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Volu"'e 35 No 7 '

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JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATION


entley WaterGEMS V8 XM Edition continues with Haestad Methods' tradition of pioneering research and innovation, advancing the water modelling technology standard once again.

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w at er

Joornal of the Aost,al;aa Wat" Assoc;ation ISSN 0310-0367 Volume 35 No 7 November 2008

contents REGULAR FEATURES From the AWA President

Water Sources for Australian Cities

D Barnes 4 From the AWA Chief Executive Playing on the Global Stage T Mollenkopf 5 Our Point of View A New National River Modelling Platform P Wallbrink 6 Crosscurrent 10 Aquaphemera R Knee 12 Industry News 20 AWA News 30 Events Calendar 39 Hinze Dam Alliance Scoops Award - see page 20

FEATURE ARTICLES Securing Melbourne's Future Water Supply Innovative infrastructure projects are crucial to providing water security tor Melbourne

40 P Harris

Sustainable Urban Water Systems

44

Charting a course in the right direction

C Davis Securing Melbourne's Future Water Supply - see page 40

AWA CONTACT DETAILS Australian Water Association ABN 78 096 035 773 Level 6, 655 Pacific Hwy, POBox 222, St Leonards NSW 1590 Tel: +61 2 9436 0055 Fax: +61 2 9436 0155 Email: info@awa.asn.au Web: www.awa.asn.au DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assumes no responsibility for opinion or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers. COPYRIGHT AWA Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without written permission of the AWA. To seek permission to reproduce Water Journal materials, send your request to media@awa.asn.au WATER JOURNAL MISSION STATEMENT

'To provide a journal that interests and informs on water matters, Australian and international, covering technological, environmental, economic and social aspects, and to provide a repository of useful refereed papers. ' PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, March, May, June, August, September, November and December. EDITORIAL BOARD Chair: Frank R Bishop; Dr Bruce Anderson, ENSR Australia; Dr Terry Anderson, Consultant SEWL; Greg Finlayson, GHD; Robert Ford, Central Highlands Water (rtd); Anthony Gibson, Ecowise; Dr Brian Labza, Vic Health; Professor Felicity Roddick, RMIT University; Mike Muntisov, GHD; David Power, BEGA Consultants; Dr Ashok Sharma, CSIRO; and Bob Swinton, Technical Editor.

AWA

EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Water Journal welcomes editorial submissions for technical and topical articles, news, opinion pieces, business

information and letters to the editor. Acceptance of editorial submissions is at the discretion of the editor and editorial board. • Technical Papers and Features Bob Swinton, Technical Editor, Water Journal - bswinton@bigpond.net.au AND journal@awa.asn.au Papers 3,000-4,000 words and graphics; or topical articles of up to 2,000 words relating to all areas of the water cycle and water business. Submissions are tabled at monthly editorial board meetings and where appropriate are assigned referees. Referee comments will be forwarded to the principle author for further action. Authors should be mindful that Water Journal is published in a 3 colu mn 'magazine' format rather than the full-page format of Word documents. Graphics should be set up so that they wi ll still be clearly legible when reduced to two-column size (about 12cm wide). Tables and figures need to be numbered with the appropriate reference in the text e.g. see Figure 1, not just placed in the text with a (see below) reference as they may end up anywhere on the page when typeset. • Industry News, Opinion pieces and Media Releases Edie Nyers, Editor, Water Journal - journal@awa.asn.au • Water Business and Product News Brian Rault, National Sales and Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions - brian.rault@halledit.com.au

ADVERTISING Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water sector and objectives of the AWA. Brian Rault, National Sales and Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions - brian.rault@halledit.com.au Tel: +61 3 8534 5014 AWA BOOKSHOP Copies of Water Journal, including back issues, are available from the AWA Bookshop for $1 2.50 plus postage and handling. Email: bookshop@awa.asn.au PUBLISHER Hallmark Editions, PO Box 84, Hampton, Vic 3188 Tel: 61 3 8534 5000 Fax: 61 3 9530 8911 Email: hallmark.editions@halledit.com.au

Dr Christobel Ferguson (Ecowise Environmental), marathon swimmer and 'human water quality tester', Tammy van Wisse, and students from the Vaucluse Primary School help launch National Water Week. See story on page 26. Photo by Neil Duncan for Australian Water Association.

water NOVEMBER 2008 1


wat er

Joumal otthe Auslraf;an Waler AssoclaUon ISSN 0310-0367

Volume 35 No 7 November 2008

contents

Changing Practice In Stormwater Management · see page 73

Advancing Stormwater Biofilters - see page 64

TECHNICAL FEATURES ( ~ INDICATES THE PAPER HAS BEEN REFEREED) STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

Water Management in a Water Sensitive City Three key pillars of practice to create water sensitive Australian cities

T Wong, R Brown, A Deletic

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A Deletic, T D Fletcher, R R Brown, B E Hatt, T H F Wong

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P Edwards

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AL Herczeg, F W Leaney

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S Kitching, R Bates

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A K Bichani, C W K Chow, V Sweet, D Mulcahy, D Dharmabalan, D Vitanage

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S Hamilton

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R Brice, S Cameron, L Schipper, S Couper, N Hancock

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M lmisides, E Reisman, M McCrum

102

Advancing Stormwater Biofilters Proof of concept of an effective means of treating urban stormwater

[I] Changing Practice in Stormwater Management Collaboration between the disciplines of economic, social and environmental science research GROUNDWATER

The Application of Nuclear Science to Hydrology Henry Darcy meets Dr Strange/ave PROJECT DELIVERY

[i] Commissioning of Low Loaded Sewage Treatment Plants Considering the low loads in design, planning and commissioning WATER SUPPLY

[i]

A Chlorine Residual Modelling Tool for Distribution Systems

No necessity for external expertise to develop the model

Leak Detection in Low Pressures - It can be done! A case study in Hanoi WASTEWATER TREATMENT

[ii] Wastewater Denitrification Using Carbonaceous Beds Using woodchips, nitrate removal is in the order of 95-99%

Rapid COD Determination by Photocatalysis The ability to monitor in real-time down to the sub ppm level WATER BUSINESS

New Products and Business Information

104

Advertisers' Index

116

2 NOVEMBER 2008 water


from the president

Water Sources for Australian Cities David Barnes AWA President

The WSAA Report Card for 2007/2008 on the 'Performance of the Australian Urban Water Industry and projections for the future,' was launched recently in Canberra by the Minister for Climate Change and Water, The Hon. Penny Wong. The report highlights the 'double squeeze' facing our cities. Inflows into urban water storages remain below the long term average whilst Australian capital cities grew an average of 1.6% or 227,800 people, which is greater than the population of Hobart and is the equivalent of the tenth largest city. Residential water consumption has declined in the largest cities by 5.6% from 2005/06 but with inflows approximately half the long term (100 year) average the need for additional water sources is clear. The shortage of water in both rural and urban areas has become the most obvious manifestation of a changed climate. At the WSAA launch it was observed that 'there are no climate change sceptics in the urban water industry' . The large urban centres in Australia have been sited on relatively small rivers with limited availability of reliable water flows to sust ain urban populations. These wat er resou rces (surface and ground water) have been extensively harvested and there are limited opportunities to gather additional water. There are further opportunities to reduce demand and there are advantages to facilitating reduced water use independently of water restrictions. However, long term water use below approximately 100Uperson each day wi ll take several years to achieve. There are some opportunities to capture more stormwater particularly in new developments or major redevelopments. The issue of siting and operating large stormwater storages in urban areas has proved to be a barrier t o additional centralised rainwater capture. It is expected that climate change will make this even more problematic, with an expected increase in the intensity of storms. The combination of individual rainwater tanks and some site specific stormwater capture is expected to be a feature of urban water supply, particularly for non potable urban water uses. However, for bulk supplies non rainfall dependent water sources have become and will remain a feature of new water supply infrastructure. The two non rainfall dependent sources are the desalination of seawater and the use of treated effluents as a water source. With the majority of the population in coastal settlements desalination is a viable alternative for many urban centres and provides for the effective dispersion of concentrates back to the ocean. The infrastructure to convey the desalinated water into the existing water supply system can represent a major capital investment. Recycled water in urban centres has more than doubled since 1999/2000 with several large projects now completed or near completion. In 2006/07 the volume of

4 NOVEMBER 2008 water

recycled water supplied reached 165GL which represents a greater volume than all of the water supplied to households in Brisbane and Adelaide. The non rainfall dependent supply options often rely upon membrane processes to provide the treatment . These technologies use more energy than the conventional supply options which can often take advantage of gravity to minimise power costs. Energy consumption of a few kWh/kl is not high in itself - sometimes compared to the household cost of running a bar fridge. However the volume of water to be treated does mean that the total power use can be significant. Larger plants are sourcing renewable energy to deflect the criticism of high power demand and consequent carbon footprint. Perspective on the magnitude of power use by the water sector needs to be maintained - overall energy consumption by water utilities is less than half a percent of the national consumption and residential water heating requires more than five times the energy used to deliver the water utilities services. The twin effects of reduced inflows and population growth have caused a spike in urban capital expenditure that has centred on non rainfall dependent water sources. This will provide a diversity of supply options for the cities with consequent flexibility of operational supply but wi ll mean increased costs for customers and increased energy consumption by the water utilities. It is important that the relative contributions that water makes to domestic and industrial costs and to national energy uses are kept in perspective. Equally for water supply there needs to be ongoing analysis and planning. Reduced river flows, deteriorating wat er quality and the need for meaningful environment al flows mean that this round of water augmentation is unlikely to be the long term solution and further non rainfall dependent initiatives will be needed.


from the chief executive

Playing on the Global Stage Tom Mollenkopf AWA Chief Executive

There is an old business adage that there is nothing like a crisis to precipitate change. Some pundits go on to suggest that "if you don 't have a crisis, invent one." In the spirit of constructive interaction however, I prefer to paraphrase in t erms like "there is nothing like a crisis to prompt innovation." And when it comes to water issues, Australia doesn't need to invent a crisis to stimulate the creative juices, its challenges are real and they are here now. The consequence is that we have led the world in many areas. We have also been at the forefront of developments in many areas of research and technology, in contracting and operations, regu lation and industry reform, social sciences and community engagement. It should be no surprise for us in the water sector here therefore to learn that Australians were (almost overly) well represented in awards at the recent World Water Congress in Vienna. The achievements of the following individuals and organisations deserve acknowledgement: • Grand Award - Jim Gill (CEO Water Corporation, W.A.) • Honorary Membership - Lance Bowen • Publishing Award - David Dixon • Sustainability Award (Innovation in the practical realisation of sustainable urban water management) - Brisbane Airport Corporation • Project Innovation Awards (Grand Honour Awards) - Operations/Management - Kogarah Council for the Beverley Park Water Reclamation Plant Project - Design Projects - Black & Veatch/Thiess Joint Venture for Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant Stage 1A • Best promoted protection activity or programme Queensland Water Commission for the 'Target 140' campaign • Best Popular Presentation of Water Science category Jennifer Simpson There were numerous Australian speakers and workshop presenters at the Congress and over 100 Australian delegates. Australians were so visible, and their papers and stories so captivating, that someone asked me whether the conference was being held in Austria or Australia? Flushed with all this success, I was pleased to be able to arrange for a reception for Australian delegates at the Australian embassy in Vienna as part of the IWA World Water Congress. Our host for the evening was the Deputy Head of Mission, Jeremy Kruse, with special guests Jim Gill, David Garman (IWA President) and Chris Davis (recently appointed as a National Water Commissioner).

Sadly our expertise is often not recognised at home. The media and politicians of all persuasions often look past local ideas and approaches, preferring to see what solutions are on offer elsewhere in the world. Whilst it would be arrogant for the water sector here to thi nk it had all the answers, equally we are entitled to be respected as at least the equal of our international peers; they certainly perceive us so. Hopefully with these international accolades, our domestic audience will appreciate this also. The other important component of this recent international success is the opportunity that Australia has to commercially exploit its water expertise. Sadly, our State tribalism has often resulted in us failing to band together under a national brand to better promote our overall capability. Many overseas countries have been able to bolster their international competitive position by coming together in alliances or national promotional vehicles. Even with our enviable reputation, our population is only 21 million people, which makes it hard for us to be recognised if each State tries to sell a different message. Our success in selling products, services and know-how internationally is more likely to result from these interest s banding together under an affiliation - either formal or informal - rather like competing retailers group themselves in a precinct to maximise collective patronage. It is an area where I hope AWA can assist in the coming months. Closer to home, it is worth noting that as we go to print with this issue of Water, elections to the Board of AWA are about to take place. As a member based organisation, the Board takes on a particularly important role in the governance of the association in its broadest sense. This means that Directors, wh ilst acting independently of any particular interest group or constituency, seek to consider the needs and aspirations of the many segments that make up AWA. If the quality of the cand idates for the AWA Board is an indication of the regard in which AWA is held, we can all feel very proud of the Association. The AWA Board will be selected at the Strategic Advisory Council meeting on 30 October with the selected nominees being put to the An nual General Meeting of members immediately following the SAC meeting. As CEO, I have been blessed with a hard working and talented board to guide and support the organisation; our directors make a substantial investment of time and energy for no monetary reward. I am incredibly appreciative of their skill and generosity. I look forward to reporting to members on the outcomes of the forthcoming election.

water NOVEMBER 2008

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our point of view

A New National River Modelling Platform Dr Pet er Wall bri nk is Director of Research and Education for the eWat er Co-operative Research Centre, and leads the Rivers and Cat chments portfolio. He has 24 years experience in forest hyd ro logy, soil erosion, sediment transport and catchment dynamics as well as leadership in senior executive and science management roles, leading large multi-agency t eams.

The eWater CRC considers building a new national river modelling platform to be a vital part of Australia's water management strategy. Building such a platform is a joint initiative between eWater and it s partner organisations with additional funding by Australian Government agencies and is currently being built by a team of about 50 full time equivalent people, a substantial effort of time, people and money. Why do it, and w hat wi ll it look like? Most practitioners in the water management aren a have been exposed to models to some degree. Many may even be cautious supporters of model use - provided they (the models) are driven by experienced users wit h respect for data and model veracity. At the eWater CRC we are building a next-generation River Systems Modelling Suit e, so I thought I may explain what it's all about. To begin, it may be worthwhi le stati ng the case as to why you wou ld use a model to manage and/or operate large river systems in the first place. There are several compelling reasons, which in no particu lar order include: i) systems understanding (observed data alone is generally not enough to underst and a system, nor to test hypotheses about it), ii) the effect of clima te change (stati c data provides on ly a snap shot of current conditions, and in Australia we need to consider our own cl imate variability (in what is the worlds most variable cl imate) and put this in the context of any future c limate change), iii) comparing current to future (we need to underst and how current conditions compare against the intent of future caps and water sharing plans), iv) management intervention and policy formulation (models allow you to explore things that haven't happened yet, such as changes in development and land-use; restoration of the environment including provision of environmental flows) and perhaps most importantly, v) resolving conjunctive use (a framework to investigate the tradeoffs between competing demands). So what river modelling capacity do we already have? We ll on paper there is quite a bit. There is a range of different types of models with d ifferent levels of spatial and temporal resolution, although none have comp lete coverage of Australia. Older models have been developed with dated software architectures that limit their extensibility (and

6 NOVEMBER 2008 water

consequently not being developed any further). Some are written in ol der languages e.g . FORTRAN and difficult to service and support, some were calibrated years ago whil st others are good at understanding delivery and sharing to consumptive water users but not so good for understanding the environment, economic or social impacts. Many of the cu rrent models are purpose built and it is difficult to understand, and communicat e, what they do (i.e. there is little transparency and defensibility). Many models don' t consider the w hole water balance and connection(s) between parts of the hydrological system is poor, for instance cli mate to runoff generation to river system as well as surface water and groundwater. Interestingly, it is the architects of many of these earlier models that see the drawbacks, and are now leading the movement to a new modelling era. So, what will the next generation of models do and how wi ll they do it? To begin with, the eWater river manager suite wi ll cons ider the whole wat er balance - from climate to runoff to river syst em to regulation and surface/groundwater interactions. In a single common time step (daily) it will be able to model from t he source to the sea, even for big basins like the MOB. It will provide a consistent method of calibration and by using the latest peer-reviewed science it wil l be more robust and defensible. A key to addressing the diversity of needs in large ri ver basins is also to provide a flexible platform that allows a range of model 'solutions' to be built - where each is appropriate to the level of data that is available. The architecture is kept simple w here data is limited, and increasingly complex where more data is available. Our large river systems are also highly regulated, with a range of 'management' ru les that govern how wat er is transferred between physical parts of the system. Thus the model will include generic systems for capturing and modelling the management of water. These wi ll be able to track the many different components of owned water rules for sharing and trading, as well as to optimise the best ways to transfer water (where/when) to increase efficiencies in the system. The platform is component-based and will incorporate latest methods in the decision sciences (optimisation, risk and uncertainty analyses). It is designed to be extensible and so should be ready for economic and social models to be integrated when they are ready. So how will the new platform help us manage and operate complex riverine systems in the near future? Initially we aim


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our point of view to have the new model tested and applied in rivers of the Murray Darling Basin (MDB). The reality is that managing water involves constant decisions around conjunctive use and how best to guide the inevitable consequences of such tradeoffs. Examples of tradeoffs now considered a part of routine river management in the MDB include irrigation versus environmental flows; drinking water versus ecological assets; water security versus irrigation entitlements; afforestation versus river flow - and there are many others. The modelling suite will give the river manager a qualityassured tool by which the trade-off process can be negotiated to resolution by interested parties. In short it will offer a repeatable and transparent process, that can significantly narrow the space for 'contestability' of outcomes. Careful planning based on well formulated policy can also avoid, or lessen the need, for contentious trade-offs. Such formulation can be assisted by a modelling framework that effectively mimics the real world and allows the policy maker to 'road test' the outcomes of adopting various strategies and schemes. Our modelling suite wi ll provide this framework. Although it can't be expected to give the single 'right' answer, it will provide a range of best outcomes within a range of associated probabilities.

The reality also is that the MDB states have unique legislative and governance arrangements around water, its use and entitl ements in t heir jurisdictions. This com plicated governance situation of water is a challenge, but also represents an opportunity. A single platform for the MDB will generate significant benefit s in t erms of operations, regulation, metering, and policy fo rmulation as well as underpin any basin w ide water trading and accounting scheme. Furthermore, in a skills-limited environment a single modelling platform allows transferability of scant hydrological and modelling expertise. It also puts us at the fo refront of model bui lding internationally. If we can achieve the full vision - which we wi ll - then our models have great potential for application overseas (particularly Africa, Middle East and Asia). In these domains contention around water resources is acute, particularly in transnational rivers where conjunctive use involves significant political and economic imperatives. Here, a process th at is repeatable, transferable, and scientifically defendable provides opportunity for stable decision making the benefits may be measured in human lives. So for eWater and our partners, there are many cogent reasons why we are committed to this mammoth task.

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crosscurrent

National

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•

The Federal Government has launched the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA), a five year, $50 million research partnership between the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, which aims to provide a state-of-theart national database on Australia's water resources. The CSIRO will perform research specifically for the Bureau that will be integrated into the way its water monitoring, analysis and prediction systems are developed.

An unprecedented $30 billion will be spent on new water infrastructure for cities over the next decade according to the latest Water Services Association of Australia annual report card. This will include investment of around $5 billion in replacing old and poorly performing assets and around $2.7 billion in maintaining current assets. https://www.wsaa.asn.au/pdf/2008/WSAAReportCard20072008 .pdf

The Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists called for a radical overhaul of irrigation and cuts to water allocations in the Murray-Darling Basin at a Senate inquiry. In the submission, Group has called for irrigation allocations in the Murray Darling Basin to be halved, with the 10-year water buyback to be brought forward and to take place over the next two years, and the $5.8 billion allocated for infrastructure upgrades to be spent buying back water.

Professor Mike Young of the Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists has his own radical solution to the crisis in the Murray Darling system: seal off areas where water pools to limit evaporative losses and preserve the main river channels. This could include ecologically important wetlands, dams and lakes.

CSIRO's Implications of Climate Change for Australian Fisheries and Aquaculture report projects changes in temperature, ocean currents, rainfall and extreme weather events due to climate change into the future and shows likely impacts on fish stocks and marine ecosystems to be significant. http://www.csiro.au/resources/ClimateChangeAndFisheries. html

Under the Modernisation and Extension of Hydrologic Monitoring Systems Program, an extra $20 million has been made available by the Australian Government for this financial year to improve water information networks in urban and regional areas.

The Federal and NSW Governments called for tenders for Part B of the Darling River Water Savings Project in far Western NSW. The Project aims to increase water availability in the Murray-Darling Basin by reducing the amount of water lost through evaporation from the Menindee Lakes. Both governments have comm itted $650,000 to the project.

New South Wales NSW Premier Nathan Rees finalised his new cabinet, which sees Deputy Premier Carmel Tebbutt taking on the cl imate change and environment portfolio, as well as commerce, and Phillip Costa named the minister for water, rural affairs and regional development. Joe Tripodi retains ports and waterways, and regulatory reform, but adds the title of finance minister and infrastructure minister.

Construction started on a major recycled water plant at St Marys to produce up to 50 million litres of high-quality recycled water per day by 2010. The $250 million Replacement Flows Project will increase the volume of water in Sydney by 75 per cent from 25 billion litres to over 40 billion litres a year.

NSW Department of Water and Energy announced an increase in water availability for high security licence holders in the Murrumbidgee Valley to 60 per cent, but the high security allocation to Murray Valley users will remain on 25 per cent of entitlement.

Sydney Water's contact centre moved to a new office at Macquarie Street, Liverpool. More than 80 staff had moved from the former Bigge Street, Liverpool building to the new office. A further 70 Sydney Water staff will join them in coming months.

Northern Territory A report to the Senate on the Murray-Darling system confirmed that prolonged low rainfall and inflows had left the Lower Lakes on the brink of acidification. Evidence presented indicated little fresh water available right now for the lakes or any other icon sites throughout the Basin because 70-80 per cent of it would be lost in transmission before it could reach the Lakes.

A number of internationally-recognised wetlands are set to benefit from the next tender to purchase water entitlements in the southern Murray-Darling Basin , open to willing sellers of water entitlements. Purchases made in South Australia will go towards achieving the $80 million of water buyback in South Australia announced by the Prime Minister earlier in the year. 10 NOVEMBER 2008

water

The NT Government granted Cameco Australia and Paladin Energy Minerals the right to explore the Angela and Pamela uranium deposits 25 kilometres south of Alice Springs. The Northern Territory Chief Minister has stated that there wi ll be no impact on the Alice Springs water supply as a result of a uranium mine proposal.

The Federal Government announced an overhaul of the Northern Australia Land and Water Taskforce to set a new direction for the body with an emphasis on sustainable economic development. The changes include new membership, removing all politicians from the group, and new

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crosscurrent terms of reference. The new taskforce draws on a range of interests including business, indigenous, conservation , agriculture, mining and science.

New figures showed Melbourne's water storages made modest gains during winter and water consumption increased slightly. Premier John Brumby said Melbourne's winter water consumption was on average 13 million litres higher per day compared to 2007 and inflows into the catchments were 40 per cent lower than the long-term average.

Queensland The Great Barrier Reef wil l benefit from an additional $7.5 million in funding on top of the $23 million announced for Reef Rescue, and will provide a further boost to efforts to protect the health of the Reef. Up to $4.5 million would go towards monitoring water quality in rivers and wetlands, monitoring and encouraging improvements in land management and land condition throughout the catchment, and looking at marine water quality and ecosystem health.

The Queensland Government announced that it will gift 10,600 megalitres (ML) of unallocated water allocations from the Nebine, Moonie, Warrego and Border Rivers into the Murray Darling system. The announcement followed an agreement between the Australian Government and t he New South Wales Government for the purchase of Toorale Station, near Bourke.

Workers laid the last main piece of pipe in the $1.2 billion Gold Coast Desalination Project, linking it into the Gold Coast's water supplies making a total of more than 2500 main pipes in the ground along this 25km stretch, from the desalination plant to the Worondary reservoir.

South Australia The desalination plant at Port Stanvac is to receive the highest level of environmental scrutiny available in South Australia, according to SA's Minister for Urban Development and Planning. The guidelines for the EIS for the Port Stanvac desalination plant for Adelaide have been based on advice from Professor Keith Wal ker, a specialist in water ecology, input from the EPA and other government agencies to ensure sensitive issues are thorough ly addressed.

The Salisbury Stormwater Harvesting Project received $6.5 million federal funding to harvest six billion litres of stormwater for Adelaide. The project wi ll use wetlands to clean water and it will be put into the Adelaide Plains aquifer.

Victoria The Inquiry into Melbourne's future water supply heard that the Victorian Farmers Federation wanted more dams and extensions to existing dams and lakes, while Environment Victoria says an alternative to the state's plan for a desalination plant was needed including recycled drinking water and mandatory water tanks in new homes.

12 NOVEMBER 2008

water

The Commonwealth Government provided environmental approvals for Victoria's $750 million Sugarloaf Pipeline which wi ll carry water 70km to Melbourne. The pipeline will transfer up to 75 billion litres of water savings from the $2 billion investment in irrigation upgrades in northern Victoria.

A proposal to set aside a water reserve each year t o ensure irrigation systems in northern Victoria operate even in the driest years, is one of a range of new measures considered in the Draft Northern Region Sustainable Water Strategy. The plan outlines 57 proposals to improve water management for farmers, communities and the environment in northern Victoria.

AQUAPHEMERA An interesting submission by the Wentworth Group to the Senate inquiry into water for the Coorong and lower lakes is on: (www.wentworthgroup.org/docs/Senate_Submission_ Response_to_the_Coorong_Crisis). Reportedly, improved inflows have averted the disaster for another year in the lakes, but it is still likely in the future as Murray Darling Basin flows continue to diminish. The Wentworth Group recommend that the Commonwealth establish a Commission of Inquiry on the basis of eliciting all innovative ideas to save the lakes. They claim that science says 4,000GL of water needs to be returned to the river, but only quote the best guess estimates of ž to a ½ of natural flows being needed. They use historical graphs of water availability, not total water flows, claim ing 1900-1950 was a dry period and 1950 to 2000 was wet based on a 22% average difference in 110 years record with 3 periods of low flows similar to the current drought. They claim the current reforms won't achieve the savings because the large scale water efficiency measures that were sensible have already been done. They also say that it is not worth lining or piping the 100s of kilometres of open channels since they are likely to fail a cost benefit analysis in terms of the environment, but they do not specify any values or other evidence. They recommend replacing the investment in infrastructure with more water buybacks. (Obviously this must be a long term solution, as current allocations are zero in many parts of the basin). Positively, they call on the Government to provide structural adjustment to support regions most affected by these reforms, an often neglected consequence of these policy changes. They blame Government for bad public policy over allocating the basin's water resources and call for a 42 to 53% cut in consumptive water. Yet in the real world allocations are reduced as water availability reduces. Good science, or dogma? - Ross Knee


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crosscurrent A new water treatment plant with a capacity of 6.7 million litres per day has been opened to replace an outdated plant to meet the future needs of Alexand ra and surrounding areas. According t o Goulburn Valley Water Managing Director Peter Quinn, the dissolved air flotation fi ltration (DAFF) treats water to world's best water quality standards.

Barwon Water's bid to build a sludge-drying plant at Black Rock was upheld by the state's appeals tribunal after a longrunning battle with opponents. The Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal dismissed an appeal by The Clean Ocean Foundation on the grounds it failed to produce sufficient evidence against the $76 million biosolids plant. Representatives of Barwon Water, contractor Plenary Environment and the Bank of Tokyo were on site for the traditional turning of the first sod.

Yarram farmers affected by falling groundwater levels in the Latrobe Aquifer wil l benefit from a $5 million financial assistance package. The Victorian Government will contribute $1.4 million t o the package and the Commonwealth Government will contribute $3.6 million.

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$5 million in new contracts for preliminary works investigating offshore drilling and construction of a seawater sampling plant for Victoria's Desalination Plant were announced, in addition to $17 million in works already underway at the site near Wonthaggi.

Two consortia remain in the bid for the design, const ruction, financing, operation and maintenance of Victoria's Desalination Plant Project. The desalination plant, the largest in Australia, will be delivered as a Public-Private Partnership, which includes construction and operation of the desalination plant, an 85-kilometre transfer pipeline, delivery of power supply for the project and the purchase of renewable energy.

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Western Australia The Environmental Protection Authority has given the green light for Western Australia's second sea-water desalination plant, at Binningup, north of Sunbury. The billion dollar plant, which is scheduled for completion in 2011 will have the capacity to generate 100 gigalitres of water each year.

Farmers in some parts of West Australia's Wheatbelt are faci ng their third consecut ive crop failure if there is no rain, with the prospect of another poor season serving as a double blow as farmers deal with higher costs of oil and ferti liser. Crops in the northern Wheatbelt were excellent but not the north-east and east.

WA's Gnangara mound levels continued to improve for the third month on last year's averages, the Department of Water's monitoring program has revealed, and demonstrate the lag time in rainfall seeping into the vital groundwater source. The Gnangara mound supplies 60 per cent of the Perth metropolitan area's drinking water.

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Do you Know students

between the age of

14 -19 who have a

passion for water?

The WA Department of Water released the Perth Regional Aquifer Modelling System (PRAMS) model development: Hydrogeology and Groundwater modelling. It is an interactive and predictive tool for quantitative water resource assessment, evaluation impacts of land and water use options and determining sustainable water resource management options. Access at http://portal. water.wa.gov .au/portal/page/ portal/Publications/RecentlyPublished

Industry GHD were been appointed by GWMWater to develop a modernisation plan for the Wimmera Irrigation Area, and area which covers about 3000 Ha in northwest Victoria, and supplies about 230 irrigation customers. GHD was also recently ranked 43rd in Business Review Weekly's (BRW) listing of Australia's Top 500 Private Companies.

The Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize provides an amazing opportunity for students to be recognised for a research project and win amazing prizes! The Australian SJWP is a national water science competition for high school students aged 14-19. Organised by the AWA, the competition aims to increase interest in wat er-related issues and research, and to raise awareness and knowledge of global water challenges. The competition focuses on research projects aimed at improving the quality of life through improvement of water quality, water resources management, water protection and water and wastewater treatment.

Nalco Company, a global provider of integrated water treatment and process improvement services, chemicals and equipment programs for industrial and instit utional applications, has been named to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index.

Coca-Cola won a court victory to pump up to 66 million litres of water from Mangrove Mountain on the Central Coast to supply their bottled water. The Land and Environment Court ruled that the company could extract the water on a trial basi~, but some landowners and environmentalists are upset that the company has been allowed t o take more water while others cannot.

International

Get national recognition and great prizes: • Cash and trophies - $500 and a trophy for the national winner, plus $1000 and a trophy for the school • An expense paid trip to AWA's Ozwater Conference and Exhibition in Melbourne during March 2009 for 3 finalists • An expense paid trip to Stockholm during August 2009 to compete for the international Stockholm Junior Water Prize

There 's still time to start working on a project. Entries close 8 December 2008. For further details and competition criteria contact Patricia Dames on 02 9436 0055 or education@awa.asn.au Sponsors

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NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has detected snow falling from Martian clouds. Spacecraft soil experiments also have provided evidence of past interaction between minerals and liquid water, processes that occur on Earth. Ice under the surface was exposed when Phoenix's thrusters pushed away the dirt lying on top of it during landing.

In Holland, the main emphasis for water management has been under discussion by the Dutch Delta Commission which is worried about climate change. Priority concerns they identified are protection against floods and security of the availability of drinking water.

A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association linked arsenic in drinking water with a 3.6 fold increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Other researchers dispute this saying that diabetes changes the way the body metabolises metals which may explain elevated sugars in the urine .

Some UK companies have changed the way they charge non-domestic customers for surface water drainage. They

16 NOVEMBER 2008 water


precious resource ... Water Without Water there can be no life. The Worlds driest Continents Water supply is depleting rapidly Demand for Water is increasing day by day One person in five worldwide has no access to drinking water How will this affect you and your future ... Changes in the Global climate and lack of conservation have caused us to focus on our environmental standpoint challenging us to be creative and sparing to recycle and use again.

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crosscurrent have moved from a system based on the premises' rateable value to one based on the area of the site from which surface water drains into the public sewers. This has implications for a range of customer types, including places of worship and community premises.

Tuas Power plans to spend $2 billion Singapore dollars (A$1. 7 billion) to build a coal fired cogeneration plant on Jurong Island in Singapore to provide steam and electricity for a desalination plant and a wastewater treatment facility. The project will be 80 percent fuelled by coal and the rest from biomass.

Australia's tsunami detection capability has been further enhanced with the deployment of another two Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART™) buoys off the northwest coast of Australia. Five buoys are now deployed off the Australian coast to monitor changes in the sea level for signs of potential tsunami threat from the Sunda Trench and Timor Trough.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is funding a project that will look at creating risk insurance schemes designed to improve the region 's ability to cope with natural disasters. ADB's Japan Special Fund has provided an $800,000 grant to

Water education resource hub - s:::;;;:o

The Water for Life Education Resource Hub brings together a wide range of tools anyone can use to educate the community, schools or work colleagues on water.

natural disasters.

