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Volume 31 No 5 August 2004 Journal of the A ustra lian Water Association

Editorial Board F R Bishop, Chairman B N Anderson, G Finke, G Finlayson, GA Holder, B Labza, M Muntisov, P Nadebaum, J D Parker, F Roddick, G Ryan, S Gray, A Gibson, P Mosse


Making the Best of 'Boom' Times; PSP and Millennium Development Goals; My Point of View, Sustainable Management and Climate Change, D Kemp

EA (Bob) Swi.nton 4 Pleasant View Cres, Wheelers H ill Vic 3 150 Tel/Fax (03) 9560 4752 Email: bswinron@bigpond.net.au

ASSOCIATION ACTIVITIES 9 What Factors are Currently Affecting Association Resource Management? INTERNATIONAL 12 Including IWA Australia and WEF Reports MEMBERS' FORUM 18 Half a Billion Dollars - How About a Water Bank? H Bjorn lund PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 20 Details of courses, classes and other upcoming water events CROSSCURRENT 22 Industry news CONFERENCE REPORTS 27 AWA Biosolids Specialty II Conference. Report by D W iesner; Centralised vs Decentralised Water Systems. Repo rt by P Spencer.

Water Production


Hallmark Editions PO Box 84, Hampton, Vic3188 Level I , 99 Bay Street, Brighton, Vic 3186 T el (03) 9530 8900 Fax (03) 9530 89 I 1 Email: hallmark@halledir.com.au Graphic design: Mitzi Mano


'-- Water is a refereed journal. This symbol indicates that a paper has been refereed.

Submissions Instructions fo r authors can be fou nd on page 2 of chis journal. Submissions accepted at: www.awa.asn.au/publications/

Managing Editor Peter Stirling

Technical Editor

AUSTRALIAN WATER CONSERVATION AND REUSE RESEARCH PROGRAM Workshops have been held in every state and a list of projects has been drawn up Report by P D illo n, D Ellis, D W iesner


FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN STORMWATER ASR Transport of stormwater THROUGH an aquifer should purify it to potable standard


GUIDANCE FOR WATER REUSE IN NEW DEVELOPMENTS A guide to assist planning and design

S Rinck-Pfeiffer

Water Advertising National Sales Manager: Brian Rault Tel (03) 9530 8900 Fax (03) 9530 891 l Mobile 04 1I 354 050 Email: bmulr@halledit.com.au

D C avanagh, T McAlister


Water (ISSN 0310 - 0367) is published eight times a year in the months of February, March, May, June, August, September, November and December.


Trust in the authority is the main criterion A Hurlimann, J McKay



Australian Water Association

Comparing overseas surveys with local surveys

PO Box 388, Artarmon, NSW 1570 Tel +G I 2 94 13 1288 Fax: (02) 94 13 1047 Email: info@awa.asn.au ABN 78 096 035 773

J S M arks


President Rod Lehmann

Chief Executive Officer



Chris Davis Australian Water Association (AWA) assumes no responsibiliry fo r opinions or statements of fucts expressed by contributors or advertisers. Editorials do not necessarily represent official AWA policy. Advertisements are included as an info rmation service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to che water environment and objectives of AWA. All material in Water is copyrighr and should not be reproduced wholly or in pare without rhe wricren permission of the Managing Ediror.

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"Integrated Concepts for Reuse of Upgraded Wastewater in Australia" A I Schafer, S Khan, T W incgens, T Melin


MAKING STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT WORK The informality of a 'World Cafe' is more productive than 'meetings' J P Dun n


•, ACTINOMYCETES MAY ALSO PRODUCE TASTE AND ODOUR Another species in Brisbane's North Pine Dam can produce geosmin etc C Klausen , N O G J0rgensen, M Burford, M O ' Do nohue


•, WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: A REVIEW A literature review quoting ranges of removal for each unit operation A Parkinso n, F A Roddick



OUR COVER: Reuse of treated effluent for watering turf, such tlS for golfcourses and playing fields, hM long been practised in rural aret/S. The drive for reuse in our cities is gathering strength, but watering turf will not be sufficient to fulfil the 20% recycle target being set by governments. The ultimate will be recycling highly treated effluent back to the potable supply, but this is a long way ftom being acceptable in Australia...as yet. However, in the long term, as populationsgrow, this challenge will have to be addressed. Photo cou1·tesy ofM elbounze Water.

from the president


MAKING THE BEST OF 'BOOM' TIMES Ir is interesting to experience another "boom" in rhe water industry. Whilst we have managed to work through most previous booms before we knew char there was a boom, this boom seems like it might be sustained for a number of years. We are now find ing a serious problem in findin g skilled resources. There have also been increased expectations in regard to project outcomes with targets being stretched to levels which fo r many years have been considered as unachievable. What we are also seeing is strong pressures on costs and salaries, which, as usual, is led fro m the bottom, with professionals being the last in the food chain to savour rhe 111creases. In my home state, Queensland, rhe boom appears to be driven by population growth and new house development, by changing licensing standards and by uncertainty over furn re subsidy arrangements. T here are probably different reasons in other scares and the territories. We are also seeing significant changes in the way work is being packaged. Work is bei ng bundled into larger packages, providing

Rod Lehmann (right) and AWWA President, Marley Price, sign an agreement.

of the favo ured approaches. You can get all sorts of opinions about rhe success or otherwise of alliancing, depending on who you talk to but, in my experience, the client generally views outcomes favo urably even if there may not have been significant cost savings or indeed cost savings ar all. l was fo rtunate to attend the recent American Water Works Association Conference in Orlando, Florida. At rhe co nference I had rhe opportunity to talk to a number of people about what is happening in Australia and particularly to describe so me of rhe innovation rhar is

Indeed there were a number ofareas where Australian skills were being acknowledged as leading edge, including asset management and water quali-ty management. opportunity for rhe larger contractors to bid for the work and offering scope for efficiencies of scale. Clients are also showing a wi ll ingness to experiment with different delivery models with the models being srrucrn red to best suit client needs. There is a range of delivery models being used, with all iancing being one

2 AUGUST 2004


occurring with project delivery. My impression is that we are well advanced in this area in comparison to rhe US, where partnering is seen as the main area of in novation. Indeed there were a number of areas where Australian skills were being acknowledged as leading edge, including asset

management and water qual ity management (ie. rhe recent risk-based approach to managing water quality in drin king water systems) . There are several Australian compan ies providing specialist services in to rhe US fo r asset management and chis will benefit us all in rhe longer term. My overall impression of rhe AWW A Conference was char there was nor one specific topic which dominated. T here were lots of papers on water system management and performance optimisation, a lot of papers dealing with membranes and upgradi ng water treatment planes using membrane systems, a number of papers on desalination and a number dealing with nitrosamines. T he presentation rhat I enjoyed the most was fro m a person from rhe Disney Institute who gave Disney's view of customer service. For example, rhey rared the lifetime value of a customer as approximately US$5 0,000. This put minor excursions such as customer dissatisfaction in perspective - just fi x ir. I thoroughly enjoyed the annual pipe tapping contest and the enthusiasm of the participants - both men's and women's reams participated. At the con ference we signed an MOU with the AWWA and established the basis of a similar arrangement with the

Water Environment Federation. Chris Davis also worked to establish the agreement of AWWA fo r ru nning a joint workshop on catch ment management in Hawaii; for fu rther derails co ntact Chris. Senior members of A WW A and WEF were most enthused about our proposal to restructure rhe Board. The AWWA has about 60 Directors and obviously operates in a different mode to our Board. Overall I was overwhelmed by the warmth of our American colleagues and the inevitable com ment rhar Australia was rhe favour ite place char they wanted to visit.

Rod Lehmann


Contributions Wanted T he Water journal welcomes the submission of papers equivalent to 3,000-4,000 words (allowing for graphics) relating co all areas of the water cycle and water business co be published in the journal. Topical stories of up co 2,000 words may also be accepted. All submissions of papers intended fo r the main body of rhe journal should be emailed ro rhe Technical Ediror, bswinron@bigpond. nee.au. Shorter news items should be emailed co news@awa.asn.au. A submitted paper will be tabled at a monthly Journal Committee meeting where, if appropriate, it will be assigned ro referees. Their comments will be passed back to rhe principal author. If accepted and after any comments have been dealt with, rhe final paper can be emailed wirh rhe rexc in MS Word but with high resolucion graphics (300 dpi riff, jpg or eps files Zip disks or CD-ROMs can be accepted) in separate files, or hard copy photos and graphics suitable for scanning by rhe publisher can be mailed to 4 Pleasant View Cres, Wheelers Hill , Vic 3150.

conferences as climate conditi ons can significantly impact the effectiveness of such a philosophy. For example, an inapprop riate combination of poorly draining so il and high rainfall can mean local discharge systems are ineffective; • Small systems do nor support or promote rapid high density developm ent as much as centralised systems do. As such, small systems are often seen as advantageous where rhe co mmunity wishes to retain a lower density of developmen t. While much of the discussion centred around fin ancial and technical pros and co ns of centralised and decentralised systems, these may nor always be rhe issues which finall y decide what system wi ll be used. As rhe triple bottom line philosophy (financial, environmental and social), transparent governance and community consultation

beco me more common practice, rhe social demands of a communi ty are becoming much more a factor in the decision making process. This can even mean char social preferences should be allowed to override fi nancial factors if there is a willingness to pay. This willingness to pay typically comes from an unmeasured assessment of rhe financial "externalities" or a des ire to maintain certain lifestyles or community environments.

they also have a role to play in improving environmental sustainability particularly where there is a willingness to pay. Fo r rhe developing world, the incremental in vestment and simpler technology mean that on-sire and small systems will always have a role to play in improvi ng the water and san itation services in these countries.


Ian Gun n - University of Auckland, NZ

Overall the fo rum painted a bright futu re fo r small and onsite systems. A horses-forcourses approach came th rough stro ngly recognisin g char there are rimes when centralised systems are more appropriate and vice versa. ln rhe developed world, small or on-sire systems will always play a role in expanding periurban and remote areas, but

Acknowledgements Panel Discussion Chairman:

Panel members: Lindsay Edmonds - Water Corporation, W estern Australia Prof. Roland Schertenleib Swiss Federal Institu te fo r Environmental Science & T echnology, Switzerland Brian Devine - Departm ent of Health, W estern Australia Martin Anda - Murdoch University, W estern Australia

Assistant Scribes: Wendy Green - Mu rdoch University, Western Australia John Hunt - Murdoch Uni versity, Western Australi a

The Author Peter Spencer is wirh the Water Corporation, Western Australia.

Further Reading While many papers ar the conference covered the issues raised during chis panel discuss ion, rwo specifically addressed rhe subject and they were:

Investing and operating costs of small WWTPs compared to larger plants, 0. Nowak & S. Lindrner, Austria Centralised or decentralised wastewater treatment? Decision making under conditions of Germany, T. Franz & V Kuehn, Germany.


¡ ~ ~l(' ,tI

or more information and a local stockist contact Davey on 1300 367 866



by P Dillon, D Ellis, D Wiesner

uptake o f Australian innovations Stage 1 of the Australian Water (Sydney), packaging of memb rane Conservation and Reuse Research technologies for recycl ing in high rise Program com menced in 2003 and b uild ings (Melb), water min ing from lays co mmon factual fo undations fo r sewers for localised reuse (Brisbane), the advancement of urban water replu mbing parliament ho use fo r conservation and reuse. In M ay 2004 process reclaimed water irrigation of lawns a series of workshops were run in all pr gr ss understanding (Canberra), water banking with the Australian states. They presented Stage 2 reclaimed water in Al ice Springs for reviews of national status on water trials - demonstrations horticultu ral p roduction, recycl ing to recycli ng (including John Radcliffe's substitute for industrial cooling acclaimed ATSE review "Water Stage 1 review existing knowledge water, reduci ng sale in efflu ent to Recycling in Australia"*) , water assist recycling, using reclaimed water sensitive urban design and integrated AWCRRP Workshop Attendances for saline intrusion barriers to pro tect urban water ma nagement, and eigh t City Date Attendees gro undwater supplies (Perch, Hobart, issues papers covering public Adelaide 5 May04 53 Sydney) . acceptance, econo mics and 11 May04 63 Brisbane externalities, institutional I n addition a series of non81 Sydney 12 May04 impedi ments, publ ic health, viruses, 13 May04 12 Canberra structural solutions such as 21 Hobart 18 May04 o rganic chemicals, impacts of accoun ting for full price of all so urces 97 19 May04 Melbourne irrigatio n with reclaimed water o n of water, establishing stormwater and 37 Alice Springs 21 May04 quality of prod uce and o n soil and reclaimed water ownership and Perth 25 May04 41 water, domestic scale innovative trading rights, giving developers Total 405 produces, plumbing regulations and a responsibility to guarantee sou rces of man ual on concracmal arrangements water supply for new subd ivisions, between sellers and users of including about 10% research, at least $1 B q uantifying impacts on environmental reclaimed water. All of these reviews can be less than conventional alternatives, which in flows and receiving water quality, downloaded free from the AW C RRP web monitoring effectiveness of integrated so me cities have already reached their limit. site: Policy issues were seen as very important urban water management, providing www.clw.csiro.au/priorities/urban/awcrrp/ and COAG could have a role in aligning guidance on sustainable use of rainwater tanks con nected to lau ndries, toilets and p ricing signals that in ternalise current In line with PMSEIC recommendations, environmental externalities and favo r water hot water services and for greywacer reuse at each workshop contribu tions were conservation and reuse while keeping down in gard ens, improving irrigation sought, identified and evaluated for their co sts to water co nsumers, and retain ing management technology for sustainable use potential withi n a national portfol io of of reclaimed water, and oversight of utility earnings and state government in novative demonstration projects for water d ivid ends. plu mbing and regulator education in conservation and reuse. T he d ependence of relation to water conservation and recycling. T he project portfolio will be developed furth er to give the Commonwealch and Scares an app reciation of the benefits of investment in these types of projects for such projects on new research was also securing the fu ture of water in cities and More than 120 innovative demonstration recorded. AWCRRP's aims of achieving p rojects were pro posed and examples their catch men ts, improving the quality of l 00 0GL/yr (~30% capital city water use) of include: reclaiming u rban stormwater in urban coastal waters, generating a major water savings or new supplies can easily be Adelaide via wetlands and aq uifer passage expansion in new in novative small and surpassed if projects identified at workshops medium enterp rises in the urban water for d rinking water supplies, an independent are implemented. These would cost, technology evaluation center to accelerate sector, protecting public health,

Workshops have been held in every state and a list ofprojects has been drawn up.

* Water Recycling in Australia, 2004 by John Radcliffe, 233 pp AS, can be downloaded from the web-sire: www.arse.org.au. The Academy has also published a 'communicy summary' in a 20-page glossy A4 format, very suitable for non-technical audiences. Copies are available from the Australian Academy of T echnological Sciences and Engineering, PO Box 355 Parkville, Victoria 3052, or by email request co ianr@arse.org.au.

32 AUGUST 2004


encouraging private investment in water infrastructure and harmonising water policies between and within States. Clearly co-investment by the water industry will be needed and it is intended chat AWCRRP Stage I, now co mpleted, has paved the way fo r a Stage 2, chat will assist development and implementation of innovative practices. AWWCRP is part of the Water for a Healthy Country Flagship Program. A listing of the projects proposed at workshops is on che AWCRRP website: www.clw.csiro.au/p riorities/urban/awcrrp/. Recommendations generated from workshops were co nsistent with submissio ns to the National Water Initiative by AWA (see] Water June 2004, p3) and WSM.

Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge the contribu tions of John Radcliffe (ATSÂŁ project director), Clare Diaper, Brenda Dyack, Darla HattonMacDonald, Juliane Kaercher, Rai Kookana, Grace Mitchell, Blair Nancarrow, Murni Po, Daryl Stevens,

Simon Toze, Guang-Guo Ying (CSIRO), Jim Kelly, Murray Unkovich (Arris Pry Ltd), Tim Fletcher, Ana Delecic and Belinda Hatt (Monash Universiry and CRC for Catchment Hydrology), Ray Herbert, Gary Workman (Master Plumbers and Mechanical Services Assoc of Aust) and Greg Ti nk (RMIT University), Andrew Sherman and Astrid Di Carlo (Russell Kennedy & Partners) whose contributions comprised the AWCRRP reporcs . We also thank the many people who reviewed their draft reporcs. We also thank che stakeholders of AWCRRP Stage 1, without whom rhis work could not have been accomplished, compnsing: Australian Water Association, CSIRO (incl uding Water for a H ealthy Country Flagship Program), Victorian Smart Water Fund, United Water International, Water Corporation WA, Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Northern Adelaide Barossa Catchmen t Water Management Board (SA), Pacawalonga Catchment Water Management Board

(SA), Ciry of Albury (NSW), Brighton C icy Council (T as), City of Mount Gambier (SA), C ity of Mitcham (SA), Western Water (Vic), Beaudeserr Shi re Council (Qld), Wide Bay Water Corporation (Qld ), Ipswich Water (Qld), and Narrandera Shire Council (NSW). Finally we wish to acknowledge the support of members of the AWCRRP Steering Co mmittee who have been involved in developing chis program: Joh n Anderson, Chris Davis, Peter Donlon, Geoff Syme, Carol Howe, Heather Chapman, Tony Priestley, Howard Gibso n, Brian McRae and John Langford , and the encouragement of Water Recycling Forum Scace Representatives and ocher AWA helpers who assisted in organising the workshops.

The Authors Peter Dillon and David Ellis (CSIRO Land and Water) and Diane Wiesner, AWA. Contact author: Peter.Dillon@ csiro.au, ph (08) 8303 8714 .

... and we re mare alfordable tool




FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN STORMWATER ASR S Rinck-Pfeiffer Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery A major demonstration project is proposed in Salisbu ry, South Australia aimed at inj ecting stormwater (~ 400ML/ year harvestab le water) into an aquifer with the intention of recovering water fit for co ntinuous susrainab le supply at potable quality. This process is called "Aqu ifer Storage Transfer and Recovery" (ASTR), whereby separate injection and recovery wells are used to extend the residence time of injectant in the aquifer and allow fo r natural treatment through the aquifer. In ASR the same well is used fo r injection and recovery, so treatment time is limited. The project builds on ASR research projects conducted over 10 years with stormwater, reclaimed water and potable water in South Australia. To date stormwater ASR in South Australi a has been used for irrigation/ industrial/aesthetic purposes, and wecland pre-treatment has been convincingly demonstrated at more than 12 operational sites in the Adelaide metropo litan area. The Parafield Stormwacer Harvesting Facility is a unique project of chis kind initiated by the City of Salisbury in converting stormwacer from an urban nuisance and pollu tion threat into a valuable resource fo r industry and th e community. Stormwater from the local catchment is diverted into a series of uniq uely designed capcure, holding and cleansing basins. Treated stormwater in excess to the immediate needs of local industry is stored underground in nacural aquifers for recovery at times of low rainfall.

Aims The aims of the ASTR project are to demonstrate chat harvested and stored



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The difference between ASR (aquifer storage and recovery) and ASTR (aquifer storage, transfer and recovery). maintained. If successful this would provide the evidence required for licensing these operations for water supply and provide guidelines fo r adaptat ion elsewhere, includ ing in developing countries, to facilitate achievement of UN M illen nium goals with reliance on nacural treatment processes. Outcomes of the attendant research will give an understanding of water qualiry changes, catchment water q ualiry management, and development and implementation of the H azard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plans to provide water q uality assurance. It is expected that a robust package of methods will allow ASTR to be successfully adapted to other sites . For country towns with expensive or low yielding supplies this approach could reduce costs for water utilities to between 10% and 50% of costs of current water systems. In Adelai de, recharge o f stormwater to assure drinking water

Transport ofstormwater THROUGH a11 aquifer should purify it to potable standard. stormwater can continuously meet water quality criteria for drinking water supplies, and to provide a rigorous assessment of the design and operating criteria that would ensure adequate water qualiry is

34 AUGUST 2004



supplies as opposed to irrigation supplies, will increase the value of the recovered water by a factor of 10. Furthermore it will allow development of strategic reserves o f fresh water for pressure

maintenance and drought and emergency rel ief, it will increase flexibi lity in servicing fucure water needs, provide robustness for the system and more optio ns for infrastruccure maintenance, result in savings in future capital investment, and provide assurance that groundwater quality is protected. Recovery into th e mains will also avoid the need fo r separate distributions systems, currencly one of the limitations on stormwater harvesting for reuse.

Current status The first phase of the project has commenced. The site has been selected {Green field Railway Statio n, Ciry of Salisbury) and drilling of ASTR wells has commenced. Groundwater flow and solute transport modelling has been completed to determine the well layout. A preliminary HACCP plan is currencly in preparation. Partners to the project include CSIRO, U nited Water I nternacional, C ity of Sal isbury, SA Water, Northern Adelaide and Barossa Catchment Water Management Board and D elfin Lend Lease/Mawson Lakes (LMC). Further partners are welcome.

The Author Dr Stephanie Rinck-Pfeiffer (United Water International), email stephanie. rinck-pfeiffer@ uwi.com.au or Tel: 0419 805 529.

Integrated Water Management Systems Starting to Help Meet the Challenge of Water Shortages The level of interest in Integrated Water Management Systems to provide recycled water for industrial and agricultural use has increased markedly due to continuing drought conditions and a growing focus on sustainable water use. The schemes are not easy to develop: a range of technical, environmental, economic and marketing challenges need to be overcome. The good news is various schemes are now moving into the operating stage. VEOLIA WATER is proud to have played a part in delivering many of these projects.


Water Recycling Sewage for Industrial Reuse - lllawarra Wastewater Strategy

Sydney Water's lllawarra Wastewater Strategy currently being commissioned by Veolia Water Systems (VWS), involves upgrading three wastewater treatment plants south of Sydney to serve 300,000 residents. At the heart of this project is a water reclamation plant, which will use Continuous Membrane Filtration (CMF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) technologies to recycle 20 million litres a day of sewage for reuse by Bluescope Steel at Port Kembla . The water reclamation plant will be one of the largest wastewater reuse facilities in Australia, providing dual environmental benefits of decreasing ocean wastewater discharge volume by 40% and decreasing the use of potable water in the steel-making process by more than 60%.

Reusing Treated Sewage for Agricultural Use - Gerringong Gerroa Sewerage Scheme The Gerringong Gerroa Sewerage Scheme, designed, built and operated by Veolia Water for Sydney Water, incorporates a sewage treatment plant that uses an advanced tertiary treatment process to treat effluent for reuse in local agriculture. The process includes screening, degritting and flow measuring; biological treatment, clarification and sand filtration; and ozonation, Biological Activated Carbon (SAC), microfiltration and UV disinfection. The effluent reuse system is designed to reuse up to 80% of the treated effluent produced. Final effluent is stored at the sewage treatment plant site in a 50 million litre storage dam before being pumped to a local dairy farm to be reused for pasture irrigation. In 2003, the scheme won an Engineering Excellence Award for its innovation and ingenuity.

Recycling for Industrial Customers - Kwinana The Kwinana Water Reclamation Plant in Perth, currently being commissioned by VWS for the Water Corporation of Western Australia, uses dual membrane technology of microfiltration and RO to recycle water from the nearby Woodman Point Wastewater Treatment Plant for use by large industrial customers such as Rio Tinto, Edison Mission Power and BP. These companies represent the largest users of Perth's public water supply. The 16.7 million litres per day plant is crucial in helping the Western Australian government achieve its goal to reuse 20% of treated wastewater by 2012. Level 4, Bay Centre, 64 Pirrama Road , Pyrmont NSW 2009 ph: 02 8572 0300 . fax : 02 8572 0313 . email: water@veoliawater.com.au . www.veoliawater.com .au

GUIDANCE FOR WATER REUSE IN NEW DEVELOPMENTS D Cavanagh, T McAlister with mains water is the urban water supply augmentation scracegy of rhe future. " In recognition of this need, WBM has, over che past several months, been involved in the preparation of a guidance document for water reuse in NSW. The aim of chis document is to address how water reuse, not just of stormwacer and rainwater but also of wastewater and greywacer, can, in a variety of urban development sicuacions/locarions, assist in d eveloping sustainable water supplies for our cities.

Abstract WBM is leading a ream of consultants including, U rban Water Cycle Solutions (Dr Peter Coombes) and Ecological Engineering (Dr Tony Wong) in final isi ng the preparatio n of water reuse guidelines for new developments in NSW. The NSW reuse guidance document has been prepared in recognition of the impacts char new urban developments can have on existing water supplies (by increasing mains water demands) and impacts on natural water cycles and receiving waterways. T he implementation of warer reuse initiatives at the planning and conceptual d esign stages of new developments can assist in m itigating rhese potential impacts. The reuse guidance document provides a process to guid e users through the planning and conceptual d esign stages of fo rmulating viable water reuse schemes fo r new d evelopments. In addition to providing a process outline, the d ocument provides reference material to assist the user in gaining an initial appreciation of the likely performance of a given reuse scheme without having to perform detailed assessments themselves. This enables the user to determine if a given reuse scheme is likely to meet desired development and catchment objectives. The guidance document enco u rages those formulating reuse schemes to factor in economic considerations throughout the selection process, as well as any other social and environmental impacts char the reuse scheme may have.

Introduction Water shortages in many Australian cities as a result of the recent drought (a fu nction of our variable climate) serve to highlight the potential limitations of our current approach to meeting water demand, which traditionally was to construct (even larger) water storages for future expected d emands. Australia's increasing population (and associated urban expansion), combined with the public's reticence to construct new water storages and their d emand for the provision of environmental flows in waterways, highlights that our current approach to managing water is nor sustainable in the long- term.




Aim of reuse guidance document

Lilac Plumbing for Treated Effluent. (Source: Eric de Rooy, Recycling at Rouse Hill, Brisbane September, 2003. )

This has been recognised at all levels of G overnment and in the Prime Minister's Science, Engineering and I nnovation Council's publication 'Recycling Water for our C ities', which stares char "current practices of water supply to our cities are nor sufficient to meet fu ture needs and new strategies and options must be investigated and developed ." This publicatio n goes on to identify that "there is no si ngle solut ion to the p rovision of reliable water supplies for our cities, and a mixture of initiatives appropriate to the specific circumstances of each of Australia's cities will be required . Pu blic health must be assu red, and che solutions sought need to be economically sensible, environmentally sustainable and socially acceptable."

The reuse guidance d ocument focuses on enabling users (of the document) to select and conceptually design a water reuse scheme for a particular need (e.g. a new development). In developing reuse schemes, it is reco gnised chat rhe scheme needs to allow for the development to meet its desired/required performance objectives (e.g. achieve reductions in mains water demand when compared to conventional development) while enabling it to remain economically viable. In addition, the reuse scheme needs to allow the development to meet any ocher relevant social and environmental ("catchment") objectives char have been established for the area in which the development/ reuse scheme will be sicuared. To facilitate the development of reuse schemes, rhe reuse guidance document provides a process to guide users through the planning and conceptual design stages of formu latin g viable water reuse schemes fo r developments. In addition to providing the p rocess o utline, the document provid es reference material to assist che user in gaining an initial appreciation of the likely

"Optimum use of roof water, stormwate,; 1¡euse of wastewater and g,¡eywater along with mains water is the urban water supply augmentation strategy of the future. " Engineers Australia, 2003. T his sentiment is also reiterated in Australian Runoff Quality (Engineers Australia, 2003), wh ich scares char che "optimum use of roof water, stormwater, reuse of wastewater and greywacer along

performance of a given reuse scheme without having to perform d etailed assessments themselves . This enables the user to determine if a given reuse scheme is likely to meet desired develop ment and


water recycling & reclamation catchm ent objectives. Reference material included in the document has been d erived from technical assessm ents of che impacts of water reuse schemes on che urban water cycle for a range of realistic reuse scenarios. These reuse scenarios cover a variety of develop ment types/scales and forms of water reuse for several represencacive u rban growth areas across NSW.

