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Volume 34 No 6 September 2007

Journal of the Australian Water Association

OPINION AND INDUSTRY NEWS OPINION Energy and Water DBarnes, President, AWA Security Through Tanks? TMollenkopf, CEO, AWA My Point of View MMuntisov, Business Group Manager - Water, GHD AWA NEWS Includes: Stormwater Management Guidelines Completed; New Campaign to Support Smart WaterMark Products; International Water Association's Travel Grant Scheme; Water Industry Capacity Development (WICD) AWA EDUCATION Includes: Young Water Professionals (YWP); ICE WaRM Launches New Post-Graduate Courses to Sustain Dwindling Water Resources; Water Education Network CROSSCURRENT National Issues and Policy, States, New Reports and Papers, Awards, People in the News AWA MEMBERSHIP NEWS New Members

4 5 6 8 14

20 28






indicates the paper has been refereed )

WASTEWATER REUSE Reuse and Recycling 2007 ~~ Impact of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on Water Quality Many supplies will contain low levels of pharmaceuticals, but far below human therapeutic levels ~ Treatment of Wastewaters by RO: Operating Issues - Part 2 Dealing with potential membrane foulants ~ Attitudes to Future Use of Recycled Water in a Bendigo Office Building Results demonstrate dear support for the in-house recycled water uses WATER TREATMENT lml MIEX® High Rate Treatment System: World's First Full-Scale Plant The High Rate MIEX® Process can be more easily retrofitted into existing infrastructure ENERGY MINIMISATION Energy Efficiency in Perth's Desalination Plant Pressure recovery from the re;ect brine stream by ERi PX-220 arrays INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS Centre for Water Research: Leading Edge Technology Wins International Projects Australian technology being applied in thirteen overseas countries Delivering Water Infrastructure in the Middle East Asample of pro;ects demonstrates the valuable role of Australian engineers and scientists WATER RESOURCES Northern River Water for Australian Cities? Floating 60 Ml bags of fresh water from rain-soaked Tully to parched south-east Queensland Kwinana Industrial Area Plans for Water Sources Strategic options for industrial water supply and wastewater reuse/disposal

Report by EA(Bob) Swinton




ADavey, RSchumann, KHoehn




AHolmquist, DMcMurrich




J lmberger, CWood, CMarti




I Edmonds


COughton, VCinanni, GDegebrodt



87 100

OUR COVER The contribution ofAustralian water professionals to the world scene is, as someone phrased it, 'above our weight'. This issue features two examples: Professor lmberger's team at the University of Western Australia has currently some sixteen projects in a wide range ofcountries (see page 73). The other ranges over our contributiom to the huge developments in the Middle East, a climate ofheat and water scarcity in which Australians are experienced. The cover photo shows the huge Palms Project, stretching 7.5 km out into the Gulf (see page 77). Photo courtesy ofNakheel Corpo1·ation. Journal of the Australian Water Association





'Promoting the sustainable it' , management o1 water


Journal of the Australian Water Association

EMAIL info@awa.asn .au WEBSITE http://www.awa.asn. au PRESIDENT

ISSN 031 0-0367

David Barnes -



EVENTS Linda Phillips - 61 2 9495 9914

MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION AND INQUIRIES Michael Seller - 02 6581 3483 mseller@awa

MEMBERSHIP RENEWALS AND CHANGES Membershi p Tea m - 1300 36 1 426



WATER EDUCATION NETWORK Corinne Cheeseman - 6 1 2 9495 9907 ccheesman@awa.asn .au

NATIONAL SPECIALIST NETWORK Laura Evan son - 61 2 9495 991 7

AWA BRANCHES: AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY and NEW SOUTH W ALES Tanya Webeck - 6 1 2 9495 9908 twebeck@awa NO RTHERN TE RRITORY Hayley Galbraith - 6 1 2 9495 9919 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Sarah Carey - 61 8 8267 1783 QUEENSLAND Kathy Bourbon - 6 1 7 3397 5644 TASMAN IA & VICTORIA BRANCH c/o Rachel-ann Martin - 61 3 9235 1416 W ESTERN AUSTRALIA Cath Miller - 04 16 289 075 cmiller@awa.asn .au INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION, AUST. (IWAA) c/o Tom Mollenkopf- tmallenkopf@awa

DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assu mes no responsi bility for opinion or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers.

COPYRIGHT AWA Wa ter Journal is subject ta copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without written permission of AWA. To seek permission to reproduce Water Journal material email your request ta: jsage@awa.asn. au



Volume 34 No 6 September 2007

AWA WATER JOURNAL MISSION STATEMENT 'To provide a print ;ournal that interests and informs on water matters, Australian and international, covering technological, environmental, economic and social aspects, and toprovide o repository of useful refereed papers.' PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, March, May, June, August, September, November and December EDITORIAL BOARD Chairman: FR Bishop BN Anderson, TAnderson, CDiaper, GFinlayson, AGibson, GA Holder, BLabza, MMuntisov, CPorter, DPower, FRoddick EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Water Journal invites editorial submissions for: Technical Papers and topical articles, Opinion, News, New Products and Business Information. Acceptance of editorial submissions is subject to editorial board discretion. Email your submissions to one of the following three categories: 1. TECHNICAL PAPERS AND FEATURES Bob Swinton, Technical Editor, Water Journal: AND Papers of 3000-4000 words {allowing for graphics); or topical stories of up to 2,000 words. relating to all areas of the water cycle and water business. Submissions are tabled at monthly editorial board meetings and where appropriate are assigned to referees. Referee comments will be forwarded to the principal author for further action. See box on page 4 for more details. 2. OPINION, INDUSTRY NEWS, PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Jennifer Sage, Articles of l 000 words or less 3. WATER BUSINESS Brian Rault, National Sales & Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions Water Business updates readers on newproducts and associated business news within the water sector. ADVERTISING Brian Rault, National Sales & Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions Tel: 61 3 8534 5014 (direct), 61 3 8534 5000 {switch), Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water environment and objectives of AWA. PURCHASING WATER JOURNAL Single issues available @$12.50 plus postage and handling; email BACK ISSUES Water Journal back issues are available to AWA members at PUBLISHER Hallmark Editions, PO BOX 84, HAMPTON, VICTORIA 3188 Tel: 61 3 8534 5000 Fax: 61 3 9530 8911 Email:

Journal of the Australian Water Association

THINKING ABOUT VIRTUAL WATER By Mike Muntisov Australia's economic sectors will need co change.

W hat is virtual water? Virtual water is the water used co create che goods and services chat we consume and use. The embodied water co ncept is illustrated in the diagram with a bowl of pasta wh ich may contain say 300L of virtual water, alchough only 2L of boiling water is used to produce it at home. Thinking about virtual water can make us look at our water management systems in completely different ways. A detailed analysis of Victoria's Virtual Water Cycle 1 shows char: • Victorians harvest around 25% of the scare' s coral historic average screamflows.

Mike Muntisov is Business Group Manager - Water at GHD Melbourne.

• Of chis harvested water, around 40% (2000 GL) is exported out of the state as virtual water, mainly embodied in food products.

Virtual Water In Victorian Final Demand

• Victorians each consume around 0.8 ML of virtual water each year which is about eight times our direct water use.


Dairy products 15%


A breakdown of the virtual water consumption of Victorians is shown in the pie chart. Dairy produces and red meat together represent more than a quarter of our coral virtual water consumption. Indeed, Victorian's virtual water consumption in the form of dairy produces exceeds the state's coral direct household consumption of water.





Trade & repairs 7%

Pigs. poultry 8. eggs 2% Building


A recent UNESCO funded study2 also found chat Australia, the world's driest inhabited continent, was che largest net exporter of virtual water in the world.

coral economic activity not just direct household water use.

Why does Victoria and Australia export so much virtual water? The answer is that there is a lot of water embodied in our food export products. In comparison, our imports are dominated by manufactured produces which generally have a low virtual water content, hence we are a large nee exporter of virtual water. This cells us chat water management and use is d ependent on

As the economy grows so coo will water use in the "business as usual" scenario. A simplistic 3% pa growth (the Australian average over the lase 30 years has been 3.2% pa) would result in the need co harvest 100% of the state's historic average screamflows by 2050 (even earlier with climate change). So ou r water management paradigms and the balance of Victoria's and

id.,- ..



300 L = 2L 6 SEPTEMBER 2007



~ o-






Journal of the Australian Water Association


+ 280L

We will need co ask ourselves whether the nation is getting the best value it can from its water resources. This may involve scarring co look at strategic aspects of virtual water trade including reviewing o ur export produce mix, importing virtual water-rich produces from water rich nations such as New Zealand, or moving the growth of water intensive industries such as irrigation co the water-rich pares of Australia. An appropriate pricing policy and marker framework will facilitate these changes Finally, chinking in terms of virtual water also shows chat lifestyle choices at che household level can influence water management within the whole economy. For example, our diet choices affect virtual water consump tion. Foods which some dieticians recommend eating in moderation have a high virtual water content e.g. d airy produces, red meat, sugar. W hile chose chat are often reco mmended fo r increased consumpt ion e.g. fruit, vegetables, grains, seafood rend co be lower in virtual water. Indeed, a vegetarian diet has half the virtual water content of a standard meat-rich diet. And co answer a FAQ, beer has che lowest virtual water content of the common alcoholic beverages. Ultimately, we may reach a stage where there is 'wacersmart' labelling on all household produces. In a water conscious environment this will put pressure on producers across the whole production chain co reduce water consumption. "Low water use" products may appear beside "97% far free" products on the supermarket shelves! Thinking in terms of managing virtual water sources and demands provides an eight-fold greater impact on overall water management chat simply focusing on household water consu mption. le also provides a strong link between irrigation use and perso nal lifestyle - in ocher words : water management is nor a p roblem for fa rmers alone. I . GHD (2007), Report on the Virtual Water Cycle of Victoria (Draft), for Viccorian Water Trust. 2. Chapagain, A.K, & Hoeksra, A.Y. (2004) Water Footprints of Nations, UNESCO-IHE, Value of Water Research Reporc Series No. 16.

"The Department of Water is confident char adoption of the practices contained in the manual will lead to better management of parklands, rivers, wetlands and oceans and will help prevent fish kills and pollution events," Mr Ruprecht said.

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES COMPLETED Tc was a timely launch for the Department of Water's Storm water Management Manual for Western Australia by Water Resources Minister John Kobelke when it coincided with the heavy rainfall of the past few weeks. Minister Kobelke hailed rhe manual as an important initiative to improve the way the state's stormwater resources are managed. The manual was one of several water improvement initiatives, wh ich wi ll provide greater clarity ro developers, industry, local government and service providers in managi ng all aspects of stormwacer. The Department of Water's Director of Water Resource Management, John Ruprecht, said the manual was developed for local government, industry, developers, state agencies, service providers and community groups. le provides policies and guidelines on how to manage stormwacer where it falls, and as it travels through the catchment, as well as end of catch ment solutions to protect rivers, wetlands and oceans.

The manual aims to build on the traditional objective of local flood protection by havi ng multiple outcomes, including improved water qualiry management, protected ecosystems, and liveable and attractive communities.

In an effort to ensure the manual is used co its full potential, the department is developing a capacity-building program to help stakeholders apply the approaches promoted in the manual. Copies of the manual chapters can be obtained from the Department of Water website at http:/ /, under the Management Manual heading. For more information , phone (08) 6364 7600.

Ir encourages a treatment train approach, where combinations of different methods were implemented in sequence or concurrently, co achieve rhe best management of stormwarer. These methods included atsource controls and infiltration, nonstructural methods such as education and training, retention and restoration of natural water body systems, and strucrnral methods.

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This spring and summer will see a major campaign underway to encourage retailers co stock and consumers to choose products







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National Water Week

Promote your event on the official National Water Week website, by listing it on the online event calendar. Or download a media release template, complete with the National Water Week logos, from

Wanta National Water Week poster? You can now request the artwork for the poster, to display at your school, workplace or community. Check out the poster at The poster is provided as a print-ready PDF file. Send an email to to request the poster artwork.

bearing the Smart Approved WaterMark and save water. Over 100 products and services have received the Mark and mo re are being added each review, so it is ti mely for the Smart WarerMark message to be taken ro the public and support the Mark holders. In most produce areas where water is used around the home there are now products which have been awarded the Mark. Research shows char people wane co save water. The Smarr WarerMark provides a simple guide when choosing produces to buy. The co nsumer and retailer campaign will include a comprehensive media public relati ons program targeting print, radio and television, begin ning with the launch of a new consumer website in National Water Week, October 2 1-27. The campaign will direct consumers to rhe website which will have information about saving water, Smarr Watermark products and where to purchase chem. The Smarr WarerM ark has been awarded co produces in areas such as: • Gardening - including soil wetting agents and smart pots • Greywater and other household plumbing systems • Pool and spa covers • Low water use car washing units and waterless car washes • Irrigat ion and rainwater harvesting products Ir also extends to services such as the Enviroplumber training scheme in NSW which trains plumbers in water and energy conservatio n; waterless car washing services; and Syd ney Water's Plane selecror on its website.

This year, we're looking yor the most

National Water Week 2007 and the

Water Wise Competition


are supported by


The Smart Approved WaterMark has become firmly established as the national recognition scheme for products that contribute to saving water outside, just as its sister scheme WELS (Water Efficiency and Labelling Standards) has done for indoor water use. The WaterMark has unilateral support from federal and state environment ministers and is now used as a criteria fo r water rebates. Information kits are being distributed to retailers across Australia and the Mark




Products and services are assessed by rhe WarerMark's independent technical Expert Panel and if proven to make a direct contribution to water conservation, they are approved to use the label which can then be used on packaging and in promotion.


Journal of the Australian Water Association

will have a presence at trade and consumer shows in the year ahead. A Marketing Coordinator has joined the Smarr WaterMark ream to promote it more strongly at all levels.

For more industry information about the Mark visit or the consumer site at

INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION'S TRAVEL GRANT SCHEME By M ichael Storey In what seems to be o ne of the best kept secrets, the Australian branch of the International Water Association (IWM) provides a Travel Grant Scheme to IWA student members and eligible Young Water Professionals to attend local and international events. In chis article we speak with some of rhe lucky recipients of chis exciting fu nd ing initiative. The International Water Association (IWA) is rhe largest international professional membership association dedicated to the improvement of water management worldwide in an environmentally sustainable way. Australian members of IWA are represented in the Australian Water Association by IWM, the Australian committee of IWA. The activities of IWM are generally integrated with those of AWA and IWA with seminars and conferences jointly run in Australia. Since 2002, IWM has conducted a T ravel Grant Scheme for IWA student members, and more recently, chis program has been expanded to include IWA Young Water Professionals who meet a certain eligibility criteria. The IWM Travel Grant Scheme is intended to help these groups undertake professional studies in universities and research ins ti turions in Australia and abroad and in doing so help the Australian water industry remain at rhe forefront of developments in research and technology. Over rhe last few years travel grants have been awarded to successful applicants to present a paper or poster at IWA Specialist Group Conferences, IWA World Water Congresses, IWA Leading Edge Technology (LET) Conferences and Asia-Pacific Regional Group (ASPIRE) Confere nces as well as Young Water Professional events in Singapore and Beijing. Here we talk to a selection of students and YWPs who have been recipients ofIWM travel support.

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implementation of technology; and move to using a quality of water which is "fie for purpose" rather than p redominantly using potable water for all uses.


T h rough training, technical skills, knowledge and experience of the water cycle, Young Water Professionals will be, in the nor-too-distant future, the ones developing solutions for the long term, which have the buy-in and support of all parties involved for the greater good of Australians and the environment. Exciting times ahead!

Chris Corr - President National Representative Committee, AWA Young Water Professionals Well hello again! As water industry workers and watchers, we have all been focussing on critical projects to address water shortages. However into the future, water professionals will need to do much more than continue to roll out the "emergency water supply measures". We must engage with Government, the industry, water businesses, catchment management authorities, councils, politicians and the community to develop sustainable water collection, storage, treatment, use and reuse (recycling) measures. We must, as a society, significantly reduce usage through both education and

Since the August issue of Water there have been a number of changes to the AWA's YWP National Representative Committee (NRC). Long serving representatives Rachael M iller (Water Corporation, WA), Lionel Ho (SA Water, SA); Daniel OweYoung (Power and Water Corpo ration, NT) and Belinda Hutch ison (Arup, Q ld) have handed over the reins after fantastic contributions. Lionel has represented South Australia on the NRC since its inception at Ozwater in Brisbane in 2005, with Rachael taking over in Western Australia later chat same year. I would like to personally and on behalf of AWA and the YWP members thank Belinda, Daniel, Lionel and Rachel for their hard work and dedication.

2nd IWA ASPIRE Young Water Professionals Career Development Workshop

Nie Morgan (Power & Water Corporation) resumed the role in the Northern Territory, having returned from a nine-month stint in Pakistan, carrying out aid work. Amanda Kobes (Water Corporation ) has taken over in Western Australia and Sarah Jewel (URS Corp) has done likewise in Sou th Australia. They will join Erin Cini (Southern Regional Pipeline Alliance, Q ld), Patricia Calderon (Veolia Water, NSW) and me (GHD , Victoria). For the fi rst time, we now have a rep resentative for the ACT in Zoe Moore (ACTEW AGL). I also offer a warm welcome to the new members who will add fu rther ideas and enthusiasm to the team and provide a renewed energy as well. Amanda and Zoe are hoping to pull together groups of enthusiastic YWPs to form larger committees in WA and ACT , respectively. Taking part in such a committee is a very rewarding experience and one which will certain ly further yo ur professional development. Please contact Amanda to express your interest. Contact details for the NRC can be found on the AWA website, under the Networks pages. At the time of writing the NRC has just met with AWA's Ch ief Executive T om Mollenkopf, National Special ist N etwork Coordinator Laura Evanson and Directors Christabel Ferguson and Paul Freeman. The meeting provides an excellent oppo rtunity for the NRC to meet with two of AWA's Directors and to better understand the strategic direction of AWA u nder Tom's leadersh ip. We discussed the recent YWP Business Plan and pulled together a Board Paper outlining the key shore-term goals; formalised the N RC structure; and p ut in place a succession plan to ensu re the continuing long-term effectiveness of the YWP Network. After cwo and half years at the helm of the YWPs, I will be stepping down and taking more of a back sear over the next six months. Nominations are open from the members of the NRC for President and a new Vice P resident role. Ratification or an election will be held over the next few months. I trust that everyone will p rovide as much encou ragement and support to the new Committee and President as has been shown to me.





~ tmr.\ /lnttmotlonal


Water Association

A fantastic event to get into your 2008 diary is the 2nd IWA Young Water Professional Conference, to be held at the University of Queensland from 4 - 6 February 2008. Those who attended the inaugural conference in Sydney in 2006 will certainly be getting their registrations in early! Don't miss out. Until next time - keep your head above water!



Journal of the Australian Water Association


--~ : , ,.

International Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Management

Australia's I nternational Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Management (I CE WaRM) last month officially launched a p io neering postgraduate program ro train the new generation of leaders wh o will manage o ur scarce water resources. The Masters program in Water Resources Management is the first of its kind in Australia and covers cu tting-edge developments in water q uality and treatment, irrigation, water infrastructure, catchment management, aquatic ecosystem management, groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology and public health.

~ esam

T he program, a three-semester Master degree, two-semester Graduate Diploma and single-semester Graduate Certifi cate, is offered through I CE WaRM's partners the U niversity of Adelaide, the U niversity of South Australia, Flinders U niversity, Deakin U niversity and Central Queensland U niversity The course delivery also is b reaking new ground. While core components are taught at individual universities, some subjects are delivered through remote, h igh-tech video conferencing, with lecturers in each of the u niversities leading students across the country. For example, lectures based at Central Queensland University's, Rockhampton campus lead classes in G lobal Water Systems for students at the other fo u r partner universities. The program is a vital tool to counter the cri tical global skills shortage in water management. ICE WaRM C h ief Execu rive, Richard Hopkins, b elieves that there has never been a greater need fo r a new breed of water management experts. Australia is o ne of many countries facing a ch ronic

skills sho rtage in chis area and the situation has been substantially worsened by the coincidence of the d rought and climate change. "Historically, Australian water authorities were staffed by highly-qualified experts with extensive on-the-job training and experience," Mr Hopkins says. "But over the last 15 years, a skills shortage has developed. Many of the experts are growing older together and don't have enough rime to train their successors. Water education in Australia traditionally has been part of an engineering degree. Although chose are valuable qualifications, the technical side is just one aspect of the increasingly complex process of water resources management. This Masters p rogram will contribute to the development of the next generation of experts who can help us overcome one of the most p ressing global issues - managing our limited water resources. A total of 57 students from Australia and overseas - including Chi na, India, Sri Lanka and Latin America - have already enrolled in the program.

Visit t he website a t:


provi ders so professional networking is enhanced and reinventing the wheel beco mes a rhing of rhe past! The Water Educarion Resources Direccory will be live from 19 Seprember. T he New Sourh Wales Government Water for Life Program have co-fun ded rhe darabase and will be promoting ir in NSW but it is a narional direccory, so please let the relevant people in your organisarion know ir exists so they can upload school and comm uniry water education programs and resources char your organisarion provides. Creacors and providers of resources and programs simply register co access rhe darabase and once approved they can add as many programs or resources as rhey wish. Updates can be made ar any rime however, providers will be asked co check their items annually co ensure the content remai ns current.

Corinne Cheeseman, Education Manager

worer educatton network.

It is great co be back at AWA after almosr 4 monrhs off on marerniry leave. I am really enjoying morherhood bur also very happy co be back at work in a part-time capacity. I am currenrly worki ng 2 days a week, typically Thursdays and Fridays but this can vary depending on work co mmitments, meerings ere. T he easiest way ro make contact wirh me is by email Alternati vely you can leave a message in my phone mailbox if you call and don'r reach me (02) 9979 4 142. Since returning to AWA in mid-July, I have been busy with the development of the Water Educarion Resources Direccory. Th is new online search cool enables creators and providers of warer educarion resources and programs co upload rhem onco rhe narional direccory. Online users can then search the directory using specific crireria and/or keywords. The aim is co assist educacors co share what is out there. It may be for sale or freely available, but overall it is impo rrant char as many programs and resources are lisred so we can see just how big chis seccor is today, nationally. The development of the Direccory is in direct response co WEN surveys and also the many inquiries I receive each year. I already have a comprehensive library of your resources rhar I have accumulared in the 3 years I have been in this role. It is nor a lo r of use co anyo ne sirring on the shelf, so the direccory will be rhe perfect cool co capture all of these valuable resources and showcase them nationally. Ultimately it should help you fi nd our what is out there and make conracr with ocher education




The Water Education Resources Directory can be accessed on A WA '.r web site. Go to then click to 'Water Education Resources Directory' to enter. Although the directory has been tested prior to its launch, feedback is welcome. Please email comments to

Efficiency Conference and Water Industry Capacity Development Conference with combined functions and exhib itions for all th ree co nferences. Delegates attending one of these conferences may cross over streams at no additional cosr.

All the details are available at the fallowing web links: www. awa. asn. au/events!efficiency08 www. awa. asn. au/eventslwicd08 Currenrly sponsors fo r the above conference include: • 3rd Water Education Conference: Gold Coast Water (Platinum) • Efficiency 08: Smart Approved WarerMark (Bro nze) • 1st Water Industry Capacity Development Conference: ICE WaRM (Silver)

A variety ofsponsorship and exhibition opportunities are still available. Contact Linda Phillips now on (02) 9495 9914 to make the most ofyour sponsorship opportunity {registration brochure to be circulated next month).

3rd Water Education Conference Efficiency 08


fWccat f/llcy

---- --

2 008

1st Water Industry Capacity Development Conference


water industry capacity development

Preparations are now well underway for the 2008 Warer Education Conference co be held on the Gold Coast from 31 March - 2 April nexr year. We received a great respo nse co the call from absrracts and rhe program is now raking shape. The venue is very large so if you missed the call for abstracts last mon th and are interested in presenting a paper or workshop ar rhe conference, please contact Linda Phillips at lphillips@awa.asn. au as soon as possible. Registrations will open in Occober so this is your last chance co grab a spot in the program. The Water Educarion Conference is being run in conjunction with rhe Warer

Journal of the Australian Water Association

National Water Week

National Water Week will be held from 21-27 Occober 2007. This year National Water Week is proudly sponsored by Smart Approved WarerMark. The National Water Week website has lots of information and resources for use by the media, public, schools and the water industry. The official National Water Week event register and calendar is now open. O rganisers may list their events about water in celeb ration of National Water Week held anytime during October. Derails of this year's National Water Week Warerwise Garden Competition are also available on rhe National Water Week website. T here are competitions for both schools and the communi ty - giving the opportunity co win a living dinosaur, a Wollemi Pine!

Go to

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NATIONAL ISSUES AND POLICY • The Australian govern ment's $ 10 bi llion takeover of water management in the Murray Darl ing Basin passed parliament on Friday 17 th August with bipartisan support. SA Premie r Mike Rann remains committed to the National Water Plan, including the estab lishment of an independent authority to oversee the River Murray as long as it reflects the principles agreed at a summit in February, despite murmurs from other previously commi tted state governments. • The Nati onal Water Commission's Fellowship Programme has been established to develop future leaders fo r Australia's water sector by advancing knowledge, building capacity and helping to fill skills gaps in the sector. Fellowshi ps will be offered in one or more of the priority areas identified by Commissioners namely, groundwater, water recycling, and rural water reform and interception. Applications close 30 September 2007. • In August, the NHMRC convened a meeting in Canberra of a panel of

technical experts to provide comment on the final draft of the Recycled Water Guidelines (Phase2 - Augmentation of Drinking Water with Recycled Water), prior to its journey to all capitals seeking public submissions. The need fo r an implementation strategy, management plans for wastewater treatment plants supplying recycled water schemes and examination of the document's impact on small regional authorities were all identified as requiring further work. Download the guidelines from www .au/ephc/water_recyc Iing. Written submissions should be fo rwarded to Haemish Middleton hm .au by Friday 21 September 2007. • The Australian Government has reached an agreement with Angle Vale irri gators that will enable the Virginia Pi peline Scheme Extension to proceed. The construction of more than 18km of pipelines will supply more than 3000 ML of treated water to irrigators, to assist productivity and the recovery of overdraw n groundwater resources in the area. • The Commonwealth Government is developing legislation and in vesti ng $26. l

million over five years to set up a single, streamlined system for greenhouse and energy reporting by Australi an companies. A system consistent wi th that agreed by COAG in April should be in place by Jul y 2008. Consultation with stakeholders about the new regulations will be held later in 2007. • ANCID (the Australian National Comm ittee on Irrigation Drainage) has developed a website portal to centralise information on irrigation in Australia, including best practice, innovation and technology, case studies, water trading, policy, regul ations, research, education and more. Over time, there will be a comprehensive directory of irrigation stakeholders in Australia. The website will be launched Thursday 26 Ju ly 2007. www • The Murray Darling Bas in Commission is to set up a panel of expert water consultants on call for a National Water Accounting Development Project overseen by a water accounting department committee under the National Water Initiati ve guidelines, to work out just how much usable water there is in habitable parts of Australia.

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20 SEPTEMB ER 2007

Water Journal of the Australian Water Association

• Sydney Water has reduced leakage fro m its distribution system by one third since 2002/03, having inspected more than 60,000km of pipelines and spending about $100 mill ion a year. • Level four water restrictions will be eased in shortly fo r towns in the Murrumbidgee Valley in southern NSW according to Water Minister Phil Koperberg. Bloweri ng Dam was at 27.4% capacity and Burrinjuck Dam at 4 1.3% meaning there is now sufficient water available to al low the repay ment of all water suspended in 2006 and carryover water from 2006/07. • The NSW Price Regulator, !PART is in viting submission on its review of prices of Sydney Water's water, sewerage, stormwater and recycled water charges fro m July 2008. Submissions should be received by 12 October 2007. .au • The NSW Energy and Utilities Administration Amendment (Climate Change Fund) Act 2007 which commenced on 1 Jul y 2007 established

the Climate Change Fund, consolidati ng the Energy Savings and Water Savings Funds previously under the Energy and Utilities Act. lt will provide fu nd ing to encourage water and energy savings,

reduce the impacts of climate change and for water saving measures in any area of the State. • Administrative and pollutant fees payable under the NSW

Protection of the Environment Operations (General) Amendment (Licensing Fees) Regulation 2007 have increased, and a new load based fee apply to licensed premises in the Sydney Basin area that emit nitrogen oxides and volatile compounds of hydrogen and carbon (VOCs) in the summer period. • Despite media reports to the contrary businesses enrolled in Sydney Water' s 'Every Drop Counts Program' have achieved record savings of water from their operations over the past year, including Bluescope Steel, In vesta Property Group, Bora! Quarries, The GPT group and AstraZeneca. • Tilligerry Creek (Port Stephens, NSW) has recovered from faecal pollution which caused the creek to be closed to oyster farming in 2005. Research the University of Newcastle found that faeca l contamination was predominantly from agricultural activities and domestic pets, rather than on-site systems in the unsewered catchment. Septic systems in the catchment have been upgraded. Queensland

• Brisbane and Maroochydore Councils will join a regional program managed by Local Government Infrastructure Services, a joint Queensland Treasury Corporation venture with the Local Government Association of Queensland that gives high-level advice on asset management, in order to fast-track repairs to leaking water distribution networks. • Cane grower Lui Raiteri, from the Proserpine district of Queensland, is the first irrigator in the region to obtain a Land and Water Management Plan (LWMP), which he prepared to help reduce contaminated run-off into waterways and improve water use efficiency on his farm. • CRC for Contamination Assessment & Remediation of the Environment and the Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Water researchers are teaming to develop new risk-based methods to control acid sulphate soils in a highly degraded wetland at East Trinity near Cairns, Queensland. They will establish a $2.75 milli on National Demonstration Site to test new acid management techniques. • The Beattie Government will use expected cost savings on the Gold Coast Desalination Plant to boost its output by up to 47 ML/day by increasing the size of the plant's inlet tunnel and outlet structure and to develop a business case covering the potential boost in capacity from 125ML/d to >170ML/d. • Climate scientist from the new Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excel lence (QCCCE) has concluded that the rainfall outlook across Queensland for the coming months is uncertain, with the main indicator, the Southern Oscillati on Index (SOI), flu ctuating wildly. • More than 30 companies have approached the Queensland Water Commission after it called for ideas to ensure southeast Queensland could cope with another long-term drought. Ideas range from water transportation to desalination. Nine solid proposals will be further evaluated.



