Water Journal August 2005

Page 1




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Volume 32 No 5 August 2005 Jou rna l of the Australian Water Association

Editorial Board F R Bishop, Chairman B N Anderson, G Finke, G Finlayson, GA Holder, B Labza, M Muntisov, F Roddick, G Ryan, S Gray, A Gibson, C Diaper Wnter is a refereed journal. This symbol indicares rhar a paper has been refereed.

Submissions Insrrucrions for authors can be fo und on page 4 of rhis journal. Submissions accepted ar: www.awa.asn.au/publicarions/

Managing Editor Peter Stirling

Technical Editor EA {Bob) Swinton 23 Blaxland Road, Wentworth Falls, NSW 2782 Tel +Gl 2 4757 1565 Email: bswinton@bigpond.ner.au

News Editor Clare Porter Communications Manager Tel +GI 2 9413 1288 Fax: +GI 2 9413 1047 Email: cporrer@awa.asn.au

OPINION 2 The Driving Force of all Nature; Water in Australia - From Afar; MAR: Management of Aquifer Recharge and Water Reuse - Raising Urban Water Values, P Dillo n ASSOC IATION ACTIVITIES 6 AWA benefits online - and via e-mail; News from the WEN; Young Water Professionals - Nurturing the next generation in Water INTERNATIONAL 12 WaterAid Australia Update; IWA Australia PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT l S Details of courses, classes and other upcoming water events CROSSCURRENT 18 Industry news CONFERENCE REPORTS 26 Chemicals of Concern


THE AUSTRALIAN WATER INDUSTRY ROADMAP Acting together, nationally and locally P Perkins


GOVERNANCE OF WATER ASSETS: A REFRAMING FOR SUSTAINABILITY An academic analysis of forms of governance DJ Livingsto n, N Srenekes, H K Colebacch , T D Waite, N J Ashbolr


SIMPLIFYING COMPLEX WATER ENTITLEMENTS Trying to facilitate water trading T Shi

Water Production Hallmark Eclitions PO Box 84, Hampton, Vic 3188 99 Bay Street, Brighton, Vic 3186 Tel +GI 3 8534 5000 Fax +G I 3 9530 8911 Email: hallmark@halledir.com.au Graphic design: Mitzi Mann

Water Advertising National Sales Manager: Brian Raulr Tel +G l 3 8534 50 I4 Fax +GI 3 9530 891 I Mobile 04 11 354 050 Email: braulr@halled ir.com.au


Water (ISSN 0310 - 0367)

PARAFIELD URBAN STORMWATER HARVESTING FACILITY 1100 ML/a of high quality water for non-potable use R Marks, F Chapman , S Lane, M Purdie

is published eighr rimes a year in rhe monrhs of February, March, May, June, August, September, November and December.


Australian Water Association


PO Box 388, Artarmon, NSW 1570 Tel +6129413 1288 Fax +G l 2 94 13 1047 Email: info@awa.asn.au ABN 78 096 035 773



President Darryl D ay

Chief Executive Officer



Chris Davis ASSOCIATION Austral ian Water Associar.ion (AWA) assumes no responsibility for opinions or sraremenrs of fucts expressed by contributors or advertisers. Editorials do nor necessarily represent offi cial A\YIA policy. Advertisements are included as an information service ro readers and are reviewed before publication ro ensure relevance to the water environment and objectives of A\YIA. All material in Water is copyright and should nor be reproduced wholly or in part without written permission.

Subscriptions Wattr is sent ro all AWA members eight rimes a year. lt is also available via subscription.

Visit the Australian Water HOME PAGE Associatio, ond access news, calendars, bookshop and over 100 pages of informotion ot

http:/ /www.awa.asn.au


J Rigby PRESSURE SEWER INSTALLATION USING DIRECTIONAL DRILLING Pressure sewers suit flat terrain J Ryan, M Stamos




BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION PROCESSES FOR THE REMOVAL OF ALGAL METABOLITES An acclimated sand filter works well L H o, S Wijesundara, G Shaw, M O 'Do nohue, C Saint, G Newcombe



OUR COVER: One problem with harvesting stormwater is installing sufficient storage to capture erratic rainfall. The project now operating at the City ofSalisbury, South Australia, uses two storage systems: surface ponds feeding a reedbed, plus ASR, aquifer storage and recove1y (see article on page 42). Our cover photo is ofthe diversion weir.from the storm water drain which feeds the system. Photo courtesy of KBR, the managers of the project.

from the president

THE DRIVING FORCE OF ALL NATURE A renowned , "water" engineer and scientist (amongst his m any ocher calencs), Leonardo D a V inci, o nce wrote, "water is the d riving force of all nature" . The images of almost empty d ams (just befo re welcom ed winter rains in some areas), has attracted the attention of o ur comm unities, leaders and media and restored water to its rightful place as che d riving force of all natu re. The un derstanding of ou r climate variabili ty, char Australia is a land "of d roughts and flood ing rai ns" has extended co another generation. This exper ience has created a long overdue understand ing o f che urgen cy to improve th e m an agem ent o f our water resources to provide for che needs of our rural and urban co m mun ities, ou r ind ustries an d th e environm ent. T h is is an opportuni ty to be grasped with both hands, and I am pleased go od progress has started , bu r we must continue to fo cus on long term sustai nabil ity of our water resou rces and a cul ture change of how we value and use o ur resou rce. An example is che Australian W ater Indust ry Road map, an initiative of the Barto n G roup, which was launched in

Darryl Day

Australian W ater Ind ustry R oadm ap is reported on in more derail lacer in chis Journal. l n our focus on the q uanti ty of water necessary to sup po rt ou r ru ral and urban co m munities, we are now seeing best p ractice approaches co balancing supply and demand, in the context of increased climate variab ility. Our plann ing is address ing demand management, water conservatio n, security of supp ly th rough d iversity of sou rces, recycling, new sou rces of water, improved allocation , more effective tradi ng systems and p ricing refo rm. T he key to obtain ing the right balance, as always, is through co nsulcarion

In our focus on the quantiry of water necessary to support our rural and urban communities, we are now seeing best practice approaches to balancing supply and demand, in the context of increased climate variabiliry. C anberra o n 15 J u ne 20 05.1 was pleased to speak at rhe launch in suppo rt of rhe Roadma p, which is rh e res ulc of extensive research and co nsultatio n, showcasing the innovation , knowledge and best practice that already exists around Australia. T he

2 AUGUST 2005 water

with the comm uniry, and here again we are seeing best practice app roaches emerge. I believe, however, chat we have a great challenge to educate stakehold ers, especially o ur political leaders, as there is n o silver bullec solu tion.

"W ater is the driving force of all nature" always reminds m e o f the challenge we continually face in the recognitio n of the role the water sector plays in protecting pub lic heal ch. The story is similar to th e d rough t experience, when we quickly realise the cost of insuffi cien t water. If our drinking water quali ty p resents health risks, th e commu niry rapidly (and app ropriately) d emands that every measure is taken to ensure safe drinking water is provided . H oweve r, th e challenge in ou r ind ustry is recognising that the safety of o ur drinking warer is always the number one priority. T h e pu blication in December 2004 of the most recent Australian D rinking Wa ter Guidelines, inco rporati ng the Framework for Managi ng Drinking W ater Quality, is again an excellen t example of Australia's leadership. T his risk-based approach to protecting water quali ty, starting in our catchments, and exten d ing through each control point to the customer's tap - and beyo nd in some cases, em erged in A ustralia in 1999, and is now recognised as best practice internatio nally. T he approach is now inco rporated in th e Wo rld H ealth Organization (WH O) Guidelines for

Drinking-water Quality (Edition 3) released in September lase year - just befo re approval was obtained to release the Australian G uidelines. O ur approval process is nor yet best practice. T h ere are many ou tstan ding Australians who have contributed to the research , knowled ge, and policy d evelopm ent in how we ensure the safery of d rin ki ng water, b ut none mo re so than Professor D on Bursi!!. Don has b een Chairm an o f the Rolling Review Co mmiccee o f the Australian D rinking Water G uidelines and C hief Executive Officer (CEO ) of the

Cooperative Centre fo r W ater Quality and T reatment (CRC WQ&T) , for over 10 years. I make special men tio n of Do n's contribution , as he has decided to stand aside as C EO of the C RCWQ &T at the end of200 5 to mak e way for the next lead er of one of Australia's key water industry research organisations. T he A W A and C RCWQ& T will have hosted an in cernacional conference "M anaging for Safe D rin king Water" in Alice Sp rings (on 18 July) by the rim e you read chis Journal, wi rh D r Jam ie Bartram of WHO as keynote speaker and Do n amongst ochers o n che program . A fou r day W H O meeting o n small water supplies is scheduled in Alice Springs to fo llow rhe con fe rence, reflecting Australia's contribution to ensuring the safety o f drinking water. Do n has been a beacon o f reaso n and com fo rt to m any water industry leaders challenged w ith drinking water issues, and has guid ed the water industry over the lase d ecade (and lo nger). Don , thank you fo r m aking d rinking water q uality and public h ealth our nu m ber o ne priority - and provid ing guidance on how we can ensure chat we d eliver safe d rin king water.

Darryl Day


FUTURE MAJOR FEATURES SEPTEMBER - Fresh Water Eco l ogy, Envi r onme n tal Flows , International Water Supplies

NOVEMBER GIS , Ad vanced Water Treatment DECEMBER - Li qui d Waste Trea tm ent, Proi ect Del ive ry, Activated Sludge Dynamics, e-Wa ter CRC

the country, ex tending the analysis to a range of co mpounds suggested by the USEPA. T hey have refi ned a sensitive analytical method fo r N OMA, the potential ca rci nogen which can be fo rmed by chloramination of some narn rally occurring pre-cursors. Research exte nds to exposure in chlori nated swimming pools.

Other Speakers Elise Cartmel (Cranfield Uni versity, UK), Heather Coleman (NSW), Annalisa Contos and Kamal Fernando (NSW Water Services) and Stewart Shiph ard (SLS) all spoke on adva nces in trea tment systems. Renee Muller et al, (from EnTox), outlined their program to measure bio-effecrs of the complex mixrnres of chemicals of concern in effluents, etc. analysis by either in vitro or in vivo methods. Belinda Ferrari (Macquarie) repo rted on a program to develop robust monito ring methods for pathogens, specifically for the foo d ind ustry where re-use of water streams is steadi ly develop ing. Nick O 'Connor (Ecos Co nsulring) evalua ted som e early warni ng detecto rs ava ilable on the marker, John Leeder reviewed developments in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

MWH =Teamwork At work or play, MWH relies on teamwork. Whether it's completing a triathlon or delivering a major project, we always work together to cross the line. MWH are proud to be a core team member of ongoing Alliances including BWEA, PSP, Ross River Dam Alliance, Wivenhoe Alliance and Merrimac WWTP Upgrade Alliance. To find out more about these projects and MWH's global team please visit our web site. MWH's local teams working in a global company - always measuring up to the challenge. www.mwhglobal.com.au

Case Studies A paper by Kerryn Allen and Paul Byleveld of NSW H ealth, del ivered by Simon Thorn of Coffs Harbour, gave the histo ry of the contami nation of a s111all town 's water supply by benzene, derived fro m a 4 cm di ameter hole in the undergrou nd rank of th e local petro l station. T his paper raised discussion on how such leakages 111ight be detected befo re the plume ex tends, and SA Water noted that they had employed a hydrogeo logist to assess such risks. Diane Wi esner noted th at very many underground tanks leak into groun dwater bur this was the first time that such an obvious leak had in volved surface water. Leslie Brodlo described an incident where copper corrosion in stagnant pipes of a country school during school hol idays led to severe sympto111s in the students drinking the water. Analyses ranged fro111 G to 45 111g/L (cf li mit of 2 111g/L), whereas other sites in th e sa111e cou ncil syste111 showed no proble111s. T he lesso n is th at the rrear111ent plant design and operatio n is only one factor, and the distribution sys tem and 111ainrenance are just as i111 po rrant. Copper corrosion was also discussed by Ed Kleywegt (Hobart City Council).

Legal Aspects Underlying many of the papers was the i111pl icir recognition that much of th e research really related to what might be potenti al health risks associated wi th recycled water. Mark Beaufoy fro111 Ph illips Fox gave a paper identifying where the legal risks lay and where concerns should be focused. Ma rk will be furth er developing that theme in the Master Class series Water Sysre111s Security Manage111ent progra111 in November where he is one of th e speakers.

Conclusion T he concluding Plenary asked each of the key speakers to rake one of a number of questions and/or issues which were raised by speakers and their papers during the Co nference. It was a wo rthwhile exercise and provided an excellent opening to draw the threads of discussion together. All attending concurred with the plan to meet again in 2007 fo r another public health SIG con ference on progress in ensuring Australia's drinking water maintai ns its reputation for safety and quality. Copies of the CD ROM which contains the majority ofthe written papers are available ftom bookshop@awa.asn.au.

(D MWH Meeting the challenge

THE AUSTRALIAN WATER INDUSTRY ROADMAP This brief announcement hos been extracted from the full report (46 pages) which is available on the website www.bortongroup.org.ou, or in hard copy from Prof. Poul Perkins (email: pjperkins@cres.onu.edu.ou). It constitutes a detailed review of the water industry, both rural and urban, along with its recommendations. The Launch AWA N ational President Darryl Day and ind ustry leaders attended rhe launch of "The Australian W ater Industry Roadmap", a major srudy and report on water industry development, in Canberra in June 2005 . T h e Australian Water Industry Roadmap is an ir1iciative o f the Barton G rou p supported by Ausind usrry and many Australian ind ustry partners. (see box), Ir aims to com plement the COAG Natio nal Water In itiative by es tablish ing a new industry d evelopment visio n, and p roviding a framework for investment in benchmark strategies, in order to address technological, insrirurional, supply, demand and social challenges . Finally, ir identifies recomm ended outcomes fo r the sho rt and long term, based on world 's best practice.

The Vision During the first two centuries of the nation 's development, water supply and wastewater services were develo ped incrementally, generally using publ ic sector fund ing. By the end of the 20th cenrury, the over-allocation of natu ral water had significan tly moderated the co ntin uation of th is approach. In recent years, the foc us of govern ments and the AWI has been on fu ture water

THE BARTON GROUP T he Barton Grou p is an alliance of industry C EOs, ch aired by Adjunct P rofessor Paul Perkins, fo rmed co oversigh t strategy development and program management o f those actions chat are the responsibility oflndu stry in the Environment Industry Action Agenda (EIM). T h e EIM is a join t initiative of the Environment M anagement Ind ustry and che Comm onwealth Government, launched in September 20 01, with the vision: "co add value co all Australian b usiness by enabling com peti tive environmen tal outcomes and in the p rocess build an environment industry with annual sales exceeding $40 billion by 2011.


AUGU ST 2005


Pictured are (from left) Darryl Doy, Shaun Cox, Nick Apostolides and Prof. Paul Perkins. management within Australia. This has highlighted the need for review, reform and leadership of the industry. In 2 004, the launch of the N atio nal Water Initiative under CoAG has provided a framework for actio n. T he direction sec by che NWI co guide fut ure water reform is suppo rred in che development of th e AWI Roadmap, but with an ind ustry develop ment emphasis. The repo rt is fra med arou nd rhe fo llowi ng vision statement: 1. The available water will be shared equitably between the comm unity at large and the environ ment. To achieve this:

• T he demand for water m ust be balanced w it h sustainable supply. • N ew and alternative sources of water and water conservation technologies must be found and developed, whi lst minimising the impact on the natural env1ronm en r. • The water quality delivered should match the needs of the user and be retu rned ro the environment in a manner chat causes "no harm". 2. Regulatory and incentive framewo rks must keep pace with commu nity aspirations, ro enable the implementation of smart solu tions quickly and effectively with the support of all stakeholders.

"Only by acting together, nationally and locally, can we improve the management of our water resources to deliver on-the-ground results that meet the needs of our rural and urban communities, our industries and our environment. As the Barton Group so rightly recognises, it is important for industry to work with governments to implement change. I welcome this contribution from The Barton Group to the important water debate. " Extracts from the Foreword by the Prime Minister

3 . An ime rnation ally competitive water industry will provide best p ract ice solu tio ns for t he do mestic and export marke rs through innovative institu tional arrangemem s.

The Study and Discussion Paper The initial step in this proj ect was rhe preparation of a Discussion Paper rhar identi fied rhe key issues confro nting rhe Australian Water Industry and derai led existing best practice solurions. In irs draft form , rhe Discussion Paper was subjected ro review and debate through an Industry Forum. T his enabled rhe authors ro caprure and record rhe di versity of opinion rhar exists in rhis topi cal debate. Comments vari ed in type and conrenr and identified local issues as well as new and emerging technologies. T hey also provided val uable insight inro a number of Australian trials and best practice solutions. T o review these responses in derail, several Expert G roups were created, drawing members from rhe Industry Forum , rhe Barron G roup Advisory Commi ttee, and rhe G HD Consultant Team. Their role was ro identify best practi ce examples within rhe industry and provide a vision for rhe future. Following rhis review process, rhe draft Discussion Paper was revised ro include valuable besr practice examples and highl ight opporru ni ri es and im pediments ro rhe developm ent of rhe industry. T he final Discussion Paper was presented ro stakeholders in each Mainl and Stare and T erri tory in October and November 2004, with th e aim of identifying regional issues and initiatives. Pa rticipation was extensive wirh over 300 stakeholders from Government, industry suppliers, technology and service providers, as well as environmentalists and major water users. W hile there were many issues raised, a general consensus was reached. In addition, fu rther discussions were held with oth er interested Government and industry parries, an d their contributions have been included in rhe analys is phase of this report. The fi nal document, launched in Canberra on 15 June 2005, in corporates feedback from Barron Gro up members and rhe project advisory committee. Jr contains analys is of rhe various srraregies planned and underway and reviews these against the NW I. T he resulti ng "ten key strategies" demonstrate the complexity and interrelatedn ess of rhe water security challenge and leads ro rhe "twelve specific recommendations". A multi-channel communications strategy has been developed ro raise awareness, change the perception of key stakeholders and facilitate action. Because of the complexity of rhe issues, the discussion approach is ce ntred on examples ofbesr practice related ro recommendations. Nor surprisingly, many are Australian exa mples, bur most are not well replicated. Ensuring broad consideration of rhe report and proposals will be an important part of rhe industry's contribution ro the NW!.

be expedited by early investigations into the open trading of excess urban allocations and new water gained through system efficiencies, initially by large water users and urili ries. 3. Remove institutional barriers - the roadblocks - that are slowing implementation of the intent of CoAG water reforms. New rules, rools and organisational arrangements are needed. Especially chose char supply competi tive access ro infrasrrucrure and promote investment in processes such as aqui fe r srorage and recharge, as well as local recycling schemes. 4. Consider appropriate monitoring arrangements to provide a discipline on all governments to progress agreed reforms. 5. Review the configuration of existing water supply, stormwater and sewage infrastructure wirh a view ro seeking effi cient opporruni ries ro re-configure rhem, and progressively bui ld new srrucrures char are more suited ro the needs of chis cenrury. 6. Build upon and consolidate rigorous water accounting, measurement and performance benchmarks, so rhe relative performance of servi ce providers can be quickly assessed. 7. Reduce the number of water entitlements in the marketplace - (the equivalent of a standard gauge system for water) - by defi ning chem as shares of pools of water classified by their reliabil ity and recordi ng chem on legal registers, as well as making them full y rradeab le. 8. Simplify procurement practices and procedures to facilitate private sector involvement and financing, through partnerships char speed rhe rollour of new infrasrrucrure and provide a more efficient delivery of services. The Warer Smarr Program cou ld be used fo r this purpose.