1. Confirm details of development, I.e. location, physical details of lot (size of yard, house, roof, etc), number of rooms/residents, etc

2. Determine development scale and catchment scale objectives, e.g. reduction in

potable water demand, no-worsening in peak stormwater flows from the development site, etc



3. Ascertain the site opportunities and constraints, such as soil types, presence of

aquifers or reticulated treated wastewater, capacity of existing water supply and sewage infrastructure, etc

H aving co nfirmed the det ails of che developm ent, Seep 2 i n che process involves che user determining develop ment and catchment scale objectives. For a given d evelopment, these objectives are likely co be unique, as different reuse sch em es will be appropriate for di fferent styles o f development in d ifferent locations. Ac che development scale, reuse objectives for che proposed developm ent may relate co the aspirations of che d eveloper or ocher regulacory requirements. Ac che catchment scale, reuse objectives for the p roposed development are m ost likely ro relate co cacch menc-wide regulatory requirem ents, chat may require the development co m itigate impacts on:

T he reuse guidance 4. Develop reuse schemes for the developmenVsite based on its objectives and document also explores related identified opportunities and constraints benefits of water reuse which ~ are ad di tional to reducing 5. Assess reuse schemes for the m ains water dem and . The use developmenV site. This may require computer modelling of the performance of selected of 'non-conven tio nal' water systems. so urces as an alternative co che traditional, cen tralised 6. Additional considerations may be required ap proach co water servicing to select suitable or preferred schemes for a devefopmenVsite. Addijional considerations can significa n tly alter che may be related to economic, environmental and urban water cycle and • Sco rmwacer peak fl ows, social impacts of the reuse scheme. potentially bring many runoff volumes and pollutio n benefits at both a local and loads (these may assist in regio nal scale. For example, achievi ng specified River Flow Figure 1. Recommended steps in the process of selecting/ rainwacer/scormwacer reuse design ing a reuse scheme for a particular development in N SW. O bj ectives or Water Quality system s ac che allocmenc, O bjectives for receivi ng neighbourhood , or regional waterways); scales can significantly reduce che frequency The first seep in the process requires che • M ains water consumption, water supply and volume of scormwacer d ischarges and user co obtai n and review all available infrastructure size; associated pollutant exports co the street information abo ut rhe proposed • Sewage fl ows, co reduce sewer overflows d rainage system. T hese discharge reductions developme nt and rhe catchment it is and sewage creacmenc plane (STP) inflows; may reduce impacts of che d evelopment on located within, e.g . plans of developmen t, and che flow regimes of the receiving waterways. etc. The review of in fo rmation should • Pollutan t loads co waterways (through Also, reuse of greywacer/wastewacer withi n provide a rho rough understanding of che efflu ent reuse) . the urban seccing, whether at allotment, type and scale of d evelopm ent proposed Ir is important co be aware chat some n eighbourhood, or regio nal scale, can and the location of che development within reuse objectives will complem ent each signi fica ntly reduce rhe discharge of the catchment e.g. proximity co waterways ocher, w hile ochers may co n flict. In wastewater co the environment and furth er and ocher d evelopments, etc. developing reuse objectives any acceptable reduce mains water dem and (Engineers trade-offs between objectives shou ld be Australia, 200 3) . identified. For example, a "third p ipe" system co reticulate created effluent may Selecting and designing water reuse comprom ise scormwacer objectives co some schemes degree, as ic m ay be competing fo r the sam e Reuse sch em es serve diverse purposes for non-potable end-uses (e.g. outdoor use and di fferent developments ar various locations. coi lec flus hi ng). le is unlikely rhac any two reuse schemes Com piecing this seep should involve w ill ever b e exactly the sam e, as each discussions with the developer to gain an schem e w ill be developed co meet a ap preciatio n of desired outcom es (i.e. different sec of objectives (ar boch rhe objectives) and d iscussio ns wich regulacory development and cacchmenc scales) as a authorities co determine if these desired result of variations between developments outcomes meet with minimum required and catchm ents. For chis reason ic is object ives fo r the developmen t type and necessary co consider each reuse scheme ocher catchment objectives. Negociacion individually. Consequen tly, che NSW reuse may be required ac chis stage with one or guidance document p rovides a suggested both parties to strike a balance between p rocess fo r developing reuse schemes competing objectives. individually co meet che desired or required development/catchment objectives. Figure 1 illuscraces che suggested steps in the process of selecting and designing a reuse scheme for a particular development.

Traditional rainwater tank

Having d etermined reuse objectives fo r che d evelopment, the user moves onto later seeps in che process which deal with developing a viable reuse schem e for a given


AUGUST 2004 37

development. One of the first actio ns the user should complete is the preparation of a detailed list of likely constraints and opportunities afforded by rhe d evelopm ent type, site and location (i.e. Step 3 in Figure 1). Examples of opportunities/constraints may relate to: • Presence of usable water sources (other than mains warer), e.g. aquifer or reticulated created wastewater;

Predicted mains water demand reductions from single dwellings across NSW for various rainwater tank sizes 70% 60% C 0

"""::, al


a: J!! 40%








• Develop m ent layouts and building types/ designs;

s"' C

• Local soil types; and




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• Community perceptions/concerns, ere. T his list of development/catchment opportunities and co nstraints will provide valuable input into lacer stages in the process of developing reuse schemes. In Step 4, the user develops potential reuse schemes for the development. To assist in chis the NSW reuse guidance document provides further information on: • Reuse schemes typically suited to different developmen t types/scales; • Water availabili ty; • Water d emand ; • March in g of water availability to water demand; • Water quality co nsiderations; • Site specifi c investigatio ns; and • Likely community perceptions regard ing reuse options. The above-listed factors are li kely to have a significant beari ng on the ulti mate suitability of a reuse scheme. T he user, having p repared a selection of potentially viable reuse schemes, then needs to be able to assess the performance of these schemes to determine if they will m eet requi red or desired objectives in relation to water balance impacts, peak flow impacts, poll utant export impacts, etc. Step 5 of the process deals with assessing the perform ance of potentially viable reuse schemes. T he NSW reuse gu idance document p rovides a variety of informat ion ro ass ist rhe user in assessing the perfor m ance of reuse schem es. Informati on has been provided in two ways. Firstly, an extensive sec of reference material is p rovided ch ar en ables the user to ascertain the likely perfor mance of a re use scheme, without having to fi rstly perform detailed assessments. Secondly, the documen t p rovides information that will assist the user in performing detailed assessments.

38 AUGUST 2004 water

30% 20%





10% ·'


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,~ 1·: r,


• Local climatic co ndi tions;





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D 1kl, T+l+O Reuse D 1kl , T +l+O+H Reuse • 2 .5kl, T+l +O+H Reuse o 8kl, T+l+O Reuse ·






D 2.5kl, T+l +O Reuse II 8kl, T+l+O+H Reuse

Figure 2. Exam ple water balance graph included as reference material in the reuse g uidance document. The reference material provided in the NSW guidance document has been prepared through prior derailed assessments of rhe performa nce of a nu mber of reuse schem es, based o n combinations of: • Locality (assessments were perfo rmed at several representative locations across NSW including Coffs Harbour, Dubbo, Kiama, Moruya, Penrith, Sydney and Toronto); • Development types (assessments were performed for a number of different development types including detached homes on single lots, multi-unit development including high-rises and cluster developments); and • Reuse schemes (assessments were performed of d ifferent reuse schemes including rainwater, greywarer, stormwarer and wastewater).

For these reuse schemes, impacts on rhe development's water balance, peak flow and pollutant export characteristics have b een assessed in relation to co nventional develop ment (i. e. develop ments with ou t reuse schemes) to provide the fo llowi ng referen ce material fo r inclusion in the guidance document: • Mains water demand reductions; • Wastewater discharges reductions; • Sto rmwarer disch arges red uctions; • Peak m ains water demands reductions; • Peak stormwarer discharges reductio ns; • Peak wastewater discharges reductions; and • Pollutant export d ischarges reductions. T his reference material has been provided graphically or tabularly in appendices to rhe m ain report. Figure 2 provides an example of this reference material. T he reuse guidance document also provides a qualirarive d iscussio n of trends observed in the data obtained from performin g the reuse assessments. This inform ation has been provided to enhan ce rhe user's understanding of the likely impacts o f the various water reuse schemes for different localities and development types.

Wall cavity rainwater tank.

The reuse assessments were perform ed using software recently developed in Australia. The water balance and peak fl ow modelling was performed using the Probabilistic Urban R ainwater and wastewater Reuse Simulator

(PURRS), developed by Dr Peter Coombes (whose expertise, assistance and input co chis work the authors gratefully acknowledge) of the Urban Water Research Group, University of Newcastle. PURRS was used in th is study as ic was able co assess the impacts of various types of reuse schemes (greywarer, wastewater, scormwacer and rainwater) on che water balance and peak flows for che va rious development types and locations considered in the study. Pollu tant export modelling was performed using the Model for Urban Scormwacer Improvement Concepcualisacion (MUS IC), developed by the CRC for Catchment Hydrology. MUSIC was adopted as ic was able co assess che impacts of rainwater and scormwacer reuse systems on pollu tant export from che various development types and locations considered in the scudy. T he NSW reuse guidance document provides information on how all PU RRS and MUSIC modelli ng was performed including input data, assumptions, model runs performed, etc. Having assessed the perfor mance of the selected reuse schemes (and elim inated those that do nor meet che req ui red/desired performance objectives), the fi nal step in the process requires the user ro consider the: • Economic implications of the scheme; • Social/environmental impacts of che scheme; and • Implementation/operational issues associated with the scheme. In fo rmation on these additional factors has been provided to alert the user co their importance in developing viable reuse schemes fo r developments. For example, there is li ttle poi nt in implementing reuse schemes that are unlikely co be fi nancially viable or sustainab le for those parties that ul timately have to fund chem, or implementing schemes char may have an unacceptable social or environmental impacc.

unsustainable, approaches co urban water (water supply, wastewater and stormwater management).

References Engineers Australia (2003), Aust ralian Runoff Quality (Draft). Prime M inister's Science, Engineering and In novation Council (2003), Recycling Water fo r Our C ities.

Acknowledgements W BM acknowledges the inputs received from Joanne Scuart an d Mike Sharpin of the Scormwater Uni t of the Department of Environment and Conservation; Dr Peter Coombes of the University of Newcastle for his input and assistance with che PURRS modelling; Kare Smolenska of WBM Melbourne for her preparation of the literacure review; and Dr Tony Wong of Ecological Engineering for his input co che scudy. Views and opini ons expressed in chis paper are those of che authors and do nor necessari ly represent those of che Department of Environment and Conservation.

The Authors Damion Cavanagh is a Senior Environmental Engineer of WBM Brisbane(dccavanagh@wbm pl.com.au) and Tony McAlister is a Direccor ofWBM (abmcaliscer@wbm pl.com.au). WBM is located at 490 Upper Edward Sr, Spring Hi ll, Queensland, 4004, phone: 07 383 1 6744 and fax 07 3832 3627.

Conclusions and Recommendations T here is a recognised need for Australian cities co investigate and develop new strategies co meet future water demands, particularly as current practices of water supply co our cities are unl ikely co be sus tainable in the lo nger-term. Water reuse in Australia is presently in its in fa ncy and there is likely co be much knowledge and experience generated over the co ming years as water reuse initiatives become more mai nstrea m. Associated with this is likely co be the streamlining of water reuse policy, design and regulation criteria co assist in the implementatio n of reuse schemes; technological improvements in certain types of reuse systems that wi ll result in better performance and lower lifecycle costs; improved support infrastructure co assist in the construction, implementation and on-going maintenance of reuse systems; and, improved understand ing of the impact of certain types of reuse on the environment and possibly greater acceptance of the community at large of reuse schemes. H owever, presently there is little guidance available co chose wanting co integrate water reuse schemes inco a developmenc. T he NSW reuse guidance document has been developed co assist chose wanting co implement a water reuse scheme at any scale. To assist in chis process the document ouclines a seep-wise process (with a variety of supporting information) co aid users in developing reuse schemes co integrate with developments chat meet required development/catchment scale objectives and remain economically, socially and environmentally acceptable. Ir is the authors' opinion that the development of chis type of guidance, which is aimed at a range of end-users, including developers, builders, architects, scormwarer managers and development assessment officers, is a significant step forward in the process of bringing about wide-scale changes in our current,

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ATTITUDES TO RECLAIMED WATER FOR DOMESTIC USE: PART 2. TRUST A Hurlimann, J McKay Abstract This is the second of three articles exploring responses of a section of the Australian commu nity to having reclaimed wastewater and storm water plumbed into their house. The community is located at Mawson Lakes, South Australia, in an innovative greenfields development, which is a public-private partnership. The reclaimed water will be used inside the house for toilet flushing and also for outside use, for example for irrigation, and will be delivered through a system of lilac pipes. The delivery of the reclaimed water is expected to commence September/October 2004. This article expands on aspects of a paper presented by Hurlimann and McKay (20 04) at Enviro ' 04, Results indicate that trust in the water authority, and knowledge of the dual water supply system play an important role in promoting a positive attitude to such schemes.

Introduction As was discussed by McKay and Hurlimann (2003), the acceptance of water recycling projects depends largely upon the attitudes of the communities involved. Without public acceptance, water recycling p rojects struggle to be successfully implemented. The limited research conducted regarding community attitudes to use of reclaimed wastewater makes the results of this benchmark survey of the M awson Lakes community of particular importance. A number of reuse p rojects around the world have fa iled due to the absence of public support. In Maroochy, Queensland, a plan for potable reuse was being seriously considered, and was in part d riven by community concern for the environmental impact of ocean outfall of sewerage (Simpson 1999). The State government implemented an on-going information and awareness program. The plan was in the final stages of consultation when a comm unity group campaigned against it, fearing the effect of the possible presence of 'gender-bending' hormones (Stenekes, Schaefer eta!. 2001). The project plans have si nce been revised. Stenekes et al (2001 )

40 AUGUST 2004 water

believe that the Maroochy case was intensified by a sense of unfair play by the particular residents group, they perceived a lack of adequate consideration for stakeholders in the process, and that the process was not transparent. In 1994, the San Diego County Water Authority in the USA began a plan to mix highly treated sewage water with the city's drinking water supply for potable use. This plan was abandoned after significant investment. Amongst numerous criticisms of the project, the public campaign was said to have never adequately addressed the public questions abour the p roposed water quality. There was a perception in the community that the project planning was done in secret, with no public participation or knowledge. This created an atmosphere of mistrust (Law 2003a). According to Law, (2003) o ne reaso n the San Diego plan failed is due to the lack of a timely and coordinated response to the questions of the community. In the Netherlands, dual water sup ply systems were outlawed in 2003 following the cross-connection of a dual water supply system in Lichi Rijin a greenfields housing d evelopment (Netherlands Ministry of Spatial Planning Housing and the Environment 2003). This cross connection between drinking water and grey water mains allegedly caused 200 people ro be infected with gastro interitis (Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment 2003). This demonstrates how

Each of the above examples involved elements of trust. In order for the schemes to be successful , the community requires trust in the responsible authorities to deliver them a particular service. The degree of trust p resent in a relationship interpersonal or working partnership - can be influence by communication, satisfaction and perceived risk. A review of literature on trust and its antecedents, which is predominantly found in the marketing, sociology and psychology d isciplines, will now be presented.

Trust Definition Trust has been viewed as a behavioural intention, or behaviour that reflects reliance on a partner and involves vulnerability and uncertainty on the part of the truster (Moorman, Deshpande et al. 1993) . This is consistent with Scott (1980) and the three components of trust according to Frost et al (1978); (a) that some uncertainty exists regarding future o utcomes, (b) that the trusting individual is at least partially dependent on the other person in the determination of the outcome, (c) and that there is a degree of confidence in the unselfishness of the trusted person. This is directly applicable to the population at Mawson Lakes, or any ocher community using recycled water; (a) there is a degree of uncertainty regarding future outcomes - at Mawso n Lakes delivery of the recycled water has not yet begun and there is uncertainty

Without public acceptance, water recycling projects struggle to be successfully implemented. The results of this benchmark survey of the Mawson Lakes community is ofparticular impo1¡tance. one mistake can be fata l to a project, causing a knee jerk political reaction - the outlawing of such projects, and shunning by an unforgiving community. In add ition, it appears the Lichi Rijin community were not very well informed abou t appropriate use of the grey water - 15% of residents surveyed were found to use grey water to fill children's pools (Source Water and Sanitation News 2003).

regarding its quality (b) residents are d ependent primarily on the water authority and secondarily on other authorities such as the Department of Human Services, and other authorities to deliver a safe product, and (c) confi dence in the ability of these authorities to safely deliver the p roduct (recycled water) is required. Trust has been found to involve attributes such as; dependability, reliability, honesty, and competence (Swan and Jones Nolan 1985).

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Importance of trust The imporrance of trust in relationships Trust in the Water Authority interpersonal and working parrnershi ps has been demonstrated in li terature. In chis article we will focus on the role of crust in worki ng partnerships. Schu rr and Ozanne Don1 Trust ( I 985) fo und that trust leads to a higher level of agreement, constructive dialogue, cooperation in problem solving, and a more favo urable attitude towards the company D Moderately being crusted. Additionally, rhey found char mistrust arouses defensive behaviour such as â&#x20AC;˘ Strongly evasive communi cation. Their study Trust demonstrated the importance of prior beliefs (prior attitudes). Prior beliefs were shown ro significantly influence perceptions 0 20 40 60 80 of actual behaviour. T his relates ro the Percentage of respondents Marks' (2003) suggestion chat trust in water reuse draws on historical background levels of cruse (prior established levels of crust) in Figure 1. Trust in the water authority befo re the use of reclaimed water commences. water and sewerage services. Marks' study looked at trust levels of 20 respondents at each of 4 water reuse sires; New Haven and com mun icatio n and warer reuse is co never assume customer Mawson Lakes in Australia, and Breva rd County and Altmonte knowledge, as was the case for Lichi Rijin in the Netherlands where Springs in the US. Marks fo und that variation in the histo rical and some residents were fou nd ro fill baby pools with grey water. In chis structu ral context at each site studied coincides with levels of trust case of cross connection in the Netherlands, Swan and Nolan's in che water, sewage and reuse providers. As crust in water and (1985) findin gs were supported , they foun d char any failure will sewage providers increased so did agreement to invest in recycled create distrust bur success wi ll only moderately build trust. T he water technologies for the pu rpose of clothes washing and authors claim the loss of trust can be costly and recommend that ics showering. Trust has also been found ro be important specifi cally for authorities, Van den Bos and Wilke (I 998), foun d that when people do not have information about an authority's trustworthiness, they react more positi vely coward the outcomes of an authori ty's decisions if the authority is using fai r as opposed ro unfair procedures. Van den Bos and Wilke (1998) suggest char people freq uently do not have information on an authority's truscworchi ness, and thus refer ro the fairness of che authority's procedures when deciding how to react ro a particular outcome they are presented with. We suggest that chis may be the case when a perso n's attitude may suggest char rhe authority can be trusted for del ivery of drinking water, bur in rhe present case, the delivery of reclaimed water, they look ro the fai rness of the proced ure fo r guidance on how ro judge rhe outcome received. Marks (2004) suggests chat trust in water service providers, rap water, and technology play a pivotal role when risk is introduced ro a trad itionally, taken-for-granted service i.e. the provision of reclaimed water is introduced for a use chat would have traditionally been facili tated by potable water. Trust and Communication Commu nication has been fo und ro be a major precursor to cruse (Morgan and Hun t 1994). Mohr and Nevin (1 990) found chat communication in marketing channels is strongly related co cruse. Mo rgan and Hunt fou nd char co mmunication, especially timely communication, foste rs trust by assisting in resolving disputes and aligning perceptions and expectations. The significance of chis findin g can be evidenced in rhe example of San Diego potable water reuse scheme discussed ac rhe beginning of chis article, a co ntributing facror ro the scheme's fail ure was the lack of a timely and coordinated response ro che community's questions. A lack of communication also led che San Diego community ro mistrust rhe authorities involved. The lack of a transparent and wellcommu nicated process in Maroochy Queensland turned some residents against the potable reuse scheme. An important aspect of


AUGUST 2004 4 l

water recycling & reclamation maintenance receive high priority. Bolton (1 998) also fou nd that customers weight negative service experiences more heavily than positive ones.

Knowledge of the dual water supply system 45

Trust and Satisfaction Selnes (1998) found that satisfaction is a strong antecedent to trust, and that honest and timely communications with the customer has a strong effect on both trust and satisfaction. Selnes found that trust and satisfaction can reduce perceived risk, and that a su pplier can achieve satisfied customers tho ugh flexibility and ability to adjust their products according to the demands of the customer. This may be particularly important in the supply of reclaimed water fo r domestic purposes where perception of risk may be higher than actual risk, but the ability to adjust the characteristics of th e product (reclaimed water) may be limited.

Trust and Risk Related to communication , o ne phenomena worth noting is the trust of risky messages. Researchers have noted that messages indicating the presence of risk seem to be t rusted more than messages indicating the absence of risk (White, Pahl et al. 200 3). This phenomena is evidenced by W hite et al (2003) in their study of people's perceptions of the risk of food additives . The authors found that prior attitudes played a specific role, with posi cive messages distrusted only by those with negative prior attitudes. Participants had greater confidence in messages chat were more consistent with their prior attitudes. They concluded chat greater cruse in negative messages about risk could be a p roduce of confirmatory rather than negativity bias. This has important implications fo r communicating risk to communities using recycled water. One suggestion is to be honest disclosing any risk present, to be realistic not underplaying or exaggerating risk. Selnes (1998) found that perceived risk decreases when a customer is satisfied, and that perceived risk increases with uncertainty of futu re outcomes. Selnes suggests that perceived risk may be decreased by crust alone, or in combination with other mechanisms. Saines also notes that perceived risk can be reduced by collecting more information, but that th is information is often not available. At Mawson Lakes, there is high trust of the water authority, but the information given to the future customers of the recycled water has been simplistic to dace. We believe as the commencement of recycled water use approaches, becomes more of a

42 AUGUST 2004



35 30 percentage of 25 respondents 20

Ill Strongly so

15 10 5

a Moderately so

0.!ÂŁ=~----,,----~ --,--~ -----r Not very well informed



Figure 2. Knowledge of the dual water supply system before reclaimed water use commences.

reality, and the communi ty discuss it more, people will seek more information. If this more detailed in formation is nor available, ic may impact their trust in che auchoricy's involved, and ultimately their use of che recycled water, and their responses to it in the media. At Mawson Lakes the success of che water reuse scheme, and uptake of recycled water use could be determined by che community's cruse in the authorities concerned , com munication of information, perceived risk, and satisfaction with service.

Mawson Lakes Mawson Lakes is a greenfields developmenc located 12km north of che Adelaide central business district, established as a p rivate-public partnership. When construction is completed in 2010, ic is expected there will be a population of 10,000 residents, 10,000 workers and 5,00 0 students. An encumbrance on tide requires each residential property at Mawson Lakes co install a dual water supply system in their house at rime of construction. The installation of chis dual water supply system muse conform to South Australia's Reclaimed Water Guidelines (1999) . The reclaimed water will be sourced from srormwater and wastewater generated by the Mawson Lakes development. Wastewater from the development will be transported to Bolivar (8km west of Mawson Lakes) and created in a wascewacer reclamation plane to Class A standard. The reclaimed water will then be transported back co che development, where it will be mixed with the scormwater, which will have

been renovated through a series of engineered wetlands. The combined reclaimed wastewater and stormwater will chen be delivered through a separate recycled water network. Reclaimed water will be used on residential allotments for toilet flushing, garden watering and car washing, and for the irrigation of public open space and lake cop up . Ac present potable water is being delivered through the recycled water network until construction of the reclaimed water system is complete. Further derails of the Mawson Lakes development and dual water supply system can be found in McKay and Hurlimann (2003).

Research Methodology A benchmark survey of the Mawson Lakes population was conducted in September 2002, prior to the commencement of reclaimed water use. At that stage there were 347 occupied households at Mawson Lakes. Members from 136 of these households were surveyed. Surveys were conducted over che phone by a professional research company. The survey included open-ended q uestions regarding proposed use of reclaimed water and a series of attitude and perception statements, as well as broader quest ions about their reasons for moving co Mawson Lakes, and their attitude co environmental protection. One of the obj ectives of our benchmark survey was co gather information about che Mawson Lakes community's crust in the Water Authority, and knowledge of the dual water scheme, prior co the commencement of che recycled water use.

Results Trust

Characteristics of those who trust the Water Authority lo ensure waler safety and quality As shown in Figure 1, there was strong trust in th e water authority overall, 65.4% of respondents crust the water authority, 19.1 % undecided and 15.4% don't trust the water authority. The following non-significant trends were evident across demographic variables: • A higher proportion of respondents over 51 years of age trust the water authority • T hose with an income less than $40,000pa were less trusting of the water authority • Trust of the water authority increased as highest education level achieved increased • Families with children over the age of 5 trusted the water authority less than singles and couples and fa mili es with children under the age of 5 • T here was no difference observed between genders • A significant relationship was not found between trust in the water authority and attitudes to use of recycled water fo r different purposes (ie drinking, laundry etc)


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Characteristics of those who feel well informed about the dual waler supply system: As shown in Figure 2, overall respondents do not feel well in formed about the dual water supply system, on ly 41.2% of respondents feel well infor med, 27.9% undecided, and 30.9% don 't feel well informed. The follow ing non-s ign ificant trends were evident across the dependent variables: • A higher proportion of respondents over 5lyears of age fel t more informed about the dual water supply system • Those with an income less th an $40,000pa felt propo rtionally more informed about the dual water supply system • Perceived knowledge of the scheme increased as highest education level achieved in creased • Those with children under 5 years of age did nor feel as well info rmed about the dual water supply system as singles and couples and chose with chi ldren over the age of 5 • T here was no difference observed between genders • Support for use of recycled water fo r clothes washing increased as knowledge of the dual water supply system increased (Chisquare = 13.847, 2df, Sig 0.00 1)

Discussion Trust

The results presented above indicate the section of the Mawson Lakes com munity interviewed, has solid trust in the water authority to ensure water safety and quality. For a number of attitude and perception statements, there were some significant differences and so me trends between those char trust the water authority and non-rrusrers. Results of particular interest to che futu re use of recycled water at Mawson Lakes are; those that trust think char the present water quality system in Adelaide is good (Chi-square= 8.418, ldf, sig = 0.004) significantly more so than non-cruscers. Those that trust were more confident than nontrusters char there are no heal ch risks associated with the dual water supply system (Chi-square= 2.693, ldf, sig = 0.101). Nontruscers were more concerned about the effect the recycled water will have their garden, than chose who trust (Chi-square= 2.184, l df, sig = 0.139). This indicates char cruse in the water authority is

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water recycling & reclamation an important attribute at this stage of the project - prior to rhe use of rhe reclaimed water commencing. Those rhar trust the Water Authority are more confident about rhe impending use of recycled water. Results indicate a strong proportion of rhe Mawson Lakes community trust the water Authority prior to rhe commencement of recycled water use, which as White et al (2003) and Schurr and Ozanne (1985) indicate, is important to ensuring positive messages are received and for influencing acrual behaviour in the furure (when the use of recycled water commences). Our future research will monitor levels of trust closer to rhe commencement of recycled water use, and some rime after the recycled water use is in place to assess any change, and the impact of trust on acrual use and acceptance of rhe scheme. Knowledge

Results indicate knowledge of rhe dual water supply scheme plays an important role in promoting positive attitudes to recycled water use. Those rhar did not feel well informed were significa ntly more

concerned about possible health risks associated with rhe dual water supply system (Chi-square = 10.364, 1df, sig = 0.001). Those rhar felt nor well informed about the scheme were more concerned about possible future cost increases associated with rhe scheme (Chi-square= 2.432, ldf, sig = 0.119), and have a greater expecrarion char there may be difficulty with rhe dual water supply scheme in the future (Chi-square= 2.481, ldf, sig = 0. 11 5) . These results indicate rhar ar Mawson Lakes, a person's perceived knowledge of rhe dual water supply system improves their confidence with , and attitude to the furure use of rhe reclaimed water. Relationship between trust and knowledge Resul ts indicate char there is not a significant relationship between those who trust and knowledge about rhe scheme. These results place rhe supplier of recycled water in a difficu lt position as merely providing information will not increase trust in rhe supplier. Previous srudies, discussed at the beginning of rhis arricle,

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have demonstrated rhe relationship between trust and com municarion. le is rhoughr rhar the question used in rhis survey was nor a direct indicator of communication, only of knowledge of rhe scheme - a result of one aspect of communication. The survey did nor include questions about the Authority's response rime to customer queries, or other aspects of communication. This could be why there is nor a significant relationship between the rwo aspects trust and knowledge and why our results are nor consistent with rhe findi ngs of other studies relating to trust and communication. Furure srudies of the Mawson Lakes population will attempt to identify the role of communication, if any, and to identify ways to improve crust. Literature on trust and communication and examples of recycled water use indicate rhar commun ication and trust of the authorities involved by the communi ties impacted is important to rhe success of recycled water use. Without these arrribu res there is potential for project failure. While the communi ty at Mawson Lakes' trust in rhe water authority is high, their knowledge of rhe system is nor strong. In order to promote trust, and promote successful uptake of the recycled water use when ir commences, timely communication, and rhe preparation of derailed information for distri bution when requested is necessary. Maintenance of chis trust is important, as suggested by Swan and Nolan (1995) .

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44 AUGUST 2004



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Trust in the water authority and knowledge of rhe dual water supply system were found to promote positive attitudes towards rhe impending use of recycled water through rhe dual water supply system at Mawson Lakes, playing an important role in promoting irs furure acceptance. Those rhar trusted were more confident chat there are no health risks associated with the dual water supply system, and were less concerned abou r the affect recycled water will have on their garden. Respondents who felt their knowledge of the dual water supply system was nor very good were more concerned about possible health risks, more concerned about possible future cost increases with the scheme and had greater expectation rhar there may be difficulty with the dual water supply scheme in the future. Results indicate rhar there is nor a significant relationship between chose char trust and knowledge of the scheme, indicating rhar merely providing information will nor increase trust in the supplier. It is suggested effective and timely communication will be more important in building trust than purely

d ap

providing information. Our further research will explore these issues in detail.