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• Premier Peter Beattie has announced that Queensland Government will implement the boundary changes and amalgamations recommended in the independent Local Government Reform Commission report, handed down last Friday, reducing the number of Councils in the state from 156 to 72.


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• The first section of the Queensland Government $9 billion Water Grid 7.3km pipeline connecting the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant with Swanbank Power Station near Ipswich has been completed. Using recycled water at Swanbank will eventually free up to 20 ML a day of Wivenhoe Dam water. • Parts of the Eastern and Northern Pipelines to form the south-east Queensland Water Grid have been declared Critical Infrastructure Projects un der the State Development and Public Works Organisation Act. This wi ll fas ttrack access to easements by cutting red tape between the different government agencies which control them. • On-the-spot fi nes for individuals and businesses that repeatedl y ignore water restrictions will be beefed up by a Queensland State Government keen to crackdown on water cheats.

South Australia • The South Australian River Murray irrigation allocations will be increased from 4 percent to 13 percent in August and carryover water will be allocated in full , fo llowing recent rainfall across the Murray-Darli ng Basin. • 760 guests attended WaterAid Australia's Four Plates with Four Greats dinner in Adelaide, where the food and entertainment reflected the regions in which WaterAid works. The evening raised a fantas tic $2 I 0,000 to help fund water projects in Papua New Guinea. Victoria • Victorian Premier John Brumby announced in August that the Government would review the structure of the retail water industry in Melbourne to meet the challenges wh ich are faci ng the industry, achieve equity pricing across the city and to ensure price increases are consistent with government forecasts of a doubling by 2012. • Victoria's Cabinet reshuffle in late July gave Gavin Jennings the responsibility for Environment and Climate Change and In novation, while Mi nister fo r Fi nance and for Tourism and Major Events Tim Holding will add Water to his current roles, driving the Government's $4.9 billion Our Water Our Future action plan. • Earth Tech has been engaged by Australia's Western Water Authority to design, build and manage a new $6 mi llion Surbiton Park Recycled Water

Plant near Melton, west of Melbourne, to be completed by early 2008. The plant will produce 5ML of Class A recycled water per day for toilet fl ushing and outdoor use in the new township of Enesbury. • The Victorian Govern ment's Smart Water Fund will soon invite applications for Round 5 fundi ng, for innovative water conservation, water recycling and sustainable biosolids management projects for urban Victoria.

Western Australia • A new web-based irrigation tool is now available to commercial vegetable grower in the Perth region, and is expected to to save up to 8 billion li tres of water a yeai. The tool, funded by the Premier's Water Foundation and developed by the Department of Agriculture and Food, is des igned to encourage water use efficiency and better management of vegetable crops on sandy soils. index • The WA Government has launched a new initiative designed to help Western Australian householders reduce their water use and save money. The Water Corporation's water bills will include extra information to better equip householders to use water more efficiently as rainfall decli nes and expensive infrastructure is built. • Western Australia's second major desal ination plant will be bui lt and operated by private industry and owned by the Water Corporation, based on the same successful private public partnershi p that delivered the Kwi nana plant. Short listing of consortia should begin later th is year.

NEW REPORTS AND PAPERS • WSAA's Report Card 'Performance of the Australian urban water industry and projections fo r the future' was released last week. The report fo recasts that urban water prices will increase substantially, to fu nd capital investment of $30 billion in water infrastructure of the next 5-10 years, as urban areas diversify water sources to counter climate change risks. • The Australian Bureau of Statistics 'Water Use on Australian Farms, Preliminary, 2005-06' presents preliminary estimates of agricultural water use, pastures and crops irrigated, and sources

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of water used for agriculture at a national and state/territory level for the year ended 30 June 2006. Estimates for the previous three years are also included. Final estimates at the national, state/territory and regional level wi ll be released in December 2007. • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has published its fu ll report on regional responses. It reports positi vely on adaptation options and policy responses undertaken thus far in Australia: specifically plans to manage coastal areas, protect the Great Barrier Reef, establish a CSIRO National Research F lagship in Climate Adaptation and set up the Australian Centre for Climate Change Adaptation. • During the Marc h 2007 quarter, the private sector carried out $280 million of construction work for water storage and supply (57% was for the public sector), compared with $ 136.8million carried out by the public sector. Construction by the private sector for sewerage and drainage also exceeded that done by the public sector. Details are in the recently released ABS report 'Engineering Construction Activity Australia, March 2007'. Catalogue 8762.0.

AWARDS • Winner of the Australian Stockholm Junior Water Prize Robbi Bishop-Taylor participated in World Water Week in Sweden in August. Winners Adriana Alcantara Ruiz, Dalia Graciela Dfaz G6mez and Carlos Hernandez Mejfa from Mexico were awarded the prestigiou s 2007 Stockholm Junior Water Pri ze for a proj ect utilising a local bioorganic waste (egg-shells) to adsorb lead in wastewaters. • Rodney District Council's newly upgraded Army Bay Sewage Treatment P lant won a Sil ver Award for project delivery firm Sinclair Knight Merz at the recent Association of Consulting Engineers New Zealand meeting. • The International Water Association (IW A) launched a Professional Development Award in 2006 presented in association with the website Nom inations are open for 2008 from 12 August until Apri l 2008. Details Adrian Puigarnau ywp@ • The Queensland University of Technology 's Dr Wayne Martens has received a Smart State Fellowship to further hi s research into nanotechnology for water purification. This

process uses photocatalytic water treatment to break down organic chemicals such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and hormones, suitable for uses ranging from ultra-pure water for the electronic industry to irrigation.

PEOPLE IN THE NEWS • Sean Wise (formerly of Melbourne Water) has recently joined Worley Parsons Water and Wastewater division as a Senior Consultant. Email: • Ms Letitia A. Obeng from the World Bank will shortly replace Margaret Catley-Carlson as Chair for the Global Water P artnership. • Peter Kitney (formerly of Central Highlands Water) and Nigel Pugh (formerly of Yarra Valley Water) have recently joined PBJ and Associates to assist clients in the water and energy industry with strategic planning, information systems, project implementation and management. Email: peter.kitney@ pbj and nigel. • Professor Paul Greenfie ld AO has been appointed Vice-Chancellor of The University of Queensland taking over from Prof John Hay AC January 1, 2008 . Prof. Greenfie ld is highly a regarded academic and researcher; currently chairs the International Expert Panel (established by the Queensland Water Commission) and the Scientific Expert Panel of the SEQ Healthy Waterways Partnership, and was recently appoi nted to the Clean Coal Council. • Errin Dryden, fo rmerly of AW A, has joined MWH as project administrator in the Sewer Fix Wet Weather Alliance . Tanya Webeck commenced with AW A as NSW/ACT Branch Manager. Email: • Gary Crisp, formerly of Water Corporation, has moved to GHD as Desalination Group Leader gary.crisp • Peter Shanahan has recently left Lismore City Council with 16 years experience in water and wastewater under his belt. Email: • David Hawke has joined ADS Environmental Services as a Business Development Manager, Water Services Division in the new ADS Brisbane office. david

With the occurrence of reservoir shortages and continual water restrictions, counting every precious drop of water has become more prevalent. Development of programs on rational consumpt ion patterns as well as upgrading of facilities involved in the supply, processing and distribution of primary waters and waste water processing are critical in the conservation of this precious resource. To get t he best levels of efficiency from your water and waste water applications, you need reliable and accurate instrumentation. ABB can supply all the process instrumentation required for the complete water cycle, from extraction and treatment through t o distribution and the management and reprocessing of waste.


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NEW MEMBERS AWA welcomes the following new members since the most recent issue of Water journal:

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PO Box 14, Petersham NSW 2049 Telephone: 02-9335-2222 Fax: 02-9335-2029 QLD Corporate Silver Cheetham Salt Limited

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NSW T. Abrahams, S. Allen, I. Barnes, F. Berg, K. Black, M. Brannock, G. Cooper, J. Cox, D. Dallmtz, W. Fleming, K. Graham, C. Hinchliffe, A. Klevansky, D. McCreery, S. Merange, S. Moujoodh, M. Mranos, G. Nelson, S. Ong, J. Pearce, S. Premachandra, C. Price, R. Proctor, N. Reid, J. Saleh, D. Salemon, S. Sampermans, A. Schwab, A. Tan, T. Taylor, V. Vichai, S. Williamson, E. Zeeland QLD J. Bretz, A. Chan, R. H agedorn, R. James, I. Johnson, S. MacLure, E. Skowron, C. Warner

Overseas S. Burton, H.T. Chong, S. Panneer, S.K Q uek, S. Tamilvanan, H. T an, C.T. Tay, V. Vikash Pillay

NSW A. Evers, J. Al-rifai, K. Aziz QLD

P. Edwards WA

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N. Bates, I. Dunn, T. Hamer, P. Kovalsky, D. Lucchese, A. Noonan, A. Rode, S. Westra

P. Basson, R. Legg, E. Palakat, S. Romeo, P. Yan Poorren

QLD C. Atkinson, C. Dinnie

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B. Adams, A. Barlow, D. Chubb, E. De Wit, N. Enring, S. Feaver, L. Gough, S. Heron, P. Horvath, V. Lubczenko, S. Newman, L. Roder, M. Sest, M. Shanahan, S. Silvey, N. Teo, C. Uren, M. Wilkin WA

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F. Bound, K. Burns, F. Mills, B. Roffey, K. Sears WA C. Harvey, T. Heng, N. Kowal, J. Sim-Addy, B. Smith, R. Somerford, C. Sparral is, E. Zlornick

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AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATION NATIONAL EVENT CALENDAR 2007 & 2008 Accurate at time of printing. For branch events, please visit the AWA website and/or check with your local branch contact for up to date information. Date





13-14 Sep 07

AWA DBOOT Desalination Master Class

Adelaide SA

Diane Wiesner

02 9495 9906

17-18 Sep 07

AWA DBOOT Desalination Master Class

Sydney NSW

Diane Wiesner

02 9495 9906

19 Sept 07

Water for Life Forum

Sydney NSW

Hayley Galbraith

02 9495 9919

19-21 Sep 07

AWA NSW Engineers and Operators Regional Conference

Coffs Harbour NSW

Tanya Webeck

02 9495 9908

23-27 Sep 07

IWA I I"' World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (AD 11)

Brisbane QLD

Jenny Marsden

07 3855 3711

26 Sep 07

AWA One Day Seminar - Recycled Water Guidelines

Melbourne VIC

Diane Wiesner

02 9495 9906

11-13 Oct 07

AWA VIC Regional Conference

Traralgon, VIC

Rachel-Ann Martin

03 9235 1416

13-17 Oct 07

WEFTEC.07 80th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition

California, USA

WEF Association Services


19 Oct 07

South Australian Water Awards

Adelaide SA

Sarah Carey

08 8267 1134

2 1-27 Oct 07

National Water Week


Jennifer Sage

02 9495 9916

24-26 Oct 07

AWA NSW Trade Waste Conference & Exhibition

Sydney NSW

Errin Dryden

02 9495 9908

28 Oct - I Nov 07 IWA 2nd ASPIRE Conference and Exhibition

Perth WA

Linda Phillips

02 9495 9914

7-8 Nov 07

Worry Wastes in Water

Sydney NSW

Diane Wiesner

02 9495 9906

9-11 Nov 07

AWA Q LD Regional Conference

Sunshine Coast Q LD

Kathy Bourbon

07 3397 5644

26 Nov 07

A WA NT Regional Conference


Errin Dryden

02 9495 9908

26-29 Nov 07

5th National Waterwatch Conference

Canberra ACT

Don Thompson

03 6442 3488

28-29 Nov 07

AWA Master Class - Water Infrastructure II

Sydney NSW

Diane W iesner

02 9495 9906

4-6 Feb 08

IWA Young Water Professionals Conference

Brisbane, QLD

Sandra Hall

07 3346 7209

Linda Phillips


Wayne Castle

02 9495 9921

30 Mar - 2 Apr 08 Water Efficiency 2008; 3rd National Water Education Conference; Surfers Paradise QLD I st National WICD Conference. 5- 7 May 08

Enviro Convention & Exhibition


Melbourne, Vic


"Amiad Water Systems provides a wide range of hi-tech water and wastewater treatment solutions." "We design systems that meet specific requirements to include RO, UF, manual and automatic filtration, automatic control valves and air valves for potable water, raw water and sewage applications." Amiad Australia Pty Ltd, 3/15 Brisbane st, Eltham. VIC 3095 Tel: 03 9439 3533 Fax: 03 9439 1612



Journal of the Australian Water Association


AWA MASTER CLASS: WATER INFRASTRUCTURE. PLANNING, DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT Clayton Utz Level 34, 1 O'Connell Street, Sydney November 28-29, 2007 Infrasrrucrure is a rop news item and has been for rhe past rwo years. Water infrasrrucrure is among rhar attracting rhe most attention. In the U n ited Stares, a recent ASCE report gave a C and lesser ratings ro civil infrastructure associated with water and wastewater treatment operations, transport gateways, bridges and roads. In Austral ia, rhe media constantly complains of bottlenecks at porrs; and increasing demands for water under pressure because of a lack of plants and supporting distribu tion systems for water recycli ng or desalination ro meet growth in housing and industry. In response ro these issues, AWA's November Master Class is a 360 degree overview of water infrastructure. In this M aster C lass, the focus is on choos ing rhe most app ropriate structure fo r delivering rhe in frastructure on rime and on budget ro the satisfaction of both client and contracror(s), finan cing major p rojects and how to structure a budget under rhe di ffere nt infrastructure contract models. Of course, government policy - both commonwealth and stare - does impact also on choice of structure and management of the project once agreed. Legal issues, risk management, including handling of sub-contractors, work Aows and work p ractices are also addressed.


This document provides impo rtant contextual information and should be read in conjunction with the draft guidelines.

The Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling Phase 1 were released in November. Phase 2 of guideline development is underway and foc uses o n three modules - srormwarer reuse, managed aquifer recharge and recycled warer for drinki ng.

Submissions on the draft guidelines are encouraged. Written submissions should be sent ro:

In June 2007, govern ments endorsed rhe release of a draft set of gu idelines in relation ro the recycled water for d rinking module, as a basis for public consultation. This includes endorsement from rhe Environment Protection and Heritage Cou ncil, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council and the Australian H ealth Protection Committee. A copy of the draft guidelines, entitled Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managing H ealth and Environ mental Risks (Phase 2): Augmentation o f Drinking Water Supplies can be downloaded below. A Face Sheer/Frequen tly Asked Q uestions document is also availab le for download.

Mr Haemish Middleron Project Officer N EPC Service Corporation T el: (0 8) 841 9 1200 Email: The closing date for submissions is Friday 21 September 2007. All submissions are public documents unless clearly marked "co nfidential" and may be made available to other interested parties, subject co Freedom ofInformation Act provisions. Electronic submissions are preferred and should be provided in Microso ft Word format. Public forums co discuss the proposed guidelines w ill have been conducted in all Australian capital cities during August 200 7. Consultation on drafts of the other Phase 2 modules is anticipated later in 2007.

AWA is grateful for the support of senior legal firm Clayron U rz which has offered their offices for rhe Master Class and is contributing speakers on rhe legal aspects of water project management. For derai ls and a registrat ion form , refer ro AWA's website www.awa under Events/National Interest Events.

Water Advertising To reach the decision-makers in the woter field, you should consider advertising in Water Journal, the official journal of Australian Water Association. For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rault at Hallmark Editions, Tel (03) 8534 5000 or email

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Moving Forward - Wastewater Biosolids Sustainability: Technical, Managerial and Public Synergy Moncton, Canada T he above conference was held on 24 - 27 June, with 45 0 delegates from 45 countries in attendance. Australian delegates were Allen Gale from Goulburn Valley Water, Mike McLaughl in from CS IRO, Debbie Pritchard from Currin University and Kelly O'Hall oran of Gold Coast Water. Allen, Mike and Debbie presented papers, all of which were well accepted. A few key points are: • T he co nfere nce program presented a good balance between theoretical research prese ncations and pragmatic practi tio ners. T he wide divergence of issues and solutions between developed and undeveloped cou ntries presents significa nt challenges and highl ighted the inequities betwee n the "haves" and "have noes" . • T he message from some fro m the USA is that Class A is the only quality acceptable co the public. Th is was questioned - why not better education and awareness rather than excessive expenditure of money and energy? • T he need for a commo n international language was considered a high priority (a big cask considering che difficulty we have with ch is in Australia alone).

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• Re-emergence of E.coli after high speed centrifugation was the subject of several papers. No clear answers but che fi ndings are pertu rb ing, both for ch e high speed centrifuge suppliers an d the doubt that has been cast on che effectiveness of mesophilic anaerobi c digestion for E.coli kill. Looks like more money fo r researchers co come up with a co ncrete answer. Some in USEPA are keen on phase separation of anaerobic digestion as a way for the future. • Al Rubi n, former USEPA leader of biosolids management (now retired) contended chat there are no environmental or heal ch issues with biosolids - the issue is public perceptions. • T he publ ic engagement received co nsiderable attention and demo nstrated the growi ng acknowledgement of its importance. There were presentations on Biosolids Partnerships from several countries. My presen tation on the ABP was well accepted. There was discussion in the wind up panel presentation, of which I was a panel member. Governance and fi nancial models for ABP areas are as well advanced as for any country. A meeting of representatives of 12 countries has resolved co establish an international all iance on commu nications and public engagement with biosolids. T he fi rst cask is co develop a "World Biosolids Adas", for which a UN representative at the meeting immediately com mi tted USD 50,000 for its development The confe rence organisation was first class, with a tremendous commitment by the Greater Monccon Sewerage Commission.

Allen Gale



Journal of the Australian Water Association

9 ESRI Australii l

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Where Advantage Begins

REUSE AND RECYCLING 2007 Report by E A (Bob) Swinton The (re-) use of wastewater fo r agriculture, landscaping (ovals and golf courses) and within industry has long been p racticed and there have been numerous papers on chose subjects in Water and at AWA Conferences. l e seems chat potable recycling was first mentioned in Australia in 1964, when DE Weiss at CSIRO foresaw the need for it in Australia in che long term . Consequently CS IRO , in 1971 , operated a pilot plane, copying che lime coagulation system used at Windhoek and L van Vuuren was invited co cell us about Windhoek's experience at a Summer School in 1973 . Bue there is no further mention in print of potable reuse un cil 1994, when the Queensland Branch was the first co run a Regional Conference on Conservation and Reuse. Amongst the usual agricultural, etc, papers I note char Jenifer Simpson aired the possibilities for potable recycling and John Anderson made a plea for Natio nal Guidelines for effluent reuse. le is fitting then chat in 2007-8 , Queensland will be the first state co incorporate Planned Indirect Potable Reuse into its water resource strategy. Skimming through old indexes of Water the theme Effluent Reuse became a separate section in 1996, with 12 papers published in that year. Fast forward co July 2007 where some 60 papers were presented at the

3rd AWA Reuse and Recycling Conference at the University of New Sou th Wales co a vitally interested audience of 170 practitioners in che water industry, both professio nal and from the authorities. The ream from the Centre for Water and Waste Technology have p rinted and bound the Proceedings* so this report only skims through che spectrum of topics covered. The Proceed ings, however, include che abstracts only for the two international keynote speakers, Takashi Asano and Jorg Drewes, so a brief summary of their presentations commence this report.

Professor Takashi Asano, University of California, Davis, is well-known in Australia, and in his opening address he summarised the state of water recycling in USA. In 2005, about 10 GL of municipal wastewater was reused (about 6% of coca]) and about half is used for irrigation, about 25% fo r landscape and environmental enhancement, and 11 % for groundwater recharge, which might be termed indi rect






- 1 • Europe 1 Cl North America1



a, .s




- --

- - - - - - --




~ C





!'lC: 0








l Ii







-~ ~


Figure 1. Regional occurrence of selected trace organ ics in secondary and tertiary treated wastewaters. potable reuse. However, reuse is growing at about 15% pa, mainly in Arizona, Cali forn ia, Florida and T exas. Califo rnia has the biggest problem in the future, with population anticipated to be 48 million by 2020, with a consequent increase in urban water demand of 36% from 1995 ro 2020. Even so, San D iego's plan for 2020 is for recycli ng to increase from 2% of current d emand to only 7% of the (increased ) forecast demand, with more emphasis on alternative sources. A comparison of reuse options showed chat the costings were very dependent on size of operation. For small installations (up to 5 ML/d) a rapid infiltration basin to groundwater was the cheapest (1.4 $/kL), and IPR was 4.9 $/kL, but for 100 ML/d che cost o f land requi red had increased land infiltration costs to 3.5 $/kL buc the operating (and monitoring) coses for IPR had been reduced to 2.3 $/kL. However, there are major issues to be addressed with IPR: • Water quality • Treatment reliability • Unidentified organics • Limited healch effects data • Public perception and acceptance • Major concern is fo r long-term health effects of trace organics (even unknown unknowns)

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Abou t 50% of people reject potable reuse based on the yuck factor. As well as chat, there is the interference of political demagoguery which has aborted three projects in C alifornia: San Diego, Los Angeles Ease Basin and Livermore. Nonetheless, a number of groundwater recharge schemes are in operation, or planned, the most recent being the Orange County GWR, an upgrade o f their Water Factory 2 1. "W e d o not reclaim wastewater, we reclaim water. So communicate the values, the benefits, the assurances and once a scheme is implemented , opposition will melt away. Indirect potable reuse through either groundwater recharge or surface water augmentation is inevitable and seems to rep resent the most sustainable long-term reuse opportunity"

Jorg E. Drewes is Asso ciate Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. His presentation on The Status of IPR in USA d ealt mainly with the use of surrogates and indicators for monitoring of water quality to address the key issue in indirect potable reuse, namely how co assure absence of unregulated and u nidentified trace organics. H e had no doubt that population growth in U SA, predominantly in the water scarce areas, will lead to increased use of I PR, with discharge of reclaimed water either to surface waters or to groundwater reserves.

It is up to rhe water authorities to develop a strategy which builds public trust and chis wi ll require extensive monitoring of water quality and system pe rformance where indirect potable reuse is practised. In general, rhe issues of microorganisms (even virus}, physical parameters, inorganic chemicals and regulated organics can be trusted, but informed publi c concern is now focused on trace organic chemicals present in all domestic wascewacers, ra nging from pharmaceuticals, personal care products, perfumes and the wide range of clean ing and disinfectant chemicals used in household produces. A review of 200 recent peer-reviewed publications highlighted about 60 major compounds of interest bur he emphasised that reporting is dependent upon the analytical methods employed for quantification. Occurrence is also regionspecific and European wasrewarers were quite different from American, as shown in Figure 1. Where Australia lies in chis respect has yet to be determined, bur it is more li kely to mirro r USA. A list of high production volume chem icals, which are used or prescribed in USA in the range of more than a million pounds per year, yielded 3000 inorganic and organic compounds. Of these 43% have never been rested for long-term toxicity or environmental effects. Of the 3000 high production volume chemicals, 500 are commo nly used in household chemicals and commodities with the majority of compounds contributi ng to wastewater. T here is no doubt chat more co mpou nds will be detected in wastewater effl uents in rhe fu ture. Treatment systems differ widely, and he quoted fro m examples of IPR which have been operating in USA, rangi ng from the Montebello-Forebay groundwater recharge scheme wh ich has relied on tertiary fi ltration, chlorination, then 'soil-aquifer treatment' since 1962, through rhe Upper Occoquan, which for some 30 years has supplemented by some 20-60% the surface water supply to Washington, DC, employing lime coagulation and activated carbo n, to rhe most recent system at Orange County GWR which will employ microfilrration, reverse osmosis, UV/AOP, before deep-well injection. Their effectiveness fo r specific chemicals will therefore be different. Presumably fu ture applications will have their own sire-specific systems. The question is, how should we measure such a wide variety of compounds, occurring moscly at nanogram per litre concentrations? Or even, which ones should

Table 1. Treatment ' Bin s'. • Biodegradotion -Soil-oquifer treatment, riverbank filtration • Chemical Oxidation -Ozone, advanced oxidation, chlorine, chloramination • Photolysis - Low- and medium-pressure UV radiation • Adsorption - Granular and powdered activated carbon • Physical Separation-Submerged microfiltration/ultrafiltration, incl. MBR Nanofiltration/ reverse osmosis

Table 2. C hoice of indicator and surrogate for So il-Aquifer Treatment (e. g . 2-4 weeks after a spreading o peration).


>90% removal

90-50% removal

50-25% removal



N O3

<25% removal

UVA Gemfibrozil



lopromide Meprobamate Monitoring



we concerned about? Because analysis for each ind ividual compound is imp racticable, resort must be had to the system of choos ing appropriate indicators and/or surrogates, as long used for microbiological assess men rs. Definition: Indicator: Individual chemical occurring at

quantifiable level, which represents certain physicochemical and biodegradable characteristics ofa family oftrace constituents that are relevant to fate and transport during treatment, and provides a conservative assessment ofremoval e.g. Ibuprofen, NDMA, etc. Surrogate: Quantifiable change ofa bulk parameter that can serve as a performance measure ofindividual unit processes or operations regarding their removal of trace compounds e.g. roe, conductivity, ammonia, etc. To do so, he compartmental ised the treatment processes representing key removal mechanisms (i.e. oxidation, biodegradarion, adsorptio n) into different 'bins of treatability' (Table 1) and selected one or rwo indicators fro m each bin to measure the performance of chat treatment process. Compounds are themselves separated into 'bins' of relative ease of treatment, and a surrogate parameter chosen to represent an easy measurement of system performance. Soil-aquifer treatment As one example, he discussed soil-aquifer treatment, which relies primarily on aerobic and anaerobic biodegradarion. Potential physico-chemical surrogates to assess system performance could be TOC, Biodegradable DOC (BDOC), Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic


DOC, COO, TOX or TO I, NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, Fluorescence intensity or UV absorbance. For the possible selection of appropriate indicator compounds, laboratory experiments and field observations enabled the major suspects to be divided into 'bins' of biodegradabiliry, with 57 in the >90% removal bin, 15 in ca. 50% removal bin and 6 in the <25% bi n. The last bin includes the fai rly prevalent carbamazepine and chlorinated flame retardants. Thus, fo r assessing performance, the differential TOC (BOOC) or UVA and NO 3 wou ld be reliable surrogates, bur for monitoring final quality, it wou ld only be necessary to analyse fo r nitrate and carbamazepine, as outl ined in Table 2.

Advanced oxidation In another example, for advanced oxidation, a series of experiments using varying doses of ozone and peroxide were conducted on tertiary wastewater. Physicochemical parameters showed rhar colour removal or UVA would be useful performance surrogate parameters. Analysis of the percentage removal of a large number of trace organic compounds revealed rhat, for example, carbamazepine was well removed by oxidation processes whereas rhe chlorinated flame retardant TCEP was the most resistant making carbamazepine and T CEP suitable indicators for advanced oxidation processes.

Physical separation For NF and RO, he discussed the different rejection mechanisms fo r ionic and nonionic compounds, using data from pilotscale trials and full-scale monitoring at Scocrsdale and Orange County. In each

Journal of the Australian Water Association




case, virtually 100% rejection of inorganic surrogates was the norm, except for ammonia and boron. T he same applied to ionic trace organics, but low-molecular weigh t non-ionic organ ics may only have ca. 40-70% rejection. These included chloroform and NDMA. His conclusions were that multi-barriers are a necessity since different compounds react to differen t removal mechanisms. Indicator and surrogate selection and analysis have their pros and cons:

• Pros: Utilises established bulk parameter measurements and simplifi es analytical effort for trace organic monitoring, with conservative assessment of removal

• Cons: Ind icator occurrence pattern m igh t change, so chat indicator selection requ ires regular review. Also site-specific operational conditions can change. Nonetheless, current regulatory framewo rks in USA seem to favour surrogates/indicators as performance measures, and it is his opinion chat with such controls planned IPR can provide drinking water chat is ind istinguishable from conventio nal supplies.

(For further information, refer to

The Technical Program T he 60 papers in the conference are adequately covered in the proceedings, and rhis report can only summarise rhe range of top ics covered. Mention must be made of the paper by John Radcliffe, a Commissioner in the National Water Commission, who thoroughly reviews the current status of all projects rhroughour the nation, listing both chose in operation and the 15 or so which are in planning stage. He discusses costs and pricing, and community views, which seem to be changing, His summary is encapsulated in the policy of the NWC: The introduction of created recycled water into the drinking wacer supply (i.e. indirect potable reuse [IPR]) is an important option ro improve Australia's long-term water security. The Commission strongly encourages objective and even-handed consideration of IPR as one option for communities ro augment their water supplies. Another survey of the status of recycling in 2006 is reported by Bridget Wetherall et al of Earth Tech.