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Twelve Specific Recommendations I. The CoAG and the NWC should seek opportunities to build genuine partnerships among governments and w ith the AWI. Every effort should be made ro pursue best practices and avoid lowest common denominator app roaches ro reform. As noted by rhe Business Council of Australia, it is particularly important ro replace political involvement in day-ro-day management with rhe clear setting of objectives and principles. 2. Expedite the application of the NWI to urban users. Effort should be made ro introduce mechanisms char fac ilitate more efficient use of water resources, including further refo rms ro pricing arrangements and trade betwee n urban and rural sectors. In the long run , urban users would be subject ro similar disciplines ro rural water users.The reform transition will be long given existing instiru rional arrangements bur urban efficiency investment would

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AUGUST 2005 31

9. Adopt pricing, standards and other reforms to efficiently deal with environmental externalities. A combination of appropriate pricing signals and, fo r example adop tion of a No Harm discharge principle, will encourage demand reduction and significant urban re-use, faci li tate rhe in troductio n of rradeable pollution permits and minimise the environmental and public health impacts of future growth. 10. Establish a 'Raising National Standards Program' that drives public and private sector investment in waterconserving infrastructure and promotes the retrofit of existing cities. T his will require a strong co mmitment of resources and fundin g to better coordinate regulations among Stares and Territories to bring them up-to-dare with with best practices, community and industry aspirations. Significa nt in vestment in rating and other charging arrangements are needed to provide incentives fo r rhe use of demand management systems li ke BAS IX. 11. Develop a community education and engagement program for issues associated

with water. This program needs to communicate key issues and strategies in simple terms, to ensure communi ty-wide understanding and support. Ir needs to shift perceptions and and be implemented quickly. 12. Invest significantly in the expansion and development of our National skill base in water resource management, through targeted research, education, tra ining and skilled migration programs. Apply specific effo rt to operarionalise research findings and ensure their adoption by industry. By fo llowing this Roadmap , co nsiderable economic and envi ronmental progress can be expected. As a result, Australia will become a recognised leader in water management. The ultimate key performance indicator is for the industry to become a major exporter of Australian products and services. Significant furth er reform is necessary for this to be realised. Success locally means success globally.

Summary T here are no technology constraints to achieving water secu ri ty for Australia. T here is no shortage of available fin ance. Indeed

by compariso n with many countries there is no overall shortage of water in Australia. Rather, our institu tional arrangements no longer meet rhe needs fo r effective sharing and managing the available water resources. The roadmap proposes strategies to make ex isting supplies go furth er and at the sa me rime meet future needs through a partnership approach to risk sharing and a portfolio approach to implementing accelerated reform, including: • Robust (and operarionalised) measurement, allocation , trading and accounting systems. • End use efficiency & demand management standards, products and systems. • New water sources and storage facilities, including: - Use of aquifers, - Ra inwater and sto rm water harvesting in urban areas. - Use of recycled water for non-potab le uses. - Use of highly treated recycled water for potable use. - Desalination.

Project Partners in the Roadmap • Australian Government • Ausindustry • ACTEW Corporation • AMP Capital Investors • Australian Council for Infrastructure Developmen t (AUSCID) • Australian National University • Australian Procurement and Construction • Australian Water Association (AWA) • Burns Bridge Pry Ltd • Coffey International Ltd • Co mmittee for Economic Development of Australia (CEDA) • Co mmonwealth Bank of Australia • CRC for Environmental Biotechnology • CSIRO, Land and Water • Environment Business Australia • GI-ID • G reen Building Council • Sydney O lympic Park Authority • T he Barron Group • University of Srh Australia • Centre fo r Water Policy & Laws • URS Corporation • Veolia Water Pry Ltd • Water Industry Alliance of SA • Water Services Association (WSAA) • WME Magazine 32 AUGUST 2005


URBAN WATER INFRASTRUCTURE The Roadmap deals with water resources in general, but it includes some telling statistics relating to the urban water situatio n, as shown in th ese rwo graphs extracted from the full report. Figure 1. compares Australian water prices with those of similar developed nations. Figure 2 shows rhe dramatic fall-off in infrastructure spending since the COAG report was issued. T he water component is nor qui re so dramatic and shows increases after 2000. Korea Turkey

- - UK


Cttch Republic Italy


- - - AUS

Awtraha Spain

us UK· Scotland


SWfdt'n Austria

Dffim.1rk SW1tze1land


Franc, N«?theflands

Japan UK • England&Wales






1.S SAUS/1<1.









Figure 1. Price of water in Australia vs OECD.

Figure 2. Infrastructure investment as a percentage of GDP 1960/2002.

GOVERNANCE OF WATER ASSETS: A REFRAMING FOR SUSTAINABILITY DJ Livingston, N Stenekes, H K Colebatch, T D Waite, NJ Ashbolt Abstract An emerging Australian perspective on water asset governance is presented wh ich diverges significantly from rhe conventional approach to management of water assets. The governi ng of water assets can draw on any of three models of governance: "market", "bureaucratic" and "community", each of which has important featu res to offer. T he water industry has largely operated under a bureaucratic model of governance though, more recently, it has adopted elements of market and communi ty models. In-depth analysis of current Australian examples of water governance has been used in developing rhe concepts ou tlined in rhis paper with an inrerprerarion presented of what each model has to offer for governance of water assets. Ir is argued that an emerging approach of shared responsibili ty, participation, and networked stakeholders is likely to play an increasingly important role in rhe pursuit of more susta inable asset governance.

Introduction While well established and refined procedures for asset management within the water industry exist (Foley, 2005), various newly emerging approaches to governance of assets are apparent and are explored in this paper. In the experience of the authors, the Australian water industry does nor yet have a widely accepted and uniform understanding or process for 'asset governance'. Asset management means controll ing and managing rhose items that the authorised water agency owns; bur under a governance framework, rhe agency does nor own or control some of r.he things the system relies on to work. Therefore social scientists turn to governance, where assets rhat are nor necessarily owned or controlled are brought into the structu re of management. An example is public readiness to respond to adverrisemenrs from a water agency saying "Don't do your wash today, do a full load tomorrow". If an agency can motivate people ro respond to such advertisements, then it is easier to manage the Auctuations of supply. T his shows rhe utility of the concept of governance in rhe analysis of rhe way in which warer assets arc governed, and

34 AUGUST 2005


exemplifies rhe use of 'asset governance' in rhis paper. These new directions for rhe governance of assets generally have a central theme of 'sustainability' but the directions are nor all entirely congruent. T here are tensions, for exam ple, between centralised and decentralised approaches to providing water services, and private and public ownership of the water industry. Given rhar tensions exist, they must be incorporated into rhe dynamic of rhe governing of water. Ir is argued rhat ir is easier to manage rhese tensions if they are recognised and built into rhe institutional arrangements. In response to an in creasi ngly complex array of models, values and organisational forms, we arrempr to loo k beyond co mmonly accepted approaches to asset management and tentatively chart an alternative course toward 'asset governance' where stakeholders collaboratively negoriare how to manage assets {physical and otherwise) rhar deliver water services. Particular use of social science concepts, models and methods are used to assist the analysis.

outcomes. This is in contrast to a traditional (or, as iris called in rhe social science literatu re, "bu reaucratic") model of a more authoritative agency operating on a 'command and implement' basis (Colebarch, 2002). This trend toward negoriared 'governance' over authoritative 'government' is evident both in and outside of rhe water industry (Reddel, 2002). Businesses also use che rerm 'corporate governance' to characterise transparency and distribution of responsibility in their organisational structure (OECD, 2004) . Th is concept of corporate governance has been widely adopted by water agencies in Austral ia (WSAAfacts, 200 1). With these broader defin itions of 'assets' and 'governance', chose elements rhat are important and relevant to the agencies concerned with urban water management in Australia are highlighted in the fo llowing discussion. The discussion is enlightened by two closely related doctoral research projects currently underway at the University of New South Wales. The students undertaking these research projects are focuss ing primarily on the

An academic analysis of the development of new forms ofgovernance for the water industry. T he obvious and easy defi nition of 'assets' is the physical hardware under the ownership of agencies responsible for water management. Water assets have traditionally included dams, pipes, pu mps and treatment plants. In this paper, we argue for an expanded defini tion of assets, which incl udes nor only che physical structures but also natural systems, the water within the pipes, human behaviour and institutions, as well as the phys ical hardware within a customer's property boundary. Thus, a wide variety of agencies responsible for providi ng water services, hereafter generically referred to as water agencies, are included in the scope of the analysis presented here. The term governance, while having a variety of meanings and applications in theory and practice, is taken here to mean the steering of a network of inter-related actors and activities toward negotiated

institutionalisation of new forms of water cycle management, through in-depth case study analysis of current Australian water managemen t planning practice (in Queensland and NSW) rather than the management of existing assets. Drawing on these investigations, we focus on possible emerging directions for shared responsibility in governance of assets rather than the fine-tun ing of existi ng practice.

Models of Governance In the social sciences, simpli fied and idealised models are used as framewo rks for understanding and analysing social action, not as descriptions of reality. Colebatch and Larmour (1993) outl ine th ree models of governance or organisation i.e. marker, bureaucracy and commun ity. Water, along wirh the infrastructu re that society uses to harness and distribute it, is a resource that is subject ro a 'Tragedy of the

Co mmons' (Hardin, 1968) where som e fo rm of organisation is required to preven t the mismanagement of the common resource for individual gain but coll ective loss. A so-called market model of orga nisation uses private ownership, incentives and prices to allow individ ual self-interest to best manage what wo uld be, in the absence of any form of governance, a common resource open to exploi ta ti on. A bureaucracy model of organisatio n imposes rules fro m an external auth ority, while th e co mmunity model emphasises shared values, relational networks and affiliation as the way to collectively restrain action fo r th e good of society. Each of these models is upheld by di ffe rent schools of thought as the means of securing an environmentally sustainable furnre (Dryzek, 1997). T he bas is fo r this system of class ification is summarised in Table I. fn reality, most situatio ns will allow - even require - so me hybrid ised combination of these modes of acti on. While these terms are not familiar in the water industry, the management of water and water infrastructure in Australia has seen sh ifcs in emphasis between each of these models over time (Figure I). Different rationales ca n and regul arly have been applied simultaneously in the water ind ustry. For example, bureaucracies appeal to com muniry values as a basis fo r conserving water.

Table 1. Three bases for action [in any sphere of governance): market, bureaucracy and comm unity [fro m Colebatch a nd Larmour, 1993). Reason for Action

Response to Tragedy of Commons

Model of Organisation

Organising Principles


Private ownership


Incentives, prices

Following rules

External authority


Rules, authority, hierarchy

Everyone does it this way

Collective self restraint


Norms, values, affiliation, networks

emphas is on technical expertise to minimise risk to human health, as that is essential. However, the alternative models of action described in Figure I have been recognised fo r som e years and, to varying degrees, have been embraced by water agencies. A specific example is the Gold Coast Waterfuture project at Pimpama Coomera with its emphasis on stakeholder engagement (Go ld Coas t Water, 2003) . In the following sections, the contributions that each of these modes of action can make to water infrastrucrnre management are discussed. Bureaucratic Asset Management

T raditionally, water asset management has been the responsibili ty of statutory authori ties endowed with a techn ologically strong wo rkfo rce. Their assets were th e hardware of supply and disposal: dams, pipes, pumps and treatment plants. The way water is valued as a resource or 'asset' has changed considerably since those early days. This has in part been due to the rea lisation of th e need to maintain environmental flows, co upled with recurring d roughts, climate change, increasing populations and ' no new dam' policies (S mith, 1998) .

The govern ing of assets and the protection of human health was done prim arily th rough regulatory controls, e.g. local councils prohibi ting rainwater tanks and mandating connections to sewerage, and water supply agencies co ntrolling which plumbing fittin gs householders could use on their own properties. Network expansion, and operation and maintenance were in the hands of technica l experts whom the public trusted to manage a system that became increasingly "o ut-ofsight and out-of-mind". The values of this mode of governance emphasised techn ical professionalism and progress; and knowledge was built around how to supply and dispose of increasing quantities of sanitised water (e.g. see Aird, 196 1). T he water user's role was increasingly determined by how well the constra ints on ease of use and disposal of water could be removed by techn ical des ign. Several fac tors have irrevocably altered this simple organisational arrangement, including wa ter scarcity and increasing general environmental awareness (Beder, 1991 ).

After white settlement in Australia, there were sporadi c attemp ts by government to control water supply, but early settlers relied Environmental Protection primarily on individual or comm uni ty Still under a bureaucratic management management of whatever assets were used to paradigm, the problem of extract, provide and remove polluted waterways was water. Major pu blic health addressed by introducing problems saw the advent of Community government departments whose centralised infrastrucrn re and Management responsibili ty was to administer E g Local solu110ns, administration, which household or legislation and regulations that significantly reduced the neighbourhood owned assets. user Involvement were to minimise environmental incidence of disease (Fewtrell In waler services provision impact. T here have also been and Bartram, 2001 ). This was alternative approaches to the stare of the water industry mitigating enviro nm ental Rainwater lank$ and that we know today. T he Technlcel bureaucn,c,es appeale lo behaVIOUr damage such as market refo rm s were insbluled ,,.,., 1 00 veracity of our defi nition of change have been Increasingly emp/lallNd and , to so me extent, commun ity 'assets' and of our standards of lnlho lasl action through fo rming governance are assessed, to a Co,pon,bsallOn and networks with other significant extent, on the basis stakeholders con nected by ouch • hAI 006t end of perfo rmance in reducing the duel tanff pnc,ng hawt Buroacratfc shared values. Further been emphaojsed Managomont risk of pathogenic disease to Market Management since tho 11180$. E g Englnconng considerati on is gi ven to these E g pnvabsallon of humans. T he dominant model dominated. lechnoaabc assels, waler scarcity models of governance below. Big dams. big pipes, combaled by pricing, of management has been, un til treatment plants, etc. efficiency, etc along with regulators recen tly, one of technical Market Reforms (EPAs, Health, etc.) bureaucratic con trol of Market refo rms in water centralised infras trucrnre for management have been partly water and wastewater. Figure 1. Examples of water management in each in each of driven by the proponents of In th is paper we do not argue the th ree modes, w ith shifts in emphasis over time. [Note more eco nomic rationalism; though a against the continuation of this than one mode of action may be applicable to some examples.) recognition of environmental








'externalities' and water scarcity have also been strong motivators. One approach co addressing these latter issues has been through the introduction of full cost pricing of water (COAG, 1994). The assets co be governed under chis new model of governance still include the physical hardware, but now also include the water itself as a valued and scarce resou rce. U nder the market model, consumer behaviour is governed by incentives and price signals, in addition co the technical design of the system (Wallace and Barrett, 2005). T herefore co protect the scarce resource, price signals (e.g. dual or inclining-block tariff pricing) and incentive schemes (e.g. rebates on water efficient devices) are used co encourage more sustainable behaviour in co nsumers. However, as noted by D ryzek (1997), there are limitations co the effectiveness of market mechanisms and superimposition of bu reaucratic co ntrol is often needed.

Community Management According co the categorisation of types of governance in T able 1, community management means chat organisation is based on the sharing of values among chose participants who choose co exercise collective self-restraint. Thi s may not even involve the publi c community - just a network of players. Here, the factors chat have led co moves toward chis type of governance are co nsidered; and the implications of greater accommodation of chis type of governance on asset management in the water industry are assessed. Concerns have at times been aired that community management of water may result in all responsibility and risk being placed in the hands of an uninformed, unski lled public. A number of factors have led to the greater involvement of a wider range of stakeholders (including the general public) in managing the water cycle. These factors include the need for integrated management of the water cycle, the realisation chat stakeholders who are not proactively engaged may use other avenues to exercise veto (Rathjen et al., 2003), and moves coward smaller scale assets and the need for more appropriate approaches co the management of these assets. Sustainability and Integrated Water Cycle Management The need co integrate the physical aspects of the water cycle has been established well enough for the terms 'i ntegrated urban water management' and 'integrated water cycle management' co become quite co mmonplace (e.g., Aposcolidis, 2004; Coom bes, 2005). These moves co integrate




the physical aspects of the water cycle (in an attempt to more sustainably manage the scarce reso urce) have led to the realisation that ' integration' of the various institutions and stakeholders involved in water management is also important if sustainability is co be achieved (CoA, 2002; Lundqvisc et al., 2001 ). Attempts at achieving reuse have often encountered institutional hurdles because of the separate organisational structures used co manage water and wastewater (Hatton MacDonald and Dyack, 2004; Livingston et al., 2004). T he integration of such separate organisations or organisational structures requires networks and partnerships for governance of shared assets and shared problems (Brown, 2004) - i.e. the use of che community management model. Public Participation and Governance by Stakeholder Networks The abandonment of several water recycling proposals as a result of vocal opposition from key stakeholders (generally community groups) suggests the need for more comprehensive consideration being given to public participation (H urlimann and McKay, 2004; Rathjen et al., 2003; Stenekes et al., 2003). A body of written work now exists on when, how and why such public participation might occur (e.g., Ca rson and Gelber, 2001; Cole-Edelstein, 2004). Further, the Water Services Association of Australia is currently consi dering gu idelines fo r undertaking sustainability assessments of urban water projects giving a high priori ty to stakeholder participation (Lundie et al. , 2005) . The inclusion of a wider range of stakeholders who are capable and motivated to work together in order to achieve shared solutions is characterised in chis paper by the broadening of the term 'assets' to include more than just the physical infrastructure of pumps, pipes and treatment plan ts. Indeed, the catchment, receiving waters and even the human and organisational capacity involved in water management can be included in a widened understanding of assets that contribute co sustainable management of the water cycle. Water users may be more than simply co nsu mers, as their own choices, values and behaviour - as they interact with the water cycle - become important and extends well beyond merely a rational response to price and technology (McKenzie-Mohr and Smith, 1999) . An interesting contrast is the Rouse Hill Development Area in western Sydney where most attention has been placed on the bureaucratic, and to some extent market, approaches fo r managing water (Cooper, 2003). The reliance on chis type of thinking over behavioural change

has actually resulted in an increase in the quantity of water used per cap ita (though this obviously includes recycled water in this case). Smaller Scale Assets and Communal Asset Management T here is a defin ite increase in interest in household and community-scale water management devices. T hese include rainwater ranks, greywarer reuse, swales, and even onsire or decentralised sewerage (Cameron, 2005; Gold Coast Water, 2003; Wilderer, 200 1). (Numero us interviews conducted during 2003-2005 by the authors demonstrated chat Australian water industry professionals and related stakeholders were interested in the potential for small scale systems, bur were sceptical of user capability to manage assets. The complete results of chis research are not yet published). A proj ect team member of a prominent current Australian greenfield development was in terviewed by rhe primary author. T he water management strategy fo r the development includes multiple sources and screams of water such as rainwater and recycled water. The interviewee made rhe following co mment, which is typical of a number of the key players interviewed: "We need ro involve rhe communi ty. The infrastructure is owned by rhem. T here are changes to rhe way we provide infrastructu re to society, which impact on rhe com muniry. For exa mple, rainwarer ranks. If rhe public are to own and operate rhem, rhere is more responsibility on the community to replace pumps ere., and main ra in water quali ty. Thus ir is imporranr to have community involvement."