Acknowledgements The authors thank the fo llowi ng peo ple and organisations for their assistance and interest in our research; Professor Gus Geursen, Chris Maries, Dr Sran Salagaras, Professor Phil Howlett, Dr John Boland, T he Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment, SA Water, the City of Salisbury, Delfin Lend Lease Limi ted, and the Marketi ng Science Centre.

The Authors Anna Hurlimann is a PhD candidate, and Cooperati ve Research Centre for Water Quality and Trearment scholarship holder. Anna is a member of the Water Policy and Law Grou p at the School ofTnremational Business, University of South Australia, North Tee, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Email: anna.hurl ima1111@unisa.edu.au). Jennifer McKay is a Professor of Business Law, and Directo r of the Water Policy and Law Group (http://business.unisa.edu.au/ waterpolicylaw) at the University of Soucl1 Austral ia (Email: Jennifer. mckay@ uni sa.edu.au)

Marks, J. (2004). Back to the Future: Reviewing

the Findings on Acceptance of Reclaimed Water. Enviro 2004, Sydney. McKay, J. and A. C. Hurlimann (2003) . "Attitudes to Reclaimed Water for D omest ic Use: Parr I Age." Water 30 (5) : 45-49. Mohr, J. and J. R. Nevin ( 1990). "Communication Strategies in Marketing C hannels: A Theoretical Perspective." journal of Marketing. 36-5 1. Moorman, C., R. Deshpande, et al. ( 1993) . "Factors Affecting Trust In Marker Research Relationships." journal of Marketing 57: 8 110 I. Morgan, R. M. and S. D. Hunt ( 1994). "The Comminnenc - T rust T heory of Relationship Marketing." journal of Marketing 58(3): 20-38. Netherlands M in ist ry of Spatial Planning H ousing and t he Envi ronment (2003). "No separate househo ld water systems." 2003: hrrp://www2.m invro m.nl/pagina. hrml'id=56 75. Schu rr, P. H . and J. L. Ozanne ( 1985). "Influe nces on Exchange Processes: Buyers' Preconceptions of a Seller's Trustworth iness and Bargaining Toughness." journal of Customer Research 11 : 939-953. Scott, C. L. ( 1980). "Jnrerpersonal Trust: A Comparison of Atti tudinal and Situat ional Facto rs." Human Relations 33( 11 ): 805-81 2._

Selnes, F. ( 1998) . "Antecedents and consequences of trust and satisfaction in buyer-seller relationships." European journal ofMarketing 32(3/4): 305-322. Simpson, J.M. (1999). "Changing Commu nity Attitudes to Potable Re-use in South-Ease Q ueensland." Water Science and Technology 40(4-5) : 59-66. Source Water and Sanitation News (2003). " Nerherlands: government bans large-scale dual water systems." http://www.irc. nl/source/issue.php/203#p 20 2003( 16 November). Srenekes, N ., A. I. Schaefer, eta!. (2001 ).

Community Involvement in Water Recycling Issues and Needs. Recenr Advances in Water Recycl ing T echnologies, Brisbane. Swan, J.E. and J . Jones Nolan ( 1985). "Gaining C ustomer T rust: A Conceptual G u ide for rhe Salesperson. " journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management: 3948. Van den Bos, K. and H. A. M. Wilke (1998). "When Do We Need Procedural Fairness? T he Ro le of Trust in Aut hority." j ournal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(6): 14491458. W hi te, M . P., S. Pahl, eta!. (2003). "Trust in Risky Messages: T he Role of Prior Attitudes." Risk Analysis 23(4): 7 17-727.

References Bolton, R. N. ( 1998). "A Dynamic Model of the D uration of the Custome r's Relationship with a Continuo us Service Provider: The Role of Satisfaction." Marketing Science 17( I ): 45-65. Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and T reatment (2003). "Setback For Netherla nds Dual Supplies." Health Stream News ltems(30): htt p://www.waterquality. crc.org.au/ hsarch/#s30d.html. Depa rtment of H uman Services, Environment Protection Agency, et al. ( 1999) . South Australian Reclaimed Water G uidelines. Adelaide, Envi ronme nt Protection Agency: 52. Frost, T., D. V. Stimpson, et al (I 978). "Some Correlates of Trust. " The Journal of Psychology 99: 103- 108. Hurlimann, A. and J . McKay (2004).

Governance that Builds Knowledge and Trust in Water Authorities and Positive Impacts on Comnumity Use of Recycled Water. Enviro 2004, Sydney. Law, I. B. (2003) . Personal Communication regarding unsuccessful water reuse campaigns. A. Hurlimann . Sydney. Law, I. B. (2003) . Singapore's NEWater Programme. Commun ity Consultation in rhe Australian Water Indust ry, Sydney, Australian Water Association and the International Association fo r Public Participation . Marks, J. (2003). Situating trust in water reuse. Aquarec Workshop III (Community Consultation and Education in Water Management Issues: Refl ecting on Object ives and M ethods), University of Woolongong.


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AUGUST 2004 45

j [i]

water recycling & reclamation

ADVANCING COMMUNITY ACCEPTANCE OF RECLAIMED WATER J S Marks Summary T h is paper reports on research into the public acceptance of water reuse, chat is, water sourced from highly created sewage effluent. I t distills Bruvold's (1972- 1988) USA findings and compares these co an audit of twenty-two recent surveys, with some reference co case studies at eight sires, where potable reuse has been proposed , and four residential reuse sites. l e highlights several factors chat may help explain a d egree of support for potable reuse and confi rms relatively high acceptance of non potable reuse. Several areas need further investigation and ocher known results suggest ways chat responsible agencies can promote commu nity cruse in che d evelop ment and management of alternative water resources.

Background By now, the role of public perceptions of water reuse need s no introduction to the Australian or USA water industry. During rhe lace 1980s to mid 1990s a complex series of issues caused proposals for indirect potable reuse (reclaimed water created to a high standard for mixing with trad itional sources of drinking water before reticulation) to be postponed or abandoned altogether. T he AWA's p reliminary evaluatio n of areas requiring research in developing water reuse (Dillon 2000) highlights the im portance of sociological factors affecting acceptance. Since then, numerous papers and reports on water reuse proposals have broadly recognised probable social influences.

Table 1. Differences between responses to potable reuse policy compared to drink questions: California surveys (percentage in favour).




San Diego

San Francisco

Orange County

2000 Orange County

2000 LA


73 59

39 16

65 37

67 47

65 38








Note: Where more than one response is involved, the highest percentages ore compared. psychological work and a review of contemporary stud ies, seem to have had limi ted influence on approaches taken to introduce water reuse. Consequently, find ings from cross-national (Marks 200 3a,b) and local research (Stenekes, Colebacch & Waite 200 3), the Recycled Water Task Force (2003) and a recent WERF Report (Hardey 2003) are either all or partly derived from reviews of the unsuccessful implementation of potable reuse. At each location, peo ple were barely famili ar with non potable uses of reclaimed water and were not consulted at the earliest problem-idenrificarion phase. One of several factors recognised is that crust plays a pivotal role when negotiating change. T his facto r also emerges in the experience of residential reuse, the reticulation of reclaimed water for household outdoor, non potable uses and also, as practised in Australia, for toilet flushing (see Marks 2004 a; Hurlimann & McKay 2004).

The Study T his paper summarises Bruvold's findin gs and compares these to an audit of twentytwo survey data reports, with some

This brief overview, compa1¡ing overseas su1¡veys with local surveys, confirms historical levels ofacceptance of water reuse and reveals the gaps in knowledge that will need to be addressed to provide policy direction for reclaimed water initiatives. H owever, the literature on chis subject is scarce and is almost entirely rep resented by the lace Wi lliam Bruvold through his USA industry publications (1972-1988; for example 1985). Yet Bruvold's recommendations, drawn from his socio-

46 AUGUST 2004 water

reference co case studies (Marks 20046 provides more derail). The case study research involved eight sires where potable reuse has been proposed and four residential reuse sites. Twenty resid ents were interviewed in the C ity of Altamonte

Springs and in Brevard County, Florida, where resid ential reuse is well established , and twenty face-co-face interviews, mainly with couples, were conducted at each of the Adelaide sires: New H aven, where residents have recycled water since 1995, and Mawson Lakes, where the system is not yet on line. Findings reported for another Mawson Lakes study (M cKay & Hurl imann 2003; Hurlimann & McKay 20 04) are also taken into acco unt.

Levels of Acceptance of Potable Reuse Bruvold's (1985) review of ten population surveys conducted in che USA, including his own work, confirms that accep tance fell from 48% in 197 1 (USA) to 26% in California in 1979 and 29% in Denver (198 5). Nine more recent Califo rnian studies (1993 to 2000), queried policy support fo r potable reuse and only five of these investigated people's intention co d rink rhe water. In all cases, 'indirect potable reuse' was described as the replen ishment of aquifers, with the exception of San Diego where blending wich surface reservoir water was proposed. N oc surprisingly, support for policy is higher; ranging from 73% in San Diego (1993) down to 39% in San Francisco. By con trast, willingness co drink the water varies from 59%, again in San Diego (1993), to 16% in San Francisco. T his fall in support is demonstrated where both types of questions were asked, as shown in Tab le 1. A similar level of accep tance is found across eleven surveys conducted in ocher pares of the USA, in the UK and in Australia. ' Direct potable reuse' may be assumed for the Australian results because indirect processes were only described for the USA and UK respondents. M ost of


d pap

these studies asked whether people will d rink che water and che resulcs chat may be generalised co target populations are sh own in Table 2.

Levels of Acceptance of Non Potable Reuse There is relatively high acceptance for non potable uses of reclaimed water. Bruvold established chat, in the USA, opposition decreases as che degree of likely human contact decreases. However, he lacer suggested (1988) chat where actual projects were proposed (salient op tions), human health, the environment, conservation , coses of treatment and coses of d istribution of the water would b e more importan t than the likelihood of h uman co ntact. W ith these predictions in mind, several observations are made from the review of more recent surveys chat explored acceptance of a range of non potable uses. Generally, as closeness of con tact is suggested, support falls. However, chis is also evident where non potable uses have been introduced or are well established; for example in Californ ia's Irvine and Monterey. Secondly, in the Sydney and Perth surveys, where non potable reuse is nor well established in the metropolitan area, support for all uses is very high (Table 3). Sup port is also h igh for residential reuse in che UK, again, where it is not salient. Incerescingly, high support is shown in Sydney for the irrigation of vegetable crops bur there is less enthusiasm for washing cloches.

Social Influences: non potable reuse Social demo graphics, awareness, attitude, behaviour and b elief correlations are difficult to ascertain for acceptance or rejectio n of non potable reuse, due co che lack of analysis or the high level of acceptance. Where these relationships have been explored (San Francisco , Sydney's rwo studies, Perch, UK), there are either no significant correlations or none char trend across three or more surveys. H owever, awareness of the technology is specifically surveyed in Irvine, where visirors to the reclaimed water treatment plane indicate a boost in acceptance of both non potable and potable reuse once they complete a cour of the process. This rype of positive, interactive influence is also experienced at the Florida case study sites.

Table 2. Responses to potable reuse: Australia , USA, UK (percentage in favour).

Finished sample size Policy

1988 Gold Coast

1991 NSW/ Qld

1995 Sydney

1996 Tampa







1002 46 42


48 AUGUST 2004 water





1999 2000 UK Arizona 1068 65 55

300 74 51

Note: Response rates were only reported for mailed surveys (Gold Coast 13%; NSW/Qld 21.5%}; the remaining telephone surveys tend lo have a much higher response rate (well over 50%).

Table 3. Acceptance of non potable reuse : Sydney, Perth, UK studies. 95 Sydney

99 Sydney

99 Perth

99 UK





Personal laundry Irrigation of vegetable crops Factories (industrial reuse) Home toilet flushing

77 96 92 96


Washing cars Household garden irrigation Irrigation of recreational parks

96 95 94

75 94 90 96 96 97

Finished sample size:


63* 95 88 89

96 88 86

* Home garden vegetables. two subsequent researchers. The concept may be depicted as 'potable reuse man ' (see Figure 1) , for being male is a strong prediccor of acceptance of chis high technology. Bruvold argued chat acceptance is also more likely co come from chose who are young and not averse to change (measured by moving house); those having a h igher education and income; and people char are aware of the practice of recycling water. Beliefs that positively influence sup port include: the effectiven ess of the technology in controlling health risks; chat there is a

Positive influences: potable reuse Bruvold's review strongly predicts chat certain social influences would impact on acceprance of potable reuse. He packaged these together as a general guide only, and chis portrayal has been taken up by one or

1999 1999 Sydney Perth

Figure 1. Potable reuse man.

water crisis; there are economic benefits in adopting the system; it would alleviate water pollution; and chat public opinion favours the concep t. Yee, while these asso ciations were confirmed in the 1970s and ' 80s, there is licrle available evidence co support chem coday. Th is is parcly due co a lack of indepth analysis in just under half of the surveys collected. The relationship between variables was only examined in the Orange County, San J ose, UK (Thames Water), Sydney (Roseth; Sydney Water) and Perch (CSIRO) studies, as well as the universirybased research in San Diego, San Francisco, Tampa, San Anronio, NSW/Qld (Hamilton 1991), and the res idenrial reuse research. AJl of the large population studies confirm chat men are more receptive co potable reuse with the exception of che UK research wh ere no relationship is found. Higher education tends co b e associated with support in all five Californian studies but, elsewh ere, only two of five found a relationship. No trends emerge for ocher demographics, nor prior awareness of reuse. In relation co beliefs, confidence in che technology has a positive influence in the three studies in San Diego and Orange Counry char investigated chis; concern for its effectiveness correlated with less support in San Anconio, confirming che asso ciation. T herefore, 'potable reuse man' is extinct. Bur, of course, he never really existed; neither Bruvold's studies, nor chose since, considered the links between these

refereed paper

va riables. Metaphorically speaking, even if he did exist, he would be of no use because he only represents the male half of a given popu lation and he is missing the fee t to move him fo rward. Trust was not specifically addressed by Bru vold, but he did reco mm end char lower-order uses (no human contact, such as irrigation of medi an scrips) be introduced in to a community before gradually higher level uses were considered. The cross- national research suggests that the development of cruse produces the 'feet' necessary for advancing accepta nce and adoption of reclaimed water.

The Process of Trust A sociological model of cruse-building (Sztompka 1999) can be applied to the case of water reuse. Although only a summary presentation can be given here, the fra mework reveals opportunities to effect sustainable residential reuse (Marks 2004a) and cruse in higher level uses of reclaimed water (Marks 20036). T he model provides a logica l guide to evaluating possib le inf1uences on people's perceptions of risk and change. In th is instance, risk involves the concept of reusing water sourced from sewage eff1uent chat has been tradi tionally discharged to the environment; and the proposed change causes people to chi nk abo ut tap water which they have notoriously taken for granted. Because trust is an ongoing dynamic it can be depicted as Aowing from these and ocher historical factors (experiences that promote trust or distrust) to fo rm an hi sto rical culture of trust. Current social inAuences wi ll confirm or reshape attitudes towards the technology (Figure 2). Positive structural inAuences (structural context) im pact on the characteristics of a given community (human agency) . This interaction (social praxis) may result in the responsible adoption or use of the technology in such a way char the successful experience promotes higher cruse in reclaimed water (revised culture of crust). This then becomes the historical cond ition that shapes future considerations and actio n. T herefore, the historical culture of crust in reclaimed water will be influenced by traditional practices, prior knowledge of the new technology, experience or awareness of successfu l implementa tion of projects, trust in water and sewerage providers and trust in rap water, among ochers (such as environmental co nditions and experience of water scarcity). The structural context chat will fur ther shape chis inherited level of trust comprises five factors:

Historical culture of trust

Characteristics of agency



Revised culture of trust

Structural context

Figure 2. Trust-build ing model based o n Sztompka (1999) . l. T he legal or regulatory institutions. 2. T he enfo rcement of guidelines/ regu lations or permit rules. 3. Transparency of this governing struccure and manage ment processes and outcomes. 4. Accountabili ty of governance as wel l as user obligations in managing non potable water. 5. Familiari ty with the whole concept through 'access points' to the system. Co nsequencly, it can be appreciated char, fo r example, rhe content of reclaimed water

guidelines are instrumental in building effective and sustainable reuse. The trustbuilding potential of the regulatory social institution will be enhanced if research into social acceptance and experience of reuse feeds back in to ongoing improvement of chose guidelines. A second acti ve process invo lves normative knowledge and enfo rcement of agreed guideli nes, permits and user rules (Moo re 2003). In relation to familia rity th rough access points, ch is represents rhe opportunity fo r people to observe, learn , discuss and feedback

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water recycling & reclamation opinions and experiences of water reuse. This process will involve users o r potential users of rhe resource, social researchers, economises, technical and regulatory experts, and managers of reclaimed water systems. This mod el also assists in appreciatin g the impo rtance of people's cultural, political and environmental values, atti tudes and behaviours as well as their demo graphic ch aracteristics, social status and identi ty. T hese characterist ics will shape their receptio n of this type of change in the routine p ractice of using water. Such consideratio ns poin t co factors, other than those identified by Bruvold , that may h ave an in fl uen ce on acceptance of water reuse. Accordingly, in five Californian po table reuse surveys and six conducted elsewhere, ethnicity, residential location, the p resence o f chi ldren in the h ome an d political p references have all or partly been explored ; but no tren ds emerge. The effect of environmental activity or group mem bership has been examined by four studies and rh e results do suggest higher accep tance of potable reuse. Willi ngness co pay more co finan ce the advanced technology was included in eigh t investigatio ns. T h ere is a suggestio n in six char suppo rters are willing co pay a small levy, bur in fo ur of these (Sydney 1995 and 1999 and cwo results in the U K study), this decreases fo r potable uses in comparison co non potable reuse. It is h ypoth es ised that cruse in rap water and therefo re, ind irectly, chose responsible for the service, will correlate with higher acceptance of po table reuse. H owever, this relationship was o nly tested in Orange County (1 997) and rhe positive relationsh ip between drinki ng water straight fro m rh e tap and support fo r potable reuse is con fi rmed . T his association was also d etected in each o f the fo ur res idential reuse case studies . A nother n in e surveys d irectly probed rhe level of trust in water and sewerage utilities in comparison co och er agencies. W here five or more are presented for consideration, a general trend is suggested. H ighest trust is placed in med ical p ract itioners and/or pub lic healrh authorities and reputable research (for exam p le, un iversities; CS IRO). Environ mental p rotection agencies and environmental grou ps follow w ith the least trust being placed in water and sewerage autho rities. A similar orderin g results in rhe two Adelaide case studies. H owever, at the two Florida sites, highest cruse is placed in the water and sewerage utilities that are also responsible fo r p rovid ing reclaimed water co these developments. Additionally, trust

50 AUGUST 2004


in these autho ri ties coincides with h igh levels of trust in reclaimed water for showering (79%, Altamonte Springs) and fo r d rin king (79%, Brevard County) . Finally, in the analysis of potable reuse experience, a lack of transparency, fa miliarity and acco untability feeds in to the historical context of the eight case studies. A range of al ternatives co the potable reuse option was not p ut co respondents in C alifornian surveys cond ucted in locations where indirect po table reuse has been p ro posed (two each in Orange County and San Diego, and o ne in Los Angeles). This has the effect o f not accurately situating support fo r h igh level uses in comparison co non potable reuse and other alternatives, such as desal ination. Fu rther, local examples of establish ed indirect potable reuse are not referred co in these su rveys . The omission of both types of in fo rmation may be m isconstrued and is likely co erode trust in the proponents of potab le reuse. Further, non potable reuse was either not fu lly developed o r was n ot introd uced at any of the eigh t potable reuse case study sites; in addition co rhe above, these include San G ab riel, the Dubl in San-Ramon Water District, D enver, Tampa, and Noosa in Queensland. As n oted above, Bruvold recommended that the introduction of reclaimed water inro a given community should follow the ladder of im plementation: from low co high human contact. In this way, he argued , public confi dence in the effectiveness of the technology wi ll be nurtured. O ne mo re recent site that is assured to be an exceptio n co this rule is, of course, Singapore. Explanations for this come into view through the t rust model outlin ed above. Singapore's histo rical context o f trust in authori ties and reliance on another n atio n 's water sou rces starkly co ntrasts co chat of W estern d emocracies such as rhe USA and Australia. Add ed to chis is the enormous effort being undertaken in showcasing th e technology co build transparency and fa miliarity in the receiving population wh ile the potable application is being gradually introduced (currently co ntribu ting arou nd 2% co the mains water supply) .

Discussion T hese fi ndings reinfo rce Bruvold's recommendation fo r ch e water ind ustry co introduce lower levels of reuse for public app roval prior co consideratio n of high er co ntact uses. Historically, no n potable reuse has high acceptance, whereas suppo rt for potable reuse suggest that its introduction will be controversial and therefore highly political. This assumptio n

is verifi ed by the actual experience of fa iled attemp ts to implement potable reuse, with public approval, in seven of the eight case studies. F urther research is required co substantiate acceptan ce levels of potabl e and n o n po table reuse with respect co salience. In surveys, this w ill cover intentio ns co drink the water and co use it in ocher ways . In case studies where water reuse is under consideration or esrablished, are variations fo und , and why? Will ingness to drink the water may not be one of the p rerequisites fo r accep ting the introduction of an actual potable system; people may prefer bottled water anyway. However, rejectio n of drinking rhe water portend s rejectio n of other fo rms of ingestion such as cooking and showering. T h e prediccors of acceptance of potable reuse, suggested by Bruvold , deserve fu rther exploration due to the lack of reported research and d epth of analysis of d ata. I t may be ch at th e allusive, mythical figu re of 'potable reuse man' really does exist. T hen the only challen ge left co tackle will be rhe conversion of women or, more seriously, an understanding of their perspectives . Essentially, any research on the copic of potable reuse needs co be placed in rhe context of o cher alternatives, such as no n potable and residential reuse, o r the more complex models of integrated water managemen t. Moreover, a w ider range of influences should be considered. For example, trust in auth orities that will b e involved in the governance of water reuse and t rust in rap water. W hile it is diffi cult co d raw out social influences on support fo r non potable reuse, d ue to the high percen tages of acceptance, rhe res idential reuse data suggests a range of fac tors chat resonate with the trust-build ing model. As an evaluation cool, rhe model can gu ide fu rther research and planning where accual uses are being co nsidered. An understand ing o f rhe historical factors - the drivers of reuse as well as the backgro und culture of cruse in rhe community - will assist in sh ap ing the suppo rtive enviro nment required for sustainable water reuse. This in rum will build the social capacity necessary for developing cruse in new technology or new practices.

Conclusion T his brief overview confirms h istorical levels of acceptance of water reuse and reveals the gaps in k nowledge that will n eed co be ad dressed co provide policy d irection for reclaimed water ini ciacives. Research is cu rrently unde1w ay co establish natio nal baseline data for urban Australia. These results and che role of community

consultation will be fu rther rested where water reuse is being esrablished. To facilitate th e development of rhis research field, an open, multi-disciplinary research cul ture will be required , where information can be shared and acknowledged ro provide sound, evidence-based guidance fo r the expansion of water reuse.

Acknowledgements The author acknowledges with thanks continued project fund ing and support from Unired Water Inrernarional Pry Ltd, and partners T hames Water and Veolia Water, Flinders University and, currently, the Australian Research Council.

The Author June Marks is a posr-docroral research fellow in rhe Department of Sociology ar T he Flinders University of Sourh Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 200 1. June.Marks@fli nders.edu.au

References Australian Research Centre for Water in Sociery ( 1999) The Social Basis far Urban Water Provision in the 21st Centmy, Report, Commonwealth Scientific and lndusrrial Research O rganisation (CSIRO) Urban Water Program, CSJRO Land and Water.

Bruvold W H (1985) Obtaini ng public support for reuse water, American W11ter Works Association Journal, 77 (7): 72-77 . Bruvold W H (1 988) Public Opinion on Water Reuse Options, journal of W11ter Pollution Control Federation, 60 (l ): 45-49. Dillon P J (2000) Water reuse in Austmlia:

Current Status, Projections and Research, A WA Water Recycling Forum, Proceedings of the First Sympos ium, October, Adelaide, 99-104 . H amilton G R ( I 991) Potable Reuse of Reclaimed Waste Water, Masters Thesis, Universiry of Queensland. Hardey T W (2003) Water Reuse: Understanding Public Perception and Participation, Water Environment Federation

Research Foundation (WERF) Report, Wash ington. Hurlimann A and McKay J (2004) Governance that Bu ilds Knowledge and T rust in Water Authorities and Posit ive Impacts on Communiry Use of Recycled Water, Enviro 04, AWA Con fe rence, 29-3 1 March, Sydney. Marks J S (2004a) A sociological Analysis of the Sustainable Management of Decent ralised, R esidential Water Reuse, J nternational Water Association Conference, I 0- 14 February, Fremanrle, WA. Marks J (20046) Back to the Furnre: Reviewing the Findings on Acceptance of Reclaimed Water, Enviro 04, AWA Conference, 29-3 1 March, Sydney. Marks J S (2003a) T he Experience of Urban Water Recycling and the Developmenr of

Trust, PhD Thesis, Flinders University of South Australia. Marks J (20036) The Sociology of Disgust Towards the use of Reclaimed Water, in Gardiner T and McGarry D (eds), Water Recycling Aust ralia 2nd National Conference, A WA, 1-3 September, Brisbane. McKay J and H urlimann A (2003) Attitudes ro Reclaimed Water for D omest ic Use: Part l. Age, W11ter, Journal of the Australian Water Association, August, 30 (8), 45-49. Moore L (2003) Reclaimed water: Managing the Legal Risks, Water, Decem ber, 70-74. Recycled Water Task Force (2003) White Paper of

the Public Information, Education and Outreach Workgroup on Better Public Involvement in the Recycled Water Decision Process, Seate of California Department of Water Resources. Roseth N (2000) Communiry Views on Recycled W ater, Proceedings E nviro 2000 Towards Susrainabiliry, 9- 13 Apri l, Sydney. Stenekes N, Colebatch H Kand Wai te TD (2003) Water Recycl ing and Policy Maki ng, in Gardiner T and McGarry D (eds), Water R ecycling Aust ralia 2nd National Conference, AWA, 1-3 September, Brisba ne. Sydney Water ( 1996) Community Views on Water Reuse, Research Report, J u ne. Szrompka P (1999) Trust: A Sociological Theory, Cambridge Universiry Press, Cambridge. Thames Water (Sample Surveys) (J 999) Water

Re-use/Capture Validation and Attitude Survey, Research Report, November.

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2004 51

water recycling & reclamation

OZ-AQUAREC: AN INTERNATIONAL PROJECT FOR REUSE A I Schafer, S Khan, T Wintgens, T Melin Abstract T he European Commission has funded a major research project, Aquarec, to investigate water re-use. Australian collaboration with Aquarec was initiated by researchers at rhe University of Wollongong and now receives funding from the Commonwealth Department of Education Science and T raining. Australia is a fu ll partner in Aquarec, carrying out research and activities under the banner of OzAquarec.


Figure 1. Concepts of Integ ration in Wa ter Recycling w hich underpin the project.

Introduction Municipal warer recycling is set to play a major role in the management o f the total water cycle in Australia and overseas. Recycli ng provides opportuni ties to overcome impending fres hwater shortages, while concurrently red ucing environmental degradation resulting from sewage discharge. Recognising this, the European Commission has funded a major research p roject called "Aquarec: Integrated Co ncepts for Reuse of U pgraded Wastewater". Aquarec consists of seventeen international partner organ isations and is coordinated at the D epartment for Chemical Engineering of the RWT H Aachen University in Germany. Australian collaboration with Aquarec was in itiated by researchers at the University o f Wollongo ng and now receives funding from the Commonwealth Department of Education Science and T rain ing. Australia is a full partner in Aquarec, carrying out research and activities under the banner of OzAquarec. T he major d river for Aquarec was the need for global improvements in water management practices. Increased races of water recycling was identified as a priority means to achieving this . Accordingly, the key areas of research in the Aquarec and OzAquarec p rogrammes are as follows:

• Guidelines: Lack of uniform guidelines on water quality, treatment and distribution systems for different water recycling applications; Provision of policy guidelines and water quality standards fo r wastewater reuse • Water Scarcity: Many regions worldwide face o r will face water scarcity problems in the future




• Water Quality: Protection of water resources, economic and regional interests as well as consumer-related safety standards have to be balanced • Water Usage Options: The full spectrum of potential water recycling applications has to be investigated • Location: The spatial relation between wastewater treatment sites and potential reuse locations has to be cons idered • Management: Collection and validation of best managemen t p ractices including failure management and pu blic consul ration practices • °Accessibility of Information: Development of refe rence manuals and as step by step guides fo r future end-users • Technology: Evaluation, selection and stand ard isation of technological concep ts and components for wastewater recycling • Integrative Concepts: Integration of various activities towards sustainable wastewater recycling world-wide

The project is multidisciplinary in its design and nature. It incorporates a tho rough assessment of available technologies, application-depen dent water quality, development of public consultation guidelines, recommen dations for water quality guidelines, assessment of fail ure management practices, decision support systems and application of ecologically sustainable development. A schematic illustration of the integrative approach and the three principal project levels is given in Figu re 1. Aquarec has an extensive review and evaluation focus - ch ar is the critical assessment of existing schemes and knowledge. This is considered to provide an efficient avenue to learning from existing experience and resources, and to optimally progress rhe pract ice of water recycling.