The Salinity Management Guide, a tool showing how recycled water can be safely used for landscape irrigation and that salinity can be addressed through proper management strategies, is now available. Salinity Management Guide website is maintained by the Southern California Salinity Coalition (SCSC) and National Water Research Institute (NWRI). www.salinitymanagement.org

People in the News DESPINA HASAPIS joins AWA as NSW Branch Manager beginning today. Despina has 6 years experience in conference management working across government, academic and corporate sectors. Despina was most recently employed as marketing and events executive with James Halliday events. nswbranch@awa.asn.au

A LISON BOWMAN has joined AWA in the role of SA & NT Branch Manager, replacing the previous contracted arrangements for SA Branch. Alison will also provide NT Branch with dedicated support services for the first time in AWA's history. Alison comes with strong event management and not-for-profit branch committee service experience and PR Qualifications. Email sabranch@awa.asn.au

ANN HINCHLIFFE has joined AWA's Programs Team as an Indust ry Programs Coordinator. Ann will work part-time from AWA's St Leonard 's office on the delivery of industry programs due to increased funding and activity in this area. ahinchliffe@awa.asn.au

Dr PAU L BYLEVELD, Manager Water Unit, NSW Health is deploying to India with the Australian Red Cross disaster response team to help set up water treatment and sanitation equipment in support of the Red Cross Society of India following the recent floods. http://www.redcross.org .au/ourservices_aroundtheworld_

.·--- ----~---··- -

.. The Hub contains great tools and resources including: • the Water Education Resource Directory - a searchable database of case studies and tools • fact sheets and tips to use to educate others • a water events calendar and e-newsletters • links to research about community views on water • interactive activities on how water is used in homes • links to professional learning and training. The education Hub is also a great place to start for new and experienced educators looking to run innovative projects. Check out the Hub at www.waterforlife.nsw.gov.au/ education

18 NOVEMBER 2008 water

study various risk transfer mechanisms including regional risk pooling, which could help ease the financial burden from

emergencyrelief_lndia-floods.htm

MWH and the International Water Association (IWA) are j oining forces to deliver a three-year programme aimed at tackling the impact of cl imate change on the water sector. Gloria.demasigervais@mwhglobal.com

ANDREW SLOAN, formerly of Moret on Bay Regional Council, has taken on a new role as Director, Infrastructure Implementation at the Queensland Water Commission. The role oversees the delivery of the Water Grid in South-East Queensland. Contact details andrew.sloan@qwc.qld .gov.au and (07) 3405 0366

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industry news Hinze Dam Alliance Scoops Award Engineering, sciences and project delivery firm Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM} has received a High Commendation from the International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) - for its enquiry-by-design workshops for the high-profile Hinze Dam Alliance (HDA) project, which involves raising the height of the existing dam wall to increase supply. The award was made in the Enhanced Decision Making Category in the IAP2's Core Values Award program, which is judged by a panel of four adjudicators from two countries. HOA Consultation Team Leader Greg Lee said the challenge that confronted the Alliance was to concurrently develop the design of the spillway, embankment, road network and the post constructional recreational facilities with an unparalleled level of community influence. "From this perspective, the four Alliance partners of Gold Coast City Council, Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM), Thiess Pty Ltd and URS Asia Pacific, recognised that involving the community from the outset would raise the awareness of the principles of best practice and sustainable design."

Guy Parker Award for Best Published Paper "Environmental Monitoring Program for Sydney's Desalination Plant" by Messrs R Kidson, S Trousdale, J Wood and G Allen (Sydney Water), published in March 2008 edition of the Water Journal was selected as the best paper published in the year 2007 until May 2008, and has been awarded the Guy Parker Award.

Women of Water - Inaugural Hei-Jin Woo Award

Hinze Dam, Qld.

The Award is made to honour the memory of Cecil David (Guy) Parker, who played a leading role in the formation of the Association , the foundation chairman of the Journal, and a major contributor to research on wastewater treatment in Australia and overseas. The selection criteria for t he best paper are based on originality, relevance and presentation. The Water Journal committee and AWA staff and board extend their congratulations to the authors.

Dr Rose is a specialist in the field of water pollution microbiology, and has described her own journey of scientific inquiry as an attempt to understand the relationship between microbial water quality and human health. While the practitioner in water sciences and engineering has focused on "indicators" of microbial water quality, Dr Rose has advanced the field by examining key parasites and viruses as waterborne pathogens. Her work has involved development of methods, surveys, investigations of the fate of these microbials in the environment, an underst anding of the risk they pose and approaches for water quality and public health protection. Her work has had local, national and international impacts and she continues to strive to promote water safety and global health. IWA President Dr David Garman stated "The Hei-jin Woo Award recognises women's contribution to the advancement of the management of water. Joan Rose is a very worthy first recipient having established herself as a global leader in the health assessment of water supplies using both traditional techniques and advanced molecular science. Women are often under-represented in our profession, and this award brings to the forefront female colleagues who lead their fields."

Dr Joan Rose The first Hei-jin Woo Award Award for Achievements of Women in the Water Profession, dedicated to the memory of a leading Korean engineer and scientist, was awarded to Dr Joan Rose of Michigan State University for her contribution to Water Quality and the Protection of Health Worldwide.

20 NOVEMBER 2008

water

Dr Rose is currently co-Director of the Center for Advancing the Microbial Risk Assessment. She is considered one of the international authorities on the parasite Cryptosporidium. She has assisted the water industry and governments throughout the world and currently serves as an advisor t o Singapore, Australia and numerous agencies in California on microbial safety of reclaimed waters.


industry news Drawing Parallels: Colorado River Experience At a luncheon held in Sydney in September hosted by Black and Veatch , Peter Binney, Director of Sustainable Planning spoke about similarities between the Murray River and the situation currently facing the Colorado River in the US. According to Mr Binney, water managers need to develop greater flexibi lity in managing t heir resources, to rebalance the water available for the uses needed.

ABOVE: Ralph Eberts of Black & Veatch and guests. LEFT: Peter Binney discusses some of the key findings from the recently completed Colorado River Augmentation Study exploring ideas for augmenting the river system in the face of growing demand and future supply uncertainty, drawing parallels with the Murray-Darling.

Water Plan for the Wimmera GHD has been appointed by GWMWater to develop a modernisat ion plan for the Wimmera Irrigation Area. The plan wi ll consider the options available to increase the efficiency of the Wimmera's irrigation system, t aking into account issues such as climate change and the availability of water in the future . GHD will investigat e the potential impacts of climate change on the water supply within the area, which has received zero water allocation for the past five seasons.

Salisbury Stormwater Project to Reduce Murray River Reliance Adelaide's reliance on the River Murray will be reduced through a stormwater harvesting project at Salisbury that will receive $6.5 million in funding from the Rudd Government. The Salisbury Stormwater Harvesting Project wi ll re-use up to 6.3 bi llion litres of stormwater each year that is currently discharged to Gulf St Vi ncent and would be re-used in Northern Adelaide.

The Wimmera Irrigation Area covers about 3000 Ha around Horsham in northwest Victoria, extending Northeast to Coromby and west to Quantong. Water is supplied to about 230 irrigation customers, supporting horticulture, pasture and livestock production. GHD wi ll also investigate the cond ition of the area's irrigation infrastructure and prepare an estimation of current water losses.

Member for Makin, Tony Zappia, said the project was a great example of a local project making a big contribution to securing water supplies. "The Rudd Government 's funding contribution will be supported by funds from the South Australian Government and the Salisbury City Council, representing another exampl e of govern ments working together to deliver much-needed water security," Mr Zapp ia said.

A report considering options for reconfig uring the distribution system, including lining of channels, channel covering and automation of supply systems, will be released for public comment, with GWMWater and GHD to hold information sessions for the Wimmera irrigation community, allowing the irrigators in t he Wimmera Irrigation Area to play a part in shaping the future of their irrigation area.

The Salisbury project will provide for stormwater to be cleansed in wetlands at Whites Road and Summers Road in Northern Adelaide before being injected into the aquifers below the Northern Adelaide Plains. The project will replenish the aquifers below the Northern Adelaide Plains by providing an environmental contri bution of 1.3 billion litres of cleansed stormwater each year.

The GWMWater Modernisation Plan is being funded as part of the Federal Government's Water for the Future program, which is assisting rural comm unities to improve the efficiency and product ivity of their water use and management.

2 2 NOVEMBER 2008 water

regular features


Australia's National Water Conference and Exhibition Look for your copy of the registration brochure inside this issue of Water or download from

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Anne How e - CEO, SA Water Paul Brown - Public Services Group, COM, USA Tim Jarvis - Explorer, Author and Environmenta l Scientist In S. Kim - Professor, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea Rob Renner - AWWA Research Foundation, USA Maureen Stapleton - San Diego County Water Authority, USA

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industry news New Chief Executive of CSIRO Dr Megan Clark has been appointed as Chief Executive of Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) for a five year term commenci ng in January 2009. She is currently the Vice President Health, Safety, Environment, Community and Sustainability at BHP Billiton . Dr Clark has extensive experience as a senior executive and a wealth of experience in the development and application of science and technology. Dr Clark wi ll succeed Dr Geoff Garrett who wi ll successfully complete his term as Chief Executive on 31 December 2008. She will also be a member of the Board of CSIRO. The Australian Government wi ll provide $ 2.1 billion in direct funding to CSIRO over the next three years. Dr Megan Clark.

Tossed Food: Like Leaving the Tap Running ... To meet the challenge of feeding growing populations and the global hungry, massive reductions in the amount of food wasted after production are needed, according to the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Water Management Institute (IWM I). The policy brief released by the three organisations in August, "Saving Wat er: From Field to Fork - Curbing Losses and Wastage in the Food Chain," calls on governments to red uce the amount of food that is wasted and outlines attainable steps for this be achieved. In the US as much as 30 per cent of food, worth some USO 48.3 billion, is thrown away, the equivalent of leaving the tap running and pouring 40 trillion litres of water into the garbage enough water to meet the household needs of 500 million people. "As much as half of the water used to grow food globally may be lost or wasted," says Dr. Charlotte de Fraiture, Researcher at IWM I. "Curbing these losses and improving water productivity provides win-wi n opportunities for farmers,

business, ecosystems, and the global hungry. An effective water-saving strategy requires that minimising food wastage is firmly placed on the political agenda." Food production is constrained by the availability of water and land resources. An estimated 1.2 billion people already live in areas where there is not enough water to meet demand. And with rising demand for water-i ntensive agricultural products, such as beef and bioenergy, pressure mounts. According t o the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture 2007, these trends will lead to crises in many places, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The Report stresses that the magnitude of current food losses presents both challenges and opportunities. "Improving water productivity and reducing the quantity of f ood that is wasted can enable us to provide a better diet for the poor and enough food for growing populations," says Prof. Jan Lundqvist of SIWI. "Reaching the target we propose, a 50 percent reduction of losses and wastage in the production and consumption chain is a necessary and achievable goal."

Demonstration Project Funding The Green Precincts Fund will provide fund ing of $15 million over four years to support at least 10 high-profile demonstration projects that deliver water and energy efficiency savings, while at the same time educating the community about water and energy efficiency. The Government is looking to work with community organisations, sporting cl ubs and state and local government. Eligible funding recipients must be incorporated in Australia.

24 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Funding is capped at 50 per cent of eligible costs, with minimum funding of $500,000, up to a maximum of $1 .5 million (GST exclusive) per project proposal. Call for Expressions of Interest opened 22 September 2008 and close 22 November 2008. More information can be found at: http://www.environment.gov.au!water!programs/ green-precincts/index.html


industry news Water is Everyone's Responsibility, says National Water Week Organiser

clean water at our fingertips. But accordi ng to UN statistics, 40% of the world's population still does not have access to the most basic sanitation, and a child dies every 20 seconds as a result of lack of sanitation; that's 1.5 mi llion children a year. Clean an d healthy water supplies, waterways and wetlands are essent ial for life, and according to the Australian Water Association, it's everyone's responsibility to preserve and enhance our local water environments. Tom Mollenkopf, Ch ief Executive of t he not-for-profit group stated "Communities, government and the water sector need to work together to ensure a clean and secure water future. Wat er management is

Guests and media at the launch of National Water Week on Monday 20 October in Sydney. Do you know where your drin ki ng water comes from, how it's treated, or what happens to it after it goes down the plug? This is one of the questions t he Australian Water Association (AWA) called on all Aust ralians to ask during National Wat er Week, officially launched on Monday 20 October with guest speakers Tammy van Wisse, Dr. Christobel Ferguson and Julian Gray in Sydney. The 2008 National Water Week theme - Clean Water: Essential for Life! - drew community attention to the importance of clean water to human health and quality of life, with 2008 being t he United Nations International Year of Sanitation. In Australia, we are fortunate to have one of t he highest stand ards of sanitation in t he world, w ith most Australians having readily available

Dr Christabel Ferguson (Ecowise Environmental), Julian Gray (Smart Approved WaterMark) and Tammy van Wisse spoke at the launch of National Water Week.

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industry news biggest user of water across Australia, after agricultu re, with households using more water than the mining, manufacturing, electricity and gas industries combined. The average Australian household consumes 280 kl (or 280,000 litres) of water every year (ABS 2004-05). To this end, National Water Week supporters Smart Approved WaterMark launched the new 'Every Bucket Counts' campaign, and are challengi ng the nation to save one million buckets of water. The campaign, and three online calculators, were officially launched during National Water Week.

National Water Week also saw the launch of Smart Approved WaterMark's 'Every Bucket Counts' campaign, with a little help from Vaucluse Primary School students.

everyone's responsibility, and we all have important roles to play. It's not enough to say it's someone's problem, because clean reliable water really is essential for life." But the good news, according to the Association, is that everyone can make a difference. Domestic water use is the 2nd

Ministerial Message - National Water Week 2008

Tammy van Wisse, champion marathon swimmer and 'human wat er quality tester' is an avid supporter of National Water Week. "National Wat er Week is the perfect time to focus on water protection and conservation, but the lessons should be ongoing. I encourage everyone to get involved in learning about, and protecting, our precious water resources." "I'm thrilled to support National Water Week 2008," said Ms van Wisse. National Water Week 2008 was proudly supported by Sydney Water and Smart Approved WaterMark, and organised by the Australian Water Association.

Water for the Future also provides a plan to address these issues.

Minister for Climate Change and Water, Senator Penny Wong

It must be said that most of us in Australia are much betteroff than most people in developing countries when it comes to secure and safe water supplies.

I am sorry I cannot be with you today for this important event. National Water Week provides an opportunity to focus on something we can no longer take for granted in Australia - the availability of clean, safe, reliable and relatively inexpensive water supplies.

I note that the theme of this year's National Water Week is Clean Water: Essential for Life. It is very apt in this, the International Year of Sanitation. The United Nations estimates that two and a half billion people (2.6 billion) lack access to safe toilet facilities.

The Australian Government is committed to a truly national approach to wat er where the Commonwealth, state and local governments work together to address our water management challenges in a comprehensive and coordinated way.

In this regard I would like to mention the Australian Government's $300 million commitment to improve water and sanit ation services in the Asia-Pacific region, wh ich wi ll be managed by Australia's official international development agency AusAID.

That is why the Rudd Government announced its $12.9 billion 'Water for t he Future' plan that is built on four key priorities: taking action on climate change, securing water supplies, using water wisely, and supporting healthy rivers. By now I think most of you here today wi ll be reasonably famil iar with the contents of the Government's 'Water for the Future' plan. I do want to emphasise, however, that cl imate change is at the heart of everything that the Australian Government does on water. CSIRO and others are now telling us that the marked decline in rainfall and runoff across much of Australia in recent years bears some of the hallmarks of climate change. As a nation we have come to learn how vul nerable our water supplies really are. Whether we are worki ng to secure urban water supplies, or to reform water management in the Murray-Darling Basin, a key challenge before us now is to adapt to a future with less wat er. We also face other challenges in water. In the MurrayDarling Basin in particular, we have neglected our rivers and wetlands, and the challenge of addressing over-allocation of our surface and groundwater resources, for far too long.

28 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Th is contribution wi ll help in the task of reaching the international Millennium Development Goal of reducing by half the proportion of these two and a half billion people without access to basic sanitation by the year 2015. I must also mention that the COAG Working Group on Climate Change and Water - which I chair - has now commenced a project to Assess Water Supply and Wastewater Services in Remote Communities (including indigenous communities), and to develop a strategy for bringing these services up to standard. Travelling around Australia I have been impressed by dedication, vision, ingenuity and commitment of so many people; people involved in water policy and management; people with expertise in water science and technology; and people who use water in industry, agriculture and t he home. More than anything else, it is this commitment that wil l help put Australia in the best possible position to respond to the many water challenges we face, now and into the future. I thank you for the opportunity to send this short message to you on the occasion of the launch of National Water Week.


awa new members New Members AWA welcomes the following new members since the most recent issue of Water Journal:

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awa news

IWA Australia Therese Flapper and Jurg Keller World Water Congress, Vienna Vienna, heart of the Danube River, which runs across 14 countries, was the perfect setting to discover solutions to cross border water security and management. In the hot and humid weather we discovered together all the aspects of 'closing the loop' - an ongoing theme. Walter Kling, Congress Chair, was the perfect host, and Austrian Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer made us all welcome with his opening address. David Garman and Paul Reiter continued to reflect on our 'water family' and that we should turn to each other to learn, help and ask. Around 100 Australians were 'seen to be everywhere' by the rest of the 2,800 delegates. We were presenting, chairing, win ning awards, Pictured (I tor): Tom Mollenkopf (AWA), Jeremy Kruse (Head of Mission, Australian Embassy, Vienna) and Dr asking questions, participating in Jim Gill (Water Corporation) at the World Water Congress, Vienna. workshops and active in Specialist Groups. Everywhere Aussies were active in one way or another and certainly made an impact way above industry and governments to address related energy our size of delegation or population. It was also obvious from consumption, most notably that used for water heating in many talks and comments that we are leading the way in many households, which is estimated t o be 5-10 times more than the aspect s of water and sustainability. whole energy requirements of the urban water cycle (supply Recipient of the IWA Grand Award , Jim Gill articulately informed delegates from around the world just how much we do 'down under' in leading the way in climate change management and planning, and achieving water 'security th rough diversity'. Jim had words of wisdom for the world audience on desalination, environmental flows, dams, reuse, aquifer recharge, education of the commu nity (and the politicians!), and the role of monitoring and development. Strong emphasis was given to the energy and water nexus with a whole day workshop plus several sessions relating to the theme. It's becoming increasingly clear that the water industry worldwide needs to address two major demands in a holistic way - human health and environmental health. The Water and Energy workshop again demonstrated the leading role of Australian utilities and researchers in this field and highlighted the fact that more needs to be done by the water

and effluent treatment). Many of the technical sessions also focused strongly on the cl imate change aspects. Once again, leading research from Austral ian groups gained strong attending in relation to the generation of nitrous oxide (N 2 0) from nutrient removal plants and methane from sewer systems. These two strong greenhouse gases are clearly emerging as the big unknowns of the water industry. Another very well attended session focussed on the novel aerobic granular sludge processes that are now starting to be employed ful l-scale with some expectations raised that these could provide some strong competition to the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) processes, particularly due to the expected lower energy consumption with similar footprints. However, MBR proponents are strongly working on reducing the energy demands of thei r syst ems as this issue is clearly a major concern to end-user.

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awa news Similarly, energy consumption was at the forefront of a daylong workshop on Desalination and Water Reuse. Whi le some progress can still be expected for desalination energy reductions, the major issues seem to be more in the high capital costs and operating performance (fouling, chemical cleaning , avoiding early membrane failures etc.) of such plants. These improvements will have sim ilar benefits for the membrane based water reuse syst ems, although there is some discussion ongoing about the merit of Reverse Osmosis (RO) vs. nanofiltration, as the major challenge in the RO water reuse (and inland desalination) schemes is clearly in the management of t he concentrate (bri ne) st ream .

Abel Mejia of the World Bank made many strong poi nts after quoting the demoralisi ng statistics facing developi ng and emerging countries. Meeting the Millennium Development Goals is still a hope, but perhaps not a reality. Abel discussed the need to create a strong connection between tech nology and developing countries. A major need to present options for 'bankable projects' - if t hey are not they wi ll not be. But it was also noted that most projects fail on the ground due to poor institutional arrangements and that strong support is needed for institutional capacity. Abel felt that a MOU was needed across sect ors such as research, business, utilities and governments. Not only d id delegates get to explore t he technical and scientific, we got t o explore Vienna - the home of Strauss and Mozart. Tuesday night saw most delegates enjoy the musical rapture of t he Vienna Symphony Orchestra at the historic Musikverein: spectacular doesn't cover it. As the orchestra played th rough classics of t he region such as Mozart and Strauss, the cond uctor engaged with the audience in cond ucting our 'piano' and 'forte' clapping, and of course no clapping w hen the occasion called for it! And no such event could go without t he jou rney of the Blue Danube, which was the crescendo during encore. Fantastic even from t he rafters where some Australians were able to see t he roof better than the stage.

Young Water Professionals The Vienna Congress saw IWA's Young Water Professionals Committee hold its most exciting and ambitious program to date. Amongst the highlights was a YWP Workshop that explored everything from career options in the international water industry to meeting t he future challenges in the global water sector; an interactive session with IWA's Cou ncil for Distinguished Water Professionals, who shared their views on the wat er and energy nexus; as well as a career fair that allowed YWPs to talk directly to the staff of major international water companies and organisations about potential career opportunities. All this was held in the sanctuary of the YWP Lounge, a dedicated area where YWPs were able to take time out from the hectic congress schedule or simply meet and network with their peers.

• Project Innovation Awards (Grand Honour Awards) - Operations/Management - Kogarah Council for the Beverley Park Water Reclamation Plant Project - Design Projects - Black & Veatch/Thiess Joint Venture for Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant Stage 1A • Best promoted protection activity or programme Queensland Water Commission for the 'Target 140' campaign • Best Popular Presentation of Water Science category Jennifer Simpson

The Gala Dinner at the Rathaus (City Hall) was a pleasu re, with a string orchestra keeping delegates entertained as we wined and dined on Austrian cu isine. The night was free of speeches as Walter Kling asked delegates to simply enjoy the last of Vienna's hospitality.

Australian Award Wi nners • Grand Award - Jim Gill (CEO Water Corporation, W.A.) • Honorary Membership - Lance Bowen

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31


awa news

Nominations sought for AWA National Awards Program

AWA

Through the National Awards Program, the Australian Water Association provide opportunities for members to gain national recognition for individual efforts, research and innovative projects across the water industry. The following awards will be awarded at the Ozwater Conference and Exhibition, held in Melbourne from 16- 18 March 2009. For further information about branch and national award programs check out the website at www.awa.asn.au or contact your local Branch representative.

Peter Hughes Award

• International benefits;

Category: Industry Service Award

• Quality of references; and

Description: To provide recognition of excellence of achievement in conservation of water resources by the Australian water industry.

• Judgement of merit and excellence against international

Aim: To recognise a technical achievement by an individual or organisation in the conservation of water resources, and to raise the profile of the Australian water industry and AWA in conservation of water resources.

criteria (as apply for the Stockholm Wat er Prize). Eligibility: Nominat ions will only be accepted from AWA members Nomination: Check out your local AWA Branch for details of relevant Industry Service awards, or nominate directly

Criteria

through the national office.

• Innovation and originality;

Closing date: 23 January 2009

32 NOVEMBER 2008 water

regular features


awa news

Nancy Millis Awards

Undergraduate Water Prize

Category: Industry Service Award

Category: Education Awards

Description: To provide recognition of significant projects, products, initiatives, achievements and/or services of AWA female members who are activity involved in the water industry.

Description: The Undergraduate Water Prize is open to final year students (in any faculty) in Australian Universities, who carry out a thesis or project related to water.

Aim: To recognise outstanding women in the water industry.

Aim: Encourage and reward students for excellence in the field of water studies and research; Provide a forum for students to display their academic excellence and research findings to future employees, clients and the water industry.

Criteria:

• Must be a female financial member of AWA; • Demonstrates champion qualities that benefit others in the water industry; • Recognised efforts towards advancing the profile of all women in the water industry; and

Criteria

• Relevance of the project to the water industry; • Quality of technical content; and • Innovation and originality

• Evidence that the initiative was carried out or came to fruition during the 2 years preceding the nomination.

Eligibility:

Eligibility: Female AWA member

• Final year undergraduate

Nomination: Via your local AWA Branch

• Project must be on a water industry related topic

Closing date: 23 January 2009

• Must be enrolled in a university or tertiary institute in Australia

Water Environment Merit Award (WEMA) Category: Industry Excellence Awards Description: Awarded to a corporate member of AWA that has made a significant contribution, or has been responsible for a major project of benefit, to the water industry, community or environment. Aim: To provide recognition of environmentally significant projects, products, services and/or initiatives of AWA sustaining members, thereby raising public awareness of contributions from the industry and encouraging innovation and constant environmental improvement. Criteria:

• Demonstrated or strongly anticipated environmental and/or water resource benefits as the result of the nominated initiative; • Evidence that the initiative was carried out or came to fruition during the two years preceding the nomination; • Innovative, unique or other outstanding features of the initiative wh ich set it apart from common practice among com parable enterprises; • Evidence of market competitiveness; acceptance, recognition or other factors which indicate superior performance overall in the nomination; and • Recommendation of referees.

Nominations: finalists of relevant Branch awards can be nominated for the national UWP. Closing date: 31 December 2008 for nominations for the National award

Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize Category: Education Awards Description: The Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize is an annual national water science competition for senior high school students. The competition is open to projects aimed at improving the quality of life through improvement of water quality, water resources management, water protection and water and wastewater treatment. Aim: To increase interest in water-related issues and research , and to raise awareness and knowledge of global water challenges. Criteria

• Relevance; • Creative ability; • Methodology; • Subject Knowledge; and • Practical skills Eligibility:

Eligibility: Corporate member of AWA

Australian high school students aged between 14 and 19 years.

Nominations: finalists of relevant Branch awards can be nominated for the national award.

Nominations: Projects should be submitted to AWA's national office.

Closing date: 23 January 2009

Closing date: 8 December 2008

water NOVEMBER 2008 33


awa news AWA Programs Update

In March, a CEO-level Skills Forum was held in Canberra, jointly convened by AWA, the National Water Commission (NWC) and the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA). The Forum developed an action plan and proposed the formation of a Water Industry Skills Taskforce to lead an industry wide approach. This high level Taskforce comprises representatives from key stakeholders: • Tom Mollenkopf - CEO, AWA (Chair) • Ken Matthews - National Water Commission

Corinne Cheeseman

• Ross Young - WSAA • Anne Howe - SA Water • Nick Apostolidis - GHD

Industry Programs

• Peter McVean - Veolia Water

Background

• Bernard Meatheringham - Government Skills Australia

Whilst most organisations are already taking action to reduce the extent of the skills shortage, a more substantial impact is likely to be made throug h industry wide collaboration. Sharing investment and pooling resources in tackling this issue also enables the industry to do more in a cost effective way.

• lven Mareels - University of Melbourne

Many organisations have recently received information regarding two programs that AWA is launching on behalf of the industry, which aim to reduce the impact of the skills shortage. AWA has been actively leading a collaborative effort to address skills issues through the Water Industry Capacity Development (WICD) initiative for some years now.

• Alison Carmichael - Irrigation Australia • Richard Mcloughlin - Dept of Water, Environment, Heritage and the Arts The Taskforce has recently endorsed three programs from the Forum's action plan for which business plans were developed. As a result, AWA is now seeking industry support and involvement in two of these programs, the H2 Oz Water Industry Recruitment Campaign and the Water Industry Mentoring Program. What is the H2Oz Recruitment Campaign? The H20z brand has been developed as the vehicle through which the challenge of attracting skills and talent to the Australian water industry can be addressed. It wi ll market the water industry as a sector of choice for students, new entrants into the workforce and those consideri ng their career options. The campaign will direct the audience to the website (www.h2oz.org.au) which in turn will provide additional information about the water industry and the range of opportunities available, as well as links to participating organisations and job sites. This is supported by a national marketing and awareness campaign which will include online, print and radio advertising, displays at career fairs and emarketing. There are many far-reaching benefits including: • Broadening the employment base for the water industry by providing a good supply of people/skills through the campaign, backed by a strong recruitment platform • Reduction in loss of skills by reinforcing the value proposition for working in the water industry, and through linkages to the Water Industry Mentoring Program and the Water Industry Secondment Program • Reduction in recruitment costs through the use of webbased recruitment advertisements featured on the H2 0z website. • Increased profile for organisations interested in promoting their brand, the opportunity to have company information and logos displayed on the website and in conjunction with the H2 0z campaign. • Use of the H2Oz campaign collateral through license agreement so that the organisational -level campaigns can link and capitalise on the H2 0z brand profile.

34 NOVEMBER 2008 wat er


water supply

SECURING MELBOURNE'S FUTURE WATER SUPPLY Peter Harris A recent analysis of Melbourne's water supply system has shown that innovative infrastructure projects, including the Victorian Desalination Project, are crucial to providing water security for Melbourne. The unprecedented drought, the challenges of climate change and a rapidly growing population have placed Melbourne's water supply system under increasing pressure. In 2006, following ten years of drought, Melbourne's catchments received their lowest ever inflows - being in the order of 165 gigalitres as opposed to the long-term annual average of 590 gigalitres. These recent trends, along with the future threat of climate change, means Melbourne must plan for a future with less rainfall. The large storages that make up Melbourne's water supply system have previously allowed water to be "banked" in years when rain was plentif ul, so that this water could be slowly drawn down in years of drought. Storages are now at critically low levels, and planning for a future with less rainfall means that we must move away from relying on one major source of supply, being rainfall from our reservoirs, to a portfolio of diverse water sources. Victoria has previously developed a major water policy review process, published in 2004 as Our Water Our Future. Under this policy, both regional and urban water resources and regulation were being systematically reviewed in a multi-year program. The Next Stage of the Government's Water Plan, released in June 2007, provides long-term solutions to secure Victoria's water supplies by building a desalination plant, saving water through massive upgrades to irrigation

Marine testing for suspended solids.

infrastructure, expanding the State's Water Grid to move water from where it is to where it is needed across Victoria and investigating major recycling opportunities. Conservation programs under way from the early part of the decade have been extended. The total package will cost water consumers and taxpayers in excess of $4.9 billion by the time it is comp leted. Without supply from The Next Stage projects, and in particular the 150 GL per annum Desalination Project, storage levels will continue to fall, ultimately to unsustainable levels if the extremely dry conditions of recent years continue. Water restrictions and other demand management initiatives alone will not guarantee eno ugh water to meet the growing needs of Melbourne. Extensive research has been undertaken to make sure the right decisions are being made for Melbourne's water supply both now and in the future.

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40 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Water resource modelling was undertaken to analyse t he potential behaviour of Melbourne's water supply system. The analysis considered a range of future climate and water demand scenarios. The findings have recently been published in Augmentation of the Melbourne Water Supply System Analysis of Potential System Behaviour.

feature articles


water supply The report highlights the growing imbalance between the amount of surface water resources that can be reliably harvested from protected catchments or other sources in Melbourne and the amount of water required to meet the growing needs of Melbourne's residents, businesses and industries. It also takes serious account of the significant uncertainty regarding t he likely impacts of climate change and climate variability on rainfall-dependent supplies. Finally, it considers climate shift impacts in other relevant parts of the weather syst em range potentially relevant to Vict oria, particularly Perth 's 30 year decline in rainfall inflow. Our c onclusion was to diversify Melbourne's water supply system and incorporate water sources that do not rely on rainfall. Diversifying supply to include non-rainfall dependent sources of water, such as the Desalination Project, provides protection against the risk that dry conditions of recent times continue or worsen. The Plan wi ll allow Victoria a future flexibility of water operations to enable the best use of the cheapest water (rainfall) along with the certainty of rainfallindependent sources. The Victorian Desalination Project will be Australia's largest and wi ll supply up to 150 gigalitres of water a year to Melbourne and, via other future connect ions, Geelong, towns in the South Gippsland and Westernport regions. Arou nd 80% of the State's population and a similar number of its jobs lie in this supply zone. The plant, to be located in the Bass Coast region, wi ll be capable of meeting around a third of Melbourne's current annual water demand from a source that is independent of rainfall. Construction of t he Desalination Project is scheduled to begin in 2009 in order to deliver water by the end of 201 1. The project wi ll include an 85 kilometre underground pipeline to connect the plant to a transfer main at Berwick and then to Cardinia Reservoir and wi ll use approximately 90 megawatts of electricity, which will be offset through the purchase of renewable energy credits. The report considered whether the Desalination Project should supply up to 100 or 150 gigalitres of water per annum.

Horizontal directional drilling at the desalination plant site.

The analysis showed that supplying only 100 gigalitres of water per annum wou ld increase the risk of Melbourne fal ling into severe water restrictions within a short to medium term timeframe if the extremely dry conditions of recent years continue. Since storage recovery in the longer-term wi ll depend on future inflows and demand on the system wi ll increase as a result of Melbourne's high rat e of current and future population growth, the Government has chosen the higher supply approach, with the capacity to increase supply to 200 gigalitres per year in the future. The Pl an will avoid the unsettling prospect t hat otherwise Australia's second largest city could ru n out of water in the next 5 years. Upon completion in 2011, the desalination plant will supply up to one third of Melbourne's annual water consumption. With its completion, water restrictions can be eased, although it is unlikely that we will ever return to the days of treating water as an inexhaustible resou rce. If for no other reason, the investments householders have made in new technology such as water efficient showers and garden syst ems, accompanied by the rise in prices to pay for a low-risk wat er future, will hold down demand growth. Melburnians now use 20% less water per capita than they did in the 1990s.

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A full copy of Augmentation of the Melbourne Water Supply System: Analysis of Potential System Behaviour is available on line at http://www.ourwat er.vie.gov .au/ programs/next-stage

The Author Peter Harris is the Secretary of the Department of Sustainability & Environment, Victoria.

