume data was used to calculate a colour ' load' and the customers were ranked on this basis. Those thought to be contributing greater than 1% of colour to the final effluent were then included in the sampling program to generate L,a,b values.

From the up to 18 samples analysed for each trade waste customer, the average, median and maximum t.E value were calculated to provide some understanding of the variability in the impact on effluent colour of each trade waste. These values were compared against the established interpretations of t.E values to determine which trade wastes were significant colour contributors to the treatment plant effluent. The results are tabulated in Table 2.

For each of these customers, 3 days of 4 hour composite sampling was undertaken, resulting in up to 18 samples for each site. This length of composite was selected on the basis of calculations estimating how an instantaneous peak of colour at the inlet of the sewage treatment plant in question would be dispersed by the time it reached the treatment plant outlet. These calculations estimated that a peak entering the plant wo uld be dispersed over at least 4 hours of effluent leaving the t reatment plant and therefore a shorter sampling duration was not necessary to avoid missing 'spikes' in colour output.

Customer A's t.E values are large, indicating that its discharge makes a visually noticeable contribution to the present colour of the treatment plant effluent. By contrast, all other t.E values in Table 1 are smaller than values regarded as visually noticeable. Thus, it has been concluded t hat Customer A is the only one for which cleaner production activities have the potential to have a significant positive impact on effluent colour. To confirm t his, a further piece of data analysis ·was undertaken to assess whether the results fit with the understanding around base and peak effluent colour levels (in Pl/Co units) and whether all the major colour sources were likely to have been identified.

Each sample was then biodegraded in the laboratory (4 hours aerated contact time in a mixture consisting of it and 40% return activated sludge). The transmissivity over the wavelength range 380-770nm was measured at 5nm intervals. An example of a typical plot of transmissivity versus wavelength is presented in Figure 4. This data was then transformed and manipulated to calculate L, a, b values for each sample.

Table 2. Observable colour difference results for prioritised trade waste customers. CUSTOMER









average 6E









median "'E max 6E number of results greater than 0.3


0.1 0.5 2

0.1 0.68 3

0.0 0.48

0.1 0.25 0

0.0 0.1 0

0.0 0.26 0

0.0 0.00 0











No colour

0.0 0.1 0

0.2 0.5

0.0 0.05 0

0.0 0.06 0



84 JUNE 2009 water

18 12


0.1 0

technical features


industrial wastes

refereed paper


50.0 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ; W 45.0 - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - -"""""---!

.. .fl

~ cii 40.0




-1----- - - - -- - -,,JL- - -- ~

:i ;- 30.0 - I - - - -- - - - -- ' - - - - - -- ~ 0



+------- ----:-o..L--- - ~cr-=-fl-'-,1;v--,

~ o 15.0 ~ ~ 10.0 a, o 5.0 V, .. ..0 0.0

+---- - - ~L-- - - -- - - - - - - - 1 +---,,.-,C:..-- - - - -- --------1 +-______.." ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! ÂĽ---~- ~- ~ - ~ - ~ - - - ~ - - - !





g 20.0


100 120 140 80 Colour of prepared solution (Pt/Co)





Figure 6. Observable colour difference from colourless using 10cm path length and indoor light source for Pt/Co solutions of varying strength.

Understanding relationship between L,a,b values and Pt/Co colour The transmissivity of solutions of Pt/Co colour ranging from 50 to 140 Pt/Co units was measured over the vavelenth range 380-770nm at 5nm intervals. This data was then transformed and manipulated t o calculate L, a, b values for each solution. l'.lE (f rom colourless as observed in a toilet bowl) was calculated and plotted against the Pt/Co colour in order to provide a means of interpreting L,a,b colour results in relation to the measure that has been used for some time to characterise effluent (refer Figure 6). Thi s is clearly a strong linear relationship and, on the assumption that an effluent sample is predominantly Pt/Co (yellow/ brown) hue, this can be used to calculate the equivalent Pt/Co colour from the L,a,b co-ordinates of a given measured or calculated effluent sample. In other cases, it will be an approximation only. Using the L,a,b data for the Pt/Co standard of 80 to represent average effluent colour and the L, a,b data for a customer A sample of median l'.lE, the colour of effluent without the trade waste was calcu lated. The l'.lE (from colourless) for this effluent was used to calculate that the colour was equivalent to 60 Pt/Co units (using Figure 6). This is typical of sewage treatment plant effluent from a domestic catchment. Now using the L,a,b data of this calculated base effluent and the L,a,b data for a customer A sample of maxim um l'.lE, the colour of effluent containing the peak discharge of this trade waste was calculated. This corresponded to a Pt/Co reading of 150 units. This is a typical maximum colour observed at the treatment plant in question. This analysis indicates that

customer A contributes around 20 Pt/Co units to average effluent colour and up to another 70 Pt/Co units at times of peak colour. This is consistent with our understanding of base and peak colour levels and indicates that customer A is probably the most significant single source of colour in the catchment. Reduction in colour from that source is predicted to have a noticeable positive impact on the colour of effluent being discharged from the sewage treatment plant.

Conclusion It has been demonstrated that the colour science methodology described in this paper is a useful tool for quantifying the impacts of specific input sources on sewage treatment plant effluent colour. The application of this method to a catchment within Melbourne indicated that a single trade waste customer was responsible for a sizeable proportion of the effluent colour, and that therefore source control at that site does have the potential to make a noticeable difference. Next steps will include a cleaner production investigation to understand the options for reducing the colour of Customer A's effluent and associated costs so that the cost of source control can be assessed against the cost of end-of pipe options should it be decided that colour levels do need to be reduced.

The Authors

Michelle Carsen is Acting Manager Research and Technology (emai l Dr Terry Anderson is Technical Projects Manager, Carolyn Madden is Engineer Water Resources, all with South East Water, Victoria. Michael Pailthorpe is Senior Consultant Food and Textiles Group with AgResearch Limited, Sydney, NSW.

References Judd, D. B., Wyszecki, G. 1975. Color in business, science, and industry. 3rd ed. Wiley, New York, USA.

Specialised solutions for all your wastewater treatment needs

water JUNE 2009 as

industrial wastes


refereed paper

RO MEMBRANE FOULING BY DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS P Borse, M Boake, H Bustamante, D Vitanage, C Nicholson Abstract Water recycle schemes using secondary treated effluent for industrial reuse typically involve membrane processes such as microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO ). Despite these water recycle systems being very successful in producing excellent quality water there is still a limited understanding of membrane foul ing due to soluble organic components in the secondary effluent. A pilot plant study compared the impacts of domestic wastewater from Gerringong, NSW, with industrial wast ewater from Wo llongong, NSW.

Introduction Water recycl ing systems used for industrial or indirect potable reuse typical ly involve micro or ultra filtration of sewage treatment plant effluents followed by reverse osmosis (pl us in some cases hydrogen peroxide dosing and UV to mop up low molecular weight organic compounds that have the potential to pass through RO membranes). Despite these recycle systems being successful there is still not enough detailed information regarding membrane fouling due to soluble organic components in effluents. Studies carried out in Wollongong Recycled Water Plant, lllawarra (NSW) and Kwinana Water Reclamation Plant near Perth (WA) (Walker, 2007) suggest that catchments that receive industrial trade waste have a higher propensity for molecular fouling of RO membranes. Th is leads to flux reductions that can be partially overcome by working at higher pressures with the consequent premature deterioration of the membranes and also increased energy costs. These problems have raised the need to study membrane processes in reuse

Trade wastes have a higher propensity for molecular fouling. 86 JUNE 2009 water

Figure 1. View of RO units.

Figure 2. View of 0.1 micron membrane units.

systems especially RO pre-treatment, membrane fouling, membrane types and design.

• Study effectiveness of conventional cleaning procedures to recover flux of RO membranes caused by scaling, biofouling or organic fouling and make recommendations.

The Pilot Plant Study The aim of this study was to: • Develop knowledge of RO based membrane processes in effluent reuse applications relevant to Sydney Water and Veo lia Water Australia plants. • Understand the differences in fouling propensities of feedwater from domestic (Gerringong) and industrial trade waste (Wollongong) catchments. • Study RO rejection performance throug h testing the integrity of membranes by carrying out micropollutants challenge test. • Try to detect the organics found earlier at Wollongong Recycled Plant study (such as: - Tert butyl phenol, 2methylthiobenzothiazole, trichlorphenol, trichlorocresol) by analysing RO feed water and foulants found on membrane surface during membrane autopsy. • Carry out a membrane autopsy for organic and inorganic fouling and evidence of oxidative damage at the end of trial.

To investigate the above, a pilot plant study was conducted on secondary effluents from both a domestic and an industrial catchment.

Table 1. Specific flux (LMH/bar).

Start of trial Before GIP



1.90 1.84

1.90 1.56 1.86

After GIP

Table 2. Total Dissolved Solids (mg/I).

Average TDS (calculated)





Table 3. System Recovery (%).

Start of Trial Before GIP After GIP



75 80

80 78.1 79.8

technical features


industrial wastes

re f e re e d pa p er

Wollongong (Industrial) catchment: Wollongong STP is a tertiary treatment plant discharging to the ocean via an extended outfall one kilometre from the shoreline. The tertiary treatment includes ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. The Wollongong sewer c atchment area includes flows from Bellambi and Port Kembla. Part of the wastewater received by the STP is recycled for industrial reuse and used at Bluescope Steel. A Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process is employed to treat primary effluent to a higher quality effluent resulting in ammonia and nitrate concentrations of 2 mg/ I and 10 mg/I respectively. The outlet phosphat e concentration is - 1 mg/ I. This high quality effluent is then passed through sand filters before going to the Recycled Water Plant. For consistency at both sit es the feedwater for the pilot plant study was taken after the BNR process.

Figure 3. 0.1 micron pre-treatment membrane unit showing 4 leaf clover design. The pilot plant consisted of 4 k Uh inlet flow from the secondary clarifier's outlet for each sewage treatment plant location . This flow was then directed through following stages: 1. Coagulation (Ferric Chloride dosing) 2. 0.1 micron Pre-treatment Membrane. 3. Two stage RO Membrane. The pilot plant was fi rstly operat ed in a domestic/commercial catchment (Gerri ngong STP) followed by operation in an industrial catchment (Wollongong STP). Analytical techniques were employed for the charact erisation of organic foulants in both feedwater and the RO membrane through membrane autopsies. The experimental program also carried out membrane integrity tests of selected chemicals of concern to determine the extent to which they were rejected by RO.

Methodology The pilot plant was first commissioned at Gerringong STP. The key steps were: • Studying the effect of parameters such as flowrate, pressure, conductivity and flux for the pre-treatment membrane and the RO membrane so as to fully characterise the pilot plant performance. • Achieving a run time of 1000 hrs (- 1.5 months) while maintaining an acceptable specific flux and obtaining performance data for the pilot plant. • Characterising feed water composition regarding bulk organic carbon fractions and trace organic compounds. • Carrying out a membrane autopsy t o check for the presenc e of trace organic compounds (such as: Tert butyl phenol, 2methylthio- benzothiazole, Trichlorphenol, Trichlorocresol) earlier identified at Wollongong recycled plant and to screen for unidentified organics.