Project Structure AQUAREC consists of nine discrete and work-packages char address specific themes

The Eu·ropean Commission has fonded a major 1·esearch project in reuse involving seventeen inte1·national pa1'tne,· organisations. Australia is now a full partner in Aquarec, carrying out research and activities under the banner of "OzA.quarec. Integrated Concepts for Reuse of Upgraded Wastewater" • Wastewater Recycling: Focus on effluents of municipal wastewater treatment p lants as feed source with out loosing sight of water conservation or stormwater treatment issues

and in teract strongly with each ocher. These work-packages are: WPl : An alysis of European water marker and sup ply and demand studies

WP2: Definition of key objectives for water reuse concepts WP3: Development of integrated water reuse strategies WP4: Development of analysis tools for social, economic and ecological effects of water reuse WPS : Methodologies for public acceptance srudies and consultation WP6: Management guidelines for rhe implementation and operation of water reuse cycles WP7: C haracterisation and assessment of technology in water reuse cycles WPS: Development and validation of system design principles for water reuse systems WP9: Project management and dissemination Each work-package has a coordinator and several partner instirutions. Progress is reported at six monthly progress meetings where deta ils of contributions over the followi ng six months are negoriared. The list of partner insrirurions and rheir main roles is summarised in Table 1. Australian Involvement and Contributions

Australia has a lot to offer in water recycling. W hile rhe underlying drivers and impediments are very similar to Europe, recycling projects in Australia have demonstrated a high degree of courage and innovation. The Australian partner, University of Wollongong is involved in four wo rk-packages. These are WP2, WP5, WP6 and WP7. Within these workpackages, rhe Australian ream contributes in a number of key areas: • risk assessment of trace organic contaminants and integration into water recycling guidelines • risk assessment of pathogenic organisms and integration into water recycli ng guidelines • removal of trace contaminants and pathogens during water recycling applications • public consultation management practice and approaches of stakeholder engagement • srraregies ro prevent and manage process failures • socio-ecological impact assessment • mapping of existing water recycling schemes and assessment of performance and cosrs In rhe process of applying for independent fund ing for rhe major contributions to the project, the OzAquarec team has attracted further partners and collaborators and is still looking for further industry support for case srudies.

Figure 2. Aqua rec team at second prog ress meeting in Bilbao, Spain in September

2003. Current core ream members are UoW staff Schafer (team leader), Khan (project manager, analytical chemist), Russell and Hampton (public consultati on), Price (mass spectrometry}, industry partners Lisrowski (SOPA}, Musto n (Muston & Associates) and Dillon and Toze (CSIRO Land & Warer).

Anticipated Outcomes

The Australian team contributes to discussions and reviews of progress reports in several work-packages and has a number of independent deliverables plus a range of acriviries rhat assist in rhe dissemination of project ourcomes to the Australian water recycling communi ty.

Table 1. Aquarec Partner Institutions a nd their main roles in the pro ject. No Full Organisation name RWTH Aachen Chemical Eng ineering Department


Participant role


Project coordinator, strategic and technical issues


RWTH Aachen, University Hospital Germany Environmental Medicine and Hygiene Dept.


Technical University Delft, Department of Water Management

Technology review, water The Netherlands management


Cranfield University - School of Water Sciences

United Kingdom

Public acceptance, strategic prospects


Ben Gurian University of the Negev The Institutes for Applied Research


Quality parameters, agricultural reuse


Mekorot Water Company Ltd.


End-user, public acceptance, agricultural reuse


Centre for Research and Technology Hellos, Greece Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

Industrial reuse


Exeter Un iversity - School of Engineering and Computer Science

United Kingdom

System design, simulation and optimisation


GEONARDO Environmental Technologies


Geographical Information Systems


Brno University of Technology, Institute of Municipal Water Management

Czech Republic

Network design


Aquafin NV - Water Bady of Flanders


End-user, urban applications


University of Valencia, Institute of International Economics


Water management & economics, feasibility study


University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering


Management of reuse systems, public acceptance, micropollutants


S.C. APA NOVA BUCURESTI S.A.Qualito Department




University of Lodz,Department of Applied Ecology

Portuga l

Ecology, cooperation with external end-users


Fundacion Gaiker


Technology transfer, feasibility studies


Risk assessment, reuse for irrigation

17 University of Barcelona, Department de Productes Naturals Biologic Vegetal i Edafologia

Quality parameters, micropollutants




water recycling & reclamation While che main deliverables will not be formally available co the public until the co mpletion of the Aquarec project, several even cs will allow access co progress and preliminary fin dings . Mose significant in Australia will b e an international conference "Integrated Concepts in Water Recycling" in Wollongong 14-17 February 2005. T his conference promises co be a major event for water recycling in Australia. I t will b e attended by th e majoriry o f the Aquarec partners and a variery of Australian experts. T he call for papers is currencly open and detai ls are availab le fro m the OzAquarec website (see contact d etails below) . T he overall Aquarec deliverables are summarised in Figure 4.

Figure 3. Dissemi nation of Austra lia n cu lture at project progress meeting: Prof Thomas Melin (AQUAREC coordinator) reading an Australian comic on water scarcity (WP cultura l education) .

How to become involved T h e Oz-Aquarec team has in the past months conducted an in depth questionnaire of 15 selected Austral ian water recycling schemes following a b road mapping exercise of th e number and type of existing water recycling projects. A first summary of res ults will be published at the World Water Congress in Marrakech in September. Following those q uestion naires will be a further detailed analysis of performance d ata and eco nomic assessment of several schemes and a subsequent selection of sch emes for case studies on the retention of trace contaminants. Such studies are only possible with sch eme operato rs and managers volunteering rime and information. Trace contaminan t analysis in selected schemes requ ires addi tio nal fu nding co cover the extensive analy tical costs. Scheme operators

interested in having their schemes evaluated and subsequencly fearn red in the international context should con tact the Oz-Aquarec team with an expression of interest. For o ur regular workshops we are always looking fo r speakers and we welcome suggestions for speakers or volunteers co speak on water recycling related copies. Equally, we are welcoming nominations for keynote lecturers co be invited for the international water recycling conference in February 2005 (see http://www.uow. edu.au/ en g/ cme/ research / ozaq uarec/ con ferences .hem 1). As ou r proj ect expands in to new areas we are also welcoming new collaborators aboard co progress new areas o f integratio n

and complexity co overco me cu rrent impediments. This is a challenging process since it requires all co ntributors co chink outside their usual comfort zo nes. As Einstein stated "The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of chinking we had wh en we created chem ". T here remains a lot co be done in water management!

Contact Details Oz-Aquarec website: www.uow.edu. au/ eng/cme/ research/ ozaquarec European Aquarec website: www.aquarec.org Email: ozaq uarec@uow.edu.au Ph +6 1 2 422 1 3385 Fax +6 1 2 422 1 4738


1 t-----, Strategy

Market analysi

2 Waler quality


Water quality stanrlards Analytical standards Parameler



Management level

6J-:--:--- -,


M anagcmt. uidelines

Analysis tools Feasibility


stud mcth .


Management review

The Authors

Cost /effect anal sis

Acceptance Survc

Safety + cost mana cment

Fcasib. study

D ecision SU rt

Andrea Schafer (senior lecturer) and Stuart Khan (research fellow) are


researchers in the Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Australia. ph (02) 4221 3385, fax (02) 422 14738, ozaquarec@uow.edu.au. Prof. Thomas Melin and Thomas Wintgens are the coo rdinators o f Aquarec, based at the Department of C hemical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.

exam lcs


I Technology '' "'





System design Reports

Technology occsi.cs

Figure 4. Aqua rec main deliverables in the different work packages.

54 AUGUST 2004

This work is fu nded by the Commonwealth Department of Education Science and T raining for the project OzAQUAREC Integrated Concepts fo r Reuse of Upgraded Wastewater in Australia (CG030025) as part of the European Union 5th Framework P roject AQUAREC: Integrated Concepts for Reuse of Upgraded Wastewater (EVK l -CT -2002-00130) .


im !em. Ian

MAKING STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT WORK JP Dunn Introduction Twenty co rhircy years ago che Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works almost always had the blessings of the general public co fo rge ahead and determi ne what was required for rhe provision of necessary services for the public. Whether ch is invo lved building another dam or sewerage plane, che public saw chis as constructive. T he Boa rd was the wa ter expert and generally rhac was rhar. T he relationship has shifted significa ntly since then. Now the community expect ro be part of any majo r decision-making process. An increas ing challenge in che water industry is co keep in couch with our stakeholders. Public awareness of water as a shared reso urce, accencuaced by rhe current drought, means that che complex communication web between individuals, groups and orga nisa tions needs co be more carefully considered and co nnected. T he industry is responsible, more than ever before, fo r informing stakeholders of recent developments, co nsulting with chem, talking wich them and LISTENING co their needs and responses - not just telling ch em che fait accompli of what is happeni ng. Yarra Valley Water has committed itself co suscainabili cy, which has furth er highlighted che necessity co develop more successful ways of connecting with their stakeholders - especially when significant issues and opporcunities arise. Wh ilst most of the existing methods of consultation have been effective, the increasing mass of issues and the decreasing timeframes for the respo nses required, call, more and more

Figure 1. A World Cafe session at the Green Paper Consultatio n. illustrate some of the key aspects of successful stakeholder engagement, summarised in the guidelines acco mpanying ch is article. In both cases Yarra Valley Water moved well beyond thei r primary objectives and significa ntly advanced relationships with chose who attended.

Story One - Stakeholder Consultation on the Green Paper

"Securing Our Water Future" The Victorian Government, in facing up co rhe challenge of marching demand for water with the limited resource, published a G reen Paper on sustainable use of water and called for feedback from both che auchori cies and che public. Yarra Valley Water decided co actively create an opporrunicy co hear and reco rd their stakeholders' respo nse co this major proposal. The Green Paper was an extensive

To engage stakeholders, the World Cafe methodology is more productive than a public meeting in a hall or theatre. The intimate cafe-like setting ofsmall tables with carefully designed question sessions is conducive to earnest conversations and feedback. frequently, for alternative means of engagement. A creative, refreshing and often intensive approach is increasingly called for. T he fo llowi ng stories serve co

public document char covered a vast array of copies having significa nt implications for all points of connection within and outside the organisation. The consequences could be enormous.

Recognising that all ofYarra Valley Water's stakeholders would inevitably be affected by the decisions made, they worked wi th consultants, Now for Future, to determine a number of commitments. Firstly, they wou ld attempt co ensure that enough stakeholders were aware of the paper's existence and, secondly, th ey would invite them co a forum where everyone was encouraged co work together co gather the most outstand ing responses. T hey would chen incorporate this vital feedb ack inco their submission co the Victorian government. T he initial idea was fraught with a number of challenges. T he Green Paper, Securing Our Water Future, comprised so m e 147 pages, spanning seven different chapters and covering all the majo r areas of water use in Victoria. A process was required co address how many of rhe stakeholders would be aware of the document and then how many of chose would have had rhe opportunity co read ic. The suspicion was that only a few could afford co spend the rime and energy that a water company itself would invest in researching rhe various implications, connections and ramifications of such a docu ment. To fu rther add co the complexity, in such a gathering there would be a handful of stakeholders who would be incimacely acquainted with che document. T he invitation list was extensive, including all key stakeholders. In order co give all invitees the opportunity co view che




document beforehand a web reference was included as pare of the invitation. Everyone then had the option of viewing the document and making an informed decision about the value of attending. W hen participants registered on the day they were also provided with an executive summary for reference. The World Cafe methodology had a large influence on the event. Unlike a p ublic meeting in a hall o r theatre the environment was hospitable and the more intimate cafelike setting of small tables with carefully designed question sessions was conducive to earnest conversations and feedback. Everyone in the room had the opportunity to contribute to the generation of the major issues and could post up what they ind ivid ually considered to be the major issues of the paper. All present were encouraged co respect the balance berween their listening and their contributions. To faci litate relevance and focus, large summary charts, photo-enlarged directly from the document, were used and individual participants' app roval and concerns were collected on these charts. Their overall contributions were visually po rtrayed on a 1.5 metre by 5 metre wall chart during the convergence (plenary session). The graphic recorder employed colou r, words and graphics co capcure both the key issues and the spirit of the groups. At the close, participants were delighted with their chance to con trib ute feedback and many noted their interest in hearing the wide range of perspectives of the representatives p resent. Not only was the information collected - the stakeholders recognised that Yarra Valley Water was listening and valued their different perspectives.

Story Two - Sustainability Partners' Forum 2004 T he aim of this forum was co connect innovatively with stakeholders to accelerate the speed of the journey to sustainability There was already a fi rm and clear company commitment co the futu re and an equally clear recognition that it was viral somehow

Figure 2. A World Cafe is built on the metaphor of a cafe with its small tables and comfortable conversation . to entice the stakeholders to consider joining forces and co build partnerships in this ven cure. The aim was co generate a sense of u rgency, enthusiasm and creativity and co capcure the collective intelligence of this diverse group, A micro-learning o rgan isation was created where people could quickly locate their own influence in the overall piccure of water and fee l compelled co address the positive environmental potential. Again an ambience was established that was hospitable and encouraged all present co feel relaxed and a pare of the morning's work, rather than merely onlookers. Again the design respected both the required objectives, the realities of people working in groups and aimed to stretch their potential. The morning was divided into three sess10ns:

Session 1 The first session was brief. The progress made by the Yarra Valley Water in its sustainability jou rney was shared. T he ongoing examination of the water cycle had uncovered three significant breaches in the system, being greenhouse gas emissions, water resources, and waste from sewage treatment. This examination was made particularly accessible with the use of a central visual reference - a large hand-drawn system

Figure 3. Graphic recording in action at the Sustaina bility Partners Fo rum.

56 AUG UST 2004


diagram that covered one wall of the co nfe rence centre (see Figure 3). T his chart served as a clear point of reference throughout the half day. As the rwo speakers explained each of these breaches, all present could follow visually, and begin co detect the influence that they had. The next two sessions engaged all the stakeholders with Yarra Valley Water staff, working together in a joint investigation initiating the shared spirit chat was hoped would continue well beyond the day.

Session 2 The first question posed was, "Where do we all fit into the piccure and how we can do things differently?" The individ uals searched for their own spheres of infl uence across the hydrological cycle - particularly where they played a part in the system breaches, and then faced the challenge of how co do things differently co avoid these breaches. T he hard questions were investigated and, building on the cafe ambience, the World Cafe was employed as a means of connecting all participants. Everyone was encouraged co listen together. T he varying responses in the room were cross-fertilised as people changed tables. The major responses were drawn co the surface by the grou p and then capcured graph ically on the systems chart in the convergence session.

Session 3 Innovation was taken a step further when rhe group explored "Working together to make a difference". T he focus now concentrated on rhe guests and how Yarra Valley Water might most profitably work with them to ad dress the breaches identified. Each stakeholder was allocated a table and a rotation ofYarra Valley Water managers worked with them to identify potential projecrs that could make a difference. Throughout these last two sessions all sat together, face-to-face, at small tables, listening carefully to one another as rhe new ideas emerged. Seemingly, as with all such events, time was scarce and the response to each of our objectives for the day was consequently limited. Nonetheless, at the end of this shore rime together there were definite direct ions identified and contacts fo rged to advance them.

Conclusions The increasing interest and knowledge of the com muni ty in sustainabili ty, and water in particular, means that organisations like Yarra Valley Water must plan fo r the future with their stakeholders alongside - nor as followers, bur as fellow travellers . Increasingly there is a need to evolve different ways of actively keeping the communication chan nels open and adopting a listening role as well as knowing when it is appropriate to inform or educate. Genuine engagement with stakeholders cannot be an occasional symbolic event. Ir is now an ongoi ng imperative for success. Stakeholder relationsh ips are now a part of the b usiness - not an addition. When the objectives are complex and of paramount importance there may sometimes be a requiremen t to invest in an independent facilitator to provide guidance with suitable processes and best practice facil itation. This does not absolve the hosts. They become fellow participan ts free to engage in frank conversations about issues chat are critical for all present.

The Author Jennifer Dunn is Managing Director of Now for Future, a professional services company offering faci litation, stakeholder engagement, process design and strategy development services to corporations and government. The company has particular interest in sustainability. Now for Future Pty Ltd, Suire 12, 208 Canterbury Rd, Canterbury, Vic, Phone 03 9888 6187, Fax 03 9888 6951 , Mobile 0400 788 110, email: nowforfuture@yahoo.com , www.nowforfuture.com




• Be clear about the outcomes you wane to achieve • Be realistic about what can be achieved before, during and after the event • Maintain a consistent message of 'We value what you have to contribute' th roughout all aspects of the engagement.

• Ensure that participants are appropriately briefed before attending the engagement session. Briefing information needs to be carefully selected and structured - sending too much information can be just as ineffective as sending none at all.

The demonstration ofthis simple message can have an enormous influence on culture (with internal stakeholders) and reputation (with external stakeholders) • Go beyond delivering information and calling for q uestions by: - Designing for high quality interaction - Keeping relationship development in mind - Creating the optimum mix of speaking and listening - Taking advantage of the full range of facilitation and stakeholder engagement methodologies available and being prepared ro use a combination of these ro accomplish different objectives • Duration - allow enough time to achieve your objectives whilst keepi ng it shore enough for people to dedicate the rime and main tain their energy and focus • Be clear about your next move. Determine up front: - Will a follow-up action or event be necessary? - What will this be? - Are we ready to commit to this pu blicly at the end of rhe event?


• Consider giving invitees a set of questions char they can discuss with their colleagues prior to attending • Consider using graphic recording during engagement sessions to "make the conversations visible" and to increase creativity, group memory and ownership • Consid er using graphic templares as a way of keeping small group conversations focused

ON THE DAY • Create a hospitable and inviting environment that will lift the spirits and energy levels of participants • Reiterate the objectives at the start and, as necessary, during the proceedings in order to keep participants focused • Create a "safe" environment fo r conversation char allows participants ro expose their thinking and make it open to the influence of others - World Cafes are excellen r for chis • Be flexible with the program in order to mine high-energy seams of conversation and to maintain participants' energy and concentration levels • Encourage participants to identify patterns and links in their contributions rather than add increasing levels of disconnected derail - graphic recording can have a major impact here • Honour and acknowledge all participants' contributions - this is a natural consequence of graph ic recording

Do not underestimate the importance of the invitation process. Many stakeholder engagement processes are destined to underachieve as soon as the invitations have been sent because they have nor given adequate attention to the fo llowing: • Lead rime - has enough notice been given for invitees to fit it into their diaries?


• Invitees - have we been inclusive? H ave we made clear the number and seniori ty of representatives that we are inviting?

• Ensure that participants understand how they will be informed and/or involved as the stakehold er engagement process proceeds

• Marketing - there is no shortage of meetings and events fo r busy people to attend. The invitation has to "market" the event. This means char it should be attractive, spark peoples' interest and clearly present your value proposition (that is, what's in it for me ifl come?) • Expectations - is it clear why you are inviting them, what you hope to achieve, and what invitees should do to prepare themselves for participation?

• Ensure that participants know where the information they have contributed is goi ng to next and how it will be used

FINALLY • Ensure that the overall event respects the achievement of all parties being in the same place at the same rime • Utilise genuine engagement as an integral part of your communications - both internally and externally • Share all data collected in the workshop with all participants, as collective knowledge to which they have contributed


AUGUST 2004 57



ACTINOMYCETES MAY ALSO PRODUCE TASTE AND ODOUR C Klausen, N O G J0rgensen, M Burford, M O'Donohue Abstract In the summer period, North Pine Dam, in southeast Queensland, Australia, is used as a supplementary source of drinking water for the city of Brisbane. Relatively high concentrations of geosmin and mechylisoborneol (MIB) are frequently detected in the water in summer. The abundance of cyanobacteria (= blue-green algae) chat are known to produce these compounds, is generally low in summer, which suggests chat the odours are p roduced by other organisms. In this short study, we examined the abu ndance of geosmin- and MIB-producing accinomyceces in the water and sedi ment of the dam. The results show chat accinobacceria (accinomycetes are included in the taxonomic group of Actinobacteria) made up 15-25% of all bacteria in the dam water during a period of relatively high geosmin and MIB concentrations. The high density of actinobacteria in the dam suggests chat these bacteria may be more dominant in production of geosmin and MIB than previously expected, and that they should be included in future studies of odour problems in freshwater reservoirs that are used as a source for drinking water.

Introduction Biological prod uction of the caste and odou r components (TOCs) geosmin and methylisoborneol (MIB) reduces the application of surface water for drinking in . many countries (Cook et al., 200 l; Smith et al., 2002; Lanciotti et at., 2003) . The origin ofTOCs is generally believed to be cyanobacceria, but certain bacteria may also contribute T OC in water reservoirs. Among geo smin- and MIB-producing bacteria are accinomyceces, which according to recent research are common microorganisms in most aquatic environments (Sekar et al., 200 3; Klausen et al., 2003; Burkert et al., 200 3). Actinomycetes are Gram-positive, filamento us (most species), spore-forming bacteria chat produce colonies with a leathery surface and greyish colo urs on agar media as shown in Fig. 1. The significance ofTOC production by actinomycetes in Australian water reservoirs has not been studied, nor the occurrence of these bacteria. T he purpose of chis research




Figure 1. Actinomycete isolated from sediment in North Pine Dam and grown on R2A agar (a). Microphotograph of a CARD-FISH preparation of filaments from the isolate (b). was to quan tify the abundance of accinomyceces in water and sediment of one of these reservoirs, North Pine Dam, in Brisbane.

Locations and methods Sampling locations Water was collected o n 18th December 2 003 from Norrh Pine Dam, a drinking water reservoir 30 km north of Brisbane, Australia. Four sites were sampled: 100 m from the dam wall (surface and 20 m bottom); mid lake (surface and 1 1 m bottom); C lear Mountain resort intake (surface, 2 m water deep); and Kobble C reek arm (surface and 9 m bottom). For the surface samples, a 3 m depth integrated sam ple was taken with a pipe, and for the bottom sample, a Niskin boccie was used. In addition, sediment material from the u pper I cm sediment was collected at the stations.

effi ciently degraded by accinomyceces and has been used a selective medium for these bacteria (Hsu and Lockwood, 1975) . Water and sediment samples were diluted up to 10,000-fold and spread on the agar places. Selected colonies with a typical accinornycece morphology were further isolated after 5 days on the R2A media.

Detection of actinomycetes by FISH technique Enumeration of accinomyceces in the water was perfor med using fluorescent insitu hybridization (FISH) with signal amplification (catalyzed repo rter deposition, CARD) according to Sekar et al. (2003). The principle of the FISH method is explained in Texcbox 1. The oligonucleocide probe for the hyb ridizatio n was HGl-654, which is specific for the group Actinobacteria (Glockner et al., 2000). T he variation in 16S rRNA genes amon g actinomyceces is so wide chat

The high density of actinobacteria in North Pine Dam suggests that these bacteria may be more dominant in production ofgeosmin and MIB than previously expected. They should be included in future studies of odour problems in reservoirs. Isolation of actinomycetes Bacteria in water and sediment from the di fferent stations were isolated by plating on 5% R2A agar, enriched with chitin to a final concentration o f 0.1 %. Chi tin is

probes, which are specifi c for all accinomycetes, also include ocher members of the Actinobacteria group. The abundance of different actinobacteria species in natural waters and soils is unknown, but

refereed paper

technical acti nomycetes are among rhe most commonly detected acrinobacteria in natural environments (Madigan et al., 2003). Bacteria in the water and sediment samples were filtered onto 0.2 Âľm polycarbonate fil ters. The sediment material was initially so nicared befo re a 100-fold dilution in distilled wa ter. Bacteria on rhe fi lters were embedded in 5% agarose, hybridized with the probe and reacted with the ryramineflourochrome mixture as explained in T exrbox 1. T he hybridized bacteria were detected as brighrly green fluorescent cells char were visualized by ep ifluorescence mi croscopy. Content of geosmin and MIB Sediment and water sa mples collected a week earlier(Dec. !Och) were analysed fo r geosmin and MIB concentrations using a purge-a nd-trap GC MS technique (http://www.chem. agilenc.com). In rhe case of sed iment samples, 1 g ww of sediment was added to 40 ml deionised wa rer, shaken for I h, rhen 25 ml of suspension was inj ected in to che GC- MS.

Results and Discussion Isolation of Actinomycetes Inoculation of dam water on Petri dishes with rhe R2A media led to single acrinomycere coloni es on rh e agar surface, but other and faste r-growing bacteria in the water tended to overgrow the acrinomycere colonies. In contrast, several actin omycere colonies were observed in all the sediment samples when suspended sediment material was spread on rhe R2A plates. Selected acti nomycece colonies were subsequenrly transferred to new R2A places. After 3-5 days, bacteria wirh a characteristic actinomycere morphology had emerged on the plates as shown in Fig. 1a. Bacteria from rhe places were hybridized wi th the CARDFISH technique to demonstrate rhac the HG l -654 probe actually targeted che isolated actinomyceces (Fig. l b). All che iso lated accinomyceces had a characteristic ea rthy odour, typical of geosmin. Stimulation and inhibition of accinomycete growth in dam water was tested by addition of rhe polymer substance chi tin and the antibiotic Bacicracin, respectively, to intact water samples. C hitin is a horny substance found in the outer skeleton of insects and crustacea and in the internal scruccu res of ocher invertebrates. Bacicracin inhibits cell divisions of accinomyceces and other Grampositive bacteria. Using FISH technique, we found that addi tion of chitin significan rly promoted growth of acrinomycetes in dam water within two weeks (data not shown). In contrast, the number of FISH-positive cells in Bacitracin-treated samples, with or

refereed paper

Text box 1. FISH te chniq ue

Only a small fraction of naturally occurring prokaryotes (bacteria with in the domains Bacteria and Archaea) are identifiable by rradi rional culture methods, but the development of molecular tracers have made it possible to detect and identify a large number of microorganisms, including chose that can not be cultivated in the laboratory. Among che successfu lly applied molecular tracers is che genetic information of the prokaryote ribosomes, especially rhe 16S ribosome. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA has shown chat 16S rRNA possesses both highly conserved and highly variable regions. Conserved regions, for example, show the same sequence fo r all prokaryo tes, while highly variable regions can help to identify a single genus or specific groups of prokaryoces. Based on these differences, it is possible co design RNA probes with different selectivity and spccificy, e.g. targeting major bacterial domains or single genera. RNA probes contain approx. 20 nucleotides that are complementary to the selected target region on the RNA. When RNA probes are used to detect bacteria in environmental samples, cell walls of the bacteria arc made permeable to allow the probe to diffuse inro the cells. The probe will bind ro (hybridize with) its complementary target sequence on rRNA in the bacterial cell, without destroying irs structu re. If a fl uorescent rag is added ro rhe probe, rhe targeted bacteria can be detected by fluorescence microscopy (see

figure). T he method is co mmonly named fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as rhe probe is applied ro RNA in whole cells. FISH has been used ro detect several specific bacterial groups in natural environments, e.g., subdivisions of Proteobacteria, the CytophagaFlavobacterimn group and Actinobacteria, as well as single genera, e.g. Nitrosomonas. Diffe rent probes ca n be used in each sample if the probes are labeled wirh different fluorochromes. If bacteria in natural environments are slowly growing and only co nrain few ribosomes, the fluo rescent signal obtained by the FISH method may be roo low fo r microscopic observations. To compensate for chis, a modified procedure, named signal amplification, has been developed. An example of signal amplification is the application of the co mpound ryramine, often labelled with rhe fluorochrome Cy3 as a colour rag. Instead of a fl uorescent label, rhe RNA probe is combined wirh an enzyme; in our case with a horse radish peroxidase. Peroxidase converts cyramine ro cyramide, which co mbi nes with proteins in rhe bacterial cells. Deposicion of the fl uorescent stain in the cells leads ro brighrly fl uorescent cells. T he signal ampl ification has been named catalyzed reported deposition or CARD. The CARDFISH approach was used in rhe present study of Actinobacteria in North Pine River Dam and is shown in the figure below.