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SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER SYSTEMS Chris Davis Capturing Sustainability Although most people have an idea what sustainability means, capturing the concept and putting it into effect is not easily achieved, especially for an urban water system, which is a com plicated network. Although there are purist definitions, like the Natural Step, they don't go close to being operational. At the other end of the spectrum are reporting systems, which can be 'tick and flick' styled checklists, which run the risk of being tedious and ultimately missing the point. At some level , sustainability has to be an ethical or moral code which underpins the way of doing business, supported by records and reporting, but obtaining its strength and credi bility from the underlying ethic. This paper attempts to capture some of that, as a pointer for water system stakeholders who would like to aim for achieving sustainability.

The Energy Nexus In the context of the 21st Century, no sustainability issue rates more highly than global warmi ng, and no factor is more intertwined with global warmi ng than energy. That is not to dismiss the other two legs of sustainability: environmental and social, but achieving an acceptable out come on those dimensions is not as challenging or as urgent as that of energy. Although the energy consumed by a water system is typically somewhere between 3 per cent and 5 per cent of total community consumption, depending on local circumstances, a water business is nonetheless a substantial energy consumer and usually rates among the top few clients for a regional energy supplier. The universal nature of water services ensures that every commu nity and every building is part of the energy consumption loop. Heating water for domestic use, however, has to be acknowledged as one of the key energy sinks involved with water, and it should never be ignored. Israel, for example, saves something like

44 NOVEMBER 2008 water

4 per cent of its national energy use by mandating the use of solar water heaters for homes. One reason for the highly successful results achieved by retrofitting low-flow showerheads is that, as well as reducing water use, they significantly cut back the energy needed for hot water.

Chris Davis

Urban Metabolism A useful concept for water sustainability is that of urban metabolism, or the flux of energy, water and resources passing through a commun ity's water system. In general terms, reducing the flux improves sustainability. Logically, water and energy are the headline resources to monitor, but nutrients and finances are significant too , as are some of the much smaller components, like pharmaceuticals and heavy metals - in some cases minimising the loss of a material might be important, whi le in others, avoiding its discharge to the environment could be critical. The perennial question of recycling arises: should a material be allowed to enter the 'waste' stream and be discharged to the environment, or should it be used beneficially somehow? Two key nutrients are nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen is won from the atmosphere for industry using an energy intensive process, so wasting it in effluent makes little sense, although there is no cap on nitrogen resources as such. Phosphorus exists in finite quantities globally and we are on a declining trajectory for its availability, so it makes even less sense to squander P in effluent. There is a real risk of runni ng out of phosphorus, with disastrous consequences for global food production. There has never been a neat, blackand-white answer to the recycling question, since expending a lot of energy to remove N and P from water can be counter-productive if the fertiliser value of those elements could be realised. Likewise, recycling or reusing water itself has to be weighed up in the context of the energy and other metabolic factors involved.

Water-borne , mixed urban drainage as a dominant paradigm has to be questioned seriously, since around 70 per cent of N and P comes from urine. The relatively simple expedient of using urine separating toilets cou ld thus enable the considerable fertiliser potential of urine to be realised. Wrestling with these trade-offs can be facil itated by taking stock of the different metabolic fluxes and compari ng them for different options. Where costs and benefits can be allocated to different components of the urban water system, comparing one suite of fluxes to another is rendered more practical.

Fourth Generation Water A useful metaphor to track where we are in urban water management is the generations of water. In a nutshell, up till the late 19th century was a time of epidemics and a lack of organised sanitation - the first generation of urban water. Once the germ theory of disease was developed and efforts were made to collect and remove sewage from communities, we entered the second generation of water - leading to large, centrali sed sewerage and water systems (and, it must be said, economically viable cities). From the early seventies of the last century, however, t he need to care for the environment became more obvious and there were glimmerings of understanding about integrating water systems - this heralded the third generation of urban water, with some recycling and initial thoughts about integration. Now that we understand much better the need to integrate water systems; to aim for sust ainability; and to consider decentralised systems and alternative business models, we are

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water supply entering the fourth generation of urban water. Like all metaphors, it can be overworked, but it does help key in thoughts about the chang ing face of urban water management.

Barriers to Change There is no doubt that becoming more sustainable in urban water systems requires quite substantial change. Many utilities have taken up the challenge, though, and Sydney Water has set a goal of being carbon neutral by 2020. Achieving a more sustainable urban water system requires change on t wo fronts: new developments or urban renewal projects on one hand, and retrofitting better systems on the other. Strides are being made in new developments, with tools such as BASIX (in NSW) and the Green Star Rating for buildings to provide guidance. Where it is harder to effect change, though , is in the extant urban fabric, which is not as easy to amend, except at great expense. When assets come to the end of their useful lives and have to be rep laced, a good opportunity arises for making step changes. Sadly, however, the gatekeepers for regulations in systems are not always visionaries and there can be a major disconnect between what one part of a water business or local authority might wish to achieve and what its regulatory arm will permit. These barriers will on ly be broken down by radical, whole-of-business reform and re-alignment, to ensure that there is consistency of purpose and understanding when it comes to making every facet of a business more sustainable.

Decentralised Systems No single intervention in urban wat er epitomises the mind-shift towards sustainability more than decentralised systems. This means providing water services at a local scale, ranging from a single lot up to a major section of a community. There is a grey area between a large decentralised system and a small, centralised one, of course , but the concept is not too hard to grasp: instead of a iming to service every corner of a community with one set of water mains and one sewerage system, it is broken up opportunistically into smaller units which can be serviced by smaller, shorter pipes and smaller plants.

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An apposite decentralised system should be demonstrably creati ng smaller fluxes of key measures, especially energy and cost; as well as enabling creative reuse or alternative water sources to be employed. There is a growing reference list of decentralised systems across Australia, each hardwon and typically succeeding thanks to the tenacity of a champion or proponent. Not every facet of every system has been successful, but that is inevitable when new approaches are being tried. The pioneers are immensely important as thei r learnings can benefit all who follow. A trap to avoid is that of pitting decentralised systems against traditional, centralised ones, and suggesting that one or the other is the right solution. A polarised approach like that misses the point that there is a need for a portfolio of diverse solutions t o urban water sust ainability challenges: in most communities it is likely that a combination of centralised and decentralised solutions wil l co-exist. Most solutions to urban water management problems are very site specific, so generalising is risky and good cost evaluation tools will always be essential to help decision makers select among options.

Economies of Scale One of the factors wh ich has to be weighed up in selecting sustainable options to manage urban water systems, and to choose between decentralised and centralised variations, is economies of scale. Conventional wisdom always was that decentralised is better because treatment plants have strong economies of scale. That is indeed the case, but it misses a key point, namely that much of the investment and cost of an urban water system lies in the collection and reticulation systems - the pipes, sewers and pump st ations. In many instances, and especially for sewerage, there are diseconomies of scale: large, long pipes and their appurtenances cost more than smaller, local networks. Finding the right answer for a given situation depends crucially on accurately estimating and comparing the overall costs of pipe networks and treatment syst ems. Technology has changed, especially in the area of communications, so managing and monitoring distributed equipment and processes can be achieved now using

SCADA (supervisory, control and data acquisition) systems that would not have been feasible twenty years ago.

Institutional Arrangements One of the major determinants for success in urban water systems is the institutional arrangements - how businesses are set up to provide services and how those businesses are regulated. As hinted under fourth generation water, too, new business models are needed to accommodate a changing world. Many people have commented on the paradox that water businesses are expected to conserve water but are also required to earn revenue (and to pay dividends to government owners) only from the sale of water and the collection of sewage creating cognitive dissonance. Trying to achieve sustainability; to move squarely into fourth generation water systems; and to deal with decentralised systems, all demand a fresh look at business models and at how businesses are designed. Integration is a watchword now: formerly independent water, sewerage and stormwater operations have to be amalgamated or, at the very least, coordinated. Al igning long term planning, landuse and catchment management also have to be done in sync with other water fu nctions. In an ideal world, one agency wou ld have oversight for all these functions. An argument could be mounted for a local authority to be the provider, but a cou nter-argument would be that the panoply of other services wh ich local governments have to provide dilute attention to water. That's probably a moot point, but the fact remains that a minimum number of actors and interfaces is desirable to achieve optimum integration. Independent regu lators are also important, since governments (local or state) are not renowned for impartial price setting, nor for enlightened selfregulation. Regulators are needed for price; environmental outcomes; public health; and overall performance. Typically, each Australian jurisdiction has its own approach to setting up regulators, but the general trend is towards more robust arrangements. Addressing decentral ised systems imposes an extra burden on both the reg ulatory and the overall institutional arrangements. Inserting one or more decentralised systems into an otherwise

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While 70 per cent of the world's surface is covered by water, only one per cent of the total water resources on earth is available for human use.


water supply centralised structure, with an existing monopoly business, has to be done in an enlightened fashion, if anarchy is to be avoided. One obvious option is for the incumbent provider to also own and operate the decentralised system (this is what applies at Mawson Lakes, in South Australia). Another option is to set up a credentialing system which ensures properly constituted and qualified organisations are in charge of designing, building and operating decentralised systems. In the USA, these are alluded to as RMEs (responsi ble managing entities) and there is a spectrum of both public and private RMEs in operation.

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Caution is needed, since the incremental impacts of multiple decentralised systems injected into an existing, previously fully centralised , system could potentially render the original system unviable. Another caution applies t o the issue of 'provider of last resort' - i.e. who takes over if a private provider fails and leaves a system unmanaged? This is not a trivial question and it has potential to impose major liabilities on a business which may not receive any recompense for unwittingly assuming those liabilities.

Postage Stamp Pricing A long-standing practice, sometimes derided by economists, is that of uniform pricing across a community for the provision of water services (i.e. all water-related services). Known as 'postage stamp pricing', the practice has become culturally entrenched across Austral ia and is even applied across whole jurisdictions in some instances. Although an argument cou ld be made for a more equitable and rational system of charging cost-reflective tariffs, according to where customers are; in practice, calc ulating rational and equitable deviations from a single tariff would be a logistical nightmare, with potential for much larger inequities and other unintended consequences. It is much easier to argue for tariffs wh ich vary from one community to another, however, since physically separated syste ms are intuitively expected to have varying cost structures, according to their local circumstances.

Charting a Course - What's Sustainable? This paper has touched on just some of the range of urban water issues which impinge on ach ieving sust ain ability in a real world. Like a large ship, the water industry has a deal of momentum and inertia, both of which resist rapid change. Forward thinking practitioners and decision makers have to find ways of nudging the ship (the industry) towards a new, more sustainable course , without creating a shipwreck. We wi ll probably never actually make a landfall on the shore of a new, sustainable world, but we owe it to future generations to chart a course in the right direction.

The Author Adjunct Professor Chris Davis is Sustainability Business Development Manager at the University of Technology, Sydney, email Chris.Davis@uts.edu .au.

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WATER MANAGEMENT IN A WATER SENSITIVE CITY T Wong , R Brown, A Deletic Abstract A critical challenge to urban communities is its design for resilience to the impact of climate change and population growth, particularly with regards to the sustainable management of water resources and the prot ection of water environments. With the widespread realisation of the significance of climate change, urban communities are increasingly seeking to ensure resilience to future uncertainties in urban wat er supplies, yet change seems slow with many cities facing ongoing investment in the conventional approach. Wh ile there is not one example in the world of a Water Sensitive City, there are cities that lead on distinct and varying attributes of the water sensitive approach. This paper proposes three key pi llars that need to underpin the development and practice of a Water Sensitive City. These include: (i) access to a diversity of water sources underpinned by a diversity of centralised and decentralised infrastructure; (ii) provision of ecosystem services for the built and natural envi ronment; and (iii) socio-political capital for sustainability and water sensitive behaviours.

Introduction The commencement of the 21st centu ry marks the period when the proportion of the world's population living in urban environments surpasses that living in the rural environment. The 21st century is indeed the century of cities and urbanisation. Urban developments to support a growing community have consequential impacts on the land and water environments. Best-practice urban water management is widely acknowledged as complex, because it requires urban water planning to protect, maintain and enhance the ' multiple' benefits and services of the total urban water cycle that are highly val ued by society. These include supply security, public health protection, flood protection, wat erway health protection, amenity and recreation, greenhouse neutrality, economic vitality, intra and intergenerational equity and demonstrable long -term environmental sustainability.

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Part of the complexity of realising this best-practice is the need for identifying and employing approaches that protect and enhance these multiple and interdependent benefits and services. In the past, water managers have often reduced this complexity by focussing on optimising single parts of the water cycle such as 'supply security' in isolation and/or in absence of reliable consideration of the other dimensions of the cycle. This often results in outcomes that compromise a significant proportion of the multiple objectives of best-practice urban water management, includ ing the numerous well-known social, ecological and economic costs, which overall increases the vu lnerability of cities. Water supply solutions that best protect and enhance the full suite of values and benefits from a total water cycle perspective are likely to result in more resilient solutions over t he long-term. A critical challenge to urban communit ies is its design for resilience to the impact of climate change and population growth, particularly in regards to sustainable management of water resou rces and the protection of water environments. With the widespread realisation of the significance of global warming and cl imate change, urban communities are seeking resilience to future uncertainties in urban wat er supplies brought about by a combinat ion of climate variability, population growth and climate change. Yet despite the development of new technologies and infrastructure in the service of urban water sustainability goals over the last 20 years, both practitioners and scholars recognise that change remains too slow (Maksimovic and Tejada-Guibert, 2001; The Barton Group, 2005; Mitchell, 2006; Wong 2006a). Consequently many cities face ongoing investment in conventional approaches which perpetuates a significant delay in the widespread diffusion of sustainable, or water sensitive, alternatives.

Three key pillars of practice to create water sensitive Australian cities.

Transforming cities to more sustainable water cities, or as termed in this paper, to Water Sensitive Cities, will require a major socio-technical overhaul of conventional approaches. While there is not one example in the world of a Water Sensitive City, there are cities that lead on distinct and varying attributes of the water sensitive approach. Th is paper provides an overview of the emerging research and practice focused on advancing Wat er Sensitive Cities, with a particular emphasis on recent thinking and envisioning on resilience, and envisaged principles of the Water Sensitive City.

The Water Sensitive City Approach: Creating Resilience Water Sensitive Urban Design The practice of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Australia has evolved from its early association with stormwater management to provide a broader framework for sustainable urban water management (Wong 2006a, 2006b), and building water sensitive cities. It is based on t he integration of two key fields including 'Integrated urban water cycle planning and management' (IUWCM) and 'urban design'. IUWCM provides the platform for water conservation and protection of aquatic environments, centered on considerations of minimising the import of potable water, minimising the export of wastewater, the improvement of stormwater quality, and the management of wastewat er and stormwater as resources and optimising their use as an alternative water sources, and the appropriate scale to best achieve these targets (Newman, 2001 and Wong 2006b). Also central to th e IUWCM approach is the buffering of the impacts of climate change on natural aquatic environments and preserving, and/or reestablishing , ecosystem services as essential elements in building ecological landscapes in urban communities (Breen and Lawrence, 2006). Urban design is a field associated with the planning and architectural design of urban environments, addressing issues that have traditionally appeared outside

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wsud & stormwater management of the urban wat er f ield but nevertheless interact or have implications to environmental effects on land and water. WSUD brings 'sensitivity to water' into urban design, as it aims to ensure that water is given due prominence w ithi n the urban design process through the integration of urban design with the various disciplines of engineering and environmental sciences associated with the provision of water services including the protection of aquat ic environments in urban areas. Community values and aspirations for urban places necessarily govern urban design decisions and

therefore water management practices. Consequently WS UD integrates across the social and physical sciences (Wong and Ashley, 2006). The concept of the Water Sensitive City has evolved from the principles of WSUD and is a stated goal of the Australian Commonwealth's National Water Initiative directed at 'Innovation and Capacity Building to Create Water Sensitive Australian Cities' (COAG, 2004, Clause 92, p20). While the Australian Government is yet to provide a definition for the envisaged Water Sensitive City, contemporary research in IUWCM

highlights that it is a significant departure from the conventional urban water approach. A Water Sensitive City would ensure environmental repair and protection, supply security, public health and economic sustainability, through water sensitive urban design , enlightened social and institutional capital, and diverse and sustain abl e technology choices (Brown et al, 2007).

Resilience and vulnerability Ensuri ng socio-technical resi liency, and overcoming system (or city-wide) vulnerability to climate change and population growth, is an important cond ition for the Water Sensitive City. When a city is a 'resilient' system, major system 'disturbances' (such as floods, droughts and waterway health degradation) provide the potential to create opportunities for new innovation and development. However, when a city is a 'vulnerable' system, even small disturbances , such as extended storm events, are likely to cause dramatic social consequences (Adger, 2006). Following Carpenter et al. (2001) and Folke (2006), a resilient system is interpreted as: i) the amount of disturbance the system can absorb and still remain within the same state; ii) the degree to which the syst em is capable of self organisation (versus lack of organisation, or organisation fo rced by external factors); and, iii) the degree to which the system can build and increase the capacity for learning and adaptation. Resi lience is not only about being persistent or robust to disturbance. It also reflects how that system creates opportunities from the d istu rbance for renewal and pursuit of new trajectori es (Folke , 2006). Yet resiliency research and its implications for sustainability are still in their infancy. As highlighted by Folke (2006, p253) "the major chal lenge is to develop governance systems that make it possible to relate to environmental assets in a fas hion that secures their capacity to support societal development for a long time into the future". There is an active scholarship focused on how socioinst itutional systems respond to disturbances and surprises, as wel l as on the adapt ive govern ance mechanisms for improving self organisation, such as institutional leadership, social networks and bridging organisations (Folke et al., 2005; Elzen and Wieczorek, 2005; Smit and Wandel, 2006). Much of this work, however, lacks insight into how the physical realm can be best harnessed to

54 NOVEMBER 2008 water

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wsud & stormwater management support the transition to more resilient systems and cities. The socio-tech nical research scholarship has been identified as the most promising perspective for addressing the need for resiliency and advancing sustainable development (Meadowcroft, 2005), but is yet to be systematically applied to the urban water environment. Wh ile Kemp et al. (2007, p79) believe that the resiliency of systems to disturbances in their environment is well understood, approaches to transform "subsystems and their environment - has received far less attention". The approach of the Water Sensitive City is particularly focussed on this question of 'how' to transform cities through reconnecting best thinking and practice in urban water management, urban design, and social and institutional systems. Tentative principles of a water sensitive city A recent envisioning process involving 19 sustainability scholars and practitioners identified the following nine guiding principles for the progressive development of a Water Sensitive City that enable resiliency and more sustainable trajectories into the future (Brown et al., 2007, pp1-2): 1. Intergenerational equity - In a water sensitive city, communities and t heir governments wi ll understand and agree that current development must not compromise the ability of future generations to enjoy secure water supplies and healthy natural water environments. Th is will mean that governments and urban water managers take a long-term view when planning the technological and institutional infrastructure for supporting water services. 2. Triple bottom line approach - In a water sensitive city, governments and urban water managers will measure the 'value' of water and water services in social, environmental and economic terms rather than simply economic 'cost'. 3. Integrated approach - In a water sensitive city, water resources, including water supply, sewerage and stormwater services, will be managed as part of a total water cycle. Urban water managers wi ll privilege water supply and sewerage choices that are beneficial to waterway and ecological health, and commu nity wellbeing. 4. Diverse water sources - In a water sensitive city, governments will invest in

56 NOVEMBER 2008 water

a diversity of water sources underpinned by a range of centralised and decentralised infrastructure providing cities with the flexibility to access a 'portfolio' of water sources at least cost and with least impact on rural and environmental water needs. Institutional systems wi ll optimise the management and delivery of centralised and decentralised water sources and technologies. 5. City as a catchment - In a water sensitive city, urban water managers will minimise the import of pot able water, and the export of wastewater, from and to areas outside the boundaries of the city, and will instead optimise the use of water resources with in a city in a fit-forpurpose capacity. Therefore, a water sensitive city will be viewed as a catchment, and stormwater and treated wastewater will be viewed as important water sources. 6. Ecosystem services - In a water sensitive city, waterways will be valued as an integral part of the city, and ecological integrity will be actively protected. Water managers will recognise that healthy ecosystems and waterways provide important ecosystem services that make the city more livable and mitigate the impact of a city on the environmental values of aquatic syst ems within and downstream of the city. Green infrastructure for stormwater quality treatment will not only cleanse polluted stormwater, but w ill also provide microclimate and amenity benefits. 7. Resilience to climate change - A water sensitive city will be resilient to the effects of climate change. Diverse water sources (point 4) will ensure that the city can adapt to conditions of water scarcity and wat er abundance. With waterways being ecologically protected, they will also be more resilient, whi le providing improved amenity for the commun ity. 8. Social capital - A water sensitive city will be home to a smart, sophisticated and engaged community living a sustainable lifestyle that is sensitive to the symbiotic co-existence of the built and natural environments. Social capital will extend to the professionals and practitioners in the water sector, in relation to their capacity for innovation and sustainable management of the city's water resou rces, and to all levels of government in relation to the underpinning regu latory and administrative framework. Technologies, infrastructure and urban form wi ll be designed so that they reinforce sustainable practices and social capital.

9. Business case - In a water sensitive city, governments, businesses and the private sector will have the institutional and economic incentives to invest in sustainable solutions.

Principles to Practice: Three Pillars of the Water Sensitive City The remainder of this paper is an attempt to translate the theory on system resiliency and the proposed principles of a Water Sensitive City into practice. It is a proposition of this paper that a Water Sensitive City may be characterised by the following three key pillars of practice which must be seamlessly integrated into the urban environment. They include: (i) Cities as Catchments: access to a diversity of water sources underpinned by a diversity of centralised and decentralised infrastructure; (ii) Cities Providing Ecosystem Services: provision of ecosyst em services for the built and natural environment; and (iii) Cities Comprising Water Sensitive Communities: socio-political capital for sustainability and water sensitive behaviours i.e. a smart and sophisticated community living an ecologically sustainable lifestyle that is sensitive to the symbiotic co-exist ence of the built and natural environments. Cities as catchments Like many cities, the majority of Australian cities are almost exclusively dependent on water resources derived from capture of rainfall runoff from largely rural or forested cat chments. Communities are increasingly susceptible to the impacts of increasing temperatures and soil moisture deficit in water supply catchments, climate variabil ity, drought and climate change. Continuing the conventional approach of 'building another dam' is often not the most effective option. Breaking the dependency of cities on favourable soil moisture conditions in water supply catchments for security of their water supply is considered a possible mitigating initiative to these challenges. Although in many regions of Australia the effect of climate change on rainfall is very uncertain and may not necessarily lead to any consistent trend of reduced rainfall, there is a higher certainty that climate change wi ll increase global temperature and thus will have a more certai n effect on soil moisture in traditional water supply catchments (i.e. a drier catchment) and consequently the

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wsud & stormwater management reduction in catchment runoff during storm events. Australian cities can have access to a diverse range of water sources in addition to the established convention of capturing rainfall-runoff from rural and forested catchments. These alternative water sources for cities include groundwater, urban stormwater (catchment runoff), rainwater (roof runoff), recycled wastewater and desalinated water. Many of these sources are within city boundaries and ready access to this diversity of water sources in water sensitive cities may be framed under the general theme of "Cities as Water Supply Catchments". As recently highlighted by the Prime Minister's Science and Engineering and Innovation Council Working Group in Australia: "Water supplies to Australia's cities need to move from reliance on traditional sources to an efficient portfolio of water sources which can provide security through diversity. Like a share portfolio, flexible and cost effective access will be underpinned by diversity, including centralised and decentralised infrastructure. Like a share portfolio, the composition of water source portfolios also needs to reassessed as new information on costs, prices, climate, environmental objectives and impacts, and risks becomes available". (PMSEIC, 2007). A strategy built around a diversity of water sources and a diversity of water infrastructure w ill allow cities the flexibility to access a 'portfolio' of water sources at least cost and with least impact on rural and environmental water

needs. Each of the alternative water sources has unique reliability, environmental risk and cost profiles with the tendency for sources of high reliability to also have associated high cost and environmental risk profiles and vice versa. In a future water sensitive city, access to these alternative sources can be optimised dynamically (even on a short term basis) through the availability of diverse infrastructures associated with the harvesting, treatment, storage and delivery of the water sources. This would include both central ised and decentralised water supply schemes, ranging from the simple rainwater tank for non-potable use to city-scale indirect potable reuse schemes and the 'pipeline grid' linking regional reservoirs. Optimisation wi ll ensure preferential access of sources of low cost and environmental risk ahead of options with higher cost and environmental risk. Building a diversity of infrastructure throughout a built-up area takes time and therefore does not address the immediate short-term water crises currently facing many Australian cities. Governments have tended to focus on large centralised infrastructure such as desalination plant s, indirect potable substitution scheme (i.e. treated recycled water returned to water supply storages) to address this. These schemes are important elements of a diverse water portfolio but governments often overlook the importance of building the diversity of sources once these expensive schemes are comm issioned. If cities are to be resilient in t he longer-term, it wi ll be important t hat the investments in these

schemes are viewed as strategic solutions that can 'buy time' to invest in the long-term planning required for other more sustainable sources of water such as decentralised harvested stormwater and recycled wastewater schemes. The timeframe for implementation of these decentralised schemes is expected to be longer than the solutions associated with seawater desalination, indirect potable reuse and rural/ urban water transfer and will span the typical land renewal cycle of the city. Like the current practice of water sensitive urban design, the implementation of these schemes wi ll take advantage of opportunities presented by greenfield and brownfield (urban renewal) development projects, and the growing number of initiatives by local government to secure alternative water for public open space irrigation. Getting the policy and p lanning instruments in place is essential when implementation is tied to progressive urban development and redevelopment act ivities in cities. Unlike the traditional centralised water systems, which have benefited from over two centuries of dedicated research and development (and associated learning around appropriate governance mechanisms) urban stormwater harvesting and recycled wastewater systems at precinct and regional scales are relatively recent concepts.

An important component underpinning a diversity of infrastructure is the secondary supply pipeline for nonpotable water (sometimes referred to as the third pipe system or dual supply). Water delivered via a secondary supply system provides a sound basis for promoting a 'fit-forpurpose' approach to wat er use. Non-potable water from a variety of local sources (e.g. stormwater, Multiparameter Water Quality Meter groundwater, recycled pH • pH/mV • ORP • % saturation DO • mg/L DO• EC wast ewater) can replace the use absolute EC • Resistivity• TDS • salinity• seawater of potable water for such uses as specific gravity • atmospheric prerssure • temperature toilet flushing, laundry, garden watering and open space • Display up to 12 parameters on backlit graphic LCD irrigation. • Internal 12 channel GPS receiver to track locations The provision of a second with measurement data water supply pipeline for non• GPS signal strength & co-ordinates shown on LCD potable water is a fundamental with number of satellites basis for preserving future • Connects with GPS tracking software such as opportunities for accessing Google™ Maps to view locations with measured of (nonalternative so urces data shown on maps potable) water. In greenfield developments, the cost of 03 9769 0666 providing the secondary supply 03 9769 0699 pipe is low compared to email: hannains@hannainst.com.au web: www.hannainst.com.au retrofitting existing developments. Nevertheless,

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wsud & stormwater management these opportunities are often not taken up for lack of a suitably cheap alternative water source for non-potable demands based on current price of water. Recent trends are progressively providing the pricing incentives for alternative water supply schemes to developed.

Cities providing ecosystem services Protecting the environment from stormwater pollution is a key objective of sustainable water resource management. The transition to WSUD in stormwater management over the last 15 years has been quite remarkable, especially considering that in this short timeframe, we have seen the phi losophy, technology and language of WSUD developed to industry standards and referenced in policies across all levels of government in Australia (Wong, 2006b). Stormwater treatment technologies such as constructed wetlands and bioretention systems (commonly referred to as rain gardens) are implemented at a range of spatial scales, from building and allotment scales to regional public open space and multiple use corridors. Research studies have been able to define key design procedures that ensure these systems can generally be scalable. Through close collaboration with landscape architects and urban designers, it has been possible to incorporate many of these technologies into the urban form. Continuing research undertaken over the past three years by the Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration at Monash University [www.monash.edu.au/fawb/] has delivered the necessary 'proof-ofco ncept' of biofilter technologies further strengthening t he t echnical basis underpinning water sensitive urban design (Read et al., 2008, Hatt et al., 2007 Bratieres et al., in-press, Deletic et al, 2008, this issue). An emerging issue in WSUD is that of rehabilitation of degraded urban waterways. It is wel l documented that uncont rolled stormwater runoff from urban areas degrades creeks and waterways (e.g. Walsh et al, 2004). Treatment and harvesting of urban stormwater leads to positive management of the water quality and natural hydrology of urban creeks and waterways to improve waterway ecosystem health (Fletcher et al, 2007). There are many factors that influence waterway health, and these have been categorised by Breen and Lawrence (2006). Waterway health management initiatives would typically consist of a mixture of catchment-wide initiatives

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(based on WSUD) and on-site works (such as chan nel stabilisation, creation of in-stream and riparian habitats, etc.). Catchment management initiatives provide the underpinning basis for prot ection or improving waterway health and improving water quality underpins all waterway health improvement or protection initiatives

Cities comprising water sensitive communities WSUD as a framework for sustainable urban water management is wellfounded and ongoing research can be expected to progressively improve WSUD technolog ies for improving stormwater quality. However essential, technology based on physical science research alone will not deliver the desired outcome. Institutional capacity for advancing sustainable urban water management is only now being recognised as an important underpinning element of many technological solutions. Brown (2004) argues that unless new technologies are socially embedded into the local institutional context, their development in isolation is insufficient to ensure their successful implementation in practice. A recent on-line survey of over 420 urban wat er professionals in Melbourne by the National Urban Water Governance Program at Monash University [www. urbanwatergovernance .com] revealed a high level of support for adopting a diverse water supply approach in a fit-for purpose context (Brown et al., 2007). However, institutional reform for integrated urban water cyc le management remains elusive. Like most reform agendas, this is an area that requires considerat ion of options that are not immediately intuitive, techn ically or otherwise. Traditional governance and service delivery models for wat er management are being challenged and renegotiated as communities demand a greater level of engagement around water management and environmental sustainability. To ensure ongoing water supply resilience, future governance and service delivery models wi ll need to be adaptive and underpinned by a flexible institutional reg ime, and co-existing and diverse infrastructure designed to reinforce sustainable practices and social capital, recog nising the implicit link between society and technology. The key players involved in water management have now expanded to represent environmental protection

needs through government departments, NGOs and professional commun ities advocating for urban stormwater quality management. As evolving water sensitive cities incorporate and seek to protect the scope of environmental and social val ues of the water environment, the distribution of functions and responsibilities wi ll need to continue to be fundamentally reshaped. Contemporary research suggests that for localised innovations to be successful, key stakeholders need to have ownership as well as a role in design to capitalise on their local knowledge. Therefore, the urban water sector will need to place a strong focus upon inter-sectoral partnerships between government, communities and the private sector for t he co-design, and eventual co-management of stormwater harvesting (and other supply) approaches at the household, streetscape, and neighbourhood levels.

Concluding Remarks Increasingly urban communities need to be designed to make them resilient to climate change, particularly allowing for the sustainable management of water resources and the protection of water environments but also as communities of people who have a new understanding of their impacts. As we begin to realise the significance of global warming and climate change, new urban communities wi ll need to strive for carbon neutrality and also have in-built resilience to face future uncertainties in urban water supplies and climatic extremes, and provide ecosystem services to protect/buffer downstream aquatic environments and other ecological habitats from these impacts. The pursuit of sustainability through ecologically sust ainable development is aimed at initiatives to protect and conserve natural resources and to promote lifestyles, and their supporting infrastructure, that can endure indefinitely because they neither deplete resources nor degrade environmental quality. Whi le such ambitions may seem unattainable, they set a challenge that leads to environmental, social and economic benefits as we edge towards the ultimate goal of sustainability. They represent a paradigm shift in urban design. In relation t o urban water management, the shift is towards integrated urban water cycle planning and management based on the principles of Water Sensitive Urban

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wsud & stormwater management Design for sustainable urban water management and for building water sensitive cities. Water Sensitive Urban Design has evolved from its early association with stormwater management to provide this type of broader framework for sustainable urban water management an d for building water sensitive cities. A water sensitive city may be characterised by three key att ributes (i) access to a diversity of water sources underpinned by a diversity of centralised and decentralised infrastructure; (ii) provision of ecosystem services for the built and n atural environment; and (ii i) a socio-political capital for su stainabi lity. Ecological landscapes in urban co mmunities are essential to buffer the impact of climate change on natural aquatic environments and preserve, and/or re-establish, ecosystem services that reverse the conventional phi losophical approach of urban commun ities drawing on ecosystem services of neighbouring upstream and downstream natural environments. New cities wil l contain landscapes that wil l have intrinsic ecological fun ctions related to t he community and the environment. Embodied in a holistic approach to an ecolog ical landscape is the importance of site as narrator for development. The site histories, ecologies , connections, co ntexts, together with appropriate future uses, social and recreational amenity, identity, legibility, and hierarchy must inform and be the driving forces that b ind streetscapes , public open space and private open space strategy.