Peter D onlon's paper explains the policy direction of WSAA and spells out the constrain ts. He emphasises rhat direct potable reuse is definitely not to be

36 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water

encouraged, bur planned indirect potable reuse has potential. T he insertion of an 'environmental buffer' such as a river, large reservoir, or aquifer gives a number of benefits. [Ed: in UK we used to call it the 'magic mile') . H owever, Peter has doubts about the capacity of Australia's water industry to effectively manage such systems. T h e number of professionals in the country versed in the necessary technology could be counted on the finge rs of two hands. He concludes, we must be very careful, "Failure is not an option".

Ted Gardner (Natural Resources and Water, Q ld) ) spells out the reasons for the decision by th e Q ueensland government to construct the Western Corridor recycling grid and a team fro m Veolia describes the p roject. By the end of 2007, membranep urifi ed recycled water will be supplied to Tarong and Swanbank power stations, replacing th eir existing use of reservoir water. In 2008, the pipeline will have an extension to W ivenhoe Dam so that Planned Indirect Potable Reuse can be operated whenever necessary. Papers from Kerry Schott, MD of Sydney Water, John Anderson (now Afton Consulting), Peter D ennis (Hunter Water), Gary Bickford (ACTEW), Stephanie Rinck-Pfeiffer (South Australia) and Nick Turner (Western Australia) su mmarise the details of their projects and plans.

IPR: The Risks Bacteria and parasites can effectively be removed by RO, and two papers d iscuss using QMRA in relation to guidelines. However, removal of viruses is more problematic and Tony McCormick, of Memcor, outlines a methodology for assessing risk. However, most discussion, as foreshadowed by the keynote speakers, focuses on chemicals of concern, not only the known but also the ' unknown unknowns'. As background information for any IPR proposal, a major p roject by Kumar (CSIRO) has been investigating the occurrence and effects of EDCs in small rural waterways which receive convention ally treated effluents . They found that echinyl escradiol to be the most resistant to bio-degradation. H owever, the biological effects were not chose to be expected from a summation of the concentrations, and this may be because anti-oestrogens were also present. Lovell describes Sydney Water's investigations, using both in vitro and in vivo methods, finding that treated effluents had lower oestrogeneticity than the upstream waters.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Frederic Leusch and team discuss the effectiveness of in vitro and in vivo rests fo r assay. A world -wide literature study showed char created effluents showed no adverse effects in mice or fish, and o n ly one study, at the highest concentration, showed an effect on rat foetus.

Guidelines David Cunliffe (SA Dept Health) outlines the driving ph ilosophy beh ind the Stage 2 Draft Guidelines for reuse, wh ich are currently being discussed at workshops around the nation. The Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling were promulgated in 2006, covering the REPLACEMENT of drinking water by using recycled water for irrigatio n , etc. However with increasing interest in potable reuse, Stage 2 Guidelines are being developed to cover the ADDITI ON to potable supplies of both storm water and created sewage. The aim is to provide a scientific basis for choices. T he key principles are chat public health be paramount, commun ity engagement be essential, the utility must be capable of managing complex technologies, staff skills must be high and alert to even minor changes in monitoring signals, multiple barriers must be robust and reliable and trade waste contro ls must be effective and rigid ly enforced. Finally, regulatory oversight and auditing is fundamental and muse be fully rransparen t. His presentation foc used o n estim ation of safety. M icrobial risks can be assessed using the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) method, but chemical safety can only be based on meeting guideline values, assessed for either individual or classes of compounds, consistent with the Drinking Water Guidelines. Typically a pharmaceutical is considered safe if its intake is 100th of the lowest therapeutic adult dose, or 1000th if it is a steroid or cytotoxic compound. T he capability of various treatment trains to reduce concentrations to safe levels was discussed. Tolerable risk (and hence safety) is defined as< 10·6 DALYs per person per year, as used by WHO , which is equal to an annual risk of I diarrhoea per 1000 people In conclusion, the paper emphasises that the public will expect chat schemes be governed by effective regulatory oversight and surveillance by state regulatory regimes. This will have sign ificant resource and capability implications.

Managed Aquifer Recharge Where applicable chis seems to be not only an app ropriate 'environmental buffer' but

also a balancing storage and so was the subject of a number of papers. Peter Dillon, CSIRO, explains all the options for MAR and puts a case for a

subsection of the National Guideli nes to deal with them. Wendy Timms reports on the porential and problems of the Botany Sands aqui fer fo r Sydney Water and Nick Turner ourlines rhe project for replenishment of Perch's Gnangara groundwater.

Overseas Experience In California the Orange County GRW plant has replaced Water Factory 21 and a paper describes the system of MF, RO, AOX before deep well injection, ostensibly for a salt intrusio n barrier but in effect, an IPR. There are over 20 IPR projects under operation or design throughout USA, even on the east coast. A paper by Chand ra Mysore (Metcalfe and Eddie) describes a pi lot plant in New Jersey, aimed at deep well injection, with a very thorough analysis of 'chemicals of concern'.

Community Consultation

Other Uses for Recycled Water

It is emphasised by all speakers that planned IPR can only go ahead if the affected community agrees. June Marks (Flinders) repons on her investigations in attitudes in various com munities.

Despite the current interest in IPR, it will always be a relatively minor portion of the use of recycled water compared with agricul ture, horticulture, landscape and industrial uses.

For the Pimpana Coomera WSUD, stakeholder communication was vital, and Daren Hayman reports on their campaign. Gerald Tooth of the Queensland Water Co mmission explains the campaign ahead of the Western Corridor project, and Rod Lehman's paper explores the two Queensland case studies of logic versus emotion. A new perspective comes from Janet Saunders, a consultant special ising in co mmercial market resea rch. She emphasises that 'core beliefs' are far more significant in driving public behaviour than technical education. They cannot be changed, but a properly organised campaign can red uce their intensity. Core belief research is used by major corporarions to fi nd out the value of their brands. Some of these tools and methodologies are new to the water industry - they have not yet been properly rested but are widely used in other market sectors.

Twenty worthwhile papers deal with current advances and experiences in each of these areas.

R&D Papers, a number from the UNSW, ourline various research projects in health aspects and advanced technologies. In conclusion, UNSW is to be congratulated on organising such a wide spectrum of significant co ntributions to the sometimes controversial topic of recycl ing. The book will remai n as a reference fo r some years. Water Reuse and Recycling Eds. S J Khan, R M Stuetz, J M Anderson (ISBN 978 0 7334 25172) A5, 548 pp, within Australia $165 , overseas $175. From Cen tre for Water & Waste Technology, University of New South Wales. Email: robby@u, Fax: +61 (2) 9313 8624 .

Join corrosion industry leaders to learn how you can protect your assets from the ravages of corrosion .

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Mr Vincent Hock, US Army Engineering Corps


• Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems Susan Drozdz, US Army Engineering Corps

Journal of the Australian Water Association



tecnn1ca1 teatures


Tablel. Australian top 20 pharmaceutica ls by mass for 1998 and excretion rate

Rapid advances in analytical instrumentation have enabled better detection of synthetic organic compounds, especially pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and personal care products, in sewage and treated effluents. These compounds can affect the suitability of treated wastewater for reuse and, when discharged, have the potential co impact on aquatic environments and contaminate water used for d rinking.

(adapted from Khan and Ongerth, 2004).

These synthetic organic compounds may also contaminate biosolids and be introduced into the environment when biosolids are applied co land. Presendy it appears that concentrations of these chemicals in water and the environment are coo low co be of concern, but further research is required.

Introduction The use of pharmaceuticals co treat human illnesses is commonplace with som e proportion of the parent compound or metabolites excreted. Thus these synthetic organic compounds form a part of the load to sewage treatment systems. Common ingredients in personal care products (PCPs) chat include deodorants and shampoos also fin d their way co the sewerage system through showering. The discharge of these compounds from sewage treatment plants will depend greatly on the level of removal d uring che treatment p rocess. The removal p rocess also involves adsorption of these compounds co sludge which may eventually be converted into bioso lids. Advances in analytical instrumentation in recent years, especially in liquid ch romatography-mass spectrometry, have made it possible co determine these compounds in sewage, created effluents, biosolids and receiving waters at very low concentrations. These same advances have also enabled rhe determination of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewaters and impacted environments, an area of research wh ich is now receiving 38 SEPTEMBER 2007



Therapeutic Function

Mass Dispensed (kg)

Excretion rate

Load to sewer (kg)

Paracetamol Metformin Loctulose

Analgesic Anti diabetic Laxative

295,882 90,878





Amoxici llin Ronitidine

Antibiotic Anti ulcerative

88,099 46,204

Cepholexin Noproxen Volproote Aspirin

Antibiotic Anti-inflammatory Anticonvulsant Analgesic

33,724 25,408 22,850 20,889 20,389

0.03 0.68 0.30 0.90 0.10 0.05 0.0 1


Blood lipid regulator Gout treatment

20,042 19,168

Sulphosolozine Ibuprofen Chlorothiozide Quinine Erythromycin Cefoclor

Anti rheumatic Anti-inflammatory Anti hypertensive Muscle relaxant Antibiotic Antibiotic

17,998 14, 196 12, 18 1 11 ,670 10,971

Corbomozepine Veropamil

Anticonvulsant Antionginol

10,463 9,975 9,786






2,643 31 ,419 10,1 17 22,867 2,285 1,044 0 (1,631 OS salicylic acid) 15,232

0.30 2 0.0 0. 10 l.O 0.20 0.04

5,750 0 1,420 12,181 2,334 439



0.3 1 0.16 0.0 1

3,092 1,566 95

I. 0.08 excreted as salicylic acid; 2. 0.70 excreted as ex-allopurinol

considerably more attention. As EDCs which have hormo nal effects on humans and aquatic environments have the poten tial to impact on reuse schemes, so do pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Pharmaceuticals are also widely used in agriculture and aq uaculcure for disease control, and as growth stimulants, and have rhe potential ro affect water quality when discharged from these activities.

Pharmaceuticals Sources of human pharmaceuticals in sewage include domestic residences and hospitals, the latter being a potential point source of contaminants (Lindberg et al., 2004). H ousehold disposal of unused pharmaceuticals to the sewerage system is also important (Bound and Voulvoulis, 2005). Pharmaceuticals include both prescription and over-the-counter d rugs, as well as illicit drugs (Castiglioni et al.,

Journal of the Australian Water Association

20066). Also included in chis group are chemicals such as X-ray contrast media which are used to dose patients in order to heighten the con erase of organs relative to su rrounding tissue (Ternes and Hirsch, 2000). Some estrogens such as estradiol and echynylescradiol, while normally consid ered as EDCs, should also be included as they are also pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals, which are designed to be bioactive, and personal care p roduces are now being widely investigated as environmental contaminants (Ternes and Joss, 2006).

Many supplies will contain low levels ofpharmaceuticals, but far below human therapeutic levels.

1ecnn1ca1 reatures .fereed paper

The numbers and quantities of pharmaceuticals in use throughout che world are large, although it is difficult co obtain exact figures. Australia records data on prescriptions filled which, cogecher with over the counter sales at pharmacies, has been compiled into che "cop 50" pharmaceuticals by mass for 1998 (Khan and Ongerch, 2004). This does not cake into account che quantities of some pharmaceuticals such as aspi rin and paracetamol which are also widely available at supermarkets, or chose used solely in hospital, e.g. X-ray contrast media referred co above, or drugs such as caffeine which are constituents of some beverages. Khan and Ongerch (2004) have also recorded che unchanged excretion race of the cop 50 pharmaceuticals which can be used co calculate the load on the sewerage system. T he cop 20 pharmaceuticals by mass and their excretion races are shown in Table 1. Discharge co sewer of many pharmaceuticals unchanged is in che order of several tonnes per year. Discharges from hospitals can also be significa nt. Besides excretion of che active ingredients, metabolites may also be excreted. For example, aspirin is excreted mainly as salicylic acid. Some pharmaceuticals are excreted conjugated with other molecules, a process which occu rs in che body. The conjugated for ms, e.g. glucuronides and sulphates, muse be taken into account as processes in the treatment process may liberate che parent compound. The anciepilepcic carbamazepine is excreted as che parent compound, metabolites and glucuronides of the parent compound and mecaboli ces (Maggs eta/., 1997). As che world 's population ages, there seems little doubt chat che use of pharmaceuticals wi ll increase, with a co nsequent increase in load co the sewerage system.












Figure 1. Pathways of pharmaceutica ls and personal core prod ucts to and from the sewerage system.

Personal care products (PCPs) Common PCPs include fragrances, perfumes, deodorants and sun-screen agents which can enter the sewerage system through showering, or excretion of adsorbed compounds. Fragrances are also co mmon in many household produces, e.g. soaps, detergents, shampoos and cleaning produces. An important group of PCPs are the synthetic musks. They are manu factured in

large quantities and are widely used as fragrances in household products as well as in perfumes, body creams and lotions, and deodorants.

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wastewaters and Biosolids Given the num bers and quantities of pharmaceuticals and PCPs in use, it is not unexpected char a large number have been found in wascewacers and che environment.


Endorsed by Brisbane Water AS/NZS 5065 Water Mark Level 1 Compliant.


Journal of the Australian Water Association



technical features ¡~fereed paper

Table 2. Concentrations and removal of pharmaceuticals during sewage treatment [listed in o rde r of load to sewer). Sewage Cone. (ng/L)



Chlorthiazide Ranitidine

Castig lioni et of., 2006a (Italy) Costanzo et al., 2005 (Australia) Khan and Ongerth, 2005 (Australia) From Fent et of. , 2006

78.2 (indicative)

49- 100 96

<2 10 180 (est.) - 1,300

>86 10- 75



104,000 134,000 No data No data 150

<250 220

28 0- 89 100 100

Gros et al., 2006 (Croatia) Castigliani el of., 20060 (Italy) Khan and Ongerth, 2005 (Australia)

130 700 - 1,500 (est.)

13 0-53

Gomez et of., 2007 (Spain) From Fent el of., 2006

Cefaclor Allopurinol Carbamazepine

700 - 1,500 (est.) No data

lactulose Quinine Naproxen Aspirin (as salicylic acid)

No data 6,500 600 (est.) - 40,700 13,000 57,000 - 330,000 3,100 2,700 540 (est.) - 38,700 No data 70 700 No data No data

Moclobemide Sulphasalazine

A recent review indicated that over 200 compounds had been analysed for in waters, or their removal from waters has been investigated (N icho lson , 2007). The critical factor is their removal during the sewage treatment process. Effective removal wi ll result in minimal discharge co the environment, thereby minimising the potential for adverse environmental effects and contamination of water which may be subsequently used as a drinking water source. The pathways to and from the sewerage system are shown in Figure 1. Removal during the sewage treatment process depends on the properties of the compounds. As p roperties vary widely, so do removal efficiencies. Removal processes comprise chemical and microbial degradation as well as partitioning into sludge. Degradation pro cesses include m ineralisation, i.e. complete breakdown co carbon dioxide and water, but may involve conversion co mecabolices which, in themselves, can have potentially adverse properties. Conversion of conjugates to the original pharmaceutical during the sewage treatment process can result in 40 SEPTEMBER 2007


2,000 (indicative) 1,500 300 (est.) - 700 No data


Valproate Erythromycin

Removal (%)

No data

Amoxicillin Cephalexin Gemfibrozil

Verapamil Ibuprofen

Treated Effluent Conc.(ng/L)


350 Not detected - 1,900 380 50 - 3,600 510 220 10 (est.) - 3,800 70 220

Khan and Ongerth, 2005 (Australia)

95 15 - 100 97 99- 100

12 - 100

From Fent et al., 2006 Khan and Ongerth, 2005 (Australia) From Fent et al., 2006 Hummel et of., 2006 (Germany) Khan and Ongerth, 2005 (Australia) From Fent et al., 2006

No removal 69

Gobel et al., 2005 (Switzerland) Karthi keyan and Meyer, 2006 (USA)

84 92

concentrations increasing during chis process, e.g. carbamazepine (Vieno et al., 2007). Carbamazepine metabolites also make up a fair proportion of the carbamazepine load (Gomez et al., 2007). The nature of the treatment process can also influence the degree of removal. For example, removal of the X-ray contrast compound iopromide was negligible in conventional activated sludge treatment but was 6 I% in nitrifying activated sludge (Batt et al., 2006). Concentratio ns of the Australian "cop 20" pharmace uticals in sewage, treated effluent and their removal efficiencies during sewage treatment are shown in Table 2. Sewage and effluent concentrations vary widely, reflecting both the usage pattern in the various countries as well as the removal efficiencies. Some pharmaceuticals are consistently well removed, e.g. paracetamol and salicylic acid, the metabolite of aspirin , while carbamazepine is poorly removed. Ochers such as gemfibrozil, naproxen and ibuprofen display variable removal efficiencies indicating how the treatment process can in fluence removal. Research

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Gomez et of., 2007 (Spain)

indicates chat a solids retention time (SRT) of at lease 10 days is required for maximum removal (Clara et al., 2005). However, this does not guarantee complete removal, and recalci cran t com pounds such as carbamazepine will still be poorly removed. Joss et al. (2006) have proposed a classification scheme for the degradation of pharmaceuticals based on their degradation constant in activated sludge from n utrient eliminating treatment p lanes . In their study of 35 compounds, only 4 showed >90% removal while 17 showed< 50% removal. This indicates char discharge of many pharmaceuticals from sewage treatment planes can be expected. It is important to note that many pharmaceuticals have yet co be analysed for in the aquatic environment. For examp le, th ere are no data on 9 of the "cop 20" Australian pharmaceuticals as co their occurrence in sewage, treated effluents or the aquatic environment. The more hydrophobic compounds rend co ad sorb co sludges during the treatment process . The hydrophobic nature of chemicals, i.e. their tendency to adsorb co organic matter, which is high in materials

technical features !fereed paper

such as sewage sludges, is described by the occanol/wacer partition coefficient Kow¡ Chemicals with a log K0 w >4 are considered co sorb strongly to sludges (Rogers, 1996) . Pharmaceuticals and personal care produces with chis property comprise mainly the fragrances (Xia et al., 2005). Noc surprisingly, then, fragrance compounds have been found at reasonably high levels (mg/kg) in biosolids. Thus "removal" of such compounds from sewage is merely partitioning co sludge. The concern with compounds which are predominancly removed in biosolids is their potential for remobilisation when the sludge is used as a soil ameliorant. However, there is no evidence chat chis does occur ro any great extent. In face, che properties of a chemical which result in its adsorption co sludge are chose which will limit its mobility once adsorbed. Conversely, further degradation in biosolids and amended so ils can reduce concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care produces significancly (Di Francesco et al., 2004). Uptake of these compounds by plants grown in soils amended with biosolids is also possible but the risk appears minimal. The presence of pharmaceuticals and PC Ps in effluents from treatment planes muse also be considered in relation to effluent reuse, including aquifer storage and recovery (Khan and Rorije, 2002). Another potential

impact of antibiotics in wascewacers is development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, either in the wastewaters themselves or in impacted environments. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in impacted environments but their significance is as yet unclear (Costanzo et al., 2005).

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Waters The incomplete removal of many pharmaceuticals and personal care produces indicates chat they will be discharged co receiving waters and not surp risingly they have been d etected in these environments. For example, a US survey of screams revealed che presence of 35 pharmaceuticals as well as ocher organic contaminants (Kolp in et al., 2002). Similarly, a number of such compounds have been detected in waters in Germany (Ternes, 1998). Wastewater derived pharmaceuticals can also contaminate groundwaters if wastewater percolates into aquifers (H eberer et al., 1998). The potential effects of pharmaceuticals in impacted waters are twofold. They may have adverse environmental effects or they may affect che quality of the water abstracted for drinking. While the environmental effects of estrogenic chemicals are well known, che significance

of low levels of pharmaceuticals and PCPs is not clear. Concentrations are well below acute toxicity levels; however, it is generally agreed that chronic toxicity studies are limited Qones eta!., 2001; Fent eta/., 2006) and need co focus on mo re subtle effects. For example, the lipid regulator, gemfibrozil, at environmental levels has recently been shown co accumulate in goldfish and have endocrine disrupting effects (Mimeault et al., 2005). A mixture of pharmaceu ticals at environ mentally relevant concentrations was also shown to have effects on human cells (Pomaci et al., 2006). Concentrations in impacted waters are considered not co pose a healch risk if that water were used for drinking (Schwab et al., 2005). Some pharmaceuticals have been detected in fin ished drinking water, although at concentrations less than 1 Âľg/L Qones et al., 2005) . Although co ncentrations are very low, chis is likely co affect consumers acceptance of such water, especially if reuse for potable purposes is practised. This finding that some pharmaceuticals can survive drinking water treatment processes has now prompted more derailed studies of specific processes. C hlorination is effective for destruction of some pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, ranicidine) bur not ochers (carbamazepine, erychromycin, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen) (G ibs

BOOK REVIEW Managing Water /01¡ Australia. The Social and Institutional Challenges. Editors: Karen Hussey and Stephen Dovers, CSIRO Publishing, 2007, ISBN 9 780 64309 3928. Available, $49.95 The environmental and social challenges facing Australia, an old country, geologically with a large surface area limited and spasmodic rainfall in sub-tropical areas, an increasing population nestled along the ferti le coastal margins and with a voracious appetite fo r water, are immense. The demand for water in the cities, its profligate and wasteful use has outstripped the capacity of the neighbouring land co capture and deliver. In the rural and regional areas, the scattered and limited river and groundwater resource has encouraged over-exploitation and the growth of unsustainable enterprises such as cotton growing and farming in marginal lands. All these factors have con tribured to a sudden and belated awakening of alarm as the realisation dawns that there is no



plentiful, infinite supply of water co be drawn upon and careful management of nature's gifts is essential co provide a fu ture for Australia. With the announcement of the National Water Initiative in 2006, Australians have been given a blueprint for implementing reforms co the management of the natural freshwater resources and co come co a better understanding of the extent of water available naturally from all sources surface, groundwater, rivers, dams and soaks. Deficiencies in the data, mapping of the water resources, environmental water allocations, identifying gaps in the research and the thorny issue of water pricing are all key areas coming under the plan. Announced in January 2007, a national $1 Obillion plan to accelerate water reform and significantly improve water management in the M urray Darling Basin is, in large part u nderpinned by, and intended to advance the National Water Initiative.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

This little book aims to bridge the gap between the words of the National Water Initiative and the actions needed ro give effect to chose words on the grou nd and across the nine different state jurisd ictio ns. There are 11 chapters, each written by the acknowledged specialist(s) in the field . They cover: the role of commu nication and attitudes research in the evolu tion of effective resource management, environmental water allocations and their governance, water planning, water trading and water pricing, linking rural and urban water systems, three chapters on delivering the National Water Initiative and fi nally, a d iscussion on international perspective on water policy and management. A good, well written overview and an excellent summary for anyone wanting to get "up to speed" on current water policy initiatives in Australia.

Diane Wiesne1; Scientist, A WA

technical features ~fereed paper

et al., 2007) and acrivared carbon is required fo r removal of rhe recalcitrant compounds. Ir is interesting rhar raniridine is a potent precursor of NDMA (Schmidt et al., 2006) so by-products of pharmaceuticals fo rmed during disinfection may also be a n issue. G iven the varying degrees of treatment to which water is subjected for drinking purposes, many supplies will contain low levels of pharmaceuticals, generally (ng/L) which is far below human therapeutic levels. As rhe old adage says "What goes around comes around"; pharmaceuticals and personal care products are going the fu ll circle, b ur their effects at these low concentrations have yet to be adequately determined.

The Author Dr Brenton Nicholson is Senior Organic Research Chemist with the Applied Chemistry Research U ni t at rhe Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water Corporation, Salisbury, SA 51 0 8, Brenton.Nicholson

References Baer, A. L., Ki m, S. and Aga, D. S. (2006). Enhanced biodegradation of iopromide and trimethoprim in nitrifying activated sl udge. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40: 7367-7373. Bound, J. P. and Voulvoulis, N . (2005) . H ousehold disposal of pharmaceuticals as a pathway for aquatic contamination in the United Kingdom. Environ. Health Perspect., 113: 1705-1 711. Cast iglioni, S., Bagnati, R., Fanell i, R., Pomat i, F., Calamari, D. and Zuccato, E. (2006a). Removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plants in Italy. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40: 357-363. Castiglioni, S., Zuccaro, E., Crisci, E., Chiabrando, C., Fanelli, R. and Bagnati, R. (2006b). Identificat ion and measurement of illicit drugs and their metabolites in urban wastewater by liquid chromatographytandem mass specrromerry. Anal. Chem., 78: 8421-8429. C lara, M., Kreuzinger, N., Strenn, B., Gans, 0. and Kroiss, H . (2005) . The solids retention time - a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutanrs. Water Res, 39: 97-106. Costanzo, S. D., Murby, J. and Bates, J. (2005). Ecosystem response to antibiotics entering the aquatic environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull, 51: 218-223 . Di Francesco, A. M., Chiu, P. C., Standley, L. J., Allen, H . E. and Salvito, D. T. (2004). Dissipat ion of fragrance materials in sludgeamended soils. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38: 194-20 1. Fent, K., Weston, A. A. and Caminada, D. (2006) . Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals. Aquat. Toxicol., 76: 122-159. Gibs, J., Srackelberg, P. E., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M., Zaugg, S. D. and Lippincott, R. L. (2007) . Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated

drinking water as a fu nction of t ime. Sci. Total Environ., 373: 240-249. Gobel, A., Thomsen, A., McArdell, C. S., Joss, A. and Giger, W. (2005). Occurrence and sorpt ion behavior of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in activated sludge treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39: 3981-3989. Gomez, M. J., Bueno, M . J. M ., Lacorre, S., Fernandez-Alba, A. R. and Aguera, A. (2007). Pilot survey monitoring pharmaceuticals and related compounds in a sewage treatment plane located on the Mediterranean coast. Chemosphere, 66: 993-1002. Gros, M., Petrovic, M. and Barcelo, D. (2006). Development of a m ulti-residue analytical methodology based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for screening and trace level determination of pharmaceuticals in surface and wasrewarers. Talama, 70: 678-690. H eberer, T., Schm idt-Baumler, K. and Stan, H.-J. (1998). Occurrence a nd distribution of o rganic contam inants in che aquatic system in Berlin. Parr 1: Drug resid ues and ocher polar contaminants in Berlin surface and groundwater. Acta Hydrochim.Hydrobiol. , 26: 272-278. Hummel, D., Loffier, D., Fink, G. and Ternes, T . A. (2006). Simultaneous determinarion of psychoactive d rugs and their m etabolites in aqueous matrices by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40: 7321-7328. Jones, 0. A., Lester, J. N . and Voulvoulis, N. (2005). Phannaceut icals: a threat to drinking water? Trends Biotechnol., 23: 163-167. Jones, 0. A. H ., Voulvoulis, N. and Lester, ). N . (2001) . Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: A review. Environ. Technol., 22: 1383-1394. Joss, A., Zabczynski, S., Gobel, A., H offmann, B., Loffier, D. , McArdell, C. S., Ternes, T. A., Thomsen, A. and Siegrist, H. (2006). Biological degradation of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater trearmenr: Proposing a classification scheme. Water Res., 40: 1686-1696. Khan, S. J. and Ongerrh, J.E. (2004) . Modelling of pharmaceurical residues in Aust ralian sewage by quantities of use and fugaciry calculations. Chemosphere, 54: 355-367. Khan, S. J. and Ongerch, J. E. (2005). Occurrence and removal of pharm aceuticals at an Australian sewage treatment planr. Water (Aust.}, 32(4): 80-85. Khan, S. J. and Rorije, E. (2002). Pharmaceurically active compounds in aquifer storage and recovery. In:

Management ofAquifer Recharge for Sustainability. (Ed., Dillon, P. J.). Lisse: Swets & Zeirlinger, pp. 169-174. Karrhikeyan, K. G. and Meyer, M. T. (2006) . Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment faci lities in Wisconsin, USA. Sci. Total Environ., 361: 196-207. Kolpin, D. W., Furlong, E. T., Meyer, M. T., T hurman, E. M., Zaugg, S. T. , Barber, L. B. and Buxton, H. T. (2002). Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and ocher wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams,

44 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water Journal of the Australian Water Association

1999-2000: A national reconnaissance.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 36: 1202-1211. Lindberg, R., J arnheimer, P.-A., Olsen, B., Johansson, M. and Tysklind, M. (2004) . Determination of antibiotic substances in hospital sewage water using solid phase extract ion and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and group analogue internal standards. Chemosphere, 57: 1479- 1488. Maggs, J. L., Pirmohamed, M., K.itteringham, N . R. and Park, B. K. (1997). Characterization of rhe metabolites of carbamazepine in patient urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Drug Metabol. Disposit., 25: 275-280. Mimeault, C., Woodhouse, A., Miao, X. S., Metcalfe, C. D ., Moon, T. W. and Trudeau, V. L. (2005). T he human lipid regulator, gemfibrozil bioconcentrates and reduces testosterone in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Aquat. Toxicol., 73: 44-54 . Nicholson, B. C. (2007), Organ ic Chemical Issues in Wastewater Quality - A Review of Current Analyt ical Methods, C RC for Water Quality and Treatment, Adelaide. publications/ C hem ical_issues_in_ wastewater_q uali ty. pdf Pomari, F. , Cast iglioni, S., Z uccato, E., Fanelli, R. , Vigerti, D., Rossetti, C. and Calamari, D. (2006). Effects of a complex mixmre of therapeutic drugs at environmental levels of human embryonic cells. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40 2442-2447. Rogers, H. R. (1996) . Sources, behaviour and fate of organic contaminants during sewage treatm ent and in sewage sludges. Sci. Total Environ., 185: 3-26. Schmidt , C. K., Sacher, F. and Brauch, H. -J. (2006). Strategies for minimizing formation of NOMA and other nitrosamines during disinfection of drinking water. Proc. A WWA

Water Qua/. Technol. Conf, Denver, Colorado, CD ROM. Schwab, B. W., H ayes, E. P., F iori, J.M., Mastrocco, F. J., Roden, N. M., C ragin, D., Meyerhoff, R. D ., D 'aco, V. J. and Anderson, P. D. (2005). Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: A human health risk assessmenr. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 42: 296-312. Ternes, T. and Joss, A. (Eds.) (2006) Human

Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances. The Challenge ofMicropollutants in Urban Water Management, IWA Publishing, London. Ternes, T. A. (1998). O ccurrence of d rugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Res., 32: 3245-3260 . Ternes, T. A. and Hirsch, R. (2000). Occurrence and behavior of X-ray contrast m edia in sewage facilities and t he aquatic environment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34: 2741-2748. Vieno, N., Tuhkanen, T. and Kronberg, L. (2007) . Elimination of pharmaceuricals in sewage treatment planrs in Finland. Water Res., 41: 1001-1012. Xia, K., Bhandari, A., Das, K. and Pillar, G. (2005). Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPC Ps) in biosolids. J. Environ. Qua!., 34: 91-104.