AUGUST 2004 59

technical without chitin, was identical to that in untreated controls, irrespective addition of chit in. T his confirmed that growth of the actinomycetes was prevented and that the antibiotic did not have an effect on actinomycetes already present in the water. C ultivation of actinomycetes in dam water on selective growth media could serve as a simple test for p resence of actinomycetes. Actinomycetes growing on the agar plates migh t be detected fro m the produced odours or from their characteristic cell morphology. For monitoring purposes, however, growth on selective media is a slow procedure as several days are required to o btain a sufficient cell d ensity on the plates. Occurrence of actinobacteria in water and sediment

The FISH technique d emonstrated that actinobacteria in the dam water ranged from about 1.4 to 1.8 x 106 cells mJ- 1 (Fig. 2). The highest densities were found in surface water from the middle of the lake and at the C lear Mountain resort intake. The actinobacteria typically made up about 20 % of all bacteria in the water (range 18 to 24%). The total bacterial density was determined to 6-8 x 106 cells mJ-1 by flowcytometer counting after staining of the bacterial DNA with a fl uorochrome (data not shown). In the surface sediment samples, densities of FISH-positive cells varied from 20 to 50 x 106 cells g-1 wt (data not shown). The proportion of Actinobacteria relative to all bacteria in the sediment could unfortun ately not be determined due to tech nical problems. The observed number of actinobacteria in the dam water is comparable with recent studies of actinobacceria in lakes and streams in Europe (Glockner et al., 2000; Klausen et al., 2004). In these stud ies, actinobacceria were found to constitute from a few up to 63% of the bacterial populations . T he proportion of actinomyceces among the accinobacteria has been estimated in screams in Denmark, assuming that all fi lamentous and FISHpositive cells were accinomycetes. The results indicated chat from 11 to 38% of the accinobacteria were accinomycetes (Klausen et al., 2004). Applying chis actinobacteria/actinomycete ratio co the FISH-positive cells in North Pine D am, the density of actinomycetes in North Pine River is estimated to 2-7 x 105 cells ml- 1• This correspond s to 3-8% of all bacteria 'in the dam water. The ecological function of actinomycetes in freshwater is unknown. Actinomyceces prod uce a wide range of hydrolyric enzymes (Madigan et al., 2003) and may be expected

60 AUGUST 2004


Table 1. Concentrations of geosmin and MIB in surface water (0-3 m integrated samples) and in the upper 1 cm sediment i n N o rth Pine Dam on December 10th 2003. na = not analyzed. Sediment (ng kg-1 wwl

Water (ng 1-1) Station





<5 13 10 15

8.8 7.2 15 6.2

no no

no no

651 578

556 501

Lake; 100 m from dam wall Mid lake Clear Mountain resort intake Kobble Creek

co be efficient in degrading various types of organic matter. Recent observations fro m manipulation of the content or d issolved organic matter in hum ic lake water suggest chat actinomyceces can be outcompeted by faster-growing bacteria (Sekar et al. , 2003). Speculatively, this may indicate chat the function of actinomycetes in freshwater is degradation of relatively recalcitrant organic species, perhaps from invertebrate skeletal matter. Content of geosmin and MlB in surface water, sediment and off-take water

Concentrations of geosmin and MIB were measured on Dec. 10th in surface water at the four sampling stations. Geosmin ranged from 10 to 15 ng 1-1, but near the dam wall, <5 ng 1-1 was measured (Table 1). Concentrations of MIB were below 9 ng 1-1, except at the shallow C lear Mountain resort intake, where 15 ng 1-1 was found. Sediment data were only available for two of the sites, where 500-650 ng geosmin or MIB kg- 1 occurred. Off-take water from North Pine Dam was analysed for geosmin and M IB content · during the period that this study was

undertaken. The odo urs were present on all sampling days in December and were found to vary fro m 5 to 16 ng 1-1 (geosmin) and fro m 10 to 23 ng [- 1 (M IB) (Fig. 3). On D ec. 18th, when the density o f actinobacteria was determi ned, the MIB and geosmin concentrations were 13 and 10 ng [-1, respectively. T he continuous abundance of TO Cs in the raw water demonstrates that there was an o ngo ing p roduction of these compounds. Therefore, although actinobacterial densities were only determined for Dec. 18th, while analysis for TOCs at the 4 sampling stations occurred on Dec. 10th, it is evident that the presence of TO Cs in the water was not an isolated event. T he concentrations of geosmin and MIB in North Pine Dam correspond to the levels measured in other freshwaters in Australia Qones and Korth, 1995) and in eutrophic lakes and rivers with cyanobacterial populations, e.g., Lake Zurich (only geosmin was measured; Durrer (1999)) and Arno River, Italy (Lanciotti et al., 2003). In our own analysis of streams in D enmark, up to 6 ng geosmin and M IB 1-1 were 50

E <D



Abundance Percentage

Mid lake


40 -~









~ ~


30 1.2





·;:: OJ

20 0.8



.0 0 C



.0 0


0 co





:{2. 0


~ <(


0.0 ve
















?f O:,~

Figure 2. Abundance of Actinobacteria in water of the North Pine River dam (left

axis) and their proportion of the total bacterial density (right axis). Mean values of 10 to 15 microscope fields of the CARD-FISH preparations, each with a size of 110 x 11 0 fJm, are shown. Error bars indicate ± 1 SD.

refereed paper

technical detected, although no cyanobacceria were present (Klausen et al., 2004) . TOC production: Actinomycetes or cyanobacteria? Cyanobacceria are generally believed co be the main source ofTOCs in freshwater. Supporting chis, removal of a cyanobaccerial-rich biofilm on canal walls in Phoenix, Arizona, significantly reduced che odour level in the water (Hu et al., 2003). Also, during a high zooplankcon grazing on cyanobacceria in the Lake Zurich, the geosmin level rose from 3 co 21 ng 1· 1 (Durrer eta!., 1999) . H owever, in the Arno River, Italy, the presence of geosmin and MIB even during periods with a low cyanobacrerial biomass, led co the suggestion chat acci nomyceces rather than cyanobacreria produced the odours (Lanciotti et al., 2003). The number of geosmin- and MIBproducing cyanobacreria in North Pine Dam was low in December 2003. O n Dec. 18th, the density ofTOC-producing cyanobacreria was 2-6 x 10 3 cells pr. ml, while che coral density of algal cells was 124-380 x 10 3 cells pr. ml (unpublished SEQWacer data). The dominant genus of


-Ol s


MIB Geosmin



.Q 15



Q) ()


0 (.)



0 3



10 12

15 17 19

22 24



Days in December 2003

Figure 3. C oncentrations o f geosmin and MIB in raw water off-take pipe on the dam wa ll in December 2003 . Al l ana lyses were pe rfo rmed as single measurements. The detection limit was 4 ng 1·1 a nd the analytica l precision was determined to ± 3%. An alysis of duplicate samples fro m the same locations typ ically demonstrate a variation < 1 0%.

and MIB-producing species (Persso n, 1983). The low abundance of potential TOC-producing cyanobacteria in North Pine Dam suggests chat cyanobacreria were

cyanobacceria was Aphanizomenon sp, bur Microcystis sp. and Anabaena sp. were also commonly detected in the dam water. T he three genera are known co include geosmin-

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refereed paper

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AUGUST 2004 61

technical not the main source of geosmin and MIB in the water. We assume chat odour production by actinomycetes caused the relative high concentrations of geosmin and MIB observed in Decembe r 2003 in the dam. Future stud ies on accinomyceces in water reservoirs should include a more intensive spacial and temporal sampling program to test for covariation in occurrence of actinomyceces and TOCs. The field sampli ng sho uld be acco mpanied by laboratory incubations co test for c hanges in TOCs in relation to occurrence and growth of actinomycetes. Also, in an attempt to obtain more specific information on actinomycetes in water and sediment, the presently applied FISH probe should be redesigned to target only actinomycetes.

Conclusions The coincidence b et\veen a relatively h igh abundance of potential TOC-producing actinobacteria such as accinomyceces, a low number of cyanobacteria, and fa irly large concen trations of geosmin and MIB in both water and sediment of the North Pine Dam suggest that actinomyceces may be more important producers of geosmin and MIB than previously thought. Production ofTOCs by actinomycetes is well-documented, but their occurrence and biology as well as their sign ificance as producers of odours in natural freshwaters are largely unknown and require furth er stud ies.

Acknowledgements We wish to thank Senior Research Fellow Peter Pollard for his support during the study, Brisbane Water for a nalyses ofTOCs and access co data, and SEQWacer for access to data and providing financial support cowards the project. The Royal Veterinary and

62 AUGUST 2004 water

Agricultural University, Denmark, provided fundi ng for N O G J0rgensen (travel expenses a nd reagents for the FISH procedure). We also acknowledge scholarships by the Danish Pasteur Organization and the C and O Brorson Family Fund fo r C Klausen.

The Authors Cecilie Klausen is a Junior Research Fellow and Niels O G J,ngensen is Associate Professor at the Departme nt of Ecology, The Royal and Veterinary University, Frederiksberg, D enmark, e-mails cek@kvl.dk and nogj@kvl.dk. Michele Burford is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre fo r Riverine Landscapes, Facility of Environmental Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, email m.burford@griffich.edu.au. Mark O'Donohue is Water Quality Manager at SEQWater, Brisbane, Queensland, em ail modonohue@seqwco.com.au. C Klausen and NOG J0rgensen were invited to Australia by SEQWater and the Centre for Riverine Landscapes at Griffith University, which kindly p rovided laboratory faci lities for the research.

References Burkert, U., Warnecke, F., Babenzien, D., Zwirnmann, E., Pernthaler, J ., 2003. Members of a readily enriched ~-Proteobacterial clade are com mon in surface waters of a humic lake. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69: 6550-6559. Cook, D., Newcombe, G., Sztajnbok, P., 200 1. The application of powdered activated carbon for MIB and geosmin removal: predicting pac doses in four raw waters. Water Research, 35: 1325- 1333. Durrer, M ., Z immermann, U., Juttner, F., 1999. Dissolved and particlebound geosmin in a mesotrophic lake (Lake Zurich): Spatial and seasonal distribut ion and the effect of grazers. Water Research, 33: 36283636. Glockner, F.O., Zaich ikov, E., Belkova, N. , D enissova, L., Pernthaler, J., Pern thaler, A., Amann, R., 2000. Comparative !GS rRNA analysis of lake bacterioplankcon reveals globally distributed phylogenetic clusters including an abundant group of actinobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66: 5053-5061. Hsu, S.C., Loclrn,ood, J.L., 1975. Powdered chitin agar as a selective medium for the enumeration of actinomyceres in water and soil. Applied Microbiology, 29: 422-426. H u, Q., Sommerfeld, M., Baker, L., Westerhoff, P., 2003. Canal wall brushing - a control measure for caste and odour problems in drinking water supplies in and environments. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua, 52: 545-554. Jones, G.J ., Korth, W., 1995. In situ p roduction of volatile odour compounds by river and reservoir phyroplankcon populations in Australia. Water Science and Technology, 31: 145-151. Klausen, C., J0rgensen, N .O.G., Nybroe, 0 ., Strobel, B.W., Warnecke, F., 2003. The occurrence of actinomycetes and geosmin in freshwater aquacultures in Denmark. American Society for Microbiology Abstracts 2003. pp. 409. Klausen, C., Strobel, B.W., Warnecke, F., N ielsen, J.L., N icolaisen, M.H., 0., J0rgensen, N.O.G., 2004. Abundance of act inobacteria and production of geosmin and MIB in Danish screams and fish ponds. Submitted . Lanciotti, E., Santini, C., Lupi, E., Burrini, D., 2003. Accinomyceres, cyanobacteria and algae causing castes and odours in water of the River Arno used for rhe water Supply of Florence. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua, 52: 489-500. Madigan, M.T., Marcinko, J.M., Parker, J., 2003. BROCK Biology of Microorganisms. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, l- 108l pp. Persson, P.E., 1983. Off-fl avours in aquatic ecosystems - an introduction. Water Science and Technology 15: 1-11 Sekar, R., Pernthaler, A., Pernthaler, J., Warnecke, F., Posch,T., Amann, R., 2003. An improved prococol for quantification of freshwater Actinobacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69: 2928-2935. Smith, V.H., Sieber-Denlinger, J., de Noyelles, F., Campbell, S., Pan, S., Randtke, S.J ., Blain, G.T., Strasser, V.A., 2002. Managing taste and odor problems in a eutrophic drinking water reservoir. Lake and Reservoir Management, 18: 319-323.

refereed paper

WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: A REVIEW A Parkinson, F A Roddick Abstract A review of rhe literature was undertaken determ ine the ranges of pathogen removal by the unit processes commonly used in rhe rrearmenr of wastewater prior to disinfection. Ir was fo und that rhe order of effecti veness ranged from primary sedim entation, followed by trickling fil ter, physic ochemical rrearmenr with alum/ p olymer, rapid sand fil tration, activated sl udge, physicochemical rrearmenr with I ime, dissolved air flotation, slow sand fil tration, lagoons (with sufficient HRT)and membrane processes. to

analysis of pathogens and rhe fact rhar most wastewater processes are predominantly used to red uce dissolved organic carbon and nu trients, only a small number of studi es have published data on pathogen removal fo r each stage of treatment. T herefore fo r a nu mber of rreatment processes, rhe expected outcomes for different pathogens had to be extracted from more than one study and data from potable water studies were also incl uded. Most of rhe studies were undertaken in England and rhe United States of America.

A literature review quoting ranges of pathogen removal for each unit operation.

Introduction Th e design and operation of wa ter reclam ation schemes is dependent on a number of parameters including the quality of rhe feed water, the end water use, space require ments, the availability of a rericularion system, and rhe willingness to pay. R eclamation of wastewater poses a challe nge fo r health authorities and water providers, as there is rhe need to ensure char reclaimed water does nor compromise publ ic health. Fo r water businesses and health agencies to make decisions on rhe selection of appropriate water reclamation schem es, an understand ing of the mecha nisms and expected outcom es in pathogen reduction of current and em erging treatment technology must first be established. The aim of chis literature review was to determ ine rhe expected outcomes of pathogen and indicator organism reduction for the various stages of a range of wastewater rrearmenr processes prior to any subsequent disinfection stage.

secondary effl uent in a report on the use of app ropriate technology for water supply and sanitation. T he reduction of Esherichia coli and protozoa in primary sedimentation effl uent ranged between O and 1 log units, while rhe reduction of viruses was minimal with removals ranging between Oand 0.3 log units. Primary sedimentation had the greatest impact on helmi nrh ova with reported removals ranging between O and 2 log units (Feachem et al., 1980).

Secondary Treatment

T hroughou t the fo ll owing discussion, rhe term log units refers to log 10 units.

Results Primary Treatment

T he majority of rhe literature on the removal efficiencies of pathogens by primary sed imentation and trickli ng fil ters was published prior ro the 1980s. Feachem et al. (1980) summarised rhe survival data for excreted organisms in primary and

T reatment with trickling.filters resulted in greater reductions of indicato r bacteria, E.coli and protozoa with removals ranging between O and 2 log units. As observed for primary sedimentation, the reduction in virus concentration was mi nimal with removals ranging between 0. 2 and 0.7 log unirs. Although there were so me reports of up to 2 log unit reductions of helminth ova, most values ranged between 0.5 and I log unit.

Methodology T he review of rhe literature included rhe unit operations of pri ma ry, seco ndary and advanced wastewater treatments most com1nonly used in water reclam ation plants. Four major pathogen groups: bacteria, protozoa, viruses and H elminths, as well as coliph ages, were incl uded. D ue to rhe h igh cost associated with rhe

refereed paper




AUGUST 2004 63

T he reported removals of E.coli and enceroviruses in activated sludge effiuent were similar for all studies with values ranging between 1 and 2.7 log units (Feachem et al., 1980; Irving and Smith, 1981; Yanko, 1993; Rose eta!., 1996; Sheikh eta!., 1999; Rose eta!., 2001). T he removal efficiencies fo r protozoa were lower than those reported for bacteria and viruses with values of 1.2 to 1.5 log unirs for Giardia cysts and 0.6 to l log u nits for Cryptosporidium oocysrs (Rose et al., 1996; Rose et al., 2001). One srudy reported higher removals of Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge effl uent; however, these results were obtained with a laboratory-scale reactor where optimal treatment conditions are easier to achieve (Suwa and Suzuki, 2001 ). T he lower removals of Cryptosporidium oocysrs compared with bacteria and viruses reflect the resistance of chis pathogen to inactivation and predatory removal by ciliated procozoa. T he reported removals of helminth ova by activated sludge treatment varied substantially. Some studies reported no effect on the viabi lity of Ascaris and Taenia ova and survival of hookworm ova for up co 5 days of aeration (Cram , 1943; Newcon et al., 1949). Other stud ies showed co mplete remo val of Schistosomeova and 1-2 log unit reduction of Ascaris ova (Rowan, 1964). The capacity o f activated sludge treatment co remove d ifferent species of viruses was found co d iffer, with the removal of enteroviruses being 70% greater than for adenovirus and reovirus (England eta!., 1967; Feachem eta!., 1980; Irving and Smith, 1981; Aulicino et al., 1996). T his variability highlights the risks associated with using one virus group as sole ind icators of virus removal from wastewater.

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technologies Advanced wastewater treatment technologies included in ch is category are physicochemical treatments, ie., coagulation, fo llowed by either sedimentation and filrrar io n, d irect fi lrrarion or dissolved air flotation (DAF), as well as the newer membrane p rocesses .

Physicochemical Treatment Literature on the removal of pathogens by coagulation with alum and p olymer coagulants was limited co an investigation using untreated municipal wastewater Oimenez-Cisneros eta!., 2001). In chis study 1 log unit removals o f faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and 0.5 and 0.8 log u nit removals of procozoa cysts and helm inth eggs were reported. Edzwald and Kelley (1998) reported similar reductions fo r Cryptosporidium oocysrs from parable

64 AUGUST 2004


water using alum, polyelecrrolyre and ferric chloride coagulants. When lime was used as rhe coagulant, Jimenez-Cisneros et al. (2001) reported reductions of 1.5 log units of helminth ova. Substantially higher remo vals of bacteria and viruses were also reported when lime coagulant was used in the physico-chemical treatment o f secondary created wastewater. G rabow et al. (1978) and Rose et al. (200 1) reported reductions of 3 and 2.5 log units for coral coliforms and faecal colifo rms, respectively, reductions of 2 and 3 log uni rs for coliphages, and reductions of 3 log units and 100% fo r enteric viruses. Higher removals o f prorozoa were also reported by Rose et al. with a 1.3 log unit reduction in Giardia cysts and a 2.7 log unit reduction in Cryptosporidium cysts. Only limited data were available for the removal of pathogens from wastewater by DAFwith one reference on the removal of rota! coliforms (Caceres and Contreras, 1995) and another on the removal of enteroviruses (Nupen, 1970) . However, rhe apparent trend is char DAF resulted in a greater than 3 log unit reductio n in both total coliforms and enteroviruses. When used to treat potable water, removals of E.coli, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas ranged between 0.8 and 2.0 log u nits (van Puffelen et al., 1995). Virus and coli phage removal were complete and 1.7 log units, respectively, however rhe influen t virus concentratio ns for rhe wastewater and potable water studies were signifi canrly lower and so rhe removals may nor be rruly representative. The removal of pathogens from secondary treated effl uent by rapid sand filtration at the Occoquan water reclamation plant was determined co range between 0.2 and 1.5 log u nits, with rhe lowest value recorded fo r enteroviruses and rhe highest fo r faecal coliforms and Cryptosporidium oocysrs (Rose et al., 2001). Removals of Clostridrium perfringens, coliphage and Giardia cysts ranged between these values with reductions of 1. 1, 0.8 and 0.9 log units, respectively. Jimenez et al. (2001) reported significantly lower removals of Giardia cysts with 0.3 log units, while Edzwald et al. ( 1998) reported removals of 2 log units for Cryptosporidium oocysts for potable treated water. T he difference in removals between these three studies may be a reflection of differing quality of the influent. The lowest pathogen removals were obtained when rapid sand filtration was utilised ro treat pri mary treated effluent Oimenez et al., 200 1), medium re~ovals were obtained for chemically treated wastewater effl uent (lime coagulation,

sedimen tation) (Rose et al., 2001), and the highest removals were obtained for the treatment of potable water (Edzwald and Kelley, 1998). The low removal of en reroviruses by rapid sand treatment for the chemically treated wastewater effluent (Rose et al., 20 01) is most likely a result of the low nu mbers in rhe infl uent, which in turn is d ue to the high removals during lime coagulation and sedimentatio n. Berg et al. (1968) investigated the removal of viruses by rapid sand filtration after lime treatment and reported removals of 1.6 ro 2.6 log units, albeit these results were obtained using a laboratory reactor where enreroviruses were dosed into the influent scream. W here rapid sand fi ltration was utilised to treat alum coagulated potable water, reductions of 1 log unit for enceroviruses were obtained (Nasser et al., 2002).

Slow sand filtration resulted in greater reductions in pathogen n umbers than rapid sand fi ltration. The removal of coral coliforms ranged between m inimal and complete, and h ighligh ted the high dependence of ch is treatment on the operatio nal condi tions and fi lter type (Feachem et al., 1980; Schuler et al., 199 1; Farooq and Alyousef, 1993; Farooq et al., 1994). Removals o f 2 log u nits were reported for MS2 bacteriophage, 1.2 log ro complete for Giardia cysts, and 0.3 to 3 log u nits for Cryptosporidium o ocysrs. The significantly lower removal value of 0.3 log units of oocysrs from potable water by slow sand filtration was attributed co rhe low water temperature lowering the biological activity of rhe fi lter (Fogel et al., 1993). Pathogen reduction by direct filtration ofsecondary treated effiuents ranged fro m mini mal to 3.8 log un its (Yanko, 1993; Rose et al., 1996; Koivunen et al., 2003; Rajala et al., 200 3) . In a study u ndertaken at a full-scale water reclamatio n plant, d irect filtration resulted in minimal removals of bacteria and viruses with an average 0. 1 log unit reduction in faecal coliforms, 0.6 co 0.8 log unit reduction in enteroviruses, 3.8 log unit reduction in coliphage and 1.5 to 2.0 log reduction in procozoa (Rose et al., 1996). While minimal removals of bacteria and viruses were repo rted in chis scudy, Koivunen et al. (2003) and Rajala et al. (20 03) reported 2 log u n it reductions of faecal coliforms, and Yanko (1993) fo und char only 50% of rhe samples were positive for ind igenous viruses afrer direct filrrarion with an average reduction of 1.1 log units. In studies char u tilised d irect filt ration for treatment of parable water, reductions of Cryptosporidium oo cysrs ranged between 2.7 and 4. 0 log un its.

refereed paper

Table 1. The relative capacity of unit processes to remove indicator microorganisms a nd pathogens based on literature data. Treatment Process


Coliphage aMS2 PPRDl

Total Coliforms Faecal coliform

#E.coli, 'Clostridium



Helminths (Ascaris spp. Taenia spp.)





v. low



#med, *low



v. low




med, #med, * low



























med-high ND

high ND

Primary Sedimentation Trickling Filter


Activated Sludge (primary, secondary sedimentation) Physicochemicol Treatment (coag/ floc/ sed) alum, polymer coagulant Physicochemicol Treotment (lime coog., pH >11) Direct Filtration (coog/ floc/filt)olum/ polymer Dissolved air flotation (DAF)

(coog/floc/flototion)olum , polymer low-high Slow sand filtration


med med, Pmed





med-high high-v.h igh


Ropi d sand filtration


med, *med


low- med




Microfiltrotion (0.2~m)





v. high



Ultrafiltrotion (0.05~m)



v. high


v. high



Reve rse Osmosis


v.h igh






(0.2f.'m, activated sludge)

v.hig h















Membrane bioreoctor

Legend: 0-1 109 10 units: v.low, >0-1 10910 units: low, > l to 2109 10 units: med, >2 to 3 109 10 units: med-high, >3 to 4109 10 units: high,> 4109 10 units: v. high, #E.coli, *C/osfridiun:i, xSa/monello, aMS2, PPRDl ND indicates no data

Membrane Processes Micro.filtration, ultra.filtration and reverse osmosis resulted in complete removal of enteric bacteria and protozoa from w astewater effluent (Madaeni et al., 1995; lranpour, 1998; Abdessemed et al., 1999; Gagliardo eta!. , 2001; Seth i and Juby, 2002). Significant removal of caliph.age from wastewater was also reported fo r ultrafiltration and reverse osmos is (Madaeni et al., 1995; Gagliardo et al., 200 1), however removals of coli phage by mi crofilrration ranged between 0 and 3 log units and was determined to be dependent on the extent of membrane fouling (Iran pour, 1998; Gagliardo et al. , 200 1) . Reported removals of enteric bacteria by a micro.filtration membrane bioreactor ranged between 3.5 and 6 log units with highest removals reported for faecal coliforms in a full-scale membrane bioreactor used for the treatment of primary and secondary sewage (Cote et al., 1997; Gander et al. , 2000; Jolis et al. , 200 l ; Churchouse and Brindle, 2002). A similar range was observed for rhe reduction in coliphages. Churchouse and Brindle (2002) reported a reduction of 2.5 log units for enteroviruses. Although the

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log reduction of viruses was lower than that reported fo r other microorganisms, the difference between the initial and fi nal effluent virus co ncentration was l log unit compared with 1.3 log units fo r faeca l streptococci and 2 log units for faecal colifo rms, Clostridium and coliphages. For rh e fu ll-scale treatment of primary effluent using a microfiltration membrane bioreactor, the faecal coliform and virus concentrations in the final effluent were greater than 11 colony fo rming units/ 100 mL and 6 plaque fo rming units/5 0 L, respecti vely. Lagoons

A number of authors reported that decreased hydraulic residence times (HRT) and short-circuiti ng effects significancly impact the efficacy of lagoons (Lloyd and Frederick, 2000; Shilton et al., 2000; Vorkas and Lloyd, 2000). By using tracer studies, Lloyd and Frederick fo und that the actual HRT of an entire lagoon system (2 faculrati ve and 2 maturation ponds) was actually 4.5 days compared with the theoretical HRT of 23 days, and reported that this was the most likely cause of poor removals of helminth eggs.

Votkas and Lloyd (2000) fou nd that unsteady flow rates, wind , inlet and outlet effects, accumulation of sludge and shear stresses on the walls resulted in shorecircuiting of the effluent stream and resulted in bacteriophage leaving the pond system after only 6 hours H RT. Likewise, Shil ton et al. (2000) determined that the fraction of flow th at moved through the pond system within 24 hours accounted fo r the maj ority of coliforms in the fi nished effluent. These auth ors highlighted the importance of good hydraulic design for ponds and emphasised the need to decrease dispersion effects and increase plug flow through the system. T here are many reports of high quality effluent being obtained when lagoons are operated with sufficient HRT (Shereif et al., I 995; Jagals and Lues, 1996; J uanico, 1996; Nelson, 2000; Kouraa et al. , 2002) . Juanico (1996) determined that when lagoons are properly designed and operated with HRT greater than 70 days, faecal co liforms decreased by 5 log units. Kouraa et al. (2002) reported that use of a series of ponds with retention times greater than 58 days resulted in a 6 to 7 log unit reduction for faecal coliforms and complete removal of helminth eggs. Likewise, Shereif et al.




(1995) reported that a series of lagoons with a HRT of25 days resul ted in a 6 log unit reduction of faecal coliforms with the greatest removal achieved in the second maturation pond. Cavalcanri et al. (2001 ) also reported a 6 log unit reduction of faecal coliforms for created effiuent from a series of 2 polishing ponds milised afrer secondary treatment. Baffle or lane systems were used to decrease dispersion and increase the HRT with the result that faecal coliform concentrations gradually decreased as the effluent progressed through the system. Greatest removals of faecal coli forms were observed in the pond with the highest HRT and the final effluent had greater than 4 log unit reduction of Giardia cysts. Grimason et al. (1993) reported that for a number of waste stabilisation ponds in Kenya, a HRT of 40 days resulted in complete removal of both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Removal of viruses was highly variable with values ranging berween 1 log unit and complete (Malherbe and Co etzee, 1965; England et al., 1967; Shu val, 1970; Arceivala et al., 1970 and Slanetz et al., 1970 as cited in Feachem et al. (1980)) .

General Trends for Pathogen Removal by Unit Processes T he relative capacity of unit processes to remove pathogens and indicator organisms is summarised in Table I. Primary sedim entation had the lowest pathogen removal capaci ty with a very low ranking for removal for all four pathogen groups, namely bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths. The pathogen removal capacity for the trickling fi lter was higher than for primary treatment bu t lower than for activated sl udge. Activated sludge had greater variability in results, but the medium ranking was given for removal for all pathogens except enreroviruses, which was ranked as low. For.the advanced wastewater treatment processes, the pathogen removal capacity for coagulation/fl occu lation/ sedimen tation with alum/polymer coagulant was lower than for all other tertiary treatments and activated sludge. Removals of bacteria, enteroviruses, protozoa and helminrhs were all ranked as low for this treatment. The pathogen removal capacity for coagulation/ fl occulation/sed imentation using lime coagulant was markedly higher than when alum/polymer was utilised, with high rankings for removal of the fou r pathogen groups. The increased bactericidal and virucidal effect of this treatment was attributed to the high pH (> 11). Direct filtration (coagulation/ flocculation/filtration) using alum/polymer

66 AUGUST 2004 water

coagulant had a higher removal capacity than coagulation/flocculation/ sedimentation with alum/polymer treatment but lower than coagulation/ flocculation/sedimentation with lime treatment. A low removal ranking was observed for bacteria, but medium to high for all other parhogen types. In physicochemical treatment schemes, the processes of coagulation/fl occulation/ sedimentation are generally combined with rapid sand filtration, which increases rhe pathogen removal capacity to be higher than for direct filtration. This trend was demonstrated in a study that monitored the removal of Poliovirus 1 by a number of treatment schemes (White, 1978). Treatment by alum/polymer coagulation of secondary effluent resulted in log reductions of 2.3 to 2.5 units compared with redu ctions of 0.8 to 1.0 units for direct treatment using the same coagulant chemicals. The pathogen removal capacity for slow sand filtration was markedly higher than for direct filtration and the combined coagulation/ flocculation/ sedimentation with alum/ polymer and rapid sand filtration process. This demonstrates the greater efficacy of slow sand fi ltration which is due to the use of both physicochemical and biological removal mechanisms. OAF treatment had a medium pathogen removal capacity which increased to high when combi ned with rapid sand filtration . As only limited data were available for OAF treatment of wastewater, some data were obtained from potable water srndies, hence this value may not reflect the true effi cacy of this method. However, there is evidence that pathogens and small particles are removed more efficiently by flotation than bx sedimentation, so the order of microorganism removal capacity of OAF being greater than for sedimentation trearment which is greater than fo r direct filtration may be valid (Odegaard , 2001; Huck et al., 2002). Membrane-mediated processes (microfiltration , ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) had the highest pathogen removal capacities, with very high rankings for the removal of bacteria, viruses and p rotozoa. No data were found for removal of helminths, bur as membrane processes use the mechanism of size exclusion , iris likely that this larger pathogen would also be removed . Microfiltration had a lower removal capacity due to the variability in removal of col iphages, wh ich in turn was found to be dependent on the extent of membrane fou ling. However when combined with activated sludge as an immersed membrane bioreactor, the performance was sl ightly improved.

