Page 1

AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATION


OPINION 1 Our New Image; Cooking With Gas; My Point of View, Sustainability for All, and WaterAid, T Kelly ASSOCIATION ACTIVITIES 8 Including IWA Australia Report and WEF Report PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 12 Details of courses, classes and other upcoming water events ENVIRO 04 14 Water: Planning for the Future CROSSCURRENT 16 New Eureka Prize for Water Research; Recycling Move in Port Macquarie; People and Organisations; Opportunity Not To Be Missed Wollongong STP - Page 30

CONFERENCE REPORTS 22 Consistency in Regulation - An Equal Footing in the Market Place, Dr Diane W iesner; Water Recycling 2004; Water Industry Performance Benchmarking, Jo hn H annan; Odours and VOCs, Gary Finke

MAJOR PROJECTS FEATURE 30

THE ILLAWARRA WASTEWATER STRATEGY: CLEANING UP BEACHES, PROTECTING THE OCEAN, SAVING PRECIOUS DRINKING WATER Sydney Water spends $197 M

J Bu row 32

THE WORLD'S LONGEST HDD SEWER Two kilometres drilled under Wollongong CBD and harbour S Loneragan

Wollongong Polyethylene Ocean Outfall - Page 35

35

WOLLONGONG POLYETHYLENE OCEAN OUTFALL Twin DN 1000 pipes extend a kilometre offshore P C hryscie

37

MELBOURNE'S MAJOR INITIATIVES BENEFIT THE ENVIRONMENT Many wetlands and some major reuse projects B Bayley

42

SYDNEY WATER'S SEWERFIX PROGRAM - PROTECTING THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT The first five years of a twenty year upgrade

48

ADELAIDE GETS SERIOUS ABOUT WATER Water proofing Adelaide up lo 202S D Hopgood

52

TASMANIA'S WATER DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND THE MEANDER DAM Key opportunities for sustainable development S Marston

56

COAL RIVER WATER RECYCLING SCHEME $16M for a 2S00 ML/a project

J Stevens 57 Replacing the Punt Road water main - Pa ge 37

DEVELOPING THE BEGA VALLEY SEWERAGE PROGRAM An alliance saves 1S% for multiple projects G Cashin, J Davis, D Searle

OUR COVER: Melbourne Water is currently investing about $4.5 million a year on major wetland projects, and plans to design and construct two 01· three wetlands each year over the next 10 years aiming to improve the quality of water draining to Port Phillip Bay. Some 29 wetlands have already been constructed across Melbourne. This photo is ofthe Hallam wetland. See story on page 37.

2 MARCH 2004

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61

PRESSURE SEWERS AT TOORADIN, VICTORIA

A success for this dead-flat terrain D Santamaria, G Mann

66

LANDERS SHUTE ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT PLANT

An alliance delivers a $30M ozone/BA( upgrade K C raig

72

PARAFIELD STORMWATER HARVESTING FACILITY

Storage basins and ASR supply water to industry F Chapman

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 75

MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS (MBR) - AN AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVE

Globally MBR is growing apace, but local considerations are important S Chapman, G Leslie, I Law

SUSTAINABLE WATER SYSTEMS 82

Coal River Water Recycling Scheme - Page 56

PROPOSED RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM FOR AURORA

For safety, roof water is filtered, UV'd, then used for the hotwater system M Robercs, D Ki ng

EDUCATION 86

EDUCATION: THE KEY TO SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT

School, community and professional targets Report by EA (Bob) Swinton

94

THE NSW URBAN STORMWATER EDUCATION PROGRAM 1998-2003

Community education gets results G Young, P Salier

97

WINNING MINDS TO WATER REUSE: THE ROAD TO NEWATER

The Visitor Centre at Singapore's Bedok Plant L Macpherso n

CUSTOMER SERVICE

Parafield Stormwater Harvesting Facility - Page 72

102 CUSTOMER SERVICE IN THE WATER INDUSTRY

Benchmarking call centre quality P van Veenendaal

105 FLASH: AN INTEGRATED CALL CENTRE

Fault reports and account queries to the same desk S Soon, R Payne

ODOUR MANAGEMENT 107 ODOUR SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW

Management requires reliable measurement P Gostelow, R Stuetz

WATER RECYCLING 114

•, IMPEDIMENTS TO MUNICIPAL WATER RECYCLING IN AUSTRALIA

A review of the key factors S Khan, A Schafer, P Sherman

125

Membranes destined for installation - Page 7 5

·, ASR FOR WASTEWATER RECYCLING IN SYDNEY?

Investigating feasibility of Bald Hill and Botany aquifers D Wiesner, M Knight, W Milne-Home

WATER BUSINESS 132 MANAGING RISK AND ENSURING COMPLIANCE

Visit the Australian Water Association

HOME PAGE

and access news, calendars, bookshop and over 100 pages of information at

http:/ /www.awa.asn.au

water

MARCH 2004 3


1

,

from the president

COOKING WITH GAS I was delighted to attend a workshop with our Q ueensland Branch, on the Governance Review, which was facilitated, very ably, by Martin Stewart-Weekes. The Committee Members who took part were really enthused. T he Governance Review began late last year and, after initial discussion , the Board decided to roll out the review meetings to each Branch to all ow all issues to be canvassed and to give an opportunity for Branch views to reach the Board. I nitial feedback seems to b e as enth usiastic fro m other Branches as it was in Q ueensland. Putting A WA's governance and management into a fresh perspective, with the aid of external facilitators, has opened doors and has potential to shift old logjams. As a four-decades-o ld, member organisatio n, A WA has a proud tradition, but it's also inherited some structural and cultu ral baggage from the past. I am now co nfid ent, though, that this review will clear the cobwebs and give us new vigour for the futu re.

constituencies; a rethinking of Board committees and functions, and, hopefu lly, a much closer working collaboration between branch and national operat ions. Whilst we focussed on the Board and h ow it is to be run, the discussion at the Queensland Committee Workshop quite rightly delved into the issue of how Branches relate ro the Board and the Sydney office. T here are o ngoing issues ab out who does what, who pays for what, and who gets the benefits of any su rpluses . An outcome of the Governance Review h as been the realisation that the Branches are really operational units which deliverer the local products and services of our business, respond ing to rhe policies and directions set by rhe Board. With rhis in mi nd it would seem rhar rhe Sydn ey office and branches need to be much more closely aligned and wo rking as a team ro deliver services and products, not operating as separate business units. Seems a minor point but in reality it translates to a

With this model our CEO would be working much more closely with Branches to deliver our products and services but with the Branches still responsible for providing services to their members.

D esp ite a history of an entirely representative Board (ie at least one rep per Branch), including a substantial Executive Committee; and an inherited tension between the Branches and the 'Federal Office', I sense that we could be moving towards a small, lean Board, not necessarily tied directly to

4 MARCH 2004

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sign ificant change in the way we d o our business. W ith this model our CEO would be working much more closely with Branches to deliver our p roducts and services but with the Branches sti ll responsible fo r providing services to their mem bers. Bearing in m ind that the CEO is responsible for d elivering the policies and

Convention - you should be there.

directions set by th e Board, an o utcome of this migh t be the Branch Presidents (or the State Managers of a busin ess if you like) meeting more regularly with the CEO as chair. In this way A WA would truly move to be a national business with the b ranch es and the Syd ney offi ce much better aligned. Only four branches have met at the time of writing, so there's more to be discussed, and the Board is to d igest the in itial feedback when it meets at the end of March, but I am encouraged by the passion, rhe fl exibility and the imagination that members have shown so far.

Enviro 04 - A stunner I am also excited by the Enviro 04 event which will, by the time this issue of Water reaches people, be under way in Sydney. The theme of the water co nference, "Planning for the Future" is very app ropriate at th is time. Water Managers are facing increasing pressu res to rethi nk the ways things h ave been done in the past. W ith changing climate, the need to allo cate more water to the environment and d iminishing access to surface water sources, water managers are faced with increasi ng p ressures to make better use of every drop. These issues will be addressed at the

The Convention has four other streams apart from the water streams and these cover a broad spect rum of environment management issues. For AWA memb ers and Water readers, though , it is important to note that there will be three parallel streams of very good water papers in operation at the Convention. The streams deal with Water Resource Managemen t, Urban Water Cycle M anagement, Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment, and th is covers m uch of o ur members' interests. To top it up, there's a workshop on asset management and sess ions on sustainable urban development and dairy industry experiences (both with water components). All in all, I'm co nfi dent that the program is top-notch, and I look forward to seeing many delegates enjoying it. The Enviro Exh ibition is a st rong performer too , with 211 exhibitors signed up at the time of writing. That's an excellent number, since this event doesn't have the m ass of in ternational delegates that Enviro 02 did. We're pulling out all stops to ensure that the confid ence of those 211 exhibitors is well founded and that a steady flow of quality visitors passes through and examines their offerings, as well as having discussions with them . T here will be Canadian exhibitors too, and a Canad ian delegation visiting. Overall, Enviro 04 should be an excellent networking, learning and selling opportuni ty for thousands of water stakeholders, and I look fo rward to meeting our members there.

Rod Lehmann


New Industry Standard of Performance


-

--

-

major projects

THE ILLAWARRA WASTEWATER STRATEGY: CLEANING UP BEACHES, PROTECTING THE OCEAN, SAVING PRECIOUS DRINKING WATER J Butow Overview The Illawarra Waste Water Strategy (IWWS) is part of rhe NSW Government's $3 bill ion-plus Waterways Package to clean up NSW b eaches, rivers and bays, and better protect rhe ocean from pollution. Valued at $197 mill ion, chis will be rhe largest p roject ever undertaken by Sydney Water in the Illawarra. Wastewater management in rhe Wollongong area will be transformed over the next few years th rough rhe Illawarra Wastewater St rategy (IWWS), which will incorporate one of Australia's largest water recycling projects. Developed in close consultation with local communities, chis project will: • End dry weather ocean discharge from Bellambi and Port Kembla sewage treatment plants. • Reduce total d ry weather ocean discharge by about 40 per cent. • Deliver major water quality improvements at many Illawarra beaches, particularly those near the Bellambi, Wollongong and Port Kembla rrearmenr planes. • Supply high quality recycled water fo r industrial use. • Reduce rhe amount of water drawn from Avon Dam by ab ou t 20 per cent per year. • Reduce impacts on sensitive marine ecosystems.

Who is building the scheme? Sydney Water has awarded the Illawarra Wastewater Strategy p roject to the Walter Vivendi J oint Venture, specialists in d esign and construction of wastewater and water treatment plants worldwide. This group completed rhe sewering of Gerringong and Gerroa on the NSW south coast in 2002.

30 MARCH 2004

water

-

Aerial view of Wollongong sewage treatment plant and construction site. Bottom right is the temporary jetty for the longer ocean outfall. Coniston Beach was the site of the record breaking directional drilling pipe stringing. Centre top shows Wollongong CBD with Bellambi off to the very top right hand corner.

What we are doing • Building a water recycling plant at Wollongong sewage rrearmenc plane that will produce at least 20 million litres of near drinkable created effl uent each day. The recycled water will be used at the nearby BHP steelworks. • Building a pipeline to transfer wastewater from Bellambi and Pore Kemb la catch ments to Wollongong sewage treat ment plant for high-level (tertiary) treatment or recycling. • Working to improve swimming conditions at Wollongong beaches by

stepping up to tertiary treatment and by replacing rhe existin g short o utfall with a one- kilometre outfall. • Converti ng the Bellambi and Port Kembla sewage treatment planes to specialised storm flow planes to store and treat wastewater d uring p rolonged wet weather. Most of the buildings at the Bellamb i treatment plant will be d emolished, leaving much of the sire availab le for community use. T he contract for rh e project was awarded in November 2001. Construction starred in


major projects May 2002 and is now well advanced. T he firsr srage of wo rk (including rhe rerriary upgrade, re- use plant, extended ocean outfall, transfer pipelines and pumpi ng stations) is schedu led to fi nish towards the end of 2004 and the storm flow plants in mid 2005.

A world-record-breaking milestone T hree sections of rhe 17 kilometre wastewater transfer pipeline have been laid deep underground to reduce construction impacts on the local communi ty. One of the drilled sections of pipeline, ar nearly two kilometres, is the longest of its type in the world. The tunnel for the pipeli ne was created in bedrock using computer-aided drill ing equipment (see Loneragan, chis issue). The 7 10 mm polyethylene pipes were then welded together and laid along Conisron Beach, before being hauled into place more than 20 metres beneath the Wollongong Central Business District. T his operation, which rook place in January 2003, rook about 12 hours - less than half che rime expected.

T he cwo other dri lled sections of pipeline were laid in Pore Kembla near Hill 60, and under Pore Kembla Harbour.

What's happening now There is incense activity at Wollongong sewage treatment plant, with an array of new structures rapidly being fitted our. O ne of the key pares of the upgraded plant is the 21 million litre 'bioreacror' which will remove organic impurities and nutrients from wastewater. Work on rhe water recycling plant is also well underway. O ne of the mosr visible landmarks of rhe construction phase is rhe 350 mer re temporary jerry off Wollongong treatment plant rhat wi ll be used in che consrrucrion of the extended ocean outfall. The jerry will be dismanrled lare in 2004 when work on the ocean outfall is completed. (see Chrysrie, this issue) . The transfer pipeline, which is being laid largely in coastal parkland, is expected to be co mplete by mid 2004. Nearly all construction acriviries will rhen be con fined to the grounds of the sewage treatment plants at Wollongong, Bellambi and Pore Kembla.

Water Advertising To reach the decision-makers in the water field, you should consider advertising in Water Journal, the official journal of Australian Water Association. For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rault at Hallmark Editions. Tel (03) 9530 8900 or email brault@halledit.com.au

T he Illawarra Waste Water St rategy (IWWS) is part of the NSW Government's $3 billion-plus Waterways Package co clean up NSW beaches, rivers and bays, and better protect the ocean from pollution.

The Author John Butow is Program Manager, Illawarra and Inland Program , em ail J0HN.BUTOW@sydneywater. com.au

Contact Acromet for further information:

I

Acromet (Aust) Pty Ltd. Melbourne Ph: (03) 9544 7333 Fax (03) 9543 6706 Sydney Ph: (02) 9682 1488 Fax (02) 9682 4580 Perth Ph: (08) 9524 7931 Fax (08) 9524 7932 E-mail:chemex@acromet.com.au Distributors Nationally.

water

MARCH 2004

31


major projects

THE WORLD'S LONGEST HDD SEWER S Loneragan Early morning golfers in Wollongong were a litcle startled to fi nd a large black pipe had appeared on their course overnight. But it was nothing co worry about. The pipe was soon co link the Bellambi and Wollongong sewage treatment planes as part of Syd ney Water's Illawarra Water Plan. It would be off the course by the next day. The pipe was in position ready co be pulled through a borehole created using horizontal directional drilli ng (HDD), a technology that enables the installation pipes and ocher conduits beneath virtually anything without surface trenchi ng. In chis case, the pipe would run from one side of che city co the other, under the harbour for part of the distance. The pull-through was the culmination of five months of site work for Australian HDD (horizontal directional drilling) specialists AJ Lucas. The original specification called for two HDD installations, joined at Osborne Park

. /

~

~-~l.ra'. •

water

')

\;.

Pipe snaking across Wollongong Golf Course before being hauled into a tunnel drilled under Wollongong City.

in the centre of the city. Lucas, with a track record of successfully completing many record-breaking drills, proposed co

The red line shows the approximate path of the drill.

32 MARCH 2004

V

.

·'• I'.\:", ',.._\Z'I,,"';. .

complete it in a single pass - making it the world's longest HDD sewer installation (and the second-longest overall).


major projects The company had the experience and engineering data to back up the proposal , wh ich avoided months of d isruption at the environmentally (and politically) sensitive park. Nearly two kilometres lo ng and weighing 250 tonnes, the pipe was fusion welded and pressure-rested along a coal loader access road. Once complete, it was moved by a fleet of twelve excavators along Wollongong's North Beach and across the golf course, ready to be pulled through the sandstone and shale beneath the city and harbour. The hole had been d rilled and reamed to size using the company's American Augers DD660 drilling rig. The pull-thro ugh rook nine hours. Once it was tested again in-situ, the pipe was ready for connection to rhe rest of rhe new water treatment system. And the golfers were able to get back to their game. Australia's first HDD company, Lucas, has continuously developed the tech nology and has pioneered a number of innovations. Over che years, the company has developed proprietary software, cooling and techniques to improve precision, tool wear, speed and reliability. Lucas has used HDD to install sewer and water lines, high-pressure gas and fuel pipes, ducts for high voltage cables and telecommunications optical fibres under rivers, harbours, airports, weclands, mountains, sea cliffs and cities.

The Author Stephen Loneragan is Manager Directional Drilling, AJ Lucas Group

The pipe string laid out on the beach. Limited. Stephen has worked in HDD for over ten years, most of chat with AJ Lucas. Since 1997 he has designed and directed

the majority of drilling projects for Lucas and now manages all the company's directional drilling operations. Stephen is a member of the Society of Petroleum ;i, Engineers, and is a d riving force behind ~ advancing engineering development within fr the HDD industry having conceived and ~ patented downhole tooling and has been instrumental in several world record d rilling projects. Email: ¡ StephenLoneragan@lucas.com.au

r i

Brief specifications Borehole length Borehole d iameter Pipe diameter Pipe wall thickness Pipe material Drilling rig Maximum thrust

The horizontal directional drilling operation based at Stuart Park, North Wollongong (this site is now restored.}

34 MARCH 2004

water

1,920m

915 mm 710 mm PN 12.5=52 mm PEl00 American Augers DD660

300 tonnes Project engineers John Scuart-Roberrson, Andy Lukas


major projects

WOLLONGONG POLYETHYLENE OCEAN OUTFALL P Chrystie necessary for che hydraulics performance monitoring of the new ocean outfall; • Provision of calibrated and fieldverified near-field diluti o n and hydraulic perfor mance models. Several specialist consu ltants were engaged by Parsons Brinckerhoff for the ocea n outfall des ign, including: • The Danish Hydraulics Institute (DH!) - Outfall and diffuser hydrau lics, design wave conditions, and stabili ty analysis of che exposed pipeline; • Water Research Laboratory, University ofNew South Wales (WRL) Near-field and fa r field water quali ty modelling; • Manly Hydraulics Laboratory (MHL) Coastal hazard assessment; • Hydrotec (UK) - Physical modelling of outfall pump station; • fan Larsen, Zentech Belgium - D es ign review of PE pipeline, and installation analysis; • Steve McKelvie, Parsons Brinckerhojf(US)Design verifier for the ocean ou rfall system . T he purpose of the ocean outfall is to discharge the flows from the aug mented Wollongong STP and to satisfy near field and fa r field water quality criteria by achieving specified dilu tion requ irements. McConnell Dowell was engaged by Walter Construction as the main outfall contractor.

Abstract

The increasing environmental demands placed on our sewerage systems have seen a national effort co increase both the standard of treatment and the disposal of effluent. T his has led rhe development of new sewerage schemes and the upgrading of existing treatm ent and disposal systems. All these systems need a means of disposal , with coastal areas often using ocean outfalls. Temporary jetty used to launch the pipe strings. Po lyethylene has beco me the material of choice for two major • Reduce the amount of water drawn fro m outfalls in NSW, Illawarra and Coffs Avo n Dam, wi th the target being about 20 Harbour. T his paper documents che design per cent per year. parameters involved in the first project. • Reduce impacts on sensitive marine Ar 1067mm outside diameter, this outfall ecosystems. is the largest continuously extruded polyethylene pipeline manufaccured in Valued at $ 197 mi ll ion, chis project is the largest ever undertaken by Sydney Australia. ON I 000 is a typical diameter for Water in the Illawarra region. Walterpolyethylene ocea n outfalls, buc to have twin pipelines of chis size is a rarity in the Vivendi Joint Venture, specialises in design world. T he design and construction of chis and co nstruction of wastewater and water treatment planes worldwide were selected co pipeline is therefore leading edge. del iver che project with che ocean outfall Project Background subco ntracted to McConnell Dowell Constructors (Aust) Pry. Led. Wastewater management in the Wollongong area, south of Sydney, has Wollongong Ocean Outfall been transformed over rhe last three years through the Illawarra Wastewater Strategy, Parsons Brinckerhoff were engaged by Walter Co nstructio ns as the principal which provides improved wastewater designers of th e ocea n outfall. T he overall collection, treatment and a new ocean ou tfall comb ined with one of Australia's scope of work fo r the outfall incl uded: largest water re-use projects. • T he des ign, construction and commissioning of the ocean outfall system; The Illawarra Wastewater Strategy has Outfall Design Parameters been developed co; • The provision, construction and The design of che outfall involved installation of facilities and equipment • End dry weather ocean discharge from satisfying a large number of co ntract and Bellambi and Pore Kembla performance req uirements. sewage treatment planrs Areas covered within che design (STPs). process included: • Reduce coral dry • Alignment and profi le of weather ocean discharge by outfall about 40 per cent. • Coastal hazard assessment • Deliver major water • Near-field and fa r-field quality improvements at dilutions many Illawarra beaches, • Environmental loads and particularly chose near rhe pipeline stability Bellambi, Wo llongo ng and • Srruccural design of oucfall, Pore Kembla STPs. including: • Supply high-quality • lnrernal loads Successive strings are flange jointed with a special reinforcing brace recycled water for used to aid the launch process. • External loads industrial use.

'

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MARCH 2004

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major projects • Environmental (wave and current) loads • Soil overburden, including groundwater • Construction loads • Concurrent internal loads • Air entrainment within pipeline • In-pipe sedimentation and seawater intrusion • Sedimentation removal • Seawater intrusion Duckbill malfunctio n • Seawater expulsion O cher issues chat had co be add ressed with in the design included: • Bifurcation of flows • Corrosion protection of pipelines • D iffuser protection • Physical modelling

Outfall Description The new Wollongong STP outfall is capable of handling che combined fl ows from che Wollongong, Bellambi and Pore Kembla catch ments. The ocean outfall consists of twin PE pipes extending I 000 m offshore with diffusers over the lase 300 m. The outfall is capable of passing peak dry weather flows (P DWF) by gravity. Higher flows can be boosted through the ou tfall by the ou tfall pumping station. The existing ou tfall has been retained for use as an emergency gravity overflow. T he o nshore section of the pipeline is constructed below grou nd in a trench passing under a number of build ings on the way. Through the surf zone, che PE pipes are inscalled in a precast culvert, co create a tunnel within which co install che pipes. I n the offshore section, che PE pipes are laid directly o n the seabed, weighted down using reinforced concrete collars. A temporary wharf and coffer dam has been constructed for the full length of che surf zone co enable the box culvercs to be installed. The lase 300 m of each outfall pipeline forms the d iffuser section of the outfall. T he diffuser section consists of 100 riser off-cakes (50 on each pipe) each fitted with rwo 150mm diameter duckbill diffuser valves. The 150mm d iameter polyethylene riser off-cakes are spaced at three metre intervals alternating along each barrel of che diffuser pipes (chat is 6 m spacing on one pipe). A removable end place is attached co the end of each outfall pipe, co allow access co the outfall for inspection and cleaning. A 300 mm duckbill d iffuser is mounted at the base of the end place co assist sediment removal or saltwater purging.

36 MARCH 2004

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Dual pipelines being assembled on specially constructed launch railway. Note concrete anchor blocks being attached to the pipe to weigh onto sea bed and duckbill diffuser sections on each side to be assembled last.

Outfall Details Pipe Material: PESOB Sup plier Vinidex Pty Lim ited. Nominal Diameter: DN1 0 67 (1075 max / 10 67 min) Stand ard Dimension Ratio: SDR26 (wall thickness, 45 max/ 41 min ) Nom inal Pressure Racing: PN5 Approximately 2400 m in 18m, 12m, 7.2m and 7.0m lengths Manufacturing supply cimeframe, 6 weeks. T he pipe was butt welded on site in 120

& 180m strings joined by flanges . The deployment o f the pipe has been delayed by bad weather with completion now expected in March 2004.

The Largest Continuously Extruded Polyethylene Pipe Made in Australia The range of polyethylene prod ucts manufactured in Australia has steadily expanded in both diameter and pressure class over recent years. Ac 1067mm o utside d iameter, chis pipeline is the largest contin uously extruded polyethylene pipe manufactured in Australia. Vinidex developed this product in conjunction with project stakeholders.

The p roperties of polyethylene have been recognised by industry with the most recent major outfall p rojects being constructed in polyethylene. Vin idex has also recently supplied more than 1.7km of DN 1000 polyethylene pipe for the Coffs Harbour Ocean outfall being constructed by the Deep Sea Release Alliance which consists of Barclay Mowlem, Candac Thiess and Coffs Harbour City Council. The 1.1 km offshore section of the pipeline has been designed by incernacionaJly renowned Swedish company SWECO to exacting European and Australian stand ards.

Conclusion T he operational and construction demands placed on ocean outfalls are considerable, requiring detailed analysis and design. Such applications are id eally suited to polyethylene with polyethylene now che material of choice for ocean o utfall systems. T he development of polyethylene pipeline systems in both strength and d iameter continues further expanding the options available co designers.