Experimental set up

Specific. f"lux(LMHt'bw)" time

Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies designed, built and commissioned the pilot plant. The key membrane components were:

I, ..

• Memcor's 4S10V submerged 0.1 micron membrane pretreat ment package plant inclusive of PVDF membranes

!1, .. 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l

• Dow's FILMTEC™ BW30-4040-FR 4-inch Brackish Water RO Element.


Location selection Gerringong (domestic) Catchment: The Gerringong Gerroa Sewerage Scheme is operat ed under a Veol ia Water Australia design-build-operate contract (DBO) for Sydney Water. The scheme services the townships of Gerringong and Gerroa, with a base population of 3,700 people located 120 km south of Sydney. This catchment is essentially residential with commercial activities. There are no authorised industrial wastewater discharges. The process consists of: Biological nutrient removal (BNR) follow ed by sand filtration, ozonation/BAC fi ltration, microfiltration and UV. This high level of advanced tertiary treatment is employed so there is no impact if some of the final treated effluent is released into the Crooked River via infiltration ponds. Up to 80 % of the treated effluent is re-used by a local dairy farm for pasture improvement. The feedwater to the pilot plant was taken after the BNR process prior to sand filtrat ion.

Figure 4. Normalised specific flux (Gerringong).

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~I ·~

·~ ~
















Figure 5. Normalised specific flux (Wollongong).

water JUNE 2009 8 7

industrial wastes Later the pilot plant was transported to t he Wollongong STP wh ich has an industrial loading and where t he membrane fouling was expected to increase significantly (Walker 2007). The same methodology was used for t his trial.


refe reed p a per

Table 4. Weekday sample. Parameter








<1 5.8


Physical performance To obtain plant characteristics, operating data was collected for normalisation. The monitored data was used for calculation of fol lowi ng parameters:







Bicarbonate Alkanity




1. Specific Flux (LMH/bar) (Table 1)

Hydroxide Alkanity



2. Total dissolved solids (Table 2)

Total Alkalinity



<1 64. 1
























0.1 919

3 . System recovery (Table 3)

Cleaning in Place (CIP) for t he Gerringong trial was done at end of trials as no signif icant flux decline (- 3%) was observed (Figure 4). For the Wollongong trial t he Flux declined by more than 15% in - 45 days of operation (Figure 5).



Table 5. Weekend sample. Parameter Turbidity


Higher TDS in the feedwater for the Wollongong trial required a higher initial pressure (9.60 kPa) during plant commissioning as com pared to t he Gerringong trial (91O kPa).

Colour UV(254)

Trials at Gerringong were initially started with 75% recovery and then t he recovery was increased to 80% to simulate fu ll design, as was the case for Wollongong.



Bicarbonate Alkalinity




Hydroxide Alkalinity




Total Alkalinity



Testing and Analysis Feed water fro m bot h domestic and industrial catchments was tested to analyse some of t he physical and chemical parameters (Tables 4, 5) and the organics were characterised into different fractions based on their hydrophobicity (Table 6). All samples for RO feed were taken upstream of the antiscalant dosing points. The Wollongong p ilot plant RO feedwater contai ned a higher amount of bot h inorganic and organ ic compounds than the Gerringong plant feed . The dissolved organic content (DOC) was around 5.5 mg/I for the Gerringong plant feed and 9.1 mg/I for Wollongong plant feed. The hardness content was around 80 mg/I for the Gerringong plant whereas it was 150 mg/I for t he Wollongong plant. Similarly, colou r and conductivity val ues were also higher for the Wollongong plant feed compared to the Gerringong plant feed. Organics c haracterisation for Wol longong was done using more advanced Li quid Chro matography - Organic carbon/n itrogen detector (LC-ONCD) eq uipment wh ich was procured at UNSW in November 2008. The analysis at Gerringong was done using a Rapid Resin fractionation t est. Therefore it is difficult to make a comparison between the catchments. However the following observations can be made: In the case of membranes, hydrophilic compounds in water would tend to permeate t hrough membranes more easily t han hydrophobic compounds, which have large molecular weight so they are rejected. Hydrophobic compounds would tend to attach and absorb onto t he membrane. Therefore it could be assumed the more hydrophobic compounds in the feedwater the more potential for fou ling. In the case of Gerringong the total hydroph obic compounds are - 50% of the total DOC concentration that is equal to 3 mg/L. For the Wollongong site the total hydrophobic compounds are - 18% of the total DOC concentration which equals - 1.6 mg/I.


JUNE 2009





63 5.30










Table 6. Characterisation of organic fraction from Gerringong. Gerringong Total DOC

6.0 mg/L % Fraction

Very Hydrophobic Acid


Slightly Hydrophobic Acid


Charged Hydrophilics


Neutral Hydrophilics


Table 7. Characterisation of organic fraction from Wollongong. Wollongong Total DOC

9 mg/L % fraction





The above results seem to indicate that the hydrophobic com pounds were not causing t he fou ling on the Wollongong pilot plant RO membranes, because the Gerringong feedwater had double t he concentration b ut less fouling.

Micropollutant challenge test Membrane integrity tests give an indication of membrane performance and the ability t o reject micropollutants in the feed water. Due to low detection limits of these micropoll utants exact quantification can not be measured directly from analysing RO feed and permeate. To achieve th is a challenge t est was carried out with five compounds of known concentration that were spiked into the RO system and their percentage rejection measured by analysing a permeate

technical features

industrial wastes

[ •,] refereed paper

sample, based on the feed flow and 60 minutes of spiking. This test was carried out to check the RO integrity and the membrane's ability to reject micropollutants. The bottle containi ng the mixture was co nnected to the dosing pump and introduced into the feed stream. Forty minutes after the spiking commenced, two 500 ml samples (for duplicate reason) were col lected from the feed and combined permeate. Sampling was repeated at the fifty five minute stage. Table 8 compares RO rejection performance for two selected catchments. The RO system in place at Gerringong, as expected, removed the five micropollutants tested in this study during normal conditions. Even during the challenge test, most of chemicals injected into the RO feed were rejected below their level of detection (down to 1ng/L for caffeine). The lower rejection level observed for paracetamol was due to the small molecular weig ht and the non -ionic and hydrophilic nature of this compound. The challenge test for Wollongong indicated a similar rejection rate of the 5 micropollutants with slightly lower val ues for TCEP and estrone.

Membrane Autopsy An autopsy was carried out on the first membrane of the 1st stage and th e last membrane from the 2nd stage of the RO system. The analyses included: 1. Visual inspection. 2. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical.

3. Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES).

Table 8. Challenge test results. % Rejection


Gerringong Paracetamol TCEP Ibuprofen Caffeine Estrone


97.3 91.5 >99.1*

96.7 > 98.3 > 98.8 >99.9 >98.5

98.1 93.2

• Removal efficiency based on the level of detection.

phosphorus and strontium followed by the minor ones such as lead, zi nc, nickel, barium, chrom ium and cadmium. SEM - For Gerringong both elements presented a very small

amount of foulant material on the membrane and did not affect the performance during operation. For the Wollongong case, both elements showed deposits with the stage 2 membrane containing the larger amount. This was as expected as the concentrate from the stage 1 is directed to the stage 2 during operation. Note: The SEM analysis for Wollongong indicated the presence of some inorganic material on the surface of membrane and no organics fouling was observed. In addition, the Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy (EDS) examination showed membrane samples for both stages contained predominantly inorganic elements including; sodium, sulphur, calcium , aluminium, si licon, potassium. The EDS analysis also showed more fouling of iron and magnesium on the membrane samples from stage 2. Fujiwara test - The Fujiwara test indicates membrane

4. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

oxidation due to halogen compou nds. It was negative for RO membranes at Wollongong but was unexpectedly positive for the RO membranes at Gerringong. This was due to presence

5. Fujiwara test. Note: ICP -OES tests were not done for membranes at Gerringong as there was no fou ling material found on membrane surface.

Comment Visual - For both

Gerringong and Wollongong, one of the elements had excess glue, an indication that minor folding could have happened during the manufacturing. But it could not be concluded that there was any decline in performance. /CP-OES - For Gerringong

no foulants were found therefore this test was not conducted. For the Wollongong RO membrane the major elements detected were: sodium, potassium, calcium , su lphur, magnesium, iron, silicon,

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Toll Free (from land lines) 1800 25 30 40 Fax 02 9477 7363 Email:

water JUNE 2009 89

industrial wastes

~ refereed paper

of chlorine tablets in the secondary clarifier outlet channel at Gerringong used to suppress the algal growth.

featured a notably higher percentage of hydrophobic DOC than the usual RO feed collected on a week day. Moreover, the low molecular weight fractions were less than the usual RO feed. These results didn't confirm the c laim that ferric could remove a significant fraction of the organic foulants, this might have been due to the pH which was 6. 7 not being optimal. However, more testing and inorganic analysis would be able to provide a better understanding of the exact role of ferric addition.

Cleaning Solution Analysis


The aim of this analysis was to detect the major foulant removed from the RO membrane during Clean in Place (CIP).

The pilot plant study demonstrated that:

Table 9. DOC Concentration in residual cleaning solution. DOC (mg/I)



Hydrex 4703



Hydrex 4705



CIP was performed when the specific flux declined by 15% as was the case for the Wollongong pi lot study or at the end of trial which occurred for the Gerringong pilot study. Two cleaning chemicals Hydrex 4 703 (Acidic; pH- 4) and Hydrex 4705 (Alkaline; pH- 8) were selected and for consistency similar procedures were followed for both sites. Due to the presence of residual water within the RO modules it was not possible to precisely assess the exact concentration of cleaning agent and foulant in the RO system. However the DOC concentrations were measured and results are summarised in Table 9.

1. Fouling of RO membranes can vary from one sewer catchment to the other, especially for ones that have a high industrial load. 2. A pi lot plant trial using various types of RO membranes is recommended before designing a recycled water system that receives municipal wastewater effluent as a feedwater source. 3. Pilot trials should be run for periods up to 6 months to get a better understanding of membrane performance due to feedwater variations. 4. Autopsies are an excellent way of understanding what chemicals are building up on the membrane surface, but it might be advantageous to do these at various stages of the pilot trials.

A more detailed analysis is required t o improve the comparison between cleaning solutions. However as seen from Table 9, for Wollongong, the residual clean ing solution contains higher DOC concentrations.

5. Better methods for analysing CIP waste are req uired to fully identify the mass and type of organic pollutant that can foul RO membranes.

Additional Tests - Organics Analysis


Since no fouling was expected to occur at Gerringong, no organic analysis was undertaken.

Jorg Drewes, Colorado School of Mines; Pierre le-Clech, Senior Lecturer,Chemical Science and Engineering and Alice Anthony,UNSW; Troy Walker and Yvan Poussade, Veolia Water Australia; Aaron Ballard Smith, Veolia Water Solutions and Technology.

The major chem ical group found on the Wollongong membrane surface were saturated fatty acids, such as: myristic, stearic, palmitic and oleic acids. Most of these fatty acids were detected in the initial analysis in Walker (2007) study except benzenedicarboxylic (or phthalic) acid which is the part of aromatic dicarboxylic group. The group of alkyl phenols (Cresols} such as: Tert butyl phenol, 2-methylthio benzothiazole, trichloro phenol and trichlorocresol were not found on the membrane as in the previous study Walker (2007).