Lagoons had a high pathogen removal capacity with very high ran king for removal of bacteria, protozoa and helminths, but low ranking for removal of viruses, indicating that viruses are resistant to the removal mechanisms utilised in lagoons (i. e. direct and indirect sed imen tation and microbial predation).

Conclusion The effectiveness of pathogen removal varies with influent water quality and treatment process, and, for some processes, the operatio nal conditions. Taking these factors into account, it can be concluded that: • Primary sedimentation was the least effective means of removing m icroorgan isms from water. • Secondary processes such as trick.ling fil ters and conventional activated sludge lead to higher removals, with the latter treatment the more effective of rhe rwo. • The effectiveness of physicochemical treatment, i.e., coagulation/flocculation/ sedimentation, varies with the chemicals used, lime coagulation at pH > 11 being more effective than alum/polymer coagulation; indeed, th e latter was less effective than conventional activated sludge. • The combined removal capacity of the unit processes coagulation/flocculation/ sedimentation and rapid sand filtration, a typical treatment scheme for physicochemical treatment plants, was higher than that of d irect filtratio n and has the added advantage of rwo pathogen barriers, namely sedimentation and filtration, compared with one barrier of filtra tion in direct filtration. • The pathogen removal capacity of slow sand filtration was sub stantially higher than rapid sand filtration, even without the use of coagulants. • Based on the limited literature available for OAF, good removals of all pathogen types were achieved. When combined with rapid sand filtration and used to treat secondary treated efflu ent, the pathogen removal capacity was greater than for direct filtration and sedimentation treatment and similar to the better performing membrane p rocesses . OAF has the added advantage over the membrane processes of the two pathogen barriers of fl otatio n and filtration compared with filtration only for the latter treatment systems. • Lagoons gave a high removal capacity for all organ isms except viruses. • Membrane-mediated processes (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis), gave the highest removal effi ciencies. Microfilrration gave slightly

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lower re moval effici e ncies tha n the othe rs due to che variable rem oval of col iphages, bu t whe n combi ned with an activated sludge reactor as an im mersed membrane bioreacco r, the perform ance was im proved.

Acknowledgements This work was fu nd ed by the D epartment of H u man Services, Victoria, Australia.

The Authors Adele Parkinson was a Postdoctoral Fellow, and Felicity Roddick is a Profes sor at the S chool of C ivil a nd C h emical E ngineering, RMIT Un ive rsiry, G PO Box 247 6V, Melbo urne, Victo ria, A ustralia,

300 1.

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The fo llowing inform ation o n the Boliva r DAFF process was provided by Je rry Brown of U nited Water I nterna tio nal in co nj unction with David C u n liffe of the SA Department of Huma n Services. T he Bol ivar Wastewater Treatm ent P lane u tilises the D AFF process, ie it includes fil tration as well as d issolved air flo ration. T he Bolivar DAFF plane treats che effiuenc fro m the stabilisation lagoons an d its design and o perat ing specificatio n was based o n the combined performance of the lagoons a nd DAFF fo r pathogen rem oval. T he D AFF pla nt alo ne p rovides > 2 log removal of protozoa a nd viruses but the DAFF plant an d lago on combinatio n provides 2.5-4 log removal o f viruses and > 3 .5 log rem oval of prorozoa. If rh e lagoons we re abandoned in the fu ture, th e DAFF pla nt could likely be designed ro achieve rhe sam e rem ova.ls as che lago onDAFF combination . U npublished data from M elbourne Water regarding rh e W esrern T reatment P lan t shows that between rhe point char effiu enr leaves the clarifi e rs downstrea m of the ac rivated sludge process and e nters rhe first matu ration pond co rhe poi nt rha t the effiue nt leaves the sixth marn racion pond, che fo llowing log red uctions are achieved (beyo nd those ach ieved prio r co ac tivated sludge clarificatio n): E. coli a nd enterococci: 4 .5 log; so matic coli phage: 3 .5 log; viruses, p rocozoa and helm inchs: > 1 log (however, results are generally only just above detection in the first m aturation pond and are generally below d etection by the second maturation p ond so actual reductions could be greater) . Farooq, S., Alyousef, A. K., A llayla, R. I. and lshaq, A. M. (1994) "Terciary-treacment o f sewage effluent via pilo t-scale slow sand fil tration." Environmental Technology, I 5( I ): 15-28. Feachem, R. G ., Brad ley, D . J., Garelick, H . and Mara, D. D. ( 1980) Health Aspects ofExcreta

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G rabow, W . 0 . K., Middendorff, I. G . and Basson, N . C. (1 978) "Role of lime treatment in the removal of bacteria, enteric viruses, and coliphages in a wastewater reclamation plane." Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 35(4): 663-669. Grimason, A. M., W iandt, S., Baleux, B., T hitai, W. N., Bontoux, J. and Smith, H . V . ( 1996) "O ccurrence and removal of G iardia sp cysts by Kenyan and French waste stabilisation pond systems." \.\1/nter Science and Technology, 33(7): 83-89. Haas, C. N. and T russell, R.R. ( 1998) "Frameworks for assessing reliability of multiple, independent barriers in potable warer reuse." \.\1/nter Science and Technology, 38(6): 1-8 . Huck, P. M ., Coffey, B. M ., Emelko, M. B., Maurizio, D. D ., Slawson, R. M. , Anderson, W . B., Van den O ever, J., Douglas, I. P. and O' Melia, C. R. (2002) "Effects of fi lter operation on Cryptosporidium removal."

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AUGUST 2004 67

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BOOK REVIEW Safe D1¡inking Water: Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations.

Hrudey S.E. and E.J. ISBN 1-84339042-6 Available AWA Bookshop. Email: bookshop@awa.asn.au for price What an interesting ch ronicle of "incidents" where the wealthier nat io ns fi nd themselves in the dock! Safe Drinking Water is a carefully written chronicle of what damage - in terms of hum an lives, comm unity anger and d istrust and fi nancial loss - can be done when any of a wide range of pathogens happen to get into pu blic water supplies. W ith all the measures taken in recent times (WHO G uidelines, US EPA and EU Di rectives, Australian Water Q uality Guidelines, mandatory state and national standards), pathogen- related problems with drinking water keep recurring. W hat are all the affiuent natio ns, with vast resources ro call upo n, still doing wrong? Take one chapter and the one incident for which Australia gets mention - the Sydney Water Co ntamination C risis. Better known as the Cryptosporidium I ncident which arose in 1998 when Sydney residents were advised a series of "boil water" alerts fo llowing the detection of significant contam ination in the public water supplies which was attributed to the presence of cryptosporidium and giardia o ocysts. No single explanatio n was ever offered following government, research and corporate inquiries though a series of contribu ting facro rs were noted. Yet, in common with ocher major incidents featured in the book such as the Milwaukee incident of 1993 and

Walkerton in 2000, Sydney's Cryptosporidium scare was linked to a series of breaches in procedures, poor water catchment management o r a lack of proper and regular risk assessment pracnces. To th is reader, the best part of the book is the summary tables in the chapter 4 on Waterborne Outbreak Case Studies. T hese T ables detail three decades of isolated fai lures in drinki ng water safety occurring in affiuent nations fro m 1974 on to March 20 02 - a mammoth task to research and compile. T he Tables list the date of each o utbreak, locatio n, source water, treatment process, major fa ilure, pathogen responsible, cases confi rm ed with the reasons cited in each instance. T rawling through these incidents, the reader can paint a pictu re of bad luck (freak weather as a precipitant) as well as sloppy management and lack of awareness of risks. H owever, to be wise after an event is always easy: it is the learning from rhe past, implementing and co ntinui ng to apply the lessons long after that can best avoid a recurrence. T his book is a systematic, cause-andeffect record of how the nations that preach public health and sanitation to others need to sometimes take a bath in the cold realities of their own, continuing mistakes and not become complacent. W hile the book is not cheap, it is well worth read ing especially fo r those with respons ibilities for public health beyond the tap. Diane Wiemer A WA Science & Technical Infonnation Officer

refereed paper

UNITED GROUP STRENGTHENS PRESENCE IN WATER Diversified services company, the Un ited Group, has acquired Thames Water Projects Australia, Singapore and Malaysia. T he acquisition builds on rhe company's water b usiness and has allowed it to expand into So uth East As ia. T he $15 mill io n acquisition incl udes ownership of Thames Water Projects' wastewater treatment plant and is expected to boos t Unired's profi tability. As pare of the acqu isition, which will be funded by existing facilities, United Group will als o own and operate a wastewater treatment pl ant in Maffra, Victori a, which will be its fi rst move into th e ownership of essential infrastrucrnre assets. T ham es Water Projects will be integrated into the G roup's engineering constructi on, mainten ance and facilities management business, United KG . T hames Water Projects has an excellent record in the design and construction of water projects in Austral ia and Asia, and has active co ntracts in Sin gapore, Victoria, South Australia, New South W ales and the ACT. T his acquisition adds to United KG 's ex isting base of water and wastewater co nstruction, maintenance and fac ili ty management contracts. T ha mes Water Projects has a rnrnover of $50 m ill ion and employs 110 sraff in Melbo urne, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. T he b u siness was part of T hames Water's intern a tional operations. T he acq uisition includes an agreement that United G rou p has access to Thames Water technology from its UK base. Un ited Group's Managing Director and Chi ef Executive Officer, Richard Leupen, said th e acquisition was a good fi r with the Group 's strategy. "This is a significant milestone in positioning United Group as one of the region's leading integrated water and wastewater engi neering, construction and m aintenance services providers. Importantly, it gives rhe Group an expanded global footprint, access to worldclass technology, and pu ts us in an excellent position to service water and wastewater projects throughout South East Asia."

The Water Business supplement, prev iously distributed with every second issue of Water Journal, has now been incorporated into the Journ al. It aims to keep readers alert to business news and new product releases withi n the water sector. Medi a releases should be emailed to Brian Raul t, braul t@halledit.co m.au, or Tel (03) 9530 8900. 'The acquisition of the Maffra wastewater treatment plant marks United G roup's first move into the ownership of essential infrastructure assets, and gives us a platfo rm on which to acq uire similar assets should the right opportunities present themselves." "T he G roup's total water and wastewater order book including the acquisition, is over $250 million, and is expected to co ntinue to increase steadi ly with rhe increased resources and skills of the combi ned rea m. He sa id that "Thames Water Projects' business wi ll also benefi t from United Group's broader skill s base in th e secto r, giving the business the ability to bid fo r long- term fac ilities management and maintenance co ntracts, as well as design and co nstru ctio n works. "Th is acquisition is anoth er sign of United G rou p's emerging regional presence in essential services." "Unired KFPW is increas ing its business process outsourcing services thro ughout Sou th East As ia, and the acq uisition of T hames Water Projects will help to extend United G roup's reach into other key secto rs in which we operare,"sa id Mr Leu pen.

For farther information, contact Richard Leupen - Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, (02) 9492 8803.

MIXER OVERCOMES TASTE PROBLEMS A local water supply authority had a problem with the stratification of water in their water supply storage lagoon.

Ar ri mes of low input flows and dropping levels, consumers complained of the unpleasant taste of the water. T his water had been virtually stagnant below the upper levels of water which had been continually replenished except in dry rimes.

To prevent this stagnation of rhe lower levels a mixer was used to draw up water from the bottom of the lagoon and expose it to atmosphere and mix with rhe upper levels. T he mixer now ensures a homogenous supp ly of water fo r the town and surrounding area. The mixer is mounted on a flo tation assembly and buoys support th e power cable. Using large diameter impellers at a relatively low speed is the most efficient way to move large volumes of warer. In rh is instance 4 kW is used on a 60,000 ML lagoon. T he low rpm of the impeller also mea ns the clay bottom of the lagoon remain s undisrnrbed.

For more information, telephone Unit Process Consulting on (03) 9798 4937.

JAPANESE FIRM SEEKS LOCAL PARTNERS Chlorin ated solvents such as perchloroerhene and rrichloroethene, as well as certain heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium, have had wide commercial use for decades. These carcinogens pose risk to potential receptors upon reaching soil and groundwater. Co nventional remedial technologies such as ' pu mp and treat' or the use of chemi cal agents eirher rake more than 15 years to clean sires or are cost proh ibitive. Ecocycle Corporation Japan has developed biosrimularing agents EDC and

REVOLUTIONISE YOUR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT WITH HAESTAD METHODS' CIVILSTORMâ&#x201E;˘ DYNAMIC MODELLING SOFTWARE CivilStorm Dynamic is the only commercially available software package that lets you analyse storm sewers, inlets, channels, culverts, detention ponds, and reservoirs all within one package. For more information about this software, see the inside front cover of the August issue of Water Journal, visit our website at www.haestad.com/tryit and enter code 3976, or e-mail us at australia@haestad.com.


AUGUST 2004 69

WATER BUSINESS EDC-M for rhe bioremediarion of chlorinated solvenrs and hexavalenr chromium, respectively. Upon subsurface inj ection these agenrs stimulate native microbial consortia in contaminated soil and groundwater to degrade or detoxify contaminants in situ.

Because EDC is designed to stimulate ubiquitous microbial consortia and nor a si ngle group of micro-organisms, rhe degradation rare is more rapid than other biosrimulanrs commercially available, hence the approach is referred to as Rapid Enhanced Reductive D ehalogenarion (RERD). Within a few months of applying these products, complete degradation or detoxification of contaminants was observed ar more than 20 indusrrial sites in Japan where ' pump and treat' failed ro achieve the target even after more than a


'ÂŤ'ÂŤ~ ~~t~m~aYJ email: e~J.~<;.~<;.l)ic;,om.11ij)


decade of operation . Ar some of these sites, contamination concenrrarions were very high (> 100 milligrams per litre) . RERD costs less than 1/3 of convenrional treatment technologies and involves in situ treatment to minimise disruption to facility operations. Injection of these biostimulants does nor need experts and can be done with a simple mixing and pumping unit. T he biosrimulants are safe b ecause they are formulated with food-grade materials and are confirmed to be completely biodegradable in standard laboratory tests. Presently, Eco cycle Corporatio n is looking fo r strategic partners to bring RERD technology to rhe Australian market.

For additional information on EDC or EDC-M, please visit www.ecocycle.co.jp or contact Shrihari at shrihari@ecocycle.co.jp.

SETTING NEW BENCHMARKS FOR EFFLUENT REUSE MWH provides services in the fields of planning, design and auditing of effluent reuse schemes. Comprehensive services provided include the planning and design of effluent transfer schemes, the design of advanced treatment faci lities and the auditing of existing effluent reuse schemes and users. MWH set the benchmark for efflu ent reuse schemes through the planning, design and construction management of the Sunbury Melton Recycled Water Project for Western Water. The proj ect received the 2003 ACEA Award for Excellence for 'Projects with a Community Focus' and is Victoria's longest, newest and most innovative recycled water scheme. The scheme will eventually d istribute 100% of the effluent from Sunbury 'Waste' Water Treatment Plant to agricultural and commercial customers. The project will revitalise rhe eco nomy of the area by providing a secure water supply fo r crop irrigation, wineries and tourism development. MWH's wastewater Process T eam has been busy designing scare-of- the-arr wastewater treatment plants specifically designed to meet the requirements for reuse as per the national and stare reuse guidelines. Recent advanced treatment plants d esigned by MWH include Epsom Recycled Water Plane for Coliban Water, Richmond Stage II Upgrade an d Rouse Hill Recycled Water Plant Amp lification for Sydney Water, Moonee Water Reclamation Plane for Coffs Harbour Ciry Council and Sunbury WWTP for Western Water. MWH has also completed audits and new environmental improvement plans

70 AUGUST 2004


(EIPs) for over 30 of Melbourne Water's recycled water customers supplied from Eastern T reatment Plant, South East Outfall Pipeline and Western Treatment Plant. Types of reuse sites audited include golf courses, turf farms, parkland reserves, vineyards, olive groves, marker gardens, fl ower growers, nurseries and wetland plants growers. MWH is providing consultation services and preparing EIPs ro ensure compliance with Victo rian EPA's reclaimed water and irrigation guidelines, Melbourne Water's recycled water supply agreements and other relevant regulatory requirements and standards. "O ur objective is ro facilitate and promote the safe and sustainable use of recycled water as a valuable resource. A reliable supply and quality of recycled water redu ces potable water consumption (through substitution of potable water), recycling of nutrients onto irrigated land and helps ro reduce effluent discharge to sensitive marine and river environments", stares Rohan Ash, who leads MWH's Sustainability Team in Melbourne.

For more information contact Rohan Ash on (03) 9666 1333 or rohan.ash@mwhglobal.com

NEW STORMWATER SOFTWARE RELEASED Haesrad M ethods has released C ivilSrorm Dynamic 2005, a software program for simulating systems of storm sewers, inlets, chan nels, culverts, detention ponds, and reservoirs - all within a single scaled model. Th is new srormwarer package is available as a stand-alone application or fully integrated with AuroCAD. CivilSrorm Dynamic enables users ro accurately simulate entire stormwater networks simultaneo usly. The ability to do chis comes from the dynami c numerical engine, which incorporates a full solution for the Sainr-Venant equations. "In the past, engineers had ro cobble together several software packages to model rhe different pieces of their projects," said Gregg Herrin, P.E., Product Manager for Storm and Sanitary Applications fo r Haesrad Methods. 'The mismatch in modelling paradigms and the extra effort need ed ro maintain several models were a huge source of fru stration . CivilSrorm takes the opposite approach by h elping engineers model entire interdependent systems using a single cool." The true-scaled graphical environment also enables engineers to work with their stormwater modelling projects as they exist in the real world , resulting in faster model creation, more d irect simulation, and better mapping and reporting. Scenario


AGILITY TAPS INTO WATER INDUSTRY Agility, a wholly-owned subsidiary of rhe Australian Gas Light Company {AGL), is finalising rhe construction of a 6.8 kilometre water main and upgrading a pump station ar Greaves Creek in rhe Blue Mou ntai ns fo r Sydney Water Corporation. Agility Chief Executive, Mark H arper, said that by adding water to Agility's gas and elecrriciry management and services mix, the company had become one of the few in Australia capable of constructing, servicing and managi ng assets from across all three utility sectors. "Agi liry has worked hard ro gain entry into rhe water industry," Mr Harper said. "We are now confident we can offer clients a complete package which includes highly-skilled people with rhe experience and expertise required ro tackle a diverse range of uti lity infrastructure projects anywhere in Australia." The Sydney Water projects have involved working in two extreme environments - pristine bushland and major u rban locations - under difficult conditions. T he Greaves Creek project currently under way is occurring withi n and adjacent to a World Heritage area. In consideration

of this, Agility has had to implement rigorous co nstruction procedures ro ensure rhe local environmenr is protected. The route chosen for the water mai n fo llows existing access tracks as much as possible

and extensive environmental safeguards have been put in place to ensure water qualiry in rhe Cascade Dam cacchmenr area is nor affected. As rhe work corridor for rhe project is restricted co a maximum width of three metres, rhe project has presented some particular engineering challenges. "There have been challenges; however our experience as part of AGL in bringing natural gas ro the Blue Mountains six years ago has given Agiliry a unique advantage in working in such a sensitive environment," Mr Harper added. "We were able to plan accordingly and implement strategies rhar helped ensure the key objectives of the project in the areas of communiry, environment, safety, qual iry, budget and schedule were being achieved. The end result means the job gees done without any compromise ro rhe environment and with min imal impact on the community." Agil iry's first Syd ney Water project was awarded in April 2002 and involved renewing five kilometres of 375 mm water mains. The project rook four months and required 40 complex interconnections and disconnections of existi ng water mains along the major road artery of The IGngsway and Taren Po int Road in rhe Sydney suburb of Miranda. In order to ensure minimal disruption ro traffic, Agi li ty designed and implemented a derailed community relations management program that was highly commended by Sydney Water. Work was carried our at night to ensure minimal disru ption to major arterial roads and water main shutdowns were streamlined ro reduce safery risks ro workers and the general public. A third Sydney Water Corporation project was awarded in July 2003 and completed in April 2004. T he Sydney Water Corporation contracted Agiliry ro upgrade sewer access chambers in Adderley Srreer, Auburn. T he work incl uded rhe refurbishment and upgrade of 17 access chambers including the reconstruction of one chamber and diversion of a 450 mm diameter sewer rising main. Agility can be contacted on (02) 9922



AUGUST 2004 71

WATER BUSINESS management provides rhe tools engineers need to evaluate different co nditions, plan for m ultiple storm events, and compare potential construction or rehabilitation efforts. CivilStorm 's rools work together to support cost-effective stormwater management decisions and help engineers achieve regulatory compliance. During a recent Srormwarer Systems Design and Modelling event hosted by Haestad Methods in Las Vegas, Nevada, many engineers had an opportunity to experience CivilStorm Dynamic's powerful capabilities first hand. Ben Moline, Design Engineer for RBF Consulting, stared , "My first impression of C ivilStorm was good. Ir is very promising and exciting to use. "

With C ivilStorm Dynamic, stormwarer professionals can:

• create and animate profiles and graphs fo r comparing elements or scenarios;

• dynamically generate and route runoff hydrographs through storm sewers, channels, culverts, ponds, and reservoirs;

• control drawing colors, sizes and annotation text based on input and output data;

• simulate an unlimited nu mber of real or synthetic storm events;

• customise tabular reporcs for advanced editing and reporting;

• determine capture and carryover flows at inlets;

• create concise report su mmaries; • link modelling elements with photos, documents, video clips and other files.

• analyse flow splits, diversions and looped sys rems; • model co mplex pond outlet structures; • compare existing and p roposed conditions; • work within AutoCAD , rhe Stand-Alone graphical editor, or both interchangeably; • use layered background base maps;

For more information on Civi!Storm Dynamic visit www.haestad. comlcivifstorm, call Haestad Methods at 1-800-727-6555 (USA or Canada) or +1-203-755-1666 (worldwide), or by email info@haestad.com. Or visit www.haestad.com, www.watersecurity.org, or www.civilquiz.com.

NEW INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING TEMPERATURE, LEVEL AND CONDUCTIVITY T he new T LC M erer displays accurate measurements of conductivity and temperature on an LCD d isplay that rotates for reading convenience. Water level and p robe dep th measurements are read off che accurate Solinsr flat-tape marked each millimetre. The rape is housed on a standard Solinsr reel. These features make the TLC Merer ideal for profi ling conductivity and temperature in wells and open water.

the screen for abour one second. T he depth to water is then read off rhe rape. When the TLC Merer is withdrawn from the water, a short buzz gives a warning that rhe probe is now o ur of water. A rape guide/datum is provided with th e merer for use when profili ng a well. The rape guide protects che rape from d amage on rough edges of well casing and allows rhe depth measurement to be read at the marked posirion on che cape guide, to give reliable, repeatab le accu racy. W h en rhe probe is turned on, the LCD screen displays both conductivity and temperature.

Flat Tape The high quality polyethylene cape reels smoothly, remains flexible and hangs straight in the well, irrespective of temperature. The rape is mounted on a sturdy, well balanced Solinsr reel, with a convenient battery d rawer for the 9 volt alkaline battery. Permanent markings each millimeter allow accurate readings. Stranded stainless steel conductors resist corrosion, p rovide strength and are nonsrrerch. They make rhe rape very easy to repair and splice. The dog-bo ne design red uces adherence to wet surfaces. Markings are permanently imp regnated onto one side of rhe cape.

Conductivity measurements The TLC Meter uses a 'smart' conductivity senso r with platinum elect rodes to read conductivity from 080,0 00µS. The conductivity is displayed on the rotatin g screen along wi ch the associated temperature measurement. The 'smart' conductivity probe displays conductivi ty, which has been standardised to 25°C, i.e. specific conductance. Both conductivity and temperature measurements stabilise within 20 seconds.

72 AUGUST 2004


Temperature Conductivity accuracy is 2% of reading from 100-80,00 0µS . Calibration is simple. You may use single point or double point calibration, and rhe TLC gives rhe highest accuracy for measurements close to the calibration point. For further convenience, rhe TLC Merer uses automatic calibration solution detection.

Conductivity made easy • Accuracy as good as 2% of readings • Convenient Solinsr reel and accurate rape • Lengths to l 00 metres • Display char rotates for easy reading • Standard 9V alkali ne battery gives 90 h rs of use • Auto-off after 4 m inutes • Inexpensive

Level and depth measurements When the zero point of the p rob e enters water, an electric circui t is completed, briefly activating a buzzer and blacking our

T he TLC Merer operates in a range from -15°C to +60°C, and accuracy is+/- 0 .3°C. Conductivity measuremen ts are temperature sensitive, and the 'smart' TLC probe automatically adj usts the measured conductivity values ro display as specific conductance. This provid es standardised repeatably comparable measurements.

Applications • Profili ng conductivity and temperature in wells and open water • Salt-water intrusion investigations • Groundwater salinity monitoring • Tracer rests • General indication of chemical contamination level • Early warning of changes in water q uality

For more information, contact John Mancarella, EnviroEquip Pty Ltd, hqsales@enviroequip.com, www.enviroequip.com, Tel (61) 3 9646 4190, Fax: (61) 3 9464 4195.



O ver recent years Osmoflo's export business has been steadily growing, with planes supplied and supported remotely in New Zealand, Philippines, UK, Hong Kong and Malaysia. Recently Osmoflo suppl ied two new more industrial planes fo r Enercal in New Caledonia and PT Unilever in Indonesia.

Australia is emerging as a key player in rhe international water industry and is raking a lead role in the development of sustainable water services throughout rhe Asia Pacific region. A combination of advanced engineering capabilities and the experience of harsh, dry conditions at home has encouraged much of the na tion's technical sector to foc us on water and wastewater environmental solutions as a growing source of business opporruniry. Industry leaders such as the Clough Group are providi ng sophisticated wa ter solutions within rhe scope of larger, publ ic infrastructure and reso urce develop men rs. According to Clough's Infrastructure Project Manager, Mark Hewitr, the abi li ty to deliver efficient and reliable water suppl ies underpins the company's success on many remote projects. Mr Hewitt said "T he company has used rhe lessons from frontier projects in Australia's outback to grow its business internation ally and, in doing so, has successfull y managed water-related projects in locations as demanding as Indones ia, T hailand, Pakistan and N ew Guinea." C lough has been involved in the provision of inner-city water supply facilities in Porr Moresby, an effluent treatment plant servicing rhe major Map Ta Phur industrial estate in T hailand , and water supply and industrial wastewater systems for BP on Indonesia's Pageru ngan Besar Island .

Enercal's requ irement was for a gas turb ine water injection plant being engin eered by Alstom which was mer with a containerised 7 KL/d RO /EDI package plant. Th is project requ ired design custo m isarion to meet local electrical standa rds in New Ca ledonia. PT Unilever's need was fo r a conta inerised 40 KL/d RO plant fo r desali n ation of plant effluent at PT Unilever's Surabaya sire. A much larger recycle RO plant of 170 KL/d is currently under construction fo r EGL in Syd ney. With Osmoflo's fu rther international marker growth demanding improved client support services Osmoflo has now established regional service businesses based in Perth and Brisbane in addition to existi ng local offices in Melbourne, Adelaid e and Sydney (October 2004). Osmo fl o has a solid crack reco rd in working with many overseas and remote clients via 'Plant Co nnect' and our regional offices co provide rhe highest level, 24hr/365-day specialist membrane technology support enabling clients to upskill their local operations personnel and co nfidently cake control of their own assets. Recent restructuring of Osmoflo's business to improve client service and application support has resulted in staff nu mbers now exceeding 50 with the recent appoi ntment of John Flyn n as Power and Mini ng Industry Specialise. John joins Osmoflo with over 30 years specialist water treatm ent experience having worked for US Filter and more recently fo r GE Power Divis ion. For f urther information, email peter.cooper@osmoflo.com.au or telephone (08) 8 159 8999.