The Authors Tony Wong is Principal, EDAW, Australia & Honorary Professorial Fellow, Mon ash University, tony.wong@edaw.com; Rebekah Brown is Associate Professor, School of Geography and Environmental Science, M onash University, rebekah.brown@arts .monash.edu.au; Ana Deletic is Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, ana.deletic@eng.monash. edu.au

References Adger, W.N., (2006) Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3): 268-281 . Bratieres K, Fletcher TD, Deletic A, Zinger Y, (in press), Optimisation of the treatment efficiency of biofilters; results of a largescale laboratory study, Water Research (accepted June 2008) Breen and Lawrence (2006), Chapter 13 Urban Waterways, in Wong T H F (ed), Australian Runoff Quality: A Guide to

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Water Sensitive Urban Design, ISBN 0 85825 852 8, April 2006.

Brown, R., Beringer, J., Deletic, A., Farrelly, M., Grace, M., Hart, B.T., Hatt, B., Keath, N., Lake, S. , Lynch , A. , Mac Nally, R. , Mitchell, G., Mfodwo, K., Morison, P., Stubbs, W., Tapper, N., van de Meene, S., Wong, T. , (2007) Monash University Submission to the Review of the Metropolitan Water Sector, 'Moving to the Water Sensitive City: Principles for Reform ' , Public Submission to the Victorian Competition & Efficiency Commission review of the metropolitan Water Sector, 5th October 2007. Available at www.urbanwatergovernance.com. Brown, R.R. (2004), Local Institutional Development and Organisational Change for Advancing Sustainable Urban Water Futures, keynote address, International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, 21 -25 November 2004, Adelaide, Australia. Counc il of Australian Governments (COAG) (2004) Intergovernmental Agreement on a National Water Initiative, Commonwealth of Australia and the Governments of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, signed 25 June 2004. Available at: http://www.coag. gov.au/meetings/250604/ iga_national_ water_initiative.pdf. Deletic, A, Fletcher, T D, Brown, R R, Hatt, B, Wong, T H F.(2008) Advancing Stormwater Biofi lters. Water, 35, no 7 Elzen, B. and Wieczorek, M., (2005) Transitions towards sustainability through system innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 72(6) : 651 -661. Falke, C., (2006) Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analysis. Global Environmental Change, 16(3): 253-267. Fletcher, T. D., Mitchell, G., Deletic, A., Ladson, A. & Seven, A. (2007) Is stormwater harvesting beneficial to urban waterway environmental flows? Water Science and Technology, 55, 265-272. Falke, C., Hahn, T. , Olsson, P. and Norberg, J., (2005) Adaptive Governance of SocialEcological Systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30: 441-473 Hatt B.E., Fletcher TD, Deletic A, (2008) Hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of fine media stormwater filters, Environmental Science and Technology 42, 2535-2541 Kemp, R., Loorback, D. and Rotmans, J., (2007) Transition management as a model for managing processes of co-evolution towards sustainable development. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 14(1): 7891. Maksimovic, C. and Tejada-Guibert, J.A. (Eds.) (2001) Frontiers in Urban Water Management: Deadlock or Hope, Cornwall: IWA Publishing.

Meadowcroft, J ., (2005} Environmental Political Economy, Technological Transitions and the State. New Political Economy, 10(4). Mitchell, V.G., (2006) Applying integrated urban water management concepts: A review of Australian experience. Environmental Management, 37(5): 589605. Newman, P., (2001) Sustainable Urban Water Systems in Rich and Poor Countries: Steps towards a new approach . Water Science and Technology, 43(4): 93-100. Prime Minister Science Engineering and Innovation Council Working Group (PMSEIC} (2007), Water for Our Cities: building resilience in a climate of uncertainty, a Report of the PMSEIC Working Group, June 2007. [http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/science_ innovation/publications_resources/profiles /water_for_our_cities.htm] Read J., Wevill T, Fletcher T.D, Deletic A, (2008) Variation among plant species in pollutant removal from stormwater in biofiltration systems, Water Research, 42, pp 893 - 902 Smit, B. and Wandel, J., (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3): 282292. The Barton Group (2005) Australian Water Industry Roadmap: A Strategic Blueprint for Sustai nable Water Industry Development. Report of The Barton Group, Coalition of Australian Environment Industry Leaders, May 2005. Available at www.bartongroup.org.au (accessed 10/11 / 05). Walsh, C. J., Leonard, A., Fletcher, T. D. & Ladson, A. R. (2004) Decision -support framework for urban stormwater management to protect the ecological health of receiving waters. Sydney, Australia, Water Studies Centre, CRC for Freshwater Ecology, Institute for Sustainable Water Resources (Dept. of Civil Engineering) and CRC for Catchment Hydrology, for the NSW Environment Protection Authority. Wong, T.H.F., (2006a) Introduction. In T. H.F. Wong (Ed}, Australian Runoff Quality: A Guide to Water Sensitive Urban Design, Engineers Australia, Canberra, ISBN 0 85825 852 8, April 2006, Chapter 1: 1-8. Wong, T. H.F., (2006b) Water Sensitive Urban Design - the journey thus far. Australian Journal of Water Resources, 10(3): 213221 . Wong , T.H.F. and Ashley, R (2006), International Working Group on Water Sensitive Urban Design, submission to the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, March 2006.

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wsud & stormwater management

ADVANCING STORMWATER BIOFILTERS A Deletic, T D Fletcher, R R Brown, B E Hatt, T H F Wong Abstract This paper reviews the progress of the the Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB) towards provi ng the concept of biofiltration to improve the quality of stormwater, focusing primarily on bioretention systems. Institutional factors that influence their adoption and management are also reviewed. The laboratory and field-scale testing program that was undertaken in order to demonstrate the potential of biofiltration as an effective and reliable urban stormwater treatment technology is described and key findings are presented. Implications for practical implementation of stormwater biofilters are discussed and plans for future work are outlined.

Introduction Water biofiltration is the process of improving water (stormwater and wastewater) quality through the processes of filtration through biologically influenced media. Stormwater biofiltration systems include bioretention systems, bio-infiltration systems, constructed surface flow wetlands and constructed sub-surface flow wetlands. The focus of the work presented in this paper is on bioretention systems (also referred to as biofiltration systems). A typical biofiltration system consists of a vegetated swale or basin, overlaying a filter medium (usually soil-based) with a drainage pipe at the bottom (Figure 1). Small bioretention systems are often referred to as rain gardens, whi le linear systems are commonly referred to as bioretention swales. The design configuration of biofilters is flexible and possible variations include removal of the underdrain (to promote exfiltration into the surrounding soil), and the inclusion of a permanently wet zone at the bottom (to further enhance biological treatment processes to improve nitrogen removal). The Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB) was formed in mid2005 as an unincorporated joint venture between the Institute for Sustainable Water Resources (ISWR), Monash University and EDAW Australia

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Figure 1. Schematics of a typical biofilter (bioretention system).

(previously Ecological Engineering), with the aim to further advance biofiltration technologies. The following industry collaborators are also involved: Manningham City Council (Vic), Melbourne Water (Vic), Vic Roads (Vic), Landcom (NSW), Brisbane City Council (Old), and the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Board (succeeding The Torrens and Patawalonga Catchment Water Management Boards) (SA). FAWB has active collaboration (on-going joint research projects and shared students) with INSA Lyon, a leading Engineering School in France, and with the Technical University of Lulea, Sweden. The mission of the FAWB is to provide proof of concept by developing and field-testing a range of biofilter systems that can be applied to specific market-based needs. This includes the needs of catchment managers, environmental regulators, public utilities, local governments, land developers, and design engineers.

Proof of concept of an effective means of treating urban stormwater.

Methods The entire Research Program is divided into four highly interlinked projects, listed below: • Project 1: Technology aims to overcome technical barriers to wide adoption of the technologies; • Project 2: Policy and Risk aims to develop methodologies/strategies to overcome institutional and social barriers to widespread adoption of the tech nologies; • Project 3: Adoption Tools aims to develop design tools for practitioners; and • Project 4: Demonstration and Testing aims to demonstrate the wide capability of novel, multi-functional designs.

Objectives and methods used to achieve each project are outlined below, whi le the details can be found in the journal and conference papers and technical reports listed in the References. Project 1: Technology

The specific objectives of this project were to:

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Figure 2. Laboratory biofilter column experiments: (a) non-vegetated soil filter media columns (b) standard columns. 1. Develop new biofilter designs to optimise performance and ensure longt erm sustainability; 2. Determine design configurations that optimise treatment performance and reduce the risk of soil media clogging; 3. Develop new filter media types for targeted pollutants (such as heavy metals, nutrients and pathogens); 4. Determine the performance and risk of using stormwater biofilters as a treatment device for stormwater reuse. The following activities have been carried out to deliver these objectives: Project Activity 1.01 Vegetation trials: 20 species commonly used in rain gardens have been tested for removal of the key stormwater pollutants, including total suspended solids (TSS), key heavy metals, and total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) and their species (Read et al., 2008). The plants were dosed with semi-synthetic stormwater for three months and their treatment performance assessed by analysing the treated stormwater. At the end of the dosing period, plant biomass was measured and related to treatment removal performance. Analyses of plant morphological characteristics such as root length and mass were also carried out. Project Activity 1.02 Laboratory biofilter column experiments: This was a rather complex activity that included:

a. Laboratory study of non-vegetated filters (Fig 2, (a)), where six different soil based filters were dosed for 42 weeks with semi-synthetic stormwater using different drying and wetting regimes, and their treatment and hydraulic (clogging) performance monitored (Hatt et al.,

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2007a; Hatt et al., 2007b; Hatt et al., 2008). b. Optimisation of standard biofilter design (Figure 2(b)) was carried out using 140 columns (375 mm in diameter) filled with four filter media types, nonvegetated and vegetated with five different plant species, and three different filter depths (300, 500 and 700 mm). The impact of different inflow concentrations and climate (Brisbane and Melbourne) was also studied (Bratieres et al., in press; Bratieres et al., 2008).

c. The impact of a permanently submerged zone (with and without a carbon source) on biofilter performance was assessed using 18 specificallydesigned columns (375 mm in diameter and 900 mm deep, Zinger et al., 2007a; Blecken et al., in press). The impact of a variable wetti ng and drying regime was also examined (Zinger et al., 2007b). d. The long-term sustainability of soil media has been investigated using very small columns, where two selected soils have been exposed to 15-20 years of continuous loading by stormwater, the aim being to assess break-through of pollutants. Project Activity 1.03 Biofilter optimisation for stormwater harvesting: Pathogen removal by biofilters was t ested using 30 standard columns that were watered with real st ormwater spiked with pathogens, and the removal of three common pathogen indicators (vi ruses, protozoa and bacteria) was monitored. The influence of soil type, plant species, submerged zone, carbon source, and variable wetting and dry on pathogen removal was assessed.

Project 2: Policy and Risk

This Project contributes to the broader Program Aim of advancing the effective implementation of water biofiltration technologies by concentratin g on developing guidance strategies related to institutional change. It addresses the cu rrent knowledge limitations in the socio-institutional domain that are important to advancing widespread practice. This largely relates to issues including the design and administration of 'enabling' policy and regulatory frameworks, and addressing 'risk perception' related to previously identified issues such as liability and poor organisational capacities. Key objectives of Project 2 were to: 1. Construct a transition map of biofilter technology adoption across Metropolitan Melbourne (i.e. institutional , policy, niches etc); 2. Assess industry 'risk perception' to the widespread implementation of Biofilters; 3. Determine the incentives and disincentives to improve industry receptivity; and 4. Provide policy and governance advice for advancing the WSUD transition, with a particular focus on biofilter technology. The detailed methods are provided in research outputs from this project (Brown et al 2007a-e), and are only briefly outlined below. Activity 2.01 Regulatory, Policy and Strategic Guidance included (a) review of relevant theoretical frameworks for the social research, including socio-technical transitions and policy reform theories, including ' receptivity'; (b) examination of

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wsud & stormwater management policy drivers, regulatory setting and social structures, (c) literature review of policy documents and available 'grey' literature, including industry reports and technical documents, and (d) interviews with professionals across the urban water sector to determine the status of current policy and regulatory setting. This data allowed for the socio-technical 'transition mapping' to determine the transition pathway to WSUD across Melbourne. Activity 2.02 Risk Perception, Liability and Opportunities examined current perceptions of risk, drivers and barriers relating t o the uptake of biofilter t echnologies. This included: (a) review of current theories/models/frameworks of risk perception and receptivity and assess suitability for analysis , (b) design and administration of an on-line questionnaire to determine broad , quantit ative trends of current perceptions of barriers and drivers to advancing Water Sensitive Urban Design practices, (c) a series of interviews and focus groups with the community and professionals across the urban water sector to gain an in-depth understanding of current perceptions of barriers and drivers to advancing Water Sensitive Urban Design practices; and (d) identification of risk response strategies. Project 3: Adoption Tools The main challenge for this project is to develop a practical road map of activities to inform the product ion of biofilter adoption guidelines. The aim of Project 3 is to develop biofilter adoption tools for practitioners including: • the design algorithms of stormwater Biofilters for a variety of possible applications; • adoption guidelines/recommendations for Biofilters. Two Project Activities have been undertaken: Project Activity 3.01: Modelling Tools that focus on development of a very simple algorithm for assessing performance (hydrology and water quality) of these systems. Project Activity 3.02: Adoption Guidelines that aim to develop a set of guidelines that provide direction for the specific needs of FAWB's industry partners and address a range of feasibility issues that may be encountered. This is done via a consultative process, i.e., by working closely with FAWB's industry partners and other leading practitioners.

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Project 4: Demonstration and Testing This project aims to complete a number of field trials of bioretention systems in Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney, in order to: 1. Provide demonstrations of bioretention systems in a range of urban environments; 2. Validate laboratory studies and address site specific issues; and 3. Document construction procedures, for use in guidelines and standard drawings. The following activities have been carried out: Activity 4.01 Bioretention System in Western Sydney: The aim was to understand the long-term performance of stormwater bioretention systems constructed in saline soils typical of the West ern Sydney region. This activity included both field and lab studies on filter media stability in two systems built in t he Second Ponds Creek area. Activity 4.02 Monash University Car Park Bioretention System, Melbourne: FAWB has built a ful l scale testing facil ity on the grounds of the Clayton campus of Monash University. The system was also used by the University for harvesting of stormwater and consequent use for irrigation of a sports oval. The system has three different cells (each 1.5m wide and 10 m long) and is fully equipped for monitoring both flow and water quality. The flow and key pollutants were monitored at the inflow and outflow over one year (Hatt et al., 2007c; Hatt et al., 2008; Hatt et al. , in press), while tests of hydrau li c performance were performed over 18 months (Lewis et al., 2008). Activity 4.03 Wakerley Bioretention System, Brisbane: This regional scale bioretention syst em treats stormwater runoff from an 87 ha residential catchment. The system has been designed with three hydraulically separate filtration cells, each with a slightly different sub-surface drainage configuration and vegetation specification, thus providing a unique monitoring opportunity. FAWB was interested in lessons learned from the construction phase of the system that wi ll inform adoption strategies. Activity 4.04 Testing existing bioretention systems (Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney): The infiltration capacities of 37 Biofilters have been t ested in situ. Filter media samples were co llected for laboratory measurements of hydraulic

cond uctivity (using standard tests) and heavy metal concentrations (Le Coustumer et al. , 2007, 2008a,b). Activity 4.05 Saturn Crescent stormwater garden, Brisbane: This is the on ly system now fully built using findings from the FAWB program, and has been now test ed for its pollutant removal performance. It has a plan area of 20m2 and services a 900m2 catchment (the full design details of the system design are in Smith et al. (2007)). The system was monitored during six artificial events (Hatt et al. , in press, Hatt et al., 2008).

Key Findings Key find ings from this large research program are listed below. On Biofiltration Technology Design and Construction • All biofilter configurations tested (both veget ated and unvegetated) remove more than 90% of heavy metals (both particulate and dissolved). Some plant species enhance metal uptake (and may enhance filter lifespan), but plant selection wi ll depend more strongly on hydraulic conductivity and nutrient removal (see below). • Most biofilters will perform well for phosphorus removal (> 70% removal rate), as long as the soil has a phosphorus content of less than 100 mg/kg. Whilst plants play a role in phosphorus removal , most species will perform well. Genera such as Carex, Juncus, Poa, Banksia, Correa, Dodonea, Goodenia, Melalecua and Pomaderris all perform well for phosphorus removal. • Critically, however, without vegetation, most soils will naturally leach some nitrogen . Biofilters therefore rely strongly on vegetation and its symbioses with bacteria and fungi for t he removal of nitrogen from stormwater. The best plants for nitrogen removal are those with (i) a dense root system which penetrates the entire soil filter media dept h, and (ii) a high growth rate. The fo llowing species have been found to be effective: Carex appressa, Ficinia nodosa, Juncus f/avidus, Lomandra longifolia, Melaleuca ericifolia and Goodenia ovata. Where nitrogen removal is important, Biofilters shou ld be planted with at least 50% of plants from this selection, where possible, and other plants selected primarily on the morphological traits as described. Aesthetic and biodiversity.

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wsud & stormwater management considerations may also need to be taken into account. This, in combination with the right media and wet conditions (see below on presence of submerged zone if necessary) should assure approximately 50% removal rate of TN. • The presence of a submerged zone (made of sand or gravel with around 5% carbon source, such as woodchips) wil l improve nitrogen removal by promoting denitrification. It will also enhance plant survival during drought periods, and reduce the risk of an "initial flush" of elevated nitrogen concentrations from t he filter media aft er a prolonged dry period. • For maintenance of hydraulic conductivity, plants w ith thick roots that penetrate the entire soil profile and create macropores are desirable. They are primarily tree species, such as Melaleuca. A combinat ion of plants (e.g. Carex, Juncus and Mela/euca) delivers the ideal combination of traits for both hydraulic conductivity and nitrogen removal. • Biofilter soi l media placed 'uncompact ed ' will show an initially very high hydraulic conductivity, which will settle back to t he design value within a few months. It is recommended that sizing/design of Biofilters be undertaken using a safety coefficient of 2 with respect to the hydraulic conductivity. For example, if the design K5 to be used is 180 mm/hr, size and model the system assumi ng a value of 90 mm/hr. FAWB has produced such specifications t hat will be updated as req uired to reflect new and relevant research insights. Dispersive clay and silt from the Western Sydney area are generally unsuitable material for creating bioretention filter media owing to their unreliability in maintaining hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, it is important to tests soils prior their installation. • Some degree of leaching of fi ne sediment and nutrients from the soil media will usually occur during the establishment phase, until the soil has stabilised and plant roots have occupied the soil volume (this will typically take 2-6 months). • The addition of vermiculite and perlite (arou nd 5% each by volume) to the soil media may help to maintain hydraulic conductivity, making the biofilter more robust to slight deviations from the specified soi l media characteristics.

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Table 1. Key context variables that are as instrumental when considered as a 'package' to advancing institutional change. Key Variables

Description

Socio-Political Capital

Aligned community, media and political concern for improved waterway health, amenity and recreation.

2

Bridging Organisation

Dedicated organising space that facilitates collaboration across science and policy, agencies and professions, and knowledge brokers and industry.

3

Trusted & Reliable Science

Accessible scientific expertise, innovative reliable and effective solutions to local problems.

4

Binding Targets

A measurable and effective target that binds the change activity of scientists, policy makers and developers.

5

Accountability

A formal organisational responsibility to the improvement of waterway health, and a mandate for influencing practices that lead to such an outcome.

6

Strategic Funding

Additional resources dedicated to the change effort.

7

Demonstration Projects & Training

Accessible and reliable demonstration of new thinking and technologies in practice, accompanied by knowledge diffusion initiatives.

8

Market Receptivity

A well articulated business case for the change activity.

No.

• Bioretention systems constructed in sodic soil without impermeable lining are not at risk of exporting salt from in situ soil into local streams.

there is currently an absence of an overriding and galvanising sociopolitical driver or 'crisis' to drive the necessary change.

• Effective communication between designers and construction contractors is essential, t hroughout all stages of t he project. It is imperative that quality control issues are addressed in planni ng and design, construction and maintenance throughout the life of the bioretention system, and that the design intent is comm unicat ed to the contractors at a pre-construct ion briefing.

• There is a need to provide guidance to urban water strategists and others o n how to enable effective institutional change that will lead to the mainstreaming of the WSUD approach across modern cities.

• Maintenance requirements cou ld be high during the establishment phase; frequent weed removal is required and the juvenile vegetation should be watered during extended dry periods. However, t he need for this level of maintenance reduces significantly as the vegetation matures. Dense planting of the preferred plants at the time of construction wil l help to m inimise the extent of weed invasion and minimise any moss growth. • Break-through of toxic metals should not occur within the first 20 years of operation in 'average ' conditions (the first metal to break through being Zn). This means that system's life span is around 20 years.

On WSUD Technology Adoption • The WSUD approach is yet to be mainstreamed anywhere, and t he mainstreaming of WSUD will require a more complex multi-sectoral governance approach that is dedicated, proact ive and strategic in its pursuit of WSUD. This is because

• The retrospective social research analysis of t he of the key factors over the last 40 years that has enabled the successful institutional isation of 'urban stormwater quality management' across Metropolitan Melbourne reveals how the 'value' of environmental protection of waterways has been institutionalised towards a relatively advanced stage of increasing importance, within the broader set of wel l established institutional values of flood protect ion, public health protection, water supply security and economic efficiency within current decision and pol icy-making processes. • While the historical case study research revealed a range of interconnected activities and initiatives that on the surface seem to represent an organic development pat hway, there has been a critical, and in many ways opportun istic, interplay between industry champions and important context variables that has provided the structure and catalyst for t he transition so far. • Eight key context variables (Table 1) are identified as instrumental when considered as a 'package ' to advancing institutional change.

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wsud & stormwater management â&#x20AC;˘ The insights from t he Melbourne case study provide an important basis for other cities, and other sectors of activity, to learn from. â&#x20AC;˘ W hile the institutional dynamics of the WSUD approach may be more com plex than those for the urban stormwater quality management (U SQM) approach, the Melbourne case study provides a solid platform of evidence for how institutional change can succ essfully occur and identifies key factors that underpin such c hange.

Conclusions and Future Work FAWB work has been reviewed by a panel of three international experts who stat ed that "we are confident t hat t he research results obtained to date will permit FAWB to achieve its main aim to provide 'proof of concept' for t he use of Biofilters as an effective means of treating urban stormwater". We are therefore hopeful that our work will inform the practice on how to t reat stor mwater effectively using t hese highly efficient systems. H owever, a lot of work still needs to be done to fully optimise these systems across the Australian continent. Engineered media (instead of naturally sou rced media) should be tested prior to w idespread adoption. They may provide a solution to the problem of ensuring media stability and satisfactory initial hy draulic performance , but they still need to be tested for leaching and clogging. W hile we have shown that some plant species are more effective than others in po llutant removal (pri mari ly for nitrogen), it is not certai n that the same trends among species will occur in differing en v ironments, or when plants are grown in competition with other species. Indeed , our well-performing species list is quite short. We are cu rrently testing the same species under varied wetting and drying regimes, to determine w hether certain species, which are not effective for nitrogen removal in freq uently- wet environ ments, can perform better under drier conditions, and we are working on proposals to test a range of other species.

The Authors Ana Deletic (ana. deletic@eng. monash.edu), Tim Fletcher (tim.fletcher@eng.monash.edu), Rebekah Brown (rebekah.brown@arts.monash. edu), Belinda Hatt (belinda.hatt@ eng .monash.edu), Tony Wong (t o n y.wong@edaw.com.au) are all with the Facility for Advancing Water

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Biofiltrat ion (FAWB), Monash University, Building 60, Clayton Vic 3800, Australia.

References Blecken GT, Zinger Y, Deletic A, Fletcher TD, Viklander M, (in press) Impact of a submerged anoxic zone and a cellulose based carbon source on heavy metal removal in stormwater biofiltration systems, Ecological Engineering

Science and Technology, Vol 56(10), pp 93-100

Coustumer S, Fletcher TD, Deletic A (2008a) Hydraulic performance of biofilter systems for stormwater management: lessons from a field study- FAWB and Melbourne Water (Healthy Bays and Waterways) Le Coustumer S, Fletcher TD, Deletic A, Barraud B (2008b} Influence of time and design on the hydraulic performance of biofiltration systems for stormwater management, 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008

Blecken G, Zinger Y, Deletic A Fletcher T.D Viklander (2008) Heavy metal removal by stormwater Biofilters: Can it withstand alternative wetting and drying conditions?, 11 th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008

FAWB Filter Media Guideline - the latest version can be downloaded from FAWB site, http://www.monash.edu .au/fawb/

Bratieres K, Fletcher TD, Deletic A, Zinger Y, (in press), Optimisation of the treatment efficiency of Biofilters; results of a largescale laboratory study, Water Research

Hatt, B. E., Deletic, A., Fletcher, T.D . (2007a) Stormwater reuse: designing biofiltration systems for reliable treatment. Water Science and Technology, 55(4) 201-209

Bratieres, K, Fletcher TD, Deletic, A, Alcazar, L, McCarthy, DT, Zinger, Y (2008). Removal of nutrients, heavy metals and pathogens by stormwater Biofilters, 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008

Hatt, B.E., Fletcher, T.D. & Deletic, A (2007b) Hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater filters under variable wetting and drying regimes, Water Science and Technology Vol 56(12), 11-19

Brown, R. and Clarke, J. (2007a). The transition towards Water Sensitive Urban Design: a socio-technical analysis of Melbourne, Australia, Proc. of the 7th International Conference NOVATECH 2007, 25-27 June, Lyon , France, ISBN 29509337-7-7-7, V(1):349-356.

Hatt B.E., Fletcher TD, Deletic A, (2008a) Hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of fine media stormwater filters, Environmental Science and Technology 42, 2535-2541

Brown, Rand Farelly, M (2007b). Institutional impediments to advancing sustainable urban water management: a typology, Proc. of the 13th International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference and the 5th International Water Sensitive Urban Design Conference, 21-23 August 2007, Sydney, Australia. CD-ROM , Brown, R.R and Farrelly, M.A. (2007c). Summary Report: Perceptions of Institutional Drivers and Barriers to Advancing Sustainable Water Management, Report No. 07/04, National Urban Water Governance Program, Monash University, October 2007, ISBN: 978-0-9804298-2-4 (38 pages). Brown, R.R. and Clarke, J.M. (2007d). The Transition Towards Water Sensitive Urban Design: The Story of Melbourne, Australia, Report No. 07 /01, Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Monash University, June 2007, ISBN 978-098030428-0-2 (67 pages) - included as separate document Brown, R.R and Farrelly, M.A. (2007e). Advancing Urban Stormwater Quality Management in Australia: A Survey of Stakeholder Perceptions of Institutional Drivers and Barriers, Report No. 07 /05, National Urban Water Governance Program, Monash University, September 2007, ISBN 978-0-9804298-0-0. (128 pages). Coustumer S. Le, Fletcher T. D., Deletic A. and Barraud S. (2007) Hydraulic performance of Biofilters for stormwater management: first lessons from both laboratory and field studies, Water

Hatt BE, Fletcher T.D. , Deletic A (2008b) Improving stormwater quality through biofiltration: Lessons from field studies, 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008 Hatt BE, Fletcher TD, Deletic A (in press), Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of biofiltration systems at the field scale, J of Hydrology Lewis JF, Hatt BE, Le Coustumer S, Deletic A, Fletcher T.D. (2008) The impact of vegetation on improving the hydraulic conductivity of stormwater bioretention systems, 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008 Read J., Wevill T, Fletcher DH , Deletic A, (2008) Variation among plant species in poll utant removal from stormwater in biofiltration systems, Wa ter Research, 42, pp 893 - 902 Smith N, Allen R, McKenzie-McHarg A, Deletic A. , Fletcher TD, Hatt B (2007) Retrofitting Functioning Stormwater Gardens Into Existing Urban Landscapes, Cairns International Public Works Conference, Cairns, August 2007 Zinger Y., T.D. Fletcher, A. Deletic, G.T Blecken and M. Viklander (2007a) Optimisation of the nitrogen retention capacity of stormwater biofiltration systems, Presented at NOVATECH 2007, Lyon, France, June 2007 Zinger Y, A. Deletic, T.D. Fletcher (2007b) The Effect Of Various Intermittent DryWet Cycles On Nitrogen Removal Capacity In Biofilters Systems, Rainwater & Urban Design 2007 Conference, Sydney, August2007

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CHANGING PRACTICE IN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT P Edwards Abstract Transdisciplinarity has recently gained favour as an effective strategic approach when dealing with complex environmental issues. Growth of the environmental movement has exposed the failings of different disciplines working in isolation and seen more sophisticated relationships between the social, environmental and economic aspects of civic society arise. Transdisciplinarity proposes that a hybrid product of discipline and d imensions is req uired, making sense together to solve complex and multi-dimensional problems such as those related to sustainability.

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Figure 1. Transdisciplinarity process for complex The following discussion will environmental problems (McClam 2007). show by example how the urban stormwater quality management (USQM) industry, dealing with a has increased the awareness amongst specific aspect of waterway health, has the general public to contemplate adopted transdisciplinary theory and is alternative water sources, leading to moving towards securing a paradigm previously unconventional methods shift in the way water quality for becoming mainstream. wat erway health is managed. Melbourne The following discussion gives Water's Stormwater Quality Programs to the strengths of policy background work in partnership with thirty eight local and strategy from five inner city local governments in and around Melbourne. governments. Th e discussion draws Th ese programs aim to change the way synergies between existing and long local governments manage urban standing urban design frameworks and stor mwater runoff. Each of the thirty an evolution in wat er sensitive urban eight local governments is at a different design implement ation. The results are stage of change, examples of wh ich will seen in a realisation of urban stormwater be drawn upon to demonstrate a quality management projects on the transdisciplinary approach to change ground that point to a new direction for management for sustainability. urban design with consideration for the Introduction legacy of the past. For local government in Melbourne a sustainable water management approach encompasses all aspects of the wat er cycle. In the urban environment this includes source, supply and waste with consideration of the implications of climate change, the ecosystems and the general public. Melbourne's current water scarcity and th e health of the Yarra River

This discussion will show by example how the urban stormwater quality management (USQM) industry in Victoria has adopt ed a transd isciplinary approach and is moving towards a paradigm shift in the way stormwater quality for

Collaboration between the disciplines of economic,

This paper received the Best Paper Award at the Public Works Engineering International Conference, Cairns, August 2007.

waterway health is managed. The progress made so far as identified in Brown and Clarke (2007) includes a new environmental value set for waterway health and acceptance of a new urban development philosophy by traditionally conservative disciplines such as urban design and engineering. A new phase of innovative retrofit programs in local government are set to secure a brighter future in achieving improved st ormwater quality for Melbourne's wat erways.

social and environmental science research.

Transdisciplinarity achieves results through an extended peer review, accessing new knowledge from an extended group of lay persons. Figure 1 compares the transdisciplinary process to the traditional approach to problem solving. In this process, dogmatic scientific and technical demonstration gives way to open ended dialogue (Ravetz 2004), reflexive learning among the actors from all the different systems of knowledge. This is an open dialogue between the representatives of various epistemologies (Hirsch Hadorn et al. 2006). In the trad itional approach, blind spots appear. The blind spots are gaps in knowledge where stakeholder val ues may not be addressed. All participants learn to respect the others approaches and a more creative process of resolution is possible (McClam 2007). There is further benefit in the acceptance by the community of the outcomes which are gained through this approach.

USQM and Melbourne Water Stormwater Quality Programs The past fo ur decades of development of USQM in Melbourne are an example where an evolution towards transdisciplinarity in practice is assisting environmental managers in t ackling the complex environmental issue of stormwater quality in urban waterways. Melbourne, Australia, is a leading international city in USQM as encapsulated by Brown & Clarke (2007) in their succinct history of the story of USQM in metropolitan Melbourne. A

water

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resistance to change at the organisational level, particularly in local government, is defined in this assessment as a significant barrier to completing the transition to sustainable USQM. Significant because, as the managers of the minor drainage system that services catchments less than 60 hectares and vast areas of impervious surfaces in Melbourne, local government is the implied manager of diffuse pollution loads that are collected by stormwater from the impervious surfaces in the public realm. Diffuse pollution is known to contribute significantly to the degradation of waterway health. Until recent times the connection between public domain drainage and impervious surface infrastructure responsibilities and their impacts on the waterways has not generally been acknowledged by the various stakeholders. City of Stonnington - Orchard Street raingardens.

Research It is necessary t o draw a link with the science, applied research and significant knowledge base within the USQM industry in Melbourne to identify the processes already in place. Through identification of the impacts on waterway health, scientific research has enabled policy makers to use the science to set targets for improved water quality. For Melbourne, the most significant of these findings is presented in the Port Phillip Bay Environmental Study (Melbourne Water 1996) which suggests that to ensure the sustainable health of the bay for future generations (and allow for climate variabi lity) a target reduction in overall load of 1,000 tonnes of nitrogen per year should be adopted. This target was subsequently adopted by Melbourne Water in actions to achieve a 500 tonne reduction in annual nitrogen loads from the western sewage treatment plant and a 500 tonne reduction in nitrogen loads from stormwater entering the bay.

water Future Features DECEMBER - Agricultural use, reuse, chemicals of concern FEBRUARY 09 - On-site treatmen t, pressure sewerage, biosolids, international sanitation MARCH 09 - Recycling, stormwater MAY 09 - Ozwater 09 report, membranes/desali nation, cl imate change

74 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Research into new engineering technologies at the Facility for Advanced Water Bio-filtration (FAWB) at Monash University in Melbourne in concert with the social researchers from the National Urban Water Governance Program is the current hallmark of interdisciplinary research at Monash University. FAWB developed out of the succeeded government think tank known as the Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology. It was here that the concept known as Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) was born. The historical development of WS UD is explained in Tony Wong 's keynote to the Cities as Catchments WSUD conference, WSUD-The Journey thus Far (Wong 2004) where the initial conception was explained as 'focusing on integrating across the urban water cycle and urban design'. This concept has ensured that an evolution from science within the silos of research developed into collaborative institutes such as FAWB where close integration with the social sciences begins the process of transdisciplinarity. This strategic direction has matured with time and has informed many decisions and policies developed across the USQM industry. The USQM component of the more complex WSUD concept provides reliable evidence of how institutional change can successfully occur (Brown & Clarke 2007).