Polyethylene - the Future of Ocean Outfalls

The Author Peter Chrystie is a civil engineer with

Polyethylene is a material with many desirable properties, strength, toughness, d urability, resistance co damage, corrosion resistance, smooch bore and the ability co weld co form a continuous pipeline.

more than 15 years experience in water industry infrastructure.and is Business Manager - Engineered Systems ofVinidex Pty Ltd. Email: PChryscie@vinidex.com.au.


major projects

MELBOURNE'S MAJOR INITIATIVES BENEFIT THE ENVIRONMENT B Bayley Wetlands

Table 1

Melbourne Water's investment in building werlands will help reduce the amount of nitrogen entering Pore Ph ill ip Bay by 100 tonnes a year by 20 10. Melbourne Water's werlands help co treat scormwarer by removing nitrogen and ocher pollutants. T hey also allow sed iment co setrle so ir doesn't smother habitat, adversely influence aquatic life, or block waterways. Most werlands also feature litter traps co protect the werland. Melbourne Water is currenrly investing about $4.5 million a year on major werland projects, and plans to design and construct two or three werlands each year over rhe next 10 years. Some 29 werlands have already been constructed across Melbourne, including three in Mooroolbark, three in H ampcon

Project

Eastern Treatment Plant Onsite Recycli ng

ML

8,097

84

47

% 1.8 0.01

ML

%

ML

%

17,386

13,800

Eastern Irrigation Scheme

ML

% 5.8 0.03

Existing South East Outfall Customers 1,675

Total

Year to date 2003/ 2004

2002/ 2003

Western Treatment Plant Onsite Recycli ng Werribee Tourist Precinct Werribee Irrigation District

220*

33,165

4.5

6,203

1.8

0.6

684

0.03

0.1

19*

11

15,050

------

3.6

The table details current and projected recycled water use from known projects. * Sandhurst use Park and two in Narre Warren. Another three werlands are curren rly under construction, including a $75 0,000 project

in Glenroy, and 11 wetlands are under design or planned. Taking action to control and treat stormwater before it reaches our

Where are their solids ending up? ENVIRONMENTAL PRETREATMENT PRODUCTS

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Want to know more ? Contact Vin idex Customer Service for literature or the name of your nearest stockist. Vinidex Pty Limited ABN 42 000 664 942

water

MARCH 2004 37


major projects waterways and bays can improve the health and amenity of our environ ment fo r the enj oyment of the community. Sources of ni trogen pollutants incl ude burning of foss il fuels, animal droppi ngs, and fe rtilisers, industrial cleaning operations, and plant debris. Also more than 90 per cent of the nitrogen oxides settle from the air on to roads, urban surfaces and gardens and is then washed into Port Phillip Bay. In excessive amounts or in certain compo unds, it causes vigorous growth of plants, including algae, leading to the depletion of oxyge n levels in water.

A More Sustainable Water Future Water recycl ing initiatives across Melbourne are help ing Melbourne Water work towards 20% water recycling by 20 10, and a more sustainable water future for the city. The Victorian Minister fo r Water, John T hwaites, announced two major water recycling initiatives fo r Melbou rne - one in the south east using recycled wate r from the Eastern T reatment Plant in Bangholme, and a scheme in the west using treated effluent from the Western Treatment Plant in Werribee.

The Eastern Irrigation Scheme T he Eastern Irrigation Scheme is the first maj or recycling project of its kind in Melbourne. T he scheme will provide Class A recycled water fro m Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant to meet irrigation demands in the region fro m Bangholme to Clyde. A network of approximately 50 kilometres of pipeline will distribute the Class A recycled water to market gardens, a racetrack, golf courses and a residential development. T he first section of750mm diameter pipel ine to the Sandhurst Club Development was completed in January 2002. The new residential development has used the existing Class C recycled water to establish their golf course, as well as showcase an attractive, green residential area with sub-surface irrigation of grass areas and trees. The proposed treatment plant will be an ultra filtration membrane plant. The pipeline will vary in diameter between 750mm and 100mm with a 400 KW pump station. Design of the scheme is well under way and construction is expected in May 2004. In the initial stages up to 5000 ML of Class A recycled water will be available to

38 MARCH 2004

water

~ To Melbou rn e

Proposed pipeline route

e Dandenong

Eastern Irrigation Scheme •

Berwick• ~,

East ern Treatment Plant

ecranbourne

.... Devon• Meadows

Five Ways • Dalmore

e Koo-wee-rup

The Eastern Irrigation Scheme.

customers each year. The scheme, a joint iniriarive between Earth Tech Engineering and Melbourne W ater, is a major seep towards achieving the Scare Government's 20% wastewater recycling target for Melbourne by 2020. Recycled water will be delivered to customers by 31 December 2004.

Western Treatment Plant In Melbourne's west, Werribee South farme rs have accepted a Seate Govern ment water recycl ing package to help secure water supplies duri ng this summer. Abo ut 90 properties will be receiving 5500 ML of recycled water from the Western Treatment Plant by next summer. There is the


major projects potential co use up co l 0,000 ML of the Werribee Park Golf Course and recycled water in the fu ture. the National Equestrian Centre, and â&#x20AC;˘ Hoppers c,~ss ng councils and businesses h ave access The agreement fo llows the effects to recycled water from th e treatment of severe dry conditions and more planes to irrigate parks and spores recently the ban on the use of grounds. groundwater because of concerns / To Melbourn e about overuse and possible seawater The sracus of schemes using contamination. T he growers will use recycled water from the two Werribee Park g. â&#x20AC;˘ pen Range Zoo Class A recycled water in addition treatment planes is outlined in the to the river and aquifer water Table 1. Werribee currently used in irrigation. The Irrigation District Balliang District Recycled growers will temporarily use Water Feasibility Study allocated irriga tion water from the Thomson Da m until the recycled Melbourne Water is in vestigating Wt.',h'lfl lh'Jlmcnt water is available. Melbourne Water the triple bottom line feasibility of a Pl,111I and Southern Rural Water will major recycled water pipeline from im plement the package. the Western Treatment P lane to the Wl'11ibt'\~ lrrigattOn Dl'>t1k:t A seven-kilometre pipeline will be district of Balliang, north west of the poopoSt'.'d pipclln., I xi,tlnr, touoi,t po,'<.illtt pipdlnc constructed between the Western plane. T he pipeline could irrigate up co 10,000 hectares of dry cropping Treatment Plane and Southern Rural Water's mai n distribution land, significantly increasing pipeline and channel. T he recycled agricul tural and horticulture The W erribee South Irrigation Scheme. water will be ch lorinated in a new production detention basin at the plane, and Putting Consultation to the Test River will ensure the two sources are mixed delivered into the Southern Rural Water appropriately. Recycled water will be system at an appropriate volume co manage Work to replace one of Melbourne's delivered co customers by 3 1 October 2004. EC levels of the irrigation water. Real-rime oldest water mains - which runs under one monitoring of EC of both the recycled of Melbourne's busiest roads - has been Recycled water is already being supplied water and the water fro m the Werribee completed. to the Werribee Tourist Precinct for use on


major projects But when Melbourne Water first decided to replace the Punt Road water main, it was

clear chat community consultatio n wo uld be a key part o f the project. The $6.9 mill ion project to bu ild the new main, which crosses u nder rai lway lines, sporting fi elds and parkland, involved extensive commu nity consultation with a range of groups includi ng Friends of the Elms, the East Melbourne Resid ents' Association and Melbourne C ity Council. T he timing of the project was also planned in conjunction with Tennis Australia, the Australian Cricket Board, the Australian Football League, Melbourne Storm, and the MCG to minimise d isruption to traffic and car parki ng during sporti ng events. Consultatio n also included meeti ngs with stakeholders, the d istrib utio n of a project booklet, site tours, co m munity b ulletins, signage, med ia articles, advertisements, and notices in the AFL Football Record. One of the more testing components of the project was when contractors tunnelled a 150 metre section through rock and clay across 10 railway lines near the Melbourne Cricket Ground withou t delaying trains . T he upgrade was necessary, as the existing

Work under way at the Punt Road site. near th e Richmond railway station, a very b usy area of the city.

water mai n, wh ich was firs t laid in the 1880s, had a histoiy of leaks. The n ew 180 0 metre main was built u nder Wellington Parade South, Yarra Park, Brun ton Avenue, Swan Street, Gosch's Paddock, and under railway lines

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A five year GIS strategy was endorsed by SA Water executive management to upgrade the GIS environment for the organisation. The resu lt of the strategy's implementation included the procurement of new hardware and software, the migration of data, the implementation of new data edit and web distribution applications and the development of applications to enable the integration of GIS with other corporate systems. The new software environment comprises ArcGIS, ArcSDE, the utility solution ArcFM, ArclMS and ESRI Australia's enterprise

information portal EView (or AquaMap as it is known by SA Water users). With the implementation of AquaMap, SA Water staff now have easy access to data, with all information required accessible from the desktop.

RESULT: SA Water staff can now mo re efficiently edit and access accurate and up-to-date data from the GIS and other corporate systems. This has already resulted in significant productivity improvements. AquaMap provides easy access to data for all users on the SA Water network, including regional offices and remote 'dial-up' users in country depots . No longer confined to the operational level, GIS is now being used by a wide range of staff th roughout the orga nisation, with over 400 SA Water staff now trained in the use of AquaMap.

THE FUTURE : SA Water will continue to leverage on their investment to date, with the aim of enabling easy access to corporate GIS data by SA Water staff and contractors, whether in the office or in th e field . The new GIS environment is now being adopted as a spatial information 'portal' to all other corporate systems, incl uding work management, asset management, water quality, infrastructure planning, billing and financial.

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SYDNEY WATER'S SEWERFIX PROGRAM - PROTECTING THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT Summary Sydney Water has been in a program to improve the performance of its wastewater system to meet more stringent requirements set by the environmental regulator through its licence conditions with time frames and penalties This has had to be done d uring a time when the fina ncial regulato r requires lower cost for delivery. Consequently Sydney W ater has used limited resources more effectively and ensured that risks associated with the delivery are properly managed. T h roughout chis process Sydney W ater remains committed to their p rinciples of ecologically sustainable d evelopment (ESD ), community involvemen t and safety of all.

• 20 OtRECTEO OVERFLOW.!(Ub•l•d With O'llertlow Ev•nta In 10Yr.) 1g Olr.c:led 0-11ow S IJ\.u:lurw 1 Eveni. In 10 Yr, M0111 P'requ•nt n- 42 e ....ntal lOYra

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s hn; these License conditions whilst also catering for populatio n growth. The program is at the end of the fi rst five years and will rake twenty co thirty years co complete. Work is undertaken on a range of assets incl uding pipes, scorages, sewage pumping stations, vents and designed overflow structures. T his integrated SewerFix Program was launched in 20 0 I to carry forwa rd the work undertaken on overflow reductio n started by the Interim Infilr rarion /Exfilrrarion Project, Overflow Abatement Program (OAP) and the Norrhside Scorage Tunnel Project. T he Sewer Fix Program forms the cornerstone of the NSW Govern ment's Waterways Package and Syd ney Water's long-term strategic direction in terms of wastewater management.

Background T he SewerFix Program aims co reduce rhe impact of both d ry and wee-weather overfl ows to the environ ment by improving the overall operation of sewerage systems above current standards. I n agreement with the Environment Protection Authority (now part of rhe new NSW Department of Environment and Conservation), Syd ney Water prepared Environment I mpact Statements (EISs) for each of the Corporatio n's 27 sewerage systems and exhibited these in J uly 1998 under the Sewerage Overflows Licensing Program (SOLP) . T he EISs were required co assess the extent and character of impacts caused by overflows, as well as develop a program of overflow abatement acceptable co the EPA and the co mmuni ty. T hey proposed a Sydney-wide overflow reduction program, which identi fied preferred overflow reduction options for each system for both d ry and wet-weather overflows, as well as strategies co deliver the preferred optio ns. In May 200 0, the NSW Environment Protectio n Authority (EPA) issued 27 Sewage Treatment System (ST S) Envi ronment Protection Licences co Sydney Water. These licences describe the performance requ irements for each wastewater system, and include Pollutio n Reduction Program (PRP) targets for improvements co sewage pumpi ng stations over a sec rime period. The long-term objectives of the SewerFix Program are co add ress rhe fo llowing major o verfl ow types: • Leakage resulting in high bacteria levels in local creeks; • Wee-weather treatment at Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) (partially treated ST P discharges); • Directed overflows (including overflows from designed structures caused by SPS fa ilure); • Uncontrolled overfl ows (cho kes, wee-weather overflows from the system other than designed overflow structures); and • O dours.

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T he lo ng-term environmental outcomes of the program will be mer through: • A program of capital works; • Improved planning, operation and maintenance practice

What

is an

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Sydney Water provides wastewater services co some 1.5 million properties across the Sydney metropolitan area, the Blue Mountains and the Illawarra region. Its sewerage system collects sewage from homes and businesses and treats ir for reuse or return to the environment using $6. l billion of assets, includ ing: • More than 22,000 kms of mai ns and associated structures; • Some 660 sewage pumping stations; and

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major projects • 31 sewage treatment plants. Unplanned releases (overflows) from this system, however, can have an undesirable and detrimental impact on human health and the environment. A sewage overflow can be defined as any liquid or odour released fro m the sewerage system before full treatment has taken place. This includes partially created discharges. These overflows pollute waterways with sewage, rubbish and grease impacting both rhe recreation and potential potable use of water resources. Nutrients found in sewage, such as phosphorous and nitrogen, can also be harmful to the environment causing algal blooms in water sources and promoting the growth of weeds and introduced plants to the detriment of native flora (SWC, 2000). Wet weather overflows usually rake place when the system's capacity is exceeded. These overflows mainly occur from: • Cracked and broken pipes; • Stormwarer connections co the sewerage system; • Low-lying house gullies; and • Damaged maintenance hole lids. In dry weather overflows mainly occur from:

Figures l & 2. Environmental controls at SP0322 and SP0856.

Figures 3 & 4. Pre and post-restoration works at SP0833 .

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44 MARCH 2004

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s i m; • Pipe blockages due ro tree roocs; or • Electrical or mechanical failures at pumping stations and creacmenc planes.

Asset Management Planning Sydney Wacer's area of operations has been divided inro 27 systems and further into 220 sewerage carchmencs fo r che purpose of moniroring and reporting the perfo rmance of rhe wh ole system. Sydney Water is undertaking co mputer modelling ac boch systems and sewerage carchmencs levels ro determine currenc and fu cure performance. To reduce che frequency of overflows, Syd ney Wacer must first determ ine where che problems and overflows occur in che sewerage syscem. T o do chis, gauges are placed in various locacions in che sewerage syscem where they record che depch of sewage and rhe flow race in rhe system during dry weacher and also in wee weather. A hydraul ic compucer model of che sewerage system is created co determine rhe performance of the syscem. T he models can sim ulace che impacc of different srorm evencs, or che impact of high developmenc and growth areas. The map of Beecroft cacchmenc shows rhe output wh ich incl ude che leakiness of cacchmencs, frequency of overflow ac all designed overflows, pipes with fu ll flow, spilling maincenance holes and homes char are ac risk of overflows occurring inside cheir homes. T he models can chen be used ro fi nd che op timal solution ro improve performance. Th is includes: • Rehabilirari ng sewers and pri vace sewers ro reduce weacher flows and chokes. • Providi ng storage ro reduce frequency of overflow • Amplifying sewer pipes char are under capacity. • Co nnecting homes ro sewers rhar are nor under pressure • Upgrading sewage pumping stations

How does Sydney Water deliver Sewerfix? Sydney Wacer has capabilities incernally ro plan, operate and develop irs wasrewacer syscems, however ac rim es rhe Corporation has and wi ll continue ro render ouc some of rhe work to che private seccor. Since che launch of SewerFix, a co nsiderable portion of the work has been undertaken on Sydney Wacer's pumping stations and pipes as well as so me private sewers. Syd ney Wacer has used a range of relationship type conrraccs ro provide more efficient deli very and ro incorporate imp roved product capability inro rhe delivery. T he SPS Program Alliance is one example of rhe many in novacive approaches being adopted to deliver SewerFix Program obj eccives. T he Alliance wi ll deliver approximacely 230 pum ping scarion upgrades across Sydney Water's operacional area during che 200 I ro 2004 period for a cargec cosc of $2 10 million. Alliance Partners include Bovis Lend Lease, C H 2M Hill, rhe Phillips Group, Sinclair Knight Merz and Tenix, wo rking wich Sydney Wacer under a new fo rm of relationship co ntract, which shares che risks and rewards co deliver improved performance. T he All iance has challenged rhe scacus quo and delivered innovacion in rhe project managemenc, design and co nscruccion of che pumping scacions upgrades. Perhaps che mosc significant of chese has been che incegraced approach, which has kepc environmenc and suscainabiliry considerations as a leading priority. T he Program has been engaged ro carry our a range of casks ro successfu lly complete che pumping scacion upgrades. These include:

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major projects • Planning and designing the best for Program solutions to mitigate the risk of dry weather overflows; • Construction of new site infrastructure (e.g. valve chambers and emergency storage); • Replace pumps, valves and pipework; • Install emergency generators/pumps or dual power supplies. • Install new electrical kiosks; • Upgrade the monitoring system; • Install vent shafts to minimise odours; • Improve lighting and access; and • Restore site and review opportunities for sustainable environmental improvements. An average construction time per pumping station site of between 4 to 5 months has been established, with between 3 5 to 4 5 upgrades under construction at any one time. T he Alliance has used two main tools to ensure Sydney Water's priorities are met Key Performance Indicators and an integrated Community, Environment and Health and Safety (CEHS) Plan.

Key Performance Indicators The Alliance established Key Performance Indicators (KPis) in the initial stages of the

Program to drive required behaviours and measure the Program's effectiveness and success. Independent experts have verified the KPis to ensure they are appropriate fo r the Program and externally recognised by the industry. The standard cost (budget) and time (schedule) KPi s were developed fo r the Program, as well as a number of non cost areas, which included: • Safety • Community • Quality • Environment • Legacy (including sustainable environmental improvements). The value assigned to these KPis also assists in determining the level of payments under the risk/reward based relationship contract. To this end, business-as-usual has been set at what would be expected of a "high performance team" and exceeds current industry benchmarks in all areas.

Integrated CEHS Plan To foster a shared ownership of KPI outcomes, the Alliance developed a unique management system integrating H ealth and Safety Management with Community and

CONTAINMENT SOLUTIONS

Environment - titled the Community, Environment and Health and Safety (CEH S) Plan. Development of the CEHS Plan involved an extensive analysis of the core needs for the Program and reinforced the integrated nature of the Program delivery. T he Program specific EMS comprises the environment section of this document, which integrates environmental aspects, into all elements of the Program.

Sustainability In Delivery Environmental input starts at the planning stage of the works to identify major environmental aspects, potential impacts and risks upfront. These issues then feed into the Program Risk and Opportunity at Design (ROADs) process. T he ROADs process enables designers to take o n board environment and other team member comments early on in the concept design stage in an attempt to design out or mitigate identified risks and incorporate/ expand opportunities. Increasing the amount of available storage at each pumping station was an obvious but potentially costly solution to mitigate the risks of overflows. T he integrated delivery teams th rough "creative abrasion" were able to think outside the square to develop a number of other feasible options that would achieve the same sustainability o utcomes with a reduction in life cycle costs. Some of these "S MARTs" included. • decrease in standard emergency response nmes

• For potable water, slurry sewerage and most liquids

• gas or diesel permanent emergency generator/ pumps • d ual power supplies; and

• Glass fused to steel - permanent

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A Review of Environmental Factors (REF) is undertaken to identify the enviro nment aspects, impacts and appropriate mitigation measures to be addressed to enable the proposed design to be constructed. It is finalised only when the detailed design is com pleted to ensure the REF addresses all relevant aspects and impacts.

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To ensure the mitigation measures detailed in the REF are implemented during construction, a site specific Community and Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) is produced for each upgrade. The CEMP is a unique innovation of the Alliance combining both Community and Environmental issues into one practical site management tool. It details site issues and monitoring requirements. It also outlines the roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of Program personnel and contractors working on site.


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Training and Awareness Raising The Program has made a commitment to provide the resources necessary to achieve sustainable environmental outcomes. This involves empowering all employees to rake p ersonal responsibility for Environment in their area of project delivery. Environmental and community relations training is being provided to all d elivery team members, relevant Program Management personnel and key subcontractors. All delivery team members and subcontractors also receive derailed sire specific in formation during inductions, clearly communicating the viral information necessary to achieve the Program's required environmental ou tcomes. In addi tion, the Program ream works closely with irs stakeholders through irs Communication and Community Relations Plan. Syd ney Water, co ntracto rs, regulators, and rhe community are fu lly in fo rmed of the scope and environ mental benefits of rhe SPS Program. The train ing provided by rhe Program has been externally recognised for irs innovation and quality, receiving the National Asso ciation of Women in Construction (NAWIC) 2003 ARVP M erit Award.

Sustainable Environmental Improvements One of Sydney Water's objectives fo r rhe Program is fo r it to leave a beneficial legacy. T o date, rhe Program Team has delivered the following types of sustainable environmencal improvements:

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• Noxious and environmen tal weed removal from areas at, and ad jacenc to pumping station sites. • Restoratio n of fab ric and scrucrnres with h eritage value nor d irecrly affected by upgrade works. • Adjusting finis hed levels on sires ro reduce impacts of Aooding on neighbouring properties rhar had been occurring

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for years. • Providing upgraded access trails for the local community and removaI of dumped waste materials adjacent to pumping statio n sites. • Remediating pumping station sires that have been impacted by waste o il storage.

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• Use of recycled effluent for d ust suppression, site capacity/hydrostatic resting and restoration watering.

The Authors

"",,,

Greg Watkins, SPS Program, Leigh O'Dwyer, Communications Manager, Ken Wiggins, SPS Capital Program Manager, Mirella Di Genua, SewerFix Community Relations Manager, Richard Van Putten and Warwick Eyles, SewerFix Program Managers, worked together to p roduce and review this manuscript.

,,.

...

References SWC, (1997). Water Plan 2 1, Sydney Water Corporation. SWC, (2000). Environmenc Plan 2000 - 2005, Sydney Water Corporation.

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major projects

ADELAIDE GETS SERIOUS ABOUT WATER D Hopgood Faced with ever-i ncreasing demand and uncertainty over fu ture supplies, the city of Adelaide - fro m the top down and the ground up - is getting serious about water. Government, industry, councils, water autho ri ties and th e Adelaide com munity are d iscussing ways and means of ensuring th e city has access to ad equate su pp lies of q uality water 20 years in the fu ture as pare of the W ater Proofing Adelaid e (WPA) project. An in itiative of the Scare Govern men t, W ater Proofi ng Adelaide is casked with the developmen t of a strategy ro su pply Adelaide and its surrounds with water up to rhe year 2025. Ir will be an enormous challenge because, based o n current tren ds, Adelaide's demand for water will exceed exist ing sup plies by 2025. T he city uses an average of 300,0 00 ML a year, which is already pu tting p ressure on supplies, T he qual ity and quantity of water coming down th e River Murray is always o f concern to Ad elaide, however, all of the water resources - including catch ments in the surround ing hills, grou ndwater supplies and ochers - are bei ng screeched. Demand is expected to increase to about 350,000 M L by 2025, and rhe city faces che prospect of more frequent and more drastic water restriction measures in both the short and long term. Fo r the first rime in many years, Adelaide residents had water-use restrictio ns imposed u pon chem in the wake of the 200 2 drough t. The city has since adopted permanent measures to conserve water, bur more importantly rhe drought has served to focus the community's attention on the underlying issue of long-term supply and demand. South Australia's healthy obsession with the quality of water fro m rhe Murray has also raised awareness in Adelaide about fro m where else the city obtains water. Catchments in the surrou nding hills provide 60% of Ad elaide's supply of mains water in years of average rainfall. I n the past it has been automatic - when it doesn't rain in the Adelaide H ills, Adelaide pumps more fro m the Murray. In dry years Adelaide relies on the Murray for up to 80% o f our supplies.

4 8 MARCH 200 4

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Pictured (L to R): South Australian Minister for Environment and Conservation, John Hill, South Australian Minister for Urban Development and Planning, Jay Weatherill, and Chair of the Water Proofing Adelaide Strategy Advisory Committee, Dr Don Hopgood. In rhe back of Adelaide's mind, however is rhe q uestion about whether ir can continue to rely on the q uality of water from the river. Desp ite the big efforrs going into savi ng th e M urray and preserving the quality of its water, doubts remain. Adelaide may have to fa ll back mo re and more on its local resources, bur these are also u nder considerab le pressu re and the q uestion is, can they meet rhe n eeds in rhe future? WPA was launched in October last year with two comm unity fo rums and more than 30 briefi ngs with government and ind ustry stakeholders. Ir was decided early on that commu nity input would be important in developing optio ns and understanding commun ity expectations. The WPA ream examined many options u nder b road categories - more efficient use of current supplies, reducing water use, new and alternative su pplies, as well as policy and regulation. The team h as taken care to emphasise char options to improve the water su pply siruarion will all have econom ic, social and environmental impacts char bear close consideration, b ur char it was also looking fo r "imaginative and resourceful solutions" and needed people to "chink outside rh e square". Water Proofi ng Adelaide worked its way through 40 feasib ility srudies on potential

alternative supplies in the development of a d iscussion paper chat was released in February chis year. I t also attempted to quantify the benefi ts of a nu m ber of effi ciency and co nservation measures. T he paper h as made for interesting reading and considerable interactive debate at comm unity forums held fro m February to d iscuss rhe options. Some "old favo urites" - supply solu tions chat come up agai n and agai n in d ry years were put to the rest and simply d id n 't hold water. The idea of bu ild ing a pipeline co northern Western Australia and pu mping water fro m the Ord R iver co mes up often, and rhe ream had a good look at ic. Ir would be enormously expensive to develop, at around $1 1 bill ion, and would be expensive to run, requiring half the annual o utput of one of the state's main power stations. It doesn't appear to stack up environmentally, either - in additio n to the greenhouse gas emissions char would result, we have no idea of the impact char removing such volu mes of water from the tropics would have. O cher alternative supplies show promise, if nor fo r rhe immediate fu ture. Desalination is probably going to play an important role in our water in frasrrucru re in the long term. Desalinatio n is already


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6th National ASTT Tfl'!'nchless Conference

Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre 27 - 29 September, 2004 This biennial event, hosted by the Australian Society for Trenchless Technology (ASTT), dedicated to the advancement of the Trench.less Technology industry in Australia, New Zealand and South East Asia, attracts delegates from around the world. The theme of the 2003 Conference, 'Trenchless • A Sustainable Hole Solution' has been chosen to demonstrate the significant environmental advantages of trench.less technology. The sustainable element reinforces the concept that the 'hole in the ground" can be utilised more than once to rehabilitate or renew pipeline infrastructure. Melbourne is Australia's business, sporting and events capital, it's a city that has made blending business with pleasure a sophisticated art form & a way of life. Take advantage of the many things Melbourne has to offer, fabulous restaurants, live theatre, opera, the exciting nightlife of the crown casino, If it's live action your after, arrive on the weekend before and experience the AFL Grand Final !st hand!