One of the G roup's recent successes has been the rurn key design and construction of the multi-million-dollar Sawan gas processing plant in Pakistan's T har Desert. In cl uded in rhe contract was rhe provis ion of all permanent infrasrrucrure and uti lities necessary to support rhe plant, and its perm anent onsire wo rkfo rce, fo r rhe next 25 yea rs. Provision of water was essential and involved the installation of four 240 US gallons per minute bores and a three kilometre water supply pipeline, as well as cooling water, fi rewater and wastewater processing systems for the plant, and reticulation for an international standard day- night cricket ground and swimming pool. T raditionally, Clough has been involved in delivering water to remote mines and townsires, buildi ng its expertise in treatment plants, pumping stations, pipelines, dams, weirs, reservo irs, reti culation and fire water protection systems. Today, irs operations are also focused on inner-city water supply and wastewater processing facilities designed to meet rhe publ ic infrastructure demands of Australia's growing urban cities. Enviro nmentally sensitive water treatment projects have been successfu lly completed around the co untry, in clud ing process plants at Neerabup, Bunbury and Mirrabooka, in Western Australia, at Ballarar, in Victori a, and on C hristmas Island. Maj or pipelines have been co nstructed to expand rhe capacity of systems such as Queensland's M ill merran water supply and to provide reticulated sewe rage services to


AUGUST 2004 73

WATER BUSINESS CUSTOMERS SEEKING SOLUTIONS IN NEW DRIVE TECHNOLOGY Two major trends are evident in d rive tech nology: • the variety of products in machine build ing and plant construction is permanencly increasing with the result chat d rive solutions must have a high degree of flexibility and scalability;

• Designed for worldwide use The SINAMICS drive fam ily with its vario us members is su itable for connection to all types of power supplies to be fou nd worldwide. It additionally satisfies international standards and regulations. Post-certification when exporting can therefore be eliminated. A powerful, worldwide network of Siemens o ffices and partners is avai lable for support.

• customers in all industrial sectors are increasingly requesting solutions which are simple to use and tailored to individual requirements. For drive technology chis means that: • Only those components and functions which are required for the specifi c task should be used. T he drives are engineered accord ing to different tasks, allowing costop timised and specific solutions, Irrespective of whether single-axis or multiaxis ap plications are involved, whether simple speed control or highly dynamic servo control. • The engineering costs for configuration and scare-up must be kept as low as possible. Uniform tools for selection, configuratio n and stare-up allow fast, simple and cost-effective engineering • Innovative approaches must be applied to all aspects. Distributed , inrelligenr drive technology permits a new app roach to machine build ing and plane construction. T he new SINAMICS d rive fami ly from Siemens provides a platform with which these requirements can be mer. SINAMICS is not only of great benefit to machine building and plant construction, it also sets new standards for the process industries and building technology. The SINAMICS fa mily comprises three members tailored to the respective application fi elds: • SI NAMICS GllO - cl1e versatile drive in the lower power range; • SINAMICS G 130 and SINAMICS G 150 - the universal d rive solution for single drives with high output rating; • SINAMICS S l20 - the universal, modular drive system for demanding casks; • SINAMICS S l 50 - the sophisticated drive solution for single drives with high output rating. SINAMICS is characterised by the following system features:

• Uniform functionality based on a common platform strategy T he individual SINAMICS members are based on a common platform strategy: with SINAMICS, identical functions are based on the same software and hardware components. Functions such as d rive 7 4 AUGUST 2004


• SINAMICS Safety Integrated The SINAMICS fami ly offers fo r rhe fi rst rime autonomous drive safety functions. Available in addition to 'safe standstill' is also a 'safe brake control' direccly in the power module.

control, operatio n, d iagnostics or communication with host co ntrollers are implemented uniformly fo r all members, faci li tating handling of the drive engineering. There are synergies within the SI NAMICS fa mily in each individual d rive member which enables training requiremen ts to be reduced and support, maintenance and the stocking of spare parts to be simplified.

• Uniform engineering The SINAMICS family fea tures high engi neering uni for mity and usability. The SI ZER configuration tool provides user support fo r the selection and dimensioning of the d ri ve co mponents. Start-up and diagnostics are supported by STARTER. This results in synergies and efficiency throughout the range with respect to configuratio n, parameterisation and maintenance.

• High degree of flexibility and combination T he coverage of a wide range of applications coupled with the high degree of commonality for functions and engineering make the SINAMICS family a universal platform for drive tasks. Components from various members of the fam ily can, depending on the task, be flexibly combined into a complete d rive solutio n.

T he integration of these safety functions allows p racticable safety concep ts and simultaneously simplified installation. All safety functions are certified to international standards (IEC 61508, EN 954-1 ).

• Improved economy and effectiveness Drive solutions based o n SINAMICS offer the prerequisites fo r improved cost effectiveness and competitiveness in machine building and plane construction as well as fo r end users.

• Solutions optimally tailored to the task as result of various drive members. Reduced project execu tion times/order processing as a result of increased convenience and uni for mi ty fo r configuring and start-up. Maintenance-fr iendly, h ighly available machine and plant as result of uniform, powerful diagnostics mechanisms as well as reduced stocking of spare pares because of an optimised component range.

• Flexible interfacing facilities to host controllers SINAMICS offers several possibilities fo r interfacing to host controllers, incl ud ing: interfaci ng via digital or analog interfaces; and interfacing to SIMATI C or SIMOTION via PROFIBUS DP

• Totally Integrated Automation.

• Wide output power range

SINAMICS is a component of rhe Siemens "To tally In tegrated Automation". T he uniformity of SI NAMICS for configuring, data storage and communication to the automation level guarantees effortless solutions with SIMATIC and SIMOTION.

The SINAMICS fami ly covers a wide output power range. A finely graded range of components allows optimally tailored drive solutions.

For more information, telephone 1300 369 515, Fax: 1800 060 773, Email: automationsales@siemens.com.au, Website: www.siemens.com/sinamics-g150

WATER BUSINESS commun ities like Bundeena and Maianbar in New Sou th Wales. The Bundeena/Maianbar Water Cycle Managemen t Scheme contract was designed to protect che local environmental from che risk of ~£fl uent spillage. le involved the co nstruction of 35 kilometres of pipelines and seven sewer pumping stations, along wich a new water-mai n under the Pore Hacking River. For more information contact Ma rk Hewitt (08) 9281 9281, email: mark.hewitt@clough.com.au or Ivor Peries, Tel: (07) 3858 7000, email: ivor.peries@clough.com.au

Westernport Water:

• Review of the King Road W astewater Treatment Plant T his project form ed the basis of developing a long-term management strategy. A Scope of Works and Consultants' Brief were prepared for detailed investigation of che wastewater treatment plan e. • Wastewater System Strategy T his project involved the development of a long-term wastewater strategy for Cowes, San Remo, Corinella and Coronet Bay.

For more information, contact (03) 9899 0043.



Consulti ng firm, PBJ&A, focuses on organisational improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of planning, project delivery and system processes. T he firm 's scared aim is to provide a strategic, long- term approach to implementing sys tems wh ich wi ll improve performance, including investigating issues from an organisational and systems approach co find solutions to manage both growth and organisational risk. lt provides che skills to facilitate the implementation of key projects within an organisation from concept to commi ssioning, incl uding the review and optimisation of systems, particularly water, wastewater and recycled water systems. Recent proj ects have incl uded:

Co ntrol Components has annou nced the release of the new PS98 series of pressure switches from Gems Sensors. The new senso r uses solid-state transducer technology to resist che damage that shock and vibration can cause to mechanical switch unics.

Central Highlands Water

• Strategic Framework for Water Services Division

This proj ect involved a review of all water, wastewater and water reuse services managed by Central Highlands Water. A strategic framework was developed for the management of these services along wich outline methodologies, and documentation to support their Essential Services Pricing Submiss ion . • Water Quality Management Plans T his p roject developed integrated water quality plans, from source to customer, for all fifteen water supply systems. The development of the plans involved reviewi ng existing information on water so urce quality, water treatment plants, distribution systems and customer requirements. • Wastewater Treatment Plant Review T his project involved the review of fo ur wastewater treatment plants. T he review fo rmed the basis of developing the lo ngte rm management strategies for these plants.

Meeting industry's demand for sol id-s care switches, che PS98 series features a polys ilicon strai n gauge teamed with a custom ASIC to provide accurate, thermalcompensated pressure sensing. T he sensing results are used to actuate a solid-state relay or transistor switch. With no movi ng parts, the construction is designed co deliver more than 100 million transistor actuation cycles under high shock and vibration conditions.This makes the PS98 Series ideal for off-road, mobile or other demanding applications. The new switches are manufactured using Gems' proven chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology, producing extremely stable polysilicon strain gauges. CVD manufacturing methods bo nd a polysilico n strain-gauge bridge layer to a stainless steel diaphragm at the molecular level to produce a sensor with superior long-term drift. Repeatability is within 0.25% of the full set point range. T he PS98 pressure switches are an ideal alternative to electromechanical types when switch action exceeds 50 cycles/minute and a broad frequency response is needed . T he modular des ign allows for a wide range of configuratio ns. In addition to pressure-sensing electronics that range from

0 to 400 bar, the PS98 series offers a broad selection of pressure connectio ns and several electrical termination options, including DIN pl ugs and IP68 cables. Swiech actuation and de-acrnation set points are customer-specified and set at the Gems facco ry. Operati ng temperatures range from -40°C co l 25°C. Power requirement is 12 co 32 Vdc. T he switch body (minus pressure port and electrical termination) is less than 68m m long and 38mm in diameter. To contact Control Components Pty Ltd, telephone (02) 9542 8977, fax: (02) 9542 7978, email: help@controlcomponents. com.au

LIQUID POLYMER FEED SYSTEM USF Stranco offers the PolyBlend® M Series liquid polymer feed sys tem co handle the liquid-solid separatio n needs for water and wastewater treatment pl ants.

T he M Series combi nes USF Stranco's proven mocorised mixing technology with precise controls, a variety of pump offerings and an easy-co-service system open-frame design. T hen USF Stranco adds two unique options: variable-speed mixing and aucomacic dosage control with co nstant solution strength to meet a wide range of polymer-feed application requi rements. T he M Series is designed co handle new polymer developm ents, ultra-high molecular weights, different charge densities, and even totally new chemistries. A co nstant-speed moco r is standard on the M Series and optional variable-speed drives are available co accommodate application or technology changes. • As polymer needs change and as new polymers are developed, the M Series can be qu ickly fi eld adapted. • Whether you adjust the M Series output remotely via 4-20 mA signal or right at the un it, water Aow and polymer feed increase and decrease together, aucomatically maintain ing a co nsta nt solution strength. • Primary and secondary dilution waters are kept at the sa me ratio as output is adjusted.


AUG UST 2004 75

WATER BUSINESS • The M Series uses USF Stranco's patenred multi-zone mixing. T he firs t zone exposes the polymer to a high-energy environm ent to minimise agglomeration. Reduced mixing energy in the second zone protects the fragil e polymer chains from fracturing making more polymer available fo r wo rk. The baffling is d esigned to create a capered mix ing regime. • Six sizes cover output ranges from 0. 03 to 750 LPM. • C hoose between 14 diaphragm, gear or progressive cavity p olymer pumps.

oxygen uni t, oxygen bottles, activated oxygen injector and pipework all sized to suit che maxi mum water main to be air scoured. A small generator set is mounted on the system to operate the lamps in the activated oxygen unit. Myrcleford, a Victorian coun try town ac the foot of M c Buffalo, became the first township in the southern hemisphere to have an ultraviolet and ozonation water disinfect ion system, with the add itio n of no chemicals.

• T he M Series' rugged design has been proven in the harshest environments. • The open frame permits q uick and easy maintenance without d isassembly.

For more information contact Tim Batt at USP Stranco on (02) 9850 2822 or tbatt@usf com. au

WATER MAINS SCOURING SYSTEM AUVS has developed a water-m ains airscouring, disinfection chemical-free system suitable for use on most types of mains. These units can be truck or trailer m ounted and com prise a diesel -d riven air compressor, a water-cooled activated

T his plane was designed, constructed , com missioned and m aintained by Australian Ul tra Violet Services (Operatio ns) Pcy Ltd . The 11 ML/day plane has a simple design, yet utilises lead ing-edge technology and equ ipment. The plant operates faultlessly and che

residents of Myrtleford benefit from this techn ology each rime they pour a glass of water from thei r cap. AUVS' sta ndard-p ressure potable Ltnits range in size from 200 LP H to 120,000 LPH in a single unit, larger flows can. be created by man ifold ing che larger units together. Multiple u nits m anifolded together for larger fl ows can be fl ow paced usi ng a signal fro m flow measuring equipment to save on operating costs .

All AUVS Equipment, including the ultraviolet lamps, is manufactured in Melbourne from the highest q uality materials, including the use of stainless steel in fra mework, cylinders and covers ro ensure a first class long lasting produce. Australian Ultra Violet Services (Operatio ns) Pcy Led. and the associa t e co mpany UV Air Pcy Led are co mpletely Australian owned and o perated. T he associate U ltra Violet Lamps manufacturing company undertakes ch e research n ecessary to develop the n ew technology in air and water purification.

To contact A UVS, telephone (03) 9464 3855 orfox (03) 9464 3866, email: austuv@austuv.com.au.

new ViroSewaqeTM Technoloqy slashes s/udqe manaqement costs Virotec's new breakthrough ViroSewage TM Technology provides 20-30% savings in sludge management operational costs where it matters most - in haulage and chemicals costs. Because ViroSewage TM Technology improves sludge texture, the sol ids content of the bio-cake, on dewatering, increases by some 20%. With 20% less water being transported, an STP spending $500,000 per annum on haulage would save approximately $100,000. The amount of polymer used to prepare the sludge for dewatering is also reduced by up to 60%, offering additional savings. Other benefits of ViroSewage TM Technology include phosphorus removal and odour reduction . Phone now and get your colour brochure, case studies and testimonials. Far mare information phone Frank Gnanam af Viratec Global Solutions Pty Ltd an 07 5530 B014 website: www. viratec. cam email: mail@viratec. cam TOWARDS A


76 AUGUST 2004


ViroSewoge ™ Technology delivers an environmentally friendly, odour-free soil conditioner as a valuable end product.



SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT SEWER REHABILITATION AT TOWNSVILLE T ownsville City Council called renders last year fo r a significant sewer rehabilitation program in rhe South Townsville and Railway Estate areas. Wo rk to be perfo rmed under chis contract comprised the structural lining of deteriorated sewers with rhis li ning to have a minimum service life of ar lease 50 years. Gas attack had led to significant deterioration of the pipes wirh fla king and crumbling. T he so ils around rhe sewers comprised mainly of silty sands with a high warercable, and infil trati on of chis groundwater needed to be preve nted. Rehabi litation works included rhe recon nection of house drains without excavation, with th e seal between the liner and the junctions to be waterproofed, and have a design life no less than rhar of the liner.

Dennis Hill, Inspector Construction Townsville Council, on site in Townsville with Darrel Domin from Kembla who is removing the robotic cutter from a manhole.

The contract called for the strucru ral lin ing o f 6,026111 of 150mm diameter pipe, and 2,399m of 225mm diameter sewers with th e reco nnection and sealing, without excavati on, of 450 branch connections. Kembla Watertech won the co ntract and, because of the requirement for the connection seals to also have a 50 year des ign life, the council chose to accept Kembla's T iger T junction sealing system. For the structural lining of rhe nom in ated sewers, Kembla used its paten red Ex method. This method uses a special sewer grade PVC pipe whi ch is fla tten ed and coiled immediately after it is extruded. On sire, rh e coils are heated to a softene d stare and rhen winched into the pipe using existing manhole access and expanded back out to the internal surface of the existing pipe. The speed of rhis process enabl ed rwo separate install ations co be completed in a day. T his was critical as there were 129 separate sewer lengths to be lined on chis contract. Once the pipes were lined the connections were re-opened from inside using a robotic cutter and CCTV camera.

T o complete the process and provide the long-term structural seal required, Tiger T's were installed into every co nnectio n. Tiger T is a short-fo rm T-shaped tube impregnated with a special resin. Ir is positioned into the connection while in a soft state and rhen cured while being pressed hard our against the existing pipework. T he branch co mponent of the Tiger T seal is specifically designed to extend up to and beyond the first joint. For more information, telephone Kembla Watertech on (02) 9742 3744.

BARGING THROUGH THE SEWER REHABILITATION PROJECT Sydney Water's 2003 Sewer Rehabil itation Program included rhe structural lining of several hundred deteriorated sewer mains throughout the Sydney region. These ranged in diameter from 150mm to 750mm and included pipelines in all types of locarions. For lnterflow, which has been carrying out the entire multi-million dollar contract, the wo rks presented many of the challenges normally associated with large co ntracts of rhis nature. The planning and execution of a large volume of work in renovating underground pipelines, without excavation or undue disturbance to Sydney Water's custo mers, is a challenge in itself. Another challenge was that, inevitably, so me of these pipelines were in locations where access for project equipment was extremely difficult. A parti cul ar challenge was presented by rhe pipelines on the banks of the Geo rges River at lllawong. For th e residents, ir is an idyllic location with specracular water views th at seems a long way from the busy Sydney metropolis. For lncerflow, however, it meanr using all their experi ence as Australia's largest sewer rehabiliracion specialise to get equipment to the sire and complete the project. The 19 lengths (282111) of pipeline at [llawong were located half way up a very steep bank of the Georges River. Truck access to rhe pipelines was effectively impossible. Inrerflow therefo re decided chat the most practical way to gain access was to load the equipment onto a barge on rhe fa r side of the river, then unload it via a boat ramp on the lllawong side. From here, the equipment was manually carried into position, at rimes a distance of several hundred metres up a steep bank in dense bushland. Interflow installed the Australiandeveloped Rib Loe Expanda Pipe sewer lining system, a spirally wound structural liner installed by winding a continuous strip of uPVC profile fro m a machine

placed at the base of an existing manhole. T he system is extremely portable as ir does not require hearing, curing or water boilers for installation.

The 19 lines were completed within three weeks wirh minimal disruption to Sydney Water's clients, again showing the versatility and effectiveness of rhis innovative rrenchless so lution. For more information, telephone (02) 963 1 2444.

QUICK INSPECTION OF SEWERS Rugged, lighrweighr and inexpensive, QuickView is rhe ideal tool to assess infrastructure co ndition for maintenan ce plann ing. Ir looks 20-75 metres down 150mml ,5 00mm sanitary and stormwarer lines, revealing at a glance whether pipes need full clea ning and cl oser inspection. With Q ui ckView, a single operator surveys lines safely from street level, saving th e expense of a full y outfitted CCTV van and crew. Q uickView's powerful zoom camera and bright lamps pinpoint hidden flaws and obstructions, then document them with crisp, colour video and digital still images.

T he heart of the system is an advanced video camera combining I 8: l optical zoom and 12: 1 digital zoom for a total of 2 16: 1 zoom capability. T win 35W lamps with flood or spot reflectors adequately illu minate targets. The camera captures images with light as dim as 0.7 lux. Users can observe infiltrati on, displaced joints, roots and cracks in mainlines almost anywhere from the nearest manhole.


AUGUST 2004 77

SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT The system is self-contained and lightweight. Rechargeable battery belt powers the system fo r two hours with lamps at fu ll output, or eight hours with lamps off. Belt-mounted switches provide fingertip co ntrol of zoom, focus and illumination. Also a video o ur connection on the belt can be plugged into rhe company's palmscope digital recorder or ocher standard video equipment. Quickview allows quick inspections of manholes, septic ranks, storm and sewer lines withou t confined space entry. Inspection can begin within moments of arriving at a job sire.

For more information, telephone (02) 9559 5622.

EXTENDED ECONOMY THROUGH EXTENDED PITCH Roto Pumps Ltd has released its new L Series Extended Pitch Helical Rotor pu mps offering extended pitch of the rotor and stator co mbination. This gives a greater flow rate whi lst reducing the physical size of the pumps components, producing a more economical pump. Extended pitch represents a combination of an increased length between each peak of the rotor helix, a reduced rotor d iameter and a reduced eccentricity (which is the radius of oscillation). The L Series pump offers:

PRESERVING A PRISTINE ENVIRONMENT Cooktown, at the base of Cape York Peninsula in Q ueensland, is sited on the banks o f the Endeavour River. To the south is che ancient rainforest and coastline of the Daincree and Cape Tribulation National Parks. I n l 770 , Captain J ames Cook's Endeavour was holed by a coral reef and was beached fo r repairs. T he naming of Cooktown commemorates the land ing at this site. The Endeavour River fl ows into the waters of the delicate ecosystem now known as the G reat Barrier Reef. In 2004, the pristine nature of waters flowi ng into the heart of the Grear Barrier Reef will be preserved by the construction of the new scare-of-the-art Cookcown WWTP by th ree Austral ian compan ies. The companies are: • T riwater - the prime contractor responsible for the design and construction of rhe H ybrid BNR sewage treatment equipment. Triwacer is a partially owned su bsidiary o f Simon Engineering and has over 22 years experience in building over 500 WWTPs;

• U ltraviolet Technology Australia is a subcontractor to Triwacer sup plying the UV disinfection system (the Terminator™ UV unit); • Abtech is a supplier co UVTA for the installation of the p ressure Tri-med ia fi ltration plan e. T h is projecr incorporates the design and tech nology of the three Australian companies. They all have proven techniques for: • reliability - an essential item when in a remote location such as Cooktown. • robustness - important that only a proven Australian design is used because of the extreme climatic cond itions that will be encountered in chis area. • proven effectiveness - tl1e point of the exercise is to provide safe treated effiuent which will be suitable for reuse, irrigation and discharge back into the environment without the use of chemicals.

For more information, contact Ultraviolet Technology Australia on (08) 83370079.

eG ' ;glneered

• lower rub bing speeds for any given running capacity which means reduced ab rasion;


• can ru n faster for any given capacity and still maintain lower rubbing speeds;


• has smaller d iameter rotors and eccentricities which means the th rust loads are lower;

EPG has one of Australia 's broadest ranges of brands , products and services to provide you with fully integrated systems and solutions tailored to suit your needs.

• smaller bearings, shafts and drive chains are utilised due to lower thrust loads p rovid ing a more economical package for customers; • close coupled and bare shaft design available; • sizes available l 00mm, 125mm and 200mm; • flow rares up to 200 m 3/hou r,

Maintaining the Roto technical high standard • T he L series utilises twin-pin Card in universal joints which are proven to give 15 times the longevity over single-pin joints, with 18 month warranty on the Cardin J0111tS.

For more information, contact Roto Pumps Ltd on (03) 9462 0133, Fax: (03) 9462 0323, email: melb@rotopumps.com.au

78 AUGUST 2004 water

GORMAN-RUPP • Self Priming Water and Wastewater Pumps

AERATION EQUIPMENT • Complete Range of Submersible and Surface Aeration Equipment

I I , 1--' ,.,,,~wc.1.11 "°"" • 100% Non Metallic Sludge Scraper Systems

For further information call 1800 351 755 Engineered Products Group Pty Ltd Pump, Engine, Transmission and Hydraulic Products Email:gateway@epg.com.au Website: www.epg.com.au

~Sâ&#x201E;˘ For further information please contact your nearest Product Manager on 1300 361 601 visit our website: www.h umes.com.au or email info: info@humes.com.au

ervice pipes


SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMEN T WIND POWERED AERATOR SAVES COSTS Windhill p rovides a range of high quality water pumping, distrib ution, aeration and remediation products ro Australian ind ust ry and agriculture, including the Little River Pond Mill (LRPM) and the PTH Water Improver.

oxygen (DO). T h e sun's ultraviolet rays, oxygen, chemical interactions, and microorganisms all begin the breakdown p rocess of organic mater and oth er substan ces.

T he method of 'aeratio n by circulation ' with the LRPM is a simple formula that enables natural aquatic life cycle co become a reality in chis new age of high technology. Using a renewable energy source, the LRPM is a cost-effective alternative for water remed iation.

The LRPM is a a wind-operated liquid aerator and circulator (solar and electric available) which req ui res very liccle maintenance. The LRPM has been seen to remediate agricultural, in d ustrial and municipal wastewater, liquid sewage and manure and potable water supplies, and is also used in aquacultu re and the restoration of lakes and rivers.

Another product new on the Australian market is the PTH Water Improver and as che name suggests ic is an improver not a water softener o r fi lter. Used for che prevention of scale and rust, the PTH allows for higher water press ure and supply, greater effi ciency of solar energy systems, and a saving of electricity, gas, maintenance time and money.

In a 24km / h wind, the submerged impeller on the unit has a water circulation rate of up to 9m 3/s. Water fro m as deep as 12 metres is bough t to the surface, helping co eli minate and/o r reduce stratification and allowing a better exchange between atmosphere and sediment. T he LRPM also has a circulating diameter of up to 300 metres.

T he PT H Water Im p rover has also been shown co:

By creating a vertical movement of water, the LRPM allows for a more uniform transfer and distribution of dissolved

The LRPM has been seen to eliminate and/or reduce problems such as: • eutrophicacion; • algal blooms; • odou rs; • fish kills; • mosquitoes; • aquatic weeds; • sludge and silt build-up.

• improve wetting capacity and cleaning potential; • prolo ng the life of pipes; • provide higher water p ressure/flow; • prevent unnecessary oxidatio n; • gradually dissolve and remove existing scale and ruse and prevent reformation. Used extensively for agriculture, domestic and industrial applications, the PTH device can treat water fro m as litcle as 2

One call solves ALL vour pipeline rehabilitation problems Whether it's a complete solid wall structural lining including junction T seals and lining of house service connections

OR just cleaning and CCTV inspection w ith a detailed engineer ing assessment . . .

O ne call t o the company w it h IO years proven ex perience in NO DIG pipe rehabilit ation will solve your problem.



1800 803 861

SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT licres/minuce co over 16,000 li cres/minuce. The largest of the units can treat up to one million litres of water/hour. T he PTH helps in separating the minerals in the water, aJlowing chem co fl ow through the system witho ut being precipitated and with no interference.

potential water savings. Kurr Jaks says there are also productivity increases in using recycling. Conventional cleaners spend almost 50 per cent of their time connected co hydrants. During this rime, che machine and its operators are idle, waiting for the tank co fi ll.

For more information contact Catherine Hilder on (08) 9454 5334 or go to www.windhill.com.au

Using recycled water, the cleani ng production is continuous, because there is no need co visit the hydrant every 20 or 30 minutes. C leaning can con tinue u n til the debris rank is full. Eliminating che u nproductive fill cycle is like having a second machine working. le will reduce the per metre cleaning costs as well as increase productivity. In dollar terms, at $1.50/m sewer cleaning cost, allowing operators co increase their work from 500 metres per day co 900m/day p roductio n over che design life of the plant, that represents a gain in excess of half a million dollars plus che cost of millions of litres of water saved.

WATER RECYCLING FOR SEWER AND STORMWATER CLEANERS Kurr J aks, Managing Director of Flexible Pipe C leaning Tools, says that reliable water recycling machines for sewer and scormwater cleaning have been around for at least 20 years in Europe and elsewhere, but very few authorities are practicing what they p reach - saving water. Two authorities currently reaping che benefits of recycl ing are Brisbane Water and Newcastle C ity. A sewer or scormwacer cleaner char pours between 350 and 500 litres of good drinking water d own che d rain per minute can easily dispose of 100,0 00 litres of chis precious resource per day over an estimated working life of 15-20 years.

There are h undreds of these cleaning machines in use in Australia tod ay and chey increase annually. The arguments fo r using recycling machines are compelling given these

Recycle machines can also work at higher pressures, further increasing cleaning efficiencies. Higher operating pressures, cleaning a mere 50 extra metres per day, will produce further savings of$ 250,000plus over a 15 year design life for example. Does recycling have a cosc1 A recycle cleaner will cost around $5 0,000 more than a non-recycle one. T he pump life is reduced from 6,000 hrs co around 4,000 hrs. Cleaning nozzles cost more and wear quicker because of che high solids content. T he additional purchase cost plus extra maintenance could amount co $1 00,000 over the life of the plane.

To discuss the use of the technology, contact Brisbane Water - Davin Shel/shear and Andy Krumins on (07) 4504 0348 or Newcastle City - Russell Burgess (02) 4974 6070.

For information about the product, contact Flexible Pipe Cleaning Tools on (03) 9543 8722.

INLET SCREENS CAN SAVE WATER Water is becoming a very costly resource. Demands are rising while supplies are diminishing. In sewage treatment plants water is used in a number of ways co keep processes working. Inlet screens traditionally have used spray water co keep themselves clean and efficient, or co wash screenings. Thar's the equivalent of 70 tonnes of spray water per day. H aigh Engi neering, in conjunction with Project Pumps, has installed over 350 water-efficient ACE screeners in the last five years.