That onsite and decentralised technologies need continued operation and maintenance is clear. At present it is not clear how chis will occur nor how successful or sustainable chis operation and maintenance will be. Proponents of decentralised technologies argue that an important issue is to compare managed (rather than unmanaged) onsire and decentralised systems with their decentralised counterparts (West, 2001 ). Others in the water industry believe char adequate management of onsice or decentralised systems is too expensive or impossible due to the reliance on cooperation of householders. However, there is Iirtle Australian experience with some of these innovations, though more in the United Stares, where such technological approaches are considered viable and permanent (Beal et al, 2005). Initiatives whereby bodies corporate or other similar community title agreements will be responsible for managing the water and

wasrewarer assers wirhin rhe properry boundary are currently in rrain (Mitchell, 2004) . In many cases local councils are still determining how they will monitor and/or assist in the management of such onsire or decentralised systems. T he lack of experience wi th these alternative arrangements is a major concern to agencies cu rrently managing or regulati ng the man agement of water assets. We would suggest that iris critical that appropriate regulatory structures be established to facilitate these new developm ents and char shared understandings be reached between those who will be involved in the maintenance of the assets that are being esrablished, the proponents of these schemes and the householders. From in-depth in terviews with local councils conducted as background to our ongoing research in th is area, there is clea r disaffection from those parrs of the council that are responsible fo r plumbing and drainage inspection and maintenance. This may be partly as a result of unclea r or overly high interdepartmental expectations and a failure on th e part of so me (often those who have not been the initi ato rs of innovation) to appreciate alternative modes of action.

Table 2. Character istics of the different modes of organisi ng action in the water industry context. The characteristics are not mutually exclusive, but are typical exam ples, or those whic h are often emphasised for each particular mode of actio n. Governance Framework Bureaucracy




Dams, pipes


People, environment


Technical bureaucrats

Water providers, customers

Water users, commun ity, stakeholders


Supply, progress, envi ronmental protection

Profit, efficient use and allocation of natural resources

Empowerment, equality, self-actualisati on, natural heritage


Engineering/ Financial/resource Shared/ local environmental knowledge management knowledge knowledge

Organisational forms

State authorised monopolies

Private contracted water companies

pri cing and rebares fo r water efficient appliances. Ir is argued that a significant emergin g trend , as well as need, is a strengthening (indeed, in many instances, an introduction) of co mmuniry management including participation and engagement of a significantly wider range of stakeholders than is currently rhe case. The measure o f success should still be primarily rhe prorection of human hea lth, along wirh economic and environm ental sustainability. Whi le there is a possibility that providin g opportunity for public participation allows

Conclusion: Toward a Sustainable Governance of Water Assets An analys is of the present situation with respect to the governance of assets in th e water industry and our perspecti ves on where it is headi ng have been presented in this paper. In the 21st century the water industry will need a mix of all three modes of organising action: bu reaucracy, market and community (Table 2). Regulatory controls remain an effective way of changing behaviour and marker signals have a rol e in approach es such as dual tariff

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Aposrolidis, N . (2004), Integrated water management - pushing the boundaries, Water, }01trnal ofthe A 1tstrafian Water Association, 3 1( 1), 40-46. Beal, C., Gardner, .E. and Menzies, N. (2005), Septic absorption trenches: Are they sustainable?, Water, journal ofthe A ustralian Water Association, 32( I), 22-26. Beder, S. ( 199 1), C ontroversy and C losure: Sydney's Beaches in C risis, Social Studies of Science, 21 (2), 223-256. Brown, R. (2004), Local institutional development and organisational change fo r advancing susrainable urban water futures, Keynote presentation at the International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design: Cities as Catchments, November 21-25, Adelaide. Cameron, D. (2005), Decentralised vs centralised sewerage, Wate,; journal of the Australian Water Association, 32(2), 125-127. Carson, L. and Gelber, K. (200 I), Ideas fo r Community Consultation: A disc1tssion on principles and p rocedures for making cons1tfttttion work, (report prepared for) NSW De partment of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney. CoA (2002), Inquiry into Australia's management of urban water, Vol. 2004 Senate Environ ment, Communications, Information T echnology and the Arts Committee, Commonwealth of Australia, available at http://www.aph.gov .au/Sena tel committee/ eci ta_ctte/water/ re port. COAG (1994), Report of the Working Group on Water Resource Policy (Neal Report), Council of Australian Governments. Colebatch, H . K. (2002), Policy, Ope n University Press, Buckingham. C olcbatch, H . K. and Larmour, P. (1993), 1\1arket, Bureaucracy and Community, Pluto Press, London. Cole-Edelstein, L. (2004), Consult, delibe rate or empower?, Water, journal of the Austmfia11 Water Association, 3 1(8), 72-75. Coombes, P. J. (2005), Integrated water cycle management: analysis of resource security, Water, journal ofthe Australian Water Association, 32(2), 34-44 . Cooper, .E. (2003), Rouse Hill and Picton reuse schemes: innovative approaches to large-scale reuse, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 3(3), 49-54. Dryzek, J. S. (1997), The Politics ofthe Earth: Environmental Discourses, O xford University Press, Oxford . Fewtrell , L. and Bartram, J. (200 1), Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health: Risk Assessment and Management for Water Related /11.foctious Diseases, [WA Publishing, London . Foley, A. (2005), Benchmarking asset management, Water Asset Management International, I (I), 22-25 . Gold Coast Water (2003), Pimpama Coomertt Water Futttres Master Plan Options Report, Gold Coast C ity Council, Gold Coast. Hardin, G . ( I 968) , The tragedy of the commons. The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fun damental extension in morality, Science, 162(859),

Aird, W. V. (1961), The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, Halstead Press, Sydney.

H atton MacDonald, D. and Dyack, B. (2004), Exploring the Institutional Impediments to

for the involvement of 'uncooperative elements', involving all stakeholders in an active, expanding man ner should lead to stimulation of in terest in the issues relating to warer management with a resultant increase in understanding and appreciation of the issues at hand. Water agencies do not have control or ownership of all people and things (assets) that impact on sustainable water management; therefore a governance framework - including the commu nity mode of governance - has significant potential fo r a more sustai nable water future.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge rhe financial support of the Australian Research Council (p rimary author) and the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment. T he participation of the case study interviewees is also gratefully appreciated. Interaction with Water Services Association of Australia members during rhe Centre for Water and Waste Technology-led project "Methodology fo r Evaluating the Overall Sustainability of Urban Water Systems" also benefited chis paper.

The Authors Daniel Livingston is a PhD candidate, and Cooperative Research Centre for Water Q uality and T reatment scholarship holder. Daniel is studying at the Un iversity of New South Wales School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Email: daniel@civeng.unsw.edu.au; Nyree Stenekes is a Ph D cand idate, and Cooperative Research Centre fo r Water Q uality and Treatment scholarship holder. Nyree is studying externally through the University of New South Wales School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Email: n.stenekes@unsw.edu.au; David Waite is Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and D irector of the Centre for Water and Waste T echnology (CWWT) at the Un iversity of New South Wales. Email D.Waite@unsw.edu.au; Nicholas Ashbolt is Professor and Head of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of New South Wales. Email N.Ashbolt@unsw.edu. au; Hal Colebatch is Associate Professor of the Department of Publ ic Policy and Administration, University of Brunei Darussalam. Email: hal@fbeps.ubd.edu.bn

38 AUGUST 2005 water

1243- 1248.

Conservation and Water Reuse - National issues, C SJRO Land and Water C lient Report. Hurlimann, A. and McKay, J. (2004), Attitudes ro reclaimed water for domestic use: Part 2. Trust, Water, Jou.ma/ ofthe Austmfian Water Association, 3 1(5), 40-45. Livingston, D., Stenekes, N ., Colebatch , H . K., Ashbolt, N. J. and Waite, T. D. (2004), Water management planning in local government: o rganisational factors impacting effective policy for sustainability, 1n, Co nference Proceedings, Sewage Ma nagement: Risk Assessment and Triple Bottom line, April 4-6, Queensland EPA, Cairns. Lundie, S., Ashbolt, N., Livingston, D., Lai, .E., Karrman , .E., Blaikie, J. and Anderson, J. (2005), Sustainability Framework: Methodology for Evaluating the Overall Swtainability of Urban Water Systems, Centre for \'v'arer and Waste T echnology, U niversity of New South Wa les, Syd ney (commercial report for WSAA) . Lundqvist, J., Narain, S. and Turton, A. (2001 ), Social, institutional and regulatory issues, l n, Tejada-Guibert, J. A., Frontiers in Urban Water Management: Deadlock or hope, IWA Publish ing, London. McKenzie-Mohr, D. and Sm ith, W. (1999), Fostering Sustainable Behavior: An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, C anada. Mitchell, V. G . (2004) , integrated Urban Water Management: A review ofcurrent A ustmfian prttctice, CSIRO U rban Water. O.ECD (2004), O.ECD Principles of Corporate Governance, Organisation for .Economic C ooperation and D evelopment, Paris. Rat hje n, D ., C ullen, P. , Ashbolt, N., C u nliffe, D. , Langford, J., Lisrowski, A., McKay, J., Priesrley, T. and Radcliffe, J. (2003), Recycling Water.for our Cities, Report to Prime Min ister's Scie nce, Engineering and Innovation Council (PMSE!C), Federal Governmenr of Australia, Canberra. Reddel, T. (2002), Beyond Participation, H ierarchies, M anagement and Markets: 'New' G overnance and Place Policies, Australian journal of Public Administration,

61(1 ), 50-63. Sm irh, D. I. (1998), Water in A ustralia: resources and management, Oxford U niversity Press, M elbourne. Stenekes, N., Waite, T. D. and Colebatch, H. K. (2003), Warer recycling and policy- making, In, Proceedings 2nd National Conference, Water Recycling Australia, Sept 1-3, AWA, Brisbane. Wallace, M. and Barrett, G . (2005), Reducing domestic water use: lessons from marketing and economics, Wate,; Journal of the Australian Water A ssociation, 32(2), 68-72. West, S. (200 I ), Centralised management: The key to successfu l on-site sewerage service, In , On-site 'O1 Conference, September 25-28, 2 001, Armidale, NSW. Wilderer, P.A. (2001), Decentralized versus centralized wastewater management, In, Lett inga, G ., Decentralized sanitation and reuse: concepts, systems and implementation, [WA Publishing, London. WSAAfacts (200 I ), The Australian Urban Water Industry, Water Services Association of Australia, Melbourne.

SIMPLIFYING COMPLEX WATER ENTITLEMENTS T Shi Abstract Water entitlement reform is now a key co ncern on the national and state policy agendas. T his paper attempts to: l. inform readers about the complexity of current arrangements; 2. explore opportun ities to simplify these systems and remove unnecessary barriers to water trading. By pu rsuing these opportunities we can hope to reduce transaction costs and simplify river management. Greater productivity and fewe r confl icts may be expected.


... ~


; ::

~ ::,



;;;, !:!.




Victoria ~ & IIOClc righl




~--- ~- ---lrrlglllon-HlghMC1.111y--


Conveyance access hcence


lnchgenous cuNural access lunce


Cour*Ylown _ _ _ _

Recreational & enwonmental licensed allocalion

Geoo<al socuri1y access licence

Supplementary water access licence

lt---+------------1 ~ ~ &-



Water (hold,ng) licensed allocaoon

Direct pumptng hcence


iE ~t: Local....,uWyaccesabnce i ;: a.' • ..._..._.""'_____ Farmdamlicence ~ I i ---·__ -._..._-__-_ ""'_1------------l "5 i


Runoff harvesbng access licence

lnchgenous cuhural access hcence


Background Australian water administrators are being called upon to develop a nationally co mpatible water entitlement register coupled with trad ing arrangements that mi ni mise transaction costs. By 2007, institu tional and regulatory arrangements are required to be in place to facilitate intra and interstate trade, and manage differences in entitlement reliabili ty, supply losses, supply source constraints, trading between systems, and cap requirements and to develop arrangements to facil itate effecti ve and effi cient water trad ing on the markets. At the Cou ncil of Australian Governments (CoAG) meeting on 25 J une 2004, the Comm onwealth, the ACT , Queensland, NSW, Victoria, SA and the North ern T erritory agreed to adopt a National Water Initiative. According to the National Water Ini tiative, a co nsistent and co mpatible water entitlements system will be developed to: • facil itate the operation of efficient water markets and the opportunities for trading, within and between states and territories, where water systems are physically shared or hydrologic connections and water supply co nditions are permitted;

This article is a shortened version of an invi ted presentation at the 3rd Annual Australian Water Summ it, Melbourne, 28 February co 2 March 2005. T he fu ll T echnical Report is available onl ine at htt p://www.clw.csiro.au/publ ications/ technical2005/tr3-05.pdf




i~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - -- -- -1 Water (holding) licensed allocation





Aquifer ac:cese lcence

Supplementary water accon I'

Note: • For the purpose of classif,cation and as the Victorian Government While Paper has proposed to make sales water into a separate, legally reccgnised, and independently tradable entitlement. In this study sales water is identified as a separate category of water entitlement.

Figure 1. Overview of existing 39 categories of water entitlemen ts in th ree states. • m1n1m1se transaction costs on water trades (e.g., through good information flows in the market and compatible entitlement, registry, regul atory and other arrangements across jurisdictio ns); and • enable the appropriate mix of water products to develop based on access

• reflect regional differences in rhe variabi lity of water supply and the state of knowledge underpinning regio nal allocation decisions. The National Water Initiative has recognised the importance of estab lishing a nationally compatible system of water

Trying to facilitate water trading in the River Murray system. entitlem ents which can be traded either in whole, or in part, and either temporarily or permanently, or through lease arrangements or other trading options that may evolve over mne. As a result, a co nsistent water entitlements arrangement will: • enhance rhe security and commercial ce rtainty of water access enti tlements by clearly specifying the statutory nature of those enti rlemen ts; • be compatible across jurisdictions to improve in vestment certainty, be competitively neutral and to minimise rransacrion costs on water trades; and

access entitlements to manage surface and groundwater resources for rural and urban use rhar optimises economic, social and environmental outcomes.

Scope and Purpose of this Study T his study focuses on water entitlement arrangements in rhe Southern Connected River Murray System (SCRMS). T his region comprises a set of linked river systems and associated groundwater systems in southern NSW, northern Victoria and eastern SA. Ir does nor incl ude the Mallee River system in Victoria and the Lachlan River system in NSW as significant


AUGUST 2005 39

volumes of water from these systems rarely Aow into the River Murray. T he purpose of this research is to develop a framework for the classification of existing water enciclements by essentially grouping chem according to sim ilarity and compatibility. T he underpinning hypothesis is chat in a policy environment where water trading is enco uraged, variation in the way entitlements are defi ned increases transaction coses. T he corollary of chis hypothesis is chat the more consistent entitlement definitions and the more simplified tradi ng arrangements can be, the lower transaction costs wi ll be (with fewer opportunities for arbitrage). As a result, efficient and effective water markers will be achieved and, if appropriate environmental arrangements are in place, greater benefits of water use will be realised.

Complexity of Existing Water Entitlements Arrangements While at the highest level water enticlement arrangements seem similar, when one delves in to the derail a large variety of arrangements prevail across the Murray- Darling Bas in. Amo ng stares and even within a state, supply reliability varies, tenure periods are inconsistent, and the degree of protection given to registered interests and restrictions on trade vary considerably. T he terms used also va ry. For example, in South Australia a water entitlement is called an allocation , wh ile in Victoria and NSW an al locatio n is the amount of water received annually by an entitlement holder. Figure 1 provides an overview of the 39 categories of water enticlements that currencly exist in the SCRMS. The system of different water entitlement arrangements in different states has created opportunities for arbitrage and administrative error. Ir is also highly restrictive, costly and inefficient. As pare of the refo rm process, ad ministrators are searching for ways to remove unnecessary barriers to water trading and therefore reduce the transaction costs associated with trade.

How Many Types of Entitlements are there? In this study, a classification system was developed to identify the number of entitlement types in the SCRMS. A type of water entitlement is most easily identified if a transfer involves only the clea rance of any registered interests and a change to the name of the entitlement holder. If ocher changes have to be made, for example, to

40 AUGUST 2005


E11tit/e111e111 C11tegory (3) a11d Type (/4)

E11title111e111 Clltegory (9) mu/ Type (II1) NSW

High security (10 types)


Water right ( 17 types) Diversion licence (1 9 types)

General secarlty

Dlvenloa Uceace

(10 types)

(S types)

Supplementary water

Sales water

(1 0 types)

(20 types)




SA Stock & domes tic (3 ty pes) Irrigation (9 ty pes)

A (/1ig/1 reliubili(v


9/ - /00%)

(7 types)


B (med/11,n nll11blllty 61·9"")

(2 types)


C (low re/i11bility 0-60%)

(5 types)




Wate r (holding) (9 types)



Figure 2. Reduci ng 9 categories and 112 types of irrigation entitlements into 3 categories a nd 14 types.

the allocation pool chat the water is drawn from, or the management zo ne or region where the water is held, then the trade involves conversion from one type of entitlement to another. When co nsidering only the regulated surface water system of the SCRMS, a total of 438 types of water entitlements can be identified: • 132 types of regulated surface water entitlements in NSW; • 19 1 types of regulated surface water entitlements in Victo ria; and • 11 5 types of regulated surface water entitlements in SA. Many of these enti tlement types are used fo r urban and co untry town water supplies, industrial and environmental purposes. Most of them are not yet tradeable. From an irrigation perspective, when consideration is given to supply reliability, tradability, tenure arrangement, access priority and use restrictio ns associated with issues such as salinity, 183 types of irrigation enti tlements can be identified in three states.