You should attend the conference ... If you are a user or specifier of Trench.less Technology •!• Discover the possibilities for installation and/or maintenance of underground pipes and condUits when excavation is not an option ,:, Make contact with Australia & New Zealands leading practitioners in the Trench.less Technology Industry Benefit from the experience of other authorities who have solved problems with the installation and/or maintenance of underground assets <~ Meet Australaisia's leading suppliers or services and equipment and see some of the technology :in action <· Meet and shcue experiences with your peers engaged in similcu meas or responsibility If you are a Trenchless Technology industry supplier Identify opportunities in the industry ·!· Learn about the latest advances in Trenchless Technology processes, practices and equipment

<• Compare equipment options <· Meet existing and potential customers; sell your products or services

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50 MARCH 2004

water

used on a small scale in South Australia, on Kangaroo Island. At the moment the technology requires a lot of electrical power, but it is improving and along with anticipated advances in power generation the WPA team believes ic could be a cost-effective option for Adelaide in 20 years. A lot of the focus at the community forums and in public submissions ro the Water Proofing Adelaide website has been on water conservation and more efficient water use by residents, government and industry. WPA has found that many Adelaide residents have a high awareness of the issues and want to get on with the job. A fair number are prepared to pay more for water, or wear the expense of measures like buying rainwater ranks and connecting them to household plumbing to reduce mains use. Of course, such measures are not affordable for everyone, and chis must be a consideration for the project With emphasis on the cumulative benefits of community-wide water conservation, there has been much promotion of waterefficient devices and appliances. The WPA discussion paper considers that the broad use of dual-flush toilets in Adelaide homes has reduced the city's water consumption by 5% over 20 years. Every little bit will help, says WPA - if every new washing machine bought in Adelaide from this point was an approved water-efficient type, another 6000 ML could be saved each year by 2025; if every Adelaide home installed a low-flow shower-head, it would save another 3000 ML WPA has also focused on the large volume of water - about 45% of total consumption - used in Adelaide to maintain residential lawns and gardens. Well-chosen watering systems, well-planned gardens and utilising plants that require little moisture are means being promoted as alternatives to water-hungry green lawns. WPA even argues that most Adelaide gardens, while looking a little worse for wear, would survive the hottest summers with minimal watering. Adelaide industries and businesses will also have a vital role in the strategy and the means are being provided to improve their water efficiency. SA \Vacer Corporation, a key player in the project, will offer to do 'water audits' for Adelaide businesses.

It has been estimated by WPA that with ongoing adoption of water saving technologies and audits on industrial and commercial premises, Adelaide can save another 1000 ML a year. WPA has its eyes on 2500 ML that could be saved by city and suburban councils and schools in more efficient maintenance of parks and grounds, and another 13,000 ML used by irrigators in the Adelaide region that could be conserved by purchasing their water allocations. Adelaide also discharges about 160,000 ML of urban run-off and treated wastewater into the Gulf of St Vincent every year. There is always some scope to re-use more of it on a cost-effective basis, for instance with the use of dual-reticulation systems in housing developments. Much interest in the potential of stormwater and wastewater treatment and re-use has been expressed at the community forums. Adelaide currently re-uses about 16,000 ML of treated wastewater, about 19% of the total, mainly for irrigation on the northern Adelaide plains (at a cost significantly less rhan mains water) and the Willunga Basin. A major housing development at Mawson Lakes had a second system of colour-coded pipes installed during construction ro enable the eventual delivery of recycled water to 10,000 households for garden irrigation and toilet flushing. Adelaide already leads the nation in stormwater capture and reuse. Most schemes employ an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)


major projects system, such as at the city's secondary airport at Parafield where stormwater is sold to businesses at the initiative of the local council. The Parafield Airport scheme has the potential to provide up to 300 0 ML a year, and WPA considers that more such schemes could be introduced to provide Adelaide with a significant add ition to its water supplies. The level of community interest is strong, judging by che attendance ac che fo rums held around Adelaid e in conjunction with local catchmen t water management boards to consider the WPA discussion paper and the q uality of su bmissions co the website. Water Proofing Adelaid e has the mammoth task of collating and assessing these, along with its own extensive research by a team of 11 ded icated people from engineering, applied science and natural resource management backgrounds, and putting forward a d raft strategy to che Government in June. Community involvement doesn't stop there, however. The d raft strategy will undergo another extensive round o f community and stakeholder consultation before the final recommendations are

A community considers the discussion paper. submitted co the Government by WPA in March 2005. Everyone in Adelaide has a stake in che city's future. Water's importance has increased in the publ ic mind, and WPA is trying co guide that type of thinking cowards practical, sustainable, affordable

solutions chat will meet our future water needs

The Author Dr Don Hopgood, a former SA d epu ty premier, is C hairman of che WPA strategy adviso ry committee.

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major projects

TASMANIA'S WATER DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND THE MEANDER DAM S Marston The CFEV Project has been established in order ro: (i) Identify and aud it Tasmania's freshwater ecosystem values;

Introduction The Water Development Plan fo r Tasmania identifies strategic initiatives to manage and develop the State's valuable freshwater reso urces. The initiatives range from shore term to long term rimeframes and include specific water development projects, improved environmental outcomes and streamlined administrative processes for water management.

(ii) Provide a strategic framework for the management and conservation o f freshwater depend en t ecosystem values char integrates with existing planning and regulatory instruments; and (iii) Recommend a range of management tools ro conserve significant fres hwater values on b oth Crown and p rivate land. Ir is envisaged char Freshwater Conservation System will be used as an environmental information tool for future water management authorities with in T asmania (such as rhe Assessmen t Commi ttee fo r D am Constructio n (ACDC) and the Environmental M anagement and Pollution Control Board (EMPCA)), as well as in fu tu re Natural Resource Management (NRM) and Water Management Planning.

Tasmanians need to increase their appreciation of water as a precious and limited natural resource and of the need for its responsible use in homes and industry and to sustain the aquatic environment. The Plan identifies th e followi ng key issues for Tasmania's water: • The need for a strategic approach to water development which integrates the needs of all users, the environment and our social and economic goals; • Supplying clean water for people to use in their homes; • Ensuring water is reused where possible; • Making sure our streams, waterways, aqu ifers and wetlands are properly looked after; • Continuing to make water the major sou rce of our electricity needs; • Managing our water resources so farming and ocher water-dependent industries can obtain reliable supplies to increase production and create more jobs; an d • Making better use o f our water for recreation and tourism. The initiatives identified in the Plan relate co T asmania's sense of self, recently identified through rhe Tasmania Together process, its place in the nation and the world and its ability ro progress in the futur e. Tasmania has a well-d eveloped Resource M anagement and Plan ning System to achieve sustainable development. The System provides the basic tools to carry our the initiatives identified in chis Plan, altho ugh in some cases there is a need to develop more specific tools or new tools to achieve the o utcomes desired. The Plan identifies key opportunities for further development of our water resou rces

52 MARCH 2004

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and emphasises the clear need to advance ch is development to meet Tasman ia's economic and social objectives. Ir is vital that such d evelopment p rogresses in a sustainable manner. Sustainabili ty needs ro be at a h igher level than 'j ust enough' to ensure our clean, green status is maintained and substan tiated. T he Plan provides initiatives ro meet chis need. The Plan also highlights th e importance of community partnerships ro achieve strategic initiatives, particularly in increasing the appreciation of water's importance and in managing the changes to the way we use and look after our water.

Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystem Values (CFEV) Project T he Conservatio n of Freshwater Ecosystem Values (CFEV) Project is an initiative of rhe Tasmanian Government's Department of Primary Industries W ater and Environment (D PIWE), which is part of the Water Development Plan for Tasmania.

The CFEV Project will also be undertaking the prioritised conservation of significant freshwater values as identified by the Freshwater Conservation System . Conservation will be achieved using a range of management tools, fro m the creation of formal reserves to the negotiation of voluntary conservation agreements with private landowners. The d evelopment of a Freshwater Co nservation System is d ivided into three project phases: Identification of values (Statewide Audit) , Selection of priori ty areas and ap propriate management tools, and Implementation of managemen t recommendations. T he Proj ect ream is currently progressing through the fi rst of these phases with the expected timeframe for rhe development of rhe Statewide Audit to be by mid-2004.

Meander Dam The flagship development project of the Water Development Plan is th e Meander Dam. This project has recently received Federal Government approval under the

Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, however this decision is subject to a Federal Court appeal.


major projects T he site fo r che proposed Meander Dam lies in the upper reaches of the Meander Ri ver catchment, in Tasmania's central North. T he nearest population centre is che town of Meander, some 4.5 kilometres north of the proposed dam site. T he dam site is approximately 50 kilometres souchwest of Launceston. The proposed dam site is to be located at 468342£ 5384048N, in a narrow, steepsided valley between Warners Sugarloaf and Archers Sugarloaf, at approximately 400 metres above sea level (ASL), at the foot of the Grear Western T iers Conservation Area. The proposed Meander Dam will receive waters from the Meander River and a num ber of tributary creeks and rivulets flowing down from the Central Plateau. The dam will have a catchment area of jusr under 16,000 hectares. In addition to the upper Meander River, catchment waterways include Warners Creek, Sales Rivulet, H untsman Rivulet and Dunning Rivulet. Tenure of the land with in the inundation area rests wirh three bodies: State Forest managed by Fo restry T asmania, private land owned by the Rivers and Water Supply Commission (RWSC) and a small section of Hu ntsman Road managed by the

Mea nder Valley Cou ncil. Six residences are within 500 metres of the proposed inundation. Of these, on ly rwo are withi n 150 metres of the likely new shoreline. Land use in the Meander catchm ent is mainly agriculture, cattle and sheep grazing, and fo restry operations. In preparation for a dam, most of the site was cleared in the lace 1980s. Since char time so me of the inu ndation area has been grazed upon on a shore-term lease basis, the majority has been unmanaged. Where pastu re has not been maintained, the fo rest has regenerated and now supports a relatively diverse understorey and in ocher areas with little ca nopy cover there are substantial weed infestations. Intensive eucalyp c plantations occupy parcels of land to the south of the in u ndacion area. The concept design of the Meander Dam is fo r a roller-compacted co ncrete structure approximately 50 metres high on the Meander River below Wa rners Creek with storage capacity of 43,000 megalicres (ML). The dam will be able to provide 24,000 ML of irrigation water fo r approximately 20,000 hectares of potentially highly prod uctive farm land. T his water will be available at 98% reliability, with additional

quantities available at lower rel iability. T he dam will also supply domestic water supplies and water flows fro m che dam will be used to generate hydro-electricity sufficient for che power needs of 1,200 residential dwellings. T he dam is designed to provide full environmental water requ irements fo r one of the most stressed rivers in T asmania. The Meander River is considered a stressed river as ir does nor currently receive the full environmental water requirement during the irrigation period and there is significant scientifi c evidence of degradation. With th e dam, these requirements can b e mer without necessitating a decrease in cu rrent water extractions by irrigators and consequent losses of far m and regional 111comes. Moreover, the dam will facili tate a large increase in irrigated production while still enabling environmental flows to be met. T his is a very rare oppormnicy fo r a stressed river in Australia. T he chosen full supply volu me of 43,000 ML (full supply level RL 402 metres, surface area of approximately 362 hectares) has been derived from an evaluation of site cond itions, the natural inflow and the requirements fo r irrigation (present and

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major projects future) , and environmental releases. The capacity is essentially a comp romise between the risk of fa ll ing shore of demand in dry years and the cost of a higher dam. Of the average annual catchment yield of 189,000 ML, the dam is required to d eliver to the Meander River over a 12-month period about 4,000 ML for existing water rights and 20,000 M L fo r projected additional irrigation demand . In addition, the dam will release, as a priority, domestic and stock water supplies and environmental flows. Pressure on water resources in the Meander catchment currently limits agricultural development and productivity in the area. Demand for this limited resource results in significantly reduced flows in the lower Meander River during irrigation periods. Despite regulatory restrictions o n irrigation, resultant water quality and quantity issues have a significant impact on the aquatic environment. The proposal will bring economic, social and environmental benefits to the region, including increased irrigation development, power generation and the ability to p rovide environmental fl ows without reducing current irrigation water availability.

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The p roposal will enable the expansion of cropping and dairying in the Meander catchment in an area reliant on agricultural production. Ir will also provid e surety of water supply in a region where restrictions on water rakes d uring the irrigation season have been required in fou r of the last six years to ensu re the river co ntinues to flow in dry summers. The cost of construction of the M eander Dam is estimated at $24 mill ion, $7 million of wh ich will be fu nded by the Tasmanian Government and $2.6 million by the Commonwealth Government, with the balance coming from H ydro Tasmania for rights to access the dam for operation of a mini hydro scheme, and the private sector. The dam is required to be d esigned, constructed and maintained according to the guidelines p ublished by the Australian National Committee on Large Dams (ANCO LD) and is expected to have a life well in excess of 100 years. There are dams much older than this around the world and even in Australia, that were been designed prior to design guidelines being established. One of the earl iest large dams constructed in Australia was the 33,000ML Yan Yean

Reservoir in Melbourne in 1857, chis dam remains in use although remedial works were carried our on it in 2000. T he Meander Dam proposal is supported by a diverse range of stakeholders, including the Government of Tasmania, the Parliamentary Liberal Parry, the State's Liberal and Labor Federal Parliamentarians, Local Government representarives and the State's peak farm ing and agricultural bodies. When it is built, the Meander Dam will provide: • more jobs fo r Tasmania's young people; • increased agricultural output and exports; • greater security for farmers; • an improved standard of living fo r the rural and regional community; • a healthy river environment; and • water-based recreational and tourism opporruni ties.

The Author Scott Marston is M anager Water Development, Department of Primary Industries, Water & Environment, GPO Box 44, Hobart Tas 700 0, (03) 6233 2542, email scocc.marston@d piwe.tas.gov.au

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major projects

COAL RIVER WATER RECYCLING SCHEME J Stevens W ith the suppo rt of $8.3M fro m the Commonwealth Govern ment's Natural H eritage Trust, construction of the Coal River Water Recycling Scheme is well underway. The Scheme, with a total project value of some $ I 6 mill ion, in cludes $3M provided by che C larence C ity Council, and an anticipated investment and in-kind contributio ns of $5 million from the farming community situated in the Coal River Valley and the Clarence C ity Council. When completed, it wi ll be the largest recycled water scheme in Tasmania, supplying over 2,5 00 ML of recycled water to the Up to their axles in irrigated crops. Valley annually. T his increase in water availability will provide a and manage the recycled water scheme. tremendo us boost to agricultural Early in 200 4 the Au thority will progress development in the region and will the d evelopmen t of guidelines and a series complement the existing So uth East of traini ng p rograms, to help ensure chat Irrigation Scheme. the users o f the Scheme are well p repared T ertiary treated Class Two effluen t for and educated in the sustainable use o f the scheme will be sourced from the recycled water. Council has undertaken an Clarence City Council's Rosny Waste extensive and ongo ing program of W ater treatment plant, which is located o n consultation with the landowners in che the banks o f the Derwen t River. region in the developmen t of the Scheme, Pumps are currencly being installed at and p rovid ing guidance and train ing in the the plant which will red irect the present sustainable use and management of recycled 2500 ML discharge app roximately 25 water has been a key issue. kilometres to recipient farm land fo r reuse The training programs will focus o n as irrigation achieving and maintaining best irrigation The Coal River Valley is now recognised practice, management o f public health, as a major agricultural production centre in food safety, and effective management of so uthern T asmania and is the ho me of the occupational health and safety issues Tasmania's fastest growing wine producing asso ciated with the use of recycled water. region. T he Valley is also experiencing T he Authority p roposes to develop these significan t growth in the development of its programs joincly with the T asmanian orchards, cereal crop production, fodder crops, turf productio n, vegetables (for seed, .p rocessing or fresh market) , poppy fields and olive groves. Thee are also inany new ventures plan ned, incl ud ing cut fl owers, dairy produce and the potential fo r new food and pharmaceutical products from agriculture. The C larence City Council has established an Authority known as the Coal River W ater Recycling Authority under the Tasmanian Local Government Act, 1993 ro d evelop Cool climate wines in the making.

56 MARCH 2004

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D irector of Public Health, Workplace Standards Tasmania and the Tasmanian Food Safety Fon11n to ensure chat the users have d irect access to the key expertise in Tasmania. O ne of the benefits in developing such a joint p rogram is chat chis will enable the training and education programs to be widened beyond the recycled water use issues, p rovid ing greater benefit to che farming comm unity in the region. T he training programs are planned between April and August 2004, at which rime it is intended that the constructio n program will be completed, and the recycled water available. Another key element in the ed ucation and training of users of the Scheme is the Authority's commitment to engage an extension offi cer, whose role will be to assist the users in the day- to-day implementation of their Irrigation Management Plans. At the same time, the extension officer wi II be able to provide the Authority with a valuable audit fun ctio n and up-to-date k nowled ge of the key issues associated with the overall management of the Scheme. An important featu re in the development of the Scheme is the research and develop ment role that will be carried o ut by the U niversity of T asmania. The U n iversity Farm is located in the Coal R iver Valley, and following agreement between the U niversity and the Clarence City Council, the U niversity Farm will undertake a range of research and d evelopment projects, d etermined on an ongo ing basis as the Scheme d evelops. Key roles o f the University Farm will be to carry ou t a number of demonstration p roj ects and to coordinate a systems approach to wastewater re-use, thereby maxim ising the benefits fo r the users of the Scheme, who are located "j ust d own the road".

The Author John Stevens o f the C larence City Council is the Project M anager fo r the Coal River scheme. Email: john.stevens@ccc.tas.gov.au


major projects

DEVELOPING THE BEGA VALLEY SEWERAGE PROGRAM G Cashin, J Davis, D Searle Summary The Bega Valley Sewerage Program is the first project or program of its kind in regional NSW. le is un ique because: • ic aggregates a num ber of small projects into a single large progra m of works; • it involved the private sector from the outset; and • it involves the pri vate sector in the operation and maintenance of Counci l assets for an extended period . The approach taken by Council and the Department of Energy, Uci li cies and Sustainabili ty (DEUS - fo rmerly pare of Department of Land and Water Conservation) resul ted in cost savings of approximately 15% (around $12 million on a present value basis) compared with a conventional delivery approach, while at the

same time delivering a solution based on state of the arc technology.

systems fo r che villages of Wallaga Lake, Cobargo, Candelo, Kalaru and Wolumla.

Overview of the Bega Valley Sewerage Program Physical Scope

Contracted Activities

The works to be constructed under che Bega Valley Sewerage Program include: • the augmentation of existing sewage treatment planes at Tathra, Bega, Tura Beach, Merimbula and Bermagui. When complete, these planes will range in size from 4,500 EP to 15,500 EP. T he Bega plane (8,5 00 EP) will require advanced nu trient removal. T he scope of work includes the development of effluent reuse schemes in several instances; • che construction of new greenfield sewage collection, treatment and reuse/d isposal

The activities chat have been co ntracted co che private sector include: • project development, commun ity consulcacion and environmental impact assess men c; • design and construction; and • operations and maintenance of the existing sewage creacmenc plants and che new plan es. T he con tractor wi ll be responsible for operations and m aintenance during the co nstruction period and will also operate all creacmenc planes (existing and new) for at lease ten years after co nstruction completion for che whole program Co uncil can then decide wheth er or not to cake up an option co extend che operations

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-

L PLeX P i pelin es

water

MARCH 2004 57


major projects and maintenance period for a further five years. All these activities are included in a single contract.

Contract Form The Project D eed for the Bega Valley Sewerage Program co ntains three "contract forms" within rhe one contract. This is a complicated arrangement designed ro meet the specific need s of rhe Bega project. Th e Bega con tract was d eveloped from first principles based on a d erailed risk allocation and set of commercial principles. The form s of contract/risk allocation included in the Bega document are: • fix ed price design and construct for the new village sewage collection systems. It was seen that there was litcle risk in changes to the design of the network during the environmental assessment process, and therefore a fi xed price could be obtain ed at tender stage. Augmentation ofTarh ra STP was also included in the fi xed price works as rhis was the only project within rhe program with an existing environ mental approval; • modified allian ce for rhe sewage treatment plants (other than Tarh ra). The primary modification made ro the standard alliance process was that renderers were required to submit a target price with their render, rather than developing ir jointly with the client after co ntract award. The

all iance approach was selected for these works because of the risk of changes to rhe treatment plant and effl uent management arrangements during the environmental assessment process. T he approach of splitting the fi xed price and modified alliance works was adopted ro meet Council's desire of maximising the certainty of cost ar the tender stage; and • operatio ns and main tenance for the sewage treatment plants. Th e extended operations and maintenance period passes the performance risk and maintenance cost risk over to the contractor. Council therefore has relative certainty in STP operations and maintenance costs for rh e next 10 to 15 years. Council and DEUS will provide all finance for rhe work. Ownership of all assets will remain with Council at all rimes . Council will d ictate the project outco mes and will retain responsibility for the customer interface, setting and collect ing rares, development app rovals and the like. Ir should also be noted that adoption of an alternative delivery method did not affect el igibility for, nor the level of, fi nancial assistance provided to Council under rhe Country Towns Water Supply and Sewerage Program (now managed by DEUS) .

History of the Bega Valley Sewerage Program The Bega Valley Sewerage Program began in 1994 when Council was considering requirements to upgrade rhe Tarhra and Bermagui sewage crearment planes. Feedback from public meetings at rhar time indicated rhar the community wanted a wide inves tigation into all the options ro allow fo r innovation, use of the latest technology and the ability ro beneficially reuse the created by-products fro m the treatment facilities. T he abili ty to incorporate these arrangements for the benefit of rhe local community rhen ini tiated a chain of in vestigations and reports. In February 2000 a derailed workshop was held which d emonstrated char the community would be best served by undertaki ng the delivery of this project using a 'concession sryle' contract, rhar is a contract involving operations and maintenance of the complete sewerage systems. Following rhe workshop a 'concession style' contract approach was adopted in principle by Council in March 2000. T he then Departmen t of Land and Water Co nservatio n (DLWC) was keen to pursue alternative delivery methods in order to ob tain better value fo r projects it funded under the Country Towns Water Supply

TRANSACTING MAJOR PROJECT CONTRACTS A local consulting network com prising IDSM, Cashin Engineering and Management and AQUA Projects finalised over $300 million of local water and wastewater contracts in 2003. The contracts finalised included a number of h igh profile major projects, includi ng: • the Bega Valley Sewerage Project fo r Bega Valley Shire Council ($80 million present value); • rhe Coliban Water Operations and Maintenance Contract for Coliban Water ($ 100 million present value); • the Mount Srromlo Water Treatment Plant for AcrewAGL and AC T EW Corporation ($35 million); • the Coffs Harbour Water Reclamation Plants and Deep Sea Release Alliances for Coffs H arbour C ity Council ($33 million); • rhe Coombabah Water Futures Project for Gold Coast City Council ($50 million); and • the Bomen Industrial Wastewater T reatment Plan t fo r Wagga Wagga City Council ($ 5 million) .