ACE Screeners are suitable for applications in new treatmen t works or in upgrades co existing works. A fl exible d esign concept means that the ACE Screener can be adapted co fit almost any inlet works. T hey are capable of being fitted with 6mm, 3mm or 2mm perforated screenplates. ACE Screeners have become che screen of choice for membrane bio-reaccor (MBR) planes on small sewage treatment works . Features include: • no wash water is used with the ACE screener;

Water and Environmental . Water & wastewater treatment specialists. • • • • • • • • •

Advisors to other consultants and autliorities. Operating since 1990. Australia wide operations. Jar and pilot plant testing. Plant audits. O&:M manuals. Operator training. Concept or detail designs and specifications. We work as part of your team .

82 AUGUST 2004


17-19 Florence Street Hornsby NSW 2077 Phone: (02) 9987 1622 Fax: (02) 9987 2746 Email: contact@citywater.com .au


SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT • provid es the high est screen capture performance and th e lowest installed head loss of any screen in the market; • fro m an environ mental perspective alone, th is is just one step in p reserving water resource in lakes, reservoirs and rivers.

recommended. Polymer or coagulant dosing can also be used to significantly improve treated wastewater quality.

compromise che operation of the WTP if recycled or be detrimental to the local environment if discharged . In many cases a new look at sludge handling issues is required.

Selectin g the most ap propriate strategy for sludge mi nimisatio n, treatment and disposal can not o nly improve plane performance bu t may lead to significant cost savings. City Water T echnology (CWT ) has helped develop many such strategies. O ur p rojects include ch e investigation, design, optimisation and/ or rehabilitation of sludge systems at WTPs in che H u nter Region, Gosfo rd, Illawarra, Woron ora, Orchard Hills, Macarth ur, Mudgee, Prospect and T ea Gardens (in NSW); Brisbane, Coen, Kill arney, Noosa, Townsville and Toowoomba (Qld); Bendigo, Casclemai ne and Kyneton (Vic); Hobart and Northern Midlands (Tas); and Googong and Mc Scromlo (ACT) . CWT provides the follow ing services in che fi elds of water, wastewater, and industrial waste treat ment:

Benefits: • high performance screening with zero water use is now availab le; • contributes posit ively to save water; • 70 ton nes of wasted water every day is enough to provide clean water fo r about 200 homes . If water has a value, then compared to oth er screens, the ACE Screener will generate a payback on the capital cost from lower operational costs.

For more information contact Project Pumps on (02) 9709 6684.

SLUDGE SYSTEMS OPTIMISATION T he design of sludge handling systems in water treatment planes (WTPs) has often been overlooked or dealt with curso rily in che past. T his has reSL1 lted in many inefficient and operation-intensive systems. Co m mon prob lems incl ude system overload ing d ue to inefficient d rying and poor quality effiu ent water which may

Recycl ing of created wastewater may be considered as a pare of the water and mass balance fo r a particular site. Between 90 and 99% of che water associated with the waste sludge is generally removed in th e sludge chickeni ng phase and can often be recycled back into the treatmen t p rocess to im prove water effi ciency and reduce d ischarges to the environment. T o overco me potential p roblems of contamination from the recycled stream, changes to treatment tech nologies, process control and/or recycle races may be

• investigatio ns into p rocess and sludge managemen t issues; • specialise in formation and ad vice from ex tensive experience in chis area; • concept and derail designs; • specifi cations and documentation;

A structured wall polypropylene non-pressure pipe system for stormwater drainage, irrigation, mining, industrial effluent & sewerage applications. Black MAX offers: • Excellent chemical resistance • High pipe stiffness • High abrasion resistance • Excellent hydraulic performance • Durability

• • • •

Elevated temperature performance Rubber ring joint system Excellent in-ground performance Light weight and long lengths

Black MAX is manufactured in SN8 (nominal stiffness 8000 N/ m.m) in nominal diameters ranging from DN225mm up to 600mm with a range of standard fittings. Black MAX, is the alternative to traditional rigid pipe materials, ensuring optimum performance, longer service life and low cost.

For further information contact lplex Pipelines Technical Marketing Group. Brisbane Peter Klouda Phone 0 7 3267 9944 Fax 0 7 326 7 1511 Sydney Peter Nixey Phone 02 9755 8241 Fax 02 9755 4480 All other states Michael Lancuba Phone 03 9469 0320 Fax 03 9462 1540 Alternatively visit our website www.iplex.com.au.


L PLeX Pip e lin es


AUGUST 2004 83

SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT • jar resting, includ ing simulation of chickening t0 optimise sludge system performance in conjunction with coagulant and/or polymer dosing; • pilot plane testing co simulate proposed systems if requ ired; • operating and maintenance manuals; • operator training; • cost escimaces; • Hazop workshops;

reduction of composting rime, reduction of green waste used in the composting p rocess, an d a resultant bio-cake char has virtually no odour. Fu rthermore, no leaching from treated piles were evident even after rain. After seven weeks, the ViroSewage TM treated biosolids/green waste mix had a pH of7-8 and an average in ternal temperature of 50°C or less, and the com posting process was deemed co be complete and che p roduce ready co use.

• HACCP systems; • benchmarking.

Virorec has also recently secured commercial projects co treat sewage upstream at two sh ire councils, one located in NSW and the other in Queensland. T h e two sh ire council projects concentrate on reducing BOD and suspended solids (SS) as both councils have experien ced difficulty in meeting th eir d isch arge license limits consisrencly through their existing b iological trickling fil ter systems. In addition, the company has commenced a 90-day trial at one of Brisbane Water's activated sludge sewage treatmen t plants, and h as just completed a trial with a major UK water com pany where phosphorus is a so urce problem for many u tilities.

Contact City Water Technology on (02) 9987 1622 or visit the website at www.citywater.com. au.

NEW TREATMENT OF BIOSOLID SLUDGES AND COMPOSTING Environ mental technology company, Virocec Global Solutions, is gaining marker acceptance fo r a range of reagen rs that can be applied upstream in sewage treatmen t planes and co biosolids sludge with very sign ifi cant economical and environmental benefits. A three-mon th trial at Pine Rivers sewage plane in Brisbane demonstrated char several commercial advantages could be ach ieved -

required to produce a satisfactory product was decreased from 1:4 co 1:2.25.

ViroSewage™ treate d biosolids being mixed with green waste.

The temperature of che composting mass exceeded 75°C within 24 hours and averaged 65°C. Th is temperarure exceeds the no rmal pasteurising temperature requi red co destroy pathogens. T he ratio of biocake co carbonaceous (green waste)

T he Brisbane Water trial is focussed on nutrient removal and involves the application of Virocec's ViroSewage TM reagents into the activated sludge process. The initial results o f the first phase of the rrial demonstrated excellent reductions in BOD, SS and phosp horus. The trial in th e UK, aimed at phosphorus reduction, was also successful.

For more information, contact Frank Gnanam, ViroSewage ™ Division, Virotec. Tel: (07) 5530 8014 or 0414 848 268. Website: www.virotec.com

Innovative Solutions


Ciba Specialty Chemicals manufacture and supply an extensive range of products specifica lly designed to provide innovative solut ions for you in sedimentatio n, cla rification, f iltration, fl otation and dewatering applications.

Spirac Engineering has been involved in supp lying a large number of sludge handling and storage systems throughout the world for many years. Dewacered sludge from a centrifuge or belt press can be conveyed co a bin, truck or silos up co 750 m 3 using fu lly sealed shafcless screw conveyors. Some of these systems also have receival hop pers mo unted in the ground co cake imported dewacered sludge from ocher p lanes if required .

Our product ra nge includes coagulants, flocculants, defoamers, decolourants, antiscalents and dust suppressants. We also offer systems such as Ciba AUTO-JETWET and Ciba® ALCOTECH fo r the safe and effective, preparat ion and dosing of Ciba® ZETAG®, Ciba® MAGNAFLOC® and Ciba® MAGNASOL® products. We offer you our expertise in water treatment to help you deliver results

To find out more about how Ciba improves your process treatment with innovative solutions, contact: CIBA SPECIALTY CHEMICALS 6 Donaldson Street Wyong NSW 2259 Tel: 02 4350 3200 Fax: 02 4353 2136 Email: george.stylianou@cibasc.com or visit: www.cibasc.com/wws

84 AUGUST 2004


Value Beyond Chemistry

The extent of automation that can be achieved with these systems is very comprehensive. Normally these systems are integrated through a plane-wide SCADA system. This allows the operator co monitor load conditions, truck movements an d loads, sludge production trends, as well as general operation of the system. A truck driver can swipe a card, d rive in and receive a rapid and even ly distrib uted load without the need co involve any of the operators. The truck can be washed on its way ou r if necessary. The extent of odour control is equally impressive based on fu lly sealed shafcless screw conveyors from the sealed flex ible rubber chute that leads fro m the centrifuge co a fully enclosed truck loading area. The


FJOne Sewer Systems can make tough sites buildable - and, cut your sewering costs up to 50%. With F/One Sewer systems, you can develop parcels where gravity sewers are too expensive - or simply impossible to put in. No massive trenches. The F/One low pressure system uses a small main in a shallow trench that follows the contour of the land.

Easy in -

at half the cost.

You can sewer virtually anywhere. Including sites where old septic systems may be dying and polluting. And, F/One systems are totally reliable - no preventive maintenance, all but invisible.

Let us prove it - free. Send us the topo map for your next challenging project. We'll show you how an F/One system can make your project viable - and save you up to 50% over a conventional gravity system. Call, write, fax, or visit us on line. Environment One Corporation, 49n6 Bayview Street, Runaway Bay, Queensland, Australia 42 16 Voice (07) 5537 8807 Fax (07) 5537 8809 www.eone.com/au A PCC Flow Teclmologies, i nc. Company



SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT system usually has a single extraction point fo r each conveyor and a larger one for the silo itself. Because it is a small, wellcontrolled volume, che size of che odo urscrubbing system, whether ic be a Biofilrer or chemical scrubber, can be reduced significanrly in comparison to a more conventional stockpile. Some of these systems are installed in large cities such a Singapore wh ich has very rough odour control regulations. SkJdge sUos. Kninji STP (Singapore)

The ocher benefit of having a fully enclosed system is the level of safety and hygiene char can be achieved both fo r the operators and the environment itself. The operators of front wheel loader drivers are not required to enter any confined spaces. There are not spills on the floor or large

ground areas contaminated by sludge as is common with stockpile. Conversely, the sludge itself is protected from environmental elements and vermin. A fu lly enclosed system also lends itself to insulating the sl udge, allowi ng higher internal temperatures within the pile which allows the ready conditioning of rhe sludge with lime addition or pasteurisation. Lime would generally be added in a controlled system through a 'pug-mill' directly after the silo. This system is better than any ocher at containing lime dust, especially compared to belt conveyors. Spirac is now able to offer a complete system for lime amended sludge including lime storage, dosing and mixing equ ipment. Care needs to be taken when designing a sludge handling system for highly rhixocropic sludges where the consistency of the end produce is importan t. If chis is the case the system needs to be very compact in terms of conveying length, changes in height etc. With proper d esign and experience the advantages of these silo systems still outweigh issues with sludge consistency, depending on its final application.

SEWER EQUIPMENT COMPANY (AUST) Lifting the lid on Sewer Technology Since 1967 SECA is the industry leader in the supply of Sewer and Drain Cleaning, Inspection and Rehabilitation Equipment throughout Australia. Priding ourselves with high quality products and superior service and support.

Survev Pipelines at a Fraction the Cost & Time. 75% of Underground Lines Need No Cleaning or CCTV Inspection. Identify Them Immediately with QU/CKVIEW~ Rugged, lightweight and inexpensive, QuickView is ttie ideal tool to assess infrastructure condition for maintenance planning. It looks 20-75 metres down 150mm-1500mm sanitary and storm water lines, revealing at a glance whether pipes need full cleaning and closer inspection. With QuickView, a single operator surveys lines safely from street level , saving the expense of a fully outfitted CCTV van and crew. For more Information contact SECA today on 1800 02858 4 86 AUGUST 2004


By virtue of simple robust design, shafrless spiral systems are almost maintenance free, with one moving part per conveyor. The nature of the sludge itself works well in terms of wear fo r shafrl ess conveyor sp irals and trough liners. In some cases, liners in silos have lasted over 12 years.

For more information, contact (08) 9434 2127.

AGGREGATION MECHANISM FOR IMPROVED CENTRIFUGATION Conditioning substrates for dewacering by centri fugation is achieved by particle aggregation with polymer, termed ' fl occulation'. Flocculation can be defined as the electrostatic adsorption of a polymer to one or more particles or bridging. Three-dimensional (UMA â&#x201E;˘) polymers developed by C iba Specialty Chemicals generate mo re of the polymer rails and loops radiating from the particles char faci litate inter-particle bridging. This resu lts in greater floe strength than conventional two-dimensional polymers making them more suitable for centrifuges. The unique molecular architecture (UMAâ&#x201E;˘) of rhe Zerag 8000 series allows the machine to be operated at high torque levels with minimal affect on dose rate and centrare quality, which usually results in higher cake dryness .

For more information, contact Ciba on (02) 4350 3200.

CRS ANNOUNCES DISTRIBUTION ALLIANCE CRS Industrial Water Treatment Systems has established an alliance with South African engineering company, P rentec Pry Limi ted , to distribute its range of water and wastewater technologies including Sequencing Barch Reactors (S BR) and D eep Bed Upflow (DUP) filters. Prentec specialises in the design, engineering, fabri cation, p re-assembly and installation of turnkey water and wastewater projects, water demineralisation, effluent reuse systems and miscellaneous mechanical plane and de-aeration equipment. Additionally, Prentec's range of produces includes coded p ressure vessels and tanks to ASME section VIII and PD 5500 codes, p ressure piping from 15NB to very large bore, platework from 3mm to 30mm chick, general structural steel-work and non-coded pressure vessels and tanks. The company also fabricates various miscellaneous mechanical equipment such as thickeners, filte r presses, linear screens and vibrating screens.

SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT • reduced operation al coses d ue to the biological treatm ent process being fu lly auto mated ; • competit ive total construct ion costs;

treatment plants. Experien ce has shown h owever, chat sensor fai lures and excessive mainten ance costs reduce the cost effectiveness of dissolved oxygen control.

• backing guaran tees underwritten by an in ternational insurance company.

By combi n ing the SBR process technology with Prentec's pre-cast reinfo rced concrete panel water retaining strucrures, C RS can co nstruct, on a turnkey basis, biological wastewater treatment p lan ts with ad vantages that include: • the SBR inherent modular design allows fo r ph ased develop ment and simplified plant extensions; • short constructio n period ; • treat ment capabilities ra ngin g from 50m 3 /d to 30,000m 3/d;

Also included in Prentec's p ortfo lio is its D U P filter with its high dirt holding capacity, that has proven to b e a most costeffective an d reliable process for tert iary treatment of secondary sewage efflu ents. DUP filters are ideal for handling liquors with high suspended solids loadings and situations where high quality final effluents are being d emanded by the authorities . SBR acti vated sludge wastewater treatm ent foll owed by D UP sand filtration offers o ne of the most cost-effe ctive means of p roducing a high quality recoverable water 5 : I: l (T SS:NH 4:N 0 3) without the use of chemicals.

For further information ca/L Bi/L Kelly or Mohit Sibal at CRS on (02) 98997811.

• increased operation al fl exibili ty; • cons istent h igh quality effluents guaranteed ; • improved p rocess relia bility due to th e SBR process nor being sensitive to hou rly, d aily o r seasonal variations; • in c reased flow measurement accuracy;

DISSOLVED OXYGEN SENSORS FOR SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANTS Major savings in aeration power consumption can be achieved with effective feedback co ntrolled activated sludge


APPLICATIONS : SEWER BY- PASS OVERPUMPING, DEWATERING, SLUDGE REMOVAL, FLOOD CONTROL ETC. • Automotic Priming from dry. • Environ mental ly Friend ly Priming System - does not create Oil Mist Exhaust. • Indefinite Dry Running. • 9.1 m Self Priming Lift. • Reliable; low maintenance. • Many models include solids capability lo 100mm.

Designed fo r sewage treatment, O rbisphere's Sewage O xygen System (SOS) provides six months of uninterrnpted service. T he heart of the system is the po larographic sensor using a go ld cathode and silver anod e wh ich allows a smaller su rface area to be exposed . T he d issolved oxygen sensor, co nstructed of co rrosion-resistant Peek and D elrin, inco rpo rates all the amplification and compensarion , with electronics di rectly in the sealed sensor handle. A 50 m icron thick non-porous PT FE m embrane is m ounted

Odour Technologies Providing Molecular Odour Elimination - Sustainable Natural Odour Control Solutions A break through technology Sewage Pump Station Odour Vent Capping Wastewater Treatment Plants Waste Industry Compactors Rising main vents Genera I Odoriferou s Industries

Toolkwip Pumps 8 - 1 0 Parkh urst D rive,

Knoxfield Vic. 3180 Phone: (03) 9801 0088

Aline Pumps 2 Kia ma Street, Miranda, NSW 2228 Phone: (02) 9544 9999


AUGUST 2004 87

SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT on the sensor. This compact and smooth surfaced membrane resists the adherence of biomass and avoids the risk of fouli ng or trapping rag. Traditional dissolved oxygen analysers use a floating ball type sensor arrangement which measures DO 2 on the surface of the water. This results in enormo us errors as oxygen content from the air can diffuse at this depth. However, the Orbisphere senso r is submerged in wastewater which ensures the reading is an accurate measurement of d issolved oxygen in water. The sensor reads the oxygen co ntent and transmits the data to a IP65/NEMA 4 digital display at the measurement site or a remote location. Industry standard current outputs are provided fo r connection to recording devices or process control computers. Another feature of the Orbisphere sensor is valve seat cathode sealing where the sensor cathode is tensioned against the valve seat to ensure the integrity of the seal. The durable mem brane and Deep D rawn Mounting method eliminates variability mounting and assures a uniformly chin electrolyte layer for faster response, increased resistance of the sensor to gaseous and chemical interferences, and superior stability of dissolved oxygen measurements.


Contact Pryde Measurement, Toll Free:1800 688 211, Email: info@pryde.com.au

CONTROLLING ODOUR IN THE LIQUID PHASE Typically many wastewater-related odour problems have their origin in the collection system. T he activity of micro-organisms rapidly uses up the oxygen dissolved in the sewage so that it becomes anaerobic or septic. Under these conditions the microorganisms will begin to utilise the oxygen in sulphate ions for their metabolism giving rise to hydrogen sulphide and other evilsmelling compounds. Unfortunately hydrogen sulphide has a low solubility in wastewater and readily moves into the air before escaping into the atmosphere at manholes and pumping statio ns where it is easily recognised by its characteristic offensive rotten-egg odour. Its presence in the sewer at mosphere can result in severe corrosion and toxic conditions. Controlling odour in the liquid phase is often easier and more cost effective than treating large volumes of atmospheric odour. Liquid phase treatment can be applied simply and economically in the collection system, providing control of odour and corrosion at downstream locations.

Among liquid phase treatments available, Bioxide® and AQuic®, utilising calcium nitrate and anthroquinone respectively, are patented processes that deliver highly effective odour control without the need for scoring and handling hazardous chemicals. A computer-based odour modelling system used in conj unction with dosing control equipment ensures chat the minimum quantity of treatment required to prevent septicity is applied. Used individually or in combination, these liquid phase odour control technologies promote the growth of favou rable micro-organisms in the waste water resulting in effective odour control.

Contact John Williams on (02) 9850 2800 or at john.wi!liams@wandt.com.au for more information on Bioxide® andAQuit®.

TACKLING A DIFFICULT SEWER REHABILITATION PROJECT Syd ney Water's 2003 Sewer Rehabilitation Program (SRP2003) included structural lining of several hundred deteriorated sewer mains th roughout the Sydney region. These ranged in diameter fro m 150mm to 750mm and included pipelines in all types of locations.

£ill~ I

Shaftless spiral conveyors and~

Hvobottom ,no,

'1udgo handlO,g




Conwylng Technology

Screenings Separation: - ST Screen - Channel Screens Packaged Plants - screenings and grit

..... clea , "out-of-sight", odo free .... low mainte 8.Q.Ce, few oving parts ..... automated andliigp reliable ..... horizontal, inclined and vertical transpo

88 AUGUST 2004


SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT For Interflow, which is carrying out the entire multi-million dollar contract, rhe works presented many of the challenges normally associated large contracts of this nature which are spread over a wide region. The planning and execution of a large volume of work on rime and on budget, while ar the same rime renovating underground pipelines without excavation or undue d isturbance to Sydney Water's customers is a challenge in itself. Another challenge was that, inevitably, some of these pipelines were in locations where access for project equipment was extremely d ifficu lt. A particular challenge was presented by rhe pipelines on the banks of rhe Georges River at Illawong. For rhe residents, ir is an idyllic location with spectacular water views that seems a long way from the busy Sydney metropolis. For Incerflow, however, ir meant using all their experience as Australia's largest sewer rehabilitatio n specialist to get equipment to the sire and complete the project. The 19 lengths (282 m) of pipeline at Illawo ng were located half way up a very steep bank of rhe Georges River. Truck access to the pipelines was effect ively impossible. I ncerflow therefore decided that rhe most p ractical way to gain access was to load rhe equipment o nto a barge on the far side of the river, then un load it via a boar ramp on rhe Illawong side. From here, rhe equ ipment was manually carried into position, at rimes a distance of several hundred metres up a steep bank in dense bush land . lnrerflow installed the Australian developed Rib Loe Expanda Pipe sewer lining system, a spirally wound structural liner installed by winding a continuous strip of uPVC profile from a machine placed at the base of an exist ing manhole. The system is extremely portable as ir does nor require hearing, curing or water boilers for insrallarion. T h e 19 lines were com p ieced within three weeks with minimal disruptio n to Sydney Water's clients, again showing the versatility and effectiveness of this innovative rrenchless solution.

For more information, telephone (02) 9631 2444.

VEOLIA WATER REUSE WORKSHOPS PUSH WATER REUSE TO CENTRE STAGE Veolia Water recently organised a series of recycled water workshops attended by regulators, government policy sraff, infrastructure advisors, plus senior management from water autho rities. The workshops were held in Brisbane, Sydney Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth. The workshops aimed to share Veolia Water's experience in reuse projects in Australia and overseas, as well as ob tain fee dback from water authorities and industry on local needs and on how recycled water p rojects could play an important role in managing water resou rces. The workshops identified the main barriers inhibiting the implementation of major water recycling projects included lack of fi nancial incentives, lack of recognition of triple bottom line benefi rs of water recycling, lack of uniform project evaluation, and the approval processes fo r water recycling p rojects. Managing existing resources more efficiently and identifying new water sources are the company's core business strengths as demonstrated by rwo recent projects - rhe Illawarra Wastewater Strategy and the Gerringong Gerroa Sewerage Scheme. T he Illawarra Wastewater Strategy in NSW, commissioned by Sydn ey Water, involves upgrading three wastewater treatment plants south o f Sydney to serve 300,000 residents. Ar rhe heart of this project is a water reclamatio n plant which will use Memcor™ Continuous Membrane Filtration {CMF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) technologies to recycle 20 million litres a day of sewage for reuse by BlueScope Steel at Port Kembla.

The water reclamation plane will be one of the la rgest wastewater reuse faci li ties in Australia, providing dual environmental benefits of decreasing ocean wastewater discharge volume by 40%, and decreasing the use of potable water in the steel-making process by more than 60 %. The Gerringong Gerroa Sewerage Scheme, also delivered on behalf of Sydney Water, incorporates a sewage treatment plant wh ich uses an advanced tertiary treatment process to treat effluent for reuse in local agriculture. The process includes screeni ng, degritring and flow measuring; biological treatment, clarification and sand filtration; and ozonario n, Biological Activated Carbon {BAC), microfilrrario n and UV disinfection. T his high level of treatment is rhe most advanced for any sewage treatment plant provid ing services to a local commun ity.

For more information contact Michael Boake, Technical Director Wastewater for Veolia Water Australia, on (02) 8572 0300.

ANALYSING THE FREQUENCY OF FAILURES JWP is assisting water authorities in Queensland and NSW with the upgrading o f their wastewater treatment facil ities. T he upgrades are often being driven by new requi rements to meet very low nutrient levels in receiving water, recycling opportunities and increasi ng population growth . JWP is currenrly involved in the design of planes either under construction or about to enter rhe construction phase in NSW and Queensland. All of these plants are required to meet stri ngent coral nitrogen consent levels and some are also required to meet phosphorus consent requirements.

Complete "Trenchless" Pipe Renovation Solutions

lnM RoaN™

' ' ' '•

Structural Rehabilitation of Main Pipelines 150mm-1,800mm Rehabilitation of House Service Lines Structural Spot Repairs, Robotic Repairs, Sealing, Cleaning and CCTV Services Maintenance Hole Rehabilitation



1800 25 1240

Web : www.interflow.com.au Ema iI: mail@interflow.com.au water

AUGUST 2004 89

SEWER SYSTEMS & SLUDGE MANAGEMENT NEW GUIDE EMPOWERS VICTORIAN WORKERS Working near electricity and gas lines is co become safer for Victorian workers, with rhe release of new WorkSafe Victoria guidelines.

In NSW, the JWP ream has completed the design on Old Bar Wastewater Treatment Plane and is now working through the final stages of design on che Hallidays Point Wastewater Treatment Plan e. Hallidays Point is being upgraded co a biological nutrient removal plant. While che licence requirements for Hallidays Point is fo r a coral nitrogen level less than 15 mg/L and total phosphorus of less than 2 mg/L, JWP expects chat the plane will be capable of achieving a coral n itrogen level of closer co 5 mg/L and a phosphorus level of 1 mg/L. I n Q ueensland, JWP is completing the design on the Tully wastewater treatment plane. The Tully plant is a carousel oxidation ditch with an anaerobic selector zone. The plant is designed to achieve a coral nitrogen level of 5 mg/L and incorporates a 'doughn ut' design with the secondary clarifier centrally located wirhin the circular ditch. The design also incl udes che sl udge handling fac ilities which will include a gravity drainage deck fo llowed by a belt filter press and then lime addition co achieve che required pathogen reducrion and stabilisation. JWP has also been involved in producing plan ning reports fo r Cairns Water for its four major wastewater creacmenc planes. The reports investigated che options of upgrading the existing planes for nutrient removal. In preparing the reports a detailed analysis of che capabilities of che existing plant was undertaken co determine the p rocess limiting stages of the plant based on historical data. This was undertaken using 'Failu re Frequency Analysis'. This method uses a complex scaciscical approach developed by JWP's Graham Gloag. Data from at lease two years previously is used co predict conditions of when a treatment plant fails. To dace, failure frequency analysis has been successfully applied co eleven planes throughou t Queensland.

For more information, please contact Garry Henderson on (07) 3244 9600 or Chris Morris on (02) 9460 1855.

90 AUGUST 2004 water

Speaking ar the launch of che guidance material for working near overhead and u nderground uri licy assets, WorkSafe's Construction and Uriliries Program D irector, Geoff T homas, said such work can be dan gerous. "For chose not working with electricity and gas every day, ic is sometimes easy ro become complacent about the dangers," Mr Thomas said. "That is why rhese guidelines have been developed, not specifically fo r utilities workers, buc co ensure workers in other indust ries who sometimes work near rhese utility assets are protected." Ir is esrimared chat about 140,000 people are employed in ind ustries which carry out work near ucilicy services, including b uilding and civil construction, infrastructure, maintenance and local government. The dangers of working with electricity were brough t home last week when a worker received an electric shock and burns while excavati ng near high-voltage underground cabling. The incident caused a blackout co some 8,000 homes. Electricity has killed 36 people at work since January 1994. T he last workplace death involving contact with electricity was in Shepparton in August lase year when a 22-year-old man died while securing a load on a crane truck when the crane struck overhead powerlines. "WorkSafe Victoria also receives an average 48 workplace insu rance claims fo r inj uries caused by contact with electricity every year," he said. "In addition, every year there are numerous incidents involving excavation equipment hitting h igh pressure gas lines, which puts not only workers at risk, but also the general public." Mr Thomas said WorkSafe Victoria was proud co have played a major role in chis $500,000 tripartite approach co safety. "Along with che Office of Gas Safety and the Office of the Chief Electrical I nspector, utility companies, unions and industry groups from around Victoria, we have developed the No Go Zone framework and guidance material," he said.

'The broadened No Go Zone framework provides a way for employers co comply with their legal obligations by standardising processes and practices wh ich will then result in increased quality in safety planning." "By providing this framework, diverse industries can meet their legislative requirements and develop their own industry-specific strategies and processes for working near utility assets." le is anticipated that there will be an introduction period of abou t eight months, during wh ich rime several industry sectors are expected co develop specific train ing for their sectors from che generic package. After this rime, WorkSafe would expect the guidelines co be fully adopted and in use across Victoria. "A Utility Safety Committee, chaired by WorkSafe and involving peak industry bodies, is also in the process of being set up and will provide a means of resolving any issues that may arise." M r Thomas commended the cooperation of industry stakeholders in the development of the guidelines, launched by the M inister fo r Energy Industries and Resources, Theo Theophanous, at che Electrical and Telecommu nications Training Australia facil ity at Chadscone.

For further enquiries: Michael Birt, tel (03) 9641 1216 or 0411256605.

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Water Journal August 2004  

Water Journal August 2004