Tradability Matrices Across Australia, opportun ities to permanently trade water entitlements and co temporarily trade water allocatio ns are increasing. When an entitlement is traded berween allocation pools or between managemen t zones, the entitlement must be co nverted fro m one type to another. To simplify this process water brokers are constructing tradability matrices chat show whether or not a trade of entitlement is allowed and, if so, what changes to the enticlement have to be made to complete that trade. In theory, a full tradabil icy matrix for 183 types of irrigation entitlements in the

SCRMS wou ld contain 33,306 matrix elements. For a number of reaso ns (e.g., lack of sufficient hydraulic connectivity, Aow constraint through the Barmah Choke, and policy restrictions on trade), many entitlements cannot be co nverted from one type to another. As a resul t, the tradability matrix fo r irrigation entitlements in the SCRM S allows around 3,700 possi ble trades. With so many trading possibilities, there is a risk chat changes cou ld create opportunities fo r arbitrage. Arbitrage occurs when an entitlement is traded in a manner that increases one person 's share of the water at the expense of ocher entitlement holders. Simplification and standardisation of the water entitlements systems could significantly reduce the arbitrage opportunities and transaction costs associated with water trading.

Opportunities for Simplification and Standardisation T he large number of water entitlements makes the trad ing processes administratively complicated and confusing. Co nceptually, with more consistent definition of water entitlements and simplified trading arrangements, transacti on costs will be lower an d op portuni ties for arbitrage wi ll be less. Significant opportunities to improve existing irrigation entitlements arrangements incl ude: • Unbundling use cond itions and restrictions from entitlement and allocation; • Rationalising entitlements arrangements by aligning entitlement attri butes; • Reducing entitlement categories and types;

• Tnrrod ucing larger trading zones by merging allocation pools with similar supply reliabilities; • Using standa rd term inology; • Standardising entitlement attributes (i.e., supply reliab ili ty, rradabiliry, tenure and access priority); and • Rationali si ng sales water and supplementary water arran gements. If all the above opportunities are properly pursued, it cou ld help reduce transaction costs and simpli fy river management, and greater producri viry an d less con flict among com munities co uld be expected.

When different types of irrigation enci rlemencs with similar entitlement attributes are grouped together it is possible to identi fy a smaller number of entitlement types. When entitlements with same locational exchange rares and trading rules are grouped together it becomes apparent that a num ber of trad ing zones can be merged. As sum marised in Figure 2, from a SCRMS perspective rather than from a scare perspecti ve, when the above opportunities are pursued, it becomes clear rhac previous 9 categories and I 12 types of irrigation entitlements can be reduced to 3 catego ries an d 14 types.

Putting Theory into Practice: a Case Study


Special thanks are given to Mike Youn g and Jim McColl for their signi ficant influence on the development of my ideas at different stages of this study. T his resea rch was funded by a CST RO PostDoctoral Fellowship program.


To illusrrace che potential of these oppo rrnni cies, the research co ntains a case srndy of che 9 categories and 11 2 types of irrigation enrirlemencs in the regulated surface water of SCRMS. In terms of supply reliabilicy, different categories of irrigation entitlements ca n be classified in to three broad categories (A, B, and C) .

T his paper attempts to provide a practical framewo rk to assist with che develop ment of com patible water enciclemencs arrangements in the SCRMC, as a response to the COAG water reform agenda and the recent Nat ional Water Ini tiative proposal rhar cha llen ges scares to ali gn water encirlemenrs systems. Ac least in the short


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term, it may be politi ca lly unrealistic co expect a "o ne firs all" style of water en citlemencs arrangements fo r all catchments across rhe SC RM S. However, indi vid ual jurisdi cti ons ca n strive to ensure rhar the entitlement specificat ions are consisten t within the jurisdiction a n d compatible amo ng ch em (e.g., set up agreed and accepted co nversio n rules) .

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AUGUST 2005 41

asr & reuse

PARAFIELD URBAN STORMWATER HARVESTING FACILITY R Marks, F Chapman, S Lane, M Purdie Abstract This paper describes the Parafield Drain scheme which is rhe firs t stage of a rhreesrage stormwarer harvesti ng development supplying water for non-potable use. T he project substirntes 1,100 ML/a of high quality recycled stormwarer for SA Water mains water (thus increasing Adelaide's potable water reserve capacity by chis amount), and reduces the demand on che Murray River by some 500 ML/a (approximately 40% of the water saving).

To Michell Australia


The Project The Parafield Stonn warer Harvesti ng Facility is an in novative and unique project based on principles established through To years of implementation of water sensitive Mawson urban designs by the City of Salisbury (the Site control Lakes City) throughout irs 161 km 2 municipality in che northern suburbs of the Adelaide Harvesting works schematic. metropolitan area, South Australia. The facility is located on Parafield Ai rport land cleanse stormwarer fo r aquifer storage and Major stormwarer harvesting works adjacent to the main southwest-northeast recovery (ASR) or outfall to the sea. require significant areas of land for caprure, runway. cleansing and storage (SA USI 2004). Logistics of the project were complex The three stages with harvesting works because the airport is one of Australia's Parafield Ai rport was selected as the works on rhe airport land are as follows: busiest general aviation aerodromes, due to site because of the large stormwarer drain • Parafield Drain Scheme capturing water its focus on pilot training, with more than 180,000 aircraft arrivals and deparrures from 1,580 ha of residential and industrial 1100 ML/a of high quality each year. catchment to the north and norrh-easr of water for non-potable use. rhe airport to provide some 500 ML/a of Over 100 years of daily rainfall records indicated chat the catchment received an non potable water to Michell Australia along its north-western boundary, its large average of approximately 450 111111 on che wool processing works 3 km to the northbuffer areas, and rhe surround ing region plains and 550 mm on the hills faces. east, and some 600 ML/a of non-potable being rhe only remaining catchment in the Using the WarerCress hydrologic modelling water to Mawson Lakes residential C ity without narural treatment to filter and software (Clark, Pezzaniti and Creswell development 3 km to the south, and other 2003) rhe long daily rainfall record consumers. was analysed and rhe capacities of • Bennett Drain Scheme (future) the in-stream caprure basin, capturing water from 2,023 ha of holding storage, cleansing reedbed residential catchment to the northand ASR wells were optimised to east and east of the airport to achieve the objective 1100 ML/a provide some 1,300 ML/a of non average harvested volume. This potable supply for furure co nsumers. represents 70% of the average yield • Cobblers Creek Scheme (future) of the catchment. capturing water from 1,044 ha of A visionary partnership approach residential catchment to the more was adopted to implement the $4.7 distant north-east of the airport to million project by the City, initially provide some 600 ML/a of non with Salisbury-based Michell parable supply for furnre consumers. Australia Pry Ltd (Michell}, Australia's largest wool processing T he total supply from these Bird netted harvesting works adjacent to the airport schemes will be 3,000 ML/a company, and then with airport main runway and Michell Australia in the group of generated from an average catchment management, rhe Scare buildings in the distance beyond the airport. yield of about 5,000 ML/a. Government, Northern Adelaide

42 AUGUST 2005


asr & reuse and Barossa Catchment Water Management Board, other industry stakeholders and community groups, and later, Mawson Lakes Economic Developm ent Joi nt Venture. T he parrners obtained a $1.3 million grant through the Co mmonwealth's Environment Australia Urban Stormwater Initiative to advance the project.

Design and Commissioning, Stage 1 T he Parafield Drai n Scheme was officially commissioned in February 2003 with commencement of supply to Michell. lnjection into the aquifer began in June 2003 and extraction commenced in November 2003. Extension of the supply to Mawso n Lakes was co mpleted in February 2005. To the end of 2004, 750 ML had been injected into the ASR wells. [nan average year approximately 400 ML is expected to be supplied direct to users from the reedbed and 700 ML/a from the ASR wells. T he objective is to bu ild up a 2,0003,000 ML bank of harvested water in the aquifer to enable rhe supply to be maintained through th e dri est series of yea rs in the 110 yea rs of availab le rainfall records. Operation and maintenance costs are in the range of $0.30 to $0.40/kL depending on seasonal rainfall. The harvesting works comp rise: • Inflow drain monitoring station obtaining water flow and quality data from the Parafield Drain 450 m upstream of the diversion weir. • D iversion weir in the Parafield drain with capacity to pass l in 10 year flood flows when the harves ting works are full. T he weir has a low flow bypass. The weir pool area is co ncrete lined to facilitate cleaning. This is the primary settlement area for gravels, sands and general debris. Although upstream drains have gross pollutant traps, a co nsiderable amount enters the weir pool and has to be cleaned out when the pool empties between wet periods. • In-stream basin of 47 ML capacity receiving flows from the diversion weir. The basin is clay lined and its 2.5 ha area is bird netted. The vo lume is split 13 ML below drain invert and 34 ML above. T he basin is the storm event capture facility and it provides the primary settling area for sands and silts. • Pumping Station 1 (transfer pumps) with rwo 75 kW, 25 ML/d mai n duty and one 5.5 kW, 3.5 ML/d low level pump transferring water from the in-stream basin to the holding storage. T he pumps can empty the in-stream basi n in a day. The pumps can also empty the in-stream basin to downstream of the diversion weir if

Table l . Raw, clea nsed and ASR production wa ter quali ty . Determinand

Number of samples E. coli (cfu/100 ml) Total dissolved solids (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Suspended solids (mg/l) Total nitrogen as N (mg/l) Total phosphorus os P (mg/ l) Total organic carbon (mg/l) Aluminium (soluble) (mg/l) Arsenic (mg/l) Copper (mg/l) Iron (mg/l) lead (mg/l) Manganese (mg/l) Zinc (mg/l) Total hardness (mg/l)

Parafield drain Jul 03 to Jun 04

Reedbed outlet Jul 03 to Jun 04

15 83 250 8. 1 13 0.74 0.067 8.9 3.020 0.002 0.008 0.275 0.003 0.013 0.056 108.9

12 29 100 1.7 3 0.30 0.024 1.7 0.093 0.004 0.002 0.180 0.001 0.004 0.029 52.8

% reduction

NA 65% 60% 79% 77% 59% 64% 81% 97% 100% incr. 75% 35% 67% 69% 48% 52%

Production wells Jan 04 to May 05

5 0 200 2.2 5.0 0.21 0.027 2.9 <0.020 0.003 <0.001 0.342 <0.0005 <0.0413 <0.005 ND

SA EPA water quality policy•

NA O**

<10%vor' n# 20 20 5 0.5 15 0.1 0.007## 0.01 1 0.005 NS 0.05 NS

Notes: • Fresh aquatic ecosystem values unless indicated otherwise. * * Potable waler. The next most stringent is primary contact 150 cfu/ 100 ml # Not relevant in the context but the concentration is relevant to irrigation use. ## Potable water value. The next most stringent is aquatic ecosystem 0.05 mg/L water in the basin is unsatisfactory for harves ti ng. • Holding sto rage of 48 ML capacity rece iving water fr om th e in -st rea m basin. T he storage is clay li ned and its area of 2.5 ha is bird netted. T he finer sa nds, silts and some of the clay frac t ion settle out in the sto rage. Water from the sto rage tra nsfers by graviry to the reed bed .

• Cleansing reedbed of 1. 95 ha area covered by bird netting. The reedbed normally operates at 300 mm depth but can be varied to 1.0 m depth. Ir is clay lined . There are 2 1,000 plants in the bed and 3,500 on the banks. Some invasion by Typha occurs which requires regular maintenance. Biofilms on the reeds remove clay colloids from the water. Also the reeds effectively assimil ate nu trients from the stormwarer.

Mawson Lakes in the foreground with the harvesting works visible to the left in the airport land.


AU<;;UST 2005 43

asr & reuse • Pump station 2 (cleansed water distribution pumping station) with two 22 kW, 3.25 ML/d variable speed drive pumps drawing from the reedbed discharging to the distribution system serving M ichell and Mawson Lakes, and injecting into the ASR wells . The pumps deliver to the system at 20-30 m head.

injection in future. Of the range of default protected environ mental values applying to grou ndwaters (for injection) and surface waters (for use), freshwater ecosystems, primary contact and potable values are considered the most relevant fo r comparison. T h e lowest values in these categories are given in the table for comparison with the raw, reedbed and extracted water qualities for each determinand .

• ASR wellfield comprises two wells 200 m deep to the confined sub-artesian T2 aquifer, with 20 3 mm casing to 160 m. Intake occurs over the bottom 40 m uncased section. The wells are equipped with 55 kW, 4 .3 ML/d variable speed drive submersible pumps dischargi ng d irect to the distribution system. Sand traps are provided to settle o ut sand occurring during well development and annual maintenance air-lift pumping. Some l 00 cu m /year of sand removal is expected during the first few years. On startup o f the ASR pumps, sand is cleared from the aquifer by recirculating the discharge back to the instream basin for a short time before turning the flow into the distribution system . Giles and Gaskin pumps were selected d ue to their capacity to handle the sand in the discharge. T he inj ection rate for each well is 2 .8 ML/d. The salinity of the native groundwater is approximately 2,000 mg/L T DS, co mpared to the injected water at I00-200 m g/L TDS .

• Supply mains to Michell compr ising 3 km of 225 mm Class 9 m PVC and to Mawson Lakes comprising 2 .2 km of 225 mm Class 12 mPVC.

• Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) remote control and m onitoring system comprises ClTECT system control via a p rogrammed logic controller (PLC); op tic fibre commun ication between distributed plant components and site control PLC; telephone line linked to central control in the C ity is via a PC with remote access and control; a data sration on Parafield Drain collecting fl ow, pH, TDS and turbid ity, and other stations providing flow, turbid ity, TDS, p ressure, level and temperature. H ydrologic modelling was carried out by Richard Clark and Associates using WaterCress; ASR well planning by Australian Water Environments, drilling and casing by the Water Resources Section of the Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Con servatio n under the hydrogeological expertise o f the Australian Groundwater Technologies. Earthworks, concrete works and pipework were carried out by Adelaide Civil and mechanical, electrical and con trols works by O ' Donnell G ri ffin and Mayfield Engineering. Barrie Ormsby Landscape Architects undertook the reedbed design and the C ity the

44 AUGUST 2005 water

ASR wellhead injection and extraction pipework.

propagation and planting. The City and KBR were responsible for the planning and engineering of the project. As bird strike is a concern around airports, an innovative solution was required to elim inate the possibility of the basins increasing bird density. Dr David Paton, a respected University of Adelaide orn ithologist, was engaged to assist in the specifi cation of bird-proof netting over the basins which was designed and installed by Net Pro with free spans of 20 0 m. The Un iversity of Adelaide also undertook a study to show that the structures would not cause wind disturbances affecting the safety of aircraft using the runways.

Water Quality Assessment of the available water quality monitoring results for significant determinands is summarised in Table I. It can be seen that the pollutants in the raw stormwacer are significantly reduced by the two basins and the reedbed. Arsenic is an aberration in chat it shows an increase through the treatment system although still less than 10% of the EPA lim it d iscussed below. It is possible that the co ncen trations are too close to the laboratory limit of reporting of0.001 m g/L to enable accurate comparison. Screens for organochlorine and organophosphorus plus Triazine pesticides were undertaken on ten samples from the Parafield Drain between September 2000 and J une 2003. Chlorpyrifos was detected once and Simazine once at just above the laboratory reporting limits of 0.00005 and 0.0005 mg/L respectively. However, no pesticides were detected in the water from th e reedbed. No hydrocarbons were detected in the water from the reedbed either. (EES 2004) . Since the installation of the faci lity, the SA EPA has issued its policy on environmental water quality (SA E PA 2003). It is likely chat the parameters in the policy will be used as the basis for ASR

It can be seen that the reedbed and prod uction well water qualities are with in the policy limits except for£. coli which is required to be zero for potable water purposes as the default value for aquifers. H owever, the level in the extracted water is zero which d emonstrates the attenuatio n effect of aqui fe r storage. T he 29 cfu / 100 mL level from the reedbed is well below the next most stringent policy value of I 50 cfu/100 mL, which is a m ore realistic comparator fo r irrigation use. Disinfection using UV or chlorine could be applied to ensure that the supplied water was E. coli free, or less than the 10 cfu/ I 00 mL applyi ng ro Class A recycled wastewate r effluent, if co nsidered necessary. From a fi mess for purpose aspect the 200 mg/L T DS harvested stormwater is better for irrigation and industries such as Michell than the 400-450 mg/L SA Water reticulated potable water. Sediment and debris collected in the weir pool, in-stream basin and holdi ng storage are removed as requ ired under dry cond itions. Tests are taken of the material to determine the level of toxicants and, if too h igh for acceptance at the municipal tip, disposal to a registered secure landfill is arranged .

Aquifer Storage and Recovery The ASR facil ity is poss ibly the largest injection installation in Australia and the technical knowledge leading to its successful implementation fo llows more than 50 years of co ncept development and trials. In 1952 Dr Keith Miles, senior geologist in rhe Department of Mines, at a time when Adela ide was experiencing severe water shortages stated "The author would urge that serious consideration be given to the possibilities of enhancing intake into the aquifers under the Adelaide Plains by artificial recharge, using for this purpose the excess runoff water which is now being hustled out to sea." (Miles 1952). Dr Miles conducted recharge tests and proposed injection works. However, this initiative lost impetus when the government decided to construct a pipeline from the River Murray to Adelaide. With concerns in recent years about the reliability of the

asr & reuse River Murray as regards quantity and quality, the potential of chis local resource has again been recognised. (Marcin and Di llon 2002). Urban scormwater harvesting facilities require considerable space if large quantities are co be captured and cleansed co a quali ty safe for non potable use such as irrigation of public open space. The area for the works is greatly reduced if ASR is ab le co be used for winter storage instead of surface storage. (SA UST 2004). An assessment of alternative sources of fu tu re water for Adelaide has given high pri ority co scormwacer harvesting indicating chat it has potential co provide 11 GL/a of water out of a coca I of 77 GL/a new resource and water savin g initiatives. (SA Govern ment 2004). The City of Salisbury is well on the way co achieving chis objective through so me 20 existing and planned schemes similar co the Pa rafield facil ity under the continuing guidance of Colin Pitman , the City's Di reccor of Contract Management.