Coagulant Dosing Ferric Chloride Dosing: Addition of ferric chloride was used primarily to remove phosphate. However, ferric also has the potential to coagulate a fraction of organic components fou nd in the RO feed. It was therefore decided to assess the effect of ferric addition on the organic characteristics of the RO feed. Ferric chloride (dosed at upstream of 0.1 micron pre-treatment unit) was turned off during the last week of trials at Wollongong STP. The resulting RO feed water was analysed using LC-ONCD and compared to the results obtained when the coagulation was operational. Based on the LC-OCND results, no significant reduction of DOC was observed during coagulation addition. The DOC levels remained at around 9.19.2 mg/L with and without the ferric. However, there was a significant difference between the tested RO feed and the RO feed collected without dosing iron coagulant s (at 0.1 micron membrane pre-treatment unit). The non-coagulated sample

90 JUNE 2009 water

The Authors

Prasad Borse is a Process Engineer with Veolia Water Australia (prasad.borse@veo Michael Boake is Regional Manager (NSW) with Veolia Water Australia.

Heri Bustamante ( is Project Manager, Science & Technology, Dammika Vitanage is Programme Manager (Treatment & Infrastructure) Science & Technology, Sydney Water Corporation, and Colin Nicholson is General Manager Operations, Sydney Water Corporation.

Reference Walker, T, (2007) Industrial Waste Organic Fouling on Membrane Recycling Plants - An Australian Experience. Paper presented at Ozwater 07.

technical features

industrial wastes



Z Slavnic Abstract Technologies to remove metal pollutants from the wastewaters of mining and metal processing industries to allow safe discharge to sewer or environment are already commercialised. When combi ned with advanced technologies, valuable metals may be recovered. With the current water shortage, economic incentives to recover water are becoming increasingly att ractive. Therefore, employing both conventional and traditional technologies to produce high quality water for reuse may justify the expense.

Introduction Being one of the driest continents, Australia is rapidly progressing in wastewater reuse and recycling. There are numerous projects across the country where advanced sewage treatment plants

have been built to produce high quality reusable effluent, such as Gippsland Water Factory in Victoria, Recycled Water Plant at Rouse Hill in Sydney or Queensland Government's Western Corridor Recycled Water Program. The Federal Government now offers grants for projects to harvest and reuse storm water. Tapping into these non-traditional sources is, without any doubt, the move in right direction, as these schemes will both preserve fresh water and reduce demand for drinking water. Perhaps, we should look into exploiting another alternative water source - wastewater from mining and metal processing

The recovered water may be of more value than the metals.

industries, as technologies to recover and reuse th is water are already commercialised and in wide use. With the price of water set in upwards direction only, the investment may be economically viable. This paper provides an overview of conventional and advanced technologies that , from the author's experience, are often used to clean up metal-polluted trade waste discharged to sewer but can also be successfully employed for inhouse recycling and reuse of the water itself.

Metal Pollutants Mining, steel production and metal processing (refining, electroplati ng, etc) industries generate wastewater loaded with metal pollutants such as iron (both ferrous Fe2 + and ferric iron Fe3 +),

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industrial wastes chromium (both hexavalent Cr6+ and trivalent Cr3+), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), alum inium (Al), cadmium (Cd), etc. Some of these, such as Cu, Fe, Zn , Cr3+, etc, are needed in trace amounts by living organisms, including humans, but excessive levels of heavy metals are harmful. For example, when in a food chain, Cr6+ can cause serious illness in humans such as kidney and liver damage, lung cancer, etc. It is therefore essential to remove heavy metals to very low levels, in particular if the objective is recovery and reuse of water.

Conventional Treatment There are proven technologies on the market which are frequently used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Chemical Precipitation: The common process used for removal of heavy metals is chemical precipitation, and lime addition is perhaps the most widely accepted method; however sodium hydroxide, better known as caustic soda (NaOH) is also used, but more costly. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OHh, is another affordable and exceptionally safe alkali which can be used, but the limitations are much slower reaction and increased potential for pipelines clogging. With the addition of alkal ine agents, insoluble metal hydroxide is formed and then precipitated in a clarification step. Solids-contact clarifiers perform better than the conventional clarifiers. A filtration step is typically required for removal of the metal pollutant to below 1 mg/L. An obstacle is that removal of some metal pollutants requires a pre-treatment prior to chemical precipitation. The case in point is chromium, which is present in wastewater in two ionic forms, ie as trivalent (Cr3+) and hexavalent (Cr6+) ion.

Table 1. Optimal pH for precipitations of metals. Metal

Copper (Cu)


Nickel (Ni)

> 11 9-9.8

Zinc {Zn) Aluminium (Al) Iron (Fe)

8-8.8 8- 8.5

Cadmium (Cd)

> 10.5

Hexavalent chromium is mainly found in industrial wastewater in the forms of chromate (Cr0 4-2 ) and dichromate (Cr07 • 2). In principle, its removal involves reduction of hexavalent Cr6 + to a valency state of plus three (Cr3+) by lowering t he pH of wastewater to 2-3 using sulphuric acid (H 2 S04) and addition of a reducing agent such as sulphur dioxide (S0 2) prior to lime precipitation to remove formed Cr3+ hydroxide from the solution. When iron is concerned, it exists in water as ferric (Fe3 +) or ferrous iron (Fe2+). At neutral pH and in presence of oxygen, soluble ferrous form rapidly oxidises to ferric iron which readily hydrolyses forming insoluble ferric hydroxide Fe(OHb and then precipitates out of solut ion. Since most industrial wastewater is acidic, a neutralisation step is frequently required to increase the pH. Another significant problem is the presence of complexing agents such as cyanide, e.g. sodium cyanide (NaCN) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN), w hich is commonly the case in ore extraction or metal plating industries. Cyanide needs to be removed before employing metals chemical precipitation. Complete cyanide oxidation to CO2 and N2 can be accomplished by direct addition of strong oxidants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI) or ozone (03) .

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92 JUNE 2009 water

Optimal pH

Iron Coprecipitation: What complicates the effective process design is the presence of a 'cocktail' of heavy metals in the wastewater, which is generally the case when above industries are concerned. Namely, different metals reach their minimum solubility at different pH values as shown in Table 1. One of the most effective technologies in removing metal cocktails is iron coprecipitation. As the name tells, this technology is based on minimum solubility of iron hydroxide (optimum pH 8 - 8.5), rather then on the optimum pH for removal of individual metals. The process involves addition of ferric ch loride or ferric sulphate to wastewater w here iron hydrolyses forming insoluble iron hydroxide floes, Fe(OHb, These floes are amorphous and have high binding capacity, so other metals present in wastewater are adsorbed onto the floes surface and removed with the precipitate. Ion coprecipitation can remove metals to very low residual concentration , ie micrograms per litre, when coagulation/ flocculation (addition of polymer) is employed and followed by clarification and filtration. As above, the precipitation step is more effective w hen taking place in solids-contact clarifiers. Obviously, treatment of side streams is required, e.g. sludge dewatering. As a rule of thumb, metals removal increases with increase in iron dosage. However, it needs to be noted that each wastewater is different, hence extensive laboratory-scale studies are required to determine iron dose, optimal pH, reaction time, etc, in order to determine reliable process design.

Advanced Treatment Existing advanced technologies, s uch as activated carbon adsorption, reverse osmosis and ion exchange, can be




technical features

Table 2. RO removal efficiency. Ions






Cu Ni





successfully employed to further treat effluent from chemical precipitation of metals and produce water of a quality that approaches the purity of distilled water. Activated Carbon Adsorption: Th is is a process where pollutant s are collected onto the surface of activated carbon (adsorbent), which contains large number of cavernous pores, hence provid ing a large surface area relative to the particle size. To illustrate the point, 1 gram of activated carbon has a surface area of approximately 500 m2 •

The technology is frequently employed as a polishing step in wastewater treatment and has found commercial applications for removal of many metallic pollutants. Adsorption efficiency decreases with time, hence activated carbon will eventually need to be replaced or reactivated. When it comes to metals removal, the reactivation involves use of strong acidic or alkaline solutions. However, regeneration is typically not performed unless there is a clear economic incentive to recover valuable metals. If soluble organic compounds are present in wastewater, granular activat ed carbon adsorption should be incorporated in the design, as organics readily interfere with other polishing steps, notably tech nologies utilising ion exchange and membrane fi ltration. Reverse Osmosis: Reverse osmosis (RO) is also a well proven technology in removing soluble met als. Some typical removal efficiencies for metals are shown in Table 2.

Performance of all membranes decline with time, predominantly due to subst ances that deposit on thei r surface as a result of either or both fou ling and scaling. In industrial applications, the former is caused by presence of suspended solids or co lloidal substances, notably silica and clay, but also iron hydroxide, oils, etc. Scaling is typically due to presence of calcium carbonate or sulphate. Proper and regular flushing cycles, and/ or antiscalant, are used to minimise fouli ng and scaling problems. The membrane selection and process configuration are almost exclusively driven by energy considerations, the need to minimise fouling and accomplish the highest flux rate while producing permeate of the required quality.

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Ion Exchange: This technology uses a reversible chemical reaction where ions between a solid phase (resin, usually synthetic) and a liquid phase (wastewater) are exchanged. The resin has considerable surface area (surface + pores). The resin is manufactured to selectively adsorb either cations or anions. The process of exchanging ions will continue unt il all available exchange sites are filled, at which point the resin is exhausted. Therefore, as for activated carbon, ion exchange resins have limited capacity, and must be regenerated by suitable chemicals.

Th is technology is used for selective removal of heavy metals from dilute waste streams. Counter-current flow ion exchange systems appear to be most effective in removal of

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industrial wastes Table 3. Selectivity of cation exchangers. Strong Acid

Weak Acid


Cu 1+



Cu 2+




Fe Ni

Zn Fe Co

metal pollutants. The regenerat ion effluent contains the metals in more c oncentrated form, allowing more economical treatment and enhancing their recovery pot ential. Selection of the appropriate resin is the most important design parameter. The selectivity of ion exchange resins for metal removal in decreasing order of preference is shown in Table 3. Factors that typically impact on the effectiveness of ion exchange systems include presence of oil and grease and suspended solids (> 10 mg/L), as they cause resin clogging and/or blinding.


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In order to preserve fresh and/ or save drinking water, we need to tap into alternative sources, one of which could be industrial wastewater from metal processing industries. There are proven c onventional and advanced technologies which are frequently employed for recovery of valuable metals. An additional benefit would be recovery and reuse of another precious substance - wat er.


The Author

Chlorine (Free & Total) pH ORP Temperature

Conductivity Chlorite

Hydrogen Peroxide Peracetic Acid Ozone Bromine Chlorine Dioxide Dissolved Oxygen


Dr Zeran Slavnic (PhD, MST, MEng, BEng) has 27 years experience in design, construction, com missioning, asset management and O&M in the water ind ustry. He is Commissioning Manager with Laing O'Rourke (Australia). Email: .au

Further Reading Birkett J D, Reverse Osmosis - Unit Operations for Treatment of Hazardous Industrial Wastes, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ, 1978. Metzner AV, Removing Soluble Metals from Wastewa ter, Water Sewerage Works, April 1977.