58 MARCH 2004

water

The n etwork was responsible fo r transaction management on each of rhe above projects. This involved advisi ng the client on delivery methods; developing commercial p rinciples; the preparation of expressio n of interest, render and contract documentation; managing the expression of interest and tender processes; and contract negotiation s. In the case of the Bega Valley Sewerage Project, a full pu blic sector comparator was produced using probabilistic risk assess men r. Project delivery formats includ ed design and construct (Bega); design, construct and prove (Mount Stromlo, Bomen); planning, design & construction management alliance (Coombabah ) design & construct alliances (Coffs Harbour); modified alliance/design build operate (Bega); and operations and maintenance (Coliban Water) . In 2004 rhe network is currently working o n: • rhe Mackay wastewater treatment & reuse project ($70 million );

• the u tility management agreement between ACT EW Corporation and AcrewAGL ($700 million present value); • Gosford-Wyong water supply headwo rk upgrades ($20 million); • Gold Coast - Managing Contractor fo r Water Supply Pumps and Pipes Program ($32 million) • Maroochydore wastewater rrearmenr upgrade ($25 million) • Gold Coast - Competitive Allian ce fo r Merrimac Wastewater Treatment Plant Augmentation ($25 million) • Gold Coast - Competitive Alliance fo r Beenleigh and Merrimac Wastewater Catchment Augmentation ($50 million) T he network comprises Greg Cashin , Cashin Engineering and Management, (02) 4382 6136, gregcashin@ ozemail.com.au; John Davis, IDSM, (07) 3264 2800 , idsm@ozemail.com.au; and Brad Cowan, AQUA Projects, (07) 3851 4314, brad.cowan@aquaprojects.com.au


major projects and Sewerage Program, and full y supported Council's decision. Council and DLWC then appointed a project manager to assist in rhe derailed development of rhe project. The initial work fou nd char consideration should also be given to including water supply operations in rhe contract due to rhe synergy of those operations with rhe operation of rhe sewerage systems and rhe potential savings to ratepayers. A series of public meetings were then held in November 2000 to explain rhe approach being taken by Council and to determi ne if water operations and maintenance should be included in rhe concracr. T hese seven meetings were poo rly attended and in December 2000 Council established a Com munity Reference Group (CRG) to assist in rhe consultation process. T his extended rhe ti metable for rhe decision on the project. T he CRG mer approximately monchly throughout 200 1 and was a major contribu tor to the development of rhe process and rhe inpu t of communi ty opi nion on rhe project. In May 2001 Expressions of Interest (EOI) were sought based on rhe recom mended scope and sryle of contract

developed by the project ream. T he proposed arrangement involved rhe major construction programs being buil t and operated by rhe private sector and the inclusion of operations of che existing sewerage and water supply assets for an extended period of twenty years. Cou ncil adopted a shorrlisr of companies to be invited to render in August 2001. T he Council's Administrator (who replaced rhe elected Cou ncil in mid 1999) then deferred a decision on the fi nal delivery approach to be adop ted until there was a new elected Council. Ir was also determined char rhe delivery arrangement options were to be revisited for commu nity comment and a fu rther comm unity consulrarion program undertaken. T his fu rther extended the rimeframe fo r rhe project. Following rhe Council elections held in February 2002, a series of workshops were held with the Councillors and a number of additional reporrs were produced. This was necessary to in order to fu lly fami liarise the new Councillors with the derails of rhe project and its history. In April 2002 Council resolved to proceed with the project in the form sec out in Section 2 above. As the scope of the revised program was materially different from the form for which

expressions of interest were initially sough t, the procuremenc process needed to be recommenced. Expressions of interest were called, and fi ve of the six originally shortlisted entities resubmitted. Th ree of these were shortlisted ro render. Tender documents were issued in December 2002, and a concracr awarded to the successful contractor, a joinc venture of Tenix Alliance and Environmental Solutions Intern acional, in October 2003. Community Consultation

T he selection of a delivery option for the Bega Valley Sewerage Program involved extensive com mu nity consulrarion . This was a difficu lt process as che consultation was nor about the physical infrastructure itself, such as where a treatment plane would be located and when a particular area would be sewered. Instead the consultation was about rhe overall scope of contractor involvement and rhe fo rm of contract char would be used. The consultation regarding rhe physical infrastructu re will be carried our in conjunction with rhe environmental assessmenc process, and will be carried ou r jointly by Council and the contractor. Involving rhe contractor in the project from che outset is necessary co drive ' macro'

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major projects innovation which is only achievable before project derails are locked in and approvals are in place. Community consultation is not usually carried out on project delivery options and trying ro engage the community in rhis esoteric area can be challenging. In general, rhe selection of delivery oprion fo r a project is made ar Council or Board level. In rhe case of Bega Valley Shire, however, much of rhe formative development on the form of co ntracr was undertaken during the period of adm inistration. Council's Administrator felt uncomfortable final ising the fo rm of project delivery, particularly in the face of opposition ro private sector involvement in operations and maintenance from certain areas of rhe community. As a result, a community consultation program was developed ro obtain community input into the selection of delivery option. The consultation program included: • public meetings; • establishment of a community reference group; • establish ment of a project website; • media releases; • weekly newspaper information bulletins; • newsletters; • preparation of a derailed op tions paper; • call for submissions; • a public forum; and • a telephone survey. The most effective consulrarion activities were found ro be the establishment of the community reference group, rhe weekly information bulletins, rhe newsletters and the telephone survey. Public meetings and the project website d id nor effectively provide the communiry with information or obtain communiry feedback. I n hindsight, these could have been omitted from rhe consultation program. Media releases, the derailed options paper and rhe call for submissions were nor necessarily effective in communicating with the comm unity as a whole, however they were considered necessary elements in ord er for the program ro have sufficient rigour.

Development of the Commercial Approach The commercial structuring of rhe Bega project quite literally commenced with a blank sheer o f paper. A workshop was held with senior Bega Valley Shire and DLWC officers in o rder ro determi ne the objectives and aspirations of the contract, and ro understand rhe reasons behind them. This developed into a simple task allocation, with tasks allocated ro the contractor, Council or shared. Drilling down into this task allocation allowed a coarse set of risk

60 MARCH 2004

water

and scope allocation and commercial principles robe prepared, with rhe overall form of the contract specifically tailored ro the need s of the project. Key factors driving the risk and scope allocation included: • rhe desire ro achieve 'macro innovation', char is ro obtain rhe input of rhe contractor inro project solutions before they were locked in by virtue of rhe approval process. For example ir is easy ro develop an option with two villages being served by a common treatment plant at the concept stage. Ir is much more d ifficult, if not impossible, ro do rh is if environmental approvals have been ob tained for separate treatment plants in different locations; • the need for flexibility ro cope with changes between tender and construction as a result of rhe community consultation and environmental assessment p rocess. No contractor can take a hard dollar risk on rhe outcomes of an environmen tal assessment process. Ar the same rime, incentives need ro be provided for rhe contractor and client ro work together and minimise costs, rather than raking a rraditional adversarial, variation driven ap proach; • Council's desire ro ob tain certainty of cost at rhe render stage; • Council's desire ro place the performance risk onto the contractor, and nor be left with a treatment plant that does nor ultimately perform as designed and/or costs more ro run. This is a particularly pertinent issue with respect ro new treatment plants; and • rhe need to invo lve the community in the development of options. Sydney Water's experience on the Gerringong Gerroa project showed rhar developing an option without the involvement of the commu nity (as happened in the render process) will undoubtedly make the subsequent implementation of the project even more difficult. The ap proach taken by Council and the Department towards the implementation of the Bega project was unique. In particular, rhe concep t of an alliance with a tendered target fee was an innovation that had not been p reviously used elsewhere, bur has now been adopted by other clients for use on other projects.

traditional delivery methods. In order to do rhis, a public secto r comparator (PSC) or "benchmark" was constructed. Comparing projects against a PSC is a process now required by most stare governments for major infrastructure projects involving the private sector, particularly those where private sector financing is involved. The requirements are set our in documents such as the "Working with Government" guidelines published by the NSW Government and the "Parrnerships Victoria" documents p ublished by the Victorian Government. The approach to the PSC for the Bega p roject was based on the Victorian guidelines. A series of technical studies were carried ou t to develop options for each of the projects and to prepare cost estimates. A specialist risk consultant, was rhen engaged to work with Cou ncil's project ream to assess the project risks and assign a likelihood and cost to these risks. A model was then produced using a probabilistic risk assessment process in order ro produce an estimate of total project costs. T hat is, both the PSC and tenders would be assessed against the same risk profile.

Final Outcome The final outcome was extremely good for Bega Valley Shire. Tendered project costs were some 15% lower than the PSC, while the technology offered and subsequent environmental and community outcomes were substantially better. For example the PSC for the inland villages was based on gravity sewerage with conventional tertiary treatment, where the successful tenderer offered low pressure sewerage and state of the are membrane bioreactors. Und er a more conventional project delivery approach, the selection of membrane bioreactors may have represented a technology risk for Council. Although the technology is proven, there are limited examples in Australia and there is some uncertainty associated with membrane life and associated maintenance costs. In the Bega case, however, the performance risk, membrane life risk and operations and maintenance price risk was passed through ro the contractor, and was covered by the rendered price.

Public Sector Comparator Council made a comm itment to the community that rhe project would only proceed in the recommended form if it could be clearly demonstrated ro rhe community rhar the approach would provide cost savings compared with a more conventional project delivery approach. If nor Council would revert ro more

The Authors The network comprises Greg Cashin, Cashin Engineering and Management, (02) 4382 6136, gregcashin@ozemail.com.au; John Davis, IDSM, (07) 3264 2800 idsm@ozemail. com.au; Brad Cowan, AQUA Projects, (07) 3851 4314, brad.cowan@aquap rojects.com.au


major projects

PRESSURE SEWERS AT TOORADIN, VICTORIA D Santamaria, G Mann Summary South Ease Water Led. has successfully trialled a revolutionary new p ressure sewer technology in the townshi p ofTooradin, Victoria. The low-invasive tech nology has imp roved residential am enity in the township while also delivering immediate environmental gains to the surrou nding area by reducing the pollution load on the town's m angrove flats and Western Port Bay. Ocher benefits have included lower capital an d operating cos es, and an immediate reduction in po llu tion by incl ud ing ind ividual property connections to the sewer as part of the project. T he tech nology has also enab led th e local council to bring forward proposed sto rmwater drainage p rojects.

Tooradin-Warneet-Cannons Creek LEGEND CJ

Rising M1lin - Wamcct/Cannons Creek Rising Main - Tocr.idin

_.,S.i\t5.:annons Creek

,=-~ ,,,•'

_.11

. :.

/:-~ ,il'''

Before the project, p roperties were generally serviced by septic tanks with sullage d ischarged to open drains. South East Water need ed to find a sewerage solution that wou ld protect the environment as well as public health and would support future growth . Major challenges included Tooradin's poor soils and very fl at ropography, its proximity to the coast and its high wacerrable. T his meant ch at the excavatio n of

11 ' ' "•

111•

'

,/

,;Wameet

t

Blind Bight Sewerage T reatment Plant

Western

Port

N

Figure 1. Locality mop and routes of the sewers. trenches deeper than one metre would requi re extensive de-watering and support. Through investigati ng the challenges South Ease Water became aware of the use of pressure sewer tech nology in the United States for the past thirty years bu t never b efo re in Ausrralia. Before adopting th e tech nology, South Ease W ater considered the fi nancial, social and envi ronmental facrors of the technology and visited a number of wo rking p ressure sewer sires in the Kansas area of the USA. Signi ficant am oun ts of service data was reviewed and carried o ut life-cycle costi ng

How pressure sewer systems work In pressu re sewer systems, each property is p rovided with a m ini-pump station chat is fitted out with a positive d isplacement grinder pump an d storage tan k. T he unit is powered rhrough rhe household electrical system and operates on a level swirch arrangement. The rank is abour one metre in diameter, two m etres deep and is located scraregically within the property as close as possible to the existing sepric rank.

Evans Inlet

rI

/--. _/

T oo radin is a small townshi p abou t 60 km south ease of Melbou rne with arou nd 230 properties includ ing a pri mary school, hotel spo res club and a small com mercial area. It h as a reputation , however, fo r havi ng the busiest public toilet block in Victoria, as it is a major stop for tour buses headed for the Phi lli p Island pengui n parade. (Figure 1)

j

Blind Bight

\/~~ /4'''''•0 :'

Background

Pressure Sewer Arc:is

T h e pump u nit is connected to the reticulation system by a polyethylene (PE) p ipe. T he reticulation network is located wirhi n the street reserve at shallow deprhs, similar to a water main, and also consrructed with welded PE p ipe. The pump units have the capacity to pump at a significant head - in the case of Tooradin , d ischarging seven kilometres to the sewerage treatment plant withou t a re-lift pump station.

evaluations were carried out o n three options - pressure sewers, vacuum sewers and gravi ty sewers. Even w ith the inclusio n of property connections, the pressure sewerage sysrem was in this case significantly lower in both capital an d operating costs than the other two options. Consequently, South Ease Water decided ro trial a pressure sewerage system at To oradi n .

Design T he works at Tooradin were carried out as a 'design and consrruct' contract. Each property was provided with an individual pump uni t and d ischarge pipeline to the reticulation network . An isolation valve and a refl ux valve were provid ed on each discharge pipeline at the property boundary. !solacing valves and flushing points wer e provided within the reticulation network at app ropriate locations. An odour treatment facil icy was installed on the transfer pipeline to minimise the odour impact at the treatment plan t. Boch the reticulation network and transfer p ipeline were designed to cater for substantial future growth of the town.

water

MARCH 2004 61


major projects

Figure 2. Installatio n by auger.

Construction South East Water installed and trialed a number of di fferent pump units and configurations: • 200 E-One d rywell/wetwell simp lex ranks with 225 litres srorage • 3 E-One drywell/werwell duplex tanks with 570 litres srorage • 20 E-One werwell simplex tanks with 460 Ii cres storage • 1 E-One wecwell duplex rank with 1570 litres srorage • 3 Allwasce duplex tanks (Efru pumps) with 2000 litres srorage. The standard pump units were quickly and easily installed using an auger with minimal impact on the cusromer's property. There were a small number of properties where access was insufficient ro allow th e auger ro be used and the hole for the pump un it was dug by hand. (Figures 2, 3, 4) The pressure reticulation system was easily constructed using small d iameter pipes, laid at a shallow depth without dewatering and in a comparatively shore co nstruction time causing minimal disruption ro cusromers. The impact on vegetation and the environment, compared

Figure 3. Lowering the unit into position. to the construction of conventional gravity sewers, was also m ini mal.

System performance The new pressure sewer system operates successfully and transfers sewerage seven kilometres ro the treatment plane with ou t the need for an intermediate pump station. A comparison of flow meter records at the treatment plane indicates minimal wee weather inflow/ infiltration into the system and a reduction in peak flows as a result of attenuation in the individual property storage tanks (Figure 5). Infancy failure race of the pump units and alarm call-ou ts was initially much higher than expected. Over time, however, as repairs and replacements have been carried out and property owners have become accustomed to how the system operates, che system has become more robust and call-outs have markedly reduced (Figure 6).

Policy issues A number of policy issues were addressed:

• Ownership and maintenance of the pump unit: South East Water has assumed

ownership and maintenance responsibility for che pump unit and the discharge pipeline from the pump to che reticulatio n sewer as it was considered unfair ro expect an individ ual to meet repair/renewal coses of the pumps as they anse.

• Easements for pump unit and pipeline: The pump unit and discharge pipeline only service the individual property in wh ich they are located, as a result easements were not required.

• Power Costs: C ustomers are required to pay the power coses of about $20 per annum. This was not an issue for customers, as they saw it as being a reasonable trade-off for saving around $2000 on their co nnection costs.

• New Development: Developers are required to install the reticulation pipes and co pay an additional fee over and above normal development contributions to meet the cost of pump unit and its installation . South East Water will install pump unit and discharge pipeline to the reticulation system sewer when the land is built on.

A great system for everyone The Tooradin project has proved beneficial for all concerned - residents, industry and the environment and is a great

PRESSURE SEWER SERVICES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD 1,

Specialising in the design, construction & maintenance of pressure sewer systems. With experience in over 600 installations. A large variety of different models are available to suit every budget and application . For more information please call Rob. Ph/Fax 03 9702 4931 • Mobile 0417 592 075 P.0 Box 119 Hallam Victoria 3803 • email robpssa@bigpond.com.au

62 MARCH 2004 water


ere

F/One Sewer Systems can make tough sites buildable - and, cut your sewering costs up to 50%. With F/One Sewer systems, you can develop parcels where gravity sewers are too expensive - or simply impossible to put in. No massive trenches. The F/One low pressure system uses a small main in a shallow trench that follows the contour of the land.

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major projects example of where an innovative solution can d eliver fi nancial, environmental and social benefits

odo urs, and the removal of po tential problems to the environment.

Conclusion Warneet and Cannons Creek Due to the success of the pressure sewers project at T ooradin, South East W ater is now introducing pressure sewer systems into the nearby towns of W arneet and Canno ns C reek, which have similar ground condi tions and topography. Warneet and Cannons C reek will benefit from the experience gained in the T ooradin project and will include improvements in a nu mber of areas.

Design For Warneet and Cannons C reek, separate design, pipeline construction and p ump installatio n contracts were adop ted. All customer impact issues (location of pump units, pipelines and plumbing needs fo r grey-water) were identified and resolved at the design stage. In add ition a comprehensive electrical audit was also carried ou t on each property, which determined the need fo r power upgrades o r switch board modifications. Our co ntracto r was required to provide a separately wired circuit fo r the power supply at each p roperty.

Construction T he foll owing pump units and confi gurations are being installed at W arneet and Cannons C reek: • 450 E-One wetwell simplex tanks with 660 litres storage • 3 E-One wetwell duplex tanks with 1570 litres sto rage. Around 95% of the reticulation lines have been installed using d irectio nal d rilling, further reducing impact on the environm ent and resulting in an even shorter construction period.

Figure 4. Installation of p ump unit and switchboard completed.

About South East Water

:c

T he pump installat ion co ntract included all works with in the customer's property (pump installation, discharge pipeline, plumbing connection and electrical work) .

System performance The installation and co nnection of all pump units are being independently audited and a greater emp hasis on customer education has resulted in an infancy fa ilure rate of less than 1% and minimal callouts.

So uth Ease W ater services 1.3 million customers, who live in an area of app roximately 3,640 square kilometres fro m Port M elbourne to Portsea and fro m M ordialloc to so me 40 ki lometres ease of Berwick.

All call-outs are mo nitored /attended by South East Water's maintenance contractor and , as pump units were purchased directly from che manufact urer, all warranty repair records are retu rned d irect to South East Water. Although at an early stage, alarm call-o uts and pump replacements are much lower than experienced at T ooradin.

6.00 4.00

U:::

-

Dry W eather Wet W eather

During the past fin ancial year, the com pany delivered 166 , 103 ML (m ill ions of litres) of water, and collected 113, 176 M L of wastewater.

The Authors Denis Santamaria is Sou th East Water General M anager Asset Planning and Greg Mann is Manager Backlog Plannin g and Design.

Pressure Sewers - System Performance 40 ~ - - - - - - - - r - -C~u-st_o_m-er~C~a~lls- -~T~oo- r-ad~in- - - ,10 Cl) 9 (,) -+-Customer Calls · Warneet Ill 8 Pump Repair/Replace - Tooradin .!!! 30 Cl) 7 0. ni -+Pump Repair/Replace Warneet (.) 25 a: 6 35

'i:::

;

8.00

0

,:

• 8,000 kilometres of water supply mains; and • 7,300 kilometres of sewer m ains.

10.00

......

The company manages: • infras tructure and assets valued at in excess o f $ 1.0 billion (209 sewage pumping stations, 8 1 water pumping stations, 71 reservoirs and major water ranks, and 10 local sewage treatment plants);

Through connecting to the sewerage system properties in the areas experienced red uced runn ing costs, no septic tank

-

:::i .:,{.

South East Water is a state-owned company, which provides water and sewerage services to customers in the southeast of M elbourne.

To avoid blo ckages, all reticulation lines were flushed out with high volume flows and inspected before the commissioning of any pump units. In addition the pump installation contractor was required to co nnect properties in a systematic manner (street by street).

Typical Dry Weather / Wet Weather Flows 12.00

These p rojects have been a great success with the p ressure sewer technology p roving to have great advantages over gravity sewers when used in areas with a topography and geology such as Toorad in. South East Water will continue to lead in che area of pressure sewer technology and will share its experience with o ther water authorities, both locally and internatio nally.

E 20

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2.00

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Time (Hours) Figure 5. Typical dry weather/wet weather flows.

64 MARCH 2004

water

3

6

9

12

15 18 21 24

27 30

Elapsed Time (Months)

Figure 6. Pressure sewers - system performa nce.

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major projects

LANDERS SHUTE ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT PLANT K Craig Introduction

T he treated water objectives are outlined in Table 1.

In June 200 2, Veolia Water Australia and Walters Construction Group, were jointly contracted by Aquagen (formerly the Caloundra Maroochy Water Supply Board), to form the Lander's Shure Water Alliance which also included Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) .

Treatment Process Aquagen commissioned pilo t plant studies co evaluate the potential of ozone/BAC tech nology for the upgrade of the Landers Shute Water Treatment Plant. This fo llowed the successful first applicat ion of o zone/BAC tech nology in Australia at the Noosa Water Treatment Plant operated by Veolia Water Australia under a Design Build Operate (DBO) contract for the Noosa Council. Following the pilot plant studies, Aquagen conducted a comprehensive comm un ity consultation program co evaluate the co mmunity support for the

The alliance was charged with delivering Australia's largest ozone/ Biologically Activated Carbon (BAC) Lake Baroon water treatment plant co meet the growing needs of the region. A number - cylindrospermopsin of sub-alliance partners were also involved - microcysrin including Water Treatment Australia and C ity Water Technology. • Cryptosporidium and Giardia • filter clogging algae (see Figure 1) This $30 millio n project included a major capacity upgrade of the existing conventional treatment plant, located at Palmwood s in Queensland, from 80 co 140 Figure 1. Toxin Data Versus Cylindrospemopsis Count ML/day, and the addition of pre-ozonation and a final ozone / BAC stage. The plant, commissio ned in December 200 3, provides the 150 ,00 0 residents in Caloundra and Maroochy Shires with high quality drinking water.

-*- 3m

Background

e

T he Sunshine Coast's Caloundra and Maroochy areas receive main water supply from the 61,00 0 ML Lake Baroon. Before the recent upgrade, water was treated with a conven tional process stream of potassium permanganate oxidation, lime/CO2 b uffering, alum coagulation, floccu lation, horizontal sedimentation, powdered activated carbo n and rapid gravity sand filt ration.

An improvement in the treatment process was need ed co increase the quantity of treated water fo r the region and meet the population growth forecasts Caloundra/Maroochy is one of Queensland's fastest growing areas

QHSS Toxin Result

Cylindrospermopsin in Landers Shute Raw Water. Table l. Treated Water Objectives. Parameter

Target Value

Colour (Pt - Co)

2.5

Turbidity (NTU)

<0.3

------

Range

<5 s0.3

Alkalinity mg/L as CoC03

50

45 to 55

pH

7.8

7.5 - 8.0

Manganese - total (mg/I)

<0.02

<0.02

Alumin ium - total (mg/I)

<0.05

<0.05

Iron - total (mg/I)

<0.1

<0.3

Cryptospiridium

2 log removal

2 log removal

Giordio

3 log removal

3 log removal

• manganese

Bromote (ug/1)

<10

<10

• taste & odour compo unds

THMs (ug/1)

<80

<80

- geosmm

HAA (ug/1)

<60

<60

-MIB

Cylindrospermopsin (ug/1)

<1.0

<1.0

Microcystin (ug/1)

<l.0

<l.0

Also, the deterioration of raw water quality needed addressing as it contained:

• cyanobacteria toxins

66 MARCH 2004

water


major projects Landers Shute

WTP Alum KMnO4

t

Lime

Raw Water Lake Baroon Pre-ozonation

upgrade including rhe addition of ozone/BAC technology to address water quality issues. The o utcome showed strong community support and a willingness to pay more fo r higher quality water. T he p rocess train chosen for the upgrade (Figure 2) included: • • • •

Potassium permanganate. Lime and carbon d ioxide. Pre-ozonation. Alum coagulation.

• Flocculation and sedimentation processes. • D ual med ia fil rrarion. • Post ozonarion. • Biological Activated Carbon fil tration. • Post-ch lo ri nation and lime dosing. • Slud ge treatmen t system includ ing thickeners and fil ter presses. • PLC SCAD A control system for automatic operation and monitoring of the plant. Th is also featu res remote operation and multiple back-up systems in the event of mechanical and electrical fai lu res.

Manganese Oxidation Soluble manganese is oxidized through potassium permanganate dosing at an elevated pH.

Soft Water Buffering The Landers Sh ure raw water is generally soft which leads to corrosion issues and leaching of lime from cement lined pipelines. Lime and carbon dioxide are added ro increase the alkalinity and reduce these problems. T heir addition ar the front of rhe plant mi nimises contam ination of the treated water by lime impurities. A low

Flocculation

Sedimentation

aear Water Tank Consumers BAC Filters O,lorine Lime

Post-ozonation

Dual Media Filters

Sludge Treabnent System

Figure 2. Process schematic figu re. dose of lime is added at rhe back of the plan t fo r fi nal pH correction.

Pre-ozonation T he addition o f pre-ozonarion, with a contact rime o f 3 minu tes, also provides another manganese oxidatio n stage in rhe p rocess rhar can be employed for rhe removal o f manganese. The pre-ozonarion stage also fu rther breaks down clogging algae to allow imp roved fil ter run times.

Coagulation/Flocculation Sedimentation Al um coagulation is employed at the optim um pH to ensure good removal o f d issolved organ carbon (DOC) through rhe plant. A conventional flocculation and

ho rizontal sedimenrarion stage duplicated the existing sedimentatio n stage with 2. 16 m/h r surface loading rare.

Filtration Five new fil ters have been added to the existing six fil rers providing an overall fi lter rare of 11.5 m/hr. The media in rhe five new fi lters has been changed from rhe existing conventional sand fil ters to a dual media co nfiguration employing 1.25mm coal over 0. 7mm sand. Th is confi guratio n allows improved performance compared to the existing fi lters with reduced head -loss and increased fil ter run times .