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technical features ~fereed paper

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Figure 5. Typical Reverse Osmosis Pla nt Installation. Courtesy of Dow C hem icals.


0 .000 1000


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Figure 4. Comparison of secondary treated effluent w ith and withou t coagulation

of inorganic and metal ions. In fact, high levels of phosphate can result in calcium phosphate scaling at high recoveries and, consequently reduce RO performance[ 18 1.

using HPSEC.

Table 1. Comparison of RO membrane fouling w ith different types of pre-treatment. Fouling type and typical severity vs pretreatment

Conventional Multi Media Filtration

(MF) UF and MBRs

Oxidants (ozone, UV) and biocides

Flocculants and absorbents, Biologically Active Carbon (BAC)

Biological Orga nic Colloidal Metals Nutrients

High (High) Medium High No change No chonge

(Medium) Low Medium (Medi um) Low No change (Medium) Low

Low Medium No ch ange No ch ange No change

Medium Low Low No change No change

using enhanced co agulatio n which results in insufficient removal of DOC/colo ur and high chemical usage d uring membrane treatment. In fact, in-line coagulation and ultrafiltration may only remove a negligible amo unt of any d issolved organic material present in wastewater, as noted in the example below (Figu re 4). In this case, the DOC concentration in a secondary created effluent was reduced from 20 to 16 mg/L (less than 20%) after coagulation and ultrafiltration.

Removal of nutrients N itrogen is often found in plane, animal wastes, runoff and fertilisers. Nitrates (NOr) and ammonium (NH 4+) are monovalent, soluble and do not cause RO scaling issues. Any remaining nitrates or ammonia from biological treatment are read ily removed by the RO at a rate greater than 85-95% . H owever, where chlorine o r chloramine is used as a disinfectant, the influen ce of chloramines on che product water needs to be addressed d uring the design of a RO plant. There is a 40 to 70% passage of chloramines through the RO membranes which impacts on the total N level in the product water from che RO plane.



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C alcium phosphate precipitation occurs occasionally in the last stage of RO plants treating tertiary effluent and operating at high recoveries, but the calcium phosphate precipitate is normally sludge like and thus fa irly easy to dissolve in acid, which can then be flus hed out and the plant returned to normal operation. Field data from other water reuse RO installations (Figure 5) in Singapore and Australia indicate that a feed phosphate level reduction of greater than 97% can occur at a pH of between 6 and 7, with system recoveries of 80% . I ron (Fe) or Aluminium (Al) based coagulants and fl occulants used in the pre-treatment step can also assist in the removal of phosphates and organics, increasing recoveries to above 80%.

This is particularly important for indirect potable reuse or industrial use. Phosphate is a concern to natural water ways and the environment. It is important to remove phosphate salts fr om effluents to reduce their adverse effects on the environment. T he presence of high phosphate is ofte n due to poor biological performance or instability of the treatment works. Phosphate is used by many m icroorganisms in biological waste treatment processes. H owever, during membrane treatment phosphate can form complexes, chelaces and insoluble sales in the presence

typical # of cleanings per year

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10 9 8

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Evaluating Pre-treatment on All of Life Costs The selection of pre-treatment should not just be based o n capital costs alone and all of life costs should take into account the severity of membrane fou ling and frequency of cleaning. For example, the use of conventional multimed ia filtration may have a low impact on microorganisms, leaving the RO mem brane vulnerable to biological fo uling. In contrast, biocides :i; effectively remove biological ~ organisms and reduce the effects of 3: .,., biofouling on RO membranes. c .,., "O



... <1>

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0 with conv. with MF with UF

Figure 6. Typical Cleaning frequency based on level of pre-treatment.

Journa l of the Australian Water Association

T he assumed fo uling factors fo r RO design and number of projected cleans per year will vary over the lifetime of the membranes depending on the level of pretreatment. H ence, the type of pretreatment chosen has a significant impact on the operating costs of a desali nation scheme. In fa ct, frequent chemical cleaning will shorten membrane life and may

technical features ~fereed paper

in validate the manufacturer's guarantee. T able 1 gives a gen eral overview of the likely remaining impact of a fo ulant after various pre-treatment options. Fouling leads to increased energy consumption due to added water flow resistance through the membrane and the feed spacer. Ir also results in the need for more frequent cleaning (Figures 6 and 7), which shortens the life of elements and adds co st to the process. Of the different types of fou ling, the most insidious are o rganic and bio-fouling.

compaction and permanent scaling and/or fo uli ng. It does not rake in to account loss of flux due to temporary scaling and/or fo uling that can be cleaned from che element since rhis is variable and depends on the quality of the feed water and the design and operation of che pretreatment system.

0.9 0 .8 0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0.2 0.1 0 Year 0 Start-Up


Year 2

Year 3

Year 4


lo uF • MF • coNv.l

In summarising che pretreatment options, the followi ng general statements can be made:

Figure 7. Typical ROSA Design Fouling Factors@ 75-80% Recovery.

Figure 6 shows the typical impact che selection of Fouling Resistant (i. e. BW-365 FR) versus Non Fouling Resistant (i.e. BW-365) membranes can have on the annual cleaning frequency, and also indicates the average RO system flux as fun ction of pretreatment type. In Figure 6, the x-axis represent the desired flux- rare flux which is achieved by the number of cleans represented on the y-axis. Figure 7 shows the effect that UF vs. MF vs. conventional pretreatment can have o n

the fou ling factor used in the ROSA software (a Reverse Osmosis System Analysis software co mmonly used to design and analyse RO unitsl 191) over a 5 year membrane life in a RO plant creating tertiary effluents. The fo uling fa ctor included in ROSA is used to adjust the feed pressure to maintain a constant permeate flow at co nstant temperature. l e is based on an anticipated irreversible flux loss due to a combination of membrane

• MF/UF allows moderately (15/25%) higher flux (smaller RO plan t or greater output from existing plant) and reduces cleaning frequency by~ 50-70% (mai nly bio/colloidal and particle fo uling reduction). MF/UF recovery is typically 90%;

• Conventio nal pretreatment uses more space b ut have higher recoveries of 97 to 99% d ue to less wastewater. Recovery of the RO is the same or higher than for MF/UF p ret reated but operatio n must normally be at lower flux;


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Journal of the Australian Water Association



technical features

• RO cleaning frequency w ith co nventional pretreatment is normally 2 to 4 times higher than with MF/UF p retreated feed.

membrane operation. In most cases pilot tests are a prerequisite to check the effectiveness of the pre-treatment process to ensure membrane fouling does not become a frequent issue.

Conclusion In the d evelopment of a strategy for creating wastewater for desalination using RO, che designer should include the following seeps: • iden tify the contam inants of concern; • assessing the risk/ frequency of con caminacion events; • establish ing proper evaluation criteria for pre-treatment (on all of life costs); • select the correct RO membrane for the application;

The Authors Anthony Davey is the Tech nical Manager IMD, Earth Tech, Melbourne, Australia .au);

Russell Schumann is a Senior Research Fellow with Levay & Co Environmen tal Services in the Ian Wark Research Institute at the U n iversity of South Australia (; Kai-Uwe Hoehn is a Senior Account Manager for Dow Water Solutions - Dow Chem ical (Australia) Limited, based in Sydney (

• investigate treatment o ptions at laboratory or pilot plane level;


The identification of contaminants in the wastewater and use o f proper analytical techniq ues to ch aracterise the wastewater are important in designing appropriate pre-treatment strategies. If pretreatment is not adequate then fouli ng will occur, resulting in more frequent cleaning and reduced membrane life. While normalised sale passage, pressure and fl ow or flux is a suitable method of predicting the decline in membrane performance, expensive and complicated cleaning regimes are not the answer to removing contaminants. In some cases, reclamation plants are operating at lower membrane flu x-rates to reduce the effects of fouling, but chis also results in a significant loss of production.

[l] Chapter 6, "Cleaning and Sanitization - Dow Liquid Separations FILMTEC Reverse Osmosis Membranes Technical Manual", July 2005 Form No. 609-0007 1-0705 [2] Levine B. , Madireddi K., Lazarova V., Stenstrom M. and Suffer M. , "Treatment of trace organic compounds by membrane processes at the lake arrowhead Water Reuse Pilot Plane", Water Sci. Tech. Vol.40, No.4-5, pp 293-301 (1999) [3] Galjaard G ., KruirhofJ. C., Raspati G. "Influence ofNOM and Membrane Surface Charge on UF membrane foulin g" Internacional Desalination Association (2006) [4) Amy G., Bryant C. and Belyani M., "Molecular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Matter in various secondary and tertiary effluents", Water Sci. Technol. Vol. 19, 529-538 (1987) [5] Fane, A.G., Ghayeni S.B., Beatson P.J., Schneider R.P., "Microbiological Aspects of Dual Membrane Processes for water reclamation", Internacional Desalination Association (1993) [6] Khan, E. Babcock, R.W, Suffer, J.H, and Stenstrom, M.K, "Method for measuring biodegradable Organic Carbon in Reclaimed and Treated Wascewacers", Water Environ, Res. 70, 1025 (1998) [7] Kuo, J.F., Stahl, J.F., C hen, C. and Bohlier P.V. "Dual role of Activated Carbon process fo r water reuse", Water Environ. Res., 70, 161 (1998) [8) Van Leeuwen J. , The design and application of a packed ozone absorption column in water reclamation. Ozone Sci. & Eng. 2, 283298. (1980) [9] Van Leeuwen, J., Prinsloo J., Van Sceenderen R.A. and Melekus W., The effect of pre-treatment with various oxidants on the performance of biological activated carbon (BAC) used in water reclamation. Ozone Sci. & Eng. 3, 4, 225-237, (1981) [1 0] Van Leeuwen, J., Prinsloo J. and Van Sceenderen R.A .,"The optim ization of ozonacion and biological activated carbon (BAC) in a water reclamation context" Ozone Sci. &Eng. 5, 3, 171 -181 (1983) [1 1] Van Leeuwen , J, (1996), "Reclaimed water - An untapped resource", Desalination, Vol 106, 233-240 (I 996) [12] Lazarova, V. (Cent ofinr Research for Water and Environment (CIRSEE)); Savoye, P.; Janex, M .L.; Blatchley, E.R. Ill; Pommepuy, M. "Advanced wastewater disinfection technologies: state of the art and perspectives", Water Sci. Tech. v 40, n 4-5 1999, p 203-2 13 [13] Xu P., Janexb M.L., Savoyeb P., Cockxc A., Lazarovab V., "Wastewater disinfection by ozone: main parameters for process design", Water Research 36 (2002), pg 1043 - 1055 [14] Lee Comb, "Microbial control - chloramines their chemistry and role in water creacmenc", ULTRA PURE Water January 2003, UP 20013 l [15] DOW -Technical Face Sheet "Sanitization ofFILMTEC Elements with DBNPA" -Form No. 609-003 17-600QRP [16] DOW Product Information "Non-oxidising Biocide co Eliminate Biological Fouling in Reverse Osmosis (RO) Systems for Municipal and Potable W ater Production", Form No.253-0 1767-10/15/05-PS [17] Isaias N.P, AI-Rammah A.S, "Pret reatment of Sewage Effluent for Reverse Osmosis for use as Boiler Feed Water", Internacional Desalination Association (1999) [18] Chapter 2, "Water Chemistry and Pre-treatment, Section 2.4.8 Calcium Phosphate Scale Prevention - Dow Liqu id Separations FILMTEC Reverse Osmosis Membranes Technical Manual", July 2005 Form No. 609-00071 -0705 [19] design/rosa.hcm

Provided the water co mposition , variability and creacabilicy are well understood, then it is a question of what is the most suitable pre-t reatment based o n 'whole of life coses' over the period of

56 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water

Journal of the Australian Water Association

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tecnn1ca1 teatures fereed pape

TREATMENT OF WASTEWATERS BY RO: OPERATING ISSUES - PART 2 A Davey, R Schumann, K Hoehn Abstract T here are significant issues in operating an RO desalination plane co reclaim water from created effluents. While fouling due co mineral scaling is well understood, other fou lants from b oth industry and domestic sources are less understood.


Raw Sewage

Biological Treatment


Butterln& tank

Pre~ Ozonatlon

In Part 1 of this paper (published in Water, August 2007) we discussed methods for testing for such foulants. I n Part 2 we provide options fo r pre-treatment.

Purified Water

Introduction With a high recovery rate, reverse osmosis (RO) maintains a high rejection of salts, organics and nutrients present in the wastewater. While the permeate qualiry is consistently high, this may come at a high operating cost if pre-treatment is inadequate. Choosing the right pretreatment warrants a thorough investigation of the wastewater being discharged from the biological treatment works. This is necessary co determine the most appropriate technology co reduce membrane fouling. With difficult wastewater it is necessary to review the risks of operati ng the reverse osmosis after pre-treatment. Some organic and industrial compounds are nor removed effectively by the biological wastewater treatment, tertiary filtration or chemical addition. Careful design of pre-treatment is necessary to min imise RO fou ling from colloidal, organic and biological fou lants . In Part 1 of chis article we provided a general approach to testing and measuring parameters relevant co the performance of RO for the desalination of wastewater and in Part 2 we provide options for selecting pre-treatment to prolong the life of the RO membranes.

Selecting Appropriate Pre-treatment Options Without adequate pre-treatment the RO plant has to rely on expensive and complicated cleaning regimes to sustain production. Chemical cleaning is necessary co remove contaminants caused by industry and biological wastes. Typical cleaning procedures consist of alkaline cleaning solutions with surfactants and enzymes up to a pH of 11.5, 12 or 13 depending on the




Figure 1. Process Diagram of the La ke Arrowhead Reclamation Plant. membrane brand, acid cleaning with inorganic and organ ic acids at p H 1 to 2, and a fi nal alkaline cleaning at pH 11 co 13. Each stage of the RO plane should ideally be cleaned separately with a fresh solution at elevated temperatures 30 -40 °C for ~45 min[ll _If these cleaning solutions are not successful, then more exotic cleaning solutions such as special surfactants and chelating agencs, enzyme cleaners, nitric/phosphoric acids, ere. are occasionally applied to remove the foulanc. These special cleaners can often become a hit and miss solution particularly when the foulant has n ot been identified. To avoid the expen se and loss of production associated with complicated cleaning regimes, appropriate pre-treatment should be used to minimise membrane fouling when desalinating created effluent by RO. The following sections outline a number of pre-treatment op tions and discu ss issues associated with each method.

Membrane filters W hile there are many articles reporting on Membrane Bio- Reactors (MBR) and Micro Filtration (MF)/Ultra Filtration (UF) planes treating urban, industrial and municipal sources, there are few papers reporting on the behaviour of emerging contaminants after treatment. MBR or membrane filters generally have a pore size less than 0. 1 Âľm and are capable of removing organic colloidal matter but have little effect on removal of smaller molecular weigh t organics. For example, an ultrafiltration

Journal of the Austral ian Water Association

membrane is generally only capable of removing organic compounds with a molecular weight greater than 1000 D altons, and this depends on , among others, the ion ic charge, membrane performance and material properties. For RO membranes, the cut-off point is generally less than 100 Dal tons. A direct consequence of inadequate membrane filtration or MF/UF membrane filtration for R O plane pre-treatment is the amount of particulates, colloids, micro-organisms which deposit directly onto the RO membranef2l. Only in the case where organics have a charge, will coagulation followed by filtration provide the reduction of Dissolved Organic Carbon (D OC) necessary before desalination. The effectiveness of coagulation/filtration as a pre-treatment for RO filtration often depends on the relative amount of charged organ ic material which is effectively removed by the coagulant. One problem with the use of UF membranes as a pre-treatment of wastewater for RO fi ltration is chat wastewater often leads co fouling of the UF membranes themselves. In the literature, Natural Organic Matter (NOM)-fouling of UF-membranes is often attributed to the deposition on the membrane surface of

Dealing with potential membrane foulants.

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technical features ifereed paper

Filtr.ition Ti me (d.iys) 150 50 100







~ E





- - - Effluent


---..- Rerroval

cl) Q.





--+- nfluent

40% 20%

0. 10 0.00


85 l:i

0% 0





Volume Filte red (Bed Vols)

Figure 2. Influent and effluent water di-t-butylphenol concentratio ns (DTBP) duri ng activated carbon fi ltration by th e RSSCT method. high molecular weight organics, like polysaccharides and polyhydroxy aromatics which are larger chan the Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO)-value of the VF membranel3l. In so me cases rejection of smaller organ ics like carboxylic acids and humics were fou nd and attributed ro the deposition of polysaccharides on che membrane surface making che effective pore size of the membrane similar to or smaller than the size of the acids and humicsl4l. It is often hypothesised that it is not these high molecular weight organics that cause major fouling, buc the low molecular weight organics and metal complexes which are responsible for the acceleration of thin film format ion and fouling. Bacteria can also pass through membrane filters; chis breakthrough can be substantial when due to membrane fa ilure or faul ty seals. Aggregation of bacteria on membranes can facilitate biofilm formation by accelerating the growth of micro-colonies and production of the polysaccharide matrix responsib le for their scabilisacionl5l_

Biologically activated carbon filters Procedures for analysing che concentration of biodegradable DO C in created wastewater have been developed and can be used to analyse the performance of ozone and granular activated carbon (GAC)l6l provided long term operational information on the successful role of GAC filters as tertiary filters and absorbers of organics[7l. GAC filters can be used as a polishing p rocess for removal of residual organic compounds and reduction of odo ur- producing compounds, pesticides, synthetic organics, crihalomech ane precursors and crihalomechanes. This principle, which was developed on the Stander Water Reclamation plancl8 , 9â&#x20AC;˘ IO] has been implemented on the 21 M L/d Goreangab Water Reclamation plane in Windhoek since 2002. The process features pre-ozonacion to enhance coagulation, pre-ozonation for promoting biodegradability in the carbon filters and posc-ozonation for final d isinfectionl 11 l. Organic pollutants were also successfull y removed at the Lake Arrowhead Reclamation Plant in California, USA[ 2 l for indirect potable reuse. In th is project che GAC filter was designed to work as a biological activated carbon (BAC) fi lter and membran~s were used as a major barrier in the multiple barrier system (Figure 1). T he experience gai ned from the activated carbon treatment of wascewacer suggests that a GAC filter, particularly one operated in a BAC mode, will act as a suitable b arrier to protect the RO membranes from fatty acids and bucylated phenols (Figure 2) found in a created efflu en t from a membrane bio-reactor. Once the 48 SEPTEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

GAC filter pose ozonation is operated in BAC mode by inoculation or through developmen t of biomass on the carbon bed, then che amount of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (Figure 3) removed by che filter will be greater than that removed by the GAC operating in a purely adsorpt ion mode as simulated in a Rapid Small Scale Column Test (RSSCT). T hus from the point of view of T O C removal, you can expect that the life of the carbon given pre-ozonacion should be significancly increased. However, it would be beneficial co pilot test the GAC column to determine the benefits of carbon adsorption combined with b iological regeneration. The b ed will reach a "steady state" reduction of organics (i.e. the % TOC reduction) after so many bed volumes. T he corresponding bio-film formed during pilot testing will create a b iologically active carbon fi lter ch at parcly oxidises the DOC present in che wastewater. The anaerob ic bacteria present in che BAC breaks down constituents not normally removed in a GAC filter alone. l e can cake up to 2 co 3 months for the process co become b iologically active and stable with consistent removals of 50 to 60%. P re-ozonation can convert refractionary organic material into readily biodegradable substances. This has che effect of promoting bioaccivicy in an activated carbon filter using ozonated water as the feed and extending the lifetime of che filter. If pre-ozonarion is used then regeneration of carbon may only be required after years instead of months of operation time. This process has been used for a few decades in the drin king water industry with typical organic removal of 20 to 40% through activated carbon. Several studies on wastewater ozonation alone have reported Chemical Oxygen D emand (COD) reductions up to 20% and a significant decrease in colourl 121. Residual ozone need s to be quenched after the BAC filter to ensure no damage occurs to the RO membranes. O ne of the major concerns with the use of ozone in the drinking water industry is che production of bromate as a by product of ozone oxidation of bromide. Bro mate is a suspected human carcinogen. Ocher by-products of ozone oxidation are various ald ehydes and ketones so me of which may also have carcinogenic properties.

Disinfection Although pre-treatment filters provide a barrier to pathogens, ocher sources may lead to RO biofouling. Because of chis, there is the need for a carefully plan ned biological control program co minimise che race of biological foulin g for biologically active feed waters. Biological fouling is normally difficult to characterise or quantify during design. It can be expected that where RO systems have biological accivicy resulting in slimy bio-film formations, the problem can be traced back to che po int where no biocide is

Filtr.ition Time (d.iys) 150 200 100 0 50 8.0 +-------'-----.1......---...L.----L.,- 50% 7.0 -t-- - - - - -- - - - -- - -- ..... 40%

1!C :

-+- nfl:~nt


- - Effluent

....- Rerroval

2.0 1.0


30% ~ 20%

&! u

0 10% t-

0.0 + - - - - ~ - - - - ~ - - - ~~ - - - - + 0% 20000 0 5000 10000 15000

Volume Filtered (Bed Vols)

Figure 3. Influent and effl uent water TOC concentrations during activated carbon filtration by the RSSCT method.

present in the RO system. This type of fouling process generally plugs the RO elements feed path, permeate flux decreases, and the feed to concentrate pressure drop will increase. Biofouling is caused by bio-films, which are living micro-organisms attached to the surface. T he microbes secrete a polymer gel matrix 'slime' which anchors them to the substratum. On RO membranes bio-films increase the membrane resistance, often decrease product quality, increase resistance to flui d fl ow, and can sometimes break down membrane polymers and adhesives in the glue-lines, all of wh ich lead to higher energy consumption or shorten the life of plant components. Biological fou ling is not a simple deposition of bacteria from the feed. In non-sterile systems, the degree of fo ul ing has been shown to be independent o f the feed concentration, because when bacteria attach, they grow and proliferate at an exponential rate. Th e maximum level of growth supported by the membrane is determined by the availability of nutrients, which are generally in great abundance in wastewater effluent. In the case of wastewater, disinfection with Ultraviolet (UV) ligh t, ozone, chlorine, chloramines, or other biocides may be required prior to RO fi ltration. I t is also important to ensu re flush ing of the system to wash out injured cells is carried ou t after disinfection, as no biocide can be guaranteed to be 100% effective at killing the micro-organisms. An occasio nal feedwater, or better a permeate, flush of the feed b rine side of the RO membranes fo r a short time has proven to be b eneficial in extend ing the time between requi red RO cleanings. UV ligh t can provide a damaging effect on the genetic material found in b iological cells. Each type of organism requires a specific dose for inact ivation. The UV u ni t is a unique in-line configu ration designed for high transmittance waters taking specific advantage of the UV lamp. The lamps exhibit high efficiency, temperature stability, and lo ng operating life. UV light requires a relatively small contact time to kill the pathogens. The only disadvantage of UV is the lack of effe ctiveness in waters with poor transmittance or potential buildup of bio-slimes on the lamp window reducing the effe ctive energy output of the lamp. Hence, UV units are typically downstream of the MF/UF or RO unit. Ozonation has proven to be one of the most effective disinfectants and is widely used to inactivate pathogens in drinking water. However, many researchers initially

sought to achieve a measurable level of d issolved ozone residual in treated wastewater, similar to the approach used fo r potable water disinfection. However, because of the very high oxidant demand of wastewaters in comparison to potable waters, the use of ozone in this way has not proved to be an economically viable option. Wastewater ozone contactor design sh ould be based on short contact times and enhanced mass transfer. Transfer of ozone from gas phase to water has been fou nd to be the critical step for faecal coliform inactivation with ozone, with no d ifference in activation between 2 and 10 minutes hydraulic retention time. Furthermore, no inactivation credi t can be attributed to the storage of ozonated water because of high ozone decay in treated eff1uent1 131. V iruses are effectively inactivated by ozone so they are not a limiting factor for ozone disinfection. Great care has to b e taken not to contact the RO membranes with ozone as the typ ical Thin Film Co mposite (TFC) membrane only has a few hundred ppm h ours of ozone resistance before severe loss of salt rejectio n occurs. C h loramine is only a weakly oxidising biocide (however, the correct chlorine/ammonia ratio must be maintained to maintain rhe total chloramine concentratio n). Ammonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite sh ould be mixed separately in a mixing pot before application. Typically RO thin film membranes have an exp osure limit o f 300,000 p pm.hours to chloramine and only 1000 ppm.hours to free chlorine before a noticeable increase in salt passage occurs. This correlates to a chloramine level of 11.4 ppm for an operat ing period of 3 years of membrane life. T olerance levels of RO memb ranes can be lower d ue to the catalytic effects of high temperature, low pH , or presence of transition metals. A pract ical level of chloramines in the feed to waste water RO plants is in th e range of 0.5 to 3 p pm. C hloramine is effective in removi ng biofoulants, as it chemically oxidises the biop olymers and destroys the biofilms structure allowing it and associated bacteria to be flushed away. Treated effluent can form disinfection byproducts (DBP) including trihalomethanes. C hloramines appear to cause very few side reactions with organics present in the wastewater excep t where halogenated hydrocarbons may form i.e. methylene chloride, trichlorethanes and ethenes in the present of industrial waste. These compounds may be detrimental to the membrane materiall21. Whereas free

Continued on page 52

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tecnn1ca1 reatures

m Continued from page 49 chlorine or hypochlorite injected direcdy into waste water leads ro short lived chlorinated organic species tint can decay on the membrane surface and rhe resulting free chlorine then attacks rhe membrane leading ro increased sale passage.l 14 l The presence of free ch lorine can void rhe RO membrane warranty. Hence, rhe RO feed muse be dechlorinated with sodium meta bisulphite ro less than 0.1 ppm. Stiochomecrically 1.5 ppm of sodium bisulphite will neutralise 1 ppm of chlorine. However, in p ractice higher dose rares can speed up the dechlorination reaction. Dechlorination must be used carefully, since in the presence of chloramines this can result in an increase in ammonia or ammon ium ion levels, which can unfortunately invite biofilm growth if all rhe chlorine and chloramines are removed. The passage of chloramines into the permeate water is relatively h igh (chloramine is a small molecule nor well rejected by the RO) with typically 40 up to 70% of the feed level passing through the membrane thus providing a sanitising effect on the permeate side. As ammonium is a

monovalent cation, it is also well rejected by reverse osmosis as long as the pH is below -7.2. The introduction of dibromonirrilopropionamide (DBNPA) or dibromocyanoacetamide on a weekly basis (i.e. 20 ppm for 1 hour) can be used effectively for control of biofouling on the RO membrane[ 15l. DBNPA is a quick kill biocide which quickly hydrolyses under both aci d and alkaline conditions. DBNPA is p referred for its instability in water, as it kills efficiendy and then quickly degrades ro ammonia and bromide ion. DBNPA is not an oxidising biocide and it is nor a bromine release biocide. The biocide is expensive ro buy, but the savings in reduced cleanings, longer membrane life and more stable operation over time results in a justifiab le payback. The concentration of the biocide in che p ermeate is expected ro be less than 50 ro 80 ppb and over a few hours especially at high pH and higher temperatures the residual DBNPA concentrations fall below che detection limic[16l. Soaking with biocides may kill cells, b ur the inactivated biomacerial is generally not removed from the membrane without cleaning. Unless somehow

lfereed paper

removed, dead bacteria still cause symptoms of fouling. A certain amount of cross flow is also essential ro minimise deposition of foulants onto che membranes .

Enhanced Flocculation and Adsorbents The essential problem of pre-creating water prior to RO, is che requirement for complete removal of fin ely dispersed colloidal material, otherwise the fin e pores of the RO membranes will be fouled. While inorganic coagulants remove a certain portion of the organics, ocher additives such as powder activated carbons o r organic polymers also have a positive effect on removal of charged fractions in the wascewater[171. Ic is importan t to use an addi tive chat removes che soluble portion of che organic load chat would otherwise adsorb to che RO membrane. Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) which adsorb onto membrane filters can also be eliminated by adequate flocculation, coagulation and adsorption. Typically, dissolved organic material present in wastewater has a low apparent molecular weight (i.e. <3,00 0 Daltons) . Low molecular weight fractions of DOC are recalci crant and very d ifficult to remove

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52 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water

... the better way

Journal of the Australian Water Association

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technical features ~fereed paper

0 .01 8 0 ,01 8

0 ,0 14 0 ,012




0 ,010

0 .000

FO<ld + ACH + UF Pormoata


Final Wamr



0 .006 0 .004 0 002

Figure 5. Typ ical Reverse Osmosis Plant Installation. Courtesy of Dow Chemicals.