Precise Metering Relief/Priming Valve Auto De-Gassing Pulse and mA Control CANBUS and PROFIBUS Control Available In PP, PVC, PVDF, SS

94 JUNE 2009 water

Netzer A, A Bowers and J Norman, Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Lime, Proceedings of the 16 Conference on Great Lakes Research, Huron, OH, 1973. Stumm W and J J Morgan, Aquatic Chemistry, New York, Wiley lnterscience, 1970. Wangen L and J Williams, ·control by Alkaline Neutralisation of Trace Elements in Acidic Coal Cleaning Waste Leachate, Water Pollution Control Federation Journal 54, 1982. US EPA, Industrial Environmental Research Labo rato ry, Cincinati, Ohio, Summary Report: Control and Trea tment Technology for Metal Finishing Industry - Jon Exchange, EPA-625-8-81-007, June 1981.

technical features

desalination & membranes

LIME ADDITION, POST RO: NEW ADVANCES I Dunn Abstract Dosing a solution of dissolved lime into finished water is better than using milkof-lime but requires a specialised thickener/clarifier to prepare the dilute solution.

Introduction In Australia, large-scale seawater desalination is gaining in prominence, with the first large-scale treatment plants in Perth and the Gold Coast operational, Sydney under construction, and Adelaide and Melbourne projects at preliminary stages. Inland Australia has also seen brackish water desalination become popular for securing regional water supplies. Not only has the urban water industry sourced this alternative, but the mining sector has also begun to consider securing alternative reliable water supplies by means of desalination.

Desalination and Lime Lime is difficult to handle in all forms, whether as process-intensive quicklime 'slaked' on-site or as the most commonly used form of hydrated lime. Inevitably it contains impurities, since it is derived from quarried limestone. Trad itionally lime was added to treated wat er as a dilute slurry ("milk of lime"), thus adding a quantity of impurities directly to the water and raising the turbidity. Over time these impurities accumulate in pipelines and storage tanks and must be removed periodically. Take the example of a 100 MUd plant requ iring 30 mg/ L of hydrated lime. In the case of 85% industrial quality lime, this would result in the consumption of about 1,100

Figure 1. Outotec's lime saturater at Perth Seawater Desalination Plant, the first large scale desalination plant of its kind in Australia.

tonne/ yr of supplied lime, depositi ng almost 165 tonnes/ yr of impurities which must be removed from the system at some point. To some extent , using higher quality lime can mitigate this effect. In Australia, for example, premium quality 94% purity lime, as opposed to 85% industrial quality, can be used, but there is, of course, an increased cost. The current trend is to minimise or eliminate the post-treatment impurities added to treated water. After all, there is

Make life simpler downstream in the pipelines and storage tanks.

no filtration step after post-chemical addition , and great expense has already been incurred treating the water to the highest possible standards. Seawater desalination by reverse osmosis, therefore, has seen a renewed interest in lime saturators. Perth , for exam pie, utilises dissolved lime from a lime saturator, as opposed to the addition of milk-of-lime, in its desalination plant (Figure 1).

Lime Saturators - How do they Work? A lime saturator is essentially a t hickener clarifier tank designed with a certain mixing energy and residence time to encourage lime solids to dissolve to form a clarified sat urated solution of l ime, free of impurities. Lime solubility in wat er is about 1,500 mg/ L (0.1 5% w/w) at 30°C


JUNE 2009 95

desalination & membranes but dissolution does not happen instantaneously. Lime solids are recycled from the settled lime bed into the feedwell to encourage particle flocculation and settling, wh ile the residence time is maximised to extract as much active lime as possible. Polyelectrolyte flocculant is often added to further enhance flocculation and prevent the carryover of smaller slow-settling particles formed by the lime. Flocculant addition has been found to be especi ally important for reverse osmosis permeate water from .desalination, as the low salinity chemistry tends to keep lime solids dispersed rather than settling (see Figure 2).


Saturated Llmewater

'---' ,....._~

Lime solids & lmpuntle$

Product water pumped to COOSUffl81S or process

Filtered or membrane treated water

Figure 2. Design of a lime saturater.

Technology Crossovers Today's lime saturators have benefited from years of minerals processing experience with the adoption of the robust engineering and design principles from the thickening industry. Design features such as Outotec's Floe-Miser feedwell for thickeners, wh ich optimises solids dispersion, is one such example which has been adopted into the design of lime saturators. The seasonal demand for drinking water and ranging plant throughputs in other applications results in varying turndown rates in the operation of lime saturators, which can often be 'tricky' to manage. It is important to ensure that the saturator design can accommodate the varied flows through the plant without detrimental effects on the process i.e. lime water turbid ity, concentration or lime utilisation.

Feedwell Design In addition to the control of bed level and recycle flow, an important design

aspect is the feedwell itself, which is critical in achieving effective flocculation and distribution of the feed into the settling zone of the tank. Great strides in feedwell config uration and internal design have been made by Outotec in the last two years,for the minerals processing industry, supported by t he application of CFO analysis by CSIRO to the flow regime within thickener feedwells. This has resulted in the inclusion of a feed shelf int o the lime saturator (Figure 3), wh ich has been shown to reduce solids short circu iting, achieving optimised mixing, longer solids retention and efficient flocculation .

Automatic Bed Level Control Automat ic bed level control is a challenge for lime saturators. Lime particles have a low density and lime solids often do not form a distinct

interface between t he bed and overlying limewater, which is especially evident for water which has been passed through reverse osmosis membranes. This lack of solid-liquid interface is a problem for any instrument attempting to determine the inventory of lime solids in the saturator. Traditionally ultrasonic bed level detection has been used for this purpose. The addition of polymer floccu lant has been shown to comp ress the bed and form a more distinct interface that allows more reliable results for ultrasonic detection. Wit h t he formation of a bed interface automatic bed level control for li me saturators is one step closer. Benefits include stable and optimised operation and co nsistently improved li me utilisation.

Conclusion This renaissance in lime saturators will continue - particularly for urban but also for other sector needs. Removi ng impurities under controlled conditions in the treatment plant makes life simpler downstream in the pipelines and storage tanks. In the future we will get used to seeing the distinctive sky blue surface of a tank full of saturated limewater.

The Author

Figure 3. Addition of feed shelf in lime saturators to achieve optimised mixing (Photo of feedwell from a thickener in minerals processing).


JUNE 2009


Ian Dunn ( is a Process Engineer for Outotec Pty Ltd (formerly Outokumpu Technology), a worldwide technology leader in minerals and metals processing.

technical features


water supply

refereed paper

GREEN TREE FROGS: CONTAMINATION OF COVERED RESERVOIRS IN NORTHERN AUSTRALIA N B Sammon, K M Harrower, L D Fabbro, R H Reed Abstract A number of Queensland wat er authorities have recently reported the faecal indicator Escherichia coli, derived from unknown sources, in thei r reticulated drinking water supplies. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) is a potential source of such E. coli, as well as microfungi, in municipal water service reservoi rs in Queensland. Excreta of L. caerulea were col lected from the internal structures of a water reservoir an d analysed for E. coli using the Most Probable Number (MPN) Colilert ÂŽ method. Excreta were examined microscopical ly for the presence of microfungal colonies and these were identif ied by their spores and reproductive structures. Escherichia coli were recorded from 100% of samples collect ed for E. coli analysis with some MPN g- 1 as hi gh as 2.89 x 108 . All samples collected for microfungal analysis supported ext ensive sporulating microfungal colonies. We have demonstrated for the first time that excrement of the Australian green tree frog (L. caerulea) is an important potent ial source of both E. coli and microfungal contamination of reticulated municipal wat er supply systems in Queensland, Australia.

Introduction The faecal indicator Escherichia coli, derived from unknown sources, has recently been reported in a number of municipal water supply systems in Queensland, Australia. The objective of this study was to quantitatively test the hypothesis that the Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) is a potential source of E. coli, and also microfungi, in water storage reservoirs within municipal water supply systems in tropical and sub-tropical settings in Australia. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis caused by waterborne E. coli are relatively rare since only some strains of this bacterium are pathogenic, and the water industry does not usually monitor it as a

human pathogen. However, t he detection of this enteric bacterium in a water supply is indicative of faecal contami nation wh ich may introduce human pathogens such as salmonellae and Vibrio cholerae leading to serious gastro-intestinal infections. Consequently the source of any E. coli, and hence faecal contam ination indicated by its presence, needs to be invest igated. This study is part of a long-term invest igation of the microbial ecology of the drinking water distribution system in a tropical Australian city. During this investigation as many as 10 mature specimens of L. caerulea were often observed resting on the internal access stairway, and the roof structu re and supporting columns in close proximity to the stairway, of an above ground water storage tank (reservoir) (Fig. 1). Frog excreta were frequently observed on these structures (Fig. 2). These observations gave rise to the hypothesis that L. caerulea may be a potential source of E. coli and also microfungi in municipal water supply systems. The reservoir involved in the present study is a covered concrete structure with an internal galvan ised steel access stairway. The steel roof structure is supported by concrete columns. The reservoir has a maximum capacity of 10.2 megalitres but the water authority uses a set point level of 80% of that capacity. Water samples were collected from th is reservoir on a monthly basis for 18 months for the purpose of the long term microbial ecology study. Free chlorine residual, measured with a Eutech Colorimeter C201 chlorine meter, averaged 0.09 ppm. and pH averaged 7.82. The water was not routinely t ested for the presence of E. coli. Gordon and Cowling (2003) found that E. coli was uncommon in frogs except in

Both Escherichia coli and microfungal spp are excreted.

L. caerulea and L. infrafrenata which

were collected in the suburbs of Cairns, North Queensland. However, their study only showed the prevalence o f E.coli in those species without quantitative analysis. Other studies have found th at some frog species carry human pathogens. For example, salmonellae have been isolated from pet aquarium amphibians Xenopus spp., Hynochirus spp., and Pipa pipa (Bartlett , Trust et al. 1977). and salmonellae were reported in 19 of 150 specimens of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) (O'Shea, Speare et al. 1990). The source of infection of an o utbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul at an iso lated construction site in Central Queensland was found to be contaminated drinking water in a tank water supply system t o wh ich water was transported by truck. A number of live green tree frogs (species not stated) were found in t he water tanks and it was concluded that these and/or mice may have cont aminated the wat er supply. These researchers examined the National Salmonella Surveillance Survey (NSSS) database and noted only one isolation of Salmonella from a green tree frog, a Salmonella Onderstepoort; although they concluded that, based on overseas experience, a greater number of isolat es and range of salmonellae are I ikely t o be fou nd with more extensive frog sampling. Furthermore, in a study of hepatitis in 52 specimens of the green tree frog L. caerulea, no salmo nellae were isolated (Hill, Green et al. 1997). The literature does not reveal any comprehensive investigation of L. caerulea or any other Australian frog species as carriers of Salmonella spp. or other human enteric pathogens. Consequently, until such a survey is carried out it must be assumed that L. caerulea is a potential carrier of enteric bacteria harmful to human s. Litoria caerulea is found throughout northern Australia, Queensland, northeastern South Australia, northern New South Wales, and parts of Papua New Guinea (Cogger 1992; Cronin 2001). The

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Figure 1. A specimen of Litoria caerulea asleep on a supporting column inside a reservoir.