Post Ozonation The post-ozonarion stage reduces taste and odo ur compounds, removes

e post - ozone contoctor : ath lines colored b)! residence t ime s

I .&Oe+ct

aoo ... 01 6.00t+-01 ".00... 01

2.00e+OI

ANJOU RECHERCHE Ozone generators.

68 MARCH 2004

water

CFD Modelling.

VIVENDI

water


TMENT ery drop is precious ••111: treating it right

RelJ 01:

Wallace & Tie

tranco

Waler Treatae Chlorinators, Metering Pumps, Ory Fee Disinfection, Analysers, Controllers, Gas Dete Dioxide Generators, On-Site Sodium Hypo ....,.~-----ounted Water Treatment Systems and Odo

LIMITED


major projects cyanobacceria toxins and inactivates Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The ozone contractor design has been op timised co maximise the hydraulic efficiency and Ct values by the use of computatio nal flu id dynamics (CFO) modell ing. Th is has resulted in changes co che contractor configuration , inlet conditions and the number o f baffles to allow 2 log removal of crypcosporid ium co be achieved in the final ozonacio n stage. The pre- and post-ozonacion stages also employs the latest ozone injection tech nology thro ugh the use of static mixers co improve transfer effi ciency and reduce bromate fo rmation. The gas delivery co the ozone generators is provided through a combination of liquid oxygen (LOX) and Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) technology. Th e latest medium frequency ozo ne generators are employed.

Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) Filters T he BAC filtrat ion stage uses coal-based activated carbon co provide a medium for

The upgraded Landers Shute WTP. biological growth as well as allowing adsorption. This stage provides fu rther removal of taste and odour compou nds through a biological process, further removal of any cyanobacceria toxins

through biological and absorption prncesses, pesticide removal and teduccion in D OC co improve netwo rk performance and reduced disinfection by-produce formati on.

Post Treatment

C&SBRAND AUSTRALIAN FILTER COAL FOR DEEP BED COARSE DUAL MEDIA FILTRATION "More UFRVs for your money, and better quality water"

C&S BRAND GRANULAR & POWDERED ACTNATED CARBONS JAMES CUMMING & SONS PTY LTD 319 Parramatta Rd AUBURN NSW 2 144 Phone: (02) 9748 2309 Fax: (02) 9648 4 887

Email: jamescumming@jamescumming.com.au

70 MARCH 2004

water

QUALITY ENDORSED COMPANY AS/NZS ISO 9001 STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Licence no: 1628

C hlorine is added fo r disinfectio n and lime for final p H control. The use of pre-ozonacion with coagulation/filtration and ozone/ BAC tech nology provides a continuous multi barrier approach co removing contaminants and increasing security for the Sunshine Coast water su pply, especially for cyan obacteria toxins and taste and odour compounds. The upgraded 140 ML/day Landers Shu te Water Treatment Plant cakes over from the Veolia Water's 127 ML/day Bendigo Water Treatment Plant as the largest ozone/BAC plane in Australia .

Innovative Delivery Method Aquagen undertook an investigation into the most effective delivery method fo r the project and determined chat an alliance delivery method would achieve improved outcomes and innovations, especially in regard co the shore delivery time. One of che b enefits of the alliance process was the promotion of an aligned project focus among all project team members and che generation of innovation solutions, drawing u pon the experiences and expertise of all team members. As part of the alliance delivery process, the team developed its own set of Alliance Principles, Alliance Mission and Performance O bjectives, which were


major projects applied throughout the life of the project. T hese principles and objectives drove the performance of rhe alliance and ensured each member of rhe ream was focus ed on a unired outcome. A number of stretch targets were also set by rhe alliance to push the boundaries of conventional thinking and identify new innovative ways to deliver the project beyond the 'business-as-usual' expectation. Throughout the delivery of the upgrade, the all iance identified and implemented numerous innovations and breakthroughs, resulting in enhanced project outcomes in the following areas: • Time. • Cose. • Quality. • Life-cycle issues. • Environmental management. • Community relations. • Safety outcomes. Interface with existing operations was critical. An Interface Plan was devised which considered the requirements of the plant upgrade, the plant operations, and Maroochy Water Services and Calaqua. The alliance was successfu l in avoiding interruptions to rhe existing operations and supply of water to 150,000 customers. Ongoing operator support in 2004 is being provided by Veolia Water to ensure optimisation of rhe advanced treatment technology.

2003. The plant is currently effectively removing elevated dissolved organic carbon, cyanobacreria toxins and caste and odour compounds, demonstrati ng che adva ntages of employing continuous multi-barrier approach technology to deliver high-quali ty drinking water.

The Author Keith Craig is Technical Director with Veolia Water Australia, (02) 8572 0300 or keirh.craig@veoliawarer.com.au .

Some of the Landers Shute WTP upgrade project team members.

Conclusion T he alliance delivery model proved to be rhe best approach as it drew on the various ream members' extensive experience and proven capabilities in rhe water treatment industry; experience which incl uded the design and operation of four major ozone/BAC planes in Australia. The Landers Shute Water Alliance achieved outstanding outcomes in all areas of the project's objectives to provide an advanced water treatment plane in a shore-rime frame. The upgraded plane, incorporating rhe latest ozone/BAC technology, has been on-line since December

water

MARCH 2004 7 1


major projects

PARAFIELD STORMWATER HARVESTING FACILITY F Chapman Background The City of Salisbury is a northern Adelaide Council with an area of 161 square kilometres extending from the Para escarpment and foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges to the shores of Gulf Sr Vincent. The Parafield Stormwater Harvesting Facility is the first of its type in Australia which is converting stormwater from an urban nuisance and pollutant threat into a valuable resource for industry and the community. The 11.2 hectare faci lity has been established on the eastern edge of Parafield Airport, one of the nation's' busiest general aviation airports . It collects, filters and cleanses stormwater from a 1600 hectare catchment around the Parafield Airport. The ai rport and its surrounds represented the last remaining catchment in the City of Salisbury without treatment to filter and cleanse stormwater prior to discharge into the Barker Inlet, an ecologically fragi le breeding ground and nursery for much of the State's fisheries. The Council has gained international acclaim for its expertise in establishing a series of wetlands and grassed swales along urban stormwater paths to slow the flow and allow pollution to settle out. The City of Salisbury adopted a visionary partnership approach to the project, initially with GH Michell & Sons Australia and then with airport management, the State Government, North Adelaide & Barossa Catchment Water Management Board, other industry stakeholders and community gro ups. With a project capital cost of $4.5M, the partners obtained a $I.3M grant through the Commonwealth's Environment Australia Urban Stormwater Initiative to advance the project. Earthworks commenced in Spring 2001 with the engineering and technical precision of the contractor, Adelaide Civil Pry Ltd, and the design expertise of the City of Salisbury, KBR and Australian Groundwater Technologies. The major recipient of the cleansed stormwater from the project is GH Michell & Sons Australia, Australia's largest wool processing company, which is located to the

72 MARCH 2004

water

Plate

l. Construction of the basins.

ÂŽ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

State ol the Art containment systems


north of Parafi eld Airport. Prior co the facility coming on scream, GH Michell and Sons Australia were using approximately 1.1 GL of mai ns water each year co cleanse its wool. The existing scheme provides an annual supply of l lOOML/a of treated water co industry thereby reducing the requirement for mains supply from the River Murray. Ultimately the scheme has the capacity co provide 2100 ML/a resulting in an equivalent amount being able co remain in the River Murray to boost its flow and combat rising salinity.

H'w'here cloes ().11 the 'w'().ter go to?"

Brief description A schematic of the system is given in Figure 1. Scormwater is diverted via a weir in the Parafield Drain which is d esigned to divert flows up co a 1 in 10 year scorm event into a 50ML capacity lnstream Capture Basin via seven 1,050mm diameter culverts. A 300m m diameter bypass culvert is located through the weir to redirect low water fl ows detected co be of unsatisfaccory quality for capture. From the Instream Capture Basin, water is pu mped co a similar capacity H olding Basin, from where it gravitates to a 2 hectare cleansing Reedbed. Water flows continuously through the densely planted Reedbed co be biologically cleansed over a period of seven co ten days, depend ing on the quality of the inflow water, before being pumped direct co users or scored in the aqu ifer. Nutrients and pollutant loads are reduced by up co 90 per cent with the created water having a salinity of less than 22 0 mg/I. This co mpares with that of water pumped from the River Murray of up co 900 mg/I. The cleansed water pumping station, located at the western end of the 2ha reedbed, comprises two wet wells each with a submersible variable speed drive pump. T he pumps discharge from the reedbed via a 30 0mm diameter rising main, where the water is distributed by pipeline that discharges to a tank at the GH Michell & Sons Australia premises, co meet their continuous demand. In an average year, approximately 500ML is expected co be pumped d irectly co G H Michell & Sons Australia and about 500ML drawn from aquifer scorage, having been scored in the aquifer the previous wet season. All water surplus co the immediate requirements of local industry is in jected into the aquifer co recharge underground water supplies and, when required , it is extracted in a process known as Aquifer Scorage and Recovery (ASR). The City of Salisbury is a pioneer in the field of ASR with the wellfield at the fac ility comprising of two production wells both 190 metres d eep into the T 2 aquifer where the cleansed water is scored. The extraction pu mping capacity from the two bores is over 80 li tres per second. In add ition an array of observation bores monicor characteristics of the T2 aquifer and also neighbouring aquifers. In particular the adjacen t Tl aquifer is closely monicored for pressure changes. T he facility is controlled and managed via a CITECT based System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) management system which is installed in an enclosed building at the facility. The SCADA system is linked co a central control system at the Council offi ces which allows an operacor co remotely control the system via a d edicated PC. All SCADA con trol and data signals are p rocessed and scored by a programmed logic controller (PLC) and are transferred co a central control database located at Council. Alarms are able co be monicored and can be transferred co the operator's mobile telephone. T he SCADA software provides screen graphics co assist in the interpretatio n of data, includi ng water quality and quantity, and the operation of the system. In terms of water qual ity, total dissolved solids is estimated co range from 30 to 300 mg/L with an average of JOO mg/L.

With all the fun at bathtime, we sometimes take for granted all the practical things that make it possible. Turn on the tap and water appears .... pull out plug ... and it magically disappears without trace, but where to? Endress+Hauser have a lifetimes experience in answering some of these questions, balancing the needs of both industry and the environment. So whether it's a question of irrigation, effluent or water treatment, or accurate measurement in flow, pressure, temperature or analysis, we have most of the answers, all you need to do is ask.

Call Endress + Hauser Internet : www.endress.com.au

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water

MARCH 2004 73


major projects Suspended solids from 5 to 200 mg/L with an average of 10 mg/L. T he average nitrogen level is escimaced ar 0.45 mg/L and average phosphorous level ac 0.04 mg/L. As bird strike is a major concern around airports, an innovative sol ution was required ro eliminate chis threat. A respected University of Adelaide ornithologist was engaged to provide expertise in technical derail and design of bird-proof netting which was installed over both basins and the reedbed. Also, due ro the close proximity of the facility to the airporc runways, windshear facto rs were also investigated in derail ro alleviate concerns relating ro the change of topography and the affect on nearby rnnways.

Plate 2. Aeria l view of the completed facility. Completed storage and treatment

In Summary

basins enclosed in birdproof netting to left of runways .

The Parafield Srormwarer Harvesting .. Facility was officially comm issioned on rime in early 2003. As a resul t of chis project it has ensured char more than a bill ion litres of water char was being pumped annually from the River Murray ro service local industry will stay in the nver.

Black Mark

T he facility is an outstandi ng and in nova rive example of best practice in urban srormwarer management involving Local Government, ind ustry and th e community. T he project is generating confidence in the growth of new and established industries in the C ity of Salisbury and enhanci ng job opportunities and economic stabili ty for local people. Through the supply ro industry, in aquifer storage and recovery, and in halting che flow of polluted water into the marine environment, it is deliveri ng handsomely on the triple bottom line of sustainable environment, economy and community. T he Parafield Srormwarer Harvesti ng Facility is an outstand ing facility and its success has been recognised through the receipt of the fo llowing awards:

IN-STREAM BASIN

• 2003 Case Earth Award, Nationa l and Category 2 Award for Envi ron mental Excellence in civil construction • 2003 AWA South Australian Water Category Award for In frastr ucture Development and Management • 2003 National Award for Local Government, Category Award for Engineering and National Award for In novation

The Author Fred Chapman is Manager Project Design, City of Salisbury, PO Box 8, Salisbury SA, 5 I 08, email: fchapman@salis bury.sa.gov.au

HOLDING STORAGE BIRO NETTING

PUMP STATION

~

lli

....____ ___./'.::;.-=.t-j ~ :c

~

Certified Environmental Management CLEANSING REED BED

Green Mark ~ ~ SAi GLOBAL t h e b etter b usiness p eo p le

I

AQUIFER STORAGE & RECOVERY BORES

! _ _ _ _ _ __ _C_LA_Y_C_ON_F_IN-IN-G~~~ : ~ ~~1::==:J:=~ :=;:;:;::' ::i: AQUIFER T1

l

BEDS

~ = = = = =AQUIFER T2

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assu rance @ sai - g lobal . com 1300 360 314 • sai-global.com

74 MARCH 2004 water

Figure 1. Schematic section, Parafield Stormwater Treatment and Water Supply Project.


MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS (MBR) AN AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVE S Chapman, G Leslie, I Law Abstract With the current fo cus on water reuse projects and the role they play in the water Membrane cycle, the search for cost competitive advanced wastewater treatment technologies has never b efore been so important. Australia in particular has a need co develop 0 0 0 0 0 0 new strategies for water management and 0 0 0 0 Primary 0 0 0 0 0 will contin ue to move coward s water reuse 0 flffiuent 0 00 0 0 0 0 where such projects are shown to be 0 0 0 0 ex::> ex::> financially viable. This paper discusses the M embrane Bioreactor (MBR) process and its suitability for Australian water reuse applications. Mixed liquor recycle for denitrif'ication This paper concludes chat in order co deliver successful MBR wastewater reuse Figure l. Typica l schema tic for membrane bi orea ctor system . projects in Australia, d esign teams must fully util ise local expertise in addition to the expertise on offer from those involved in the delivery of previous M BR p rojects in ocher pares of the world.

= = =

Introduction Overview of the Technology T he Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) process is an emerging advanced wastewater treatment technology chat has been successfully app lied at an ever increasing number of lo cations around the world. In additio n co their steady increase in number, MBR installations are also increasing in terms of scale. A number of planes with a treatment capacity of around 5 co 10 M L/d h ave been in operation for several years now whilst the next generation (presently u ndergo ing commission ing or under contract) have design capacities up co 45 M L/d. W hilst there is currently only a small number of MBR examples in Australia and its su rrounding regional area, the trend experienced globally over the lase few years is likely to fo llow in Australia as well.

Advantages of MBR Systems The advantages of MBR include: • Secondary clarifiers and tertiary filtration processes are eliminated, thereby reducing plane footprin t. In certain instances,

Penncate (effiuent)

=

Waste Sludge

Membrane Bioreactors Water and wastewater purification is now easier and more affordable The MicroClear is a submerged membrane system. Raw water is sucked in by vacuum, and purified water exits the system. Air bubbles clean the surface of the flat membranes creating high flux, with minimum fouling. Membranes are laser-welded to the spacer frame to guarantee sealing and sterile conditions, and the purified liquid is directed to a common port. This eliminates expensive support frames, gaskets and pressure systems. 1•

MBR Process Description The MBR p rocess is a suspended growth activated sludge system chat utilises microporous membranes for solid/liquid separation in lieu of seco ndary clarifi ers. The typical arrangement shown in Figure 1 includes submerged membranes in the aerated portion of the bioreaccor, an anoxic zone and internal m ixed liquor recycle (e.g Modified Lutzack-Eccinger configuration). Incorporation of anaerob ic zones for biological phosphorus removal h as been the fo cus of recent research, and there is at least o ne full scale facility of this type b eing d esigned presently in North America. As a further alternative co Figure l , some plan ts have used pressure membranes (rather than submerged membranes) external co the bioreactor.

=

0 0

The MicroClear System

parr/clu ,f-

Applications include • river water • surface water • rainwater • well water • greywater • effluent treatment

• • • • • •

effluent re-use water recycling process water industrial wastewater membrane bioreactors individual households or whole communities

Clearwater Technology Ply Limited © f lf earwater 1/26 Megalong Street Katoomba NSW 2780 Australia Technology Ph +6124782 3300 Fax +6124782 3211 info@clearwatertechnology.com.au www.clearwatertechnology.com.au

water

MARCH 2004

75


footprint can be further reduced because ocher process units such as digescers or UV disin fection can also be eliminated/minim ised (dependent upon govern ing regulations). • U nlike secondary clarifie rs, the quality of solids separation is not dependent on the mixed liquor suspended solids co ncentration or characteristics. Since elevated mixed liquor concentrations are possible, the aeration basin vo lume can be reduced, fur ther reducing the plane foo tprint. • N o reliance upon achieving good sludge seccleabilicy, hence quite amenable to rem ote operation. • Can be designed with long sludge age, hence low sludge prod uction. • P roduces a MF/UF quality effiuenc suitable fo r reuse applications or as a high qual ity feed water source for Reverse Osm osis treatment. Ind icative outpu t quali ty of MF/UF sys tems include SS < I mg/L, turbidi ty <0.2 NTU and up to 4 log removal of virus (depending on the mem brane nominal pore size) . l n addition, MF/U F provides a barrier to certain chlo rine res istant pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. • T he resultant small footp rint can be a fea ture used to address iss ues of visual amenity, noise and odour. Example MBR planes ex ist where the enti re process is housed in a build ing designed co blend in with its surrounding land use. T his ca n reduce the buffer distance required between the plane and the nearest neighbour and can increase the surroundi ng land values (ref. Figu res 2 and 3).

Figures 2 and 3. MBR sewage treatment pla nts des igned to ble nd in with su rrounding land use s.

fo r direct filtration and MBR) has been falling steadily during each of the lase I 0 years. Hence on a capital cost bas is fo r any given project, the likelihood of MBR becoming a fa voured option is increasing with time. Designers are therefore advised to continuously re-assess the cost info rmation fo r their particular project as it progresses through the various planning stages over tim e.

Existing MBR Installations - The Global Experience Major MBR Equipment Suppliers T here are currently three majo r suppliers of MBR membrane equipment engaged in large scale municipal wastewate r projects. Each is listed in Tab le I with a snapshot summary of refe rence facilities as it currently stands. Many ocher membrane suppliers are now marketi ng their own MBR systems and they will no doubt add to chis refe rence list in the near future. It must be noted that ch is cable foc uses only on the larger municipal wastewater plants. A full refe rence list of all MBR installations (inclusive of small scale and industrial applications) would be much more extensive and would include ocher industrial focussed suppliers.

Cost Comparison - MBR Versus Alternative Process Trains A detailed holistic cost co mparison may reveal reasonably comparable results between the cost of the MBR option versus other advanced treatment options, especially if land value is co nsidered. Furthermore, whilst the costs fo r conventional technologies are slowly rising with labour coses and infla tionary press ures, the coses fo r all membrane equipment (both

Global MBR Survey CH2M HILL Australia was commissioned by the South Australian Water Corporation to undertake a global survey of MBR facilities, incl udi ng chose

Table 1. Summary of municipal wa stewater MBRs. Supplier References

Year of installation of 1st MBR> l ML/ d

No. of MBRs with capacity >l ML/ d

Largest operational MBR

Largest MBR currently under contract

38 Ml/d Brescia, Italy 8.5 Ml/d Daldowie, UK 1 Ml/d Park Ploce,GA

45 Ml/d Nordkanal, Germany 4 Ml/d Seattle, USA 4 Ml/d Olympia, WA

Zenon Environmental Ku bota

1997

22

1998

5

US Filter

2002

76 MARCH 2004

water

that C H2M HILL helped deliver in North America in recent years. Sites selected fo r the survey were inspected first-hand by representatives fro m CH 2M HILL. A summary of key inform ation from some of the surveyed sites fo llows in Table 2. T he global MBR survey provided a snapshot of che current level of development of the M BR technology and provided an insight into the direction in which this technology is headi ng. T he broad range of sites canvassed in the survey included chose in very warm and very cold cl imates and included flat sheet and hollow fi bre variants. T he site inspections and dialogue with owners and operators revealed several lessons to be heeded fo r fu ture projects. T his new knowledge coupled with other previo us MBR experience has alerted CH2M HILL to "municipal scale issues" such as oxygenation limi tation, activities that lead to fib re damage, need for effective pre-treatment, gravity versus suction membranes, dewaterabil ity issues and choice of MCRT and fl ux. Other general engineering challenges fo r membrane plant scale-up have also been encountered throughout design of the "NEWater" plants in Singapore (discussion below}. In addition to its valuable co ntribution to local knowledge of MBR des ign and operational derails, che survey highl ighted so me of the reasons why MBR was the selected technology fo r these particular sites. An attempt was made to understand the drivers and design inputs fo r each project. From this info rmation, parallels and distinctions can be drawn between these sites and potential MBR sites in Australia. Experience From Large-Scale Tertiary Filtration Membrane Installations In recent years the Republic of Singapore has invested heavily in high grade water reclamation plants, and has coined the term "NEWacer" to describe their potable reuse


CH2MHILL

CH2MHILL is a global project solution and delivery company, specialising in sustainable infrastructure and environmental technology. Founded in 1946, the firm has grown to a US$3.5B turnover, and our professionals have completed projects in more than 75 countries on six continents.

In Australia, Water, Wastewater and Environmental sectors are core to CH2MHILL's full service offerings, where we are recognised as a market leader and specialist in consulting, program, project and construction management of new greenfield and existing operating facilities.

The people of CH2MHILL help our clients to imagine, design and build a better world. We've helped clients solve business problems and protect the environment for 57 years. The people who work for CH2MHILL combine proven approaches and innovative thinking, and share the knowledge and insight of 14,000 colleagues around the world.

Our employee-owned company provides innovative process/technology solutions, engineering, project management, construction, operations and maintenance to our clients in the water, environmental, energy, transportation and communications industries.

Sydney Level 7, 9 Help Street Chatswood NSW 2067 Ph : 02 9950 0200 Fax: 02 9950 0600

Melbourne Level 3, 5 Queens Road Melbourne VIC 3004 Ph: 03 9856 4800 Fax: 02 9856 4844

Brisbane Level 2, 32 Park Road Milton QLD 4064 Ph: 07 3367 1177 Fax: 07 3367 2574


p rojects. The production of require the use of different NEWacer via che microporous design information. There may m embrane/reverse osmosis be differen t drivers and op portunities as well as new treatmen t of secondary barriers for this tech nology. effluent is currencly 72 ML/d in Singapore with the Particular local considerations such as water reuse potential, procu rement of fu rther effl uent licence targets, capaciry already underway. wastewater characteristics, wet The N EWacer is p rimarily weather hydraulic peaking intended co su pply the wafer factors, cl imatic considerations, fab rication planes and thereby land availabili ry, and the reduce industry's demand fo r of exisri ng characterisation potable water. Production of infrastructure are all worthy of NEWacer in excess of che atten tion . industrial d emand will be used co augment fresh water Water Reuse Potential reservoirs for general (Opportunity) consumption. Given Ausrralia is the second driest Singapore's experience with continent in che world (second m embrane tech nologies, only co Antarctica). As a direct Figure 4. Membranes destined for installation at one of the MBR M BR is now being given due result of rhe continent's water sites currently under construction . consideratio n for fu ture scarciry, most of the population wastewater proj ects. W ith concentrated along the higher is recogni tion of the barriers co of rhe East coast. rainfall areas be worked th rough in terms of scale-up, it provi ding su pport and specia li se Aside from th is geographic dimension of is still likely chat future NEWacer facilities ex pert ise. could utilise a MBR/RO process at a water availabiliry, the other crucial Recent experience from Singapore municipal scale. dimensio n of Australia's water resource is contributes significantly co the global knowledge pool pertaining co large scale Singapore and th e Provi nce o f Ontario its extreme variability over time. Australia membrane treatment of wastewater. are funding a M BR co operative research routi nely experiences prolonged periods of project led by a team made up of che drought followed by extreme fl ooding. Local Considerations (Local N acio n al U niversity of Singap o re and che Large cities such as Sydney and Melbourne Opportunities and Barriers) U niversicy of T o ronto. The purp ose is to utilise large expanses of impounded water General co nduce research including pi lot studies to carer for such variabili ry. D espi te this, inco th e combination of MBR with UV Com pared with chose in C anada, the water restrictions and discontinuiry of di s infec t io n as a m ethod to achieve a United Stares and the United Ki ngdom supply in many parts of the country are water quality suitable for reuse. C H 2 M who have embraced the technology so far, commonplace during periods of drought. HILL (Canad a) is an Industry Partn er, many Australian water authorities will

Table 2. Key Information From G lobal MBR Survey. Location

Cohasset, USA Parlock, UK Swanage, UK Powell River, CAN Port McNicol, CAN American Canyon, USA Creemore, CAN Milton, CAN Arapahoe County, USA Anthem, USA Lehigh Acres, USA Laguna County, USA Key Colony, USA

Capacity Average Peak IML/ d) IML/ d)

1. 1 1. l 6.0 5.4 1. 1 9.5 1.4 1.0 4.5 1.0 1.9 1.9 1.3

2.2 1.9 13.0 7.0 1.6 13.6 2.8 2.0 6.8 2.8 2.8 1.9 3.2

HRT at Peak !hours)

MCRT !days)

Average Flux IL/ m2.h)

MLSS lmg/ L)

Year

Chemical Clean Interval !weeks)

3.5 5.5

>100 50 50 30

15.3 13 10 18.9

12,000 12-18,000 12-18,000 10,000 14-16,000 10,000 12,000 15,000 13-15,000 10,000

2000 1998 2000 1998

TBD

13,000 10-15,000 13-15,000

1999

3 3.5 2.6 5.3 3 1.5 3 3.5 4.6 2.6 5

TBD

TBD

30 25 15 20 30 15

24.3 16 14.8 22.4 24.5 30

TBD

35 18

90

26 26 3

TBD TBD TBD 1997 1998 1999

52* 6 52* 16

TBD 1999

16*

* To achieve this interval for ex-situ clean, an automatic in-situ maintenance clean is performed 3 times per week. TBD = To be determined. * * The information presented in this table is based on information supplied by engineers/owners and reflects the operating or design conditions at the lime of the interview.