A Case Study in Transdisciplinarity Melbourne Water is the caretaker of waterway health for over 8000 kilometres

of rivers and creeks and is the manager of stormwater infrastructure for catchments greater than 60 hectares across metropolitan Melbourne. Melbourne Water is seeking to work with local governments in a different way to the traditional multidisciplinary relationship that has divided the public realm. The work is being undertaken as part of the Yarra River Action Plan (State of Victoria 2006) which has set aside twenty million dollars aimed at water quality improvement throughout Melbourne Water's region of jurisdiction. Melbourne Water's Stormwater Quality Programs (MWSQP) have been working together in partnership with all thirty eight local governments within the region to change the way they manage urban stormwater runoff, with a particular intensive focus on five inner city local governments. Each organisation is at a different stage of change. The following elements of this case study describe the transdisciplinary approach taken to assist Melbourne Water and local government change towards sustainability in USQM.

Identifying the Opportunities The key discovery in the MWSQP has been the importance of managing the relationship of collaboration and knowledge transfer. This began prior to the commencement of MWSQP's through a Melbourne Water and City of Melbourne partnership, t argeting organisational change through a series of interventions. The results of t his partnership manifested in the realisation of a series of capital works projects

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wsud & stormwater management

incorporating t he skills of people from various divisions of City of Melbourne. It was recog nised that the current practice of managing a portfolio of work for the purpose of delivery of a division's financial bottom line through the narrow perspective of an individ ual discipline failed to engage the values of the wider commu nity (Edwards, Holt & Francey 2006). Edwards, Holt and Francey (2006) argued that in order to achieve organisational change, new knowledge must be accessed and a deliberative decision making process in co llaboration with community was needed (Boxelaar 2004). They also identified t hat t he early assessment of the USQM needs of local government organisations should high light where each organisation requires further development. This needs assessment process is then useful as a too l for decision making, indicating if key elements like policy are inadequate t hen a review of policy may be necessary (Edwards, Holt & Francey 2006). To date, the successful applicat ion of WSU D has been opportunist ic in realising t he p otential to incorporate a 'new'

City of Maribyrnong - Droop Street raingardens

approach to projects on the local government capital works programs. The projects implemented to date have represented a solid range of examples to reapply suitable designs into ongoi ng capital works programs.

Further refinement of urban design details can capitalise on the opportunity t o incorporate them as standard designs into documents such as CoM 's 'Technical Not es'. These are then adopted as standard details to 'rol l out'


wsud & stormwater management

MWSQP also made available part sponsorship of the employment of a WSUD officer as an internal resource at each of the five inner city Melbourne local governments. Armed w ith a network of experts from all the disciplines across each local government, together with a dedicated WSUD officer within each organisation and the resources of the WSUD consultants, the MWSQP was able to transcend the traditional structures and practices of local government. This made it possible for the water quality researc hers from FAWB to have a direct path to the practice of the applied science and implementers of WSUD.

On ground constructed examples have provided the ability to build further capacity within each local government internally and also to assist engagement with the community. This ability to highlight and demonstrate built examples will prove to be advantageous when engaging others with the concept s of healthy waterways. The objective of this is to build further capacity to change through developing and harnessing the enthusiasm of future change agents. City of Melbourne - Little Collins Street raingardens.

Change agents are people that assist with the collaborative process of learning within an organisation; they are multi skilled and adept at learning through practice (White 2006). Melbourne Water's own internal stormwater quality planners act as change agents in supporting and leveraging for change with in each local government. Melbourne Water's management, including the Chairman, Managing Director & General Manager, Waterways, have been helping to secure change at the inter-organisational level. Each of these resources has been influential in acting as change agents to facilitate the adoption of a new working relationship between Melbourne Wat er and local governments. In parti cular, by supporting the changing focus towards more integrated USQM with high-level management support within Melbourne Water and across state and local government agencies. Melbourne Water management's organisational commitment to sustainability has enabled the same philosophy to manifest within external relationships and is a clear indication of success where structural policy change has made a difference.

Applied Science and Consultancy Institutional capacity building was assessed as necessary in the early stages of MWSQP at each of the five

76 NOVEMBER 2008 water

refereed p a pe r

WSUD Officer

in all capital works projects such as street tree renewal. The Technical Notes are used to provide external and internal reference to the typical design details employed by the city's engineers, landscape architects and industrial designers. This is a big institutional step to reinforce council's position on incorporating WSUD into all civic works.

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lower Yarra local governments which highlighted a need to draw on scientific and applied science expertise. The MWSQP leaders invited a selection of premier WSUD consultancy organisations to be available to offer services such as design consultancy and workshops on a variety of topics in each organisation. This process was a successful model for bringing all five inner city Melbourne local governments into a stage of readiness to implement WSU D projects. This model of institutional capacity building is now being successfully applied across all thirty eight local governments throughout the region. The WSUD consultancy organisations are a complementary support to both Melbourne Water's internal stormwater quality planners and management. These organisations have a key role to play in partnering with Melbourne Water and the various local governments to act as change agents. This is occurring predominantly through the working relationships being established between the consultants and each local government to both support and mirror the collaborative working relationships established by Melbourne Water with local governments as well as by leading the industry in the adoption of new USQM technologies.

Not surprisingly, based on this approach, many of the early conversations led to fierce debates over the traditional products of each dimension and discipline. As discussed earlier, this type of conflict over contested ground is sure to occur. Having the WSUD officer in place and mediating each engagement has facilitated a smooth process by building relationships across the disciplines and dimensions. Within this process of conflict came consensus with each side developing a clearer understanding of the value sets of each other's dimension. Key to the role of the WSUD officer's position in these programs has been their ability to create a safe space for a new approach to bringing these vastly different yet equally legitimate knowledge areas together. This allowed for a change in the way ideas came about and resulted in innovative results on the ground.

Knowledge Transfer On the ground works in a distinctly local design and form are beginning to emerge from the five inner city local government organisations' capital programs. Project management has been assisted by Melbourne Water stormwater quality planners who have been successful in transferring knowledge and lessons back through to industry and other st ormwater quality programs. A growing area of knowledge transfer is also that of the WSUD consu ltancy organisations who are developing and improving skills and capabi lity in th is area and helping to support the programs by acting independently as knowledge brokers.

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wsud & stormwater management the participating local governments in the current round of stormwater quality programs. The author specifically than ks the individuals from t he five lower Yarra Councils whose collaborat ive efforts of enacting WSUD has made the programs a success.

Communication of knowledge is done mostly through the Melbourne Water WSU D website (www .wsud.melbournewater.com.au) and is also packaged and delivered by a revived Clearwater program run by Melbourne Water. Clearwater is an innovative capacity building program challengi ng traditional approaches to water management, engaging a diverse audience and recog nised as a key agent in achieving cultural change (Keath & White 2006).

The Author Phil Edwards, phil.edwards@ melbournewater.com.au, is Leader, Lower Yarra Stormwater Quality Program , Melbourne Water.

Evaluation and Evolution The MWSQP leaders initiated a PHO partnership with the National Urban Water Governance Program at the beginning of the prog ram to assist in evaluation and adaptive management of t he evolving programs. As each counci l evolves in its' role as stormwater quality manager the change in practice can initiat e new adaptive measures to build further City of Melbourne - Little Collins Street raingardens. change. One aspect of the evol ution so far is an adoption of implementation targets for local governments to be achieved as a part of their typical capital works science is becoming more readily programs. Analysis of five cou ncil works avai lable out of the commercialisation of programs in Melbourne has been science where the consultancy indust ry has seen commercial advantage in undertaken to assess the feasibility of setting stormwater quality co llaboration with the sciences. St riking implementation targets. Pilot adoption of a balance between reliance on tech nology from advances in applied these targets is occurring in 2007. The targets aim to formalise USQM programs science and effective collaborat ion within local government practice, provide through a transdisciplinary approach is a lin k with local receiving water bodies hard. There are numerous challenges within the field of USQM that wi ll requ ire an d provide a tool for further improvements in stormwater effort and commitment to change across management. a broad spectru m of government and commu nity. Those organisat ions and The MWSQP leaders seek to further individuals already on t he journey of indu lge in this approach to ensu re a change have acknowledged how hard legacy of continued collaboration and transdiscipli nary approach is. organ isational change. The end result of locally designed projects with distinct local character is paramount to the local community's involvement and acceptance of this change in t he public realm . Future works with all thirty eight local governments in the Melbourne Water region will include joint implementation target setting and ongoing institutional capacity bu ilding.

Conclusion The experience of t he program managers of t he MWSQP case study above demonst rates how program managers looki ng to resolve complex environmental pro blems via a transdisciplinary approach wil l need to have access to a grou p of interdisciplinary research science pract itioners. This type of

Current transd isciplinary pract ice attempts to show t hat innovative structural changes in the way we facilitate knowledge transfer will lead to more sustainable outcomes. This relies on t he development of new struct ures to facilitate collaboration between the associated discipli nes of economic, social and environmental science research. Collaboration amongst the disciplines and the wider lay community will enable knowledge to transcend the dimensions of strategic plann ing, management and recipient to manifest in sustai nable on the g round action.

Acknowledgments The Melbourne Water Stormwater Quality Program leadership would like to t hank

References Boxelaar, L 2004, ' Diversity and convergence in platforms for change: Building social capability for land management', Submitted in total fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy thesis, The University of Melbourne. Brown, R & Clarke, J 2007, Transition to Water Sensitive Urban Design: The Story of Melbourne, Australia, FAWB, Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration. Edwards, P, Holt, P & Francey, M 2006, 'WSUD in Local Government', paper presented to 4th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, Grand Hyatt Melbourne, Australia. Hirsch Hadorn, G, Bradley, D, Pohl, C, Rist, S & Wiesmann, U 2006, 'Implications of transdisciplinarity for sustainability research', Ecological Economics, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 119-28. Keath, N & White, J 2006, 'Building the Capacity of Local Government and Industry professionals in Sustainable Urban Water Management', paper presented to 4th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, Grand Hyatt Melbourne, Australia. McClam 2007, Blind spots of traditional problem solving, Melbourne, 1/ 05/ 07. Melbourne Water 1996, Port Phillip Bay Environmental Study, Melbourne, ISSN 1324-7905. Ravetz, J 2004, 'The post-normal science of precaution', Futures, vol. 36, pp. 347-57. State of Victoria 2006, Yarra River Action Plan: securing water quality for a healthy future, ISBN 1-74152-474-1, Melbourne,

Austral ia. White, J 2006, Sustainable Water Management: Achieving a Culture of Change, 2005 Brian Robinson Foundation

Inaugural Fellowship: Principles To Practice. , Melbourne. Wong, T 2004, 'Water Sensitive Urban Design: The Journey Thus Far', paper presented to 'Cities as Catchments' The Third Australian Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, Adelaide Hilton, 21-24 November 2004.

water NOVEMBER 2008 77


groundwater

THE APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE TO HYDROLOGY A L Herczeg, F W Leaney Darcy's Law Hydrology and nuclear science may seem unlikely bedfellows, but can be traced to the early 1800s. We begin with Henry Darcy, a French engineer from Dijon, France who is affectionately known as the father of hydrology. After a distinguished career as a water engineer, he conducted a series of column experiments where he showed that there were two main factors controlling water moving through the sand filled columns; how steep they were inclined (the pressure gradient) and the type of materials within them (the resistance or hydraulic conductivity). That led to Darcy's Law w hich is the cornerst one of much of the science of hydrogeology today.

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One of Australia's greatest scientists, Sir Mark Oliphant was one of the discoverers of tritium and its daughter, helium-3 while working at the Cavendish laboratory with Ernest Rutherford. These isotopes are used t o date young groundwater because both the parent isotope and daughter can be explicitly measured, eliminating the need to estimate t he original isotope concentration. Sir Oliphant went on to become the Governor of South Australia during the 1970s.

78 NOVEMBER 2008

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Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the hydrological cycle incorporating stable isotopes of water expressed as oxygen-18 concentration in parts per thousand (%0) and the radioactive isotope of hydrogen expressed as tritium units (TU). of hydrogen and oxygen of water are now used throughout the world, and recent development in optical laser methods can measure these isotopes w ith sufficient precision, and at reasonable cost to be within the reach of every hydrological laboratory. About 20 years later the discovery by Willard Libby of the radioisotope carbon14 gave birth to much of what now is the foundation of archaeological and palaeoclimate science. Libby and his colleagues also showed how radiocarbon and the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, (tritium - see box) could be used to trace the hydrological cycle. These radioisotopes allowed hydrologists to estimate the rate of movement of water, something that the Darcy law could only provide with very large uncertainty. The advantage of measuring isotopes and other chemical properties of the water is that they record the entire history of flow systems throughout the aquifer system, wh ile the hydrau lics on ly reflect the present or very recent hydrological balance.

The use of radioactive isotopes have been more widely known as a method for dating of archaeological artefacts using radiocarbon, or their use in hospitals to trace ci rculation through various organs. In a similar way, we can date the 'age' of groundwater through aquifer syst ems, such as the time since the water entered the water table through deep infiltration th rough the soil zone, and then j ourneyed through aquifers to eventually discharge to rivers or the sea. The principles are simple. If we can measure or estimate the original concentration of a given isotope at the time the water ent ers the wat er table, measurements of radioisotopes in groundwater along flow paths from recharge areas to discharge areas will decrease with time in proportion to the rat e of flow. Figure 1 shows the oxygen isotopes and tritium in the hydrological

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technical features


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groundwater cycle, from evaporation of ocean water, condensation of rai nfall, and return to the sea throug h rivers and groundwater.

Fossil Reservoirs One of the most import findi ngs determined largely from dating of groundwat er using carbon-14 is that large reservoirs of fresh groundwater in semi-arid and arid parts of the world are a rel ic of ancient times. Measured radiocarbon 'ages' are consistently more than 20 000 years old in groundwater found in the Middle-East, west ern USA and arid Australia indicating these are 'fossil' resources to be used sparingly. The measured deuterium and oxygen isotopes of these same groundwaters are universally depleted in the deuterium and oxygen18 isot opes compared t o modern groundwater indicating that they were recharged during a much cooler and wett er climate than that experienced in those regions today. Groundwater from the immense Nubian Sandstone aquifer of North Africa has a stable isot opic co mposition simi lar to that experienced in modern day central Europe. Groundwater from the very old Great Artesian basin of Australia is also indicative of recharge in much wetter and cooler climate dating to the Pleistocene.

Weapon Testing Benefits Isotope hydrology received another boost through an unlikely avenue - the series of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of the 1950s and 60s that introduced very large amounts radio nuclides such as trit ium, carbon14, and chlorine-36 into the atmosphere. These isot opes rapidly became incorporated into the hydrological cycle, and overwhelmed the amount of natural isotope concentrations. These transient tracers could be detected using counting techniques and were the equivalent of adding a dye to the water cycle on a global scale and following the pathways for the next 50 years. Detailed profiles of tritium and chlorine-36 measured in soil wat er were used to estimat e recharge rates, and tritium in shallow groundwater could be used to trace flow velocities to determine the rate of movement of contam inated groundwater in urban settings. While we might be biased in overstating the information revealed by environmental isotope techniques, it is sobering to think where

80 NOVEMBER 2008 water

our knowledge of hydrological science might be now without these global 'experiments' . The rainfall monit oring programs coordinat ed through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has underpinned much of the subsequent work that uses anthropogenic and natural isotopes in hydrology because it provides the input funct ion especially for tritium and stable isotopes of water. Because tritium has a half-life of just 12.3 years, less than 10% of the bomb-test isotope remains, and other anthropogenic tracers such as CFCs and SF6 are now being used to date you ng groundwater. Isotope tech niques are now used worldwide, with a significant water resource programme with in the UN's nuclear watchdog the IAEA promot es the use of these methods and keeps a database of isotopes in rainfall as well as that of aquifers throughout the world.

CSIRO Isotope methods are particularly valuable in areas where water is scarce and surface runoff low and intermittent, such as much of Australia's interior. Groundwater, or rivers and streams fed by groundwater in the long dry seasons, As mentioned above CSIRO Land and Water has constructed a quadrupole mass spectrometer with high vacuum cryogenic separation system. It has been assembled by international groundwater expert, Professor Kip Solomon, who spent six weeks at the Waite Laboratories building t he $130,000 facility. Professor Solomon, a distinguished OGE Visiting Fellow and Professor of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Utah, is an expert on measuring and applying noble gas geochemistry in groundwater. "We don't have an easily usable tracer to identify water between 100 and about 1000 years old, so this is virtually the only practical tool available," says Professor Solomon. Design work on the project began about eight months ago, but constructing the instrument in six week was a challenging t ask. The instrument is one of only six similar machines in the world. Professor Solomon plans t o return to Australia in November to join CSIRO researchers in taking field measurements.

is often the only reliable water resource. The CSIRO has had a long history of application of isotope techniques especially in the study of the unsaturated zone, and more recently to develop better methods for quantifying the connectivity between surface water and groundwater, and well as wetlands and other ecosystems sensitive to changes in water balance. The laboratories at the Waite Campus in Adelaide boast one of the most comprehensive arrays of instruments and expertise in the world. Apart from mass spectrometers and liquid scintillation counters, the recently commissioned quadr upole mass spectrometer can analyse very small quantities of helium-4 and other noble gases in water. While helium is the second most abundant element in the universe, its concentration in the earth is relatively small, and much of it that is now found in groundwater is the decay product of uranium and thorium from aquifer minerals. The longer that water resides in an aquifer, the greater the helium content as it is unable to escape to the atmosphere except by very slow upward diffusion. The advantage of helium over the other radioisotopes is that is accumulates with time rather than decays. If we can get a reasonably good handle on the rate at which helium escapes from aquifer minerals to wat er, we can estimate that water's age simply by measuring the helium-4 concentration. Henry Darcy would be most impressed with the advances in hydrological science nearly two centuries after hi s first column experiments. Whi le the sophistication of numerical models afforded in part throug h advances in computer processing speed and data handling capabil ities continue unabated, the limits to their reliability and accuracy will be quickly reached without empirical data to verify the simulations. The unique information afforded thro ugh isotope measurements has often forced re-thinking of established hydrological models.

The Authors Dr Andrew L Herczeg is Research Program leader, Hydrology, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, email Andrew. Herczeg@csiro.au. Fred W Leaney is Principal Research Scientist and Manager, Isotope Analytical Service, CSIRO Land and Water.

technical features


project delivery

~ refereed paper

COMMISSIONING OF LOW LOADED SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS S Kitching, R Bates Abstract With long design horizons and increasing populations, the received loads to new treatment plants at start-up can often be well below t he design figures causing turndown and control issues. Th is problem was pronounced in Sydney Water's Warragamba and particularly Brooklyn Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) where start-up load was reliant on t he speed of commun ity connections. This paper presents tech niques used in the two schemes to mitigate problems, the lessons learnt from both plants and how the lessons learnt from Warragamba, t he first scheme, were used throughout t he Brooklyn project. Consideration of the system as a whole, integrating catchment management with the operat ion of the t reatment plant is invaluable in the plan ning of commission ing. Both plant s were designed with multiple process streams and aeration control to avoid over-aeration at low load conditions which can lead to problems with denit rificatio n.

Introduction Brooklyn and Warragamba Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) are both new treat ment facilities delivered as part of the Priority Sewerage Program (PSP). The PSP is a state funded programme to provide sewer systems for unsewered

areas of NSW (SWC, 2005). The Program is being delivered by an alliance between Sydney Water, MWH Australia Pty Ltd, John Holland Group Pty Ltd, United Group Infrast ructure Ltd and Manidis Roberts Pty Ltd. Due to the nat ure of the schemes, the load to the treatment plant s is dependent on community connections into t he new system. In addition t he inclusion of long design horizons and predictions for development and growth in the catchment, causes the plants to be started with loads much lower than the ultimate design capacity.

Project Background The Warragamba STP was t he first new treatment plant built as part of t he PSP and was commissioned in August 2006. The new treatment plant receives flow diverted from t he old Warragamba STP site, as well as the newly sewered towns of Mulgoa, Wallacia and Silverdale. The const ruction of the UPVC mains by both conventional and trenchless technology is summarised in Matthews and Fender (2008). The design equivalent populat ion is 6400 and the process consists of inlet works (screening and grit removal}, two new IDALs, sand filters and ch lori ne disinfection. Waste Activated Sludge is treated in an aerobic digester and dewatered using a centrifuge before being taken off-site (SWC 2004).

The new Brooklyn STP t reat s wast ewater from Brooklyn and Dangar Island, and also from the Gosford City Counci l areas of Mooney Mooney, Cheero Point and Peat Island. which wi ll provide 45% of the load some time after start-up. (The trenchless instal lation of the HOPE pressure sewers is also covered in Matthews and Fender (2008)).The plant was commissioned over December 2007/ January 2008. The plant is designed for an equivalent population of 3400 people servicing mainly domestic sewage. The new treatment plant consists of inlet screens, membrane bioreactor and UV disinfection. Waste Activated Sludge is thickened using a rotary drum thickener and transported by road tanker to Hornsby Heights STP for treatment (SWC 2005).

Design of Treatment Systems for Low Load Conditions Alt hough t he two plants have different t reatment technologies some of t he issues from Warragamba could be applied to Brooklyn. This was done wh ilst being mindful of t he different

Considering the low loads in design, planning and commissioning.

Figure 1. Warragamba Process Layout.

water NOVEMBER 2008 81


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~ refereed paper

ANOXIC

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Figure 2. Brooklyn Process Layout. considerations required for the different technologies used. During the design phase for the two plants there were a number of cons iderations taken into account which allowed for greater flexibility in the startup phase.

membranes. The large quantity of air creates a high dissolved oxygen concentration, wh ich is recycled back to the aeration tank. The benefits of the newly test ed "overaerat ion" control mode were therefore even more greatly appreciated at the Brooklyn facility.

Number of Treatment Streams

Turndown of Pumped Recycles

At both Warragamba STP and Brooklyn STP two parallel process streams were const ructed. This allowed for f lexibility in low load periods by operating only one tank

As Warragamba is an IDAL and time separates the processes of anoxic, aeration and settling rat her than physical separation the recycle stream did not limit the design.

The construction of a single treatment stream may reduce capital costs but under start-up low loads the resu lting long sludge ages from one stream can have an effect on the settleability, filterability and dewaterabi lity of the biomass.

For Brooklyn,however, the recycle around the membrane tank was high to prevent a high solids concentration in the membrane tank. With start-up loads being much lower than design this issue was exacerbated and highly aerated recyc les were returned to the anoxic process thus affecting denitrification.

Aeration Each of t he two plants included duty/standby blowers with limited turndown. Therefore a control system had to be designed that would limit t he dissolved oxygen concentration within the aeration system. At Warragamba the f unctional design incorporated an overaeration control mode. This used intermittent aeration if a high dissolved oxygen concentration was reached , with an approximately 40 minute saw-tooth during normal hours. This mechanism for co ntrol was carried forward as a lesson learnt to t he design of the Brooklyn Plant. The potential problems with aeration were exacerbated at Brooklyn, which has a membrane bioreactor and a significant amount of agitation air delivered to the membrane tank for scouring of the

82 NOVEMBER 2008 water

The pumps were therefore installed as Duty/Assist. The ultimate design of the pumps was 6 x the maximum flow into the Works (3 x ADWF). Therefore when flows were lower the pumps could be operated at the correct multiple of ADWF using the duty pump only until the 25 year design horizon was met. The decision was t herefore made based on the lifetime of the pumps and the likelihood of needing to pump in excess of t he capacity of the Duty pump.

Retention Times Within the Sewers A high retention time in the sewers can lead to a change in the sewage characteristics. Th is problem is enhanced in pressure sewerage syst ems (PSS), such as the one used at Brooklyn, where

an absence of air causes anaerobic conditions. Such conditions consume COD, produce reduced sulphur compounds and create odour as it enters the plant i.e. different sewage characteristics at commissioning compared with design. Ferric Chloride was considered in the design and is dosed in the inlet of the works to reduce odours. During the design phase sampling was done on another PSS system installed by t he PSP All iance to help assess the sewage characteristics for Brooklyn. Th is indicat ed that the COD:TKN rat io would be unfavourable for denitrification. External carbon dosing was considered and a provision built into the design for future addition of an acetic acid dosing system. In addition a sensitivity analysis was performed on the incoming COD to obtain some level of assessment of the risk of need for external carbon. This decision was deferred until after the commissioning period due to the unknown factors in t he influent sewage.

Lessons Learnt During Commissioning There were additional lessons learnt during comm issioning as detailed in t he following sections.

Start-Up Loads At the start-up of the new Warragamba STP construction delays in connecting t he exist ing STP meant t hat the loads were not immediately realised as planned. The very low loads led to problems with over aeration and biomass growth. This in turn led to a very long sludge age and dewatering issues.

technical features


5]

project delivery

refereed paper

Brooklyn STP was also at risk of very low start-up loads due to being wholly reliant on commu nity connections. In addition the scheme is a joint one with Gosford City Council. About 45% of t he load will come from Gosford catchments once they come on-line (SWC, 2005).

160 70

140

60

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Using the experience from the com missioning of Warragamba the catchment management plan developed was st rictly followed for Brooklyn. The minim um load for start-up of the biolog ical treatment process was considered in the commissioning planning stage. This allowed the timing of the start-up of the biological treatment plant to be scheduled to allow the growth of a healthy biomass. A healthy biomass will mitigate against problems with dewat erability and to prevent fouling of the membranes.

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The second issue was that if the biomass was unhealthy then the thickening characteristics can be affected. This may have had an adverse effect on the performance of the RDT due to difficulties with flocculation.

As 60 days was a typical sludge age for many of the early small membrane bioreactor designs this figure was selected. To achieve this 90 equivalent households were required. Below 90 households there may have been additional nutrients required and through this the risk of a potentially unstable biomass.

An assessment was carried out of population versus load from which a suitable load could be selected for startup as summarised in Table 1.

The reticulation and t reatment plant was therefore commissioned as a whole with a temporary operating system being put into place.

dosing of chemicals or insufficient nutrients.

Table 1. Load and Sludge Age Calculation. COD load required kg/d

Population Equivalent

Number of Connections

40

33

0.028

300

136

50

26

0.022

236

107

60

22

0.019

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91

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19

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173

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20

Exp erience on other projects shows that if t he biomass is stressed it may release polysaccharides which fou ls t he mem branes (Flemming, 2003). This wi ll cause a rise in trans-membrane-pressure (TMP) and increased membrane cleaning requirement due to a drop in the filterability. However, as Brooklyn is a domestic plant the risk of this was limit ed. The main risk of biomass stress is usually due t o sudden changes in influent. Changes may occur due to the

Sludge Age

'l!

The temporary operating mode involved raw sewage entering the plant and being dosed with ferric chloride for odour control. The flow was then screened before being stored in the Storage Tank. The bioreactors were isolated to prevent flow proceeding forward. Stored sewage was then transported via road tanker to Hornsby Height STP for treatment for approximately three weeks. Trade and commercial connections were also planned to come on early to provide load. To minimise the road tanker costs traders were connected towards t he end of the th ree week period. The number of properties connected and the loads were tracked during this period to assess when the minimum load req uirements were realised .

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Once the flows and loads required were achieved then a decision was made to commence process commissioning.

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Th is temporary operating mode, Figure 3) proved to be invaluable and allowed the biological treatment to be st arted successfully. Seed sludge was transferred from Hornsby Heights STP and screened to protect the membranes from damage.

water NOVEMBER 2008 83


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project delivery Carbon Dosing

refereed paper

20 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :

Sewage characteristics at Brooklyn were investigated during the plant performance testing period. This allowed a decision to be reached on whether an external carbon source would be required.

Carbon dosi g ceased for t is period

18

Analysis was performed to calculate the COD fractionation to allow a cal ibrated Biowin model to be produced. The influent data can be seen in Table 2. COD to TKN ratio is below 10:1 indicating that external carbon dosing would be required. The COD fractionation is shown in Table 3. Carbon dosing, in the form of acetic acid, was installed as a temporary system to allow further denitrification whi lst a decision was made on the req uirement for carbon dosing over a longer time period. The effect of this can be seen in the REDOX and effluent nitrate resu Its. Th e effect of the carbon dosing can be seen by examining a period when the dosing was not occurring. The REDOX potential (Figure 4) is seen t o rise above zero in this time period. This indicates that limited or no denitrification was occurring. Throughout the commissioning the REDOX analysers have proved to be a good tool in predicting the trend in effluent nitrate. Th e plant has a final effluent discharge consent of 7mg/L of total nitrogen and it can be seen that the under low load conditions carbon dosing is required. This was apparent in January when the carbon dosing was stopped and the nitrate rose to 6mg/L (Figure 5). The plant was started on the 3rd December 2007, therefore the 8th December was w ithin the start-up phase therefore leading to the high nitrate concentration.

z2 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - 0 .J__~-----.--.------.-----,---,----.-----, 8-Dec

15-Dec

22-Dec

29-Dec

5-Jan

12-Jan

26-Jan

2-Feb

Figure 5. Final Effluent Nitrate Concentrations. Table 2. Brooklyn Influent Results mg/L. Contaminant

BOD

COD

TSS

TKN

TP

Alkalinity

COD:N

Average

326

75.6 97.9

13.8

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8.0

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future. Incorporating carbon dosing as a contingency at the time of the design has proven valuable during the early stages of operation.

Aeration As discussed previously, the overaeration control mode from Warragamba was carried forward into the design for Brooklyn. The control was to operate the blowers such that they cut out at a DO concentration of 3mg/L and remain off for a pre-set period of time. This allows biological take-up of oxygen in the unaerated periods. There were still problems associated with return of dissolved oxygen t o and in the bioreactor due to the aeration of the membrane tank for cleaning and the large recycle stream flow rate. The physical configuration was set up, and the control system modified, to allow one set of s-recycle pumps to pump from the single on -li ne bioreactor to the two

membrane tanks thus halving the recycle flow. Optimisation of the over aeration control system was completed to further red uce the DO in the bioreactor (Figure 6). This allowed optimisation of the denitification in conjunction w ith carbon dosing to successfully achieve the tot al nitrogen consent of 7mg/ L.

Chemical Dosing Precipitation of ferric hydroxide in the lines downstream of the dilution/carrier water point causing blocking was an issue at Warragamba. This was d ue to the high ratio of reclaimed effluent to ferric ch loride when the dosing pumps were operating at low speeds. This moved the OH- equilibrium forming FeOHx, which precipitat ed in the lines. To prevent th is at Brooklyn the carrier water injection point was moved closer to the dosing point at Brooklyn . So far this has proven to be an appropriate design improvement.

The cause of the carbon deficiency can in some way be attributed to the low initial loads and resulting long retention times in the Table 3. Brooklyn Wastewater Fractionation. sewer. Also, the low loads COD Fraction Fraction Concentration (mg/L) and limited aeration turndown Total COD lead to insufficient 608 heterotrophs for oxygen Readily biodegradable COD 0.22 134 consumption. Slowly biodegradable COD 0.63 383 Soluble unbiodegradable COD 0.042 25.5 It is anticipated that less Particulate unbiodegradable COD 0.11 67 acetic acid will be required in

84 NOVEMBER 2008 water

19-Jan

Date

Sampling Diurnal and composite sampling was done during the plant performance testing on the influent and composite testing on the effluent.

technical features


project delivery

~ refereed paper

From this a f ully calibrated Envirosim Biow in™ model was produced (both

a 11 g

steady state and dynamic). Once the

I

c alibrated model was produced it was

l 11

Low Aeration Times and Control Change

used to assess whether carbon dosing was required under different flow and load scenarios. The model results showed t hat although t he acet ic acid requirements reduced, there was a long term requirement to achieve the total nitrogen consent. The sampli ng also allowed opti misation of diurnal profiles for recycles and in particular chemical dosing systems, allowing costs to be optimised w hilst reducing the risk to the effluent.

Conclusions

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17

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11

11

17

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II

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Figure 6. Dissolved Oxygen Profile (SWC, 2007/8).

With long design horizons and increasing populations t he received loads to new treatment plants at startup can often be well below t he design figures leadi ng to turndown and contro l issues. This problem is pronou nced in Sydney Water's Brooklyn and Warragamba STPs where a reliance o n community connections led to low loads

Flemming, H, 2003. Membrane Fouling: Alternative Fouling Approaches

Sydney Water Corporation (SWC), 2005. Brooklyn & Dangar Island Sewerage Scheme Preliminary Design Report.

Matthews T, Fender G (2008) Trenchless Technology in Sydney Water's Priority Sewerage Program. Water 35, 3. May.