Figure 2. Frog excreta on internal stairway of a reservoir.


Figure 3. Faecal pellet of Litoria caerulea with abundant sporulating microfungal growth. species is nocturnal, and in its natural habitat individuals spend daylight hours in hollow tree limbs, tree canopies, and similar hiding places. The frog has an affinity for human habitations and is commonly found in letter boxes, toilet bowl recesses and associated sewerage pipes, rainwater downpipes and tanks , and the roof structures of outbuildings. At dusk the green tree frog leaves its daytime resting place and comes to ground to hunt, frequently taking up ambush positions on rocks, logs and other slightly elevated objects. This large, robust frog is carnivorous; its diet consisting mainly of beetles, crickets, other insects, and spiders but small vertebrates such as other frogs, rodents, and small bats are occasionally taken. The frog hunts by pouncing on its prey and securing it wit h it s sticky tongue and vomeri ne teeth, often pushing larger prey into its mouth with its forefeet. The prey is swallowed whole. As a consequence of this ground-feeding method the animal also frequently ingests dried grass fragments and soil

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Figure 4. Part of faecal pellet of Litoria caerulea showing grass fragments.

particles which adhere to it s sticky mouth parts (Barker, Grigg et al. 1995; Cogger 1992; Vincent 1999).

Materials and Methods Samples were collected from the interior stairway and accessible structures of a roofed water service reservoir in a north Queensland city. Escherichia coli analysis In order to determine whether or not E. coli was present in the L. caerulea population within the reservoir, 10 discrete samples of L. caerulea faecal deposits were collected at random from the internal infrast ructure for E. coli analysis. No frog species other than L. caerulea, or any other vertebrate, had ever been observed in this reservoir over an 18 month period of water sampling. Each of the samples was added to 200 ml of sterile reverse osmosis water in sterile 250 ml Schott bottles and shaken vigorously for 2 min. to break up the faecal material and create faecal suspensions. The suspensions were

filtered through sterile muslin, to remove insect exoskeletons and other debris, into sterile screw-t op plastic sample bottles. The faecal suspension samples were analysed for E. coli at a laboratory accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA). The analyses were performed using the ColilertÂŽ Most Probable Number (MPN) method or "Enzyme Substrate Coliform Test" (Eaton, Clesceri et al. 2005). Microfungal analysis Twenty L. caerulea faecal pellets were collected from the internal infrastructure of a concrete water storage reservoir. The surfaces of these pellets were examined for the presence of microfungal colonies using a Wild M3Z stereomicroscope. Fragments of sporulating microfungal colonies were then picked from 5 of the pellets with a dissecting needle, placed on glass microscope slides, stained with acid fuchsin/lactic acid and examined under a leica DMlB light microscope. Sporulating microfungal colonies were identified by their reproductive

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Table 1. Escherichia coli MPN of Litoria caerulea faecal suspensions.

Sample No.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average

Weight of faecal sample gin 200 ml sterile water

E. co/iMPN 100 mL·1 of faecal suspension

E. coli MPN g-1 of faecal matter (wet weight mass)


4,100,000 5,504,000 359,000

1.59 X 107 1.96 X 107 7.29 X 10 5 1.55 X 108 2.89 X 108 4.95 X 107

0.561 0.985 0.762 0.437 0.962 0.303 1.171 0.614 0.482 0.6794

structures and spores to generic level by reference to (Gilman 1959), (Ellis 1971), (Kendrick and Carmichael 1973), (Carmichael, Kendrick et al. 1980). Only sporulating colonies were identified. No attempt was made to identify asporate colonies.

Results Escherichia coli The 10 faecal suspensions all tested positive for E. coli. The faecal pellet wet weights ranged from 0.303 g. to 1.171 g . with a mean of 0.6794 g. The E. coli MPN g1 of faecal matter on a wet weight mass basis ranged from 1.69 x 105 to 2.89 x 1QB with a median value of 0.18 x 1 QB and a mean of 6.1 x 107 (Table 1). Microfungi

All 20 pellets examined supported visible sporulating fungal colonies (Fig. 3). The genera identified on the 5 pellets selected for colony identification included Aspergillus (3 species), Penicil/ium (2 species), Absidia, Memnoniel/a, Stilbel/a, Fusarium, Acremonium, Syncephalastrum and Geotrichum .

Discussion Escherichia coli In a study of the dist ribution of E. coli in Australian vertebrates, Gordon and Cowling (2003) reported that the faeces of frogs carried E. coli but that this bacterium was much less prevalent in frogs (12% of 106 specimens examined) than in mammals (56 % of 1063 hosts examined). However, 10 of the 13 E. coli isolates from frogs, or 77% of the total frog isolates, were recovered from only 2 species of the genus Litoria, the large tree frogs L. caerulea and L infrafrenata but the number of specimens from each species was not stated . That findi ng ranks these 2 members of the frog

59,100,000 63,100,000 23,800,000 41,900,000 6,300,000 52,000 3,100,000 20,731,500

2.77 X 10 8 1.08 X 107 1.69 X 10 5 1.29 X 107 6.10 X 107

genus Litoria among those vertebrat e hosts with the highest prevalence of E. coli. In their study, Gordon and Cowling (2003) defined prevalence as 'the fraction of host s in which E. coli was a dominant member of the Enterobacteriaceae commu nity in that host'. In this study, the more general definition of prevalence 'the fraction of hosts in which a particular species ... is present' as stated by Gordon and Cowling (2003) was adopt ed. The high prevalence of E. coli in L. caerulea excrement found in this study (Table 1) accords with the findings of (Gordon and Cowling 2003) and suggests that L. caerulea, as a species, may be a universal carrier of E. coli. All of the L. caerulea and L. infrafrenata specimens from which E. coli were isolated by Gordon and Cowling (2003) were collected in the suburbs of Cairns, Queensland, a city located approximately 1000 km north of the site of this study. The ecology of these two species is similar, but the geographical range of L. infrafrenata in Australia is restricted to far north Queensland while on the other hand, L. caerulea is endemic throughout Queensland. Based on the results presented here, the species L caerulea has the potential t o act as an important source of the faecal indicator E. coli in wat er distribution systems in Queensland. For example, the reservoir used in this study has an effective average operating capacity of ca. 8.16 megalitres representing 80% (the 'set point') of the maximum 10.2 megalitre capacity. The literature is silent on the matter but it could be reasonably assumed that each frog voids one faecal pellet of average weight per day (0.679 g. as per Table 1) contain ing the average E. coli MPN g· 1 (6. 1 x 107 as per Table 1) and that 90% of pellets are voided d irectly into the water or are displaced into the water by frog movement. If those assumptions are used then only three frogs

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water supply would be needed to produce a readi ng ~ 1 E. coli cel ls 100 mL-1 , the level at w hic h action must be t aken by the w ater authority. As a resu lt of their study, Gordon and Cowling (2003) suggested that E. coli , as a spec ies, is adapted to mammals with hindgut fermentation chambers or, in the absence of such chambers, to ' large' hosts. Their findi ng that E. coli is uncommon in f rogs , except in the case of L. caerulea and L. infrafrenata, is in accord with that conclusion . They also observed that, for unknown reasons, E. coli was not common in most insectivores, even t hough the bacterium can be isolated from insects. An im portant observation reported by Gordon and Cowling (2003) was that E. coli was more prevalent in frogs living in association with humans, possibly because of elevated levels of environmental contami nation by E. coli due to the presence of domestic animal faeces. The high prevalence and MPN of E. coli in L. caerulea exc reta found in t his st udy, t ogether with t he observat ions reported by Gordon and Cowling (2003), suggest s that there may be a link between the prevalence of E. coli in L. caerulea found in water storage reservoirs and the species ' known affinity for human habitations, particularly the recesses of toilet bowls and assoc iat ed sewerage p ipes (Vincent 1999). The water reservoir from which samples were collected in the p resent study is located close to both human dwellings and virgin bushland. In view of t he feed ing method of L. caerulea, it is also possib le that E. coli voided in t he faeces of macropods, wh ich are frequently observed in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir, may be ingested by t he frog . The high prevalence(~ 82 %) of E. coli in

What a life! As referred to in Sammon's paper, the Green Tree Frog has some peculiar nesting habits. When working on a mine-site in Northern Territory many years ago, the Editor had occasion to use a public toilet. It was blocked and the bowl, consequently, was half full of 'solid excrement', to phrase it nicely. After adding my quota I yanked the chain. As the water rose, one of the greenbrown lumps started to swim frantically in circles, only to relapse into immobility as the water level slowly fell , waiting patiently for another 'deus ex machina' to yank the chain. (There may be a moral there).

Bob Swinton

1 oo JUNE 2009 water

US] the 4 species of macropod incl uded in t he study by Gordon and Cowling (2003) supports this possibility. However, it is likely that t he concentrat ions of E. coli found in all specimens analysed (Table 1) suggest that the bacterium multiplies within the intestinal tract of L. caerulea as a resident rather than as a transient, and that the external environment is only a possible secondary source of inoculum. The human pathogenicity of E. coli isolated from reservoir frog excreta in t his study is not known. However it should be noted that Gordon and Cowling (2003) reported t hat Group D strains (Ochman and Selander 1984) of E. coli w hich cause extra-intest inal E. coli infections in humans (Picard , Sevali Garcia et al. 1999) were isolated from L. caerulea in their st udy. The present study has demonstrated t he high prevalence and MPN of t he faecal indicator E. coli in the excret a of L. caerulea found in municipal water storage reservoirs. Further work on th is subject will be carried out.