0 .000 1000



-0 002

Apparent Molecular We ight (Dalton)

Figure 4. Comparison of secondary treated effluent with and without coagulation usi ng HPSEC.

Table 1. Comparison of RO membrane fouli ng w ith different types of pre-treatment. Fouling type and typical severity vs pretreatment

Conventional Multi Media Filtration

(MF) UF and MBRs

Oxidants (ozone, UV) and biocides

Flocculants and absorbents, Biologically Active Carbon (BAC)

Biological Organic Col loidal Metals Nutrients

High (High) Medium High No change No change

(Medium) Low Medium (Medium) Low No change (Medium) Low

Low Medium No change No change No change

Medium Low Low No change No change

using enhanced coagulation which results in insufficient removal of DOC/colour and high chemical usage during membrane treatment. In face, in-line coagulation and ulcrafilcracion may only remove a negligible amount of any disso lved organic material present in wastewater, as noted in the example below (F igure 4). In chis case, the DOC concentration in a secondary created effluent was reduced from 20 co 16 mg/L (less than 20%) after coagulation and ulcrafilcracion.

Removal of nutrients Nitrogen is often found in plane, anim al wastes, runoff and ferti lisers. Nitrates (NOr) and ammonium (NH4+) are monovalent, soluble and do not cause RO scaling issues. Any remaining nitrates or ammonia from biological treatment are readily removed by the RO at a rare greater than 85-95%. However, where chlorine or chloramine is used as a disinfectant, the influence of chlo ramines on rhe product water needs to be addressed during the design of a RO plane. There is a 40 co 70% passage of chloramines through rhe RO membranes which impacts on the total N level in the produce water from the RO plane.

This is particularly important fo r indirect potable reuse or industrial use. Phosphate is a concern to natural water ways and che environment. Ir is important to remove phosphate sales from effluents to reduce their adverse effects on the environment. The presence of high phosphate is often due to poor biological performance or instability of the creacmenr works. Phosphate is used by many microorganisms in biological waste treatment processes. However, during membrane treatment phosphate can form complexes, chelaces and insoluble sales in the presence

of inorganic and metal ions. In face, high levels of phosphate can result in calcium phosphate scaling at high recoveries and, consequen tly reduce RO performance[l 81. Calcium phosphate precipitation occurs occasionally in the last stage of RO planes treating tertiary effluent and operati ng at high recoveries, bur the calcium phosphate precipitate is normally sludge like and thus fairly easy to dissolve in acid, which can then be flushed our and the plant returned to normal operation. Field data from ocher water reuse RO installations (Figure 5) in Singapore and Australia indicate chat a feed phosphate level reduction of greater than 97% can occur at a pH of between 6 and 7, with system recoveries of 80%. Iron (Fe) or Aluminium (Al) based coagulants and flocculancs used in the pre-treatment seep can also assist in the removal of phosphates and organics, increasing recoveries to above 80%.

Evaluating Pre-treatment on All of Life Costs

The selection of pre-treatment should nor just be based on capital coses alone and all of life coses should cake into accoun t the severity of membrane fouling and frequency of cleaning. For example, the use of conventional multimedia filtration may have a low impact on microtypical # of cleanings per year organisms, leaving rhe RO 10 .,_. 20 membrane vulnerable to biological .,C 18 CJ 365 FR â&#x20AC;˘ 365 9 foul ing. In contrast, biocides :I, .5., 16 8 effectively remove biological "' 1:ÂĽ .b 7 ., 14 organisms and reduce che effects of 3: -n Q. 6 12 biofouling on RO membranes. 2 .; -n 5 -0 10 C The assumed fo uling facto rs for RO 0 iil 4 :g., 8 ,;design and number of projected <1> 3 > 6 ~ C cleans per year will vary over the 0 2 3 4 u <1> of che membranes lifetime a 1 2 .i depending on che level of pre0 0 treatment. Hence, the type of pre9 11 13 14 with conv. treatment chosen has a significant 12 14 15 with MF FLUX gfd 10 impact on the operating costs of a 11 13 15 16 with UF desalination scheme. In fact, frequent chemical cleaning will Figure 6. Typical Cleaning frequency based on level of shorten membrane life and may pre-treatment.



54 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water Journa l of the Australian Water Association

technical features !fereed paper

invalidate the manufacturer's guarantee. Table 1 gives a general overview of the likely remaining impact of a foula nt after various pre-treatment options. Fouling leads co increased energy consumption due co added water flow resistance through the membrane and the feed spacer. It also resul ts in the need for more frequent cleani ng (Figures 6 and 7), which shortens the life of elements and adds cost co the process. Of the different types of foul ing, the most insidious are organic and bio-fouling.

compaction and permanent scaling and/ or foul ing. It does not take into account loss of flux due co temporary scaling and/or fouling that can be cleaned from the element since chis is variable and depends on the qualiry of the feed water and the design and operation of the pretreatment system.

0. 9 0 .8

0.7 0.6 0 .5 0.4 0.3 0.2. 0.1 0 Year 0 Start-Up




Year 4


lrn.JF • MF • coNv.j

In summarising the pretreatment options, che following general statements can be made:

Figure 7. Typical ROSA Design Fouling Factors@ 75-80% Recovery.

Figure 6 shows the rypical impact the selecrion of Fouling Resistant (i .e. BW-365FR) versus Non Fouling Resistant (i.e. BW-365) membranes can have on the annual clean ing freq uency, and also indicates the average RO system fl ux as function of pretreatment type. In Figure 6, the x-axis represent the desired flux-rate fl ux which is achieved by the number of cleans represented on the y-axis. Figure 7 shows the effect that UF vs. MF vs . conventional pretreatment can have on

the fouling factor used in the ROSA software (a Reverse Osmosis System Analysis software commonly used co design and analyse RO uni tsl19l) over a 5 year membrane life in a RO plant treating tertiary effluents. The fou ling factor included in ROSA is used co adjust the feed pressu re co maintain a constant permeate flow at constant temperature. le is based on an anticipated irreversible flux loss due co a combination of membrane

• MF/UF allows moderately (15/25%) higher flux (sma1ler RO plant or greater output from existing plant) and reduces cl ean ing frequency by ~ 50-70% (mainly bio/colloidal and particle fouli ng reduction). MF/UF recovery is typically 90%;

• Conventional pretreatment uses more space but have higher recoveries of 97 co 99% d ue co less wastewater. Recovery of the RO is the same or higher than for MF/UF pretreated but operation must normally be at lower flux;


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Journal of the Australian Water Association



technical features !fereed paper

• RO cleaning frequency with conventional pretreatment is normally 2 to 4 times higher than with MF/UF pretreated feed.

membrane operation. In most cases pilot tests are a prerequisite to check the effectiveness of the pre-treatment process to ensure membrane fouling does nor become a frequent issue.

Conclusion In the development of a strategy for treating wastewater for desalination using RO, the designer should include the fo llowing steps: • identify the contaminants of concern; • assessing the risk/ frequency of contamination events; • establishing proper evaluation criteria fo r pre-treatment (on all of life costs); • select the correct RO membrane fo r the application; • investigate treatment options at laboratory or pilot plant level; The identification of co ntaminants in the wastewater and use of p roper analytical techniques to characterise the wastewater are important in designing appropriate pre-treatment strategies. If pretreatment is not adequate then fouling will occur, resulting in more frequent cleaning and reduced membrane life. While normalised salt passage, p ressure and flow or fl ux is a suitable method of predicting the decline in membrane performance, expensive and complicated cleaning regimes are not the answer to removing co ntaminants. In some cases, reclamation plants are operating ar lower membrane flux-rates to reduce the effects of fouling, but chis also results in a significant loss of production. Provided the water compo sition, variability and treatab ili ty are well understood, then it is a question of what is the most sui table pre-treatment based on 'whole of life coses' over the period of




Journal of the Australian Water Association

The Authors Anthony Davey is the Tech nical Manager IMD , Earth Tech, Melbourne, Australia;

Russell Schumann is a Senior Research Fellow with Levay & Co Environmental Services in the Ian Wark Research I nstitute at the University of South Australia (Russell.Schuman au); Kai-Uwe Hoehn is a Senior Account Manager for Dow Water Solutions - Dow Chemical (Australia) Limited, based in Sydney (

References [l] Chapter 6, "Cleaning and Sanitization - Dow Liquid Separations FJLMTEC Reverse Osmosis Membranes T echnical Manual ", July 2005 Form No. 609-00071-0705 [2] Levine B. , Madireddi K., Lazarova V. , Stenstrom M. and Suffer M., "Treatment of trace organic compounds by membrane processes at the lake arrowhead Water Reuse Pilot Plant", Water Sci. Tech. Vol.40, No.4-5, pp 293-301 (1999) [3] Galjaard G., Kruirhof J. C., Raspari G. "Influence of NOM and Membrane Surface Charge on UF membrane fouling" International Desalination Association (2006) [4] Arny G., Bryant C. and Belyani M. , "Molecular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Matter in various secondary and rerriary effluents", Water Sci. Technol. Vol. 19, 529-538 (1987) [5] Fane, A.G ., Ghayeni S.B., Beatson P.J., Schneider R.P., "Microbiological Aspects of Dual Membrane Processes for water reclamation", International Desalination Association (1993) [6] Khan, E. Babcock, R.W, Suffer,J .H, and Stenstrom, M.K, "Method for measuring biodegradable Organic Carbon in Reclaimed and Treated Wasrewarers", Water Environ, Res. 70, 1025 ( 1998) [7] Kuo, J.F. , Stahl, J.F., Chen, C. and Bohlier P.V. "Dual role of Activated Carbon process for water reuse", Water Environ. Res., 70,161 (1998) [8] Van Leeuwen J., The design and application of a packed ozone absorption column in water reclamation. Ozone Sci. & Eng. 2, 283298. (1980) [9] Van Leeuwen, J., Prinsloo J. , Van Sreenderen R.A. and Melekus W., The effect of pre-treatment with various oxidants on the performance of biological activated carbon (BAC) used in water reclamation. Ozone Sci. &Eng. 3, 4, 225-237, (1981) [IO] Van Leeuwen, J. , Prinsloo J. and Van Sceenderen R.A. ,"The optimization of ozonacion and biological activated carbon (BAC) in a water reclamation context" Ozone Sci. &Eng. 5, 3, 171-181 (1983) [I I] Van Leeuwen, J, (I 996), "Reclaimed water - An untapped resource", Desalination, Vol I 06, 233-240 (1996) [12] Lazarova, V . (Cent oflnc Research for Water and Environment (CIRSEE)); Savoye, P.; Janex, M.L.; Blatchley, E. R. Ill; Pommepuy, M. "Advanced wastewater disinfection technologies: state of the art and perspectives", Water Sci. Tech. v 40, n 4-5 1999, p 203-2 13 [ 13] Xu P. , Janexb M.L., Savoyeb P., Cockxc A., Lazarovab V., "Wastewater disinfection by ozone: main parameters for process design", Water Research 36 (2002), pg 1043 - 1055 [ 14] Lee Comb, "Microbial control - chloramines their chem istry and role in water treatment", ULTRA PURE Water January 2003, UP 200131 [15] DOW -Techn ical Fact Sheer "Sanitization ofFILMTEC Elements wirh DBNPA" -Form No. 609-00317-600QRP [16] DOW Produce Information "Non-oxidising Biocide co Eliminate Biological Fouling in Reverse Osmosis (RO) Systems fo r Municipal and Potable Water Production", Form No. 253-01767-10/15/05-PS [ 17] Isaias N.P, Al-Rammah A.S, "Pretreatment of Sewage Effluent for Reverse Osmosis for use as Boiler Feed Water", Incernarional Desalination Association (1999) [18] Chapter 2, "Water Chemistry and Pre-treatment, Section 2.4.8 Calcium Phosphate Scale Prevention - Dow Liquid Separations FILMTEC Reverse Osmosis Membranes Technical Manual", July 2005 Form No. 609-00071-0705 [ ! 9] http:/ / design/rosa.hrm

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ATTITUDES TO FUTURE USE OF RECYCLED WATER IN A BENDIGO OFFICE BUILDING A Hurlimann Abstract This paper reports results from a second Australian study of office worker attitudes to recycled water use. Survey respondents were employees of Bendigo Bank Limited who are located in Bendigo, Victoria. Ac the time of survey respondents had not yet moved into the Bank's new H ead Office which is currently under construction, with stage 1 of 2 stages completed and occu pied. This building will incorporate the use of C lass A recycled water th rough an on-site wastewater recycling plane (MBR with chlorine disinfection). The recycled water system will be commissioned once the H ead Office is fully occupied. The recycled water will be used to flu sh toilets within the building and irrigate nearby gardens. The study investigated attitudes to recycled water use for numerous uses, including chose beyond which were to occur in the building. This included recycled water use for drinking and 'drinking indirectly' (explained to survey respondents as 'added to the drinking water reservoirs/ river after treatment)'. Results of this study indicate that use of recycled water as will be inco rporated in the Bendigo Bank H ead Office is acceptable to the survey respondents who at the time of survey were to be future occupants of the building. Factors influencing an individual's acceptance of potable use of recycled water were found to be their beliefs, perceptions and attitudes surrounding crust in the water authori ty, information provision, risk perception (negative}, environmental concern, satisfaction, fairness in implementation, and perceived need to recycled water. There were a number of differences observed between demographic groups and acceptance of recycled water use. 42% of respondents accepted the concept of direct potable reuse, and 56% fo r indirect potable reuse. The results of the study raise questions about current Government water policy.

Introduction Australia is facing a water crisis. Water storages in many parts of the co untry are at

58 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water

record low levels. For example in May 2007 dam levels in Australia's capital cities were as follows: Brisbane 19%, Canberra 31 %, Sydney 38%, M elbourne 3 0%, Hobart 67%, Adelaide 59%, Perth 21 %, and Darwin 95%. The situation is much worse in many rural and regional areas. Bendigo is in a particularly challenging position with regards to water supply. As of May 2007 the town 's water storage capacity was only 5% full. One potential solution to this water shortage is indirect potable reuse of recycled water through planned top-up of rhe fresh water dam with recycled water. However, chis option cannot be considered in Victoria due to current Victorian Government (2006} policy. T his same policy acknowledges that in many parts of the state, treated sewage effiuent is discharged into streams upstream from where d rinking water is extracted. A key question with regards to supply of recycled water in rhe concexr of Bendigo, is whether the community would be more willing to drink recycled water fro m an indirect system (i.e. through top up of existing dams o r streams which are the source of their drinking water su pply) than directly. This point of difference has not been researched in Australia. In Australia there have been a n umber of studies regarding community attitudes to recycled water use (including: Hurlimann 2006a and 2006b; Marks 20 04, Marks et al. 2006). These studies have indicated char support for recycled water use decreases as the use becomes increasingly personal. The question of acceptability of indirect potable reuse has not been explicitly researched. More recently research has looked at community attitudes to recycled water use in commercial buildings, as such an approach can potentially contribute to significant potable water savings. However this research has been limited. Hurlimann (2006b) found strong acceptance for recycled water use in a Melbourne case study of the Council House 2 (CH 2) Building in M elbourne where 197 Melbourne City Council workers were surveyed. In Hurlimann's study 97% of

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Results demonstrate clear support for the in-house recycled water uses. respondents were happy to use recycled water for toilet fl ushing and street cleaning, 84% happy to use recycled water in the building's cooling system. Research was conducted in Japan in 1999 of occupants of 125 commercial buildings using recycled water mainly for toilet flushing (Yamagata et al. 2002). Acceptance was strong, but problems with odour of the recycled water were reported. More research is needed into the factors influencing satisfaction with recycled water use in commercial contexts. This study addresses chis research need.

Study Site Bendigo, Victoria, is a regional urban centre located 150km north west (inland} of the state's capital city Melbourne. The regional centre's 97,000 residents are on emergency restrictions, with water for all bur essential uses banned. Informal grey water reuse (laundry or kitchen sink water disposed of to gardens} is commonly undertaken. The Water Authority (Coliban Water} refers customers to rhe EPA's website guidelines on grey water use in rimes of d rought. There is a growi ng marker for water cartage (water from ocher regions trucked to Bendigo for sale and use). Many smaller towns in Victoria ran our of water in 2006/7, and have to truck in supplies from other areas. The sire chosen for this research is the Bendigo Bank Head Office, currently under construction in the central business district. The first of 2 stages has been completed and occupied. The recycled water system will be commissioned once ir is fully occupied. The building will accommodate up to 900 staff. The building incorporates ecologically sustainable principles in its design and construction. It is estimated to save 51 % of conventional energy use and around 17,000L of water per day (Sustainability V ictoria 2006). Reducing reliance on

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drinking water was a key design consideration for the building due to Bendigo's drought-vulnerable water supply (Sustainability Victoria 2006). An on-site waste water treatment plane (MBR with chlorine disinfection) will treat the building's effluent, providing Class A water for use to flush toilets and irrigate gardens. Bendigo Bank is a commun ity focused bank which is h ighly regarded for its social responsibility and commitment to sustainability.

recycled Wdter use




wash hands clothes washing

6.4 7.0 7.1



sold to staff and others for private use p ublic fountains and water features



street cleaning

9.3 9.6



plants an d gard ens at home I

sports fields





community and recreational areas

The purpose of this survey conducted by th e University of Melbourne in February 2007 was to benchmark attitudes to recycled water use prior to the occupation of the new Bendigo Bank Head Office. All Bendigo Bank employees then located in the Bendigo office (750) were invited to participate in the on-li ne survey via an email from the Chief General Manager with a link to the survey sire. The survey closed within one week of the initial email (5-1 2 February 2007) and there was one reminder email sent on the final day. Responses remained anonymous. A total of 305 Bendigo Bank employees responded to the survey giving a response rate of 41 %. This was considered adequate for th is study, giving results a precision of Âą5% with a 95% confidence interval. The survey contained essentially the same questions as the Melbourne CH2 study with three extra questions added . An edited summary of the relevant sections of the questionnaire is p rinted in Box 1. The context of the recycled water use was made clear with the following statement at the begi nni ng o f the survey: 'In the new Bendigo Bank Head Office black and grey water (wastewater from toilets, hand basins and showers) wi ll be created to Class A standard. Class A standard recycled water is often better quality than drinking water and is used fo r purposes such as the irrigation of edible crops. H owever chis Class A recycled water will only be used for very limited (non-human contact) uses in the CH2 b uilding such as toilet flushing.' The opportunity was taken to ask how happy respondents would be with various uses of recycled water beyond those that would occu r in the new Head Office. These were rated on a Liken ( 1967) scale of 1-10 with the fo llowin g verbal associations: 1 ' not at all happy' and 10 - 'extremely happy'. The uses of recycled water explored included 'for drinking' and 'indirectly for drinking (i.e. added to the drinking water reservoir/ river after treatment)' . An additional series of attitude an d perception statements were also incl uded



drinking - indirect shower

Study Methodology



drinking - direct

water trees and gardens in the precinct







to ilet flushing D h ap py

9.8 0




percentage respondents

â&#x20AC;˘ very happy

Figure 1. Attitudes to various uses of recycled water - Bendigo Ba nk em ployees February 2007. (Note: M ean valu es o n scale of 1 -10 shown on g raph). in th e study, for which respondents were asked to rate their agreement on a Likerr scale of 1-10: 1 - 'very strongly disagree' and 10 - 'very strongly agree'. Respondents were asked a series of quest ions relating to their employment and demographic details (gender, age, education level, occupation).

'Happiness' was again chosen as the main operational variable in this survey (as per H urlimann 2006b). This was a departu re fro m other surveys which have measured variables including acceptance, agreement, support, willingness to use and satisfaction (with recycled water use). Happiness was chosen for the context of this survey, where

Attitudes To Recycled Water Use At The New Bendigo Bank Head Office Condensed Version of the First Two Sections of the Questionnaire, Following the Explanation as in Hurlimann's Text Section 1 We are interested in your attitudes to the use of recycled water in the new Head O ffice (Class A standard). Please rate your attitude to the following uses of recycled water on a scale of 1-10 w here l = not at all happy and l O = extremely happy. How happy are you that recycled water will be used: l. for toilet flush ing in the Head Office? 2. to water trees and gardens in the building precinct? 3. in commun ity and recreational areas such as sports grounds? 4. sold to staff and others for private use in gardens, and on properties? 5. Have you ever used recycled water before? Yes/ No/ Not sure

Section 2 We are also interested in your attitudes to use of recycled water (Class A) for other uses. Please rate your attitude to the following uses of recycled water on a scale of 1-10 where l = not at all happy and l O = extremely happy. How happy are you to use recycled water (Class A): l. to wash your hands in an office environment? 2. in public fountains and water features? 3. on your plants and gardens at home? 4 . to shower in? 5. for clothes washing? 6. for drinking? 7. indirectly for drinking [i.e. added to the drinking water reservoir/river after treatment) 8. for street cleaning in the city? 9 . sports fields?

Journal of the Australian Water Association

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many respondents wo uld be using recycled water in the future as determined by their employer. An important measure was their happiness to use recycled water in this context. Satisfact ion with actual recycled water use could nor be measured because they had nor yet had experience with the recycled water at Bendigo Bank. The survey results were analysed using the Statistical Package for the So cial Sciences program (SPSS I nc 2006). In particular, Chi-square tests were conducted at various points of the study to analyse results and establish if there were significant d iffere nces between groups.

Results and Discussion General results The mean age of survey respondents was 35 .8 (standard deviation 10 years) with 56% of the respondents female. In terms of education levels, 43% of respondents had a university degree or higher (which is higher than char of the general community). With regard to occupation, 29% of respondents had financial related occupations, 20% IT related, 13% business and management

related, 12% administrative, 10% customer support/ marketing, and 16% other occupations.

Happiness to use recycled water For the purpose of analysis, responses to questions regarding happiness to various uses of recycled water were transformed from a 10 point scale to three categories 1-5 - nor happy, 6-8 - happy, and 9 & 10 very happy. The percentage of respondents falli ng into the 'happy' or 'very happy' is shown in Figure 1, along with rhe mean for each use. Results displayed in Figure 1 fo llowed rhe pattern of decreasing support for recycled water as the use becomes increasingly personal as found in other Australian and overseas studies (Hurlimann 20066, Marks et al. 20 06; Bruvold 1972). As shown in Figure 1 responses ranged from 99% of respondents 'happy' (' happy' plus 'very happy') to use recycled water fo r toilet fl ushing (racing chis use between 6 and 10 on rhe Likerr scale) . 42% of respondents were 'happy' to use di rectly recycled water for drinking. This increased to 56% of respondents happy to use indirectly





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Journal of the Australian Water Association

recycled water. Statistical significance tests (r-tests) were used to analyse the difference in mean happiness ratings for 'drinking' recycled water and ' indirectly drinking' recycled water, and they were found to be signifi cantly different at the 0.00 1 level. Thus there was sign ificantly greater acceptance of indirect potable recycled water use.

Demographic influences The happiness racings were analysed for differences between responses with demographic variables. Some significant differences between demographic groups were fou nd. Overall those aged >50 were significantly happier to use recycled water for: washing their hands in an office environment (p = 0.05), for drinking (p = 0.001 ), and for d rinking indirectly (p = 0.01). O verall, a larger proportion of male respondents were happy to use recycled water (than females) for: washing hands in an office environment (p = 0.05) , for drinking (p = 0.01), and fo r drinking indirectly (p = 0.0 1). There was just one significant difference between educational groups, those with a university degree were significantly happier to drink recycled water indirectly (p = 0.05). There were no significant d ifferences for occupation. These results indicate which demographic groups might be most accepting of recycled water use, which is practical information for the design of communication campaigns about recycled water use at Bendigo Bank.

Impact of prior experience of recycled water use In rhe study of attitudes of office workers to recycled water use at CH2 (H urlimann 20066), prior experience of recycled water use was fou nd to be a signi ficant influencing factor to acceptance of more personal uses of recycled water (d rinking, washing hands, clothes washing and showering). This relationship was also tested in the context of Bendigo Bank. In total, 64% of Bendigo Bank respondents stated they had used recycled water before, compared to 35% of respondents to the CH2 survey. This higher use of recycled water in the Bendigo case study may be because of rhe greater restrictions to potable water use in Bendigo compared to Melbourne. For the Bendigo Bank survey happiness racings fo r all uses of recycled water were compared between those respondents who had used recycled water before (64%, n = 195) and those who had not (2 1%, n = 63). There were no significant differences in happiness ratings between groups for any of the recycled water uses investigated. This indicates chat for the Bendigo case study experience of

recycled water use did not faci litate greater acceprance of recycled water u se. Perhaps this is because such a high percentage (64%) of respondents were informally reusing water alread y co mpared to just 35% in the Melbourne case study. The Melbourne respon dents were an innovative segment of the population, b ut the Bendigo recycled water users were the m ajo rity (see Rogers' (200 3) diffusion of innovatio ns) . Attitude and perception statements

It was thought useful to investigate some key demograph ic and attitudi nal variables berween those happy, and those not happy to use recycled water use for d ri n king purposes (including indirectly d rinking). Recycled water use for 'washing hands in an office environment' was also investigated d ue to its policy impl icatio ns and p otential water saving benefits in an office setting. For all three uses of recycled water in vestigated (d rin king, ind irectly drinking, and wash ing hands) differences between che responses to various atti tude and perception statem ents were investigated. T hese attitude and perception statements relate to : crust in the water autho rity, fa irness in the implementatio n of recycled water use, satisfact ion with recycled water use at the Bend igo Bank H ead Office, attitude towards the environm ent, inform ation p rovision, perceived health risk and perceived need to recycle water. The responses on the IO po int attitude scales were transformed into 2 catego ries, 1 - 5 - disagree and 6 - IO - agree. T he results of these C hi -square tests and the details of full questions are presented in Table I. The resu lts displayed in Table I indicate th e importance of all these attitudinal variab les in accep tance of recycled water for indirect potable use. T he attitudinal variables important co acceptance of recycled water use for all the uses investigated in th is study and in this cable are information, fa irness, crust and risk. Tests of correlation between each of the arritude and perception statements (as listed in Table 1) were undertaken. All were significantly correlated at the 0 .01 level. Respo nse categories indicated(") have a low percentage which means the resu lts may be skewed, thus should be viewed with some caution. Further investigation would be useful.

Conclusion The results of this study provide infor mation to water amhorities and policy developers surrou nding the issue o f direct versus indirect potable reuse. T he fi nd ings of this study confi rm that indirect potable reuse of recycled water is favoured by a greater proportion of respondents than direct potable reuse (56% versus 42%). T he results from chis study indicate that if an indirect potable reuse scheme was to be implem ented, exp lai ning exactly how the recycled water will be introduced into th e potable sysrem i.e. through a buffer in the form of a fresh warer dam would increase community support for the project. The preliminary findings of chis study suggest chat the Victorian governmen t's reluctance to advocate planned indirect potab le reuse of wastewater may effectively be shutting our a future water option potentially supported by the community of Bendigo. Further research needs to be undertaken to more holistically gauge community support for such recycled water p rojects. Results demonstrate clear support fo r the recycled water uses chat are incorporated in the new Bendigo Bank Head Office, and uses beyond chis. Further research is needed to confirm the results. Respondents who accepted potable reuse were more likely to have greater cruse in the water authority, perceived they were well informed about the recycled water system , perceived the scheme had been implemented in a fair manner, and perceived low risk. The results of chis study indicate factors important to promoting acceptance of recycled water use are the communiry's positive

Journal of the Australian Water Association



technical teatures lfereed paper

Table 1. Attitud inal influence o n happiness to use recycled water use for drinking, ind irect d rinki ng , and w ashing hands (n = 305). Overall response to statement 1%1

Attitude/ perception statement

I am concerned about environmental problems Agree (1-5 on Likert scale) Disagree (6-1 0 on Likert scale)

% Happy to use recycled water for drinking

96 4'

I am well informed about recycled water use at BBHO# Agree (1-5 on Likert sca le) 74 26 Disagree 16-10 on Likert scale) I am satisfied with recycled water use as it will occur at BBHO 88 Agree (1-5 on Likert scale) 12' Disagree (6-10 on Likert scale)

% Happy to use recycled water for indirect drinking

% Happy to use recycled water to wash hands

42 17








43 27






60 "











42 23

57 •




5 1...


81 ...





72 50

Recycled water use at BBHO has been implemented in a fair manner Agree (1-5 an Like rt scale) Disagree (6-10 on Likert scale)

83 17

I trust the water authority to ensure recycled water safety in the BBHO 73 Agree (1-5 on Li ke rt scale) 27 Disagree (6-10 on Likert scale) We need to use recycled water for the future's sake Agree (1-5 on Likert scale) Disagree (6-10 on Likert scale)

95 5'

I am confident there are no health risks involved with recycled water use Agree (1-5 on Likert scale) Disagree (6-10 on Li kert scale)

67 33

• significant at the 0.05 level, • • significant at the 0.0] level, • • • significant at the 0. 00 1 level # BBHO = Bendigo Bank Head Office

" Low percentage in category

perceptio n of: trust, fairness, in formatio n provision and risk (negative) . Further research would be beneficial. Firstly a follow-up survey wi th the Bendigo Bank employees some time after commencement o f recycled water use would help establish if these attitudes are co nsistent afte r lon g term use of recycled water. Secondly a survey of the greater Bendigo community would be benefi cial co ensure the results of this study can be generalised co th e whole Bendigo communuy.