78 MARCH 2004 water


High quality, effectively disi nfected effluent from advanced wastewater treatment systems (such as MBR) are suitable for agriculture, river flow replenishment and many ocher reuse markers. This is of particular interest as agriculture accounts fo r around two thirds of all water used in Australia. For some reuse scenarios, the lower cost alternative of conventional secondary treatment is a suitable standard. However, conventional secondary treatment lacks the ab ility to effectively inactivate or remove certain pathogens. Residual bacteria, viruses and protozoa may be of concern where the reclaimed water is intended for production of crops eaten raw or where h uman contact wich irrigation water is likely. Hence, basic secondary creacmen c alone m ay not satisfy the requirements of some reuse schemes.

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Given these factors, it can be seen chat Australia has an inherent affinity for advanced technology water reuse p rojects. In face, m ost water authorities in Australia now have a mandate to increase the percencage of wastewater they beneficially reuse and chis mandate is likely to generate furth er interest in technologies such as MBR.

Effluent Quality Targets (Opportunity) To carer for the variability of rainfall in Australia, dams have traditionally been constructed on the upper reaches of river systems in an attempt to achieve continui ty of water supply. T hese dams result in a reduction in che natural river flows thereby reducing che river flu shing effect. Witho ut effective flushing, nutrients from wastewater treatmen t plants are somewhat retained in river systems and can concribure to summer algal blooms. For these and other reason s, Australian autho rities now impose some of the most srringenc effluent quality requirements fo r inland wastewater treatment plants found anywhere. Recent plant u pgrades have specified TP targets of 0 .05 mg/Land ochers have specified TN targets of 3 mg/L. In concrasc, many of the MBR sites surveyed overseas were nor required to red uce T P at all and many were not required to reduce TN. In addi tion to rhe limits on nutrients, Australian authori ties are also imposing very strict disinfection standards (especially with reuse projects). The recent drafts of reuse guidelines produced in Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales each contain srringenc virus standards not seen elsewhere (e.g <2 virus per SOL). These stringent effluent quality cargers result in significant expenditure on wastewater projects in Australia. T he clear requirement for advanced treatment provides an opportunity for technologies such as MBR to be cost competitive amongst comparable upgrade alternatives.

Wastewater Characteristics (Barrier) Whilst raw wastewater characteristics do vary somewhat between catchmencs anywhere, for coarse design purposes most domestic carchmencs are fai rly comparable on the whole. However, one particular difference seen in Australian catchments compared to those areas surveyed in North America is with influenc phosphorus concentrations. The typ ical value for influent T P in North America appears to be around 5 mg/L, whilst in many parts of Australia chis value is more like 10 to 12 mg/L. T his difference heavily influences the quancicy of chemical dosing required to reduce TP down to low levels (unless Biological Phosphorus Removal is successfully employed) . Reporrs from Milton (Ontario) suggest that TP can be reduced to 0.0 5 mg/L using 105 mg/L of Alum. H owever, for plants

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with influent T P of 10 - 12 mg/L (rather than 5mg/L), the usage of Alum may double if the same effiuent quali ty is to be achieved. The relevance of chis (aside from the chemical consumption costs) is char Australian MBRs with a comparable capacity and MCRT to Milton, would need to be significantly larger to accommodate the addi tional accu mulation of metal sludges. Therefore, MBR tank dimensions from overseas examples are nor direcrly ap plicable fo r sizing MBR plants for local catchments. Wet Weather Hydraulic Peaking Factors (Barrier) Despite the separation of drainage and sewerage, Ease coast sewers evidently suffer from unusually high levels of wer weather infiltration. Various initiatives have been undertaken (such as sewer renewals and smoke resting) in an attempt to reduce the infiltration bur these have mer with only li mited success. Approximately 15 catchments from within rhe Sydney basin as well as other example catchments from coastal New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland all experience wee weather flows in rhe vicinity of six co eight times the average dry weather flows. Ocher systems in rhe more arid regions of Australia and other systems overseas, on the most parr experience much less pro nounced wet weather peaks. Each of the MBR facilities installed co dare have had either a low 'peak co average' ratio (around 2 co 3) or they have incorporated large flow balancing ranks upstream of the MBR. T he high levels of wee weather infiltration in parts of Australia certainly represents a challenge/barrier co the use of chis technology because the cost of me mbrane equipment is proportional to rhe peak hydraulic rare. Any economi c neutrality (or advantage) is lost if hydraulic peaks cannot be kept below 2 to 3 ri mes average. Ir would be cheaper co install flow balance ranks or an alternative wee weather process train than it would be to install addi tional membrane capacity, however, the insrallarion of large ranks would relinquish rhe advantage of having a sm all footprint design. O ne option for dealing with high wee weather peaks may be to incorporate a co ntact stabilisation zone, although this has nor been applied anywhere co dare. A step feed would allow most of rhe flow to go through the whole reactor whilst some level of treatment would be given to the rem ainder in the downstream end of the bio reactor. This design would requ ire a

80 MARCH 2004 water

clarifier sized only for the balance of flows exceeding rhe membrane capacity. T his may be an area of future research and design effort. Needless to say, projects without wee weather issues will be preferred by MBR proponents. Wee weather issues are nor present in projects utilising sewer mining, or in projects where a specific reuse trai n is required to treat only a sub-sec of rhe coral flow (say a consistent 5 ML/d from a coral 50 ML/d plant flow). For rhe case of new development areas, designers are now co nsidering alternatives to the traditional gravity sewerage systems (e.g grinder pump or vacuum systems) co alleviate problems caused by wee weather peaks. T here would appear co be a synergistic advantage of using MBR treatment planes in conjunction with these types of collection systems. Other Climatic Considerations (Opportunity) A MBR plant located in a warm climate will be less costly co construct than one with an identical capacity located in a cold climate. This is due co the effect char liquid viscosity has on rhe flow rate of a liquid through rhe membrane pores (N.B. liquid viscosity is dependant upo n its temperatu re). T he min imum wastewater temperature is therefore a major factor in determining the number of membrane modules req ui red to meet a given MBR treatment capacity. Fewer membranes translates co lower coses. Austral ia's wa rmer cli mate is therefo re an advantage which will help the technology be cost competitive in ch is cou ntry. Land Abundance (Barrier) Generally, rhe availability of land in Australia is such char very few wastewater treatment plant sires have space lim itations. In fact, many sires have allocations of land set aside for future amplifications. Hence rhe trademark advantage of MBR, the reduced plant footprint, is nor as significant as it may be elsewhere. H owever, despite the general availabiliry of land, there will srill be many examples where a compact plant foo tprint is a financial advantage or indeed a necess ity. Examples of where the MBR's co mpact plane foo tprint will prove co be an advantage, even in Australia are: • Coastal plants where rhe sires are bordered by rhe coast on one side and high levels of city development on rhe other. • Sires encircled by ocher natural borders such as rivers and natural heritage areas.

• Sires where significant piling is required fo r all civil structures. • Neighbour issues (noise, odour, aesthetics) have lead co entire planes being housed within a building designed co blend in to the local environment. MBR lends itself well co chis co ncept e.g. Porlock, Swannage, Cremore, Elm Sr and Wesrview are all MBR plants contained enti rely within a building. This concept can lead to reduced buffer zones around the planes, which in rum can result in reduced project costs for new planes being built in developed areas. Characterisation of Existing Infrastructure (Barrier) Many existing wastewater treatment planes in Australia do nor lend themselves very well to the retrofi tting of membranes into rheir existi ng bioreaccors. Pasveer ditches, carousel bioreaccors and inrermi ttenc processes each present significant challenges co such retrofits. Each of these types of plane are unusually prevalent in Australia compared co many other pans of the world. The high horizontal linear velocity inherent in a ditch or carousel bioreaccor is nor compatible with the need to provide a perfectly vertical air scour co the outside of the membra nes. Hence direct immersion of membranes inco the ditch or carousel would not be feasib le. Ir may be feasib le co design a retrofit upgrade where mixed liquor is diverted into a new box containing the membranes, however, the additi onal civil costs and additional pumping would significantly impact on the project costs. With in termitten t processes (e.g. SB R, IDAL, IDEA), the retrofit of membranes in to the bioreaccor would appear co be incompatible if the process is envisaged co co ntinue to be intermittent. However, in Arapahoe County, Colorado, an existing SBR civil structure was successfully converted into a co ntinuous MBR process. Of the MBR facilities surveyed in North America and the Uni ted Kingdom, only half were retrofit projects, so the characterisation of existing infrastructure is only partially relevant.

Australian MBR Projects General A number of local MBR projects have already been initiated. The types of projects considered co date range from pilot studies and demonstrations through co fu ll scale applications, some of which are described below. Several observations can be made fro m the following examples. Firstly, the


interest in chis technology is spread right across che co untry and secondly, at lease th ree major suppliers are alread y actively involved in local p rojects.

Picnic Bay (Magnetic Island), Queensland Co mmissioned in October 2 002, Picn ic Bay is che fi rst 'fu ll-scale' or permanent membrane bioreaccor facility in Australia. Although expandable, the plane has an initial capaciry of o n ly 0. 54 ML/d. Aq uacec-Maxcon was awarded che prime contract, ucilising Kubota fl at sheet membranes. T h e membranes and associated process expertise were p rovided via Aquacor M BR T echnology, UK. Some of the p roj ect drivers or factors leading co the selection of th is tech nology includ e the ben efits of modular expansion and the need co produce a very high water quality (environmentally sensitive area located in che world heritage protected G reat Barrier Reef).

Victor Harbor, South Australia D etails o n chis proj ect will b e available sho rtly from SA W ater.

King's Domain Gardens Demonstration Plant (Melbourne), Victoria T his M BR was o perated as a demonstration project fro m lace February co April 2002 . The pilot scale facility was housed in a shipping container and delivered aroun d 30 kL/d of recycled water co che King's Domain Gardens in Melbou rne. T he p roject was aimed at increasing co mmun ity awareness about water recycling and is a good example of the sewer mining approach. Delivery of the project was managed by Earth Tech Engineering, utilising Zenon mem branes. So me o f che project drivers or factors lead ing co the selection o f chis technology includ e the benefi ts of small fo otprint, che benefits of stable operation and che need co produce a very h igh water quality.

Rouse Hill Pilot Study (Sydney), New South Wales A trial was carried o ut fro m March co May 2 003 at che Sydney Water Rouse Hi ll Recycled Water Plane in conjunct ion with Veolia Water and M emcor Australia. The p roj ect involved trialli ng a 24 kL/d lowpressure hollow fi b re membrane system. M ixed liquor from the treatment plane's existing BNR process was concentrated to around 12,000mg/L and fed to the submerged membrane pilot mod ule. The scudy included simulations of various operating co ndi tions such as diurnal fl ow and peak flow stud ies, low dissolved oxygen and high mixed liquor concentrati on scudies . Pathogen testing

was included as part o f the trial. T h is p roject was p erform ed co in crease u nderstanding within Sydney Water of low- pressure mem b rane systems and co gain an understand ing o f the resultant efflu ent q uality compared co existing systems.

Other Projects Other MBR pilots and fu ll scale plant p roposals continue co be consid ered by all sections of the Water industry. T h e trend seems to be fo r an increased interest in MBR within Australia and the region.

amiad Water and Waste Water Technologies

Conclusion The global trend is fo r an increase in th e number of MBR installations, largely due to the declining membrane costs and the increasing d emand fo r water.

It appears that che p rojects most likely to favo ur MBR have an alignment of fa ctors such as a requiremen t fo r reduced plan t foo tprint co upled with a need fo r h igh quality reuse water. In o rder co d el iver successful MBR p rojects in Australia, d esign teams would fu lly utilise local experience in addition to che experience gained fro m previous membrane/MER projects elsewhere in the world , thereby streamlini ng the design p rocess and avoiding all of the known pitfalls.

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Acknowledgments T he autho rs thank SA Water, Sydney W ater, Melbou rne Water and C itiwater fo r their project overview informat ion. We also than k SA Water fo r the o pportunity to cake part in the MBR survey. We are also graceful fo r photos and informatio n provided by Aqua tor MBR T echnology (Trowb ridge, UK), Mem cor/ US Filter, and Zenon Environmental.

• Amiad Media Vessel Filtration • Ami ad Automatic Screen Filtration

References l . George Crawford et al (200 l ), The Evolution ofMembrane Bioreactor System Designs for Wastewater Treatment. IWA Sept 2001 2. Ed Fleischer et al (2001), Evalttating the Next Generat ion of Water Reclamation Processes. WEFT EC 200 l. 3 . South Australia Water Corpo ration (2001 ), Survey of Immersed Membrane Bio reactor Technology.

The Authors Stephen Chapman is with C H 2M H ILL Australia Pry Ltd, email: stephen. chapman@ch2 m. com.au; Greg Leslie is now an associate professor of chemical engineering at che University of New South Wales, (02) 9385 6 092, email g.leslie@u nsw.edu.au; Ian Law now ru ns his own consultancy, IBL Sol utio ns, email: iblaw@bigp ond.co m

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PROPOSED RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM FOR AURORA M Roberts, D King Abstract

Cl1' - H20 Aqu1a:,urce Remote

At a rime when potable water use and urban sprawl are placing enormous pressure on Melbourne's water supply, the Aurora estate is leading the way with trials investigating the substitution of potable water with rainwater for all hot water uses with in a house. T he rainwater harves ting system char will be offered as an option for fu ture Aurora res idents capwres rainwater fall ing on roofs of individual houses, it is then stored in an above ground plastic tank and pu mped th rough an Ultra Violet (UV) disinfection unit befo re entering the pre-hear ra nk of a solar boosted gas hot water system. The predicted Aurora household internal hoc water demand is I 45 L/hh/day or 37% of the total internal water demand. The rainwater harvesting system is und ergoing config uration assessment and laboratory analysis of water quality to determi ne its effectiveness to supply high quality water while protecting public health.

Introduction

UV

Sand

fitter

8 Closodgato

t

potablo water supply Configurations have booo joinUy dovelopod by Coomo.s, Viel.kb an and YVW

® Opon galo "11\o Q Tesllng Polnl

Flow met«

Figure 1. Sto rage ho t water system.

""".

Hotwa~cule8

Q

Testfng Point

Flow metor

Conli!J'nllons ha~ b oen joinlly doV'1Jlop«J by CoomM, Vieu-ban and YVW

Figure 2. Instanta neous hot w ater system . to the value of incorporating a first fl ush device or UV disinfect ion. A Screening Level H ealth Risk Assessment of water use options was undertaken in order to provide so me comfort with the system proposed. The assessment provided a theoretical risk assessment for a system with UV and without using UV. This analysis clea rly showed char UV reduced the risks involved. T he rainwater harvesting system is pare of the Integrated Water Management practice ch ar can be seen throughout this innovative development. T he entire water hierarchy is being pu t to use within the estate, as shown in the cable below. Besides potable water and rainwater for household use, recycled water is being suppl ied for toilet fl ushing, external and public open space irrigation use via a third pipe system.

The Rainwater Harvesting System T he preferred rainwater harvesting system per dwelli ng incl udes:

Recent changes in water conservatio n • Rainwater rank with optimal capacity of approaches are challengi ng our 2.3kL, understandi ng of possible rain and storm • Pump with capacity of 24L/min at water uses. Figures published by the 200kPa, Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) • First flush device, and showed that only 16.9% of Australian • UV disinfectio n unit. households use rai nwater as a source of water, with only 6.5% of households in T he system is not co mplex and rainwater cap ital cities using rainwater. In ma ny is supplied directly to the preheat tank of urban areas rainwater is slowly becoming a the solar boosted gas hot water system. domestic source of water, which can be Additional plumbing requi rements are kept used to supplement potable water supplies. to a minimum and the system as designed The rainwater harvesting system chat has can easily be transferred to either new or been developed as a result of a review of established houses. published rai nwater quality swdies, In addition a risk assessment conducted discussions with the Aurora by ECOS Environmental Advisory Panel (membership Consulti ng concluded chat Table 1. Water hierarchy and its uses at Aurora . included Ted Gardner, the system as described for David Cu nliffe, Grace Water Source End Use domestic hoc water use poses Mitchell, Cynthia Mitchell Mains or potable water Cold water within house an acceptably low risk to & Annette Davidson) and Recycled Water To ilet, garden, public open space, fire fighti ng public health provided UV Yarra Valley Water. As a Rainwater Hot water as a treatment is employed result of these discussions Stormwoter WSUD treatment, including swoles and rain gardens process. disinfection there were mixed beliefs as

82

MARC H 2004

water


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Purpose of Trial

Table 2

Based on the recommendations of the Aurora Advisory Panel Report, two trial systems have been installed at the CERES Community Environmenr Park in Brunswick,' Vicroria. This allows testing, monito ri ng, evaluation and alceration of th e syscem before implemenring a refin ed syscem inco che Aurora display Village. The cwo systems are boch solar-boosted gas except chac one is a storage ho t wacer syscem and the other is an insca ncaneous hoc water sys tem as shown in the Figures 2 and 3. T he sice ac CERES was selecced as ic provides an indication of che likely future Aurora environmenr in IO to 15 years time. Although che sice is such chac overhanging branches allow co ncamination of the roof by leaf debris and provides an imal access, inconclusive yet optimistic results have been p roduced from initi al testing. Th e cescing will be such chac water quality will be analysed before and afce r each major componenr of che syscem, this will idenrify where, if any, che effecciveness of each component in reducing conramination within che systems as shown. As pare of chis crial che effectiveness and the ultimate requiremenr for che UV disinfec tion unit will be determined. The information gained from the C ERES will for m pare of a national

Parameter

Monitoring Frequency

Initial duration of monitoring 12 months

E.coli

Weekly

Totol Col iforms

Weekly

12 months

Heterotrophic Co lony Co unt

Weekly

12 months

Alkalinity

Weekly

12 months

Ammonio

Weekly

12 months

Aluminium (Soluble)

Weekly

12 months

Colour (True)

Weekly

12 months

Copper

Weekly

12 months

Hardness

Weekly

12 months

Water Quality Testing

Iron (mg/ l)

Weekly

12 months

Manganese

Weekly

12 months

Wacer cescing is being coordinated ch rough Yarra Valley Wacer and Table 2 represencs che range of wacer data chac will be collated over che nexc twelve months. Ocher impurities which are cesced ac di ffe ring intervals are shown in Table 3.

pH

Weekly

12 months

Turbidity

Weekly

12 months

Electrical Conductivity

Weekly

12 months

Totol Dissolved So lids

Weekly

12 months

Total Phosphorus

Weekly

12 months

Temperoture

Weekly

12 months

Table 3

Conclusion

Parameter

Frequency

Duration

lead*

monthly and after ra in

12 months

Nitrate*

monthly and after rain

12 months

Sulphate*

monthly and ofter rain

12 months

PAHs*

monthly a nd after rain

12 months

Plasticisers•*

monthly

12 months

DOC* *

monthly

12 months

roe·· voe••

monthly

12 months

month ly

12 months

GCM Scan••

monthly

12 months

* Tested before roof, after tonk and at internal tops * * Collected at tops only

trials ac

database on rainwater quality co-ordinated by the Co-operative Research Centre for Wacer Q uali ty and T reatm ent. le will help establish a so und knowledge base in order

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water

T his crial is an imporranc seep towards beccer understanding che issues relating co rainwater quality and therefore towards subscicucion of pocable wacer use for non-pocable purposes ac the household level.

The Authors

Mark Roberts is a Principal Consultanr for Coomes Consulting Group, 24 Albert Road, South Melbourne, and David King is a 3rd year civil engineering student also working for Coomes Co nsulting Group, T el: 61 3 9993 7888, email: mroberts@coomes.com.au

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to info rm our fucure decisions relating to the refinement of the rainwater harvesting system. T hrough these crials, che effects of environmenral fallout, such as animal and vegetative particles and atmospheric co mpo unds can be assessed. T heir nature and amounr present on che roofs measured. Th is will lead to further refin emenr of ch e syscem des ign.


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N ot everything is as it seems. All modelling packages may claim similar core features but look closer and you'll discover the reality is somewhat different.

• Links to other softwo re systems, such os Office, G IS ond SCADA, increase productivity and aid distribution of modelling information • Automatic housekeeping tools, such as automated

It's vital to evaluate carefully the important features in every package. Further, examine the core competence of the simulation engine. Finally, how effective is the software at handling large data volumes, multiple users, audit trails and version control?

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EDUCATION: THE KEY TO SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT Report by E A (Bob) Swinton Water Education, o f the public, of the children, of the professionals ... is it worth the effort? Th is was the main su bstance of the Confere nce, organised by AWA and run in Canberra in January 2004. One question posed was how could o ne measure the effects of 'water education' on the public's cul cure. Pricing and regulation have already reduced che public's water d emand, and chis has been prompted and aid ed by our o mnipresent drough t, but there is more co sustainability than reducing urban demand. Where does education for sustainable water management (run and paid for mainly by the water sup ply authorities) fie in? Is it ad equate? Is it adequately resourced? Is it effective? These questions were thoro ughly discussed. (This report intersperses my remarks with selected quotations from so me o f t he more significant presentations, bu t fo r education practitio ners, there is much co be learnt from ocher papers. I recommend app lying for a copy of the proceedings available from A WA Bookshop bookshop@awa.asn.au) Bue there were other spin-offs as practitioners of water education, at all levels, mer each other, across state boundaries, and fou nd that they nearly all d id much che same things but with enough difference and enough innovative ideas co make ic worth while sharing. They also were able co learn from the experiences of national, even in ternational, educational p rograms on related issues. There were, for example, five papers on schools programs from all over che nation, with some stimulating initiatives, fou r papers on community education, and fi ve on profess ional development.

Ian Law sets off the proceedings for the World Cafe session.

delve inco che questio n that summarised the tenor of the fo llowing two days:

"Drawing on our collective experience, and new insights we have gained this morning, how might we inform and equip the community to effectively participate in, and influence, sustainable water management in Australia ".

• Collaborate, inform, share; • Assemble a natio nal data-base of p rograms and resources;

D elegates shifred from table co cable and were encouraged by the opportuniry co

• Analyse need s and gaps; Review them;

A major feature of the co n fere nce was the number of participative and interactive workshops, each addressing aspects of the theme, and each d eveloping and recording ideas and plans for improvement, run by the two main fac ilacors Grahame Collier, T Issues Consultancy and Max Hardy, Twyford Consulting. The most popular interactive workshop, che 'World Cafe' cook delegates co a cafe-sryled room co

86 MARCH 2004 water

meet with such a diverse grou p of people co share ideas and experiences in such a nonthreatening setting. The discussio ns led co the development of a concep t for a National Approach:

World Cafe at work.

Ensure Management commitment; Develop standards; Develop cools. The entire confere nce, for AWA, led into important discussions o n whether AWA should help, how it could help, and whether it could afford to help, co promote water education as part of ics missio n of pro moting the sustainable management of water. Some asked the question - could it afford NOT co help! The initial welcome was from AWA President, Rod Lehmann, fo llowing which delegates were addressed by Dr Sharman Stone, Parliamentary Secretary for the Department of Environment and Heritage and a keen campaigner fo r the environment - especially water issues. The Sustainable Cities


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V'6! w•r1 0•1s


education Initiative has a range of program s co improve air q uality, water efficiency, ozo ne p r o tection and environ mental educatio n, based o n a bud get of $40 million over fi ve years and th e National Action Plan fo r Salini ty and W ater Q uality is backed b y National, Seate and Territory governm ents to a total of $1.4 b ill ion over seven years. T h e N at ional Action Plan also incl udes E n viron mental Education for a Sustainable Fu ture, with a natio nal network to coordinate activities. Another im press ive in it iative is the S u stainable Schools pilot program wh ich has involved 3 00 schools in N SW and V icto ria and will undoub tedly spread co a national scale. "When schools cake on these challenges, the potential for fami lies, b u s iness and the local co mm unity to get involved is enormous" . T he first Keyno te add ress delivered by

Ron Linsky, Executive Director of the (American) National Water Research Institute set the scene regarding the 'Value of Water'. "Natu ral capital is ou r only real resou rce, a n d when it comes 'fo r free' we tend to sq u ander it. T o an ex tent, water eng ineers in t he d eveloped world have becom e coo su ccessfu l. G ood water is so easily avai la ble to the general p ub lic chat th ey cake it for g ra nted. Bue, as attributed to Benjamin Fran klin 'when the well runs d ry, we'll know the value of water'. U ntil then, it has b een, and will be, the most misused and a b used prod uce in m odern history. T here is a fin ite supply of fresh water, and th e o nly N EW water will come fro m O L D water by reclamation , re-use, co nservat ion ". Bu e it is not just drinking water which is under threat from p rofli gate use. Ron cited some statistics o n the vo lu me of water req uired to bring o ch er produces into che market p lace. From, perhaps, an America pe rspective, a loaf of b read req uires 5 .3 tonnes of water, a pair o f jeans, 6.6 ton nes, and a Fo rd car, l 50 ton nes. On a different plane, he noted a 1994 study of the value o f lakeside homes in M ain e. T he lower th e clarity of the lake water, the lo wer che property value. A one m e tre d ifference in average clarity re d uced value by US $3000-9000. I n 1996 the US F ish and W ildlife Ser vice estimated the 'value' of wa cer-based recreation as over US$ 100 bi ll ion. "We live in a consumer world . We also live on a planet with shr in king resources. U n less we adjust our chinking and appreciate th e value of o ur resources, future

88 MARCH 2004 water

Card Stormimg 'thoughts' are posted up with facilitator Max Twyford.

generatio ns will not enjoy che benefits or services chat we have today" A clarion, if dollar-based , call for sustainability.