Microfungi The finding that excreta voided by L. caerulea in w ater storage reservoirs universally support microfungal growth, together with knowledge of the animal's method of feed ing, suggests that t he excreta become inoculated with microfungal spores in the following ways. (a) From airborne spores within the reservoir after the excreta are voided. Air samples taken from bot h inside and outsi de the reservoir, and water samples taken from the reservoir over an 18 month period during another part of t he mycological st udy, al l yielded large numbers of fungal propagu les with Cladosporium s pp., Aspergillus spp. , and Penicil/ium spp. pred ominat ing (unpublished data). The pred ominant fungal genera identified on the L. caerulea excret a were Aspergil/us and Penicil/ium. (b) From spores carried by prey insects and/ or on d ried grass frag ment s and soi l particles ingested with prey an d which survive the frog 's digestive process. The identified microfungal genera are commonly isolated from plant material and/ or soil. (c) Both (a) and (b). Stereomicroscopic examination of t he excreta revealed t hat visi b le grass fragment s and soil particles were present in many of those excreta (Plat e 4). Thus it is likely that microfungal propagules

refereed paper

are brought into the reservoi r by the frog as spores ingest ed with prey, grass fragments and soil and subsequent ly voided in faeces. However, regardless of the initial source of inoculum, t he sporu lat ing microfungal colonies on the faeces themselves are t hen a source of microfungal propagules found in the reservoir air and water. It was notable that Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus niger, s pecies wh ich were commonly isolated from t he reservoir air and water, were not fou nd on any of t he excreta. Th is suggest s t hat spores of t hese particular microf ungal species, and probably others , cannot survive t he frog's d igestive system, that they are outcom peted by other microfungal species, or that frog excrement is not a s uitable substrate for t heir germination and growt h. This study has shown for t he first t ime that the large Australian green tree frog, L. caerulea, utilises the internal structures of roofed water storage reservoirs as d iurnal hiding p laces and that its excrement is an important potential source of E. coli and microfungal contamination in those reservoirs. The Australian Drinking Water Guid elines (National Health and Medical Research Council 2004) prescribe that t he d etection of any E. c oli in a 100 ml sam ple of drinking water requires action by t he relevant water authority. Th e presence of L. caerulea in water storage reservoi rs should therefore be of concern to all water authorities in region s where the amphibian is endemic and t hey should consider ways of exc luding this frog s pecies from their water storage facil ities. Since this species is able to gain access t hroug h remarkably small apertures, its exclusion is a d ifficult and possibly impracticable solut ion. The maintenance of a free chlorine residu al in distribut ion systems, as prescribed by t he Australian Drinking Water Guid elines (National Health and Medical Researc h Council 2004), can be regarded as a useful measure to mitigate postt reatment faecal contaminat ion introduced by L. caerulea and ot her species. However, it is important for water authorit ies to avoid complacen cy where that frog spec ies is found in their reservoirs since frog E. coli may mask the presence of more hazardous faecal contamination.

Acknowledgments Funding for t his project and acc ess to water storage and distribut ion facilities were provided by Rockham pton Regional

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Council through Fitzroy River Water. This f unding and the coop eration and assistance of Fitzroy River Water staff are gratefully acknowledged and appreciated. We sincerely thank Dr Jason Plumb (Fitzroy River Water) for his val ued comments and support.

The Authors Noel Sammon, a professional accountant, company secretary, and manager, has maintai ned a lifetime interest in biology. In 2005 he attai ned the degree of Bachelor of Science (Biology) w ith First Class Honours. T his paper is part of his PhD research into the microbiology/ mycology of a t ropical municipal water supply system . Keith Harrower is Associate Professor of Microbiology, and Rob Reed is Professor of Biomed ical Science and Associate Professor Lare lle Fabbro is Director of Post -grad uate Science Stud ies, all at t he Centre for Plant and Water Science, CQUni versity, Rockhampton .

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References Barker J, Grigg G, Tyler M (1995) 'A Field Guide to Australian Frogs.' (Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chippi ng North, NSW) Bartlett KH, Trust TJ, Lior H (1977) Small Pet Aquarium Frogs as a Source of Sal monella. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 33, 1026-1029. Carmichael JW, Kendrick WB, Connors IL, Sigler L (1980) 'Genera of Hyphomycetes.' (The University of Alberta Press: Edmonton, Canada) Cogger HG (1992) 'Reptiles and Amphibians of Austral ia.' (Reed Books: Chatswood, NSW) Cronin L (2001) 'Australian Reptiles and Amphibians.' (Envirobook: Annandale, NSW) Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Rice EW, Greenburg AE (2005) 'Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 21st edn.' (U nited Book Press, American Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation: Baltimore, Maryland) Ellis MB (1971) 'Dematiaceous hyphomycetes.' (The Commonwealth Mycological Institute: Kew, England) Gilman JC (1959) 'A Manual of Soil Fungi.' (Constable and Company: London) Gordon D, Cowling A (2003) The distribution and genetic structure of Escherichia coli in Australian vertebrates: host and geographic effects. Microbiology 149, 3575-3586. Hill BD, Green PE, Lucke HA (1997) Hepatitis in the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) associated with infection by a species of Myxidium. Australian Veterinary Journal 12, 910-911. Kendrick WB, Carmichael JW (1973) Hyphomycetes. In 'The Fungi 4A'. (Eds GC Ainsworth, AS Sparrow and AS Sussman) pp. 323-509. (Academic Press: New York) National Health and Medical Research Council (2004) 'Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 6.' (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra) O'Shea P, Speare R, Thomas AD (1990) Salmonellas from the cane toad , Bufo marinus. Australian Veterinary Journal 67, 310. Ochman H, Selander RK (1984) Standard reference strains of Escherichia coli from natural populations. J. Bacteriol 157, 690-693.

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Picard B, Sevali Garcia J, Gouriou S, Duriez P, Brahimi N, Bingen E, Elion J, Denamur E (1999) The link between phylogeny and virulence in Escherichia coli extra-intestinal infection. Infect. lmmun. 67, 546-553. Vincent L (1999) ' Litoria caerulea.' James Cook University, herp/ ngherp. shtml, Townsville.


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THE NSW WATER INDUSTRY COMPETITION ACT SWalkom Abstract Different approaches to water service delivery are possible under the NSW Government's framework for regulating private sector involvement in water and wastewater services. This paper outlines the framework and some of the implications for Sydney Water.

Introduction Veolia Water Australia and Aquanet Sydney have been issued with the first licences that allow private companies to provide water services in NSW. The licences allow Aquanet and Veolia to build and operate the Rosehi ll/Camell ia Recycled Water Project. This project com prises a recycled water plant at Fairfield in Sydney's west, to be bui lt and operated by Veolia, and a network of recycled water pipes, to be built and operated by Aquanet. Recycled water wil l be sold to Sydney Water, which will on-sell it to major industrial customers. Veolia and Aquanet's licence applications were made under the NSW Government's Water Industry Competition Act 2006 (WICA). This article discusses the main components of WICA and some of the implications for, and responses by, Sydney Water.

Metropolitan Water Plan The development of WICA was one of the commitments in the NSW Government's 2006 Metropolitan Water Plan. That Plan sets out the measures to secure Sydney's water supply in the long-term and in drought. Meeting this challenge requires the innovation, resources and cooperation of both the Government and the private sector. In recognition of this , WICA was developed to encourage more private involvement in the water industry. One of the principal aims was to encourage the private sector to recycle water and to develop other new sources of water. There are three main elements of the WICA framework for private involvement in the water industry. First, WICA creates a State-based regime for access to the services provided by monopoly infrastructure. In the water

102 JUNE 2009


industry, monopoly infrastructure mostly comprises the pipes, pumps and reservoirs that deliver water to, or take wastewater from, homes and businesses. The main 'service' provided by this infrastructure is to transport water or wastewater between customers and treatment faci lities. The second element of the WICA framework is a regime to licence private companies to provide wat er and wastewater infrastructure and retail services. Across Australia, these services have historically only been provided by pub lic water utilities. The third element is that the Act provides for the NSW Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) to arbitrate disputes over sewer mining. The th ree elements of the WICA framework create many possible ways for the private sector to be more involved in the water industry.

Access Under one potential scenario created by WICA, a private company could provide wastewater services to properties connected to Sydney Water's sewerage network. The company could extract its customers' wastewater from the sewer network and produce recycled water for sale to customers. Under this scenario, the company would need both ' network operator' and 'retail supplier' licenses. The net work operator licence wou ld regu late the construction and operation of infrastructure to extract wastewater from the sewer network, to treat the wastewater and to deliver recycled water to customers. The retail supplier licence would regulate the company's relationship with its upstream wastewater customers and its downstream recycled water customers. The com pany wou ld also need to enter into an access agreement with Sydney Wat er. The agreement would contain terms on which the company is

Perspectives from Sydney Water.

permitted to use Sydney Water's pipes to transport wastewater from its customers to its treatment plant. The agreement would need to deal with things like the quantity of wastewater that can be extracted from Sydney Water's pipes and maintenance of the interconnection between the pipe network and the licence-holder's treatment plant. Sydney Water has prepared indicative terms and conditions of access to its water and wastewater networks. The indicative terms and cond itions provide a starting-point for negotiations on access. Seminars with interested private sect or organisations have been held on these arrangements. One of the key terms is the price for using Sydney Water's pipes. If the pipes are part of Sydney Water's Bondi, North Head or Malabar wastewater networks, a methodology for calculating the access price has already been determined by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). The determination was made under the Commonwealth Trade Practices Act 1974, rather than WICA, because those networks were declared under the Commonwealth's access regime before the WICA regime was developed. The Bondi, North Head and Malabar wastewater networks are now also declared under WICA. The declaration of these networks provides a binding right for interested parties to negotiate access to the service provided by the infrastructure and to have disputes independently arbitrated under both State and Federal legislation. This duplication of access regimes can be removed if the Commonwealth Government certifies the W ICA access regime as being 'effective' under the Trade Practices Act. The NSW Government has applied to the National Competition Council (NCC) to have the WICA access regime certified. If the NCC considers that an access regime compl ies with the Compet ition Principles Agreement, the NCC may recommend that the Commonwealth

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recycling Minister for Competition Policy and Consumer Affairs certify the regime. On 2 April 2009, the NCC released a draft recommendation that the WICA regime be certified. On 11 May 2009, the NCC dispatched its final recommendation to the Minister. The Minister must use his best endeavours to make a decision on the recommendation within 60 days of receiving it. Certification would mean that only the WICA regime, rather than both it and the Commonwealth access regime, wou ld apply to water industry infrastructure in NSW. However, both the Commonwealth and State access regimes would continue to apply to the Bondi, North Head and Malabar wastewater networks unless the Australian Competition Tribunal's (ACT's) declaration of those networks is revoked. The NCC has stated that, if it recommends certification of the WICA regime, it will also recommend revocation of the ACT declaration. Sydney Water supports certification of the regime and revocation of the

existing declaration under the Trade Practices Act. This would simplify the regulatory arrangements governing access to the services provided by water industry infrastructure and help to create the right conditions for increased competitive pressure in the urban water industry. Sydney Water's support for competition was borne out in the ACCC's access pricing determination for the Bondi, North Head and Malabar networks. The determination endorsed Sydney Water's approach for setting prices, noting that it encourages effective competition .

Sewer Mining But prospective WICA licence-holders don't have to access Sydney Water's pipes in order to supply recycled water. Under a sewer mining agreement, third parties can tap into Sydney Water's sewers to extract sewage for treatment and use as recycled water. Sewer mining is distinct from access in that it does not involve using Sydney Water's

sewerage pipes to transport wastewater from customers. Sydney Water has a sewer mining policy that sets out the terms on which sewer miners may tap into the sewerage system. The policy is available on Sydney Water's web site. Under WICA, !PART will be available to arbitrate disputes on sewer mining if Sydney Water lodges its policy with the tribu nal. The potential to sewer mine creates further scenarios of possible private involvement in the water industry under WICA. For example, a company could obtain a network operator licence for infrastructure to extract sewage from Sydney Water's system, treat the sewage and deliver the recycled water produced to , say, a new residential development. The company would also need a retail supplier licence to sell the recycled water. Not all sewer mining operations require WICA licences. Licences are not required for infrastructure that is 'wholly situated on premises owned by the one

recycling person ' and that is 'owned or controlled by the person by whom those premises are owned'. So, for example, a golf cou rse with a sewer mining facility on its own land, which only uses the recycled water on that land, would not need a WICA licence.

any codes developed by the Department of Water and Energy. These may cover issues to do with marketing , customer transfers and conduct of the water industry. Once developed, Sydney Water is also likely to be subject to these codes.