Summary In summary the features of the Parafield Scormwacer Harvesting Facil ity are: • local ind ustry, irrigato rs and the com munity - working in partn ership with the Cou ncil - are provided wi th recycled water at a significa ntly cheaper price and of better quality fo r irrigation and non potable industrial use than mains water; • the proj ect substi tu tes 1, 100 ML/a of high quality recycled scormwacer for SA Water mains water (thus increasing Adelaide's potable water reserve capacity by chis amount), and red uces the demand on th e River Murray by some 500 ML/a (approx imately 40% of the water saving); • all cleansed water surplus co the requirements of users is d irected co the T2 aquifer to enhance groundwater suppli es, and to provide seasonal balancing storage and a buffer sto rage to drought proof the scheme; • although not the primary objective, over 90% of nutrient and pollutant loads are removed from the residual annual discharge of approximately 500 ML of stormwacer flowing inco the ecologica lly fragile Barker Inlet; and • che above benefits will increase by some 200% when the ocher stages of the scheme are completed.

The Authors Richard Marks (richard.marks@ hall iburton.com) is Senior Engineer Natural Resource Management for KBR and KBR's project manager fo r the project; Fred Chapman (fchapman@salisbury.sa.gov.au) is Manager Design Services for the City of

Reedbed after establishment. Salisbury and the Cou nci l's project manager for the proj ect; Stuart Lane (slane@salisbu ry.sa.gov) is Senior Environmental Engineer for the C ity of Salisbury; Mark Purdie (mpurdie@ sal isbury. sa.gov) is Water Services Coordinacor for the City of Salisbury.

References C lark R, D Pczzaniti and D C resswel l. 2002. WaterCress - Comm uni ry Resource Evaluation and Simulation System - A rool for innovative urba n water systems planning and design. Hydrology and Water Resources

\L~ ~\

Australian G~undwater Technologies


f a. ~


Symposium. IEAusr. Melbourne, Australia, May. £ES. 2004. Water Quality Monitoring Programme Annual Report for City of Salisbury. Pam.field Urban Stormwater initiative. Economic Environmental Solutions (SA) Pry Ltd for the Ciry of Salisbury. l 6 August. Marrin R and P Dillon. 2002. Aquifer Storage and Recovery, Future Directions for South Austmlia. Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation , and CSIRO La nd and Wacer. August. Report DWLBC 2002/04. Miles K. 1952. Geology and Underground Water Resources ofAdelaide Plains Area. Geological Survey of South Australia. Department of Mines. Bulletin 27 . SA EPA. 2003 . Environment Protection (Water Quality) Policy and Explanatory Report 2003. Environment Protectio n Aut hori ty, South Ausrralia. May. SA Government. 2004 . Water proofing Adelaide. A thirst for change. The Water Proofing Adelaide dmft strategy. Water Proofing Adela ide Strategy Advisory Comm ittee. SA US !. 2004. Metropolitan Adelaide Stormwater Management Study, Part B - Stormwater Harvesting and Use. KBR (Code AEV400-CREP-004- Rev. 0 23 July 2004) for the SA Urban Srormwater Init iative, Local Government Association and SA Government.

Australian Groundwater Technologies Pty Ltd (AGT} is a specialist groundwater technology company with a focus on aquifer storage and recovery (ASR} and artificial recharge (AR} technology and methodologies.

AGT offers considerable specialist skills and expertise in areas covering: • Aquifer storage and recovery • Groundwater recharge processes • Wastewater reuse • Remediation of contaminated groundwater • Salinity management techniques (SMT) • Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) of Wastewater AGT's scope of services includes: • Initial feasibility studies and pilot projects • Well field design, development, completion and documentation • ASR project management • Commissioning and monitoring of ASR schemes • Licensing and approval assistance • Assessment of environmental impacts • Training, including on site and on-going client team education • Provision of peer and third party review service FOR ENQUIRIES CONTACT Brett Pearson Australian Groundwater Technologies Level 1, 50 Greenhill Road WAYVILLE SA 5034 Telephone: (08) 8172 0684 Fax: (08) 8172 0685 E-Mail: agt@agwt.com.au Web: http://www.agwt.com.au


AUGUST 2005 45

pumping & pipelines


Table 1. Pi peline system design crite ria.

The Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project (WMPP) is one of the largest water management projects in Australia. The project will underpin a sustainable future for rhe Wimmera and southern Mallee regions of Western Victoria ch rough the provision of a new water supply system char meets rhe needs of rhe region fo r the next 100 years. T he proposed pipeline system wi ll reticulate water co about 9,000 rural property service points and 36 towns and will replace an existing and highly inefficient open channel system. The current channel system provides domestic, stock and bulk urban water ro an area covering approximately 10 per cent of Victoria, bur chis supply arrangement is nor sustainable. Ac present, 85 per cent of the water released co che channel system is lost through seepage and evaporation.

Design Requirement

Design Approach

Sources of Supply

• Lake Bellfield and Taylors Lake • Lake Wartook • Murray River

Design Strategy for System Trunk Pipelines

Design Flow = Peak 3-Month Average Demand Flow

Design Strategy for System Distribution Pipelines

Design Flow = Peak Day Average Demand Flaw

Pump Station Operation

22 hours per day at peak demand

System Balance Storage Type

Lined In-ground Storages [no covers)

Minimum On.f arm Tank Storage Volume

3 days water requirement at peak demand

Supply Pressure

20 metres at the farm gate

N .,.

From a coral release of 120,000 megalirres each year, only 17,000 megalicres is ultimately used by GWMWarer customers on farms and in towns. T he conversion from a channel co piped supply system will save the 103,000 megalicres of water char is lost from che existing system, and enable multiple economic, social and environmental benefits co be gained fo r che region. These benefits include: • more secure, reliable and better quality water supplies co che farms, towns and businesses of the region;

The conversion from a channel to piped supply system will save 103,000 ML/a of water.


\, :~~


Project Outcomes








"']l>. ... E x









.I (

Drawing water from: Bellfield/Taylors System Murray System (constructed) Murray System

• che return of 83,000 megalicres of water co the region's river systems and rhe Murray River system as environmental flows, which will help co restore these degraded waterways, and provide increased frequency of flows co the region's nationally significant terminal lake system, including Lake Hindmarsh and Lake Albacurya;




Wartook System [ ]

approximately 200kms

Figure 1. Wimmera Mollee pipeline system a rrangement.

pumping & pipelines Table 2. Pipeline system an nual water demand al lowances. ML/year

Water Demand Type Urban Township Demand (existing level of demand + l 0% growth allowance) Rural Homestead Domestic Demand Livestock Demand (peak historic stocking levels of


Rural Supplies by Agreement and Intensive Industry (existing a llocations) Future Rural On-Farm Growth (supplied on demand)

Sub-Total Water for Recreati onal Lakes (pumped at off-peak times) Water for Environmentally Significant Wetlands (pumped at off-peak times) Future Growth Within System (pumped at off-peak times)

Total System Demand Allowance

Project Component


Trunk Pipelines

l, 130 kilometres 7,720 kilometres

Trunk Pipeline Pumping Statio ns Distribution System Pumping Stations Water Storages Total Cost

5,123 1,707 5,000 22,995 2,979 1,000 5,000 31,974

The Pipeline System

Table 3. Pipeline system infrastructure.

Distribution Pipelines

9,151 2,014

• the provision of a further 1,000 megalirres of water for environmentally significant wetlands located within the area serviced by the new system; • rhe availab ility of up to 10,000 megalirres of additional water from the new system for regional economic development, thereby providing new opportunities for sustainable on-farm diversification and new industry serviced by a water system that can support fu ture growth; and • the availability of increased water for 11 rec reational lakes within th e region, with substantial flow-on benefits for tourism.

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The WMPP will implement a piped and pumped water supply system char will provide a conti nuous supply of water to individual farms and townships across the Wimmera Mallee region. The system incorpo rates trunk and disrriburi on pipeline works, pumping stations, water balancing storages, headworks, control systems and ocher ancillary works char are co nnected to create five separate supply zones drawing water from rwo sources of supply in the Grampians mountains and a sixth supply zone supplied from the Murray River. The scope of the project also incl udes the decommissioning of redundant channel assets. Figure I presents a general layout plan of rhe trunk main components of each supply zone. A major trunk pipeline will transfer water under gravity from Lake Bellfield to Taylors Lake. The remainder of the pipeline system is a pumped system due ro the undulating terra in of rhe region rhar has no sign ificant high points and so will be highly reliant on the regional power supply network. The trunk pipeline of each supply zone fo llows a route rhar extends between rhe towns situated withi n char zone, with a trunk pumping station and

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pumping & pipelines water balancing storage located along rhe trunk main alignment ar each town. Trunk pumping stations transfer bulk water between the water storages and also service rhe local distribution pipe networks co nnected to rhe pumped trunk main , with flows delivered directly from rhe trunk mains co the distribu tion ma ins under trunk main pressure. In situations where rhe trunk main supply is unable co adequately pressurise areas within rhe distribution network, local distribution system pumping stations will be installed co maintain the required delivery pressure at customer connection points. T he key criteria rh ar have been rhe basis for the design of rhe pipeline system are presented in Table I.

Water Allowances Tab le 2 presents a summ ary of the annual water demand all owances rhar rhe pipeline system has been designed co deliver, with just under 23,000 megalirres able co be suppli ed "o n demand " each year from rhe system ro farms, rural industries and cowns. Provision has been made within this "o n demand" capacity fo r IO per cent growth in the current level of urban consumpti on and up co 5,000 megal irres for growth in rural consumption across rhe enti re system. The sys tem can also provide add itional water that is co be pumped during off-peak periods, with up co 3,979 megalitres avai lable co supply nom inated recreatio nal lakes and wetlands with high conservation value, plus a fu rther growth allowance of up to 5,000 megalirres. Access co this extra growth allowance requires additional water scorage located specifically where the demand for this water occurs.

Infrastructure T he infrastructu re works rhar comprise rhe pipeline system are derailed in Table 3,

Envi ronmental

Economic Development On -Farm Benefits Rec Lakes and Water Quality








Value ($ million) Figure 2 . Economic benefits of Wimmero Mollee Pipeline Project.

with rh e major works component being rhe construction of around 8,800 kilometres of pipeline works. T he new system will substantially improve the securi ty of supply provided co customers, which will increase from rhe current levels of 78 per cent for rural serv ices and 88 per cent for urban se rvices to 96 per cent fo r both se rvices.

Costs, Benefits and Funding The project is esti mated co cost $50 1 million, which com prises a system cap ital cost of $4 19 million and a sepa rate in vestment in on-fa rm works to be provided by rural cusco mers rhar is esti mated co cost $82 million. O n-farm works will co nsist of water ranks, pipeli nes and troughs co nfigured in local system arrangements that are connected co rhe major pipeline system and d istribu te water co va rious locations around each far m enterprise. A breakdown of project costs is presented in Tables 4 and 5. Ir is esti mated rhar the WMPP will provide eco nomic benefits ar a local, regional and national level rhar have a coral present value of $637 million, an d a summary of rhe quantified benefits is presented in Figure 2. T he project will

generate a benefit co cost ratio of 1. 19 and a positive net present value of$ I 00 million. T he Commonwealth and Victorian Stare Governments jointly launched rhe WMPP on 24 June 2005 after reachi ng agreement on the funding arrangements as part of rhe National Water Initiative. Both Govern ments have each com mitted co contributing amounts of$ 167 million cowards rhe project, with rhe Commonwealth Government fun ding made available through rhe $2 billion Australian Government Water Fund. T he local region serviced by the WMPP will contribute the remaining one-thi rd of the total project cost, making rhe WMPP a three-way pa rtnership. The su pport provided by borh the Federal and Stare Governments has been premised on the sign ificant enviro nmental benefits achieved through water savings and rhe econom ic benefits provided through an improved water supply.

Project Management In March 2005, prior co the project launch, rhe Yiccorian Government confirmed that GWMWarer would be

r=-:1 w~ c.=...i PCM


Scum, Sludge & other Unmentionables Tel. (02) 6581 0744

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PUMP5Jfi3D!1Dt?rl I




AUGUST 2005 49

Table 4. Pipeline system capita l costs

Table 5 . On-farm capital investment.

(based o n preli minary design estimates).



Cost ($ millionl

Trunk Pipelines Distribution Pipelines Pumping Stations Water Storages Heodworks Control Systems Woterhommer Control Treotment Systems Power Supply Channel Restoration


$195 $140 $31 $20 $1 $4 $4 $3 $10 $11 $419

responsible for the delivery of the WMPP and GWMWarer is preparing fo r the implementation of the project. Derailed engineering design of the major tru nk pipeline from Lake Bellfield to Taylors Lake, together with a trunk pipel ine extending from Taylors Lake to Yaapeet and the distribution pipeline

Reticulated Supply

Infrastructure Installation New Fencing


Form Dams Form Channels GWMWoter Channels Fencing Other

Total Capital Costs

systems connected to this supply zo ne trunk main, commenced in 2004, and is expected to be completed in the latter part of 2005. Procurement of these works will then commence through competitive tendering for supply of pipe and pump compo nents, and the construction of system works, with laying of pipes expected to commence during 2006. Co nstruction of this initial phase of the project works will cake around two years, with th e entire program of works planned to cake up to I 0 years to complete.

Average Farm Capital Cost

Regional Capital Cost $ million

$48,034 $546 $7,400 $3,809 $12,832 $779 $796 $74,196

$50.0 $0.5 $12.0 $5.0 $13.0 $0.8 $0.7 $82.0

The challenge fo r GWMWacer is raking the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project forward from a community vision to a reality, and achi eving the T riple Bottom Line outcomes from chis new water supply system char will forever change the way char water supplies are managed in che Wimmera and Mallee regions.

The Author Jeff Rigby is General Manager Strategic Services, GWMWacer, email jeff. rigby@gwmwacer.org.au

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PRESSURE SEWER INSTALLATION USING DIRECTIONAL DRILLING J Ryan, M Stamos Abstract South East Water Limited manages a backlog sewer program ro provide a sewerage service ro residential properties within its unsewered urban areas. Prior to 2002, all backlog sewer projects for South East Water Limited were constructed using gravity sewers which often requi re a number of re-l ift pump stations around the town to prevent sewers from b ecoming too deep . In some situations, gravity sewers are very difficult and expensive ro install. T his was the case in Tooradin , and fo r the townships of Wameet and Can nons Creek where the area is very fla t, and rhe groundwater table is very high. Sou th East Water decided to install a pressure sewer system ro each of these three towns. T he fl ex ible polythene mains operate under pressu re at all times, can be installed close to the surface (ap proximately l m deep), will generally follow the terrain and can easily be curved ro avoid significant trees or other vegetation. This paper discusses how the a pplicatio n of d irectional drilling tech niques enabled the implementation of a p ressure sewer system through two environmentally sensitive coastal villages at a lower cost than grav ity sewers.

Keywords: pressure sewer, d irectional drilling.

Introduction So uth East Water Limited is o ne of three retail water companies established on l January 1995 to provide water and sewerage services ro the Melbourne (Australia) metropolitan area. Serving a population of 1.3 millio n over an area of 3,640 square kilom etres, South East Water

Materials Boundary Kit

Black PN12.5 PESO polyethylene isolation valves flushing points air release valves check valves

Various valves

Figure 1. Materials.

in stal led , n etworked pressure sewe rs are a relat ive ly new concept. P ressure sewer systems h ave b een u sed ex tens ively in the US for up to 30 yea rs, and on th is b as is they were co n sidered a viable optio n for the provis ion of sewerage to the co astal vill age of Too rad in (228 properti es) . In 2 00 l , South East Water in sta ll ed the first Aus tral ian press ure sewer system at Tooradin. S in ce that t im e, based o n South East Water's favo u rable ex perience at Too radin, oth er Australian Water u ti lities have adopted press u re sewe rs as solutions to backlog areas previo us ly considered roo di fficul t to service. Sou th East Water Limi ted has recently installed pressu re sewers ro two other

In flat terrain pressure sewers were cheaper and had many other advantages. has assets totalling almost $1.2 b illion . Gravity sewerage p ipelines total more than 7 ,600 km. T he system is currently growing at the rate of app roximately 130 km per year. W hil e grav ity sewers h ave been aro und since sewers were firs t developed and

52 AUGUST 2005 water

coastal villages - Wam eet and Can nons C reek (464 pro perties). The p ressure sewer o ption was best suited ro these towns as it allowed shallow trenchi ng and the opportunity for directional d rilli ng, resulting in minimal disturbance ro the environ men t and the community

What is a Pressure Sewer System? Pressure sewers co nsist of a netwo rk of pressure pipes and grinder pumps, which in tegrate to fo rm a co llection system. The pipe network consists of polyethylene pipe char is fully sealed by electrofusion welding of joints. W ith a pressure sewer system each property is provided with a small tank with a pump unit installed to which all their household waste is d iverted. Sewage is then discharged in th e form of a finely grou nd slurry into small-d iam eter pressure piping (street mains). T he pump unit comprises a pum p, sto rage rank, electrical switchgear, pump protection devices and any guide rails req uired to assist with the removal of the pump. T he pumps are d esigned to be ab le to transport the waste 6km away to rhe treatment plant. T he selected pipe and fitt ings material for the pressure sewer collection system is black PN 12.5 PESO polyethylene. In addition to the polyethylene pipe, the system comprises of isolation valves, flushing points, air release valves, and check valves at the junction of each house conn ection with the pressure sewer m ain. The system is very similar to a watermain network. (Figure 1)

pumping & pipelines T he reticulation street mains are generally 50111111 to 110mm diameter polyethylen e pipe and are installed in shallow narrow trenches or by means of directional boring. Since excavations are minimised, minimum disruption is caused to existing landscapi ng and narnral flora. Roads and footpa ths are generally left intact or mi nimally dis rn rbed . Where ground conditions are appropriate, directional boring techniques are easily employed red ucing sire damage and restoration costs. This means less silty runoff, fewer access problems, less construction noise, etc. T he use of pressure sewers creates the opporrnnicy to locate the sewer lin e in the road reserve wherever possible, thereby elim inating direct impacts to private property except fo r the installation of the house service line. In operation, the grinder pump station, located in each backyard, will handle sewage and many items chat should not, but often do, appear in domestic wastewater. T he grinder pump will discharge chis slurry at a max imum race of about 0.7 Lis. T ranspo rci ng sewage several thousand metres to a discharge point at a higher elevation is possible as along as the sum of the static and fr iction losses does not exceed design limits of 45 111 T otal Dynamic Head . T he grind er pump is acwared when the depth of the sewage in the ran k reaches a predetermined "turn on" level, and pumping continues until the "turn off' level is reached. The pump's running time is short, power co nsumption is low, and long pump li fe is ensured. The uni t is protected against backflow from discharge lines by an integral check valve.