Sydney Water Corporation (SWC), 2007/8, Brooklyn STP SCADA dissolved oxygen trend

Sydney Water Corporation (SWC), 2004. Warragamba site data

Sydney Water Corporation (SWC), 2008, Brooklyn STP SCADA OAP trend

References

at start-up . Turndown of the system at start-up

MICRON HORIZONTAL FIBREGLASS FILTERS

shou ld be considered from early on in des ign, in particu lar , the number of process streams, aeration and chemical

Waterco·s Micron horizontal fibreglass filters embody the latest in fibreglass winding technology. Waterco's digitally controlled filament winding machine faultlessly winds continuous strands of fibreglass filament to create a filter vessel with refined consistency and superior quality.

dosin g systems design and temporary operating modes. Consideration of the system as a whole, integrating catchment management and the treatment plant is inva lu able in the planni ng of

The Micron Horizontal filters spherical ends are designed to give unifo rm now from both inlet and outlet collection assemblies. The filter"s hydraulic design provides adequate distribution to evenly expand the filter bed during backwash and the entire media bed is utilised during the filter cycle.

co mmissioning . This prevented some of the operational issues associated with low load and solids handling due to very long sl udge ages and allowed the commissioni ng to progress w ith an o perable plant. As a result of considering t he low loads in design, planning and mitigation in commissioni ng both plants are now performing to t heir licence conditions and t he commissioning of both plants was successful.

The Authors Susan Kitching is a senior process engineer with MWH, email: Susan.Kitching@au.mwhglobal.com. Robert Bates is technical manager for

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NOVEMBER 2008 85


water supply

Q

refereed paper

A CHLORINE RESIDUAL MODELLING TOOL FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS A K Bichani, CW K Chow, V Sweet, D Mulcahy, D Dharmabalan, D Vitanage Abstract This paper provides an overview of an in-house developed Disinfection Management (OM) tool. The resu lts obtained showed high accuracy in the prediction of ch lorine residuals along the distribution system. It also demonstrated that the OM tool can be used to simulate distribution system performance for different treatment processes as a resu lt of variation in water quality. A case study t o optimise a chlorinated distribution system in South Australia was selected to discuss and describe the procedures requi red to setup such a model and demonstrate the benefit of using this optimisation approach. A fu ll description, includ ing a step by step setup procedure is presented and, apart from following the standard approach on model setup (establish network, decide on water sampling location, conduct analyses, calibrate and validate the network), a modified procedure which utilised the routine monitoring database was evaluated. The behaviour of the selected distribution system was established and the calibrated model was used to predict disinfectant residuals in the system. The model-determined free chlorine concentrations correlated well with the observed free chlorine concentrations in the field. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this modelling approach as a planning tool for operators to identify potential issues in the system, including identifying problematic "hotspots". Simulated results showed that the selected distribution system can be operated with lower chlorine dose when the raw water is subjected to a better treatment regime.

Introduction Disinfection is part of the final phase of treatment, and is an effective way of maintaining the bacteriological quality of the water in the distribution system. The push towards improving the quality of finished water has prompted concern for more focus on developing distribution system management tools. Chlorine is one of the most widely used disinfectants in drinking water treatment. Tools have

8 6 NOVEMBER 2008 water

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Figure 1. WQDMTB window in EPANET with modules showing additional functionalities. been developed worldwide to model chlorine decay in distribution systems (Chambers et al. 1995; Vasconcelos et al. 1996; Vasconcelos et al. 1997; DossierBerne et al. 1997; Hua et al. 1999; Rodrig uez et al. 1997; Rodriguez and Se rodes 1999; Serodes et al. 2001 ). Hydraulic modelling is the most established application and it gives better management of storage tanks and optimum pumping methods to reduce water age and chemical reactions with distribution system pipe materials (Vincent et al. 2000). Models to predict disinfectant decay in distribution systems have been developed in conjunction with other models in order to achieve the goal of cost effective management strategies. The models describe the interactions between flow characteristics, dissolved organic compounds, and distribution pipe biofilms and are able to predict the disinfectant decay due to organic matter in bulk water and biofilm in a pipe. They were aimed at identifying different ways

No necessity for external expertise to develop the model.

of maintaining specified maximum and minium chlorine residuals throughout the pipe length under realistic flow conditions (Kastl et al. 1999a; Jegatheesan et al. 2001; Chandy and Angles, 2001; Kastl et al. 2001). In addition, the models can be used to predict chlorine profile, which is sufficient to provide specified compliance with water quality standards (Kastl et al. 1999b). Extensions of these models by combining them with a hydraulic model were successfully applied in a real distribution system in Melbourne, Australia (Greenvale-Sydenham distribution system) (Kastl et al. 2001 ). Well-cal ibrated water quality models can be used in planning, optimising and maintaining disinfection processes with the potential benefits of ensuring acceptable chlorine level at all customer taps, chemical cost savings and proper location of chlorine boosters in water distribution systems. The Distribution Program of the CRC (Co-operative Research Centre) for Water Quality and Treatment, has developed a Water Quality Distribution Modelling Tool Box (WQDMTB) approach and, as part of this, several distribution system management tools have been developed.

technical features


water supply

~ refereed paper

An in-house developed disinfection model was implemented into the EPAN ET platform to improve the accuracy of prediction by incorporating additional decay parameters to account for the character of the organics (Kastl et a/. 1999a & 1999b; Dharmabalan & Bruno 2005). EPANET (Rossman 2000) is freely available modelling software developed by the USEPA which was co nsidered the best candidate for the project team to setup " Proof of Concept" trials.

Sampling po inl 4

The aim of this paper is to provide a general description of the WQDMTB concept and demonst rate the use of the disinfection mod ule via a case study of a local distribution system. Rather than following the complete model buil ding procedure to set up this model ling trial, this st udy evaluates a simplified model setup procedure based on the use of existing monitoring data. Water utilities would have routine water quality data avai lable as part of their operations. A st ep by step procedure to set up the model and test the accuracy of this model to represent chlorine residuals with in t he real field network will be described.

Sampl ing poinl I

Samp ling po in1 5

Water Quality Disinfection Management Tool Box Disinfection module overview Addition cod ing for the in -house developed modelling modules (WQD MTB) has been implemented into EPANET (with code supp lied by our research team and programmed in by USEPA) . A new command icon to launch the module was added to the rig ht end of the EPANET tool bar. Two extra options, sediment and disinfection, were added to provide additional functionality (Dhar mabalan and Bruno 2005) (Figure 1). O ptions which are not part of the standard EPANET have been added to the f ive standard options (1) hydraulics, (2) quality, (3) reactions, (4) times and (5) ener gy. Only the disinfection option (module) wil l be discussed in this paper. The disinfection module is used to model chlorine distri bution systems to predict chlori ne resid uals at various locations along a distribution system.

Steps to Setup a Chlorine Decay Model for Actual Distribution Systems

Figure 2. A schematic of the selected distribution system (with 5 sampling locations). Water Treatment Plant sampling locations (2) are not shown in this diagram. and also supplies water for agricu lture and small scale industries in the area. The treatment train consists of coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. The pH of the filtered water is adjust ed to 7.2 by using caustic soda. Then the wat er is disinfect ed by UV followed by a ch lorine dose of 7 to 10 mg/ L (in December 2006, 6.0 mg/ L was used) for st orage and supply. The high chlorine dose for disinfection is due to the organics demand in the filtered water. A schematic of the distribution system with sampling locations is shown in Figure 2.

Model setup The flow chart (Figure 3) shows the steps involved in the overall experimental procedure. Each required step is discussed in detail.

Distribution system

Laboratory chlorine decay test and estimation of model parameters

The selected system was a small supply system in a country area of South Australia using chlorine as disinfectant. A 3MU d ay water treatment plant (WTP) supp lies water to a number of t ownships,

Chlorine decay tests were conducted by dosing ch lorine solution, in an appropriate concentration range, to the treated water sample with monitoring of chlorine residuals over a period of 9 days

(APHA 1998). For resu lts that better represent seasonal variations , three sets of chlorine decay data at different temperatures were required. The decay data (ch lori ne residual against time) was then used to generate the parameters required t o ru n the disinfection model using AQUASIM (Computer Program for the Identification and Simulation of Aquatic Systems, Reichert 1998a and 1998b). Parameters calcu lated for chlorine disinfection are, 1) initial concentration of free chlorine, 2) initial concentration of fast reacting organics (FRA) , 3) initial concentration of slow reacting organics (SRA), 4) chlorine reaction coefficients, 5) fast reacting organic coefficient and 6) slow reacting organic coefficient. These chemic al parameters represent the actual behaviour of water in a distribution system and are used as input parameters for the WQDMTB (EPANET). Details are described in Kastl et al. (1999a).

Distribution network data The model req uires the import of t he distribution network f ile. In this particular case , WaterGEMS is the network

water NOVEMBER 2008 87


water supply

[;] refereed paper

modelling software used by the water utility supporting this case study. WaterGEMS is a multi-platform hydraulic and water quality modelling solution for water distribution systems with advanced interoperability, geospatial model -b uilding, optimisation, and asset management t ools. The selected network file was exported from WaterGEMS and then converted into EPANET format.

Extract Distribution Network Data

Laboratory Chlorine Decay Tests

rmport Data Files to

Determine Chemical Parameters Using AQUASlM

EPANET

Disinfection Model (DM Tool)

Disinfection model setup and calibration After setting up the network model in WQDMTB with the chemical parameters entered as inputs, the first simulation (chlorine resid uals) was cond ucted with the system attaining equilibrium. Equivalent diameters were adjusted to compensate for biofilm contribution. The req uired demand pattern was created from the annual average flows, in this instance stored in the WaterGEMS system.

Field Sampling- I

Calibration

(Data from routine wnter quality monitorin• rcoorts and SCADA)

Field Sampling -2

Testing

(Dam from routine water qua Iity monitoring rcpor1s and SCADA)

Figure 3. Flow chart of model set up and simulation.

It is worth mentioning here that in this study, a modified procedure involving extraction of routine monitoring data from the utility's database, instead of conducting a specially arranged field sampling and analysis ru n, was used. Most wat er utilities would monitor their system on a regular basis and useful water quality data is usually stored in their database.

Model Testing In this study, two separate test events (at different times) were conducted. Samples were collected for field chlorine data at the selected sampling 6 points in the distribution system for comparison. Water flow behaviour in the distribution 5 syst em was obtained from the daily flow data on the day of 4 sampling. A simplified ::::;procedure was used involving Cl extraction of free chlorine and -S 3 Cl) C: temperature data including time .§ and date of sampling from the :c (..) 2 routine monitoring database to validate the system.

improve ac curacy (Kastl et al. 1999a; Dharmabalan and Bruno 2005).

been observed to increase with temperature (Jadas-Hecart et al. 1992).

Bulk chlorine decay rates due to chemical reactions in the aqueous phase can further be separated into fast and slow reactions. Fast reactions take place with easily oxidisable compounds such as inorganic compounds and are usually completed during initial disinfection treatment. Slow reactions proceed with less oxidisable compounds such as natural organic matter (NOM) (Dotson and Heitz 1985; Jadas-Hecart et al. 1992; Kastl et al. 1999b; Powell et al. 2000). The bulk chlorine decay rates have also

The chem ical parameters required to build the model were obtained from laborat ory chlorine decay results (3 separate decays under three different temperatures, 18°C, 21 °C and 28°C) with residuals monitored until they reached zero and determined by the curve fitting software AQUASIM, based on the inhouse developed ch lorine decay model (Bruno 2005). The curve fitted decay data is presented in Figure 4. The chemical parameters derived from these laboratory decay tests for the distribution system were as fo llows: 1. Initial concentration of free chlori ne= 5.83 mg/L 2. Initial concentration of fast reacting organics= 9.61 mg/L 3. Initial concentration of slow reaction organics = 2.02 mg/ L

$ 18~

4. Chlorine reaction coefficient = 0.025

21 °c 28°C

.

5. Fast reacting organic coefficient = 0.00005 6. Slow reacting organic coefficient = 0.54

Results and Discussion Chlorine decay model The main difference between the WQDMTB disinfection module and the standard decay model is the addition of extra decay parameters to allow water quality information, such as organic carbon, to be considered by the model to

88 NOVEMBER 2008 water

This decay model is more accurate as compared with the common ly used 1st order decay model (CRCWQT 2003).

0

0

50

100

150

200 250 Time (hr)

300

350

400

Figure 4. Chlorine decay curve derived from laboratory tests for 6mg/L with three different temperatures, 18°C, 21 °C and 28°C using AQUASIM.

Model calibration The dist ribut ion network in this case had been exported from the utility's WaterGEMS file, which was calibrated

technical features


[SJ

water supply

refereed paper

hydraulically. Model simulation for chlorine residuals should be done once the system reaches equilibrium. That means t hat all the junctions in the network are saturated and there is no increase or decrease in the chlorine residual. The time to obtain this eq uilibrium (model running time) was dependent on the size of network. Several sampling locations were required and selection for good zone coverage was essential as a check to represent the equilibrium of the whole network (Bruno 2005). After the first simulation (calibration based on laboratory chlorine decay parameters), free chlorine levels determined by the model were compared against field free chlorine levels (ext racted from the routine monitoring database) at each selected sampling point. Residual levels from computer simulat ion were usually higher than the residual levels in the field. It is likely t hat this variation was due to the reaction of chlorine wit h biofilms on t he pipe walls in the real distribution system. Adjustment of t he eq uivalent diameters of pipes and t he temperature of water at the sampling points in the model network was requi red to compensate for the additional chlorine demand from the internal pipeline envi ronment. For better accuracy, the model also needed to take into account the effect of temperature by adjust ment according to t he field temperature data. From the simulation, 7 sampling points from the routine monitoring program (2 at t he WTP and 5 in the distribution system) were selected starting from the WTP to the furthest point in t he distribution syst em. Calibrat ion of the selected distribution system was done by adjust ing t he temperature (20 - 23°C) of t he water and the equivalent diameters of the pipes in the system. For t he WQDMTB software, the equivalent diameter allows for the biofi lm th ickness in the distribution pipe line and is therefore different from the hydraulic equivalent diameter. Model result s after initial calibrations showed good representation of the real field network. Simulated and calibrated chlorine levels in t he selected distribution system after the calibration are presented in Table 1.

Model testing To assess t he accuracy of the calibrated model it is necessary to validate the model. The testing process is generally t wo-fold. In event 1, samples were collected for field chlorine data at the

Table 1. Model and observed free chlorine levels after calibration for the selected distribution system. Date

Time

Observed free Cl2 (mg/L)

WTP (product)

22/11/06

10:45am

4.9

4.9

0

WTP (tank outlet)

22/11/06

10:15am

1.6

1.63

0.03

1

22/11/06

01 :30pm

0.6

0.61

0.01

2

22/11/06

01:20pm

0.4

0.39

0.01

3

22/11/06

12:30pm

0.2

0.17

0.03

4

22/11/06

12:00pm

0.1

0.13

0.02

selected sampl ing points in the distribution system for comparison. Also the water flow behaviour (flow data) in the distribution system on the day of sampling is req uired. A simplified procedure was used involving extraction of sample measuring time for free chlori ne and temperature (collect ed from the rout ine monitoring database) to val idate the system. To confirm the model, a 2nd sampling event was conduct ed at a different t ime using a similar procedu re. Comparison of model and observed free chlorine resu lt s is shown in Table 2. From Table 2, t he differences between t he model chlori ne values and field chlorine values are very small. That means the calibrated model is worki ng well t o predict chlorine residuals in the selected distribution system for different flows on different days and times. All the model values in sampling event 1 and 2 are close to the field free chlorine val ues. Therefore the WQDMTB tool accurately predicts chlorine levels along the distribution system. Applying t his model as an optimisation tool can help to maintain disinfectant resid uals along the distribution system. In addition, the operator can simulate different strategies with calibrated models to

Model free Cl2 (mg/L)

Difference (mg/L)

Sampling point

assess potential savings of chemicals and energy in the water supply system.

Using the model as a planning tool for system modifications Once a valid model has been established, it can be applied as a planning tool. Improving water quality is a common goal for water utilities and installing new treatment faci lities or modifying existing ones is part of the continuous improvement process. In this case, we are considering the improvement of water quality after the construction of a new WTP and t he impact of better water quality on system performance. This prompted the need for a complete system optimisation including optimising chlorine usage. The t reat ment optimisation process wi ll not be discussed here; however, various combi nations of treatment conditions were used to simulate finished water quality. This water quality data was t hen used for the modelling exercise to det ermine the effects of different ch lorine demands and different decay t rends for each water quality. To demonstrate the improvement of water quality in the distribution system after t he new WTP operation commences, further simulations were cond ucted . This component of the work was focussed on

Table 2. Model and observed free chlorine levels after both sampling events for the selected distribution system. Sampling point

Date

Time

Observed free Cl2 (mg/L)

Model free Cl2 (mg/L)

Difference (mg/L)

Sampling event 1 WTP (product)

12/02/07

02:09pm

5.0

4.95

0.05

WTP (tank outlet)

12/02/07

12.12pm

1.4

1.94

0.54

2

12/02/07

03:50pm

0.8

0.84

0.04

4

12/02/07

03:36pm

0.2

0.23

0.03

WTP (product)

14/03/07

12:00pm

5.7

5.46

0.24

WTP (tank outlet)

14/03/07

10:20am

1.8

1.96

0.16

2

14/03/07

02:00pm

0.7

0.84

0.14

4

14/03/07

12:00pm

0.3

0.28

0.02

5

14/03/07

12:00pm

0.1

0.41

0.31

Sampling event 2

water

NOVEMBER 2008 89


water supply

Q

reduction of chlori ne usage and persistence of resid uals until t he end of the distribution system without compromising adherence to the NHMRC drinking water guidelines (NHMRC 2004). Appl ications of the calibration model included t he ability t o try various chlorine doses to predict the resulting performance of the whole distribution system without the need to risk operational changes. This should give some ideas about the best disinfection strategy to implement to reduce chemical costs and where best to locate ch lorine boosters. Also it shou ld provide information as to whether an operator can supply an acceptable quality of water at every customer tap. These simu lations show the quality of water at various locations in the selected distribution system when the quality of water is improved prior to disinfection. Wat er t reated in the laboratory using the proposed operation conditions of the new treatment process was also used to demonstrate th is c oncept. Similar laboratory ch lori ne decays with d ifferent tem peratu res, as described earlier, were performed. A calibrated model was developed using these derived chemical parameters. A ch lorine dose of 5 mg/L was used initially. Th e model results showed higher ch lorine levels at different sampling points with t he new process. A n additional simu lation was performed to fin d t he best ch lorine dose for t his new process and t his showed that 3.5 mg/L of chlorine at t he WTP is enough to achieve satisfactory chlorine levels at all sampling points in the selected distrib ution system with simulated product water from the new treat ment process. Figure 5 c ompares simulation results of the existing and new process . These simulations can be used for complete system optimisation involving

optimising the treat ment process together with the disinfection process.

Conclusions A well cal ibrated disinfection model can represent the actual behaviour of a real distribution network for chlorine decay. Using a calibrated/validated model, water system operators can use computer simulation to predict possible levels of disinfectant residuals at different locations in a distribution system by si mulating an increase or decrease of the treatment plant chlorine doses. This wil l help t he operators to identify t he causes of residual decay and to locate ch lori ne boosters in the dist ribution system accordingly. A disinfection model developed for t he selected distribution system with limited existing data worked successful ly. All the data req uired for this water quality model can be obtained from t he water utility's exist ing database. This st udy demonstrated that it is simple to develop a water quality -based model for chlorine decay as most of the req uired information shou ld be already available and the modelling software is easi ly obtained. In th is particular trial, a water engineer supplying some existing network information, a laboratory chemist contributing chlorine decay rates and a plant operator providing monitoring data were able to create a representative model for the desired distribution network. The lack of necessity for external expertise to develop such a model represents an opportunity to save considerab le time and expense. The appli cation simulating the required c hlorin e dose after installation of a new treatment facility also successful ly demonst rated t he usefulness of this approach for compl ete system optimisation. It can also pot entially be used as an optimisation

:;-

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2.84

Chlorine levels after new treatment

Anjanee Bichani was a Mast ers student, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia. Christopher Chow (e mai l: Chris.Chow@sawater.com.au) is a Project Leader wit hin the CRC for Wat er Quality and Treatment, Senior Research Chemist, Water Treatment unit, Aust ralian Water Quality Centre and Adjunct Associate Professor, Cent re for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia. Vince Sweet is the Manager Water Quality Knowledge, SA Water. Dennis Mulcahy is an Adjunct Professor, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia . He works within the Centre for Water Management and Reuse. Dharma Dharmabalan is t he Deputy Program Leader , Distribution, CRC for Water Quality and Treatment and the Exec utive Manager Planning, Caliban Water. Dammika Vitanage is t he Program Leader, Distribution, CRC for Water Quality and Treatment and the Science and Technology Program Manager (Treat ment & Infrastruct ure), Sydney Water Corporation.

Acknowledgment The authors wish to t hank Mark Bruno, Tomasz Woznaik, Leonie Thorpe, Paul Doherty, Maree Shephard, Edith Kozl ik, Miriam Nedic and Rolando Fabris for their contribution of t his project.

References APHA, AWWA and WEF 1998 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 20th Edition, American

Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

(Chlorine dose 3.Smg/L)

0.2 0.27

Chandy, J. and Angles, M. 2001 Determination of nutrients limiting biofilm formation and the subsequent impact on disinfectant decay. Wat. Res. 35(11), 2677-2682.

0

:c

"~

The Authors

Chambers, V.K., Creasey, J.D. and Joy J.S. 1995 Modelling free and total chlorine decay in potable water distribution Systems. J Water SRT - Aqua 44(2), 60- 69.

a Chlorin e l evels wi th exlxting treatment (Chlori ne dose 6mg/L)

Cl 4

.ยง.

.,

t ool to reduce the concentration of disinfect ion by-products, such as trihalomet hanes (THMs) in the distribution system.

Bruno, M. 2005 Disinfection model case study, DSM Evaluation, CRC for Water Quality and Treatment, Central Highlands Water, Melbourne, Australia.

4.9

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r e f ere e d p a pe r

2

u.

0.1 0.27

0

WTP (product)

WTP (tank outlet)

2

4

Sampling point loca tions

Figure 5. Model application for comparison of the existing and proposed new treatment. Initial chlorine doses of 6 mg/L and 3.5 mg/L were used for the existing and new system, respectively. 90 NOVEMBER 2008 water

CRCWQT 2003 Optimisation of chlorine residual in a distribution system (Greenvale-Sydenham, Melbourne). Research Report 30, CRC for Water Quality and Treatment, December, 2003.

techn1ca features


Dharmabalan, P. and Bruno, M. 2005 Consolidation of water quality modeling tools for distribution systems, C RC for Water Quality and Treatment, Project 2509, Final Report. Dossier-Berne, F. , Panais, B. , Merlet, N., Jadas- Hecart, A ., Cauchi, B. and Legube, B. 1997 Automation of long t erm chlorine demand measurement of treated waters. Wat. Res. 31 (3), 375-384. Dotson, D. and Heitz, G.R. 1985 Chlorine decay chemistry in natural waters. In Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health Effects, Jolley, R.L., Brungs, W.A. and Cumming, R.B. (Eds). Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., 5, 713-722. Hua, F. , West, J. R., Barker, R.A. and Forst er, C.F. 1999 Modelling of ch lorine decay in municipal water supplies. Wat. Res. 33(12), 2735-2746. Jadas-Hecart, A., Moher, E., Stitou, M., Bouillot, P. and Legub e, B. 1992 The c hlorine demand of a treated water. Wat. Res. 26(8), 1073-1084. Jegatheesan, V., Kastl, G.J ., and Fisher, I.H. 200 1 Water quality m odelling for drinking w ater distribution systems. Proceedings, 19th Federal Convention of the Australian Water Association, Canberra (on C D RO M). Kastl, G .J., Fisher, I.H. and Jegatheesan, V. 1999a Evaluation of c h lorine decay kinetics expressions for drinking water d istrib ution systems modelling. J. Wat. SRT - Aqua 48(6), 219-226. Kastl, G.J., Jegatheesan, V., Fisher, I.H. 1999b Opt imisation of disinfectant residual in a distribution system. 18th Federal Convention, April 11-14, 1999, Australian Water and Wastewater Association, Adelaide. Kastl, G.J., Jegatheesan, V. , Fisher, I. H., Helier, K. and O rr, N. 2001 Application of c hlorine decay and biofilm models in drinking water d istribut ion systems: Greenvale-Sydenham, Melbourne. Proceed ings, 19th Federal Convention of the A ustralian Water Association, Canberra (on CD ROM). NHMRC 2004 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, National Health & Medical Research Council, and Agriculture & Resource Management Councils of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra. Powell, J.C., Hallam, N.B., West, J.R., Foster, C.F. and Simms, J. 2000 Factors w hich cont rol b ulk chlorine decay rates. Wat. Res. 34(1), 117-126. Reichert, P. 1998a AQUASIM 2.0 - User Manual, Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), CH8600 Dubend orf, Switzerland. Reichert, P. 1998b AQ UASIM 2.0 - Tutorial, Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland. Rodrig uez, M.J. and Serodes, J.B. 1999 Assessing empirical linear and non-linear modelling of residual chlorine in urban drinking water systems. Environmental Modelling and Software 14, 93-102. Rodriguez, M.J., West, J .R., Powell , J . and Serodes, J.B. 1997 A p plication of two approaches to model chlorine residuals in Seven Trent Water Ltd (STW) distribution systems. Wat. Sci. Tech. 36(5), 317-324. Rossman, L.A. 2000 EPANET 2 - USERS MANUAL, EPA Unit ed States, EPN600/ R-00/057. Serod es, J.B., Rodriguez, M.J. and Ponton, A. 2001 Chlorcast: A m et hodology for developing decision-making tools for chlorine disinfect ion control. Environmental Modelling and Software 16, 53-62 . Vasconcelos, J.J., Boulos, P.F., Watson, M., Grayman, W.M. , Kiene L., Wable 0. , Biswas P., Bhari, A ., Rossman, L.A. Clark, R.M . and Goo drich J.A. 1996 Characterization and modelling of chlorine decay in d istribution systems, AWWA Research Foundation , U.S.A. Vasconcelos, J., Rossman, L.A., Grayman, W .M., Boulos P.F. and Clark, R. M . 1997 Kinetics of chlorine d ecay. J. Am. Water Works A ssoc. 89(7), 54-65. Vincent, G., Besner, M., Barbeau, B., Millette, R. and Prevost, M. 2000 St orage t ank management to improve d rinking water quality: Case study, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 126(4), 221-228.

The Eastern Pipeline Alliance (part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project) has three used tunnel boring machines for sale and is seeking Expressions of Interest to tender for the sales packages.

The Western Corridor Recycled Water (WCRW) Project is a major Queensland Govern ment project to ease pressure on Sout h East Queensland's drinking water supplies. It involves constructing a network of about 200km of underground pipel ines to link six existing wastewater t reatment plants to three new advanced water t reatment plants, and piping purified recycled water to power stations, industry, agri cultural customers and (after meeting strict water quality and health standards) drinking water supplies. The Alliance microtunnelling scope of works involved building 47 land bores rang ing in length from 30 metres to 330 metres, using three tunnel boring machines. Expressions of Interest are now invited for t he following three tunnel boring machines and associated equipment packages.

Sales Package ,oo, Herrenknecht AVN 16000 Slurry Microtunnelling Syst em

Sales Package ,002 Herrenknecht 1500 EPB Microtunnelling System. Machine was ref urbished by the manufact urer and since refurbishment has completed 2620m of tunnelling.

Sales Package ,003 Akkerman 58 inch (1470 mm) pipe jacking tunnel system excavation machine. Machine was refurbished by the manufacturer and since refurbishment has comp leted 1150m of tunnelling.

Prospective buyers throughout Australia and overseas are being approached and informed of the avai labil ity of these machines. Further information and inspecti on of t he sales packages at o ur Bri sbane site office can be arranged by cont acting our Contracts Manager. Mr Trevor R Bird, Contracts Manager Eastern Pipeline A lliance 20A Medway Street, Rocklea QLD 4106 (PO Box 337, Brisbane Market QLD 4106) +61 (7) 3426-6700 Phone: Fax: +61 (7)3426-6799 Trevor.B ird@epall iance.com.au Email:

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NOVEMBER 2008 91


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LEAK DETECTION IN LOW PRESSURES - IT CAN BE DONE! S Hamilton Abstract This paper outlines the principles of acoustic leak detection and describes the success of a case study in a developing country where low pressure and PVC piping wou ld normally be regarded as unsuitable for such a technique.

Introduction to Leak Detection Most water compan ies around the world perform active leakage surveys t o reduce their leakage in distribution pipes with acoustic water leak detection equipment. The objective of acoustic leak detection is to identify the location of a pipe generating a constant noise that fits the frequency profile and sound of a leak. The three principles in leak detection are to Localise, Locate and Pinpoint the leaks. The International Waterloss Task force defines the LLP procedure as fo llows:

Localise A method of narrowing down the location of the leak by various means to include but not restricted to the list below. Step Testing - narrowing down the area by means of isolating parts of the distribution system. Acoustic noise logging - deployment of noise loggers that identify constant noise during the preset hours that may be a leak or indicate a leak may be present. These may be left permanently deployed or adopt the 'lift & shift' technique. All fittings survey - listening on all stop cocks and mains fittings with a manual listening stick to identify leaks mainly on property side. Mains fittings only survey - listen on all mains fittings with manual listening stick to identify leaks mainly burst water mains. District Metered Area - a methodology where flows into an area are monitored and after al lowances are deducted for known domestic and commercial usage then the quantity that is left is converted to known performance indicators which enables the areas to be ranked from best

92 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Ene rgy g en e r a t e d from th e leak i s tra n s mitte d within th e pipe th r ough the water

e n e rgy fror"r*I th e l e ak i s a l so tran s mitte d through th e pip e

wa ll

burs t

Figure 1. Acoustic noise transfer from a leak in a pipe. to worst performing relevant to the amount of Real Losses (leaks).

Locate A method of locating the region of the potential leak possibly to within + or - 300mm. Correlator - a method of calcu lating the position of the leak using acoustic listening equipment, this method can listen over 1000m of metallic pipe work and locate the leak within 1m providing the data entered is correct. This depends on 3 critical entries which is pipe length, pipe diameter and pipe material; if any of these are not known to the precise measurement then the leak location measurement has more errors i.e.+ or- 2m. Correlating noise loggers - a method of deploying a number of acoustic devices that will indicate if a leak is present and also give an indication of the location of the suspected leak. These units can be set to listen either during the hours of night time or at any preset period of the day/night. Accuracy is dependent on the data entered and if information is not known then it is normally + or - 2m.

Pinpoint A method where the exact location of the leak is located prior to excavation where if the operator is ski lled or using the equipment correctly then pinpointing is normally t o within + or - 300mm . Factors affecting the ability to locate the leak from the surface are mainly the reliance on the noise transferral from the leak underground to the surface through the ground material surrounding the pipe and the material used in the

A case study in Hanoi.

reinstatement of the excavation when the pipe work was installed many years ago. Others are the operating pressure with in the pipe work and the size or type of leak that has occurred. Manual listening stick - where the ability of the operator is relied upon to pinpoint the exact location of the leak. If this operator has any hearing difficulties then this ability will be reduced greatly. Electronic listening stick - this method is using a list ening stick with an electronic measurement device incorporated , this being either an analogue needle display, a digital readout in form of a bar chart or a numerical display. If using such a device then the reliance on the ability of the operator t o hear is greatly reduced, it is for this reason that it would always be advisable to purchase this such device.

Leak Noise All methods of Acoustic Leak Detection are subject to the leak generating a noise. Water when leaving the pipe creates an 'energy' and it is this energy that is transferred th rough the water and the pipe wal l by the means of acoustic sound. (Figure 1) This acoustic sound , depending on the material of the pipe work, either dissipates over a long distance or is absorbed very quickly into the pipe wall. The effect being that for metallic or hard wal led pipes the sound transfer is extremely good and for non metallic or soft walled pipes extremely poor. Water pressure in the pipe, pipe material and the size of the orifice are the main factors influencing the leak noise. The higher the pressure and the smaller the leak the greater the noise or 'energy'. Table 1 shows the other factors influencing leak noise.

tee 1nical features


water supply With variable factors influencing the properties of leak noise, it is impossible to provide detailed distances of noise propagation. Figure 2 explains the impact the pipe material has on noise propagation. The ability to find leaks is dependent on the leak noise being greater than background noises, hence the best time to find leaks is at night when there is great er pressure and less background noise. Background noises include throttled valves, consumption and PRV's.

• Steel Pipe • • • • • •

Good noise propagation

Iron Pipe Copper Pipe Asbestos Cement/Concrete Lead Pipe PVC Pipe Polyethylene Pipe Poor noise propagation

Figure 2. Leak Noise Propagation.

Finding leaks in low pressure PVC pipes is extremely difficult as a small amount of energy is created by low pressure leaks and noise propagation is poor on PVC pipes.

-A--U.

Case Study in Vietnam The World Bank funds a number of waterloss projects in developing countries. They had a problem as to whether successful Active Leakage Control could be cond ucted in pipelines with low pressures and in non metallic pipe. It is well known that many leakage engineers are sceptical about how effective acoustic leak detection equipment is on non metallic pipelines with less than 10 metres pressure. If this was found to be the case then acoustic leak detection equipment would not be effective or successful in locating leaks.

Figure 3. Average Pressure in the Hanoi Water Distribution System.