On the other hand, if the recycled water is to be supplied to other land, such as in a new residential development, the distribution pipeline is likely to cross multiple properties so a licence would be required.

Additional requirements apply to retailers who service 'small retail customers'. A small retail customer is a person who receives less than 15 megalitres of water per year or discharges less than 10.5 megalitres of wastewater per year (to or from all premises that the person owns, leases or occupies). The requirements mainly relate to the terms of a contract between a licensee and a small ret ail customer. They also include restrictions on the disconnection of small retail customers from water or sewer services.

Licence Conditions There are certain standard conditions for WICA licences. Some conditions are specifically for network operators while ot hers are for retail suppliers. Some conditions are specific t o water supply services and others to sewerage services. The conditions are mostly specified in the Water Industry Competition (General) Regulation 2008. One of the standard conditions is that a network operator who supplies recycled water must prepare and comply with a water quality plan, which det ails how the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling will be implemented. The licence holder also has to prepare and implement an infrastructure op erating plan. The plan should include provisions on how the licence holder will ensure the safe and continued operation of the infrastructure, and arrangements for alternative water supplies when the infrastructure is inoperable. It is important for an existing provider like Sydney Water that these plans are comprehensive and effective. While Sydney Water supports competition, the objective should be to make the water industry more efficient and effective rat her than create additional costs. For example, the maintenance practices for a private recycled water system could affect Syd ney Wat er if it creates unanticipated pressure on the potable water system. A standard cond ition for a retail supplier is to prepare and implement a retail supply management plan. In the case of a licence to supply recycled wat er, the plan needs to cover things like how the licensee plans to deal with events that may affect its ability to supply recycled water. A retai l supplier also has to com ply wit h certain codes of conduct. The retailer must establish its own codes on customer complaints and debt recovery. The licensee also has to comply wit h

1 0 4 JUNE 2009 water

Licence Applications Applications for WICA licences are made to IPART. Application forms and information are available on IPART's web site. Consideration of the application by IPART involves public exhibition of aspects of the licence that are not commercial-in-confidence. Interested parties, such as Sydney Water, may make a submission on the application. The application may also be reviewed by technical consultants. IPART may then make a recommendation to the Minister for Wat er as to whether a licence should be issued and on what terms. Sydney Wat er is likely to make submissions on licence applications where the proposed activities have the potential to affect Sydney Water's costs or operations. The implications of WICA licences for Sydney Water will vary depending on the activity being licensed. Sydney Water will therefore assess the implications and possible responses on a case-by-case basis.

Water Advertising To reach the decision-makers in the water field , you should consider advertising in Water Journal, the official journal of Australian Water Association. For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rau It at Hallmark Editions, Tel (03) 8534 5000 or email

Significant implications could potentially arise if the Minister for Water declares Sydney Water to be a 'retailer of last resort ' (ROLR) in relation to all or part of its area of operations. If the Minister declares a 'supply failure' in relation to a licensed retail supplier, the licence-holder must cease supplying water or providing sewerage services and the ROLR must t ake over. This has the potential to be a significant obligation for Sydney Water. The extent of the obligation will depend on the nature and location of services provided by a retail supplier who 'fails'. It wi ll also depend on the network operator supplying infrastructure services to the failed retailer.

Conclusion Increased private involvement in the urban water sector could emerge in ways others than those outlined here. Possibly the most likely scenario is that developers provide services to new development areas. They might provide integrated water, wastewater and recycled water services. Or they might just provide recycled water services and leave water and wastewater service provision to Sydney Water. While many of the opportunities created by WICA wi ll not involve Sydney Water directly, in most circumst ances, a key issue for Sydney Water wi ll be to ensure that its responsi bilities and those of the WICA licence holder are clearly delineat ed. This is necessary to ensure that risks to public health, the environment and infrastruct ure can be managed. It will be particularly important to control t he risk of cross connections between the recycled wat er and potable water supplies. The market wi ll ultimately determine the level and form of competition that emerges from WICA. There may be competition for certain segments of the market. But competition within the market, particularly for the supply of bulk water, may require further institutional changes. While WICA may not be the end point in institutional reform in the water industry it is an important and comprehensive start.

The Author Sally Walkom is Manager, Regulatory Projects in the Regulatory Strategy and Pricing team, Sydney Water. Email

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DETECTING CROSS CONNECTIONS IN DUAL RETICULATION SYSTEMS R O'Halloran, M Toifl Abstract This paper presents results from our current research to develop a robust inline sensor that can detect the ingress of recycled water into drinking wat er systems. The most promising technique was electrical conductivity, which was able to detect cross con nections at all 3 sites. A critical issue was the normal fluctuations in water quality, and their influence on the level of contamination that could be detected.

Introduction In dual-reticulation projects there is always the possibility of crossconnection of recycled water into the potable system, either by faulty plumbing, faulty backflow preventers, or even deliberately if there is a potential cost saving. A number of cross connections have already occurred (Borensztajn, 2007; Storey et al., 2007). Following discussions with Sydney Water, Melbourne Water Corporation, the three Melbourne water retailers and the Victorian Department of Human Services, a project was scoped to evaluate a number of methods for their ability to detect at least 10% contamination with recycled water, covering: • point of use (e.g. kitchen tap) • on-line for an apartment block, housing complex, or neighbourhood , and • detection of backflow from domestic grey water systems. The objectives were to: • Determine if there were significant differences between the parameters in each set of potable and recycled water samples, and

Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide. 4-L samples of potable and recycled water were collected and analysed in the CSIRO laboratories in Clayton, Vic, as well as mixes of 10% recycled with potable.

Sites A. Hunt Club - Melbourne, Victoria The Hunt Club Estate in Cranbourne is supplied with Class A recycled wat er from the Eastern Irrigation Scheme, which uses ultra filtration and chlorination to treat effluent from the Eastern Treatment Plant. B. Rouse Hill - Sydney, New South Wales

The Rouse Hill Recycled Water Plant employs deep bed sand fi ltration followed by UV treatment and superchlorination. The recycled water is held in storage t anks before being pumped to reservoirs where it is further chlorinated before being distributed to households.

C. Mawson Lakes - Adelaide, South Australia Treated effluent from SA Water's Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant is mixed with treat ed stormwater from the City of Salisbury's wetlands, disinfected with chlorine, held in a storage tank then pumped to the reticulation network.

Parameters and Instruments selected The parameters chosen for investigation were: • Electrical conductivity by WTW Conductivity meter (Profiline Cond 197i series) • ORP (oxidation-reduction potential, i.e. free Cl 2 , DO and H2S) by Hanna HI 2001 probe

• Conclude if 10% contami nation cou ld be determined at the 95% confidence level.

• Nitrate by a Hach DR 2000 UV-visible spectrophotometer


• Phosphorus by the ascorbic acid method (4500-P E) from Standard Methods

Sample collection and characterisation A 4-week laboratory study was carried out on three dual reticulation systems in This is a reduced version of the paper presented at Ozwater09.

Electrical conductivity can easily detect 10% contamination.

• COD by the rapid Aquadiagnostic bench-top PeCOD meter • UV-absorbance by s::can, which scans the entire UV to visible spectrum. It responds to organic matter and some inorganic species (e.g. nitrate) • UV-fluorescence analysis by a Varian Cary Eclipse Fluorescence Spectrophotometer. (For optical brighteners from laundry detergents as well as natural organic matter) A number of standard physicochemical water quality parameters including pH, turbid ity and free chlorine were also analysed on the samples upon arrival in the laboratory to determine variations in water quality. For samples from interstate, this meant a delay of at least 24 hours after sample collection. On-line monitoring was also performed in Melbourne using CSIRO Sewer Sentinels which contain a series of probes for continuous flow through measurements of pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature, and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). The recycled water was monitored at the recycled water pump station on the Hunt Club Estate, and the potable water supply was monitored at a nearby pump station.

Results and Discussion Electrical conductivity The resu lts for electrical conductivity (EC) for each of the sites over the 4 week trial are shown in Figures 1- 3. Site A (Figure 1): The conductivity of potable water was found to be reasonably constant (between 62 and 73 µSiem) over the 4 week trial, while the conductivity of the recycled water was up to 16 times higher. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the data showed significant differences between the mean of EC in potable and recycled water (P< 0.001), and also between the means for potable water and potable mixed with 10% recycled water (P< 0.001). EC measurement could detect the presence of 10% recycled water at the 95% confidence level. In fact, for this water, it cou ld be correctly identified 99% of the time. (It should be noted that on

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December 3 the recycled water EC was low because the supplementary potable water backup was operating, so a cross connection would be more difficult to detect) . Site A

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Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) A significant amount of chlorine is added to recycled waters to suppress microbial growth , so it might be expected that recycled water would have a higher ORP than potable water. However, the results showed that there were only small differences in ORP between potable and recyc led water samples returned to the laboratory for analysis. The ORP values were all less than 300mV, which is c onsistent w ith very low levels of free chlorine (<0.02 mg/ L). Th is is consistent with significant chlorine dec ay during sample transport. On the other hand, on-line measurements at Site A showed a distinct difference between potable and recycled water, so that direct ORP might still be a useful measure. Further on-line trials need to be undertaken to determine the actual value of ORP, and its possible application.

Figure 1. Electrical conductivity for Site A.


Site B (Figure 2): The conductivity of potable water from this site was much higher than for Site A, although it also remained fairly constant during the trial period. The conductivity of the recycled water was similar to Site A. Statistical analysis showed that the potable and recycled water were significantly different (P<0.001), as were the potable water and potable mixed with 10% recycled water (P <0.001 ).

Nitrogen levels in recycled water were expected to be higher than in potable water due to the presence of biological material, and the laboratory trial confirmed this trend for all 3 sites.

Stte e 1200 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~

. .






Site A (Figure 4): Nitrate levels in potable water were consistently around 1 mg/ L over the 4-week trial , whilst levels in the recycled water were about 5 times higher. There was also greater variation between recycled water samples over the 4 weeks. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the data showed significant differences (P < 0.001 ) between potable and recycled water, and potable water and potable mixed w ith 10% recycled water.


Site A


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Figure 2. Electrical conductivity for Site B.

: Site C (Figure 3): The conductivity of potable water was higher than at the other sites and remained fairly constant over the 4 week period. The EC of the recycled water was also higher and varied between 1230 - 1490 µSi em. However, statistical analysis showed that there was still a significant difference (P < 0.001) between potable water and the 10% recycled water mixture. SUe C

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Figure 4. Nitrate concentrations for Site A. Site B (Figure 5): Nitrate levels in the potable water were similar to Site A, whilst nitrate in the recycled water ranged from 6 to 14 times higher. An ANOVA on the data showed that the mean value in potable water samples was significantly different to the 10% recycled water samples (P < 0.001 ).

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Figure 3. Electrical conductivity for Site C.








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For all sites measurement on an individual sample of potable water could correctly identify a 10% mixture with recycled water 99% of the time. As expected, conductivity was a very good candidate for distinguishing between potable and recycled water.