Acknowledgments T he author thanks and acknowled ges the suppo rt p rovided fo r this research from an Early Career Researcher Grant provided by The U niversity of Melbourne. T h e au thor also wishes to th ank the following people and o rganisations for their support of this research: Bend igo Bank Limited in particular M r Richard H asseldine, Dr D omin ique Hes, Mr Sebastian I mmaraj, Associate Professor Julie W ill is, Professor Kevin O 'Con nor and the participants of this su rvey - employees of the Bendigo Bank in Bendigo . 64 SEPTEMBER 2007


The Author Dr Anna Hurlimann is a Lecturer in Urban Plann ing at the Faculry of Architecture Build ing and Planning at th e University of Melbo urne, V icto ria 30 10 . Ph: (0 3) 8344 6976 , Fax: (03) 8344 5532, Email: anna.hurlimann@u

References Baggett, S., Jeffrey, P. & Jefferson, B. (2004) Participatory water reuse planning: a conceptual model based on social learning and personal constructs. !WA World Water Congress. Marrakech, International Water Association Bruvold, W . H. (1 972) . Public Attitudes Toward Reuse of Reclaimed Water. California, University of California, Water Resources Centre: 54. Hurlimann, A. (2006a) . An Exploration of Community Attitudes to Recycled Water Use - An Urban Australian Case Study. PhD Thesis at the School ofCormnerce. Adelaide, The University of South Australia. H urlimann, A. (20066) Melbourne Office Worker Attitudes to Recycled Water Use.

Water journal ofthe Australian Water Association 33(7) . Hurlimann, A. and McKay, J. (2004) . Attitudes ro Reclaimed Water fo r Domestic Use: Pare

Journal of the Australian Water Association

2. T rust. Water, Journal of the Australian Water Association 31 (5) : 40-45. Liken, R. (1 967). The Method of Constructing an Attitude Scale. Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. M. F ishbein. Sydney, Joh n Wiley and Sons Incorporated: 90-95. Marks, J. (2004). Advancing Community Acceptance of Reclaimed Water. Water

journal ofthe Australian Water Association 3 1(5): 46-5 1. Marks, J . S., Marrin, B. , Zadoroznyj, M . (2006). Acceptance of Water Recycling In Australia: National Baseline Dara. Water Journal ofthe Australian Water Association 33 (1) : 96- 101. Rogers, E., M . (2003). Diffusion ofInnovations. New York, The Free Press. Sustainab ility Victoria (2006) Case Study 6: Bendigo Bank Headquarters. Retrieved 3 March 2007 from: <www.sustainability.vic. resources/documents/Bend igo_COBE II_CS-6final. pd f> SPSS Inc (2006). Statistical Package for rhe Social Sciences. Ch icago, IL, SPSS. Victorian Government (2006). Sustainable Water

Strategy Central Region Action to 2055. Melbourne, Department of Sustainability and Environment. Yamagata, H ., O goshi, M., Suzuki, Y., O zaki, M., Asano, T. (2002). On-Site Water Recycling Systems in japan. World Water Congress, Melbourne, International Water Association.

.fereed paper

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••• ••• Australian




Journal of the Australian Water Association



required standards has hisrorically proven problematic, and elevated levels of trihalomethanes (THM) were occasionally produced in product water. A continuous magnetic ion exchange (MIEX®) plant ( was installed in December 2004 as raw water pre-treatment for the existing 2.85 megalitre per d ay (MLD) conventional plant. Conventional treatment consists of alu minium sulphate (alum) coagulation, flash mixing, floccu lation, sludge blanket clarification, filtration and chlorine disinfection. Whilst the conventional treatment plant was capable of meeting Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, a MIEX® Pre-treatment Plant was installed to further improve both treated water quality and operation of downstream coagulation, clarification and filtration processes. During its first year of operation, the MIEX® Plant consistently produced water with DOC and THM levels 30% and 60% lower, respectively, than in water produced by conventional treatment alone. MIEX® Pre-treatment also resulted in a 50% reduction in coagulatio n chemicals and a 64% reduction in chlorine disinfecrant. This performance was achieved despite a 33% increase in raw water DOC levels beyond historical levels shortly afte r the MIEX® Plant was installed. The MIEX® Plant was modified in May 2006 to incorporate the recently developed High Rate (HR) MIEX® Contacror process. The MIEX® HR Contactor configuration constitutes both a signifi cant simplification of the MIEX® Process and a significant reduction in plant footprint.

Background T he MIEX® Process uses an anion exchange resin to remove negatively charged DOC from raw water, thus reducing pre-cursors ro THM formation. MIEX® Plant designs traditionally include separate contact and resin separation vessels, and a resin regeneration system, shown in Figure 1. Typical contact times and resin concentrations in the contact vessels are 15 minutes and 30 ml of resin per L of water treated, respectively. A 10-15 m/hr up flow rate is used in the separation vessel, allowing resin to settle while created water is collected at the surface of the vessel. While chis configu ration is suitable for so me water treatment plants, footp rint requirements associated with separate contacting and resin separation vessels can result in site installation challenges. Therefore, development work was conducted to implement a MIEX® Plant 66 SEPTEMBER 2007


Figure 1. Traditional Contactor/Settler MIEX® Plant Configuration.

design with a smaller footp rint, while maintaining performance targets. T his resulted in a single vessel used for resin contacting and separation, defined as a High Race (HR) MIEX® System, shown in Figure 2. In the High Race MIEX® System, contact time is significantly shorter due to increased up flow rates, up to 30 m/hr, and higher resin concentrations provide an equivalent resin contact time. M ultiple layers of custom d esigned cubes or inclined places are used ro separate resin from created water, and a slow speed mixer is used to ensure res in co ncentratio n is homogeneous throughout the contact zone.

Full-Scale Implementation Installation Successful pilot plant trials of the High Rate MIEX® System were conducted at Aireys Inlet WTP, resulting in the inscallacion of the world's fi rst full-scale High Rate MIEX® System in May 2006. Picture I shows the footprint difference between the two configurations, where the traditional Concactor/Settler design is hydraulically rated fo r 1.5 MLD with a maximum rise rate of 15 m/hr, and the High Rate System is hyd raulically raced for

Figure 2. High Rote MIEX® System.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

2.0 MLD with an associated maximum rise rare of 30 m/hr.

Performance The High Rate MIEX® System produces treated water of equal quality to the traditional Contactor/Settler MIEX® System. The UV 254 absorbance (UVA) reduction is measured daily on site ro obtain real-time performance results, and DOC and THM concentrations are measured on regular intervals. Additionally, the High Rate System hydraulic performance has proven to be more stable than in the traditio nal two tank, Contacror/Settler configuration, as measured by resin carryover. A small portion of resin ("carryover" resi n) is present in treated water due to attrition that o ccurs via agitation and pumping in the conventional MIEX® Process. Although the High Rate MIEX® System d oes not include a separate vessel for resin separation, resin carryover races are slightly less than carryover races in the Contactor/Seccler confi guration. The turbidity increase across the MIEX® System is used to estimate resin carryover rates at Aireys Inlet; this parameter has also decreased since installation of the HR system.

Contactor/Settle: 2 Vessels

Table 2. Performonce Comparison of Contactor/Settler and High Rate System - Three Month Averages. Contactor/ Settler

High Rate

Water Quality Performance

UVA (% reduction)


DOC (% reduction)


60% 45 %

THM (% reduction)



Hydraulic Performance

Up flow velocity (m/hr) Resin carryover rate (L/ML) Turbidity increase (NTU)







Conclusions Picture l. Contactor/Settler and High Rate MIEX® Systems at Aireys Inlet.

Tab le 2 compares rhe water quality and hydraulic performance of the H igh Rare System compared to the Contactor/Sertler configuration. The hydraulic performance is indicated by che reduct ions in both the resin carryover rare and turbidity increase across the plane.

High Rate System Benefits T h e High Race System p rovides numerous installation benefits. By combining the contact an d separation vessels into a single process vessel, the overall foo tp rint is reduced by up to 50%, and associated capital costs are approximately 20% less than the Concactor/Settler configuration. Th e overall height of the process vessels is 30% less, enabling larger capacity treatment systems to be pre-fabricated and shipped to site.

O peration of the High Rare MIEX® System ac Aireys Inlet demonstrates chat treated water quality and hydraulic performance are similar to or better than performance in the traditional Concactor/Settler configuration. Overall, performance of che High Rate System demonstrates che followi ng: • T reated water UVA, DOC, and THM levels produced by the High Rate MIEX® System are equal to or lower than those produced by the Contactor/Sectler configuration. • Resin carryover races from the High Race MIEX® System are approximately 20% lower chan chose achieved in rhe Concacror/ Settler co nfiguration. • The High Rare MIEX® System footprint is up to 50% less than the Concactor/Sertler footprint, resulting in approximately 20% capital cost savings. • Operation is less complex due to elimination of some process vessels, pumps, and instruments.

While the Contactor/Setder confi guration was difficulc to retrofit in to water treatment plant vessels, the High Rate System allows for installation into existing water treatment plane infrastructure (i.e. sedimen tation bays, sand fil ters, etc). Additio nally, High Rate System operation is less complex due to elimination of some process vessels, p umps, and inscrumencacion. The High Rate System has been operating reliably on a continuous basis since its installation in May 2006, and che Concactor/Sectler confi guratio n has been compl etely decommissioned.

Abigail Holmquist is a Water Technologist ac Orica Warercare, abigail. ho; Damian McMurrich is a Water T reatment Engineer, Barwon Region Water Authority,

Since the High Rate System requires less incense mixing and fewer pumps, resi n attrition is minimised due to less exposure to shear fo rces. Minimisi ng resin accricion ulcimacely resulcs in lower resin carryover races, thus decreasing operational costs.

Visit for additional information on the MIEX® R esin and Process.

• Reducing sh ear forces on the resi n minimises resin attrition, chus decreasing resin carryover rares and associated operating costs.

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Journal of the Australian Water Association



ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN PERTH'S DESALINATION PLANT R L Stover Abstract The 143 ML/d seawater desalination plane in Perch scarred up in November 2006. As of February 2007, it was the largest SWRO desalination plant in the Southern Hemisphere and the chi rd largest SWRO plant in the world. Energy mini misation was critical in its design. It operates on a two-pass sys tem. For the first pass high-pressure pumps on a common manifold or "pressu re centre" supply about half of che high-pressure seawater fed to the SWRO trains. The remainder of the high-pressure seawater is supplied by arrays of PX-220 energy recovery devices which transfer the pressure from the retentace scream to an equal volume of the seawater feed. The energy consumption of the first pass SWRO train is approximately 2.5 kilowatt hours per cubic metre. The seco nd pass operates with low-pressure reverse osmosis trains, with all pumps equipped with frequency converters. The plane's hydraulic design provides for cost-effective operation over a wide range of flow and pressure conditions, thereby maxim ising operational flexibility. Ac the nomi nal capacity and wich an overall water recovery rate of 42%, the plant itself co nsu mes less than 3.9 kWh/ kL includi ng pretreatment, both RO passes, posccreatmene, and all electrical losses. T his is a remarkably low energy level for a seawater desalination plant.

Figure 1. Process diagram for the Perth seawater reverse osmosis system.

All power is provided from a 48-cu rbine wind farm to minimise greenhouse gas production.

Introduction The Perth seawater desalination plant is located 40 ki lometres south of Perch at Kwinana Beach in Western Australia (WA) . [c began supplying municipal drinking water in November 2006. W ith a capacity of 143 ML/d per day, as of Feb ruary 2007, the plant is the largest SWRO desalination

operation in che Southern Hemisphere and the th ird largest SWRO plant in the world. The plant was built as a joint venture of Suez Degremone and Multiplex Engineering Pry Led. [t is operated by Australian Water Services, a subsidiary company of Degremont. As part of Water Corporation's and WA's commitment to promote energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Perch SWRO plant is the largest facility of its kind in the world co be powered by

6500 kPa pressure is transferred from the reject brine to incoming seawater by ERI PX-220 pressure exchanger arrays at ca 96% efficiency. T his article is based on a paper, M. Sanz and R. Stover (2007), prepared for the IDA Conference, Gran Canaria, Spain, Oct 2007 with graphics ext racted from the presentat ion by Gary Crisp of the Water Corporation co the AWA Mem branes Specialiry Conference, February 2007.



Figure 2. General arrangement of RO modules and pumps.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

renewable energy. The plane buys its power from electricity generated by the Emu Downs W ind Farm, located 200 kilometres north of Perth. The 83 megawatt wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and contributes over 272 giga-wacc hours (GWh r) per year into the grid, fully offsetti ng the Perch SWRO Plane's estimated electrical requirement of 180 GWhr per year. In addition, instru ments that continuously monitor plane discharges automatically shut down the process in the event of an exceedance (Crisp, 2007)). The high-pressure (H P) pumps are sized and operated for maxim um efficiency. The planr utilises ERI® Pressure Exchanger (PX®) energy recovery devices to reduce energy consumption. T he supply pumps, booster pumps and seco nd pass pumps operate on variable freque ncy drivers which provides fo r Flexible operatio n and low energy consumption. T hese devices combined with srateof-the-art low-energy membrane elemenrs make rhe Perth plant one of rhe highest-efficiency reverse osmosis plants of its size operating in the wo rld today. This paper describes the Perch process des ign, specific energy co nsumption and the plant sra rru p activities.

Process Description The plant draws feedwarer from an open intake 500 meters offshore in Cockburn Sound. The six supply pumps draw through screens and discharge to twenty-four dual med ia film· vessels wh ich in turn discharge through cartridge filters to the reverse osmosis process. Ferric sulfate, coagulant aid, sodium hypochlorite, anriscalant, sulfuric acid and sodi um bisu lfite are injected as

Figure 3. A 2 .6 MW high p ressure p ump (one of six).

necessary in the pretreatme nt process. A single pipe conveys treated water to the HP pumps and energy recovery devices. Figure I is a process diagram of the reverse osmosis system. T he first pass has twelve seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) trains, each with a production capacity of 13,350 kL/d, or a total of 160 ML/d. Each train uses 1, I 34 Fi lm rec TM model SW30HR-LE400 membrane elements housed in Protec TM 7M side-pore pressure vessels.

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Figure 4. Arrays of Pressure Exchangers.

The product water, depending on variables such as seawater salinity and temperature, ranges from 150 to 30 0 mg/L, at about 45% recovery. Figure 2 is a photograph of the general arrangement of RO modules and pumps. They are fed with six Wei r spl it-case centrifugal HP pumps , each with a capacity of 1,144 kL/h at 620 m of differential head, driven by 2,600 kW motors. The best efficiency poi nt of these pumps is approx imately 86% .

Figure 5 . A 130 kW booster pump (one of 12).

Figure 3 shows a high pressure pump. The reject stream from the RO modules is passed to twelve arrays of sixteen ERI model PX-220 energy recovery devices, each array with a capacity of 800 kL/h, where the pressure is transferred to an equal volume of seawater. Some of the arrays are shown in Figure 4. This pressure is boosted by about 5% and circulated into the RO modules by twelve UnionÂŽ vertical booster pumps, each with a capacity of 661 kL/h at 39 m of differential head, driven by 112 kW motors controlled by VFDs. Figure 5 shows one of the booster pumps. The plant is arranged with six SWRO trains on each side of a central pump aisle. T hree HP pumps feed a high-pressure manifold or "pressure centre" which in turn feeds a bank of six SWRO trains. Flow from the manifold co each train goes through a high-pressure control valve which allows fi ne adjustment of the membrane fee d pressure. Each train has a dedicated PX-device array and booster pump . The PX device arrays are situated between the membrane-vessel stacks. To further reduce salinity of the produce wacer to 10-50 mg/L and reduce bromide co 0.1 mg/ L the first-pass permeate goes to a second pass consisting of six low-pressure 'brackish water' reverse osmosis trains, with further product water extracted from the reject stream of the fi rst stage, giving a recovery of 90% .

ient monitoring of ell being of your ote workers View a demonstratio of ROCI at:

Post-treatment chemicals include hydrated lime, gaseous chlorine and carbon dioxide. Product potable water flows through a fou r-hour buffer tank before being pumped approximately 13 kilometres co the fresh water reservoir that supplies the city of Perth with drinking water. Reject brine, after use as backwash for the dual-media fil ters, is pumped 1.5 km out co a diffuser field in Cockburn Sound.

PX Pressure Exchanger Energy Recovery Devices In a SWRO system equipped with PX Pressure Exchanger energy recovery devices, the membrane reject is directed co the membrane feed as illustrated in Figure I.





Journal of the Australian Water Association

The transfer of pressure from the reject stream co the seawater is performed by direct contact of the two streams inside the ducts of the PX rotor. The rotor contains no intervening pistons or valves. A small diameter rotor duct, in essence a 'tube' full of low pressure seawater is connected co the high pressure reject, which fo rces the seawater out at high pressure. Immediately afterwards, the tube, now nearly full of low pressure reject, is released to 'drain' and the reject pushed out by incoming seawater at feed

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energy minimisation was 2.47 kWh/m 3 with the high pressure flow rate being trimmed by a high-pressure control valve. The energy consumption for the second reverse osmosis pass, and post-treatment is approximately 1.4 kWh/kl. T herefore, the approximate total energy consu mption for the plant was is 3.9 kWh/kl. The seawater supply pump and reject brine discharge consume abour 0.3 kWh/kl.


Figure 6. Details of an ERi PX Pressure Exchanger.

pump pressure. There is virtually no interfacial mixing a) because rhe rubes are small diameter b) each operation is performed in arou nd 0.05 seconds. This is accomplished by mounting a bundle of tubes in a rotor which presents each tube to the appropriate ports in the end casings. The rotor spins freely, driven by the f1ow at a rotation rate proportional to the f1ow rare, usually arou nd 1,000 rpm. The co ncept was devised by Mr Leif Hauge in a prototype initially fabricated in stainless steel. T he commercial breakthrough came when the rotors and casings were fabricated in precisio n ceramics, which are immune to corrosion and highly resistant to wear. A small amount of water f1ows from high- to lowpressu re through the narrow end gaps and the narrow annulus thar surrounds the PXdevice rotor, creati ng a nearly frictionless seawater-l ubricated hydrodynamic bearing. There is no shaft or shaft seal. Each PX device is limited in size to 220mm diameter, as shown in Figure 6, but unlimited capacity is achieved by arraying multiple devices in parallel. In practice, rhe lubrication f1ow through the PX devices is approximately 1% of the brine f1ow to rhe array and together with the transient mixing in the passages leads to an increase in salinity of the seawater fed to the membranes of about 2.5% A tota l energy transfer efficiency of up to 98% is possible, and efficiency is nearly constant over a wide range of f1ow and pressure vananons. 72 SEPTEMBER 2007


Plant Startup Seawater firs t f1owed through che plant intake in October 2006. Product warer from the plant began f1owing into Perth's municipal water supply on November 7. By December, the firs t six first-pass trains were ru nning. By the end of February 2007, the entire plant was in operation. The SWRO trains were commissioned and scarred up rwo at a rime with rhe correspond ing HP pump isolated on rhe high-pressure manifold. Srarrnp followed a thorough f1ush ing of each train with pretreated seawater at design f1ow rates to remove any residual construction debris. Plant startup went according co schedule despite several unplanned incidents which could be considered normal in the context of a large plant startup. Perhaps the most worrying was chat most of the PX devices in the plant were exposed to excess high f1ow at least once, including one incident where f1o ws rose to 81 kL/h in each PX device (62% higher than the maximum rated capacity) for six hours. These events occurred while the plant's automated control systems and many of the process alarms were suppressed. In addition, fibreglass construction debris stopped the rotors of several PX devices. However, the devices suffered negligible damage. The general comment of the commissioning team was that the start up of the SWRO trains with the PX devices was very easy and rhe devices are quite f1exible and robust. For the first stage RO, with 97% energy recovery, the specific energy consumption of the HP pump and the booster pumps

Journal of the Australian Water Association

T he PX energy recovery devices used in the pla nt are operating at rhe highest efficiency ever reported for such devices ar chis scale. Accidental operation of rhe devices at nearly double their normal f1ow rares with minimal damage proved that these devices are extremely robust. Plant performance is consistent with the design goals. The Perth plant represents a significant milestone for the development of large-scale SWRO technology by operating on renewable energy at a very low energy consumption level.

References G. Crisp and M. Rhodes, 2007, Perth Seawater Desalination Plant - Blazing a Sustainability Trail, Proceedings of the International Desalination Association World Congress, Gran Canaria, Spain. M. Sanz and R. Scover, 2007, Low Energy Consumption in the Perth Seawater Desalination Plant, Proceedings of rhe Internacional Desalination Association World Congress, Gran Canaria, Spain.

Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge ERI's Mr Bill Anderson, the staff of Pro Alliance (Multiplex- Degremont joint venrnre) and rhe staff of Australian Water Services for their assistance compiling data and information for chis paper. ÂŽERI, PX, PX Pressure Exchanger and rhe ERI logo are registered trademarks of Energy Recovery, Inc. TM Filmrec is a trademark of The Dow Chemical Company â&#x201E;˘ Protec is a trademark of Bakaerr Progressive Composites Corporation ÂŽUnion is a registered trademark of The Union Pump Company

The Authors Dr Richard Stover, a chemical engineer is the developer of the PX Pressure Exchanger and serves as Chief Technical Officer for Energy Recovery, Inc, email:

CENTRE FOR WATER RESEARCH: LEADING EDGE TECHNOLOGY WINS INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS J lmberger, C Wood, C Marti Abstract The Centre for Warer Research at the University of Western Ausrralia has fo r decades been developing technologies for rhe adaptive management of natural river basins and rhe water bodies. Th e methodology consists of building an objective function char identifies a sustai nable goal for rhe domain under co nsideration, a relational dara base management sysrem ch ar is used to co ntrol rhe dara flow and schedul e from field senso rs and model output, a suite of 3D hydrobiologica l models and a web in teraction tool. T hese techn ologies are in use in projects in Singapore, Japan , Israel, Saudi Arab ia, Germany, UK, Iraly, the US, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela and Colombia.


Figure 1. Model output embedded into Google Earth for viewing data from La ke Ki nneret (Israel) in th e context of the su rroundi ng la ndscape. Sheets are chlorophyll at 5 m depth interva ls from the top to the bottom layer. A colour-coded representation of the measured gradient is used. The sc hematic adjacent to the lakes is the real time ISF graph.

Over rhe lasr 25 years researchers at the Centre for Water Research (CWR) have developed a deep understanding of rhe hydrobiological processes operating in namral systems; catchments, rivers, lakes, wetlands, es ruaries and coastal regimes, backed up by rhe development of real-rime hardwa re and so frware. Research ar CWR focuses on the optimisation of water qualiry, carbon sequestration, aesthetic value and human satisfaction while main raining design water yields, power generation, flood protection and protein yield in namral systems. The inreracrion of multi-parameters and srakeholder inreresrs can be captured and optimised by setting up an objective function called rhe Index of Sustain ability or ISF (lmberger et al. 2007). T his is used to co ntrol actions with a sofrware sui te called Aquatic Realtime Management System (ARMS) char acts borh as a data

Australian technology being applied in thirteen overseas countries.

base controller and an acti on scheduler (Ewing et al. 2004) . T he !SF is a single number chat may be used as an objective fu nction in an optimisation scheme; the obj ective of an operator srraregy should be ro maximise che ISF fo r char particular domain. Since rhe stakeholders' weightings will change wirh time, the domain will evolve to reflect their priorities. A domain and its stakeholders may then be deemed to be acting sustain ably: "if the domain can abso rb che impact of development actions without loss of fun ctionali ty" (l mberger et al. 2007). T his objective function is particularly useful as it allows a concrete way to adaptively manage a domain in che face of development and cl imate change.

The Models In principle ARM S (http://www.cwr.uwa. edu. au/services/models. ph p/mdid= I) can

be used to schedule any suite of models and databases, but ARMS and rhe CWR suite of mo dels are optimised to fu nction together. CWR models fall into rwo categories. Firsr, are the hydrodynamic driver mod els such as DYRESM (Yeates and Imberger 2004), DYRJM (Devkoca and lmberger 2004) and ELCOM (Hodges et al. 2000) char allow fo r rhe transport and mixing of mass, mom entum and energy in warer bodies at desired environmental scales (i. e. from hydro logic flows, co ri vers, flood plains, weclands, lakes, esmaries and coastal seas); in brief warer bodies at environm ental scales. Seco nd , is a uni versal ecol ogical model CAED YM (Hipsey et al. 2006) char, when coupled ro one o f rhe above hydrodynamic drivers, accounts fo r rhe tran sfer of mass among the ecological state variables char are releva nt to cha r wa rer body and to the ques tions under examination by rhe models.

The objective is to develop an open source set of models fo r rhe modelling of water from the rain co di spersion in che coastal regime.

CWR models differ from most ocher models in rhar rh ey have their origins in either the larger oceanographic context or smaller mechanical fluid machin ery applications. Further, by inco rporating integral closure schemes, CWR models are designed to run on simp le deskcop co mputers ar speeds of around 200 times real time fo r domains wi rh rhe order of one million grid points. In addition , over rhe lasr 5 yea rs, CWR has developed a web visualisation tool, called O LARIS (http://rtm au/ olaris/), which au tomatically renders che images, delivered by ARMS to che databases, on rhe web. OLARIS allows images to be scrolled, zoomed, overlaid and rime synchronised (Figure I). This programme is under acrive development co allow for pe rsonal ised cl ient visual ou tput.

Journal of the Australian Water Association



tecnn1ca1 reatures

The output from the models and any current or historical field data, may be embedded automatically by ARMS into Google Earth so that all the added information in all o f Google Earth's layers becomes available in a consistent way.

Instrumentation Over che lase 25 years, CWR has developed a special suite of instruments ( au/services/field. php/mode=lisc) designed co allow process measurements in natural systems. These developments are o ngoing and may be categorised in co four groups: (a) in situ devices chat measure a range of variables such as inflow, outflow and meteorological forcing; (b) boar mounted profilers co enable the measurement of both microscruccure-scale (r 1 mm) and fine-scale (r 1 cm) scare variables; (c) self-learning data acquisition equipment char enables real rime coupling of 3D modelling and fi eld d ata acquisition; and (d) in-field real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for che detection o f informative DNA sequences in the water. Two developments deserve a more detailed description:

The Lake Diagnostic System (LDS): The hardware of che LDS consists of a full meteorological station and chains of sensors in the water column; the chains may contain temperature, co nducciviry, DO, pH, but ocher sensors will shortly be available. T he data acquisition of the LDS has 20-bic accuracy and when marched, with highly stable sensors, allows water motions co be diagnosed. For instance, temperature when measured co 0.1 milli°C allows not only temperature co be documented, but also the light extinction coeffi cient, turbulent mixing coefficients and even estimates of the biomass may be obtained (Im berger 2004). Dara screams for che LDS go via GSM telephone or ocher transmission routes, in real time co ARMS, where the data are analysed co be displayed through OLARIS. There are currently 32 LDSs in use in locations around the world including Lake Como (I taly) (Figure 2), Lake Kinneret (Israel), Deadwood Reservoir (USA) Marina Bay (Singapore), Lake Burragorang (Sydney), Prospect Reservoir (Sydney) and Upper Yarra (Melbourne), reporting real time data back co the CWR website (h ttp:/ /rcm .cwr. uwa.

Figure 2. The Lake Diagnostic System deployed in the western arm of Lake Como in front of the City of Como (Italy) .

Controlled Lagrangian Drogue (CLO): In oceanography, winged glider vehicles are relatively commonplace but they are unsuitable for lake work because they fly rather fast, (close co 1 m/s), and when combined with a sensor response of a second or more they yield poor vertical spatial resolution. Furthermore, manoeuvring such vehicles in a bounded domain is difficult because of their rather long turning circles. CWR has developed a similar vehicle, but without wings (Figure 3); che C LD adjusts its depth co cake advantage of the natural current system in the water colum n co go from station one station co another. When coupled with a real rime 3D ELCOM simulation the CLD can profile the warer column every two hours for a period of up co three months, traversing che lake so as co optimise the signal co noise ratio of the signals under consideration .

Examples of Overseas Projects

is a sample of four typical projects in progress or about co commence:

Managing local nutrient loads into Lake Como, Italy The iconic Lake Como, is one of Italy's most popular resort areas, playground and home co the rich and famous. The western arm of Lake Como has had ongoing water quali ty problems due co nutrient effluent inflows fro m the Cosia River. T he first reaction of the governi n g bodies was co mandate a clean up programme of the contributing catchmenrs in line with the 5th European Water Quality Framework. CWR advised the local authorities that such a reduction of nutrienrs would take a long time co achieve, was of questionable cost effectiveness and would, in any event, lead to a reduction of primary production and consequently a reduction in fish biomass.

Measuremen ts had consiscencly shown that Lake Como proper was oligocrophic with very low levels of phosphorus and nitrogen. Thus a more sensible, co st effective and palatable solution for the local fishing ' ind ustry was co disperse che nutrient rich Cosia River water into the lake proper and allow it co be taken up by the food chain. This is also a more environmenrally responsible strategy as it wo uld increase the race of carbon sequestratio n. The Centre recommended a way co disperse the nutrients , and currencly dispersion is being achieved with a number of impeller type p umps from ITT Flygc . The results from the pilot study of che d eployment lase October has verified the effective ness of the above concept Figure 3. The CLD in the water during recent field-testing in (Figures 4 & 5). the Swan River Estuary, Perth, Western Austra lia. CWR is currently involved in about sixteen projects in twelve overseas countries. Below

74 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water Journal of the Australian Water Association

technical features

Multi-purpose city icon, Marina Bay, Singapore T he Marina Barrage and Reservoir p roject is a showcase p roject for Singapore and the Singapore's Public U tilities Board (PUB). The construction of a barrage across the Marina Channel will result in the formation of a freshwater system with minimal water level variatio ns in the downtown area of Sin gapore. The reservoir will become the showcase water body in Singapore, inco rporating water supply, flood control, recreation and a new lifestyle (Figure 6). The project is fu nded by PUB and CWR is working in partnership with N anyang T echnological U niversity (NTU) and CWR's real-time management system will be fu rther d eveloped fo r use in Mari na Rese rvoir (which is yet to be built).