Construction Methods and Issues The topography of the two towns is gently undulating with extensive native bush. Th e roads are generally unpaved. The ground conditions com prised of mud, sand, si lt and ma ngrove swamp along the coast with dune sands further inland. The ground water table was generally loca ted at 1.5 -2m deep. T he two towns are separated by the Rutherford Inlet waterway. The new sewer links the two towns via 340111 of 11 0mm diameter pipe wh ich traverses underneath Rutherford Inlet.

Rutherford Inlet Entry

Entry Point - Aruma Street Warneet

Figure 2. Rutherford Inlet un derbore entry.

There were a number of construction issues associated with implementing a pressure sewer system at Warneer and Cannons Creek: l . Ac many locations, excavations will expose a high water cable. 2. Discharge of groundwater from open trenches was not permined to che (limited) stormwacer syste m. 3. T he cwo coasta l vill ages were subject to an En viron menta l Planning Overlay. A

requirement of the planning permit issued from Council meant chat many areas of heavy vegetation required protection duri ng construction. Vegeta ti on disrnrbance and damage were to be kept to an absolute minimum as per City of Casey, DNRE, and Melbou rne Water (for Rutherford Inl et crossi ng) requirements. 4. T he system in volved installing South Ease Water assets on each house lot. Therefo re, to undertake che installation of these works required detailed comm unity

• •

• Dorot




management and coord ination. Construction of the street mains had to be coordinated with the pump unit installation to the house lots. 5. Good pipe laying practices were required to ensure foreign material did not enter the pressure sewer pipes causing blockages. T his would be particularly important in all areas upstream of the Rutherford Inlet under bore (i n Cannons Creek). 6. T he Rutherford Inlet underbore requ ired detailed coordinat ion with existing services including potholing to determine exact locations. Both the entry and exit points of the underbore were in environmentally sensitive areas and required detai led management plans and supervision. In addition, preservation of the marine habitat beside Rutherford Inlet was essential. Th is was achieved by boring the pipeline beneath rhe salt marsh and marine sediments. 7. Although Warneet and Cannons Creek roads are generally low volume, traffic management plans and safe work practices were required. Only one lane of the main road to the town could be shut down at any time, as it is the only means of ingress and egress from Warneet. Trenches had to be backfilled at the end of each day's work ro reduce or minimise potential car accidents at night. To overcome the above issues, the majority of the 12 km of pipelines (90%) were installed using a directional drilling method. D irectional drilling is ideally sui ced to a pressure sewer system. T his construction method enabled the protection of the sensitive environment and vegetation, whilst enabling faster constructio n, and reduced customer impact. South East Water's directional drilling contractors successfully used directional drilling techniques to install the 340111 bore of 110mm diameter polyethylene pipe approximately 2m beneath Rutherford Inlet (Figures 2, 3), as well as the majority of bored street mains within Warneet. A boar was required ro monitor the guidance cracker across Rutherford I nlet. In addition, South Ease Water's concracrors successfully installed che pipelines at Cannons Creek also using directional drilling techniques. By using the d irectional drilling process for the street main installation, the construction time for the pipelines was reduced ro 3 months in each town. All companies complied with strict environment controls, and rook all necessary care to ensure chat ben tonice drilling mud and cuttings did not discharge at che surface or into the river. For a traditional gravity syste[ll to be installed in

54 AUGUST 2005


Rutherford Inlet Exit

Loading the drill head

Figure 3. Rutherford Inlet underbore exit.

the same area, the construction time would be approximately 12 months in each town.

Benefits The benefits of installing a pressure sewer system using directional boring techniques instead of traditional gravity sewers using open-cut construction are instan tly recognisable:

1. Lower capital costs • So uth Ease Water adopted a policy of meeting rhe costs of connecting customers' blackwater and greywater systems to the sewe r up to a cap of $2,500 per property. • The pressure system in Warneer/Ca nnons Creek cost $4 .7M compared to an equivalent gravity system estimated at

The Utility Services Alliance • innovative product solutions Since April 2005, So urh East Water formed a new alliance In addition to p ressure sewer with Thiess Services and Siemens solutions, the alliance members MWWWMM Utlllty called the 'us' - Utility Services have already begun work Services Alliance. W ith the extensive developing and promoting experience amassed by South innovative acoustic leak detection East Water in p ressure sewer and new pipeline re-lining technology construction and maintenance, under chis which makes substantial time and cost alliance, South East Water is now able to savings for domestic service repairs as well assist with construction and maintenance as avoiding rhe need to d ig trenches to solutio ns to any ocher authority that may access fau lty pipes. Early detection of be interested. pocenrial sewer/storm water overflows, Thiess Services and Siemens have easy-life secure manhole covers and safety worked as contractors alongside South East grids and water q uality improvement Water for more than a decade and through air scouring are further value-add delivered outstanding business service products within the portfolio of improvement results. 'us,. The establishment of a new strategic W ith many parts of Australia feeling the alliance will drive fu rther opportunities to effects of p rolonged periods of drought, improve the service performance for the the alliance brings a renewed focus to 1.3 million South East Water customers op timising existing water assets and and in ad dition act as springboard for leveraging new water technologies when external growth potential. constructing and operating The alliance will undertake and pursue water/wastewater infrastructure. the following activities: The mission for 'us' is to build a local • civil maintenance and global reputation th rough the • mechanical and electrical maintenance development of prod uctive business • construction services parrnerships and fo r our unique alliance to sec a new benchmark in Australia. • operations and controls, and


pumping & pipelines $5 .6M under rhe sa me co nstruction conditions and enviro nm ental constraints.

2. Significantly reduced impact on residents • The pipelines are usually installed in road reserves rather than backyards. T his enables rhe const ructor easier access with min imal inconvenience to residents. • T here are no manholes, and rarely pipelines, in backyards. Resid ents are therefo re less likely ro object the sewerage scheme as they would in a traditional gravity sewerage scheme. • Fewer sewage-p umping stations chat can be visually obtrusive require regular maintenance activity and can be the source of odours. Pressure sewers can eliminate many of the pumping stations required with gravity systems. T he grinder pumps pressurise the n etwork to approximately 45metres in head. As a result, many re-lift stations prove ro be unnecessary. This su bstantially red uces rhe cost of construction, land acq uisirio n , and operating and maintenance costs.

3. De-watering costs • In areas with high water table problems, d ewatering is required only at entry and receival shafts. As the dep ths of rhe pressure sewers are shallow (l m) , the impact of the high water table is g reatly reduced and can usually be controlled using pumps rather than de-watering spears.

4. Faster Construction • Speedier construction rimes lead to reduced project costs, and minimal d isruption ro traffic and residents. • Shallow pipelines which are bored also have significan tly less restoratio n costs chan open-cur (or b ored) gravity sewers. • As the pipelines are much shallower than an equivalent gravity system, the material and labour costs are greatly reduced. An equivalen t gravity system would have b een approximately $0.9M more expensive than the pressure system char was installed .

S. Less environmental disruption during construction • By utilising rhe fl exibility of a shallow, polyethylene mains are able to change alignments easily to avoid trees and ocher obstructio ns. Roads and foot paths are generally left intact o r minimally disturbed . • Less excavation inevitably leads to less environmental impact during the installation of p ressure sewers. This means less silty runoff, shorter construction periods, a lower level of property access problems with customers, less construction noise, etc.

56 AUGUST 2005


6. No infiltration


• By using polyethylene pipes, rhe system is fully sealed which eliminates infiltratio n. By removing the wet weath er peak flows, consistent dosing and treatment can be achieved. Wet weather fl ows d o not occur.

• Ensure th at construction co ntractors provid e a separately wired circu it for the power supply at each property.

7 . Minimal Jointing • Because rhe system uses polyethylene pipe on 150m rolls that is electrofusion welded, there is minimal joints and therefore, mini mal opportunities for joint failure. This reduces rhe risks associated with boring under significant areas such as Rutherford Inlet. Traditionally, a redu ndant " back-up" pipeline would be required to ensure co ntinuity of supply.

Lessons Learned Project Delivery

• Sp lit each pressure sewer projects in to separate renders. One for d esign and supply of pump units and one for construction. The purpose of this is to have direct co ntrol over each aspect of rhe works and their delivery. • Construction debris in rhe reticulation lines will cause blockages almost immediately. Specify fl ushing of all reticulation lines with high p ressure and high volumes prior to connectio n of any pu mp units, similar to water reticulation . Co nsider select ing from contracto rs char have experience in water main construction where ir is mandatory ro avoid d ebris entering the pipelines . Customer Consultation

• D evelop and implement co mprehensive consulrarion and communication plans chat involve the use of fo cus groups. • Use a variety of media sources to en sure customers and stakeholders are fu lly informed at all rimes. T his certainly makes life easier during construction.

Water Advertising To reach the decision-mal<ers in the water field, you should consider advertising in Water Journal, the official journal of Australian Water Association . For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rault at Hallmarl< Editions, Tel (03) 8534 SO l 4 or email brault@halledit.com.au

• Where any existing domestic electrical system requires majo r upgrade to fac ilitate a separate wired circu it, then rhe costs fo r upgrade works are borne by the property owne r. • Property owners to pay the annual power cost to operate their property's p ump unit.

Conclusion T he co nditions in W arneer and Cannons Creek were sim ilar to those enco untered in Tooradin since all three townsh ips border Western Pore. The ground is difficult to excavate, the groundwater cable is very high and the land is generally fla t. South East W ater's experiences have proven pressure systems are better sui red ro these conditio ns over gravity systems. T he pressure system s installed did experience few minor commissioning prob lems in Tooradin that were not realised in Warneec and C annons C reek The pressu re sewer system was also chosen as i r offered a number of advantages pred ominantly the lower cap ital cost due to smaller diameter pipe sizes, shallower construction due to pipes not needing to be laid ro grade, easier construction in poor ground co nditions due co no dewacering needed. In addition , OH&S benefits, as there are no crench relared accid ents, custom er connections incl ud ed as part of the project therefore realising imm ediate environmental benefits and cash flow and no in fl ow/infilrrarion therefore addi tional benefits for the local treatment plant To date, the system has performed sufficiently well for us to have assurance char ir will provide a safe and reliable service over the long term.

The Authors

Jenny Ryan qualified as Bachelor of Civil Engineering and Computing fro m C h isholm Institute of Technology (Monash University) in 1989. She is a Project Manager fo r South Ease Water. E-mail: jenny .ryan @sewl. com.au ; Michael Stamos gained his Bachelor of C ivil E ngineering, in 1984 from R.M.I.T and after a n umber of engineering posts in the water industry was appointed Manager Construction for South East Water in 2003. E-mail: msramos@sewl.com.au

ULTRAFILTRATION OF SECONDARY MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER: A CHINESE PILOTSCALE DEMONSTRATION AND IMPLICATIONS G Wu, G Qiu, X Liu, J Li, C Chen, Y Gan, N Narendranathan, H Wu Abstract Treatment of secondary municipal wastewater by membrane ulcrafilcracion (UF) has been investigated in Ch ina using a pi lot UF system of a capacity of500 cons produce water per day. The UF syste m employed hollow fibre membranes made from polyacrylonicrile and was in co ntinuous operation fo r a period of 2500 hours. During the period , the membrane UF system had stable and good performance, deliverin g key design outputs. T hese pilot-scale rests demonstrated the technical and fi nancial viabil ity of using UF as an economical mean of upgrad ing che quality of wastewater in conventional sewage treatment planes. The implications fo r Australia are also d iscussed, and a onestop framework for project approva ls, opera tion and maintenance is reco mmended which woul d encourage private sector participation in water reuse ini tiatives.

Introduction Popu lation growth and depletion of water resources in quality and quantity creates an alarming pressure on global water supply. Particularly, urban areas of developi ng countries such as C hina have been co nsiscencly experiencing water sho rtage. In China, impl ememacion of a sustai nable water strategy has become an important national priority. Reuse of municipal wastewater from wastewater treatment plane (WWTP) is considered co be an indispensable pare of such a sustainable water stra tegy. T reatmen t of WWTP secondary wastewater, which is cradicionally done by co nventional physical-chemical process [l ], has drawn considerable attention in Chinese cities in recencly years. However, conventional physical-chemical process suffers from high cost and poor, unstable wacer quality. Additionally, it may also lead co secondary pollution because chemicals dosing is required in che process. An emerging technology, membrane ultrafiltration (VF}, particu larly chose using hollow fibre membranes, enjoys steadily increasing popularity in WWPT effluent

refereed paper


Secondary wastewater Reservoir

Bashwash & Cleanlng System

r-- - - --.iar J


Figure 1. A schematic diagram of the pilot plant for secondary wastewater treatment using UF system . treatment (2-6), primarily due co the high performance ac a pocen ti al low cost and the in creasingly stringent discharge standa rd. Previous studies have investiga ted va rio us memb rane materials, membrane modules and operating procedures using rest systems

operations. A number of previous pilotscale rests were co nducted using hollow fibre membranes of va rious membran e materials including cellu lose acetate (CA) [2], PolyVinyl Alcohol (PVA) (2), polysulphone (PS) [3, 5], polyether

The UF system employed polyacrylonitrile hollow fibre membranes. During the test period of 2500 hours, the membrane UF system had stable and good performance. Economics were favourable. of different capacities [2-9]. le was shown that the performance of a membrane UF process depends on operating flu x [6], backwash procedure [6,7] and pretreatment [8,9] . T he design of a full-scale membran e UF treatment system fo r WWPT effluent req uires sufficient reliable technical data, co llected systematically from pilot-scale

sulphone (PES) (4,6] and polyvinilpyrrol idin (PVP) [6]. In the public domain li terature, there were no pilot-scale experiments on the performance of hollow fib re membrane made from polyacrylonicrile (PAN) in UF treatment of WWTP seco ndary wastewater. This srndy is designed co conduce a systematic investigation under various operating co nditi ons for char purpose. The key

Hollow fibres ~

Concentrate Pem1eate

Figure 2. Hollow fibre membrane module used in the UF pilot system.


AUGUST 2005 57

objectives are to evaluate the technical and economical feasib ility of the process and to obtain essential technical data on PAN membrane UF treatment of secondary wastewater. A treatment system with a capacity of 500 tons per day product water was used on treatment of secondary wastewater in a WWTP in Beijing, Chi na.

Experimental Study Feed water The feed water used in the pilot rest was th e secondary wastewater from a WWTP in Beiji ng, China. It was the effluent fro m the secondary sedi mentation in an activated sludge system, consisting of screening, aeration and microbial deco mposition. T he secondary wastewater complies with Chinese Wastewater Discharge Standard (G B8978-1996) bur not Chinese Reclaimed Water Reuse Standard (CJ.25 .1 89). Without tertiary creacmenc, the secondary wastewater is not suitable for applicatio ns such as surface irrigation, car washing or toilet Aush due to excessive coliform, bacteria and suspended solids etc. The standard fo r water reuse and characteristics of the secon dary wastewater are shown in Table 2. Similar stan dards fo r Australian Authorities [l O] are also su mmarised in Table 5. UF pilot system Figure 1 illustrates the UF pilot setup, which consist of a feeding system, a prefiltration unit, a membrane UF unit, an automatic backwashing/clea ning system, and the associated control and piping system. T he secondary wastewater produced from a wastewater treatment plant was pum ped from the reservoir into the pre-treatment unit, where coarse particles (if any) in the feed water are removed by a sand fil ter, prior to entering into the membrane UF unit. Process Aow used for the pilot system was single-pass . After UF treatment, secondary wastewater is separated into two streams, i.e., the permeate (80%) collected for reuse and the concentrate (20%) fu rther sent back co che primary wastewater stream of the wastewater treatment plant. The membrane UF unit is the core unit affecting the performance of the UF pilot system. In chis study, the membrane UF unit co nsists of nine identical membrane modules, which are con figured into three module groups in parallel. Each module group is formed by connecting three modules in series. A schematic diagram of a single membrane module is shown in Figure 2. The membrane module (1 016 mm in length; 200 mm, i.e., 8 inch in diameter) is

58 AUGUST 2005


Table 1. Comparison among this work with th ree recent pilot tests [3,5,6] in th e literature.

Pilot plant capacity, in product water, tons/day Properties of hollow fibre membra ne module Module diameter, mm Module length, mm Fibre diameter (ID), mm Membrane area, m2 Membrane surface-to· volume ratio, m2/ m3 Membrane material MWCO (kDa) Flow pattern

This study

Decarolis et a/ (6]

Bourgeous eto/ [5]

Tchobonoglous eto/(3]



3.4 · 5.7*


200 1016 0.8 30

100 515 0.8 1.9

0.762 7.9

200 1800 0.9 45

923 PAN 70 Inside-out

470* PES 150 Inside-out

PS 100 Inside-out

796* PS 100 Inside-out

Total membrane modules used in UF system

Six (in Nine (in three groups, each paral lel) group has three modules in series)

Four (in porallel)

Mode of process flow



Single-pass/ recirculation

Feed water



Secondary and/ Secondary/ Filtered Primary or Tertiary


* calculated from the original data provided in relevant references; · : information not available; PAN: polyacrylonitrile; PES: polyethersulphone; PS: polysulphone; MWCO: molecular weight cut-off. designed for inside-our Aow. It con tains 10800 hollow fibres, each fibre has inner and outer diameters of 0.8mm and 1.3mm, respectively. The membrane polymer is PAN, which has an average molecularweight cutoff (MWCO) of70,000 Da. T hese hollow fibres in one mod ule provide a coral membrane surface area of 30 m 2. T herefore, the membrane module has a very high membrane surface- to-volume ratio of 923 m 2/m 3• The whole membrane UF unit has a total membrane surface area of 270 m 2 for the treatment of secondary wastewater co produce 500 tons water per day. The membrane UF unit is highly integrated and is a compact unit (<1'> 240 x 3240 mm) . In the public domain literature, there are several pilot studies [3,4-6] which investigated applications of UF in creati ng effluent from WWT Ps using pilot systems of various scales, di fferent mem brane system, process design and operations. Table 1 lists a derailed compariso n among the pilot system used in this study and those in two recent publications [3,5,6], where hollow fibre membranes were used and detailed information is available for comparison. Table 1 shows that the membrane UF system in chis study has a higher membrane surface-to-volume ratio hence a smaller fo ocprin t.