106 JUNE 2009 water

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Figure 5. Nitrate concentrations for Site B. Site C (Figure 6): The nitrate levels in samples of potable water were also typically about 1 mg/ L, with similar levels of

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variation over the 4 weeks. However, nitrate in the recycled water (-2 mg/ L) was much lower than for the other sites. This may be due to the varying amount of stormwater in recycled water supplied to this site. The large variance meant that most of the time potable water mixed with 10% recycled water could not confidently be assigned to either population. However, an alternative approach to detect contamination would be to look for an increase in the long term mean of nitrate concentration.

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Figure 8. Reactive P for Site C.




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Figure 6. Nitrate concentrations for Site C. Reactive Phosphorus Reactive phosphate was chosen as it uses a colorimetric test and does not require the same level of sample pre-treatment as total phosphorus. Since phosphate levels in potable water are typically low; and as phosphate is still a common component of many household detergents and cleaning products, it was expected that higher levels could be present in recycled water.

Site A (Figure 9): PeCOD in the potable water varied between 1.6 - 3 mg/L, with the exception of the sample collected on the 23rd November which was slightly higher at 5.3 mg/ L. The levels observed in the recycled water were 4 to 14 times higher. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.001 ) between the means of PeCOD in potable water and 10% recycled water. However, t he large variance meant that it was often not possible to confidently assign a given water sample to either of these populations, though monitoring the trend in the mean PeCOD value may detect contamination.

Site A (Figure 7): Levels of reactive phosphate in the potable water were less than 0.1 mg/ L. Levels in the recycled water samples were much higher, and a 10% mixture of recycled water with potable water was able to be detected with P < 0.001. SnoA 10 . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

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I• Polltlllw•• • Potltll ...,tltt,..tO wltl I00.1«yc11C1wai. • Aecy(:IIOw..., I Figure 7. Reactive P in different waters for Site A. Site B: Reactive phosphate levels in the potable water were also low (<0.30 mg/L), however the levels in recycled water were even lower (<0.06 mg/L) due to the efficacy of the treatment plant. ANOVA showed no significant differences (P = 0.327), so that phosphate was not suitable at this site. Site C (Figure 8): Levels of phosphate in the pot able water samples were consistently low during the trial (< 0.10 mg/L), while levels in the mix of treated effluent and treated stormwater were considerably higher and more varied (0.80 1.30 mg/L). The 10% recycled water could still be distinguished.

Ph: 02 4626 5000 water

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recycling SHeA

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Figure 12. Results for Site A using s::can.

Figure 9. PeCOD results for Site A. Site B (Figure 10): Levels in potable water were more varied (2.6 - 9.1 mg/ L), and the levels for recycled water ranged from 6.3 - 11.8 mg/L. ANOVA showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the means of t he potable water samples and 10% recycled water. However, the large variance means that in practice it is not possible to confidently assign an individual water sample to either of these populations. Again, monitoring the mean value could be a successful strategy.

Sitt B


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Figure 10. PeCOD results for Site B.


Site C (Figure 11 ): Levels in potable water ranged from 1.7 - 6.3 mg/L and had a similar scatter to Site B. Levels in recycled water were also similar to Site B (6.3 - 10.5 mg/ L). with the exception of the sample collected on November 29 (20.8 mg/ L). ANOVA confirmed that there were no significant differences (P = 0.012). These results are perhaps not surprising due to the large variations in source waters that make up the recycled water at this site. Slla C

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Figure 14. s::can results for Site C. UV-Fluorescence UV fluorescence spectra were collected on samples of potable, recycled and mixed waters fro m Site A in Melbourne. The targets were fluorescent optical brighteners from laundry detergents, which are not usually removed by the standard treatment processes. A series of scans were collected at a number of excitation wavelengths between 250 - 370 nm, and the most promising results obtained are shown in Figure 15. Using an excitation wavelength of 350 nm, the emission spectrum for potable water between 400 - 700 nm was relatively low, whilst the recycled water had a pronounced broad emission with a peak around 420 nm. A mixture of 10% recycled water in pot able water also had a significant emission, so this is a very promising techniq ue for detecting crosscon nections, and should be subject to further trials at other sites.

UV- visible methods - s::can


Site A (Figure 12): A 10% mixture of potable water with recycled water was readi ly detected. Results for Sites B and C were not as conclusive as there was a lot or variability, even though there were clear differences between the waters (Figures 13 and 14). A possible strategy could be to measure the trend in the mean value.

A series of laboratory trials was undertaken using recycled waters from Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide to evaluate the ability of selected parameters to detect at least 10% contami nation with recyc led wat er. The most promising techn ique was electrical conductivity, which was able to det ect cross connections at all 3 sites. UV-visible fluorescence was

1 oa JUNE 2009 water

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blue ¡ recycled

Red -HJ% Green • potable

Ex-350 nm


j 700


Figure 15. Fluorescence spectra for Site A. only trialled at Site A (Melbourne), but showed great promise and should be trialled at the other sites. ORP was not useful as a laborat ory parameter because of rapid free chlorine decay in the period aft er sample collection. However, on-li ne monitoring showed that ORP might still be a valuable paramet er t o detect cross connections when it was measured directly from the water pipeline. The ability of a given technique to detect cross connections varied substantially bet ween sites. This is not surprising, given the significant regional differences in water quality and treatment. For Site A in Melbourne, s::can was found to be very useful. Monitori ng reactive phosphorus was also successful for Site A as well as Site C (Adelaide), while it was of no use for Site B (Sydney). Measurement of nitrate was able to detect cross connections at Site A (Melbourne) and Site B (Sydney), but was unsuccessful for Site C. The significant amount of variability observed in the parameters studied in these typical potable water supplies meant that detecting contaminat ion using a simple threshold limit might not always produce rel iable results. The natural scatter measured meant that pot able water containing 10% recycled water could sometimes still fit within the normal pot able water quality envelope. However, monitoring the long term mean and measuring the frequency of events above a predetermined threshold should enable development of an effective

contamination detection system. Such a st rategy may also allow other monitoring techniques such as PeCOO to form part of a cross connection detection system, wh ich is an advantage because it is desirable to measure at least 2 parameters to reduce t he incidence of false positives.

Acknowledgment This project was coordinated by the CRC for Water Quality and Treatment, with funding support and participation by CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country Flagship, Sydney Water, Melbourne Water, South East Wat er Limited and Yarra Valley Water.

The Authors

Roger O'Halloran is Research Team Leader, and Melissa Toifl is a Research Scientist, both from CSIRO Land and Water, Clayton, Vic. Email:;

References Borensztajn, J. (2007). Staff ill from recycled water. Herald Sun, Melbourne, 20th March 2007. Storey, M.V., Deere. D., Davison, A., Tam, T. and Lovell, A.J. (2007). Risk Management and cross-connection detection of a dual reticulation system. 3rd Australian Water Association Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling, July 16th 18th. University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

SLUDGE PRESS PROVES SUCCESSFUL Solids capture rates averaging 90 per cent have been demonstrated by Eimco Water Technologies-AJM Environmental Services (EWT-AJM) using Huber inclined sludge press technology on dairy sludge. Dairy sludge produced by typical dissolved air flotation (DAF) technologies is a diffic ult problem to dispose of d ue to the high level of fat and protein in it, said EWT/AJM National Sales Manager, Industrial and Municipal, John Koumoukelis.

Water Business aims to keep readers alert to business news and new product releases within the water sector. Media releases should be emailed to Brian Rault at or Tel (03) 8534 5014.

AWA wishes to advise readers that Water Business information is supplied by third parties a nd as suc h , AWA is not responsible for the accuracy, or otherwise, of t he information submitted.

. . . . r-: .-

• -- 11 -- • - 11 • ,..,


~ -l H

J1i 1 r'

Siemens has expanded its SIMATIC product range with a new product line - the SIMATIC HMI Basic Panels designed for basic operator control and monitoring tasks; KTP1000 Basic (1 0" display) and TP1500 Basic (15" display).

Visualisation nowadays is part of the standard scope of most machines and the cost factor plays a major role. For simple applications, operator devices with basic functions are often considered completely sufficient and this is being catered for with the new Simatic HMI Basic Panels in the display sizes of 4", 6", 10" and 15" - a new generation of Dewatering is difficult through conventional methods such as belt press or centrifuge technology. "In some states in Aust ralia, dairy DAF sludge is deemed a prescribed waste and hence incurs considerable charges for land fill d isposal, EPA restrictions are also tightening," commented Koumoukelis. Recently in Victoria a H uber inclinedscrew press was trialled on Diary DAF sludge. The trial sludge averaged 13 per cent solids content, of whic h 7 per cent was fat and 5 per cent prot ein. The overall volume reduct ion achieved in processing of the DA F sludge was 80 per cent by vol ume, while solids capture rates averaged 90 per cent. The DAF Sludge was concentrated from a liquid sludge to a manageable cake. " The average dry solid mass flow rate processed through the Huber press was 400kg/hr, which exceeded t he H uber t heoretical design rate of 250kg/hr; therefore at t he recommended feed rate superior dewat ering results would be expected," he said.

touch screen devices for basic operator control and monitoring tasks.

The estimated return on investment for most applications depending on sludge volume requiring disposal is generally less than three years for most applicat ions. The Huber inclined-press is simple to operate and has considerably lower water and power usage compared to traditional dewatering technologies. AJ M/EWT is the exclusive Aust ralian agent for H uber Technology.

Contact John Koumoukelis 02 9542 2366, john. koumouke/, www. eimcowatertechno/ogies. com

BASIC PANELS NOW AVAILABLE Siemens has expanded its Simatic product range with a new prod uct line the Simatic HMI Basic Panels designed for basic operator control and monitoring tasks. The KTP1 000 Basic (1 O" display) and the T P1500 Basic (15" d isplay) are the first devices of t his product line now available.

The Basic Panels offer a standard touchscreen display for the intuitive operation. The use of fu lly graphicscapable displays allows for a clear and high-contrast depiction of operating screens and opens up new perspect ives for the visualisation. Besides the touchscreen operation, the KTP400 Basic has four configurable keys with tact ile feedback, while the KTP600 has six and the KTP1 000 eight. For applicat ions requiring larger visualisation depiction, the TP1 500 Basic wit h a 15" touch screen display is available. All devices, independent of display size, support basic functions such as alarm system, recipe management, t rend curve depiction and language switching in their standard scope. The range of the Basic Panels comprises models for the commun ication via Ethernet/Profinet (basic functions), as well as MPI/PROFIBUS DP.


COMPREHENSIVE AND EASY TO USE WATER DISTRIBUTION MODELLING SOFTWARE ~ ~~D.!!~Y WaterGEMS comes equipped with everything engineers need in a flexible multi-pla tform environment, from fi r e flow and water quality simulations, to criticality and ener gy cost analysis, to flushing and water loss analysis. WaterGEMS can be run in ArcGIS, AutoCAD, MicroStation or as a stand-alone application. For more information, see the inside fro nt cover of the June issue of Water Joumal, visit, e-mail, or call +61 (0)3 9699 8699. 11 o JUNE 2009 water