However, to answer this unknown question it was considered that a study should be performed in Hanoi where pressures are typically 4 - 6 metres during the day and up to 9 metres at night (Figure 3). (Putting these fig ures into context most Australian cities have average pressure of 40 - 50 metres). The World Bank engaged the principal author to perform this study. In his position in the IWA Water Loss Task Force he is familiar with all the latest acoustic leak detection equipment and regularly operates and trials a wide range of equipment. He selected the equipment he believed would be most likely to succeed, to maximise the chance of success on this study. All of the equipment selected was from a Swiss company called Gutermann who have specialised solely in this area for sixty years. The equipment comprised a Zonescan Correlating leak noise loggers, an Aquascan 610 leak noise correlator and an Aquascope 3 ground microphone with electronic listening stick. To contr ibute to this research project Gutermann sent an engineer from their Australian office to provide assistance.

i

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= Position of Leak

[I]

= Position Zonescan Deployed

110700

Figure 4. Map of Area 2. Table 1. Leak Noise Factors. Factors producing good quality leak noise

Factors producing poor quality leak noise

High water pressure

Low water pressure

Hard backfill

Soft backfill

Small rupture

Split mains

Clean pipes

Encrusted pipes

Metallic pipes

Soft/lined pipes

Small diameter pipes

Large diameter pipes

water NOVEMBER 2008 93


water supply

Logger no Posraon

Read

Details of leak Positions from each logge r

Leek velue &It

105052 Neld10MemMeter 105045 V.AN NG.Atl

10/25,1)7

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Leak on 110mm PVC Mai n, 20 Meters from Logger

11l/2,W7

47 355V

Overfl0¥f running constant! y, 15 meters away.

10/25/07 10/25A17

39 358V 65 352V

10/25,\17

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93 362V 100 356V 43 362V

Open Servloe: Connection 75 Meters Aw.yon 110mm PVC Main

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9 356V

Service l eak 22 Meters ~ y

48 3.59V

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105800 V.ANNG.Atl 108505 V.AN NG.Atl 108502 V.AN NG.Atl 108496 VAN NGAN

Ovarflc,N running eonstantl y, 20 meters ~ y. Ser\/1ca Leak 60 Meiers Away

Figure 7. Zonescan Results from Area 2. e

Figure 5. Zonescan Logger Deployed with a Magnetic Connection to a valve.

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Figure 8. Zonescan Correlation to Locate Leak Positions. Figure 6. Downloading Zonescan Results in Hanoi. A small area about four square kilometres was selected. Eleven Zonescan loggers were deployed for a week to identify areas of leakage. Figure 4 shows the layout of t he area where the loggers were deployed and where the concealed leaks were found .

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During the course of t he week 19 leaks were found. These ranged from leaki ng water meter connections, leaking service connections and leaks on the main. The leaking water meters only leaked d uring t he middle of the night when the pressure was highest. The Zonescan resu lts in Figure 7 show that the acoustic loggers identified the constant sound of many leaks in this low pressure PVC system. One leak located

94 NOVEMBER 2008 water

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-----

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1053 m/s

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Finding the valves to deploy the loggers on was quite challenging and some of the distances between loggers were over 200 metres. Figure 5 shows a logger in position. Downloading the results was much slower t han usual as the streets were narrow and congested. It was also impossible to drive a vehicle arou nd to collect the resu lt s using the rad io link, as shown in Figure 6.

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Figure 9. Zonescan Correlation Results showing an accurate Peak from a Low Pressure system in the Philippines. was 75 metres away from the logger. The Leak Value is a calculated percentage probability based on the level and consistency of t he sound. From these results we can see that the Zonescan noise loggers identified leaks in this low pressure PVC pipe network at distances of 75 metres, 50 metres and 40 metres.

With several loggers identifying leaks on a number of different nights the findings conclude that the Zonescan Noise loggers are effective at finding leaks in low pressure PVC pipe systems. Despite being quite accurate, the correlation results t hat located the leak's position were not t he good quality clear

technical features


water supply peaks that we are used to seeing with t he Zonescan. In a good corre lation the dominant peak is expected to be several times greater than the ot her peaks. The quality of the correlation shown in Figure 8 is considered to be poor qualit y. The long distance between loggers (111 metres) will affect the quality of t he correlation. In subsequent t rials in the Philippines it has been fou nd t hat the Zonescan can provide good quality accurate correlations in low pressure pipes with loggers deployed at 70 metre intervals. An example of these results can be seen in Figure 9.

Acknowledgments The author thanks Julian Wilkinson, an experienced leak detection engineer, who was seconded by Gutermann Australia Pty Ltd to assist with this trial.

The Author

Stuart Hamilton of Hydrotec Ltd has 27 years experience in water management and special ises in A LC. Stuart is currently the secretary of the IWA Water Loss Task Force and a member of the water loss committee of the AWWA. Stuart is leading an initiative withi n t he WL TF Figure 10. Stuart Hamilton training the engineers at in Acoust ics and the relationship of Hanoi Water how to pin-point leaks with the how leak noise is affect ed by pipe In addition to find ing leaks with Aquascope 3. material and pressure This greatly the Zonescan correlating leak noise affect s the Active Leakage Detection This trial was conducted in a small loggers, leaks were found with the techniques to adopt for best economical area (4 square ki lometres). After one Aquascope 3 ground microphone and return. week of leak detection with the electronic listening stick, and a team Further Reading Zonescan noise loggers, Aquascope 3 from Hanoi Water were trai ned (Figure 10). Correlating and pinpointing had to leak detector and Aquascan 610 leak Hamilton, S. (2007) Acoustic Leakage Detection, /WA Water 21 - Article 7 be done at night during a smal l wi ndow noise correlator the nineteen leaks were of about 2 hours when the system was found and the approximate saving is ten Hamilton, S. (2008) Misconceptions of water loss detection, /WA Water 21. cubic metres every hour. pressurised .

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wastewater treatment

~ refereed paper

WASTEWATER DENITRIFICATION USING CARBONACEOUS BEDS R Brice, S Cameron, L Schipper, S Couper, N Hancock Abstract With the increasing requirement for the removal of total nitrogen from wastewater discharges, especially within sensitive Lake catchments, GNS Science, Landcare Research, AWT and Taupo District Council set out to evaluate an innovative and inexpensive technology for wastewater denitrification. The results of 3 years of fu ll scale denitrification trials using a nitrified effluent from one of the Taupo SBR plants through a denitrific ation bed are presented and discussed. This paper also presents the results from a municipal wast ewater treatment plant at Ki nloch, a dairy shed effluent treatment research project in Dargaville, and introduces a hothouse nutrient runoff treatment trial in Auckland, that show the successful performance of this emerging nitrogen reduction technology.

Introduction/Background Excess nitrogen and phosphorus can become harmful and even toxic to the receiving environment. Much of the excess nitrogen originates from nitrate leaching from intensive land use activities to groundwater, which then enters surface waters (Schipper, 2001 ). Another significant source of nitrogen contamination is discharge from wastewater treatment processes, which may incorporate ammonia removal using the nitrification process forming nitrate. As such nitrate has become recognised as one of the most common ground water contaminants in the world (Robertson et a~. The denitrification process converts nitrate to nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide in the presence of a degradable form of carbon, removing the contaminant from a treated effluent stream, such as is embodied in the biological nutrient removal systems of advanced wastewater treatment plants.

Using woodchips, nitrate removal is in the order of 95-99%. 96 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Figure 1. Typical Denitrification Bed. However, for small plants, particularly in rural locations, a cheaper system such as denitrification beds using natural biological processes can be effective. Denitrification beds have been developed from the success of nitrate walls. A carbon "wall" (or segment) is constructed in the ground for the wastewater effluent plume (rich in nitrate) to pass through at a perpendicular angle. The wall slowly leaches carbon to promote the growth of necessary bacteria for biological treatment of nitrate. Results from previous trials have shown that the sustainability of carbon walls seem positive, with Robertson et al. (2000) demonstrating that denitrification walls could remove nitrate for at least 6 years. GNS Science, University of Waikato , Landcare Research along with Taupo District Council (TDC) and AWT New Zealand have been working in partnership to further research the effectiveness of denitrification beds

Details of the Process How it works Denitrification beds require nitrogen to be in the oxidised form (e.g. , as nitrate). Typically this wi ll require oxidation of the wastewater to convert ammonia to nitrate (nitrification). A multitude of processes can be used for this purpose, such as conventional activated sludge systems utilising forced air injection, or fixed film processes such as trickling filters, packed bed reactors or submerged aerated filters etc. Often in the nitrification process the available forms of carbon in the effluent necessary for

denitrification are depleted . Hence for the subsequent denitrification process an additional carbon source is req uired A denitrification bed is essentially a large excavated lined pit in-filled with a particulate organic carbon source. Nitrified effluent is piped into the upstream end of the bed, allowed to gravity flow through the carbon media and discharged from the bed via an outlet structure. Design The design of the denitrification beds rely on a number of factors: • Bed dimensions and hydraulic performance - The dimensions of a bed (LxWxD) for a particular application are dictated by the inlet and desired outlet nitrate concentrations. Hydraulic residence time (HRT) of effluent in the bed is also important to achieve design performance. HRT is controlled by water gradient within the bed. Research trials are currently being undertaken to optimise bed design and hydraulic performance. • Inlet-outlet structures - Design of the inlet and outlet structures are important to facilitate uniform flow through the bed and maximise effluent-media contact. The design of these structures must also allow for ease of maint enance. • Inlet nitrate concentration Denitrification beds have been shown to be capable of treating nitrate concentrations ranging from <5 mgNO 3 -N/L to >350 mgNO3 -N/L. Some pre-treatment processes that already

technical features


G

wastewater treatment

refereed paper

incorporate a denitrification step req uire only "polishing " of the effluent (i.e. removing on ly small levels of nitrate). Conventional domestic wastewater treatment systems incorporating nitrification requi re the treatment of 50-?0mgNOr N/ L of nitrate. For other applications where concentrations are even higher, such as dairy shed effluent, hot houses or industrial wastewater, treatment via denitrification beds is also possible. • Nitrate loading rate - The volumetric requirement for media is also determined by the mass of input nitrate that can be applied to a set vol ume of media. This in turn is dependent on the type of media and the particle size and distribution. • Desired outlet concentration Denitrification beds can be designed to remove nitrate down to very low levels (<1 mgNO 3-N/ L). However the removal requ ired from the denitrification beds is normally dictated by t he relevant environmental protection limits, often as total nitrogen. Total nitrogen is the sum total of oxidised nitrogen (nitrate), ammonia and organic nitrogen. If ammonia and degradable organic

carbon are removed or converted to nitrate in pre-treatment, the only way to lower the total nitrogen in the effluent is by lowering the nitrate. • Liner - Denitrification beds are typically housed within an impermeable liner to

prevent subsurface erosion and leaching of nitrate and carbon into the groundwater, prior to treatment in the denitrification bed . • Carbon media - The current denitrification bed design utilises a woodchip mix as the carbon source.

Research trials are currently being undertaken by GNS Science, University of Waikato and Landcare to identify optimum chip size and alternative carbon sources that may provide improved denitrification and hydraulic efficiencies and reduced bed construction costs.

Features of the Denitrification Beds The advantages of denitrification beds over alternative nitrate removing treatment options are:

Protecting Dur Waterways with

• Construction Cost - the beds are inexpensive to install when compared to other tertiary denitrific ation processes such as sand filtration. • Low maintenance - the beds are very low maintenance with media replacement estimated to be in the vicinity of 5-10 years. • Add on - a bed can be added onto an existing treatment system • Removal rates - capable of > 99% removal of nitrate Denitrification beds are typically used as the final stage in the treatment process. During the first few months of operation, however, the bed will add colour, BOD and organic nitrogen to the discharge effluent. This can cause deterioration in effluent quality and render the wastewater unsuitable for UV disinfection , for example. However trial results have shown that these parameters reduce to acceptable levels after several months of operation. Pre-leaching of the carbon media could be undertaken to minimise these effects if required. High influent sulfate concentrations can also lead to H2S production in the discharge effluent if nitrate limiting

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*Flow rate and treatment effic iencies calculated by full scale fie ld testing in B risbane using and outlet size of DN300mm.


wastewater treatment

~ refereed paper

conditions in the bed occur. Appropriate bed sizing and the ability to alter the HRT will minimise this effect.

Recycle for yard hose down

Dairy Shed Wastewater

Stage 1 MBR Treatmentproducing a nitrified effluent

Applications Storage/Stabilisation Pond

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Identified applications for denitrification beds include:

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• Municipal wastewater • Dairy Shed effluent • Hothouse discharge

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• Industrial wastewaters • Landfi ll leachate

Municipal wastewater treatment plants Kinloch WWTP (Taupo) (ADF 200 m3/d) utilises a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) treatment process. The effluent quality from the SBR is sometimes limited by the influent carbon fractions of the influent. Denitrification beds were installed to remove the residual nitrate of the SBR effluent. Nitrat e concentrations at the inlet of the beds are typically in the order of 5-8 mgNO3 -N/L. Two carbon beds were installed at Kinloch in 2004. The dimensions of each are 50m length, by 4m width, and approximately 1.5 m deep. The denitrification beds at Kinloch have been in operation since January 2004 and have been effective with red ucing nitrate and subsequently total nitrogen in effluent. Motutere WWTP (Taupo) (ADF 25 m 3/d) utilises a fixed film Submerged Aerated Filter (SAF). The SAF plant has recently been installed to improve effluent quality, however SAF process typically do not include a denitrification step. Hence effluent nitrate concentrations are in the order of 30-90mgNOrN/L depending on the time of year. A denitrification bed has been installed and commissioned, and recently commenced operation. The design outlet nitrate concentration from the denitrification bed is 0-2mgNO3 -N/L, seasonally dependent.

Industrial wastewater There is potential for industrial wastewater to be treated using denitrification beds provided there is a nitrification stage upstream. Denitrification beds may provide a viable alternative where there is a poor C:N ratio in the wastewater and where tot al nitrogen removal is required. This "supplemental" carbon is provided by the media in the bed downstream of a nitrifying process.

98 NOVEMBER 2008 water

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f• Carbon Bed Influent o CB Effluenij Figure 3. Kinloch WWTP Nitrate Removal Across the Denitrification Bed over a 3-month Period. The following industries are among a few considered as potentially having such a carbon limitation: • Tanneries • Fisheries • Meat processing industries • Agricultural industries

Dairy shed effluent Dairy shed wastewater presents a significant pollutant load on New Zealand's rural environment if not adequately treated (Heatley, 1995). Until recently, treatment techniques such as pond or barrier ditch systems were seen as adequate measures for the management of dairy shed wastewater. Wetlands have sometimes been added to provide an additional treatment step. Land spraying of effluent is successful in the recycling of nutrients where land form and hydrological conditions allow. However, it is not applicable for land

located in low lying areas with shallow water table, topography unsuitable for irrigator travel and ru n off , or porous soils with existing high nitrate groundwaters (e.g. areas of the Canterbury Plains). Also, land spraying involves a significant capital investment and incurs operational costs. A research project using a prototype membrane bioreactor (MBR) system (5 m3 /d) connected to a pond system has shown it to be an effective means of treating dairy shed wastewater and in particular, oxidising the ammonia and organic nitrogen within the wastewater. This technology coupled with a downstream purpose-designed denitrification bed can remove more than 90% of total nitrogen from dairy shed wastewater A simple schematic of the trial plant is shown in Figure 2. Results from this project are presented in the following section.

technical features


wastewater treatment

~ refereed paper

Hot house effluent

10

Denitrification beds are currently being used to remove nitrate from hydroponic hothouse discharge water in the Auckland area. Results to date show that t he beds are capable of treating discharge waters with up to 350 mg NO3 - N/ L.

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Municipal wastewater The results of nitrate polishing from Kinloch WWTP effluent before and after t he denitrification bed is shown in Figure 3. Influent concentrations are shown to fluctu ate from approximately 8mg NO3 N/ L t o 3mgNO3 -N/L over a typical 3 month operational period Effluent nitrate is consistently below 1mg NO3 -N/L except for one data point (3mgNOr N/L). This represents on average a 5mgNO3 N/L reduction in nitrate and thus tot al nitrogen at the plant, a significant improvement in effluent quality. This is important at this location as the wastewater disposal is subsurface and on t o Lake Taupo. Thus the carbon bed is a simple but effect ive way t o minimise nutrient inputs from wastewater into the Lake. Figure 4 presents the fractions of total nitrogen (TN) over the 3 year trial period in the inlet and outlet of the denitrification bed . Th e total nitrogen column is the sum of th e nitrogen fractions namely nitrate, amm o nia and other forms of nitrogen. As discussed there is a significant reduction in average nitrate concentrations, corresponding to a decrease in over 50% of the total nitrogen. There is an increase in ammonia from the bed in the order of 0.5m gN/L. This can likely be explained by a gradual hydrolysis of organic nitrogen cont a ined in the denitrification bed media. The sum of ammonia and other nitrogen fraction (TKN) remains consistent. This supports research to date that denitrification beds are on ly effective if the influent contains nitrogen in t he form of nitrate. This has implications in that the treatment process, especially in municipal

Table 1. Typical Dairy Shed Pond Effluent Concentrations Parameter

Unit

Average

90%ile

COD

rng/L

1775 3254 161 76 33

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Figure 5. Kinloch WWTP - BOD 5 and Total Nitrogen Removal across Denitrification Bed over a 3-year Period. treatment plants, must produce a fu lly nitrified effluent. It should be noted that there is also typically a 2-3mgN/L nondegradable fraction of organic nitrogen in municipal wastewater. Figure 5 present s the results of weekly BOD 5 outlet samples from the denitrification bed since the beginning of the trial. A trend line has been fitted to show that there is a gradual decrease in BOD5 from the denitrification bed. This is consistent with other trial investigations by GNS, Landcare and University of Waikato which support a decline over time in the amount of carbon released from the bed. Noted on Figure 5. is also the average inlet BOD5 concentration and th is is above the outlet trend after a year of operation . This shows a net reduction of BOD5 across the bed. COD data is not available for Ki nloch, however based on experience elsewhere

and the colour out of the bed we would expect a slight increase in COD due to the breakdown and leaching of lignin, tannins and associated organic compou nds from the wood chips used as carbon media.

Dairy shed effluent Table 1 presents effluent quality from a dairy shed pond system that would normally be irrigated and thus represents the input parameters to the research trial plant. The data shows that the system needs t o be capable of red ucing high concentrations of nitrogen and suspended solids. All of the nitrogen into the system from the pond is in the form of ammonia and/or organic nitrogen.

Trial results The prototype membrane bioreactor (MBR) system (5 m3/ d) con nected to a

water NOVEMBER 2008 99


wastewater treatment pond system has shown it to be an effective means of oxidising the ammonia and organic nitrogen within the wastewater. The following denitrification bed reduces the TKN. Figure 6 presents nitrogen reduction across the entire treatment syst em and also identifies removal across the denitrification bed process. The graph presents averages for the data over an 18 month trial period and relates to some 40 or so data points. The data shows that at the treatment plant inlet (outlet from the pond) the TKN is mainly ammonia. The TKN input to the denitrification bed is predominately as nitrate as a result of the nitrification across the membrane bioreactor. The denitrification bed is particularly effective at removing this nitrate however it has little effect on the TKN and the ammonia that remains within the wastewater. This is to be expected due to the fact that the denitrification bed is operating under anoxic conditions and therefore provides limited ability for nitrification. The resu lts also show slight increase in TKN across the carbon bed possibly the result of leaching of organic nitrogen from the wood media. Figure 7 and Figure 8 present the nitrate removal achieved by the denitrification bed. Figure 7 is a bar chart showing the average removal in grams per day based on a flow of 5 m 3/ d through the bed, and Figure shows the individual data points for inlet and outlet concentrations. The bed removed approximately 99% of nitrate during the 18 month trial period. The data shows that even with significant variation in the influent nitrate concentrations to the denitrification bed (5-195mgNO3 -N/L) the outlet nitrate concentration remains relatively constant between 0-5mgNO 3-N/ L. The bed was effective at removing nitrate at the maximum influent concentrations of approximately 195mgNO3 -N/ L. Figure 9 presents the average COD and BOD 5 values across the prototype trial for the 18 month period. These results are interesting in the sense that it is clear there is an initial removal of organic matter across the MBR system however, as would be expected, carbon is added back to the wastewater as it passes t hrough the denitrification bed. While this provides carbon for effective denitrification , it also adds both colour and increases the organic load to the wastewater stream. This may or may not be a problem depending on the disposal environment and the environmental

100 NOVEMBER 2008 water

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Overall, the dairy shed trial has shown the denitrification bed to be an effective means of removing nitrate and hence playing an important role w ith the removal of total nitrogen. The process shows a slight increase in colour and

technical features


wastewater treatment

~ refereed paper

organic load added to the wastewater across the bed. Given the current stat e of a number of dairy shed discharges this is seen to have minimal environmental effects when compared to a direct discharge from a pond system.

t

Conclusions

6'

Resu lts of existing denitrification bed trials in New Zealand offer positive outlook for the effective denitrification of nitrat e rich effluents. They are cheap to const ruct, have low maintenance requirements, and experience indicates that this provides an effective means to minimise point source discharges of nitrogen from wastewater. The lifespan of the carbon media is in excess of 7-8 years (li kely to be in the order of about 15 years). In the municipal and dairy shed appli cations investigated above, nitrate removal is in the order of 95-99% even with widely varying influent nitrate concentrations. This reduction in nitrate corresponds to a significant reduction in total nitrogen concentrations when coupled to an upstream nitrification process. Investigations into agricultural applications are underway, and other indus trial applications may also prove to benefit from the denitrification beds. Future research work GNS Science, University of Waikato and Landcare Research, in conjunction with Taupo District Council and AWT are currently undertaking trials to quantify carbon loss from the beds to more accurately predict bed longevity and further research the benefits of denit rification beds. This work is being undertaken at the Taupo WWTP with a purpose built fixed film nitrification process followed by a number of trial beds.

1800 1600 1400

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â&#x20AC;˘ coo asoi&] Figure 9. Average COD and 80D5 removal over 18 months (- 40 data points). Situ Reactive Barriers for Nitrate Remediation. Groundwater 38, 689-695 .

Environmental Scientist for Taupo District Council.

References

Schipper, L., Vojvodic-Vukovic, M (2001) Five Years of Nitrate Removal, Denitrification and Carbon Dynamics in a Denitrification

Heatley, P., Managing Farm Dairy Effluent, Dairying and the Environment - NZDRI 1995.

Wall. Water Research, Vol. 35, No. 14, 3473-3477.

Robertson W.D., Blowes D.W., Ptacek C.J. and Cherry J.A (2000) Long-term of In

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Acknowledgments

Melbourne

The a uthors acknowledge the support provided by the Taupo District Council, GNS Science, Landcare and the University of Waikato.

03 9793 9999 Sydney

02 9671 3666 Brisbane

The Authors Richard Bri ce is a Senior Process Engineer for AWT and based in the AWT Office in Melbourne, email richardb@awtnz.co.nz. Steve Couper is the M anaging Director of AWT New Zealand Ltd based in Auckland. Stewart Cameron is a PhD Student at the University of Waikato and employee of GNS Science. Dr Louis Schipper is Associate Professor at the University of Waikato and Nicola Hancock is an

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NOVEMBER 2008 101


wastewater treatment

RAPID COD DETERMINATION BY PHOTOCATALYSIS M lmisides, E Reisman, M Mccrum Abstract BOD5 is an important st andard parameter commonly used to monitor organic load for environmental and process control in a vast range of industries. Using the Aqua Diagnostic PeCOD™ COD analyser to determine COD in a brewery and sugar mill refinery, it has been shown that a scaling factor can be applied to COD measurements to determine an estimated BOD 5 concentration in a range of saline conditions which was well within the 95% confidence level when compared to the standard BOD 5 test.

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First reported several years ago (Zhang et al 2004) the basis of the technology is a photoactive fi lm of titanium dioxide. Upon irradiation by UV light, a photoelectron and photohole are created with an electrochemical potential of 3.1 V, which has very powerful oxidising properties.

Introduction Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) are two of the most common generic indices used to assess aquatic organic pollution. BOD is often used to evaluate the biodegradable fraction, and COD the total organic pollution load of waters contaminated by reductive pollutants (Kim et al 2001, Abuzaid et al 1997, Thomas et al 1997, Thomas et al 1999). BOD val ues will generally be lower than COD values. This is due to the substantial differences in the methods of oxidation of t he samples. COD measures the oxygen cons umed by a very rigorous chem ical oxidation under heat whilst BOD5 measures the oxygen demand from microbes living in an incubated environment for 5 days. While COD gives a good estimate of the biogeochemical interactions in waterways, BOD is generally believed to give a better representation of these interactions. In the industrial world the continuous monitoring of organic load becomes essential to comply with regulatory requirements. Given the practical constraints on real ti me data introduced by the BOD5 test, an alternative is its estimation, by correlation, from a rapid COD measurement. The standard dichromate COD test, although somewhat faster than the BOD 5 test, still takes several hours, and this is too slow for an operation where real time data is essential, such as a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) where varying

102 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Unlike the dichromate method, wh ich determines COD by difference, the PeCOD™ device directly measures the Chemical Oxygen Demand. It does this by exhaustively oxidising, at a photoanode that is illuminat ed with UV light and set at a potential bias, all oxidiseable organics in the sample. Thus, the analytical signal is the charge that is harvested during this process.

Figure 1. P100 Online Monitor. COD levels will indicate a varyi ng load on the plant, or an industrial outfall where information pertaining to regulatory compliance must be available quickly. In this latter case, the BOD values required for regulatory compliance at WWTP outfalls are usually far too low to admit to BOD measurements (<1O mg/L), and since with the standard dichromate COD test results below 50 mg/I are regarded with caution, it is not capable of acting in this capacity. In addition, dichromate can oxidise chlorides to chlorine so it cannot be used for saline effluents such as desalination brines. This paper reports on an alternative technology for the measurement of rapid COD that addresses these limitations, and allows COD to be measured with a rapidity that makes real-time estimation of BOD possible.

PeCOD™ Technology Aquadiagnostic have combined recently developed photoactive TiO2 nanomaterials with photocatalysis and coulometry to provide an alternative means to standard COD methods.

The ability to monitor in real-time down to the sub ppm level.

Whereas under irradiation alone the photoelectron/hole pairs have a short lifetime, the applicatio n of the potential bias induces an electric field that results in spatial separation that does not otherwise occur. In the presence of an oxidiseable organic, the photohole is consumed, and the photoelectron flows to the external circuit, thus generating a photocurrent. Th is contrasts with the use of titanium dioxide that is added to wastewater as a photocatalytic reagent for the bulk degradation of organics, in wh ich dissolved oxygen is required to harvest the photoelectron and allow a net reaction to occur (Hoffm an et al 1995). The rapidity of analysis allows the technology to be incorporated into both laboratory and online devices (Figure 1). When employed as an on line tool, the instrument is able to provide data to the Plant Control Room, that is then able to optimise the various waste treatment or manufacturing processes accordingly. Typical parameters are shown in Table 1.

System Performance Studies were undertaken at a brewery and at a sugar mill to measure organic load in the discharge. The studies employed a PeCOD™ online COD analyser (P100) set to measure effluent samples at 15 min cycles. Grab samples

technical features


wastewater treatment Table 1. Analytical Figures of Merit and System Requirements Linear Range (mg COD/L)

0-300

Sample throughput

R2 = 0.9992 20 analyses hr·1

L.o.D (mg COD/L) Sample Volume

0.1* 10 mL analyses·1

10000

8000

COD Comparison to BOD A paired t-test performed on the BOD and Estimat ed BOD data set for bot h t he brewery and sugar mill showed no significant difference at t he critical a = 0.05 level between the concentrations observed from the Estimated BOD based on th e PeCOD™ COD method and st andard reference method for BOD (t = 2.13, P = 0.19 and t = 1.75, P = 0.85, respectively) implyi ng a good relationship between estimated BOD and BOD. In addition a regression test showed a significant correlation at the P < 0.05 level (by testing the fully fitted model; Estimated BOD = m [BOD] + [Estimated BOD]; F = 242, P = < 0.001, r = 0.97 and F = 15.9, P = 0.001 , r = 0.79, resp ectively) implying there is a significant correlation between Estimated BOD and standard BOD methods.

Conclusions The capability to reliably relate COD to BOD5 using the PeCOD™ analyser and produce an accurate result as an estimate of BOD has been clearly demonst rated at the 95% confidence level. The PeCOD™ system provides the ability to accurately monitor in real-time a wi de range of concentrations down to the sub ppm level and enables a good

~

7000 6000

...J

---E

6

-+- PeCOD ™ Estimated BOD (SJ -- BOD ( )

... •

N

0 O>

were col lected for a subset of this t rial period where samples were analysed by the PeCOD™ method for COD and externally measured for BOD5 concentrations. The COD data obtained was greater than the BOD data as is typical for industrial and municipal effluent. The data collected from the P100 on line PeCOD™ COD analyser was compared to the BOD results and an average factor was determined between the two data sets. This value was t hen adjust ed to minimise the sum difference between estimated and laboratory tested BOD data. The resulting fact or, for both the b rewery and sugar mill results, was 1 .83 w hich is eq uivalent to a multiplier of 0.55 ±0.02 requ ired to convert COD values to a 5-day BOD estimate. The resu lts for the brewery are shown in Figure 2 and the results for t he sugar mill are shown in Figure 3.

. .

9000

5000

PeCOD™ COD

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 Days

Figure 2. Comparison of COD, BOD 5 and estimated BOD 5 from a brewery.

Hoffman, M.R. ; Martin, S.T.; Choi, W.; Bahnemann, D.W.; Chem Rev 1995, 95, 69-96

representat ion of t he organic load for both total organics and the organics available for biolog ical consumption.

The Authors Dr Mark lmisides is Applicat ions and Development Manager at Aqua Diagnostic, Scoresby, Victoria (mark@aquadiagnostic.com); Dr Elizabeth Reisman is a Product Specialist at Aqua Diagnostic; Matthew McCrum is General Manager Product Operations at Aqua Diagnostic.

References Abuzaid, N. S.; AI -Malack, M. H.; ElMubarak, A. H., Alternative Method for Determination of the Chemical Oxygen Demand for Colloidal Polymeric Wastewater, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1997, 59, 626-630.

25

Kim, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Yano, K.; lkebukuro, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Karube, I., Photocatalytic sensor for the determination of chemical oxygen demand using flow injection analysis, Analytica Chimica Acta 2001, 432, 59-66. Thomas, O.; Theraulaz, F.; Cerda, V.; Constant, D.; Quevauviller, P. , Wastewater quality monitoring, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 1997, 16, 419-424. Thomas, O.; El Khorassani, H.; Touraud, E.; Bitar, H., TOC versus UV spectrophotometry for wastewater quality monitoring, Tafanta 1999, 50, 743-749. Zhang, S.; Zhao, H. ; Jiang, D.; John, R. , Photoelectrochemical determination of chemical oxygen demand based on an exhaustive degradation model in a thinlayer cell, Analytica Chimica Acta 2004, 514, 89-97.

-- PeCODTM COD

20 Estimated BOD (5) N

0

15 -- BOD (5)

...J

---E

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10

,./

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617 Days

Figure 3. Comparison of COD, BOD5 and estimated BOD5 from a sugar mill.

water NOVEMBER 2008 103


.

SOLUTION FOR PUMPS WITHOUT 3-PHASE MAINS SUPPLY Speed control of pumps in domestic or rural areas, where only 1- phase mains is available, can be difficult to achieve. This is particularly true for higher power applications, where limited solutions are readily available. Options have including converting the 1-phase mains supply to 3-phase, using for example a poly-phase converter and a standard 3- phase VSD. Alternatively, de-rating a suitable 3-phase VSD for operation on 1-phase mains can be used, but this solution may suffer from reduced service life due to increased ripple on the DC bus.

1s1ne~s Water Business aims to keep readers alert to business news and new product releases within the water sector. Media releases should be emailed to Brian Rault at brian.rault@halledit.com.au or Tel (03) 8534 5014.

AWA wishes to advise readers that Water Business information is supplied by third parties and as such, AWA is not responsible for the accuracy, or otherwise, of the information submitted.

Standard factory enclosure ratings include IP21 , IP55 & IP66 incorporating segregated heat sink cooling, wh ich reduces airborne contamination of PCB and enhances service life. The IP55 & 66 enclosed versions are particularly robust and suitable for installation in aggressive environments. Standard built-in hardware minimises impact on the supply network and allows the use of standard motors, without the need for extra filters in most applications. • Input RFI Filter. VLT0 AQUA Drive for 1-phase mains operation is available for control of standard 3-phase motors up to 22/37kW.

• Twin DC Bus harmonic chokes. • 150/300m motor cable capability. • Output peak voltage and rise time compatible with motors conforming to IEC 60034-17/25, depending on mains voltage and motor cable length etc.

Danfoss Drives have addressed the issues by releasing a dedicated VSD, specifically designed for operation on single phase mains supply, to control the speed of standard 3-phase motors. The single phase input version of the VLT® AquaDrive offers a simple cost effective solution for speed control of 3-phase pumps, etc in domestic and rural areas. It is available in the following voltage/ power range:

• Auto tuning Pl controller with flow compensation of set-point.

• 1x 200-240VAC mains: 1.1 - 22kW

• Initial, final and check valve ramps.

• 1 x 380-480V mains: 7.5 - 37kW

• Horizontal and vertical pipe fill modes.

Standard control and protection features reduce overall system costs and include:

• Advanced sleep functions for surface and submersible pumps. • No flow/dry run and end of curve protection. • Smart logic control ler, real time clock and preventative maintenance functions. The VLT® AQUA Drive range also includes 3-phase versions covering power ratings from 0.25kW to 1.2MW, 240 - 690V and are complemented by a range of electronic soft starters. For further information contact Debbie Busuttil on (03) 9703 5103, www.danfoss.com/pacific

LAUNCH EVENTS FOR WATERMASTER Official launch events for this innovative range of flowmeters, targeted specifically for the water, wastewater and sewage markets will be held in Melbourne on October 30th and 31st. • Thursday 30th October 7-9 am at the Palladium at Crown, Whiteman Street, Southbank. Breakfast included and on the same day at 12-2pm at ABB, 601 Blackburn Road, Notting Hill. Lunch included. • Friday 31st October 10-12pm at ABB, 601 Blackburn Road, Notting Hill. Morning tea included . Launch events will also be held in NSW and OLD, with the dates soon to be announced. To register to attend one of the launches, please email abbRSVP@au.abb.com.