Pilot system operation and sample analysis To start the system, the sand filter was Aushed with feed water for 30 minutes, followed by pumping feed water into the membrane filtration unit for a 10-minute Aush in order to discharge the membrane protective solutions prefi lled by the membrane module manufaccurer. T he membrane UF system was then put in to steady Aow operation fo r water production. A number of tests were conducted co investigate pre-treatment effectiveness, membrane fo uling behaviours, membrane backwash and cleaning performance, and most importantly membrane filtration performance during a period of 2500 hours continuous operations under controlled operating conditions. Regular readings were recorded for system operations, incl uding water pressures at the inlets of the sand filter and membrane UF unit, water pressures at the outlets of permeate and co ncentrate, Aow rates of feed water, permeate and concentrate, and water temperature. Water samples of different locations were periodically taken from the feed reservoir, the membrane UF inlet, the permeate and the concentrate for a series of quality analysis, including suspended solids (SS), biological oxygen demand for five days (BOD 5), chemical oxygen demands

refereed paper

(COD), Toca] N , Total bacteria, Total coliform, pH, T urbidi ty etc using standard methods [l l ]. The energy consumption of the plant was also recorded.

Results and Discussion I. Performance of membrane UF in treating secondary municipal wastewater T he pilot plant was continuously operated for 2500 hours without interruption. An array of well-planned tests has been cond ucted at the beginni ng of project tO determine the optimal conditions fo r steady flow operations. Under steady operations at a transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 0. 3 MPa, a backwash interval of one hour and a backwash duration of 3 minutes, a permeate production rate of 21 tons/ hour (~500 tons/day} can be achieved with 80% water recovery. Table 2 presents the typical water quality of feed water, UF permeate as product water, together with that in Water Reuse Standard. T he da ta in Tab le l show that UF treatment is very effective in treating the seco ndary municipal wastewater. The bacteria and co li fo rm are completely removed, which was observed in previ ous tests at a pilot system of a much smaller scale of 2.7 tons per day bu t using PES membranes [6] . The PAN membrane UP system is also very effecti ve in rejecting rnrbidi ry and SS, achieving 50-90%, and 55 - l 00% remova ls, respectively. Various degrees of removals of B00 5 (32 - 66%) and COD (2 0 - 60%) are also achieved. T he UF system is not effective in rejecti ng dissolved so lids (OS), however generally the OS in seco ndary wastewater as feed water of the pil ot plant met water reuse standard already. Therefore, permeate from the membrane UF treatment of secondary municipal wastewater using the current design and configurations meets all requirements of

Table 2 . Characteristics of feed water characteristics, quality of product water after

UF treatment, and water reuse standard . Parameters

pH Colour, TCU Turbidity, NTU Dissolved Solids [DS), mg/L Suspended Solids (SS), mg/L BODs, mg/ L COD, mg/ L Total N, mg/L

Chinese Reclaimed water reuse standard (CJ.25.1-89)

Feed Water

6.5 · 9.0


7. 0 · 7.4

<30 <10 <1000 <10

50 1.27 · 3.56 765 8.5 · 23 3.88 - 8.33 19.8-60

<20 0.07 · 0.56 <764 0 · 7.5 1.10-5.65 5 . 44

20. l 110. 5800 80,000 · 400,000

<4.9 0 0

<10 <50 <10

Total Bacteria, cfu/ L Total Coliform, cfu/ L


Water Reuse Standard, thus can be suitabl e for applications such as surface irrigation, car washing or toilet flush. T he pilot tests have proved the technical feasib il ity in applying membrane UF in secondary municipal wastewater treatment. Co mpared to EPA Victoria Standards [ l O] (as shown in Table 5), the product water generally complies with requirements of C lass A reuse.

2. Effects of operation conditions on membrane productivity Tests were also conducted to investigate effects of flow velocity inside the hollow fibre, temperature of feed water and pretreatment on the perform ance of th e membrane UF system. The results are presented in Figures 3-5. Effects of flow velocity inside hollow fibre. Membrane productivity increases proportionally with linea r flow velocity inside the hollow fibre, as shown in Figure 3. Increasing flow velocity leads to high membrane flu x therefore product water rate. However, high flow velocity induces high energy cost in system operations.


Membrane UF product water

Considering both productivity an d economics, preliminary calcul ations indica ted that the optimal flow velocity insid e hollow fibre fo r our pi lot tesrs sho uld be between 0.3 and 0.4 m/s . Effects of feed water temperature. Figure 4 shows that membrane productivity increases with the temperature of feed water while other operati ng parameters were kept co nstant. Increasing water fl ux across a membrane with temperature is well documented in the literature, pri mari ly as a res ult of changes of water viscosity [ l 2] . Resul ts from pilot test in Figure 4 implies that design of a membrane UF system must consider seasonal temperarure va riations at plant locations. Effect of pretreatment. Previo us studies show that pre-treatment of feed water may improve the UF performance (5, 13-1 5] . In our pilot-scale tests, the effect of prefiltration using a sand filter is shown in Figure 5. During the initial period of operation (<30 operating hours}, the introduction of prefiltration significantly increases membrane productivity, implying that prefil tration did reject some solid


100 A Sand


80 60


E :::::...J ')(

..2 u..

~ "'E


~ "'E










40 20








Flow velocity inside fibre, mis

Figure 3. Effe ct of flow velocity ins ide hollow fibre on membrane productivity (water temperature: 20 °C; TMP: 0.3 MPa).

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40 20

20 0.3

Filter Off






Temperature, °C

Figure 4. Effect of feed water temperature on membrane productivity (TMP: 0 .3MPa ; backwashing conditions: 3mins/hour) .






Operation time, hrs

Figure 5. Effect of pre-treatment o n membrane productivity (water temperature: 20°C; TMP: 0.3MPa; backwashing conditio ns: 3mins/ hour).


AUGUST 2005 59

Table 3. Performance of membrane cleaning strategies. Cleaning Strategy

Code of cleaning chemicals

Cleaning Interval (weeks}

Cleaning duration (minutesl

Cleaning effectiveness

Cost (RMB* per 100m3 production water}


3 3 3










II Ill

• RMB - Ren Min Bi, Chinese currency contaminants. However, such an enhancement diminished with furrher scab le operation . T herefore, under the testing conditions, prefilrrarion may nor be necessa ry. This suggests that installation of a sand filter in a membrane UF system may nor be needed.

3. Effects of membrane fouling, backwashing and cleaning on membrane productivity As shown in T able 2, secondary municipa l wastewater as the feed water contains solid, organic and microbial contaminants at various concentrations. During UF treatment, membrane fou ling will occur and can significantly deteriorate membrane flux. Ic is of critical importance to optimise such co ndi tions in order to achieve rhe productivity an d filtra te water quality necessary for water reuse. Figure 6 ill ustrates rhe effect of membrane foul ing on membrane producriviry. The da ta were obtained from experiments during a 50-hour conti nuous operation under constant operation conditions without membrane backwash and cleaning. Figure 6 shows that the membrane flu x deteriorated rapidly during rhe initial 2-hour operation , implying that severe membrane fouling occurred . In subsequent operation, membrane foul ing seems to be srabilised with only a slight decline in membrane productivity. The design of an optimised backwash and clea ning procedure can restore membrane flux to the required level, and is essential to achieve continuous and stable operation of rhe UF system. Figu re 7 presents the effectiveness of fo ur different backwash schemes, i.e., at backwash interval of one, two, three and four hours with a backwash duration of 3 min utes, respecti vely. Each backwash scheme can restore rhe membrane fl ux initially but experience different deterioration characteristic curves. Figure 7 suggests chat in order to achieve rhe membrane productivity of the pilot plant, a backwash interval of one hour with 3 minutes backwash duration is the best strategy. Eventually, membrane fo uling will inevitably lead to rhe irreversible decl ine in product water rate, which cannot be fully





.c; E





><" ::s









5' x ::s u:



80 60 40 oOne hour 6 Three hours


o Two hours o Four hours


20 0











Operation time (hours)

Operation time (hours)

Figure 6. Effect of membrane fouling on

Figure 7. Effect of backwash interval on

membrane productivity (water temperatu re: 20°C; TMP: 0.3 MPa) .

membrane productivity (water temperature: 20°C; TMP : 0.3MPa; backwash duration: 3 minutes).

restored by membrane backwash only. Further rests on the pilot system con firmed char rhe effectiveness of backwash deteriorates with operations so rhar membrane cleaning is necessary. Membrane cleani ng trials were co nducted using three cleaning strategies, as shown in Table 3. Each cleani ng strategy restored membrane flux to 100% of the des ign value. Based on cost considerations, membrane cleaning strategy III has been chosen for regular operation.

4. Economic considerations and comparisons with conventional treatment The product water of chis pilot plane was used for car wash, achieving rhe same performance as potable water at half the cost. Assuming 50 cars are washed everyday, reuse of product water from a plant with the same capacity of this pilot plant alo ne can effectively save ~ 5000 1113 potable water per annum. Based on technological and economic data obtained from the pilot plant

Table 4. Compa rison between membrane UF system and traditional treatment. Membrane UF system

Conventional physicalchemical treatment


Pilot demonstration

Matured application

Process complexity




Energy consumption



Civil structure






Product water quality

Good, stable, no chemicals required for disinfection due to 100% removal of bacteria and col iform.

Poor, unstable, chemicals required for disinfection

Secondary pollution

No doses of chemicals, free of secondary pollution

Dose of chem icals, potential secondary pollution

Interferes on surroundings

Close operation, without interfering surround ings

Open operation, interfering surroundings


Economical The conventional method is 10% higher

Capital cost Operation cost



refereed paper

operations, an economical analysis of a fullsca le plant of I 0,000 tons/day product water indicates that rhe energy con sumption and total operation cost are lower than conventional physical-chemical method. Conventional physical-chemical treatment of WWPT effluent involves a series of physical and chem ical processes, including chemical dosing, coagulation, settlement, filtration and disin fect ion. Table 4 lists a compariso n between membrane UF system and conventional ph ysical-chem ica l treatment method. It can be seen in Table 4 rhar membrane UF system is technologically, environmentally and economically feasib le and offers sign ificant advantages over the conventional physical-chemical treatment method.

Summary of Findings from Pilot-Scale Investigations Treatment of secondary municipal wastewater has been investigated using a UF pilot plant of 500 rons/day prod uct water capacity. T he hollow fi bre membrane was made from PAN. T he pilot plant was ope rated for a co ntin uous period of 2500 ho u rs. The performance of the membrane

UF system was good and stable, delivering product water of required quality. The optimal operating conditions were determined and sufficient technical data were obtai ned. Application of membrane UF for treatment and reuse of WWTP secondary water is technically and eco nomically feasible and offers significanr overall advanrages over convenrional physical-chemical method. T herefore the above pilot study demonstrates rhe potential ro use membrane technologies to upgrade existing treatment plant output quality as well as to build new plants based on combined biological and membran e technologies. T he authors are currenrly involved in several plants in Australia where membrane technology based treatment is pro posed. These project findi ngs are expected robe reported in the next one to two years.

Implications for Wastewater Reuse in Australia Background T he reuse of wasrewarer in Australia has been going on for several years. Treated

municipal wastewater has been used for irrigation of farm land or feed lots. The treatment and recycling near urban centres has nor been extensive in the past. T here are schemes in Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland where treated mun icipal efflu ent is being used for toilet flush ing and garden irrigation . With the recurring water shortages in many stares of Austral ia, the issue of reducing domestic water consumption has been getti ng more arrennon. On-s ire treatment and recycling of wastewater would red uce the domestic water consu mp tion by 20 to 40% (16] . Current water pricing levels in most states do not reflect the true cost of water productio n and distribution, unlike rhe case of telecommunications or power, hence the economical advantage of water savings may nor at first sight appear very promising. However the savings achieved in va luable and scarce water reso urces are a major benefit. In som e siruarions where water or sewage facilities are not available, on-sire treatment and recycli ng of water wil l be the key to successful and sustainable development. T he safety and environ men tal

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refereed paper




Table 5. Classes of reclaimed water and correspond ing standards for biological treatment an d pathogen reduction. (EPA Victoria [ l O]). Class

Water quality objectives • Medians unless specified

Treatment processes

Range of uses · uses include all lower class uses


Indicative objectives • <10 E.coli org/ 100 ml • Turbidity < 2 NTU • <10/5 mg/l BOD/SS • pH 6 - 9 • 1mg/l Cl2 residual (or equivalent disinfection)

Tertiary and pathogen reduction with sufficient log reductions to ach ieve: • <10 E.coli per 100 ml • <1 helminth per litre • <1 protozoa per 50 litres • <1 virus per 50 litres

Urban (non-portable): with uncontrolled public

• < 100 E.coli org/ 100 ml • <20/30 mg/l BOD/SS • pH 6 - 9

Secondary and pathogen (includ ing Helminth reduction for cattle grazi ng) reduction

• < 1000 E.coli org/100 ml • <20/30 mg/ l BOD/SS • pH 6 - 9

Secondary and pathogen reduction (including Helminth reduction for cattle grazing use schemes)

• < 1000 E.coli org/ 100 ml • <20/30 mg/l BOD/SS • pH 6 - 9





aspects of the on-site treatment plant can be taken into consideration d uring rhe planing and design stage. A carefully planned scheme (17] can contribute to a sustainable development rhat will benefit the community and the environment. In the case of the developer it is possible chat some form of government rebates or discounts on the development fees and head works charges could be negotiable with the council and other authorities. T rends in och er countries indicate that this is possible.

UF as One of Key Components in Wastewater Treatment Technology Matrix Various treatmen t processes are possible for wastewater treatment and reuse. Simpler p rocesses involve septic ranks followed by constructed weclands and disinfection. These processes are possible if adequate land is available. Such processes rend to be less expensive in terms of capital cost and operation cost. However they would need a relatively large land area. Ir would not be possible to have large areas of land available in the development. Hence more sophisticated p rocesses using smaller land area will be considered for chis project. Proven technological processes such as the Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) (18] or Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) (19] would need only a small area (typically 40 to 50% of the area required for conventional

62 AUGUST 2005 water

plants) and provide rhe benefit of removing several co mponents of a trad itional activated sludge treatment system. Final disinfection would be required co ensu re conform ity to the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) Victoria, Reclaimed Water use guidelines. Membrane UF technology described in the study here provides a technically sound and cost effective means of upgrading the quality of created water from conven tio nal treatment planes char are currently in operation. This retrofitting would p rovide opporcuni ties for obtaining a high quality of treated water with minimal cost an d implement reuse. Guidelines for wastewater reuse are available from EPA (10], Victoria, as shown in Table 5. Similar guidelines are also available in Western Australia (16] and New South Wales (20]. In addition the Scace Government of Victoria is also committed to promote the reduction of domestic consumption by recycling. If wastewater is ro be recycled for toilet flu shing, the level of treatment needs to be qui re high and the quality of the treated product needs to be assured by regular resting of the treated effluent and real rime monitoring of rhe treatment process. The EPA guidelines for C lass A Reuse clearly define the created effluent characteristics. This standard has to be achieved consisrencly for toiler flu shing and irrigatio n usage of the treated efflu ent. T he quality of produce water from

access Agricultural: e.g. human food crops consumed

raw Industrial: open systems with worker exposure

potential Agricultural : e.g. dairy cattle grazing Industrial: e.g. washdown water

Urban (non-portable): with controlled publ ic

access Agricultural : e.g. human food crops cooked/processed, grazi ng/fodder for livestock Industrial: systems with no potential worker exposure Agricultural: non-food crops including instant turf, woodlots, flowers

membran e UF of WWTP effluents (Table 2) generally complies with Class A Reuse in Table 5. One may also envisage that membrane filtration techniques can be good candidates for treatment of centralised grey water reuse. Therefore, membrane UF can be positioned as o ne of key components in wastewater treatment technology matrix. Certainly, the selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology would consider various factors such as space available, location - urban, rural etc, proximity to sewer connectio ns, topography of the site, density of housi ng, availability of technical and maintenance manpower, costs of consumables and similar issues. An important consideration for selecting the most appropriate technology would be the in tended reuse applications for the treated wastewater. Hence it would be prudent co discuss the reuse application and the required level of treatment with the relevant authorities prior to commencing detailed designs and con trace negotiations.

Authority Approvals Increased private sector participation in water reuse projects will enable sustainable water use initiatives to move forward rap idly. This would therefore require a proper framework for investment, financial rebates, authority approvals etc. to be done without delay.

refereed paper

It is likely rhar rhe approval process may be breaking new ground in mosr srares of Australia, since a clear framework for delivering projects wirh private sector pa rtici pation does nor seem ro exist yer. In mosr srares, rhe EPA, Council, Health Department and Warer Authority all would have some degree of input into the final proposal and rhe overall design may also need ro be modified ro adapt rhe requirements of rhese aurhori ries. During approvals ir would be possible ro negotiate con cessions in terms of head works charges or perhaps rebates. However, ir appears rhat rhere is a need fo r a one- stop agency for reviewi ng and processing applicatio ns fo r ons ire sustainable water reuse projects in volving curring edge technologies such as memb rane filrrarion.

Concluding Remarks The pilor sru dy reported in rhis paper has demonstrated rhe technica l and financial viab ility of usin g membrane tec hn ologies fo r rrear ing wasrewater fo r reuse appli ca tions. T his prov ides opporruniries for on-s ite rrearmenr and reuse of rreared water in Austral ia and any area rhar has water shortages. Furthermore UF also provides an economi cal means of upg rad ing rhe quality of wasrewarer in co n ventional sewage rrearmenr plants. The reuse initiati ves require an adequate framework for project approva ls, ope ration and mainten ance. This would rh en provide private sector participation in water reuse in itiatives comprising of des ign, consrrucrion , operat ion and maintenance.