Professor Ronnie Harding (o f che Institute of Environmental Studies, UNSW) presented " H ow Important is Ed ucat ion for Adopting Sustai nable Water M anagement in Australia" which encapsulated the focus of the conference. She gave an overview o f the problems facing Australia water resources. Q uo ting the 2003 NSW State of the Environ men t and referrin g to the Wentworth G roup's call fo r healthy rivers, she emphasised chat our problems were serious and urgent, both in term s of d egradation of inland rivers and associated land system s, as well as in urban

water su pply. Management responses have been inad equate, and we need co factor in the result of G reen house clim ate change ch at, alth ough variable across the continent, wi ll put fu rther pressu res on o ur water management system s. She no ted chat the W entworth Groups ' Bluep rint' received great publicity because th ree senior journalises had been invited to the d iscuss ions, and each roo k the opportunity for another slant co the 'dro ugh t sto ry' . "Ach ieving sustaina ble water managem en t fo r Australia will require signifi cant changes to com mu ni ty values. le is iro nic chat o n o ne hand growing numbers of Australian s already place a very high value o n bottled water fo r d rinking. A recen t Syd ney Morning H erald arcicle (G riffin, 2004) reported chat bottled water is the "coolest d rink in town " with a growth in d emand of 20 % lase year as aga inst 5% fo r 'fizzy drinks', som e 100 0 brands available in Australia, and prices ranging from $ l .70 co $7 (in a restau rant) fo r 75 0ml of bottled water. O n the ocher hand, we treat p iped potable water with sca nt respect and much is wasted. However, over the past year there have been signs of change in chis regard, with chose b reaking water restrictio ns in urban cen ters now ru nning the risk of commun ity censu re" .

Delegates all 'tied up' at the ACTEW conference dinner held at Questacon.

"T he o utcomes requi red fo r sustainab le water m anagement will req ui re d ramatic changes in co mmuni ty va lues and expectations. The figures currently being proposed and taken seriously by go vernmen ts


education fo r warer recovery ro feed enviro nmental flows are bur a small step rowards what is likely ro be required for susrainabili ry. Similarly rhe need ro reduce demand in urban centres will intensify as population grows, and will be linked wirh a need co gain communiry acceptance fo r re-use and recycling of water for human uses. We will also need to internalize the 'true cost' of water into consumer items, and drive both food production and manu factured goods in to highest value return for water used. While technology will be an important contributor to change, technology alone will nor deliver rhe desired outcomes. Rather insrirurional change, new pricing systems, and, most importantly, community an d political commitment, will be critical. As Rick Farley (2003) pu t it in his 2003 Australia Day Address in relation co land and water management: "The casks before us obvi ously are enormous. Farmi ng systems will have co change; furth er adjustment in the farm sector is likely; rehabilitation will rake decades and wi ll be impossible in some areas; public and private costs will be huge; new regul atory systems wil l have co be introduced; and a vast amount of poli tical and social capital will need ro be invested". "How well are we as educators positioned, structu red and able co provide rhe necessary educational activities? A key po in t is char we are currently presented with an ideal rime for water education - we have a community that is 'pre-adapted' fo r ch anging water management and for m a king changes themselves. It needs education ro rein fo rce and support chis 'm ood' in society - bur chis needs ro occur now!" "We need ro turn this latent concern into good understanding, commitment and abil iry ro rake action fo r sustainable water managem ent. T his requires wellcoordinated and rargered education programs on sustai nable water use and m a nagement that bring rogerher rhe skills an d resources of all relevant parries - both government and non-governmen t. Not on ly will chis be of benefit in rerms of sus tainable warer management bur will sec a strong fo undations for sustainable management of ocher natural resources". Jenifer Simpson spelt our the need to 'educate' nor only our political leaders, bur ourselves in the water industry, as well as the communiry in general. Leaders and managers need ro make bold decisions, and rhe communiry needs ro understand why they are made. "An uninformed community m a kes uninformed decisions and a vacuum is filled by emotive mis-informations", as she herself experienced in I 997 in the

90 MARCH 2004 water

Concentration at one of the Questacon challenges.

Caloundra-Maroochydore Wastewater Management Strategy talks. (She projected an image of the huge shi p "SS Warer Industry", so huge that it is very difficult to manoeuvre or change course. All the engineers are down in their beautifully polished engin e room, bur the politicians have lost the rudder. The only way co change is for an informed com muni ry co push on the bow). 'There are so me excellent examples of water conservation education in all scares in Australia. WacerWise programs feature some creative and persuasive ways co enable rhe community ro understand how ro conserve water. We "know ir all" bur we don't always heed what we know. After all, water is cheap, as easy as turning on a rap, and ar a level of service chat generally seems ro bear lirrle relation ro our highly variable climate. T he conservation message is nor helped by our high-rainfall coastal cities being provided with water from dams situated in the dryer zone behind the coast it is difficul t to convince people rhar there is a shortage of water while they are standing under an umbrella. A change of values is needed so chat a green lawn becomes something co be ashamed of rather than a scams symbol". "In order ro move cowards sustainable water management, co mmunity participation in water cycle planning is essential but attempts co involve the communiry in these issues have not generally been successful. We seem robe better at celling people rather than asking for an opi nion. The problems are particularly highlighted when it comes ro water recycling".

Jenifer also raised the concern, chat came out through the workshops as a theme of the conference, for the need of positive and uniform terminology. Examples include "discharge", nor "disposal", char we recycle "water" nor "wastewater" and "inadvertent" and "unplanned" do nor encourage trust. Jenifer campaigns that the qualiry of water is what matters, not its degree of treatment, and th e water industry currenrly has inadequate terminology ro explai n co rhe lay person the quality of the water. Water professionals talk about quality in terms of rhe degree of treatment the wastewater has received - primary, secondary, advanced secondary and tertiary. These terms are not well defined and are meaningless co the lay person who wants ro know what the water can be safely used fo r. She recommends the use of rhe Scar Racing system. Having established the need for education, at all levels, fo llowi ng speakers discussed how. Max Hardy, of Twyford Consulting, spoke on how best ro gee people ro consider, think, learn. Traditional 'education' doesn't always accomplish char. Mose people don't like being 'educated', but people do like co learn. Max delivered the problems he saw in education: â&#x20AC;˘ "Firsrly, there is an assumption in most of the literatu re about educatio n chat it is one-way traffic - that it is rhe role of rhe educators, scientists, experts - and it is rhe role of the 'public' ro be educated. â&#x20AC;˘ Seco ndly, there is an amazingly naive view, in my view, chat the way forward is straightforward - that is if the uneducated are educated then they will see things more clearly.


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â&#x20AC;˘ Moreover, and thirdly there is a belief that if the 'public' is educated (whatever th at may involve or mean) then they are likely to change their behaviour, and perhaps make it easier fo r the experts and decision-makers. They are likely to then behave in a more rational way. â&#x20AC;˘ T his leads to rhe fo urth assumptio n - that em otions are dangerous and best kept o ut of community consultation. T hey get in the way, and when people are 'emotional' rhey w ill nor be rational, and therefore not be able to contribute or understand rhe issues, options and rhe desirable behaviours. Some people hold to this assu mption q uire passionately - ironic isn 't it?" His paper gave some excellent advice o n dealing with consultation p roblems T here are rwo examples of education in rhe fi eld of water resou rces wh ich have op erated successfully for some time. Ross Wissing presented the paper by co-aut hors Leonie Hodson and Nadia Kingham on "Waterwarch Australia" and later, Jaquie White on the Clearwater p rogram wh ich is operating in Victoria. Warerwarch Austral ia was initiated by the Au stralian Government in 1992 in response to growing concerns from the community abou t blue-green algae, salinity, water quality and the health of waterways. Across th e country, rhe Waterwarch Australia network curren tly incl udes 60,0 00 vo lunteers from 2,300 schools and com mun ity groups who moni tor 7,0 00 sires for waterway health with the Wa rerwatch philosophy as empowering the com munity to take ownersh ip and to become involved in the monitoring, restoration and management of their waterways. T he p rinciples wh ich have proved so successfu l can be summarised as: Commun ity participation is vital: Learni ng is by action: Local knowledge is imperative (from rhe watershed to downstream): Tackle the causes, not the symptoms: Proceed o n a partnership basis.

Jaquie W h ite explained the Clearwater Program, Victoria, wh ich ai ms to educate rhe professionals involved in storm water ma n agement. It is becoming widely accepted rhar sustainable urban water cycle m a n agement must consider che many col o urs of water (e.g. rainwater, stormwater, was tewater and greywacer), and the need fo r a multi discip linary app roach to ensure its effective management needs to be recognised . The fo llowing provides an oucline of som e of the key products and p rograms developed and d elivered by rhe Clearwater Program in 2003.

92 MARCH 2004 water

Daniel Deere outlines the results of the AWA survey on water education in Australia at the Post Conference Workshop.

Clearwater InfoExchange - an o nl ine o nestop-shop for u rb an scorm water management brin ging together the many achievemen ts, learnings, knowledge and experience of local govern ment, state governmen t and ind ustry in urban srormwater management, providi ng a foru m for kn owledge building, communication and o ngoing in formation exchange across rhe state. In its first mo nth of op eration the website had over 600 hits from across Victoria and interstate downloading rh e various reports and resou rces available. Clearwater Roadshows - p rovidin g an o p portunity for regio nally based traini ng events to meet rh e specific needs of regional areas in u rban storm wacer management leading in to the Clearwater Summ it rhar was designed to p rovide a forum fo r collaboration and networkin g b etween the range of stakehold ers involved in u rban scormwacer management as id entified through rhe market research. Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) Program - h as invo lved over 40 0 participants to dare, attend ing regional fo rums and b us to urs. Regulation and Enforcement P rogram add resses building and construction sires, deliveri ng tailored workshops designed to provide information, resources and sup port to councils to deliver educat io n and enforcement programs.

NEWater Delegates were treated to an education program which tackled perhaps our b iggest challenge: persuading the community rhar ir was accep table to recycle ' used' water in to the potable reticulation system by

membrane tech nology (i nstead of relyi ng on Natu re and the Magic M ile). T his has been successfully ach ieved in Si.ngapore, with their NEWacer projects, and Linda Mcph erson's fu ll paper describi ng the Visitor Centre is published in chis issue, though bereft of the mu lti- med ia presentatio n which took us on a virtual tour of both rhe Centre and the actual mem brane plant.

Stormwater The quest ion of how significant educatio n can be, compared with regulation, legislation and pricing, in changing rhe culture of our community was raised many rimes th roughout rhe discussions. O ne paper, derived from a quite different fiel d , demonst rated th at even without the carrots and the sticks, public education CAN make a difference. The edited version of rhe presentation by Geoff Young and Peter Salier of the NSW EPA is also p ub lished in ch is issue. Overall , the conference was a huge success. From the wonderful conference d in ner at Q uestacon, sponsored by ACTEW, which really d id mix education with fun and food, to the imp ressive line up of speakers, the interactive workshop sessions and the dedication from AWA to the topic char they have been so close to for a n umber of years, it is apparent that there is a lot that we can learn from each other and an intention rhar AWA will play a key role in being a major coord in ator and partner in the learning.

Suggestions for the next event are for 2006 - with A WA s major water conference 'Ozwater' in 2005 delivering a key stream on education. Contact education@awa.asn.au for further information.


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THE NSW URBAN STORMWATER EDUCATION PROGRAM 1998-2003 G Young, P Salier Introduction Urban srormwarer pollution is a major threat ro the healrh and amenity of our urban water.vays. It is a critical issue in realising the community's expectations for a healthy and fun ctional environment. T he New South Wales Government's, Waterways Package released in May 1997 highl ighted the need fo r a whole of government approach to srormwacer management, and approved measures ro reduce pollution in the Scares urban waterways. To implement chese measures the government committed a total of $82111 over 5 years through its Srormwater T rust to support and facilitate urban srormwater management policy, planning and practice to im prove the condi tion of urba n waterways in NSW. T he Stormwater T rust

is administered by the EPA, now part of che Department of Environment and Co nservatio n (DEC). The Urban Srormwacer Program (USP) has used a mix of public education , srormwater management planning, piloti ng innovation and remedial action ro achieve the Trust's objecti ves. The USP incl uded the fo llowi ng components: • A req uirement of councils to develop Stormwater Management Pl ans (SMPs) • 5 rounds ofSrormwater Trust Grants to fund projects which supported the im plementation of the SM Ps and which used a range of cools, structural and non structural • An Urban Srormwater Education Program (USE P)

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To im prove the quality ofNSW waterways through education that has a positive impact on behaviours that affect srormwater quality.

The Objectives • T o increase knowledge of che causes of sco rmwater poll ution • To facilitate behaviour change by promoting simple, practical ways for particular groups and individ uals ro reduce storm-water poll ution • To build the capacity of ochers to undertake activi ties chat improve stormwacer quality

Community program

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MARCH 2004

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The Elements of the USEP

• lowest reagent use/ total cost of ownership in the industry

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The USEP is a core compo nent of the USP and has been a major five year $7.4 mi llion program involving an extensive range of activities across community, industry and local government. le has been a key conrriburor ro rhe ongoing develo pment of environmental education. T he program commenced in 1998 and is due fo r com pletion on 30 June 2004.

• Seate-wide mass media campaigns • Wo rk with communities from Non English Speaking Backgtounds (NESB) • Aboriginal communities • Schools • Visirors • Non-government organisations. Industry

• T arget certain secrors (e.g. automotive, che nursery ind ustry) • Work in partnership wich Industry Associations • Media/Communication supporr • Business marketing support Local Government

• Organisarional development • Train ing • Support for the educational components of the Storm-water Trust grants. • Extension campaign grants • Media/communication resources • Capacity building


education The Roll-Out of USEP .i:

Phase 1: 1998 • Individual behaviour change • Human-made visibles • School-based and curriculum focused education Phase 2: 1999-2001 Individual behaviour change • Visible naturals: organics, sediments • Emphasis on work with NESB Phase 3: 2002-2004 • Move to indirect (through industry and professional associations) and direct interventions • Non-visibles; e.g chemicals • Increased emphasis on local government • Emphasis on capacity building • Included Aboriginal communities

Evaluating the Outcomes Community Mass media campaign Three campaigns were run, and research showed chat they reached 73% of adults with a major impact on knowledge, accicu des and behaviour.

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Figure 1. Achievements: local government.

In 1994, only 2% of people co nsidered storm water to be environmentally damagi ng. By 2002, 94% considered it to be an important environmental issue. In 1999, 4% said they had recently stopped hosing down paths: in 2002, 51 % say they always/mostly avoid hos ing down paths.

NSEB Education 250 education sessions with over 6500 participants, and 67 community events were held during Phases 1 and 2. Partnerships were established with councils, catchment cruses, community organisations and with the Ethnic Communities Council waste education project.

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education 20 bilingual educators in 8 community languages were supported.

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Result: In 1999 39% of people from NES Backgrounds were unaware char storm-water drains directly co waterways. This decreased co 24% in 2002.

Industry The program worked directly with specific industries and ind ustry associations to promote cleaner production approaches to minimise impact on urban scormwater. Industries in the automotive, building and construction and horticultural were targeted through professional industry associations, together with the development of training courses delivered through providers to build capacity of both industry and local government to effectively manage stormwater. 15 industry associations cook che project on board. T he nursery industry was particularly enthusiastic, with 67% of nurseries undertaking environmental action. In January-June 200 2, 408 industry personnel attended training, e.g. 200 staff attended from every golf course in Sydney, and the comments were "very useful" or "useful" from 75% of golf course superintendents and 92% of landscape contractors.

Local Government The program recognised the importance of Councils in managing urban stormwater and has worked to equip chem with the skills and tools to use educational interventions more effectively. Primarily th ese have increasingly been designed co build capacity in local government both organisationally and individually. Capacity was built through training programs, the provision of resources for education, training and campaigns, includ ing a Scormwater Council Resources Kit. Local government operations were a particular focus to improve their environmental performance. Educational components of fo ur Stormwater T rust Grant Cycles were su pported by provision of training, networking, advice and demonstration of best practice case studies. Achievements are summarised in Figure 1 which clearly shows the shift from endof-pipe solutions co source controls.

Litter Litter is predominantly contributed by the public rather than ind uscry or local government. Litter loads at selected GPTs and crash racks in inner Sydney have been analysed by consultants Sinclair Knight

96 MARCH 2004 water

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Merz from 1992 (correlated with rainfall, co account for the flushing effect). Figure 2 shows chat there was a steady rise in litter over the period 1993 to 1999, and chis was dramatically reversed as the Education Program cook hold., despite the average rainfall. I t is likely that the USEP has had a significant effect on litter capture rates in the study area due co the significant decrease across all GPTs/crash racks, although its effects were not experienced until 2000 onwards. The introduction of new litter laws in 2000 along with catchment specific factors would also have impacted litter capture rates across the study area This is corroborated by the statistics collected by the Beverage Industry, where Sydney displays an increase in positive d isposal behaviour The results of the evaluation of these education campaigns will help to set the future direction not only for scormwater education but environmental education generally.

Conclusions There is no doubt that the ream at NSW EPA has learned much throughout these past five years. For storm-water educatio n (or similar environmental education) co be effective, we need high priority co be allocated by corporate leaders, including politicians, along with appropriate resources. Campaigns muse be planned and integrated with a variety of strategies and cools, aimed at targeted audiences, and strong nerworks developed. Research on the outcomes is necessary to base decisions on evidence, rather than 'gut feeling'.

The Authors Geoff Young is Manager Community Education Unit and Peter Salier is Senior Scormwater Education Officer with the Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) which includes the former EPA. Email : youngg@ epa. nsw. gov.au, salierp@epa. nsw. gov.au


WINNING MINDS TO WATER REUSE: THE ROAD TO NEWATER L Macpherson Abstract T his paper is an example of how water education can be tackled using 'new technology' to change perceptions and hopefully change cultures.

Introduction The NEWater Visitor Centre in Singapore illustrates to the world how technology and public understanding can be successfully aligned. T his alignment is critical if we wish to build community understanding and support of water reuse technologies and their benefits. The fu ll spectrum of water supply solutions is needed to address shortages of fresh water. Reuse is a water supply solution that deserves a place in the world's technology toolbox. Singapore's Road to NEWater recognised early that public perception can become an overriding issue if nor properly addressed.

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Long-term acceptance of reuse ap pears inexorably tied to growth in public undemanding of the p reciousness of fresh water as well as an appreciation of the fact chat all water is and has always been 'used ' . As basic awareness, understanding and crust grow abou t reuse, so will long-term public acceptance. S ingapore does admittedly app roach chis challenging subject with the substantial benefit of respected po li tical leadership and governmental institutions. It is therefore an opportune combination of need and the cred ibility to effectively address ch is topic which has been so very different in approach in other locations th roughout the world. A great many communities have historically and do currently indirectly reuse wastewater fo r potable reuse. Few have engaged their communities and citizens in a d ialogue about this topic based on a holistic understanding of water and watersheds. T he NEWacer exp erience promises to provid e valuable insigh ts in the com plex dynamics surrounding this emerging global issue. This paper exam ines the remarkable marriage of advanced technical work with a carefully crafted p ublic education and outreach strategy, culminating in the open ing of the NEWater Visitor Centre in February 200 3. T he Visitor Cen tre employs stateof-the-art interactive compu ter touch screens and world-class vid eos and has become a d estination for mo re than 2,00 0 visitors per week. More than 100 ,00 0 visitor were logged in 2003, maki ng the visitor centre a major tou rist destinat io n. This success shows the wo rld chat the Centre's fo cus is on water resource managemen t and comm itment to demo nstrate that learning about water can be do ne in a sti mulating matter using computers, computer games, visual im ages, videos is key to pu blic understanding. Accessing knowledge

98 MARCH 2004 water

in a comprehensive, fun and interactive manner has advanced public understanding of the water issues before Singapo re and the world and has pointed to the technologies available to add ress chem. Specific go als related to the design and constructio n of the N EWacer Visitor Centre are showcased in chis p resentation. Key messages are defined and rich, visual images show how the design app roach used in the Centre enables visitors to understand and embrace engineering solutions chat are owned and supported by all , rather than imposed.

The Singapore NEWater Visitor Centre: A MessageDriven Experience Winning minds to water reuse The Bedok NEWater Factory in Singapore was the first water reuse faci lity in the world to incorporate a world-class visitor centre. The mission was important: build p ublic awa reness and accep tance of lead ing-edge tech nologies that treat reclaimed, used water to a standard up to-and beyond-World Health Organization (WH O) potable standards. Singapore knew that it faced a commu nication challenge because communicati ng info rmation related co ind irect potable use of treated effl uent is o ne of the most, if not the most, challenging water- related p ublic acceptance use. The aim and execu tion o f the N EWater Visitor Centre was influenced by research in the fields of psychology, perception, learning and interp retarion. The aim of the centre was to create a message-driven experience-one that would forge emotional and intellectual connections about water and water treatment technologies. The NEWater Visitor Centre is incorporated into a 23 millio n gallo n (88,000 cubic meter) per d ay plant. It explains the technologies that go into the manufactu re ofNEWater fro m treated, used water and b uilds awareness, confi dence and accep tance of the product and the process that manufactu res it. The Visitor Centre recognises chat surrou ndings can play a powerful role in the d iffusion of techn ical information. Awareness of chis phenomenon led Singapo re to create settings chat promote positive feel ings. In a fun learning environment, visitors absorb faces th rough printed displays, touch-screen interaccives and video presentatio ns. T h rough the d ifferent displays, visitors learn about safety, reliability and sustainability of the NEWacer process and prod uce. The architectural and interior design of the NEWacer facil ity combines elements of p ure engineering with spacious, comfortable and fe el-good spaces to encou rage absorption o f the messages. Messages on water resource management are communicated in a fu n, sti m ulating and interactive manner. T he learning experience is divided into six main sectors rhat are un iquely and fu lly integrated into the 88,000 cubic meter per day plant. The d isplays and compu ter termi nals o utlined below encourage the visitors, of all ages, to: • Find ou t about the Waters of Si ngapore and how water resources are managed • Have fu n learning about water from multimed ia interactive stations • Take a microscopic look inside a water droplet and d iscover life in a drop • Take the plunge and Walk on NEWacer withou t getting wet • Learn about rhe ind irect potable use ofNEWarer • W itness how NEWarer is produced and be amazed by rhe wonders of membrane tech nology • Take a challenge and march your wits against NEWarer Man


education Background To increase the use of reclaimed water and to conserve potable water for domestic consumption, the Public Utilities Board (PUB) of Singapore has made use of advanced membrane technology to further purify treated used water to produce NEWacer. Using microfiltracion and reverse osmosis membrane processes, the treated used water is further purified to a quality that well exceeds the WHO and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Drinking Water Standards. As an added safety measure, the water is treated with a strong dose of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection before it is passed for use. In 1998, PUB assembled an international panel of experts comprising local and foreign scientists, doctors and microbiologists to conduct a two-year comprehensive study on the quality of NEWater. Based on the results of a comprehensive physical, chemical and microbiological analysis conducted over a two-year period, the Expert Panel has established chat NEWater is well within the drinking water standards specified in the

U SEPA National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Standards and WHO Drinking Water Quality Guidelines and is safe for drinking. NEWater is primarily being used for the industries for processes and in commercial buildings for air-cooling purposes. This would allow water currently used by those industries to be freed up for potable use by the population. A small quantity of NEWater is also added into the reservoirs to be used fo r indirect potable use. The PU B reco gnises the importance of gaining public awareness and acceptance of NEWater and they have built a visitor centre, incorporating a NEWater plant, to acquaint visitors with the concept of NEWater and its significance in meeting Singapore's water needs. T he visitor centre is a key element in the strategy to build public understanding. In planning the visitor faci lity, a collaborative process was commenced which included engineers and communications specialists from client, the consultant and the exhibit consultants. Key messages were painstakingly hammered our for the overall visitor centre, for each of

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rhe six zones and for each individual exhibit or display. T ype of m edia and format of presentation was also determined. Because of the predisposition of young Singaporeans to interactive computer, video and electronic presentation , the visitor centre design emphasised those techniques. A tour of the visitor centre will give you some idea of the results of our efforts. Juse keep in mind chat behind the scenes, the hard work of developing messages drove all the exhibits and results in a cohesive, controlled experience.