• Multiple pump cascade controller • Flow/pressure/level control.

WaterGEMS®VB XM Edition

COMPREHENSIVE AND EASY TO USE WATER MODELLING SOFlWARE ~ ~~~.!.~~y Bentley WaterGEMS VS XM Edition, for water distribution modelling, comes equipped with everything engineers need in a flexible multi-platform environment, from fire flow and water quality simulations, to criticality and energy cost analysis, to flushing and water loss analysis. For more information, see the inside front cover of the November issue of Water Journal, visit www.bentley.com/A WA, e-mail anz.marketing@bentley.com, or call +61 (0)3 9699 8699.

104 NOVEMBER 2008 water

water business


During these launch events, ABB's product experts will be on hand to demonstrate the advanced features and functionality of the WaterMaster. This will be an opportunity to discuss specific applications in depth and learn how users can operate more efficiently, reduce costs, and increase profitability.

Key features of WaterMaster • Available in the most commonly installed flowmeter sizes: 40 - 300mm. • Incorporates an innovative octagonal sensor design. This improves flow profi le and reduces up and down stream piping requ irements. • All WaterMaster sensors have a rugged , robust construction to ensure a long, maint enance-free life under the most difficult conditions, the sensors are inherently submersible (IP68,) as standard. • In the field, WaterMaster incorporates many operator focused features. The backlit, graphical display and "Through-the-glass" control allows local operator interface to input short, quick data for all user specific parameters. • The universal ABB Human Machine Interface (HMI) simplifies operation, maintenance and training. • Advanced Digital Signal Processing (DSP) gives improved performance and enables real time measurements for maximum reliability. • 'Fit and Flow' data storage inside WaterMast er eliminates the need to match sensor and transmitter in the field. On initial installation, the self-configuration sequence automatically replicates into the transmitter all calibration factors. For more information, contact Daryl Pullar, National Manager - Water Industry Tel: (07) 3713 9002, Fax: (07) 3713 9001 , Email: daryl.pullar@au.abb.com

LARGE BORE PIPE COUPLINGS AVAILABLE Large bore couplings are often the last thought when installing a pipeline and they can often blow out the install time d ue to long lead times. This should be a thing of the past now with these ex-stock in Brisbane.

Material Specifications • End-flange, centre sleeve and flange body - rolled steel to 8 S4360:1986 Grade 43. • Bolt s, studs and nuts - BS970: Part 1: 1983 Grade070 M20. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Power (FBEP) coated cou plings are supplied with FBEP coated bolts and nuts. • Sealing Rings - Natural Rubber (NR) to BS2494:1990 supplied as standard by EPDM, Nitrile and SBR to BS2491 :1990 also available on request at extra cost.

~

FLOWSERVE ' - - , ;.

The Flowserve TKL'" KL-ISO'" and the TKL KL-ISO Compact pumps are the result of an international Research and Development Program to make a range of versatile and reliable multi-purpose pumps with more advanced features and higher performance levels than ever before. New dimension pumps designed with the future in mind offering: • Robust and high quality ensuring extended life at low cost, producing an all-round balance of strength and hydraulic performance • Designed and built to International Standard ISO 2858 thereby establishing superiority through standardisation and interchageability over other pumps • ISO 2858 specifies dimensions that ensure low shaft stresses, and longer bearing life • Larger suction branch for superior suction ability • A computerised flow analysis program achieving higher efficiencies resulting in lower operating costs • Simple, low cost maintenance For further information, please call, fax or visit our web site now.

Flowserve Pump Division 26 Faigh Street Mu/grave Victoria 3170 Phone +613 9574 3100 Fax +61 3 9574 3101 www.tkl.com.au

• Coating and protection - The st andard coating is a Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder (FBEP), an extremely effective anti-corrosion coating. Approx. 200 microns thick.

water NOVEMBER 2008 105


new products & services machine is powered by a Hatz air-cooled industrial diesel engine and comes mounted in a heavy duty galvanised steel frame on 4 big pneumatic tyred steel wheels for ease of manoeuvrabi lity on site. The new Raptor comes with fu lly adjustable pressure unloader to enable the operator to set the pressu re requ ired. The double gauge system enables the operator to lock off the test lines and monitor both pump and line pressures at the same time. Designed originally for Middle East customers, the Raptor HTP is now being used in Australia, and is expected to be a big success both here and in export markets.

Stock available in sizes 345mm OD to 826mm OD Ex Brisbane (available up to 2200mm OD ex works). Dismantling Joints also available. For more details contact: www.allflowsupply.com.au

NEW HYDROTEST PUMP KIT LAUNCHED Australian Pump Industries, Australia's major manufacturer of hydrotest equipment has launched a 7,000 psi diesel-driven hydrotest pump kit. Called the Aussie Raptor HTP, the machine achieves flows of up to 13 litres per minute.

-~~ -~

The Aussie Raptor uses a Penta Quintuplex stainless steel pump to produce a 7000 psi hydrostatic tester.

The heart of the system is a big Udor 7,000 psi Penta style pump. The quintuplex design utilises a machined stainless steel head with an oil-filled crank case for cool running. The pump, designed to run at 1450 rpm, offers the ability to test pipelines, compressors and pumps in the oil and gas industry at pressures of up to 7,300 psi. The

QUALITY ASSUREO ENGINEEREO PROOUCTS

Designer and manufacturer of high efficiency, low speed floating and fixed surface aerators from 3kW to 220 kW w ith an unmatched 5 year, unlimited hours guarantee. By-Jas offers flexible financing and delivery solutions including rental , purchase and fully maintained operating leases. Ring now for a current stock list. Other products in our range include settling tanks ( 12 designs), packaged sewage and water treatment plants, reuse filters and clarifiers to Class B and Class A standard .

For more information, contact: By-Jas Engineering Pty Ltd PO BOX 424, HASTINGS VIC 3915 Tel: (03) 5979 1096 Fax: (03) 5979 1524

106 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Further information is available from Australian Pump Industries and Aussie Pump Gold Distributors throughout Australia and the South Pacific. For further information, contact (02) 9894 4144.

LEAKAGE TOOL RESEARCH WINS INNOVATION AWARD The Bentley and United Utilities PLC collaborative project "Optimization Method and Modeling Tool for Leakage

Specify and use Link-SealÂŽ seals to seal pipe penetration

Slide the assembly into the space between the pipe and wall opening

PR â&#x20AC;˘jEX

When the bolts are tightened, Link-Seal modular seals expand to create a gas and water tight seal.

Available in Australia and New Zealand

Projex Group Pty Limited Telephone: 02 8336 1666, Facsimile: 02 8336 1670 www.projex.com.au, email : mail @projex.com.au

water business


Detection in Water Distribution" has won the Honour Award for Applied Research in the International Water Association (IWA) Project Innovation Award 2008 competition for the European region. The IWA Project Innovation Awards recognise excellence and innovation in water engineering projects around the world. The focus of the Bentley and United Utilities awardwinning project was the development of an innovative optimisation methodology and modelling tool for detecting unreported leakages in water distribution systems - a problem t hat results in the annual loss of more 20 per cent of potable water by water utilities worldwide.

CST Wastewater Solutions

aW>

-...berson

.._... UV-techniek

Specialists in Inlet Works Supply • Complete Range of Fine Screens

• 360° Pisto Vortex System

The new version of the Darwin Calibrator modelling tool automates the new methodology, providing engineers and GIS professionals in water utilities and municipalities with a pioneering and cost-effective way to identify the location and extent of underground water leakage. Commenting on the capabilities of the new Darwin Calibrator, Dr Zheng Yi Wu, Bentley Director of Applied Research in Engineering Optimisation, said, "The enhancement t o this innovative optimisation tool solves a long-standing problem for the water industry. It enables cost-effective water-loss reduction strategies and faci litat es the creation of accurate hydraulic models by undertaking both leakage detection and hydraulic model calibration. Therefore, the software module maximizes water utilities' investments in hydraulic modelling technology."

Combined Inlet

Pis/a 360°

Tertiary Treatment • Microfilters to 5 micron • Berson Ultraviolet Disinfection

The new Darwin Calibrat or is included in the latest version of Bentley's WaterGEMS V8 XM and is available for Bentley's WaterCAD V8 XM. For more information about Bentley's water loss modeling tools, including Darwin Calibrator, visit www. ben tley. com/waterlossOB.

MANAGING GROUNDWATER RESOURCES There is a growing awareness in the hydrological community that the interaction between surface wat er and groundwater has been overlooked in the management of our water resources. This interaction is vital for understanding the complex hydrologic impacts of land use and cl imate change particularly in an environment where the demand for water exceeds the availability of the resource. DH I offers tools and knowledge w ith the two most widely used t ools for advanced surface\g roundwater interaction modelling, Mike She and Feflow Mike. She is a user-friendly modelling tool that can simulate the entire land phase of the hydrologic cycle. It is particularly relevant for evaluating wetland management, surface water impact from

• WAM Lime Handling • Sludge Dewatering • Clorifiers

• High Rote Anaerobic Treatment • Package Plants

CST Wastewater Solutions www.cstwastewater.com info@cstechnology.com .au

Tel: (02) 9417 36 1I Fax: (02) 9417 0097

water NOVEMBER 2008

107


new products & services groundwater withdrawal, landuse and climate change impacts, environmental flows assessment and water quality. Numerous independent reviews (provided upon req uest) rank Mike She as the world's most comprehensive, and scientifically sound model for surface water - groundwater interaction. Feflow is the most advanced finite element model available for simulating densitydependent groundwater flow with mass and heat transport.

Since the initial development over 20 years ago, Feflow has evolved into one of the most powerful modelling software packages available and is now used by leading consu ltants , government agencies and educational institutions around the world. Feflow is wel l suited for 2-D and 3-D flow and transport modelling applications, and excels in cases that involve complex geological formations, unsaturated flow, densitydependent flow or thermal convection. Feflow's ability to be coupled to Mike11 makes it ideal for examining fully

dynamic interactions between rivers and groundwater. Mike She and Feflow are currently being applied across Australia in areas as diverse as river and groundwater interaction in the Northern Territory, salinity\drainage management in Western Australia, groundwater related urban flooding in New South Wales, plantation and wetland interactions in South Australia and land use impacts (ACT). Internationally the models have been applied in areas such as the world's largest ecological restoration project (Florida Everglades), the largest Ramsar wetland (Okavango Delta) and the second largest river in Poland (Odra Delta Nature Park). Contact DH/ to take advantage of special pricing for a limited time. For further information please contact Dr Graeme Cox at gjc@dhigroup.com.

Water Advertising To reach the decision-makers in the water field, you should consider advertising in Water

Journal, the official journal of Australian Water Association. For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rault at Hallmark Editions, Tel (03) 8534 5000 or email brian.rault@halledit.com.au

WATER QUALITY METER WITH GPS HANNA's new HI 98280 multiparameter portable meter with GPS receiver monitors up to 13 different water quality parameters (six measured, seven calculated). Measurements from specific locations are tracked with detailed coordi nate information that can be viewed immediately on the display. GPS

information can be transferred to a PC using HANNA's HI 929828 software. GPS information can also be viewed by GPS mapping software such as Google™ maps*. Clicking on visit ed locations using mapping software such as Google™ Maps displays measurement information. The built-in 12 channel GPS receiver and antenna guarantees a position accuracy of 30 ft (10 m).

Parmeate tank under conetructlon et Perth duallnallon plant

...4:ill PER11ASTORE• ~ - , @•..,,,.,u.1r.1TANKS & SILOS 108 NOVEMBER 2008 water

4/8 Leighto n Place PO BOX 240 Hornsby NSW 2077 Toll Free (from land lines) 1800 25 30 40 Fax 02 9477 7363 Email : clientservice@harvestore.com.au

water business


new products & services For measuring points within a 30 ft range or where GPS signals are not available, HI 98280's Fast Tracker is invaluable for associating measurements with their locations. HANNA's exclusive Fast T racker -Tag I.D. System monitors and records data using iButton®s that can be installed at any number of sampling sites. The HI 98280 has a graphic, backlit display that automatically sizes the digits to fit the screen and allows full configuration of each parameter measured along with on-screen graphing capability. The meter incorporates comp rehensive GLP features and the downloading of data via USS connection. The new HI 98280 features an internal 12 channel GPS receiver and antenna that calculates its position to track locations along with measurement data. The GPS tracks your location using satel lit es to within 30 ft (10 m) so you can be sure that you return to the same location for repeated measurements.

Basic GPS Features • GPS coordinates shown on the LCD with up to 10 measurement parameters

• GPS signal strength shown on LCD • Number of satellites shown on LCD • Logged data is embedded with GPS coordinates

Advanced GPS Features • Users can associate GPS coordinates with alphanumeric locations • Distances between current location and predefined locations are displayed arranged by distance • Memorises last location and time should signal be lost

HI 929828 PC Software • Manages logged data from the HI 98280 • Displays GPS coordinates with logged data • Automatically maps samples on your PC (internet con nection required) • Shows location points on map along with measurement data For further information, please contact Hanna Instruments on tel: (03) 9769 0666, fax (03) 9769 0699 or email: hannains@hannainst.com. au.

Specifications, MSDS and further information are available on our website: www.hannainst.com.au

AWARD WINNING SOLUTIONS FOR RECY CLED WATER Water Infrastructure Group's Eastern Irrigation Scheme has been supplying Class A recycled water to 60 growers in Melbourne's south-east reg ion since 2005. Originally, most of the growers signed up to the scheme as an insurance policy but almost immediately found that they were totally dependant on recycled water to sustain their businesses over the summer irrigation period. Peter Cochrane has grown vegetables for more than 30 years in Devon Meadows and says that recycled wat er is now a fundamental part of his business. "Without the Class A recycled water from Water Infrastructure Group's Eastern Irrigat ion Scheme our production would be down 70-80% and consumers may notice a shortage of quality carrot s, parsley, rad ishes, spring onions and other bunch lines we grow for Melbourne 's retai l stores. Recycled water is a vital tool to ensure the contin ued viability of food production in

MELBOURN E Peter Everist

SYDNEY Hugh McGinley

ADELAIDE Owen Jayne

BRISBANE Graeme Anderson

03 9863 3535

02 8904 7504

08 83481687

07 3260 2170

peverist@wigroup.com.au

hmcginley@wigroup.com.au

ojayne@wigroup.com.au ganderson@wigroup.com.au

...,~r .._,·; ~

Water Infrastructure GROUP water NOVEMBER 2008 109


Melbourne's south-east district ", Peter said. Peter is President of the Victorian Farmers Federation Horticulture Group and this year's recipient of the AUSVEG Chairman 's Award for his contributions to the industry. Peter Schreurs is another customer of the Eastern Irrigation Scheme and the recipient of this year's AUSVEG Grower of the Year Award. Peter has adopted an Environmental and Sustainability Policy for his family vegetable growing business, which is one of the largest leek producers in Austral ia. He has implemented naturefriendly initiatives through soil biology, integrated pest management (1PM). biodiversity, energy conservation, water conservation and has further reduced potable water use by substituting recycled water.

Mark Schruers explained that the future of the family business is a lot more secure since they signed up to the Water Infrastructure Group's Eastern Irrigation Scheme. "September is normally when we collect ru noff water for our dams but this year we had the driest September on record and we collected very little. Originally, we hadn't intended to use recycled water in our main dam but this year we have topped it up with recycled water over w inter so we are ready if we continue to have dry weather. Without the recycled water, I wouldn't be confident this summer." "In addition, the quality of our dam water has been declining as a result of increasing mineral and salt content and was causing crop problems such as tip burn. The high quality of the Class A recycled water and the nutrients in it have a positive effective on the quality of our crops," Mark said. Noel Mansfield is one of Australia's leading propagators, growing and supplying close to three million plants annually. Th is year his business was a finalist in the Australian savewater® awards Built Environment and Gardens category and winner of the Bu siness

110 NOVEMBER 2008 water

Award category, which included Cadbury Schweppes and Visy Beverage Can as the other finalists.

"Many nursery owners are concerned about their businesses this summer. Stage 3a water restrictions in Melbourne require hand watering in nurseries, which adds substantially to running costs and impacts on the viability of businesses. At the same time, Melbourne's residents have adapted to the restrictions and there is increasing demand for water tolerant plants." "As a result of connecting to the Eastern Irrigation Scheme, we've been able to expand our business sustainably by using Class A recycled water. Each plant grown in a 5 cm pot needs 10.2 litres of water. We've substituted 8 litres of this with recycled water, which is an 80% reduction in our use of potable water", Noel said. Wat er Infrastructure Group's Eastern Irrigation Scheme received the International Water Association's Project Innovation Award 2006 for Design Projects in Australia and South East Asia. Water Infrastructure Group wi ll own and operate the scheme' s ultrafiltration recycled water plant and pipeline network, and sell Class A recycled water direct to customers for 25 years. Water Infrastructure Group's portfolio of projects includes: • Virgi nia Pipeline Scheme in Adelaide • Campaspe Water Reclamation Scheme in Echuca • Eastern Irrigation Scheme in Melbourne • Mangawhai EcoCare Project in New Zealand • Surbiton Park Recycled Water Plant in Melbourne • Barwon Water Biosolids Management Project in Geelong • Adelaide Desalination Pilot Plant • Moura Wastewater Treatment Plant

water business


new products & services Water Infrastructure Group is Australia's largest supplier of Class A recycled water for irrigation and residential dual pipe use. Contact: Leif Ericson - lericson@wigroup.com.au

ON-LINE CHLORAMINATION ANALYSER The ChemScan Model UV-2150/S is an on-line analyser manufactured by ASA Analytics. It is designed for control and monitoring of the chloramination process. It is capable of monitoring multiple parameters and multiple sample streams in one centralised analyser. Many water treatment plants have success with ch loramination ratio control with this analyser. The four parameters offered are free ammonia, total ammonia, true mono-chloramine and t otal chlori ne. 4-20 mA analog ue output signals for each parameter are sent from the analyser to the plant cent ral co ntrol system, where control decisions are mad e based on the ammonia to chlorine ratio.

updates eight signal outputs (four signals at each sample location) every 16 minutes. Outputs are held constant at the most recent value until updated with a new analysis. Another feature is the internal storage capacity; the ChemScan analyser stores the last 750 sets of data. For a two sample stream operation (four paramet ers for the fi nished water and ammonia for the raw influent). it stores approximately seven days of data.

i ChemScan

For more information, contact Arthur Kokolekos at Royce Water Technologies Pty. Ltd. Phone: 0439 337 247, Fax: (03) 9886 3025, Email: arthur.kokolekos@ roycewater. com.au, www.roycewater.com.au

ENHANCED ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS

It takes approximately eight minutes for the analyser to complete analysis of all four parameters. If the analyser is set up to monitor two sample streams, it

AWMA Pty ltd continues to provide turnkey solutions within the water industry, highlighted recently t hrough the complet ion of the Wimmera CMA project. Alluvium Consulting engaged AWMA to assist in delivering this project for the Wi mmera CMA involving four regulated sites.

... Data Collection & Reporting Hosting, processing & backing up your data You access via the web Data is sent from a datalogger in t he field Reports include dynamic t rends & calculations Operational decisions made quick & easy Sites being monitored can be permanent or temporary Historical & current data at your fingertips A cost effective solution to distributing data Retrieve data from office, home or any internet connection Email and/or SMS real-t ime alarms

HydroShare is an effective solution

fo r your data collection

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P (03) 9552 3007 F (03) 9552 3008 E info@usus.com.ou

www.usus.com.au

water NOVEMBER 2008 111


new products & services This project improves GWMWater's ability to provide environmental flow releases, as well as manage efficient distribution of water resources to GWMWater's storages though the installation of AWMA's LayFlat gates. Throug hout this project AWMA has demonstrated it can provide a customdesigned gate with proven flow measurement whilst being instrumental in the comm issioning and installation.

Th e AWMA LayFlat gate features an overshot design with a downwardopening tilting gate suitable for maintaining water level or regulation of

flows. The gates and metering devices installed enable accurate measurement and provide opportunity for increased flows through each site. All regu lators are currently operated on-site via AWMA's fully automated HMI (H uman Manual Interface) touch screen. As with all AWMA products the water control gates installed can be easily integrated into a new or existing SCADA syst em for remote operation and monitoring at a later date if requ ired. According to reports provided by the Wimmera CMA "considerable efforts have been made in recent years to improve river health, however, aging infrastructure is not suitable for safe and efficient water regulation. The proposed Wimmera- Mallee Pipeline project is expected to free up additional water for environmental purposes. To achieve the greatest benefits from these environmental entitlements the existing waterway regulators needed to be modified to facilitate the accurate delivery of environmental flows".

Th is project required structure upgrades at four sites to enable a more reliable and accurate delivery of environmental water releases through the MacKenzie River system. Wimmera CMA advised , "The original structures were a series of stop-board type gates that were performing their design function but req uired manual operation. The focus of the modifications was to improve the ease and efficiency of environmental water delivery, while also addressing the issue of OH&S risks with drop board structures". For further information contact A WMA on 1800 664 852

A WEATHER STATION FOR YOUR NEEDS

C&SBRAND AUSTRALIAN FILTER COAL FOR DEEP BED COARSE DUAL MEDIA FILTRATION

While purchasing a weather st ation seems like a simple idea, it's important to ensure that you end up with the correct station for you r specific application. Depending on your requirements - turf management, crop control , disease prevention, you may require carrying sensors and components to ensure you are getting the maximum benefit from your station.

"More UFRVs for your money, and better quality water"

C&S BRAND GRANULAR & POWDERED ACTNATED CARBONS JAMES CUMMING & SONS PTY LTD

Email:

QUALITY ENDORSED COMPANY AS/NZS ISO 9001 STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

jamescumming@jamescumming.com.au

Licence no: 1628

319 Parramatta Rd AUBURN NSW 2144 Phone: (02) 9748 2309 Fax: (02) 9648 4887

112 NOVEMBER 2008 water

water business


new products & services Looking to monitor soil moisture? Then a turn-key ET station may be the best, allowing you to monitor soil moisture quickly and easily. Wanting high-grade of accu racy? Then custom design a system to suit your chosen sensors. The flexibility of Campbell Scientific data loggers co upled with our range wide range of sensors, peripherals and services allows users to completely cust omise a weather station to suit their individual requirements. Everything from the type of data logger to the method of communications can be suited to your needs - and can be further expanded in future years. But what's involved in choosing your weather station components? Here's a short guide to help you along the way.

sensors to be measured, how much data you need to store and how fast the measurements need to be taken. Our flexible data loggers have numerous channel types and programmable inputs, enabling them to measure most commercially available sensors.

Enclosures and mounting UV- stabilised, fibreg lass reinforced enclosures house the data logger, power supply and data retrieval peripherals - providing protection from dust, humidity, precipitation, sunlight and environmental pollution. For easy viewing in the field data displays can be mounted into the enclosure. Tripods and towers are available t o mount your weather station, once agai n depending on your needs. Tripods are sturdy, mobile and easy to deploy - particularly for uneven or rocky terrains but have a lower measurement level. Towers are best suited to permanent applications as they are cemented into the ground and allow elevated measurement heights.

Building a custom st ation allows you to select the way you want to communicate with it, either through mobile technology, radio communication , direct connection or a combination of these. For more information email info@campbellsci.com.au or (07) 4772 0444.

BRINGING NATURE BACK TO LIFE Two years ago, Sykes Group sold a number of QSPCP200 (Quiet Solution) pumps to a South Australian government department. The pumps have been given a new lease on life since being taken over by the local water authority. The pumps have been commissioned to take water from one of the Murray River tributaries and discharge it on to the dry flood planes. The result of this is not only saving the old river red gums but bringing life back to trees that actually look dead.

Sensors

Data Loggers At the centre of the weather station is a programmable data logger that wi ll measure the sensors and store dat a. This data can be stored in your choic e of units (e.g. wind speed in m/ sec, mph etc), as specific outputs req uired (i.e. max, min, averages etc) and at intervals you requ ire (i.e. hourly, daily etc). Choosing a data logger starts with deciding on the number and type of

A wide range of high quality sensors are designed to interface directly into the custom st ation. The choice of sensors depends on location, accuracy req uirements and of course budget constraints. The most commonly used sensors are - wind speed and direction, air/soil temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, solar radiation, precipitation and barometric pressure. However users can add as many sensor combinations as required. The dat a from these sensors can then be used in this format or inputted into various water and crop management models, giving you more control over your irrigation and crop management.

Telemetry Retrieving your data can be accomplished by many methods depending on how often data retrieval is req uired and the location of your station.

The lake pictured is the result of eight days of pumping 24 hrs a day and transferring 640 million litres, to replicate a natural flood. Branch Manager Damien Jurina said that this is a job he has thoroughly enjoyed. "There have been a number of sites the same as this one since they started in 2006 and the change in scenery and the increase in birds and other wild life has been amazing!" Damien said. " It's great to see Sykes Pumps being used to rejuvenate the environment in this way."

GEORG FISCHER PIPING SYSTEMS

Ph: 07 3390 7166 Fax: 07 3390 7177

Email: info@allflowsupply.com.au

Web: www.allflowsupply.com.au

• Automation • Data Logging • Pressure Control • PH/ ORP • Flow Meters • Plastic Piping Systems • Automated Meter Reading Equipment • Under Pressure Tapping Equipment

water NOVEMBER 2008 113


new products & services process. Measuring the COD of t he influent allows more accurate dosing of the food source, increases the efficiency of the process and reduces expensive over-dosing.

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Quiet Solution pumps can be easi ly accessed for maintenance, and have the distinct advantage of being extremely quiet at 62 dBA at 7 metres, while operating at full load.

If you would like further information on Quiet Solution pumps, contact your local representative or visit sykesgroup.com. For more information please contact Holly McHattan on (02) 4954 3333 or marketing@sykesgroup.com

NEW COD ANALYSERS LAUNCHED Aqua Diagnostic has invented a new green technology COD (chemical oxygen demand) analyser capable of real-time accurate and sensitive (sub-ppm) COD analysis. The PeCOD™ technology represents a major step forward in COD analysis, on multiple levels: • Green: no hazardous or toxic chemicals are required, only an electrolyte solution, unlike the standard dichromate method. • Fast:analysis times can be determined in minutes not hours, thus providing the economic benefit of real-time process control and environmental monitoring. • Versatile: a broad spectrum of matrix streams including seawater can be easily analysed and it is sensitive to sub-ppm levels. • Accurate: analysis of a wide range of organic species including many traditionally 'recalcitrant' species such as primary alcohols and carboxy acids which are frequently underestimated by traditional COD analysis techniques. BOD can be directly correlated to the PeCOD results. PeCOD analysers are available in three different models purpose designed for laboratory use, field portable analysis, and online COD monitoring. Al l systems incorporate the same core COD analysis module to ensure identical performance between models.

114 NOVEMBER 2008 water

The simplicity and speed of t he technique is what allows it to be fully automated in a self-contained online system. The system comes preco nfigured in a single weatherproof stain less steel enclosure that houses the samp lin g, analysis and telemetry modules, as well as electrolyte solution reservoirs. It can be configured to monitor mult iple sample streams. This has significant benefits to any industry involved in wastewater treatment, or using coolant water or water feedstock to a manufacturing process. In wastewater treatment plants the secondary influent can be monitored in real-time, providing the plant with early warn ing of any changes in COD, and through PLC control increase aeration to deal w ith t his. This saves on energy (most plants run at higher aeration levels than they need 'just in case') and avoids costl y process excursions. In BNR plants (biological nutrient removal) methanol or acetic acid is used as a food source for t he biological

Water Advertising To reach the decision-makers in the water field, you should consider advertising in Water

Journal, the official journal of Australian Water Association. For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rault at Hallmark Editions, Tel (03) 8534 5000 or email brian.rault@halledit.com.au

The PeCOD technique can be used to do an immediate COD measurement on waste that is brought in by road tankers. This ensures that the client is being charged appropriately, as well as avoiding t reatment plant issues from unexpected high COD loads. For industries using seawater in cooling towers , the technique is able to directly and accurately monitor the coolant stream despite the high chloride co ncentration up to 35,000 mg/L. Outflow can be monitored to ensure compliance with environmental requirements, and also warn of product loss into t he coolant stream (e.g. sugar refineries).

Aqua Diagnostic is an Australian company, currently establishing a global network of authorised representatives to service the world market. Ph (03) 9763 9840 or visit www.aquadiagnostic.com

MAUNSELL AECOM SUSTAINS OUR WATER Enhancing and sustaining the world's built, natural and social environment is core to our business in areas such as desalination, water reclamation , sustainable water management, modelling and p lanning, Maunsell AECOM creates sustainable solutions.

Services for the management of water and wastewater assets, and water businesses include integrated water management, water resources and supply, wastewater management, network analysis, hydropower, and environmental and asset management Maunsell AECOM is a leading provider of professional technical and management support services for government and commercial clients around the world. It is part of a 40,000-strong global network with offices in Australia, New Zealand and Asia.

For more information, contact www. maunse/1. com

water business


new products & services PALM ISLAND WONDER IN DUBAI In Dubai, one of the United Arab Emirates, an impressive project got under way in 2001: the palm islands. Palm Deira, Palm Jebel Ali and Palm Jumeirah are artificial islands near Dubai city. They do not only have extra beaches and large hotels and resorts with beautiful views for tourists, but also homes and villas at the water for inhabit ants.

The Palm Jumeirah Island Atlantis hotel is situated on the top of Palm Jumeirah and is expected t o be completed soon. The architectural design is based largely on the Atlantis Resort in the Bahamas. The resort will consist of two towers linked by a bridge, with a total of approximately two thousand rooms. There will be two monorail stations con necting the resort to the main section of the Palm Jumeirah Islands. Also, the resort wi ll have a water theme park including an aquarium exhibit, called Dolphin Bay.

making them better corrosion resistant when in contact with repulsive media and resistant to high temperatures. The couplings can be used in various applications, such as the water and gas supply, district heating and cooling , sewage and wastewater treatment, shipbuilding and various other industrial applications.

In the Palm Jumeira Island Atlantis hotel as wel l as in the Burj Lake hotel, the hot and cold water runs through the lstaflex System, connected with electro fusion couplings and Normaconnect FGR Plast/Grip couplings. And of course office buildings, easily accessible by all modern means of transport, like an urban rail syst em, taxi boats and a sea tunnel. The rapidly growing population, and visitors, are expected to reach 15 million by 2010.

One of the main reasons why these stainless steel cou plings and lnstaflex were chosen to be used in both hotels is the weig ht and compactness of the system as well as the service and quality supplied by Georg Fischer. Another reason is material. The lnstaflex system is made of polybutylene which is known for its resistance to temperatu re fluctuations and characterised by simple and practical jointing techniques.

Operating efficiency is achieved largely thanks t o the material, the durable installation technology and the accordingly low maintenance costs. Ease of installation means that the stainless steel couplings provide an economical alternative t o welding, flanging and threading. And the stainless steel 's high resistance t o ageing means that the system is designed for a service life of at least 50 years, i.e. two generations, with a long-term load of up to 16 bar and up to 80°C.

NormaConnectFGR couplings are made of high quality stainless steel,

For further information, contact Norma Pacific, Tel (03) 9761 4416, Fax (03) 9761 4030, Email: sales.au@normagroup.com, www.normagroup.com

water NOVEMBER 2008 115


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water business


lnfoWorks RS surface flood modelling

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With the increasing frequency of extreme flood events, managing the flow of water in rivers and coastal floodplain areas has never been more important. lnfoWorks RS is an advanced modelling tool that combines 1D simulation of flows in rivers and channels with 2D simulation of surface flood modelling in the floodplain and urban environment.

Inf. Works·· RS lnfoWorks RS geographical and sectional views

• • lnfoWorks 20 animated maps of depths & velocities

• •

Full solution modelling of open channels, floodplains, embankments and hydraulic structures Fully integrated breach modelling for homogeneous and composite embankments and dams through overtopping, piping or surface protection failure Rainfall-runoff simulation using both event based and conceptual hydrological methods Interactive geographical plan views, 3D views, sectional views, long profiles, spreadsheet and time varying graphical data Animated presentation of results and analysis using maps, tables and graphs Full flood-mapping capability based on a sophisticated floodinterpolation model overlaid onto an imported ground model

lnfi Works.. 2D lnfoWorks RS dynamic breach modelling

• Ideal for modelling flows over large rural areas and complex urban environments • Accurate and effective modelling of flows through streets, around buildings and over open ground • 2D elements fully integrated within the 1D network • Includes tools for the creation of 2D meshes and fully animated maps of flood depths and velocities

"By using 1D simulation to identify where flooding happens, and then using the combined 1D and 2D simulation to investigate the direction and depth of flood flows in these smaller areas, users can achieve a cost-effective balance between model-building time and simulation accuracy."

lnfoWorks is a registered trademark of Wallingford ·software Limited

Wallingford Software Ltd Wallingford Softwate Pty Ltd, Level 20, Darling Park Tower 2, 201 Sussex Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 Telephone: 02 9006 1603 Email: sales@wa llingfordsoftware.com

www.wallingfordsoftware.com

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Water Journal November 2008  

Water Journal November 2008