Figure 4. Schematic showing action of the vertica l ITT Flygt Impeller.

T he obj ective is ro allow the control of river diversion , pump back, lake partitioning to opt imise a yet to be fo rm ulated ISF objective function. The system wi ll also allow alarm calls, notification of the general public as to the likelihood of potential water quality p roblems, the expected longevity of the problems and the reco mmend alleviation measures . The realtime management system consists of a realtime monitoring network, integrated 3D reservoir modelling and fo recasting cap abilities.

Hydropower water quality optimisation, Caruachi Reservoir, Ceroni River, Venezuela The Caroni River in the north-east of Venezuela has four large hydropower and flood control strucrures. Together, these dams supply 85% of the power req uirements of Venezuela, leavi ng their oil reserve free to earn fore ign capital. The lakes range in size with associated residence time from a few weeks to about one year.

Figure 5: Various pictures of the ITT Flygt Impeller Installation in Lake Como. a) Close up of impeller before installation; b) location of Impeller in the west arm of Lake Como in front of the City of Como; c) Crane lifting pontoon containing impeller and diesel generator into water; d) Pontoon being towed out to site; e) Pontoon being anchored at site; leaves being drawn towards protective netting showing that surface water was being drawn into the Impeller jet and ejected vertica lly down toward s to thermocli ne a s shown in schematic Figure 4.


As stage one CWR has been commissioned ro install one LDS in Caruachi Reservoir (residence time of 3 months) o n the Caroni River, couple the 3D suite ELCOMCAEDYM with the objective o f reducing the very severe macrophyte outbreaks in the embaymenrs around the perimeter (Figure 7). I n Step O ne, we will verify the hypothesis that the blooms that occur in embayments have a much longer residence time. In Step Two we will model the o bserved rate of growth of macrophytes and in Step Three we will design alleviation strategies that enhance the horizontal dispersion , thus lowering the residence time in the offending embayments. Numerous strategies will be investigated such as submerged curtains to deflect the through flow current into the embayments, local nutrient reduction, and increasing d ifferential heating and cooling

Figure 6. Artists impression of the new Marina Barrage and surrounding developments. Cleaning up heavy metal pollution without causing algal blooms, Coeur d'Alene Reservoir, Idaho, US Coeur d'Alene reservoir is an iconic lake chat is partly managed by the Co eur d'Alene Tribal Lake Management D epartment. T he

Coeur d 'Alene Tribe holds the lake sacred and has jurisd iction over waters within the Reservation boundaries of the lake. T he lake is also a popular recreation and tourist attraction . The lake is rep lenished with water fro m two rivers. The Sc J oe en ters the

Journal of the Australian Water Association




lake at the southern extreme and this water is mildly poll uted with phosphorus and nitrogen due to agricultural activity in its catchment. The second river is the Coeur d'Alene River which drains a large carchmenr, historically the sire of major mining activities and flows in as a slightly submerged underflow shown in Figure 8.

Devkota, B.H. and Imberger, J . 2004. N u merical simulation of river flows in a Lagangian reference frame, Shallow Flows. G.H. Jirka and W.S.J. Uijttewaal, editors. Selected papers ofthe

International Symposium on Shallow Flows, June 16-18 2003, Delft, The Netherlands, A.A. Bakema Publishers, 672 pp. , 535-540. Ewing, T.C., Romero, J.R., l mberger, J ., Antenucci, J.P. and Deen, A. 2004. A real-time reservoir decision supporr system. HYDROINFORMATICS (In 3 Volumes, with CD-Rom) . Proceedings of

The carchmenr is an Environmental Protection Authority super-site and rhe water in the Coeur d'Alene is Figure 7. Nuisance growth in Caruachi Reservoir. heavily polluted with heavy metals and the 6th International Conference, in particular with zinc. This pollution Singapore 21 - 24 June 2004 edited by inhibits algal growth chat would The Authors S-Y. Liong, K-K. Phoon and V. Babovic, otherwise be sustained by rhe nutrients Jorg lmberger, Director of the Centre fo r PS7B-04, Vol 2: 1123-1131 . flowi ng in fro m the Sr Joe River. T he water, Water Research is an internationally Hipsey, M.R., Romero, J.R., Antenucci, J.P, and at present, is clear and of high aesthetic l mberger, J. 2006. The Computational recognised and respected environmental value even though po ll med with heavy Aquatic Ecosystem Dynamics Model engi neer who was recently elected a Fellow metals. CWR was commissioned to assist in (CAEDYM): a versatile water quality model of the American Geophysical Union and the design of a metal reduction programme for coupling with hydrodynamic drivers. inducted to the US National Academy of without inducing algal blooms in the lake. Proceedings ofthe 7th International Conference Engineering. In 2007 Jorg was awarded the An extensive field campaign revealed the on Hydroinformatics, Nice, France, 03-08 ASLO A.C. Redfield Lifetime Achievement underlying physics of the two intruding September 2006, Vol I., 526-533 for his work in physical limnology. In 1996 rivers and the associated mixing patterns. H odges, B.R., lmberger, J, Saggio, A., and he was awarded the Stockholm Water Prize Together with the United Scares Geological Winters, K.B. 2000. Modeling basin-scale and in 1995 the Onassis Prize. Jorg leads a inte rnal waves in a stratified lake. limnoL Survey, the CWR model CAEDYM was research organ isation chat provides both the Oceanogr. 45: 1603-1620. extended to include a fu ll metals process worldwide research communi ty and Im berger, J ., 2004. A lake diagnostic system for description and the combined CWR model industry with state of the art cools that has managing lakes and reservoirs. Water ELCOM-CAEDYM si mulations were used resul red in the im plemenration of effective Resources Impact, 6( 1): 7- 10 to ascertain the likely extent of algal blooms and sustainable water management lmberger, J., Mamoun i, E-A.D ., Anderson, J., as a result of metal clean up in the Coeur strategies for water bodies wo rldwide. Ng, M-L., Nicol, S. and Veale, A. 2007 . The d'Alene River and corresponding different Caroline Wood is a Deputy Director at Index of Sustainable Functionality: A new degrees of nutrient reduction in the Sr Joe adaptive, multi-criteria measurement of the Centre for Water Research. Caroline is River water. sustainability: Application to Western responsible fo r marketing, long term Australia. International Journal of planning, managing international Summary Environment and Sustainable Development, collaboration and directing high profile in press. Our methodology of field experiments, events. Clelia Marti is Manager of Field Morillo, S., [mberger, J. and Antenucci, J.P. analytic and numerical modelling, and real Operations at the Centre. She is respons ible 2007. The influence of wind and lake time hybrid environments has enabl ed us ro for overseeing all the Centre's field related morphomet ry on the interaction between two provide a comp rehensive service to projects and for overseeing the instrument rivers entering a stratifi ed lake. Journal of managers of mu lti-purpose water bodies development at rhe Centre. Contact derails: Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, submitted. worldwide. T hese services have resulted in Centre for Water Research, The University Yeates, P.S . and l mberger, J. 2004. Pseudo rworeduction in pollution of water-ways; of Western Australia. Website: dimensional simulations incernal and improved management of water resources; boundary fluxes in a st rat ified lakes and access to clean waterways, mainrenance of Email: reservoirs. Inter. J. River Basin Management strategic water resources and enabling (4) :1-23. Telephone (08) 6488 2466. ongoing public access to recreational facilities.

Acknowledgments CWR was established in 1982 with fundin g from the State Governmenr and the Commonwealth Government of Austral ia through the Special Research Centre funding scheme. This funding ceased in 1999. Our ability to maintain our internatio nal reputation has to a large extent been due to the support received through projects funded by a number of international sources an d by Sydney Catchment Authority, Melbourne Water and the Australian Research Council. 76 SEPTEMBER 2007




ยง. 5 10

~ 15 20L.__



32: C. 30~ 0 28 x 26


Figure 8. Longitudinal cross section from the entrance of the St. Joe River to the downstream dam wall. G rey lines are temperature contours and the colours salinity. The high concentration near station 08 is the Coeur d'Alene River underflow (Morillo et al. 2007) .

Journal of the Australian Water Association


The Midd le East is the new frontier for water professionals from all over the globe. T he massive developments occurring in the Middle East (in particular the Gulf Sates), co mbined with its unique climate, unbounded vision by its leaders and com mitmen t to del iver infrastructure at wo rld record pace is providing unprecedented opportunities for water professionals. Australian skills are in great demand in the Midd le East because of their can-do attitude and their track record in delivering projects in warmer and drier climatic conditions. Some of the projects are of a scale that is orders of magnirude larger than projects we are used to deliver in Australia. T he following is a small snapshot of some of the projects my colleagues at G HD have had the opportunity to wo rk in the past few years. This paper provides a background of the region and gives some derails on typical projects the challenges and solutions being implemented to meet the water needs of this growing region. T he projects described herein include: • Water Infrastructure for new urban developments • Advanced treatment fo r water recycling and desalination plants • Dams and aquifer recharge schemes

Table 1. Summary of Economic and Water Resource Statistics in the Gulf Region.

Population (million) Population 2020 (million) GDP ($bi llion) Economic Growth Rate (%) Annual Rainfall (mm) Primary water Source Primary Domestic/ Industrial Water Source

(% of total supply) % Recycling




Saudi Arabia

5.0 7.5

0.8 1.2 75 8 20-150 Desalination

2.6 4 50



4 33-550 Groundwater 78%

230 8 80-160 Groundwater 55% Desalination 95% 100%

industrial water supplies. All cou ntries are fo recasting significant population growth. Most of the countries have strong economies driven by record oil and gas prices. Dubai has a vision of becom ing the commerce hub of the Middle East and is trying to do this at an astronomical rate before its oil reserves run out. Water Infrastructure for New Urban Developments

"The Palm" Projects in Dubai and "The Pearl" Project in Qatar are World Class iconic projects. GHD has had involvement in the master planning and design of the infrastructure for T he Palm Jumeirah, The

30 450


80-400 Groundwater 77%

Desalination 100% 100%

Desalination 50% 100%

Desalination 50% 100%

Palm Jebel Al i an d Qanar Quarter secror of the Pearl. Figure l shows the proposed master plan fo r the Dubai Coast incorporating T he Palm developments. The entire development will carer for abour I .5 milli on people by 2020. The rwo Palms projects referred ro above will accommodate about 350,000 people. Both developments are full y so ld. To give the readers and idea of the scale of these projects The Palm Jebel Ali is 7.5 km wide and 7 km from shoreline to apex. The projects in question are up-market developments, in a hot and arid climate. They are built on reclai med land some fo ur

Economic and Water Resource Statistics of Region

Table I provides a summary of the key economic and water resource statistics of the Gulf States where sign ificant water projects are being del ivered. As can be seen the region is experiencing significant economic growth. Most cou ntries rely on groundwater for agriculrure and desalination for domestic/

A sample ofprojects demonstrates the valuable role ofAustralian engineers and scientists.

Figure 1. Proposed Master Plan for Dubai. Journal of the Australian Water Association



technical features

metres above sea level. In addition to the traditional infrastructure provided in most modern western developments they include high quality communications/security systems, recycled water and district cooling (delivery and return pipelines). The Qanac Quarrier development on The Pearl project also includes centralised vacuum operated solid waste collection system as truck access is banned in the development. It is not unusual to incorporate several world firsts with these projects. Despite being green-field developments che drive for aesthetic uniqueness, difficult ground conditions and extreme climate conditions challenge most contemporary designers. Figure 2 provides images of rhe water infrastructure being implemented on The Palm J umeirah development. Traditionally water, sewerage and drainage infrascrucrure in the Middle Ease are based on British standards. The p roblems with these standards has been well documented in rhe past, including high sulfide generation causing corrosion and reduced asset life, sand and silt deposition in drains and sewers resulting in capacity reductions and sewer overflows. To overcome these problems a number of innovations were introduced in these developments including: • Three dimensional location criteria for both services and house connections • Recommended sequencing for service installations • Sire grading and land-forming away from the waters edge to the centre of che road (for each frond on rhe palm) to allow some water quality treatment prior to discharge to sea • Overland flow paths char minimise the n umber of gully pits

Figure 2. The Palm Jumeirah Development (left), l 20ML/d Desalination Infrastructure Plant (top right), 3D image of Water Infrastructu re Corridor (bottom right).

vacuum system balances increased costs of larger GPT facilities and first flush capture devices.

• JAFZA Utility Project Water Cycle Infrastructure; and

Advanced Water Recycling and Desalination Projects

These projects are described in more detail below.

As can be seen in Table 1 most of the Gulf States recycle most of their sewage effluent. The primary use is for landscape irrigation. Generally the demand for landscape irrigation exceeds the available supply. For religious reasons recycled water is nor appropriate for growing edible crops in the Middle East.

• Steeper drainage slopes with more outfalls substantially increasing self cleansing velocity in the drains when it d id rain

There are numerous examples of advanced water recycling and seawater desalination projects being implemented in rhe Middle East for existing and greenfield developments.

• GPT s with higher volumes than standard designs for imp roved capture and cleaning using vacuum system

Two recent examples that illustrate the type and scale of water infrastrucrure projects being delivered in this regio n include:

• Doha Advanced Water Recycling Project

JAFZA Utility Project - Water Cycle Infrastructure The JAFZA Utility Project will provide water infrastructure to an area of 8 500 Ha including the JAFZA Free Trade Zone, Technopark and Downtown Jebel Ali. These precincts include both greenfield and existing development with industrial, commercial and residential land uses. A new special purpose vehicle company (jointly owned by Palm Water and GE Finance) has won rights to construct, finance, own and maintain the water cycle infrastructure for the entire d evelopment area. T he infrastructure comp rises: • 100 ML/d seawater RO desalination plant

• First flu sh in-line stormwacer collection detention tanks with connection to sewer system for emptying • Vacuum sewerage system to minimise sulfide generation, with added storage capacity and emergency overflows to cope with extended periods of power failure. The combination of the above measures greatly increased system reliability and substan tially redu ced rhe environmental impact to the waterways for most rain events. These benefits are ach ieved without net cost increase as cost savings in srormwarer pies and pipelines and the use of




Figure 3. Wadi Dayqah Dam Site (left) and Cot-off Trench Excavation Wadi Ba ni Kharous (right].

Journal of the Australian Water Association

lt:'l.llllll.dl I t:'d lUrt:!:>

• T win marine intakes and a concentrate return outfall

• 75m and 60m h igh RCC d ams on che Wadi Dayqah and Wadi

Jarsis resp ectively

• Water supply distrib ution and sewerage collection networks to approx 850 0 Ha of trade development area

• l 40ML/d pu m p stations

• 108 ML/d MBR sewage treatment plant

• 4 ML/d industrial wastewater p retreatment plane (feeding wastes

• 10 0km lo ng 900mm d iameter bulk supply pipeline from the Wadi Dayqah dam sire ro Muscat,

into che MBR)

• 105 ML/d water treatment plant

• MB R effluent supply mains to reservoirs for irrigation use

• 5,500m long gravel and sand fi ll flood retention emb ankment with fi lter drains and slope protection;

• 81 ML/d R O polishing plant to treat effluent fro m che MBR for d istrict cooling use • Polished effluent transmission mains to d istrict cooling planes for use as make-up water.


Under normal circumstances each one of the above assets is a significant undertaking in its own right. Implementing all of che above assets as a single project provides great challenges and opporcunicies. The total project is bei ng delivered under an EPC contract that includes short-term operation s co prove che p rocess performance. GE WTP will enter into separate long-term O & M co ntract with the Company once the perfo rmance of the constructed works is proven.

T he above sample of projects demonstrates the valuable role Australian engineers and scientists are playing in delive ring water in frastructu re projects in the Midd le Ease. The unique cl imate and massive scale of some che projects are providing great ch allenges and opportunities for those worki ng on these projects. Every global water com pany is o perat ing in ch is region and co mpeting fo r a slice of the action. Australian organisations have proven chat they can compete and win a share of the projects on offer.

Doha Advance Water Recycling Project The Pub lic Works Authority, Drainage Affairs (PWA DA) Qatar have im plemented a policy to fu rther treat co nventio nally created sewage effluen t (TSE) to standards suitable for unrestricted reuse with respect to irrigation. A render co build and operate a 45kL/h r advanced treatment pilot p lane wich various pre-treatment opt ions has recen cly been issued to a local engineering con tractor. GH D has been engaged to provide tech nical services fo r the "PreContracc Design, pilot study supervision & QS services" . The pilot scudy will operate fo r up to one year and w ill investigate the suitabi lity of various mem brane (M F & UF) p re-treatment systems prior to fi nal RO treatment under various operating conditions. Ac present che pilot plan t is about to be delivered to site to commence che 12-month testing program. T he information from the pilot resting w ill be made ava ilable to co mpanies that will be bidd ing for che D esign Build, Operate, Train and Transfer (DBOTT) contract of3 x 130 MLday Advanced Water T reatment Plants in D oha.

• a free overflow spillway 2700m long constructed our of gabion mattresses .

The Author

Nick Apostolidis is a Directo r of GHD. and the Water Business Scream Leader. As Global Leader, the projects cited fall into his portfo lio. Email:

Australia's most comprehensive range of metering pumps

Dams and Aquifer Recharge Schemes for Oman O man is located on che northern margin of che Arabian Peninsula, in an area of low rain fal l and high evaporation. Surface water storages are genera!ly impractical in chis climate, d ue co che seasonality of che scream flows and che high evaporation rate. T hus che mai n source of water su pply is groundwater. Increased populatio n an d agriculcural development has resulted in the aquifers becomi ng stressed and in coastal areas has led to the onset of seawater in trusion.

• Solenoid • Mechanically Actuated • Hydraulically Actuated • Pulseless

It has been recognised that che impounding of scream flow events and the subsequent underground storage of the captured water could sign ificancly contribu te to th e sustainab ility of supply for this part of Oman and reduce or micigace sea water intrusion. In the past decade Australian skills have played a key role in delivering several maj or aquifer recharge schemes for che Sultanate of Oman, namely:

Solutions engineered to your needs

• Wadi Dayqah • Wadi Khabb

Visit us at:

• Wadi Bani Kharous A key component in these schemes has been the use of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams char offer significant savings over conventional concrete dams. Some key features associated with che above aqu ifer recharge schemes include:

Acromet (Aust) Pty Ltd VIC: Ph: (03) 9544 7333 Fax: (03) 9543 6706 NSW: Ph: (02) 9647 2432 Fax: (02) 9647 2599

Journal of the Australian Water Association


... the better way

SEPTEMBER 2007 7 9

NORTHERN RIVER WATER FOR AUSTRALIAN CITIES? I Edmonds Barrier Reef and at the Gold Coast ir flows to within 30 km, To FLOAT fresh water from rhe its closest approach to rhe north of Queensland to SEQ may mainland during its journey seem to be a wild idea, bur ir south, Figure 2. deserves serious consideration for In rhis proposal large membrane rhe next stage of expansion because containers, each holding 60 ML the capital and operating coses are filled ar rhe mouth of the could be more than an order of Tully then rowed offshore into magnitude less than for the Current and released. Twenty desal ination and recycling. days later the containers reach In contrast to other long-dista nce Brisbane or the Gold Coast and piping proposals, in chis one rhe are rowed the 30 km co shore route is actually 'downhill'. where rhe water is pumped into This paper is an updated version of pipelines supplying the Gold rhe web-sire noted in rhe AWA eCoast and Brisbane. In fact, all of News of July 9th raking into rhe 9000 ML per day discharged 1JfliiJ' suri:ace currtnts accou nt some recent derailed ~ 11.t!Âťurl:KCCl.fftnU by rhe Tu lly River flows past EEZ r::::::,cr=tl cumnu Cri tl CISillS. Brisbane 20 days later. This clum!:>1c O pÂŤJisum edd~~ scheme just encloses 1% of ir in a continental shelf , - SNIOf1al .,_,.....1irac Introduction membrane to stop it from mixing The total annual rainfall on rhe with sale water. Ar any one rime Figure 1. The major ocean curre nts in the Australian there would be 40 of these Australian conti nent vastly exceeds regionl 121. The East Australian Cu rrent arises in the Coral containers floating on the current rhe needs of rhe small pop ulation. Sea and flows down the coastline from Cairns to Sydney. cowards Brisbane, each container However, this rainfall ocrnrs separated from rhe other by a mainly in the sparsely populated building plant and pipeline to recycle distance of about 40 km, Figu re 3. northern tropics and in Tasmania. The sewage water at a rate of 136 ML/day (1 populated areas in the southern half of the The containers wou ld be 200 m long, 30 m ML = one million litres) to cool the continent are relatively dry and rhe southwide and 10 m deep (60ML) and formed Swanbank and Tarong power stations at a eastern corner is becoming drier due to from 1mm thick fabr ic reinforced plastic cost of $1.7 billion 131. On the Gold Coast climate change. T he disparity in water membrane. While the volume of water rhe T ugun desalination plant is being built supply is most vividly manifest in is large (60 ML), equivalent co contained to supply 120 ML of drinking water daily Queensland where the northern rivers, the volume of a ship of displacement ar a cost of $ 1.2 billion141. These schemes, 60,000 tonnes, the actual mass of the principally the H erbert, Tully and as well as being expensive, are very energy container itself is only about 20 tonnes. Burdekin, pour vast quantities (average 30 intensive. Operation of the Tugun Thus, after being pumped em pry ar the cubic kilometres annually[I)) of fres h water desalination plant will produce 235,000 Gold Coast, rhe containers can be removed into the sea while the Brisbane River has tonnes of CO 2 annual!y[4l. from rhe water by roll ing onto a frame then run dry. In NSW rhe Clarence River loaded by gantry onto rail cars or a coastal A New Proposal discharges about 4 cubic kilometres trader for transport back to Tully for annually while Syd ney catchments are The Tully River discharges, each year, 3 refilling. running dry. mi llion ML of pristine water into rhe Coral There is precedent for this idea. Small The continuing water shortage in South Sea, or about 9000 ML/day on average[51. rowed containers are being used in the East Queensland has prompted rhe To transport 120 ML/day of Tully water Mediterranean fo r servicing Greek islands Queensland Government co fund, in 2006, th rough 1600 km of pipeline would be and Cyprus from rhe mainland. Also, in a $3 million re-examination of schemes to monumentally expensive in infrastrucrure USA, after some 15 years of development, pipe water from North Queensland to and energy. However rhe East Australian in conjunction with MIT, of suitable Brisbane 121. These schemes are confounded Current could be used co transport rhe by rhe high cost of pipe infrasrrucrure and water at much lower cost. This current, rhe massive energy co pump the water Figure 1, flows from the Coral Sea down Floating 60 ML bags of through pipes several hundred kilometres rhe eastern coast of Australia to Sydney long. Previous estimates of the cost of a where ir diverges our into the Tasman fresh water from rainSea161,17 l. Ir flows at about 3 km/hour and pipeline from the Burdekin River to Brisbane were $7.5 billion for infrastructure rakes abou t 20 days to flow from Tully to soaked Tully to parched and $250 million for annual operation. Brisbane. At Tully rhe current flows about south-east Queensland. 50 km off shore on rhe outer side of the Co nsequenrly rhe Seate Government is





Journal of the Australian Water Association

lec.nr11c.a1 Tea-cures

water resources fabrics and connecring sysrems, Spragg Associates in 1996 rowed a demonsrration 3 ML bag on a 160 km voyage offshore from Washi ngron Stare.

Australian Current for essentially no cost with only 90 km rowing distance for transport between the current and the coast. The rowing cost can be esri mated as follows.

Their business plan is ro fabr icate bags holding so me 17 ML, connect them inro a train by a zipper system, then row them from a northern river to water-starved Cali fo rnia. CH2MHill were contracted ro cost the infrastructure required for loadi ng, unloading and return facilities. Reference can be made ro their website. ( 13) There is a salient difference between our proposal and theirs. By using the Eastern Australian current we can red uce the rowing from 1600 km ro less than I 00 km.

Infrastructure Cost of the Proposal O ur qu ick estimate of infrastructure cost includes the cost of the fabric reinforced co ntainers, rhe cos t of a rug boar at Tully, anorher ar rhe Gold Coasr, and a coastal trader for rhe return rrip, plus rhe cosr of dredging chann els and rhe cost of rhe loadi ng Figure 2. Thermal image of the East Australian and unloading gantries. A 60 ML Current flowing past the Gold Coast. co ntainer wirh reinforced membrane 1 111111 rh ick requires 20 ronnes of plasric membrane. The resin used ro make plasric membrane currently cosrs abou t $3000 a ro nne. So the base material cost would be only $60,000. However, extrapolation fro m the cost of the largest membrane bag currently manufactured in East Queensland, a 136 ronne pillow tank[8l Australian Curre nt used by the army, suggests the cost of a 60 3 km/hr ML container would be closer to $600,000. The cost of 40 containers, the number necessa ry to supply 120 ML per day via the East Austral ian Current, plus 20 to cover return and storage, is $36 million. Two rug boars each of I MW power cost about $1 million[9l. Loading gantries (20 ton ne li ft Brisbane capacity), Figure 4, would cost about $2 Cold Coast e million. Alrernarively two floating cranes could be used. A barge or a coastal trader (740 tonne capacity, 17 km/hr, $0.5 Figure 3. Two 60 ML containers are million) would return 16 containers ro towed into and out of the current each Tully on a round rrip raking 8 days. day. At a ny one time up to 40 containers Brisbane has a 14 m deep seaway and the would be floating towards the Gold Gold Coast Cruise Ship Terminal will have Coast on the cu rrent. (Conta iners a 12 m deep seaway. However, a seaway illustrated at 1500 times a ctua l scale). into the Tully River would need to be dredged and maintained requiring an Annual Running Cost of the Proposal additional $2 million fo r a dredge[9l . Thus the total infrastructu re cost of rhe proposal T he running cost of this scheme is low would be arou nd $40 million. In relative to desalination as the warer used is comparison the cost of rhe Tugun pristine river water. T he water is desalination plant is$ I, 130 mill ion. transported rhe 1600 km by the East

The containers are cigar shaped with a length of 200 m and a cross sectional area, A, of 300 square metres. As the containers are nearly submerged ic is this cross sectional area, the speed of rowi ng, v, (2.5 mis) and how streamlined the container is (the drag coefficient, Cd) that determines th e force and power required for rowing. The containers would be stream li ned by shaping the fabric skin and filli ng to a slight over-press ure so that they wou ld be similar to the shape of a submarine hull. A reasonable estim ate for the drag coefficient of a large streamlined co ntainer is Cd = 0. I [IOI_ Now rhe rowing force, F, can be calculated from F = Cd( 1/2pv2)A = 96000 N . Once the contai ner is moving at the rowing speed of 5 knots (2.5 mis) the rowing power required, P, can be found from the force rimes rhe velocity, P = 96000 x 2.5 = 240 kW. The energy, E, to row each co ntain er rhe rowing distance of 90 km is rhe force times the distance, E = 96000 x 90,000 = 8500 MJ. l f the rugboar produces this rowing force at 20% efficiency rhe tugboat will co nsume 5 rimes as much fuel energy i.e. 42,500 MJ of fue l energy. Th is energy co rresponds to rhe consu mption of about 1100 litres of diesel fuel. Fo r two contain ers per day the fue l consumption is 2200 litres/day. T he coastal trader wo uld run a continuous 8 day cycle returning 16 containers to Tully with a fuel co nsumption of 1400 litres/day. Th us the daily fuel co nsumption required to transport 120 ML/day of water from Tully to rhe Gold Coast is 3600 litres. Ir is useful to consider the dollar cost of energy per kilol itre of water produced. Diesel fuel oil costs about $1.20 per litre and for this proposal 3600 litres/day is consumed. Thus, rhe dollar cost fo r diesel fuel is just $4320 for 120 ML of water or 3.6 cents per kilolitre. Diesel fuel emirs 2.7 kg of CO 2 fo r each litre of fuel consumed. T hus, the daily delivery of 120 ML of water by chis scheme involves the emission of9.7 ton nes of CO 2, an annual emission of 3540 tonnes of CO 2. In comparison rhe operating cost of the T ugun desalination plant is projected to be $40 million ann ually (mainly electrical energy cost) and the greenhouse gas emission associated wich the desalination plane is projected to be 235,000 tonnes an nuallyf 41.