References [l] . Vesilind PA, Wmtewnter Treatment Pinnt Design, Water Environment Federat ion, 2003. [2]. Inoue G, Ogasawara H , Yanagi C and Murayama, Desalination, 1981; 39: 423. [3]. Tchobanoglous G, Darby J, Bourgeous K, McArd le J, Genest P and T ylla M, Desalination, 1998; 119: 3 15. [4]. Van der G raff JHJM, Kramer JF, Pluim J, de Koning J and Weijs M, Wat. Sci. Tech. , 1999; 39(5) : 129 [5]. Bourgeous KN, Darby JL and T chobanoglous G, Water Research, 2001; 3 5( 1): 77. [6] . Decarolis J, Hong Sand T aylor J, journal of Membrane Science, 200 I ; 191 : 165. [7]. Hofman JAMH, Beumer MM, Baa rs ET , van der H oek, JP and Koppers HMM, Desalination, 1998; 119: 113. [8]. van Houtte E, Verbauwhede J, Vanlerberghe F, Dcmunter Sand Cabooter ) , Desalination, 1998; 117:49. [9J . van HoofSCJM, Hashim A and Kordes AJ, Desalination, 1999; 124: 231 [ 10]. EPA Vicroria, Guidelines.for E11viro11menta! Managem ent - Use of Reclaimed Wate,; Publication 464.2, EPA Victoria, Australia, 2003. [ I 1]. Standard Methods for the faamination of W11ter and Wastewater, 19th Edition ,

Washingron, DC; APHA-AWWA-WPCF, 1996. [12]. Wiesner MR, Laine JM , C hapter 6, In: Water treatment membrane processes, AWWA Research Foundation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996. [13]. Bores JP, Jacobs EP and Bradshaw SM, Desalinatio11, 1998; 115: 229. [14]. de Ko ning) and van Nieuwenhuijzen AF, Water Sci. 6¡ Tech., 1999; 4 0(4) : 285. [ 15]. Drage B, Holden P, Marchant J, Bailey A&Upton J, Water Sci. & Tech.: Water Supply, 200 1; 1(5) : 349. [ 16]. Department of Healrh, Guidelines for reuse ofGrey water i11 \l.1/estern Australia, Perth, WA, 2002. [ 17] . Mensink J, State Water Stmtegy - Struclllre and Key Initiatives, presented ar Water Symposium , Perth WA, 20 September 2003 [1 8] . Surampalli RY, Tyagi RD, Scheible OK, Heid man JA, Bioresource Technology, 1997; 61: 15 1. [19] . van der Roese H.F, Lawrence DP, van Ben rem AGN, Membrane Biore//ctors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment, IWA Publishing, 2002. [20] . NSW Recycled Water Coordination Comm icrec, NSW guidelines for urban //nd residential use ofreclaimed water, 1st Edi tion, 1993.

The Authors Guang Wu, Guangming Qiu, Xuechun Liu, Jiding Li and Cuixian Chen are researchers ar rhe Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua U nivers ity, Beijing 100084, Chi na. Yiping Gan is wirh rhe Beijing Drainage Group, Beijing 100022, Ch in a. Nathan Narendranathan is wirh Infra T ech Pry Ltd , PO Box 44 1, Willerron, WA 6955, Au stralia. Hongwei Wu, the co rrespon ding aurhor, is a Se nior Lecturer in the Department of Chemical Engineering and rhe Associate Director of rhe Centre fo r Fuels and Energy ar Cu rtin Un iversiry of Technology, GPO Box Ul987, Perrh WA 6845, Australia. He is leading an Australian/Chinese co llaborative R&D program on applicatio ns ofU F for recycling of Wasrewarer. Email: h. wu@currin.edu.au.

refereed paper


AUGUST 2005 63


Leucine amino acid and an aRginine ami no acid in rhe The Cooperative Research variable positions. T he mai n Centre fo r Water Quality and I"-. :..., 35 mode of toxicity is liver damage Trearmenr is supporti ng a major 0) 2, due to protein phosphatase 30 research project focussed on rhe C inhibi tion, and microcysrins have .Q removal of algal merabolires .... 25 "§ been reported to promote rhe from drinking water using cQ) fo rmation of cancerous tumours. biological fil rrarion processes. (J 20 C W hilst m-LR is rhe most 0 The merabolires are rhe rasre C) 15 common analogue, the great ~ I 'v and odour compounds MIB and .!: in majority of rhe algal blooms >, geosmin, and rhe algal toxins 10 I (J producing microcystins will microcysrin and e(J 5 produce a range of the analogues. I cylindrospermopsin . Th e very ~ -l'\.._~j Some blooms have been found to t promising resu lts so far show 0 -· contain no m-LR, while others rhar all of rhe merabolires are 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 have some of the orher analogues susceptible to biological Time (Days) as the major components. degradati on; however, a lag Therefo re, any investigation in to period is sometimes evident Figure 1. Removal of microcystin-LR (m-LR) and -LA (m-LA) from the effect of water treatment a laboratory scale GAC column experim ent. prior to significant degradation processes on microcystins should of rhe metabolites. A major include a range of the most future focus of the project will coagulation , flocculation, sedimentation co mmonly found analogues. In rh is study, be the identification of the cause of rhe lag and filtration . Si milarly, oxidation processes microcystins-LR, -LA, -YR and -RR will be period in order to minimise or eliminate it. such as chlorination and ozo nation are nor stud ied. entirely effective fo r their removal, and Introduction Cylindrospermopsin is an alkaloid activated carbon adsorp tion is adversely cycotoxin produced ma inly by the fresh Alga l-derived compounds are receiving affected by the presence of natural organic warer cya nobacreria Cylindrospermopsis widespread attention in the warer industry material. Narural organic material (NO M) raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. as they can compromise rhe quali ty of is present at much higher levels than rhe The presence of high levels of CYN in drinking water. Of major concern are taste and odour compounds (milligram drinking water can cause liver, kidney and secondary algal metabolites which can compared wi th nanogram levels) and gastrointestinal damage. l e has also recently impart tastes and odours and toxic competes very strongly for adsorption sites been reported as a potential carcinogen metabolites which can affect human health. reducing the lifetime of granular activated (Humpage et al., 2000). Originally thought In Australia, some of the mosr prevalent of ca rbo n (GAC) fil ters, and increasing rhe to be mainly an issue in tropical areas, chis these metabolites are: doses of powdered activated carbon (PAC) toxin is now repo rted regularly in more • 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin required to remove rhe compounds. temperate regions. • rhe microcystins The microcysrins are the most co mmonly The microcystins and CYN are • cylindrosperrnopsi n (CYN) reported of rhe cyanobacterial toxins susceptible to oxi dation processes, given sufficiently high doses and co ntact rimes; Acclimated bacteria in a sand filter, however for compounds of such significant health concern, a multi-barrier approach to after a lag period, give promising treatment of at least two levels is essential results. Further work is in progress. for rhe confident provision of toxin free warer. MIB and geosmin are tertiary alcohols worldwide. T hey are cyclic heptapeprides These metabolites are considered ro be of which impart earrhy-musry tastes and consisting of seven amino acid groups, two major interest to water suppliers odours in drinking water. They can be of which are variable. These differences internationally, and a low cosr, low perceived by consumers in dri nking warer at determ ine the letters fo llowing tech nology, reliable treatment option such levels as low as 5- 10 ng L-1 and are a "microcys rin " in the name of the toxin . For as biological fil tration wo uld be of problem to warer suppliers as they are nor example, the most common of the known enormous value ro the international water removed by rhe conventional processes of analogues, microcyscin-LR (m-LR), has a communi ty. 40


sterilisation - - - estimated concentration no samples taken 1 - • - m-LR (in) .,. _,,_ m-LA (in) I - - m-LR (out) Y - "1-m-LA(out) A ~I

/':'f' ,.,.\,._. ,,,IT. .\...

- - - / _1:t Y\Jv.

P 7 \'1

64 AUGUST 2005 water



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Recently, a new project has been commissioned within the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatmen t (CRCWQT) to investigate the effectiveness of biological filtration processes fo r the removal of these metabolites. T his project will address the important issue of biological treatment of algal metabolites, in particular filtration through biologically active media.


molecular weight and is more hydrophobic than m-LR, characteristics which should \ '...J 70 0, result in greater adsorption of -3, \ C 60 111-LA. Another invesrigarion is ~ 0 :;:, • ·•) currently unde1way to ~ cQ) 50 determine the cause of rhe u C difference in the adsorption of 0 40 (.) the analogues. C 'iii 30 a. After day 16 m-LR and m-LA 0 were not detected in the effluent E Q) 20 a. water, suggesting that both "'e microcystin analogues were 10 'O .£: biologically degraded. On day '5, (.) 0 60 the infl uent concentrations Why Biological Filtration? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 of m-LR and m-LA were Time(Days) Wirh rhe ongoing concern approximately doubled. No regarding the addition of Figure 2. Degradation of cylindrospermopsin over a 70 day breakthrough of m-LR and mchemicals to water supplies, and period. LA was observed . .On day 70, rhe potential by-p roducts of the GAC was removed fro m the oxidation processes, biological Treated Mypo nga Reservoir water, spiked column and sterilised. The treatment techniques are becom ing more with m-LR and m-LA, was constantly sterilised GAC was placed back in the attractive to water suppliers and rhe general applied as rhe influent water th roughout the column and the experiment concinued. public. Biological treatment techniques are experiment. Breakthrough of m-LR and mBreakthrough of both microcystin generally of low tech nology, requiring analogues was immediately observed LA was evident from days 0- 16. During this relatively little maintenance and are period of rime rhe microcysrin inlet indicating that once again adsorption was therefore potentially of significant in teres t concentrations were nor determ ined, the primary mechanism for their removal. to regional and/or remote communities, in These fi ndings provide a srrong indication although th ey were estimated at Australia and overseas, and developi ng approximately 20 pg L- 1 of each analogue. that the removals from days 16 to 70 were countries. However, for rhe confident T he breakthrough of microcysrin from the through a biological degradation application of biological techniques for the mechanism. pre-exposed GAC is nor uncommon and removal of algal metabolites it is essential has been documenced by Craig and Bailey The ini tial lag period of 16 days is rhat the optimum conditions are known, (1995) who showed 25 % microcysrin indicative of the microorganisms requiring and rhe co mplete removal of the potentially breakthrough after only 2 months operation an acclimation period to degrade harmful organic compounds is guaranteed. with an EBCT of 15 minures. microcystin. Previous studies have indicated At present this is nor possible, and this lack char once microorganisms have been The breakthrough curves fo r both of knowledge will be di rectly addressed microcysrin analogues indicated char m-LR accl imatised or exposed to mi crocysrin, the within this project. was more easily removed via adsorption lag period decreases (Rapala et al., 1994; Christoffersen Studies by Newcombe et al. et al., 2002). This lag period than m-LA. Progress to Date (2001 ) and Cook and Newcombe (2002) for rhe initiation of biological degradation Biological filtration of microcystin reported sim ilar adsorption trends with rhe has a significant impact on the practical Some initial laboratory column application of biological filtra tion of algal same microcystin analogues. The reason for experi ments were conducted to assess the the difference in adsorption of the two toxins. biodegradability of microcystin. Figure 1 analogues is unclear since m-LA has a lower Biological degradation of shows results from a CYN laboratory column Biological degradation of 25 experiment employing GAC CYN was investigated after which had been pre-exposed inoculation with samples of a for a period of 3 months to fi ltration med ium from a C filtered water sampled from .Q pilot scale slow sand fil rrarion the Myponga Reservoir ~C plant located at North Pine Water Treatment Plant prior ~ 15 Dam (NPD), Queensland C to chlorination. It was 0 where previous work had u presumed that during this C shown that filt ration through rime many of the adsorption 'ii 10 chis system reduced CYN 0 sires of rhe pre-exposed GAC concentrations to below E would have been depleted for ~ analytical detection (Sm ith, 5 microcysri n due to rhe excess 2004) . T he plane consisted of 'O loading of NOM. C a reservoir holding rank where ~ The column (internal water was pumped fro m N PD U 0+--..--r---,--.---.---.--,--r---,.---,,.__....,..._, diameter of 2.5 cm, GAC 0 4 and fed into a biologically 8 12 16 20 24 bed height of 15 cm) ran at active roughing filter. The Time (Days) an empty bed contact rime roughing filter consisted of (EBCT) of 15 minutes. Figure 3. Deg ra dation of cylindrospermops in by enrichment culture. fil ter materials, main ly gravel, 80

- • - Roughing filter gravel - • - Control

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66 AUGUST 2005 water

At the completion of the above experiment (ie. when the CYN 100 /. . concentration was below the - • - Geosmin 90 ~ \ detection limit of the analytical technique), the co ntents of the 80 ~ u nsteri Iised tu be were centrifuged, the supernatant 70 ~· ' . . / . \ decanted and the bacterial pellet 60 / · - · ---· washed three rimes with sterile minimal medium. T he washed pellet was then resuspended in the min imal medium, spiked with 50 pg L-1 of purified CYN, lncreased EBCT to 30 minutes - and the experiment repeated. 10 (Day 79) This procedure was co nducted three rimes to ensure for th e 70 80 90 100 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 prese nce of CYN degrading Time (Days) bacteria. Figure 3 shows results from the first enrichmen t Figure 4 . Removal of MIB and geosmin from a laboratory procedure. Cyfindrospermopsis raciborskii sand column experiment. CYN degradation by the cell free extract (approximately enriched culture of bacteria was 50 pg L-1 CYN). Samples were days, with complete degradation in 70 days. mu ch more effective than the original taken at regular intervals fo r CYN T he lag period of 8 days is co nsistent with culture of bacteria from the roughing filter determination by HPLC/ MS/MS. A the microcystin studies, where a lag period with complete degradation in 20 days co ntrol experiment utilising sterilised gravel of 16 days was evident. The CYN co mpared with 70 days in the initial was also employed to monitor any CYN concentration of the control remained experiment. This supports th e theo ry char losses due to fac tors other than biological relatively stable over the duration of the once accl imatised, microorgainsms are able degradation. Figure 2 shows the removal of experiment providing strong evidence that to reduce the lag period prior to CYN in these experiments. Degradation of biological activity was responsible for CYN degrad ation commencing. Similar CYN commenced after a lag period of 8 removal in the unsterilised sa mple.

which success ively decreased in size (approximately 20 mm, I 0 mm and 5 mm). After the roughi ng fil ter, the water was passed through a biologically active sand filter. T he flow rare of the pl ant was rargered at 8 L hr-1 with a contact time of approximately six hours. Sa mples of the gravel were obta ined fro m the roughing filter. A small amount of gravel was added to sterilised minimal medium and mixed well and allowed to settle fo r a few minutes. An aliquot of chis solution was then transferred to a sterile 50 ml rube containing a mini mal medium spiked wi th

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AUGUST 2005 67

observations were documented by Senogles et al. (2002). T he isolation and identification of CYN degrading bacteria will is currently underway.

Biological filtration of MIB and geosmin Biological filtration experimenrs were undertaken with MIB and geosmin using sand as the fil ter medium. T he sand was obtained from the Morgan Water T reatment Planr and sterilised prior to addition to the column. Myponga Reservoir water spiked with MIB and geosmin was used as the in fl uent, at an initial EBCT of 15 minutes. Figure 4 shows the percent remaini ng of bo th compounds in the effl uent of the column. There was removal of an average of 6 and 33 % fo r MIB and geosmi n, respectively over the first 9 days. T his is likely to be due to phys ical processes such as adsorption to the filtration system components and/o r volatilisation, as rhe sand was in itially steril ised. After 9 days, degradation of MIB and geosmin commenced. By day 78 app roximately 65-70 % of MIB and geosm in was removed with the majori ty of chis attributed to biological degradation . Between days 9 and 78, the removals of the taste and odour compounds fluc tuated; chis

was probably due to rhe infl uenr concentrations of both compounds which varied between 37 ng/L to 199 ng/L. The EBCT was increased to 30 minures on day 79, resulting in greater than 80 % remova l of both compounds. This highlights the importance of the hydraulic loading of the compounds and how longer exposure of the compo unds to the bacteria may increase the removal by biological degradation.

What's Next? Results so fa r ind icate that biological fil tration processes fo r the removal of MIB, geosmi n, microcystin and CYN are viable treatment options. However, the challenge will be to opti mise degradation. A major emphasis of this study will be to identify the cause of the lag period prior to degradation commencing. Once the origin of che lag period can be ascertai ned, research will focus on its minimisation or elimination so chat biological degradation occurs immed iately on a challenge to the fi lter. T his will ulti mately aid in the establ ish ment of design cri teria/operating guideli nes for the optimisation of the bio logical fi ltration processes for these co mpounds.

In addition, isolation and identification of the degrading bacteria will be undertaken using genetic techniques. Experiments will be co nducted to verify whether fil ters can be "a rtificially" seeded with the degrading bacteria to optimise filtration processes .

Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Wolfgang Aunkofer and Najwa Slyman fo r maintaining the laboratory scale columns fo r the biofiltration of MIB, geosmin and mi crocystin.

The Authors Lionel Ho, Chris Saint and Gayle Newcombe are researchers at the Australian Water Quality Centre, Salisbury, SA; Shiromi Wijesundara and Glen Shaw are at the Nati onal Research Centre for Environmenral Toxicology, Coopers Plains, QLD; Mark O'Donohue is wich South East Q ueensland Water. Emai l: Lionel.Ho@sawater. com. au

References C hrisroffe rsen K., Lyck S. a nd Wi nding A. (2002) M icrob ial act ivity and bacterial community srrucrure during d egradat io n of mic rocystins. Aquatic Microbial Ecology

27(2), 125- 136. Cook D. and Newcombe G. (2002) Removal of m icrocysrin vari ants with powdered activated carbon. Water Science 6- Technology: Water

Supply 2 (5/6), 20 1-207. C raig K. a nd Bailey D. (l 995) Cyanobacterial toxin microcystin ' LR' removal usi ng activated carbon - Hunter Water C orpora tion Experience. ln Proceedings of the 16th Federal A \.YIWA Convention, April 2-6, J995, Sydney,

Austmlia, 579-586. Humpage A., Fenech M., T ho mas P. and Falconer l. (2000) M icro nucleus induction a nd chromoso me loss in transformed human whi te cells indica te clastogenic a nd aneugen ic act ion of t he cyanobacte rial coxin, cyli nd rospe rmopsin. Mu tation Research - Genetic

Toxicology and Environmental M utagenesis 472( 1/2), 155-1 6 1. Newcombe G., Brooke S., Cook D. a nd Ho L. (2001 ) Microcyst in LR a nd LA, similarities and differences in response to water treatment processes. In Proceedings ofthe Water Quality

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lake sediments of cyano bacte rial hepacoroxins and anacoxin-a. l etters in Applied Microbiology 19(6), 423-428 . Senogles P. , S mith M . and Shaw G. (2002) Physical, chemical and biological methods fo r rhe degradation of the cya nobaccerial toxin, cyli nd rospermopsin. In Proceedings ofthe

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t\1/ater Quality Technology Conference, November 10-14, 2002, Seattle, Washington, USA . Smith M. (2004) Biodegmdation of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsi11. PhD D issertation, Faculty of Medicine, U n iversity of Q ueensland, Ausrralia.