Journal of the Australian Water Association



counterproductive. Australia is a coun try of drought and flood, of El With any radical scheme there are Nino followed by La Nina. This problems to be overcome. Having 40 current drought has led to the containers, each as big as an oil canker, investment of huge sums in 9 7% submerged and spaced at 40 km constructi ng desalination and intervals up che Queensland coast may recycling planes. The drought will be regarded as a shippi ng hazard. end. W hen ic does these expensive H owever, ic may be noted char more planes will sic idle. The investment than 100 coal containers of similar size cannot be deployed elsewhere. are currencly anchored or under way in Conversely, the infrastructure of this the Ease Australian C urrent off proposal, the water containers, the 1 Dalrymple Bay and Newcascle without tugs, the floating cranes, the dredge undue hazard to shipping. As the Figure 4. Empty containers 1 rolled onto former 2 and the coastal trader is not only far con tainers of chis scheme are 97% then loaded by gantry 3 onto barge 5. cheaper but can be usefully deployed submerged they are much less elsewhere. The technology of chis susceptible to wind fo rces than proposal could be readily exported to the 1600 km transport 'downhill' being conventional vessels. The containers would anywhere in the world where there is a need be fitted with light and radio beacons so free for most of the journey. The principal for fresh water and there is a favou rable that the location of che contai ners could be unknown is whether 60 ML containers can ocean current connecting co a river supply monitored both during progress and pick be manufactured and whether the cowing, however distant that su pply may be. up co within a few metres by satell ite. handling, emptying and fill ing such a large Should a collision with a ship occur che 1 container of water is feasible. H owever, it Acknowledgement mm membrane would simply pare and may be noted that towi ng icebergs of The author gracefully acknowledges useful 60,000 tonnes of fresh water would mix in similar or even greater mass is common suggestions from Dr Marcin Gellender, the ocean. There would be no damage to practice in the Arctic oil indusrryl 1 I]. EPA, Brisbane, and Bob Swinton, che sh ip (which would p robably be unaware Technical Editor of Water. Conclusions of a collision) and, if che beacons remained intact, the container could be retrieved and The East Australian C u rrent that flows References repaired. The 60 ML container size 200 0 km from the northern tropics to [I ) River inpurs of nurrienrs and sediment ro rhe suggested is about 400 rimes the volume of Sydney carries with it che outflow of the Grear Barrier Reef, Furnas et al. www. che largest pillow rank currencly northern rivers. Enclosi ng only a small l 8/ 4275/ws023_paper_03.pdfTable 2. manufactured in Q ueensland (0.136 ML, percentage of chis river water in large [2) Pipeline Study, cost $8500) f8l. Pillow ranks of I ML membrane containers and allowing the newsirems/200607 /s 1694456.hrm capacity are produced overseas. Pillow ranks filled co ntainers to fl oat with che current [3] Warer Recycling Project, are designed to be self supporting on land provides an almost free method of and muse withstand considerable hydraulic delivering drinking water to the major ease (4) Gold Coast Desalination Project, pressure. The containers envisaged in chis coast cities. Preli mi nary cost estimates fo r scheme floa t nearly submerged in water and che supply of 120 ML per day co the Gold [5] Nurrienrs and suspended sediments in rhe are under no hyd raulic stress. Thus, the Coast indicate chis method of water supply Tully River, Mitchell et al, www.actfr.jcu . membrane can be lighter and the container may be 30 times less expensive to blicarions/ACTFRreporrs/06_1 O_ larger than would be che case for a land Nurrienr_Sediment_Tully.pdf Page 41. implement than an eq uivalent supply by based water storage container. In face, [6) Ease Australian C urrent desalination plane and chat che method may news/images/22mar_eezcurrenrs.gif floating fres h water in the Ease Australian emit 60 rimes less greenhouse gas . These [7) Easr Ausrralian Current www.marine.csiro. Current imposes almost no size restriction figures suggest chat the proposal would be au/ remoresensing/spectacularon the containi ng membrane. The practical m uch less expensive than a pipeline from images/91092916. png size limit is imposed by seaway channel the Burdekin River to Brisbane. It may be (8) Pillow Tanks www.fabricsolurions. depths, the stress during towing into and useful to include consideration of this out of the current at either end of the proposal within che scope of the pipeline (9) T ugboat, coastal trader and dredge cost journey and potential weather-induced feasib ility study currencly being made by stresses during storms. The alternative of che Queensland Governmencf 2l. The above [I OJ Drag Coefficient: Tim Gourlay, Private using linked pod s of smaller containers is discussion has focused on the supply of Communication. also envisaged. water to South Ease Queensland where the (1 1) Towing Icebergs need is acute. However, as the Ease arctic-facrs/fact-berg-row.hcm This scheme could be trialled by utilising [ 12) Auscralian Sea Currents Australian C urrent also connects the che much smaller pillow ranks currencly news/images/22mar_eezcurrents.gif Clarence River co Sydney, a similar scheme commercially available from Queensland (13) Spragg and Assoc. could supply river water to Sydney. suppliers. If successful these smaller ranks Recently the NSW Government approved could be progressively scaled up towards che The Author che construction of desalination plane at size discussed above. T he projected Dr Ian Edmonds is a physicist who Kurnell to supply 250 ML/day to Sydney. infrastructure cost of the scheme ($40 operates an R&D company In view of che face chat the d rying trend in million) is about 30 times lower than che ( chat develops is related to climate south-east Australia cost of the equivalent supply desalination sustainable technologies fo r the build ing change the use of high emission plane. This huge cost d ifference is primarily industry, desalination plants would seem co be very due co the use of pristine river water, with

Implementation of the Proposal




Journal of the Australian Water Association

KWINANA INDUSTRIAL AREA PLANS FOR WATER SOURCES C Oughton, V Cinanni, G Degebrodt Abstract The Kwinana Industrial Area Water Planning Study was launched in January 2007. T he study was spo nsored by an alliance between the Kwinana Industries Counci l, Department of Water, Department ofinduscry & Resources and th e Water Co rporation of Western Australia. The research identifies strategic options for industri al water supply and wastewater reuse/disposal opportunities over a 15 year plann ing horizon. Financial analysis of water cycle management compared a range of water sources from 'sustainable' municipal wastewater reclamation to 'less susta inable' groundwater options, including the likely nominal cost of regulatory reform implementation in Western Australia.

CSBP Limited' s pilot nutrient stripping wetland.

Introduction The Kwinana Industrial Area (KIA) is located approximately 40 km south of Perth city and represents the largest concentration of heavy process industries in Western Australia. Protection and furth er development of the KIA is cited as critical to the future of the Western Australian economy. The Kwinana Industries Council (KIC) is an incorporated business association with membership drawn from all the major industries and smaller busi nesses in the KIA. The industries are reporting limitations to existing avai lable water resources, amo ngst other issues, which is projected to limit industry growth. T he KI C's visionary approach to sustainable development places it as a leader in planning for water reuse and fir-fo r-purpose water options for the fu ture. Over the last 30 years Western Australia has experienced an unprecedented decrease in rainfall, potentially as a result of climate change, which has subsequently decreased rain fall runoff and recharge to groundwater aquifers. This has impacted the KIA by

Strategic options for industrial water supply and wastewater reuse/disposal.

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Journal of the Australian Water Association



Table 1. Projected industrial water demand to 202 1. Water Consumption (GL/yr)

Kwinana Industrial Area 2006-2021 Water Demand Projection (by w ater source) 70+-------------60 + - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Existing industry consumption 2006 Existing industry projected consumption 2021 New industry projected consumption 2021

32.7 16.2 20.7

TOTAL (2021)


directly reducing rhe available groundwater resource and potentially restricting potable scheme water available to industry. Significant changes have been implemented to water and wastewater regulation in the KIA over rhe last 15 years, and continue to be further developed. Water cycle planning is a strategic and conceptual consideration ofall possible water source, supply and disposal options, incorporating known constraints to determine the most feasible options, which will achieve the desired objectives. In October 2005, the KI C engaged independent consul tants, Worley Parsons, to undertake a water planning study for a 15 year plan ning horizon (2006-2021). The stakeholder partnership included the KIC and industry members, the Department of Water, the Department of Industry & Resources and the Water Corporation of Western Australia. It builds on the success of previous collaborative water planning by industry and government, which led to rhe successful co nstruction and operation of rhe Kwi nana Water Reclamation Plant, the biggest water recyclin g plant of its type in Australia. The Kwin ana Water Reclamation Plant has enabled several KIC members to use six gigalitres (million kil ol itres) per year of treated waste water instead of using scheme and ground water, thereby reducing industries demand for rhese precious resources. (Link les/ PublicarionsRegister/7 /kwrp-brochure. pd f) KIA Water Demand Projections

KIA industry water demand was estimated to be 32.7 GL/yr in 2006. Demands were projected to increase to 48.9 GL/yr over the next 15 years (2021) based on existing industry growth, and potentially increasing to 69.6 GL/yr for all projected development to 2021, as show n in Table I. Figure 1 illustrates the water source development as projected by industry. Water Source Options

Water source options included all known water sources within an approximate 20 km radius of rhe KIA and do not incl ude water synergies within rhe area. Water sources have been broken down into five main sources: 1. Groundwater sources The KIA lies within the Cockburn Groundwater Area whi ch is near fu ll allocation. Implementation of National Water Initiative reform in Western Australia will potentially improve industry access to adjacent groundwater areas with currently identified available resou rces of 23.2 GL/yr (63.6 ML/day). Groundwater can be sourced at varyi ng water qualities, ranging in base cost from $0.17/kL - $0.54/kL, including infrastructure, operating and abstraction fee costs. Assuming that a nom inal 50% development of groundwater sources is achievable for the KIA, an extra capacity of 11.6 GL/yr is estimated. Licence allocation may attract annual fees (estimated at $300/year) and abstraction costs (estimated at $0.20/kL) .




Journal of the Australian Water Association

50 + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 4 0 + - - - - - - - - -- - - - 30 < - - -





2006 O Groundwater

C Groundwater - contaminated

D Surface Water - Sito dra inage • Reuse - Kw lnana WWW

• Rouso-KWRP • Olher industries

D Schemewaler O Reuse-SDOOL

Figure 1. Projected source optio ns. Groundwater trading is expected to cost between $0.50/kL $ 1.30/kL and will only be feasible within the KIA. Co ntaminated, sali ne and offshore groundwaters are not accessible as additional groundwater resources. 2. Recycled or reusable municipal wastewater sources If all Water Corporation treated municipal wastewater so urces identified can be developed for use in the KIA, an additi onal total of 56.3 GL/yr (I 54.2 ML/day) (not includi ng ex isting use) can be sourced at varying water qualities, ranging in cost fro m $0.40/kL $ 1. 50/kL. The Sepia Depression Ocean Outfall Landli ne (SDOOL) transfers secondary treated municipal wastewater from two wastewate r treatment plants (W\'v'TP), and concentrate from the Kwinana Water Reclamation Plant, to offshore ocea n disposal on rhe Sepia Depression. SDOOL water has the benefit that existing in fras tructure traverses the KIA. T he treated wastewater is brackish (typically 900 mg/L TDS). The Kwin ana Water Reclamation Plant (KWRP) treats SDOOL water to tertiary grade fo r industrial reuse with low TDS (<50 mg/L), The technical feasib ili ty of us ing secondary treated wastewater in cooling towers, slurry transport and dust suppression shou ld be further investigated based on current international standards and operations. 3. Scheme water sources (Water Corporation) The Water Corporation operates existi ng infrastructure to deliver potable scheme water to the industries in the KIA. Scheme water costs approximately $0.88/kL and water with salinities of approximately 200 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) and/or 500 mg/L T DS are available dependi ng on indusrry location. However, scheme water should be considered as a 'fu lly allocated' source option to the KIA, as sta red in Water Corporation source development planning. 4. Surface water sources Some industri es in the KIA have harnessed onsite stormwater drainage for treatment, storage in basi ns or wetlands, and reuse, largely as an environmental protection regulatory requi rement. The Water Corporation-managed South Jandakot drainage scheme is the largest potential storm water so urce in the vicinity of the KIA. Average drainage to Cockburn Sound is estimated at 3.6 GL/yr. Data on storm water qualities and quantities were not avail ab le fo r this plan. Assu ming the stormwater is suitable for

water resources Table 2. Estimated source ca pacity. Potential Source

SDOOL secondary treat ed w astewater KWRP 2 t ertiary treated wastewater KW RP 3 t ertiary treated w astew ater Kw1nana WNTP stage 2 & 3 secondary treated wastewat er East Rockingham WNTP secondary treated wastew at er Water Corporation wastewater reuse SUB-TOTAL Rockingham groundw at er (incl. Rockingham Sands; 50 % allocation) Janda kot groundwater (50 % allocation) Groundwater SUB-TOTAL Stormwater aquife r recharge In Kw1nana region Stormwater aquifer recharge SUB-TOTAL


Source capacity (GL/yr)

29.6 3 .8 11 .0

2.6 9 .1


10.4 1. 2 11 .6

2.2 2.2 69.9

treatment and aquife r recharge and allowing a nomin al 60% recovery, there co uld be 2.2 GL/yr of recovered groundwater available

Dependent on industrial wastewater total disso lved solids (TDS) quality, industrial wastewater may be reusable with in rhe KIA via synergistic optio ns or through managed aqui fe r recharge (MA R) at low cost. Cost of treatment co disposable quali ty is industry specific and was not determined in general for this study. T he cost of MAR infil tration galleries is estimated at $0.38/kL as a disposal sink excl uding transfer piping infrastructure. Deep well injection of wastewater occurs at one ex isting site in the KIA. If rhe po ten tial for addi tional injection exists, injectio n bores with an estimated capital expend irure of $2.3 million per bo re fo r a potential injection rare of 1 ML/day could be developed. Operating at chis rare over 20 years and all owing $0.10/kL operating coses indicates a disposal cost of $0.54/kL excl uding licensing and fees. H owever, rhe Department of Water indicates that deep well injection of wastewater will nor be approved by rhe EPA, so th is option is curren tly nor available. Off-sire disposal is typi cally the highest cost disposal option fo r any wastewater and associated residual solids and should only be undertaken if wastewater cannot be disposed of or reused locally. Land fill disposal coses including co ncentration, thickening, transport an d landfill fees are estimated ro be $8.64/ kl. Water Cycle Financial Analysis The financial analysis undertaken in this srudy com pared rhe comp lete water cycle cost of 'fi t-fo r-purpose' water use includin g ap propriate chemi ca l addition and/o r treatment and subsequent disposal, as req uired by rhe water use application.

This option shou ld be technically reviewed further as a porenrial so urce in alignment with rhe Scare Water Strategy. 5. Sea water sources

Saline water extraction from Cockburn Sound is unlimited in quantity though subject co approval under the Environmental Protection Act 1986. Operati ng coses are estim ated at $0. 05/kL if wa ter quality is fir fo r purpose such as low cycle cooling water. Th e limi ting factor is disposal of heated cooli ng water bl owdown, wh ich is subject co EPA assessment and requires Ministerial approval based on modelli ng of Cockburn Sound ambient water quality impacts of all discharges to che Sound . Water Source Summary The coral sou rce water available is conservatively estimated at 70 GL/yr if all cited sources can be developed as per the Table 2. T he existing water demand of 32.7 G L/yr is met by existi ng sources in the KIA. The projected extra water demand of 36.9 G L/yr for expansion of ex isting industries and new develo pments can be adequately met by the identified 70 GL/yr so urce development capacity, over rhe 15 year planning horizon. Industrial Wastewater Disposal Options Available industrial wastewater disposal methods are becoming increasingly restricted due ro environmental approval co nstrain ts . D isposal options are li mi ted by contaminant loadi ngs which va ry across industry. Ministerial approval under rhe EP Ace fo r rhe discharge of industrial wastewater ro rhe W ater Corporation Sepia Depression Ocean O utfall Landl ine (S DOO L) is limited co 30 ML/day (I I GL/yr). A discharge fee of approximately $0.30/kL is app lied and wastewater must comply with SDOOL licence condi tions and Water Co rporation sta ndards fo r acceptance of industrial wastewater. Journal of the Australian Water Association



Water cycle optio ns for the financial analysis were established based on the assessment that:

Table 3. Summary of dema nds and cost estimates. lnouts


KWRP water

Untreated groundwater

Desalinated groundwater

Softened groundwater

TDS rma/Ll





Evaooration IMUd\





• Coo ling rower use is the largest co nsumption; and










• D isposal co SD O OL was the lowest approval risk and cost of disposal is known.

WTP reject (MUd)





$1 429

$1 255

• Groundwater and Water Co rporation KWRP (reclaimed) water are the largest available water sources in the KIA;

Blow down (MU dl

Total water demand

Therefore the fo llowing options were considered for water cycle financial analysis:

Capital cost

• KWRP water used in coo ling rowers with blowdown d isposal co SDO OL;

Treatment olant ($kl

• U ncreated groundwater fro m the Rockingham G roundwater Area used in cooling rowers w ith blowd own disposal to SD OOL;

Ooeratim:1 cost

• D esalinated groundwater from the Rocki ngham Groundwater Area used in cooling rowers with blowdown disposal co SD OOL; and • Softened groundwater blended with uncreated groundwater from the Rockingham Groundwater Area, used in cooling rowers, with blowdown d isposal co SDO OL. Referring co Table 3, softened groundwater with blending of uncreated groundwater is the most economic water source fo r cooling rower use as opposed co desalinated groundwater, untreated groundwater o r Water Corporat io n KWRP water. Partial softening of groundwater, with appropriate chemical additio n, and disposal of cooling rower blowdown to the SD OOL, is estimated co cost $0.57 /kL in comparison co the KWRP water cycle cost estimate of $ 1.49/kL. Sensitivity analysis ind icated char groundwater options remain eco no mically favo urable for groundwater abstraction fees of up co $0.8 0/ kL and within a 25 km radius of any proposed use.

Environmental and Social Issues T his srudy highlights, fo r public and regulator information, the water source and disposal opt ions which will be fu rther assessed and developed by KIA industries. T he KI C and its members are seeking early public com ment o n these o ptions (particularly relating co social and environmental factors) for incorporation into furure water source and wastewater d isposal planni ng and development. Some industry members indicated chat an environmental o pportunity cost of u p co $1.00 /kL would be paid for environmentally 'sustainable' o ptions, such as wastewater reclamation, for reasons of





$1 ,400

Bore field /$kl

Caoital sub-total

Coolino tower ($k/vrl


$1 400

$1 76


Borefield ($k/yr) $2 542

Ooerating sub-total Water cost per kl

$2,718 $1 .49

source d iversity, security of supply and enviro nmental improvement of operations. G iven the water cycle cost estimate of $ 1.49/kL for KWRP water and $0. 57/kL fo r softened groundwater, the addition of the o pportunity cost co groundwater optio ns econo mically favo urs utilisatio n of reclaimed water.

Recommendations Key development recommendatio ns resulting from the water plan ning srudy include the fo llowing: A. T he preferred water sources based o n available quanti ty are as fo llows: 1. Water Corporation created wastewater (56 GL/yr); 2. groundwater fr om adjacent Groundwater Areas (11.6 GL/yr); 3. aquifer recharge of South Jandakor srormwarer (2.2 GL/yr); and 4. industry synergies as available optio ns become economic and sustainable (investigated by ochers). B. G roundwater trading (estimated co cost $0.50/ kL) will only be economic within the KIA in comparison co groundwater abs traction fees (estimated co be $0.20/ kL) for g roundwater areas external co the KIA.

C. Further assessment of sustainability of available water sources is required. Use of softened groundwater is significantly more feasible than reclaimed water use on a direct capical and operating cost basis. An economic assessment of environmental externalities will better

Journal of the Australian Water Association


$7 429

$1 655

$1 76


$1 100





$1 ,303 $0.79

tl,600 $1 .27

RO olant ($k/vrl

Water purchase

$6 000


$886 $0.57

indicate the effective cost of source sustainability and opportunity coses. D. This study forms the basis of feasible source development for industry in the KIA. N egotiatio n with regulators and stakeholders for development has been pre-empted by the KIC and ch is study fo r adequate consultation time to develop water resources.

The Authors

Chris Oughton is Director of the Kwi nana Industries Co uncil (KI C), (08) 9437 01 62. Further information, and a copy of rhe full report is available fo r d ownload at the KI C's website via http :// iceCon ten c/ ReportsandMedia/reporrs.asp. In 2005, the KI C commissioned W orley Parsons Services Pty Led co co nduct the Water Planning Srudy. Vince Cinanni is Senio r M anager, Water & W astewater - WA, (08) 921 1 85 17. Giselle Degebrodt is Senior W ater and Wastewater Engineer.

The KIC is the peak industry body with membership from all the major industries and smaller businesses within the KIA, Western Australia premier industrial area. It pursues its goals by working collaboratively with member companies, addressing issues of common interest, so that Kwinana industry speaks with one voice; promoting and contributing to the sustainable co-existence of Kwinana industry, the community and the environment.



North Head, located across the harbour from Sydney, is a unique area. Home ro Sydney Harbour National Park, North Head offers some spectacular scenery. The area's remoteness nurrures a delicate and precious ecosystem rhar supports such rare and enda ngered species as rhe long-nosed bandicooc. All of rhis has made North H ead a rourisr arrracrion. The second-largest sewage treatment plane, owned and operated by Sydney Water Corporation (SWC), rhe North Head Sewage Trearmenr Plant discharges approximately 330 million litres per day (ML/d) of primary created eff1uent via a deep ocean outfall. Because of its environmental prom inence, rhe plane has ro meet rhe highest of standards set by the Department of Environment and Climate Change. These include having a low impact on rhe area, minimally disrurbing the ecosystem and not affecting tourism.

Three digesters and the gas holder building can be seen in the upper right.

SWC is currently upgrading che North Head facility so it can continue ro meet these standards. As pare of rhe upgrade, a new biosolids facility will send digesrergeneraced methane gas ro a 1,400 kW cogenerarion unit. The engine will provide green power ro rhe plane, which will significantly reduce the amount of energy pulled from rhe electricity grid. "We'll use rhe green energy ro reduce the amoun t of power we import from the grid to run equipment such as our large raw water sewage pumps," says Ian Gabriel, a plant manager with SWC. "We estimate chis will save Sydney Water approximately AUD$500,000 per year and produce green

Water Business aims co keep readers alert co business news and new produce releases within the water seccor. Media releases sho uld be emailed ro Brian Raulr ar or Tel (03) 8534 5014.

AWA wishes co advise readers char Water Business information is supplied by third parries and as such, AWA is nor responsible for the accuracy, or othe rwise, of the information submitted. energy cred its rhac will contribure co SWC's rargec of being carbon-neutral by 2020." Selecting the right gas holder

Digester gas storage is an essential component of any gas urilisarion program. North Head's gas holder system had co be able ro wirhsrand burn ing embers fro m potential bushfires. Ir also had ro meet a height requirement so char ir would blend in to rhe surrounding environment better. As ic has done with ocher buildings and ranks, SWC painted rhe gas holder's building green ro make it less noticeable. SWC's co ntractor recommended install ing a DysrorÂŽ gas holder system from Siemens Water Tech nologies. T he Dysror system was nor rhe lowest priced of the competitors bidd ing ch is project, nor was ir the one origi nally selected. However, ic was rhe only system that mer all of SWC's design criteria.

The gas holder building is painted green to better blend into the national park surroundings.

The dual-membrane separate storage uni r is mounted direcrly on a concrete found ation ring, coses substantially less than a highpressure gas storage sphere, and does nor require the use of high-maintenance gas compressors. Design and installation was comp leted on schedule using local labour and supervised by Siemens Water Technologies personnel from che US. T he membranes used in che dualmembrane Dysror system are polyescerbased products, with PVC and PVDF coatings. Although these products are excellent at withstanding rhe harmful nature of digester gas constituents, rhey are nor fi reproof. Rather, these membranes are typically fire resistant, mean ing rh ey will nor burn wichour a fire source. To mitigate rhe potential incendiary issue, SWC's contractor suggested installing rhe gas storage unir inside a bu ilding, which led ro the imposed maxi mum height restriction. Siemens' Dysror system is rhe only dual-membrane gas holder char meets the height requirement while still providing rhe 1,500 m3 of gas storage rhe designers required.

Siemens' Dystor system is the only dualmembrane gas holder to meet North Head's height requirement while still providing the 1,500 m3 of gas storage the designers required.

Residents may also be pleased about rhe Dyscor system's ability ro con rai n odours. Emissions or odours can not escape from che unit, as the system's membranes seal directly ro the top of the digester wall. T he new digesrers are currenrly being commissioned and have been producing biogas for about a month. According ro SWC's Gabriel, rhe Dysror system has performed well over chis period.

WaterGEMSÂŽVB XM Edition MULTI-PLATFORM WATER MODELLING Bentley WaterGEMS VS XM Edition brings the only platform-independent solution to the world of water distribution modelling, allowing engineers to build, analyse, and map water distribution models without being anchored to a specific engineering design or geospatial platform. For more information, see the inside front cover of the September issue of Water Journal, visit WA, e-mail, or call +61 (0)3 9699 8699.

Journal of the Australian Water Association



"Once commissioning of the entire digestion process is complete," he says, "rhe Dysror system will play an important role in maximising the benefits from green energy production in the cogeneracion engine."

scena rios both accurately and efficien rly requires a model with both l D and 2D engines."

â&#x20AC;˘ Thomas (Tom) Mangione is a product manager for anaerobic digestion products at Siemens Water Technologies. Located in Waukesha, Wis., USA, Tom can be reached at 262-521-8460 or at

For local enquiries on Siemens Water Technologies in Australia and New Zealand and on this project in particular, please contact Tony Handakas, phone (03) 9721 7531,

WALLINGFORD SOFTWARE ANNOUNCES PLANS TO LAUNCH INFOWORKS 20 Wallingford Software has announced the forthcoming release of InfoWorks 2D for fast, accurate and derailed simulation of surface flood modelling. InfoWorks 2D will be available as a fully-integrated module within Info Works CS for collection system modelling, Info Works SD for storm drainage modell ing, and with InfoWorks RS and FloodWorks for river floodplain modelling. "Understanding and mitigating flooding is becoming a critical issue aro und the globe", explains Sales and Marketi ng D irector, Paul Banfield. "Analysis and prediction of potential flood extent, depth and velocity is a complex problem, particularly in urban areas where drainage networks can reduce flooding in some areas, while increasing ic in ochers. "One-dimensional (1 D) simulation can provide extremely good information about floodpla in flows and depths, and is a fast and efficient method for determining maximum extents of flooding bur has co rely on assumptions about direction of flow. Ir is also limited when derailed information about overland flow velocities is required, particularly when flow paths are heavily influenced by rhe obstructions caused by urban infrastructure and buildings." "Two-dimensional (2D) simulation is better suited co modelling flows through complex geometries such as urban streets and buildings, road intersections and ocher transport infrastructure, and open ground where either source or direction of flow is problematic co assume. In urban areas rhe situation is exacerbated further by rhe presence of sewer networks, in which flows can both enter and exit che system during flood events. Modelling such comp lex flow

88 SEPTEMBER 2007 Water

Wa llingford Software's flood modelling solution combines both one-dimensio nal and two-dimensional simulation within InfoWorks. Info Works 2D provides all the funcrionaliry necessary to completely model rhe interaction of su rface and underground systems, including cools usually associated with GIS packages such as che creation of 2D meshes and fully animated flood maps. The integrated ID and 2D models benefit from the standard Info Works funcrionalicy including data import, validation, version control, audit trail and display of results. By using l D simulation co identify where flooding happens, and then using che combined lD an d 2D simulation co investigate rhe direction and depth of flood flows in these smaller areas, users can achieve a cost-effective balance between model-building rime and simulation accuracy. "Some existing solutions assume char a 2D model of rhe whole study area has to be built", says Paul Banfield. "With Info Works 2D, small er derailed 2D models can be created within a si ngle 1D model dramatically reducing the model size minimising the rime spent building and si mulating these models." With InfoWorks 2D, modellers have rhe ability co undertake flood studies in one package, improving their productivity and increasing quali ty control at a very reasonable cost. Early adopters of the solu tion will be able co establish themselves as experts within chis fast-growing marker arena. Info Works 2D will be avai lable with lnfoWorks CS v8.5, InfoWorks SD v8.5 and InfoWorks RS v9.0. 2D fi nite vol ume methods are used co solve rhe shallow water flow equations, using rhe Rienmann solver with a TVD shock capturing model char makes it particularly suitable for rapidly varying flood flows such as chose through steep streets and road junctions and chose associated with bank overropping or breaching. The 2D and 1D simulation engines run simultaneously allowing the exchange of water in between che models at each cimescep.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

For InfoWorks CS and SD, che exchange of water between l D and 2D cakes place at the manholes. Standard model building cools within Info Works automate the connection of nomi nated manholes in the 1D model co the appropriate cells in che 2D model. For Info Works RS, the flow exchange will occur at modelled spill elements. Unlike che majority of commercial modelling solutions, which rely entirely on an underlying quadrilateral grid, the InfoWorks 2D module is based on a surface mesh, giving maximum flexibility co che modeller and ensuring char the system topography is modelled as accurately as possible. Th is flex ibility in the mesh increases the type of flows char can be modelled. A number of different mesh types can be used and combined in one model, including triangular unscrucrnred mesh which is the solution of choice for analysis of complex flood flows such as chose found in urban areas, quadrangu lar unstructured mesh which is suited co channelled flows, and mulciblock rectangular mesh fo r simpler flow patterns. One of the keys co the efficiency and ease of use of the 2D engine is the automatic generation of unscrucrnred triangular meshes from within Info Works. The inbuilt mesh generator includes functionality co control the resolution by both maximum triangle area and/or minimum triangle angles. The specification of the mesh can be varied for different areas of the model, allowing high resol ution co be main rained around key feawres while using a lower resolution for flatter, feaw reless, less important regions. The mesh generator can also include voids (buildings), break lines and walls co add further definition co the hydraulically important features and use a range of polygons co specify individual roughness zones. This is crucial co accurately simulate flow around buildings, on roadways and across areas of open ground such as parks. The data required co generate the model mesh can be imported from background layers, external files or lD network feawres. The 2D engine produces water levels at che centre of each mesh cell and velocities across each of the cell faces. These results are fully integrated with 1D engine results. The combined results can be viewed as graphs, rabies or animated, thematic flood maps. The flood maps can be exported co GIS if required. InfoWorks 2D supports the use of OpenMI, the European standard char enables simulation models of environmental

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Water Journal September 2007  

Water Journal September 2007