Tour of NEWater Visitor Centre Overall Message: The NEWater Factory

creates NEWater, which is a critical resource in Singapore's effort to provide water for industry, for living, for life. A. The Arrival Foyer Message: Water is an essential part oflife:

our sustenance, daily living, lifestyle and industry. Globally, water is a precious resource which in many places is associated with emotional concepts such as spiritual elements ofholiness, hope, fear and life itself

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education Description: The arrival foyer is a 1,800 square foot area where tours gather in preparation for entering the theatre and exh ibit area. Walls are decorated with backlit photos of water use around the world, emphasising shortage, precio usness and ways in which water contributes to quality of li fe. A soundtrack of water sounds plays softly in the background . T hree 50-inch gas plasma video screens show a short, tantalising video about water use around the globe. The video uses

single word text bullets in different languages to convey global significance. W h en the crowd has assembled and the docents are ready co move chem through the visitor centre, we are introduced ro o u r virtual guide. A young woman named 'Wave' appears on the video screen to exp lain the 'fantastic' tour about to occur and move visitors o n co the theatre, whose doors then open automatically.

B. Auditorium Message: Water is critical to life. Water is scarce in Singapore. NEWater is vital to Singapore's future. Description: A video audi torium chat seats 200 is bathed in underwater effects o n the walls as people file in. The "Waters of Si ngapore" video on a huge screen describes Singapore's search for water sources over the years, culminating in the development of NEWater. Ar rhe conclusion, rour members exit into the exhibit hall through a waterfall feature. C. Exhibits Area Messages - The Water Cycle Message(s): Fresh water is a scarce resource, carefully managed by the PUB to meet Singapore's needs. Demand ofwater will increase Four National Taps, and sources of water supply will meet the growing needs. Water used by humans is treated and safely discharged to the environment. This effluent water can now be further reclaimed into NEWarer, more pure than drinking water. NEWater will be used in tech nology industries char create products which enrich our lives; NEWater will augment current potable water supplies, hence free ing up d ri nking water for use by Singaporeans. Central Feature: Water resources of Singapore Message: "Management and reclamation of water is a complete system which embraces the hydrologic cycle. There are Four National Taps working together to provide water supply in Singapore. " Description: Animated video shows the island of Singapore and demonsrrates

100 MARCH 2004

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how water is sup plied, how used water is collected and where it is treated. The processes are shown in their relationship to the water cycle. Around the room are six large, colourful interactive kiosks where individuals interact with a number of exhi bits. Each kiosk has two touch screen terminals, each with a large overhead plasma monitor.

Water through Time - Our Fresh Water Resource Message: "Fresh water is scarce in our world. It must be carefully managed, particularly in Singapore. " Description: Players are challenged to search on com puters through a timeline of global water history to find facts referred to in a challenge quest ion. Based on Water Environment Federati on Aq ua Venturer, specially adapted for Singapore. Water for the Future 路 Our Growing Water Needs Message: "Water is precious and its supply and demand must be carefully managed to ensure sustainability in any country. " Description: Players are challenged to balance population growth rares, per capita water use, and various supply options to develop a water program that will be sustainable for 50 years. T his highly realistic simulator shows how difficult it can be to balance growth supply and demand . Protecting our waters Message: "Because we have Limited

resources in Singapore, we must do what we can to prevent pollution and conserve our water resources. " Description: Players explore an illustrated landscape of Singapore to learn about personal and indusrrial pollution sources, water conservation and infrastructure fea tures.

We treat our water right Message: "Singapore has a very

comprehensive treatment system ahead of NEWater. The feedwater used for production ofNEWater is already relatively clean." Description: Players are taken on an animated tour of the used water infrastructure, which concludes in a tour through the processes in a water reclamation plant.

Life in a drop Message: "This exhibit showcases how clean NEWater is as compared to other sources of water. To produce NEWater we need to remove many submicroscopic elements, particles, viruses, pesticides and metals.

These elements are prolific in the environment. Visitors get a pleasant surprise when they click on the microscopic viewer and find nothing there. " Description: Players explore various water samples from different sources, from lakes to pudd les ro view actual microscopy video of creatures such as Giardia, C ryrosporidium, rotifers, e-coli bacteria.

NEWater 路 For industry, for living, for life Message of Interactive Exhibit: "NEWater enables products and technologies that contribute to our life styles, economy, quality oflife. " Description: Players are challenged to match various water sources used in the production of various products. We learn how NEWater can be used. G roups move from exhibit hall into a separate area dedicated to the presentation of the concepts of indirect potable reuse (called "IPU" or "indirect potable use" in Si ngapore).

D. Indirect Potable Use Area Message: NEWater is so reliably pure that it can be added to existing drinking water reservoirs as a supplement to Singapore's raw water supplies. This concept is supported by worldwide experience and the conclusion of trustworthy experts. Description: A four-minute video presents the notion of indirect potable use, documenting proj ects around the world.

Exhibit D1. Reusing Water 路 The Global Experience Message: Use of recycled water to augment drinking water and for other purposes is expanding throughout the world. ft has being practiced successfully in many locales. Description: C lick on one of a number of locations on a spinning globe ro see how planned and unplanned indirect potable reuse are implemented at many places on Earth today. Exhibit D2. Singapore 路 The Local Experience Message: Singapore has made use ofproven advanced technologies to produce NEWater which is clean enough to drink to augment its water supplies. Description: T ouch screen interface shows several milestones on the road to NEWater, showing the process by which the safety and usability of NEWater was established. The touch screen interactive made use of news media footages that documented events from the inception of PUB's first water reclamation plant in the


early 1970s to the Launch of NEWater celebration on 21 Feb 2003 by the Prime M inister of Singapore, Mr. Goh C hok Tong. The tour now moves along the Walk on Water, past a panel showing the history of NEWater in still photos and news clippings, through a simulated vault door into the highly valued area of the NEWater process.

E. Elevated Walkway- The NEWater Process Explorer Message: Proven new technologies can treat water to a highly pure state, beyond the requirements ofdrinking water. Description: The elevated walkway is a 100-yard long glassed-in walkway th rough which the tour passes over the process equipment. At three stops along the way, touch screen kiosks and overhead plasma displays animations of ind ividual processes: ulcrafiltration, reverse osmosis, ulcravioJec disinfection and water conditioning. Physical models allow closeup inspection of actual process modules.

F. NEWater Challenge Area Message: The NEWater Factory creates NEWater, which is a critical resource in

Singapore's effort to provide water for industry, for living, for life. (Reinforcing the overall message.) Description: The tour group exits the process area into the conclusion of the visit. Group members are challenged now by an interactive game that pits them against a computer character in a contest of knowled ge about water and the NEWater process. At the end, they are treated to a "celebration" video before doors open to the outside for chem to descend the cascade of NEWacer. The cascade incorporates features allowing the visitors to touch and feel NEWater once again, which is all part of a very important learning journey to acceptance of NEWacer.

Conclusion By using d ifferent means of expression, through print, video, sound, multimedia, touch and feel effects, the NEWater message becomes a mulcisensory experience reaching across different prefe rences among young and old, the literate and the computer-savvy.

Visitors who come away from the Visitor Centre do so with imprinted messages of our biological dependence, our economic need and our emotional links to the joy and preciousness of water. A collaborative process supported by a leading edge communications and technical team created an inspired plan which produced a worldclass vehicle to inform public opinion and educate a nation regarding the value of water resources. This effo rt promises to shape the future of water resources management for a natio n renowned for its capaciry to apply the best in technology to address resource limitations. NEWater is bottled by a commercial company in 750 ml containers and distributed free to visitors, and, it would seem , to anyone who asked for chem. The demand was so high that the factory could not keep up with it.

The Author Linda Macpherson is Vice President, Northwest Water Business Group, CH2M HILL, normally based in Portland, Oregon, She was in charge of the development of the concepts for the Visitor Centre in Singapore, email: lmacpher@ch2m.com

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CUSTOMER SERVICE IN THE WATER INDUSTRY P van Veenendaal Customer Service Benchmarking Australia (CSBA) is a research-based consultancy chat specialises in assessing customer service standards. CSBA has d eveloped a unique methodology fo r monitoring the performance of call centres using test calls or mystery shopping and regularly reviews che response of more chan 100 Australian companies in all Stares and Territories. This article has been prepared by CSBA and is based o n its experience over the past seven years. CSBA monitors many of che major util ities in the water industry including a n umber which are clients.

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30

40

50

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70

80

90

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SERVICE DELIVERY %

Figure 1. Customer Satisfa ction G rid.

Customer Service Progressive businesses care about customer service. No matter what field of endeavour or what sector of rhe economy; customer service is important, vital, in fact. Customer service is delivered in a variety of ways. In the water industry, as in most o chers, every time a company employee deals with a customer or a member of the public, ic will be a positive or negative experience, rarely is it neu tral. However, given char water supply is such a critical aspect of life, che customer service implications are potentially even more sensitive than in most, if not all, ocher sectors. Whether it is maintenance workers repairing pipes under the road, meter readers en tering a customer's property or accounts people sending our rem inder/overdue notices, it is customer service delivery: good, bad or indiffe rent. Overall tho ugh, it is at the water utility call centre where the company and its customers interact. The call centre is often the only contact a customer may have wich the u tility, the

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T he water supply industry call centres deliver a good level of customer service in certain areas (average response time, greeting quality) but there is room fo r im provement in ochers (operator manner, telemarketing skills).

102 MARCH 2004

SAMPLE DATA ONLY

GETTING THROUGH 100

co uncil, the bank or the energy supplier. I t is at the call centre where the company reputation is consolidated or undermined.

Call Centre Quality C learly, protecting the corporate image is harder today than it used co be: outsourcing has placed many an intermediary between the company and its customers. The companies that most jealously guard their repu tations tend co be those chat keep their call centres in-house. It is relatively easy co establish which businesses place a high value on customer service and, equally, it is fairly simple co determine chose char do not. To provide a simple example from a recent CSBA survey, of all che telephone

WAlER a).MPANY "A!' SAMPIEDATA ONLY Fast

Restlessness 15%of calls

Alienation no calls

Loyalty 68%of calls

Restlessness 17%of calls

SimVICE DEUVERY

Excellent

Figure 2. Customer Satisfaction Outcome.

calls made co one of Australia's major banks, well over 40 per cent cook more chan four minutes co reach an operator. No one could consider that as providing good customer service. For comparison, the worse water ucilicy in the same survey period recorded 6% of calls chat cook over fou r minutes co reach an operator. Banking is a competitive environment but that bank (not unaware of the situation) clearly values the cost-savings accrued from under-staffing its call centre more highly than ic values its service del ivery co customers.

It is interesting co look at the levels of customer service delivery in differen t sectors of the economy and all is not as simple and straightforward as it might seem. One could reasonably expect chat sectors of the economy chat are largely noncompetitive (as in not poaching customers), local government and water utilities as cases in point, migh t realistically be expected co be below average in customer service delivery. There is no obvious market-driven u rge co deliver top-notch service. Bue both sectors perform well, in fact very well, in some areas of customer service delivery. In viciously competitive markets, telecommunications for example, the converse is often true.

Measuring Call Centre Quality T he key determinant of call centre performance is not market pressure bur management attitude. Enligh tened senior management realises the importance of che call centre resource co che ucilicy/company and provides che necessary level of support, including quality linemanagement. Good call centre managers know chey muse closely monitor how their team delivers service co ics customers and co the general pu blic. T his can be done by guc-feeling, internal audit, or by having the centre's performance regularly assessed by an ou tside


organisation such as CSBA. There is now a strong push from public sector company boards to ad opt external rather than internal mo nitoring.

External Monitoring: What is Assessed? C ustomer Service Ben chmarking Australia regularly surveys various asp ects of call centre performance ac over 100 Australian organisations including many of the 22 major water utilities char supply 70 per cent of Australian homes. • Clearly, and quite simply, the average response time is measured: char is, the average of (typically) 100 calls over ten-week period. This is a basic and very objective measure of an organisation 's ability to be contacted. Research strongly suggests char callers are prepared to wait for up to rh irry seconds to sp eak to an operator. Beyond thirty seconds, caller irrirabiliry increases rapidly. This can then d etermine the entire tenor of the call. The result is often an irri tated caller speaking to a rushed and stressed operator. This is not a recipe fo r a positive contact. The client compa ny is also informed of rhe percentage of all calls responded to within 20 seconds, 30 seconds and 60 seconds. As well, (as above) calls w irh wait rimes in excess of fo ur minutes are logged .

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• W h en the operator answers, che greeting is assessed. Good practice suggests it sho uld include certain key elements: a salutatio n such as "good morning" and provis ion of rhe company name and operator name (usually just the first name) . Also rhe operator should make an offer co help rhe caller; chat is to ask "h ow can I help you?" Mose callers co ntact rhe ucilicy/co mpany co seek assistance and rhe operator making rhe offer to help, as pare of the greeting, secs a positive tone for rh e call. W hen the call ends rhe operator should make an appropriate sign-off such as "goodbye" o r "thank you for calling" or both. These five separare elements are separately assessed an d also averaged to provide the Greeting Quality Index fo r char com pany. Results di ffe r from sector to secto r, with rhe greatest variatio n being within the tertiary ed ucation and utili ty secto rs. • O p erator manner is assessed. Ir is one of rhe major facto rs to influen ce overall call centre performance. It is also one of the key variab les, subj ect as it is to the personal ch em istry of the individual and with in the call centre group. Projection by the operato r of a warm frien dly and interested manner is by far the most desirable. Companies char score highly o n chis are usually good performers across rhe board. A businesslike manner is accep table bu t a d isinterested or laidback man ner is a turn-off fo r the caller. In a recent CS BA survey, projection of the most desirable manner within the u tilities (water, gas and electricity) varied fro m 33% to 100%. • As we all know, like it or not, telemarketing is part and parcel of modern life. When a caller calls your company, it is a golden opportunity to conduce telemarketi ng. Ir is a far more positive and productive environment than cold-calli ng co nducted on your behalf by a third parry at d inner-rime. Informed companies are aware of these p otential benefits and utilise their ca ll centre accordingly. Use of call centres as a marketing tool is as yet under-developed. Various operacor-relemarkecing skills are assessed by CS BA including: the ability to p robe with intelligent questions to clearly establish caller needs; p rod uce knowledge; rhe ab ility of the operato r to provide a clear outcome fo r the caller; and operator courtesy. • Complaint handling is also assessed. CSBA researchers call wirh a comp laint and assess how operators h andle chis sometimes difficult situation. Again, various aspects of the process are rared but the key elements are for rhe operator co avoid adopting a defensive atti tude and co establish a good level of empathy with the caller.

Customer Service Grid Analysis CSBA has developed a unique C ustomer Satisfaction Model. Based on its results for a given period, each of rhe companies included in rhe

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National Sales Office: 26 Fa igh Street Mulgrave Victoria 3170 Australia

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MARCH 2004

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survey is placed on a grid arranged on two dimensions: Geeting T h rough and Service Delivery. If a company scores well on both dim ensions, custom er loyalty is likely co be d eveloped and enhanced . Low scores will lead co customer alienation . However, a positive racing on getting through combined with a low service delivery racing, or vice versa, can lead co customer resclessness and ultimately a search for alternative service providers or, where ch is is not an option, damage co che corporate image/repu tatio n. T his info rmation o n CSBA's un ique Customer Satisfaction Model is more clearly illustrated in Figures I and 2 .

Results Following each CSBA survey, the client company is provided with a comp rehensive report containing the results and an analysis of chose results. An all-important pare of the report is identification of emerging tren ds and recom mendations for rectifying negative m ovements and extending positive trends. As pare of each repo rt CS BA includes verbatim extracts fro m a sam ple of calls and a series of questions and answers on client-selected topics . T h e latter is of value in identifying any erroneous or contradictory information possibly being su pplied co callers.

Table 1 Measure

Response time (secs) Calls in excess of fou r minutes % Calls answered within 30 seconds % Greeti ng Ouolity Index % Operator manner: worm/friendly/ interested % Telemorketing % of calls that scored "yes" on all elements

Water

Gas

Electric

Banks

Local Govt

44 3 53 88

72

7 21 90

100 23 25 89

93 16 27 84

26 2 77 82

55

69

71

67

51

46

54

54

52

32

Benefits Call cen tres exist in dynam ic environments: liccle is static; change is ongoing. External m onitoring and reporting provides rhe cools and informatio n whereby call centre managers can m otivate their teams co achieve imp roved results. It enables a righ t focus on areas where improvement is needed and provides early warning of adverse trends. Importancly, it also provides recogn ition of excellence and for work well done.

Water Industry Performance In a recent survey, the water industry average response time was 44 seconds and individ ual results varied between 25 seconds and 6 9 seconds. This compares with, say, the electricity suppliers with an average of I 00 seconds and a range of 16 seconds co 203 secon ds. T he local government sector averaged 26 seconds and resu lts ranged fro m 6 seconds co 58 seconds. Given chat the local governmen t sector is the best performer on ch is measure, the water industry result is cred itable. In th e same su rvey the water in dustry quality index was 88% compared with th e electricity suppliers at 89%, gas utilities at 90 %, banks at 84% an d local government at 82%. The water industry clearly perfo rms q uite well in ch is area. Proj ection of the most desirable operator man ner in the water supply industry averaged 55% and individual utility results ranged between 38% and 67% . The gas util ities returned a resu lt of 69%, electricity utilities 71 %, banks 67% and local councils 51 %. This result clearly reflects the stronger marketing focus o f the energy and banking sectors. One general measure of enquiry resolution skills is the percen tage of calls chat scored "yes" for all fou r elements (probing caller needs, produce k nowledge, providing a clear outcome and operator courtesy) . The water industry scored 46% compared with 54% for the energy u tilities, 52% fo r banks and 32% for councils. O n chis measure, the water industry performance is below che energy utilities

104 MARCH 2004

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and banks but well above the local government level. Again , chis result is indicative of the market com petition prevailing in the vario us sectors. W h ile water utilities generally do n ot compete for m arker share, they are in a com petitive environ men t. For example, in Victoria, the government aims "co stimulate competition by comparison" between the major water utilities (Essential Services Com mission, Industry Performance reports, 2002) . One Performance Indicator, again in Victoria, is the percentage of calls answered within 30 seconds (O ffice of the RegulacorGeneral, Water I nd ustry-Perform ance Ind icators, effective 1 July 1998) . C learly, there is a strong case fo r conducting regular ongoing call centre performance monitoring in rhe water supply ind ustry. Many of Australia's major organisations do mo nitor their call centres and value the insigh ts and informatio n it gives chem: "The CSBA mystery shopping product is a key element of City West Water's Call Centre continuous improvement strategy. Ir provides us with valuable reporting and decision-making in formation and is a key driver of the significa nt and sustained improvement in our performance in the past two years." Margaret Healy, General Manager, Customer Service, City West Water.

Note: Strict confidentiality is observed by CSBA and no data is ever released that identifies specific competitors or other organisations. However, within each survey report, there is ample information that shows how the client utility/company is placed in relation to the sector as a whole.

The Author Paul van Veenendaal is a D irector of Customer Service Benchmarking Australia. He has a B Eng and MBA and has worked in a variety of industries from pump manufacturing co p rinting fo r the last 25 years with a key focus on business imp rovement particularly in che area of understanding and improving custom er satisfaction. E m ail: Paul@csba.com. au


FLASH: AN INTEGRATED CALL CENTRE S Soon, R Payne Abstract Yarra Valley Water, in partnership with LogicaCMG, has integrated service faults handling with account enquiry handling by the FLASH software (Fault Logging and Service Help). It has demonstrated char by shi fting our thinking from being "asset" focus ro "customer" focus: • it is possible to INCREASE service while REDUCING Cost.

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Background

rationale for this project was based on the following:

Traditionally, utilities have operated on the basis of separating "service faults" (emergency) call handling from "account enquiry" call handling. The service faults call handling function is usually a centralised call centre operating 24 hou rs a day, 7 days a week, while the account enquiries are normally handled by a separate call centre operating d uring business hours, Monday to Friday. Some utilities have gone as far as to colocate these call handling functions within a single call centre, bur usually the functions themselves have been resourced and managed separately. In 2001, Yarra Valley Water made a decision to combine these functions into a single "Customer Contact Centre". Staff working in the Customer Contact Centre handle both emergency/fault and account enquiry calls.

Business Drivers The primary aims of the project were to provide higher levels of customer service and increase efficiency. Yarra Valley Water is a National Customer Service Award Winner fo r Service Excellent from the C ustomer Service Institute of Australia. The The system won the GITA Excellence Award and the Commonwealth Government Technology Productivity Gold Award in 2003.

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• improving service, by providing customers with account related enquiries the ability to con tact us outside of normal working hours, and eliminating approximately 15,000 unnecessary call transfers p.a. between the service faults and

Additional Intangible Benefits of Flash The Department Employees Better diagnosis of service problems Improved staff satisfaction, measured by Employee Opinion Survey Staff Turn over down from 38% to 12% Sick Leave reduced by 20% and continuing to decline Increased training emphasis on service quality, rather than technology processes

The Department Reduced operating cost by $500,000 p.a. Improvement in KPls: Telephone response times, Customer Satisfaction Further initiatives

People Ongoing refinement of front-end systems Further process integration with billing functions Monitor progress of speech recog nition technology

System Telephone response times Customer Satisfaction

account enquiry call centres. This also reduced cost by eliminating the double handling of the above-mentioned calls, • improving service th rough developing call centre staff experience and expertise across the broader range ofYarra Valley Water services. In addition, it was expected that staff job satisfaction wo uld be enhanced with a consequent positive impact on customer service and p roductivity, and • as both call centres were operating to achieve a target service level of 90% of all calls answered within 15 seconds, cost savings could be achieved in rostering staff to service peak periods for the combined service fault/account enquiry functions. In addition, costs could be further reduced as a result of economies of scale achieved through integration to one call centre.

Transition We had initially attempted to implement account enquiry call handling th rough our service faults call centre, bur without success, primarily due to the user complexity (at char rime) of o ur billing system. T here was also a degree of reluctance on rhe part of rhe existing service faul ts staff, who were very experienced technical operators with an "assets" orientation, operating on continuous shift arrangements. In effect, the decision to combine call raking functions into a single integrated call centre resulted in the closure of our traditional 24 x 7 service faults centre and

water

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customer service the expansion of our existing account enquiry call centre co a 24 x 7 op eration. Account enqui ry staff now handles faultrelated calls coo. Some of rhe service faulrs operators chose co transition inco the new C usco mer Contact Centre, while others chose voluntary redundancy.

The Project

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YJI: WILL SEIID A SUPERVISOR OUT TO ASSESS If asked when? Complete Expeclollon and Effecl fields and then refer to t he D~ dote In the Rtlrltv• S•Nico R•qu•.slP" nel MAHDATORV IIIFORMATIOH to be recorded in Customer

Oet,ils - ~.re police In ettendonce? - Who cou sed lhe domoge? (Nome, Address, Telephone Number and Reglstretlcn of lhe vehicle 11 ovoiloble).

ADVISE CUSTOMER The stimulus for transitio ning to an - W e may need t o inlerrupt the woter supply to underloke repoirs . integrated call centre was through the - Y ou mlghl like t o put some water os ide • To ovoid domoging your hot woter service w e suggest tho! you design of a new service fau lts call clo not use your hot weter whie the weter is off handling system: FLASH (Faulr Logging And Service Help). Figure 2. Service Request Assistance Screen. T he fundamental parad igm shi ft for Yarra Valley Water was that raking rhe initial call was nor co b e focussed on T h e system is highly intuitive and easy co complex diagnosis or assumptions regarding use, and there is less need for fi eld/assets the problem, bur to actually listen and log expertise. what rhe customer was celling us. The system reduces risk of inappropriate T he system, which was designed and jobs by reducing the amount of operacor built in-house in partnership with Logica judgment required and generating the work CMG (Soon and Payne, 2003) reduced the order based on the cusromer's description need for operator judgment and technical and the in-built diagnostic capability of the assessment, by utilising in-built menu system. systems chat the operator uti lises to The risk of inappropriate job allocation is generate a work order for ou r maintenance fu rther reduced by our contractor's contractor co respond to. standard procedure of inspecting jobs prior A key featu re of the system is that it was co crew assignment bu ilt co mirror the n atural fl ow of

conversation with a customer in raking an emergency/fault-related call. The system utilises drop-down options in sim ple "customer speak" (as op posed co "assets speak"), which rhe operator utilises to record the customer's issue (F igure 1).

The Integration Tool The system determines the type of fault based on the in fo rmation provided by the customer. Ir then provides rhe operato r with a script to assist in respo nding to the customer. The scripts include such information as when to expect a crew on sire, actions the customer can rake to minimise any impacts as a result of the fau lt (e.g alternative sources of water in the event water supply is interrupted) etc (F igure 2).

Training T raining of the existing account enq uiry staff in service fault call handl ing was extensive, with derailed training covering emergency call handli ng, policy and p rocesses and system operation. Scaff from the service fa ults call centre conducted much of chis training. In addition, staff participated in sire visits, co experience first hand rhe type of works generated through these calls. Following chis , the staff were then "buddied" by an experienced operator for 4 weeks before being able co rake calls individually.

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MARCH 2004

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92%. Figure 3 shows rhe improvement in service levels and satisfaction experienced by our customers The project delivers over $500,0 00 p.a. savings with a payback of less than 12 months. Globally and in Australia, most utilities have not been able co rack.le chis integration issue. Wh ile t he technology is there today, rh e rel iance on the knowledge of a few staff, difficulties in integrating culture of sh ift workers and call centre staff and res istance to change h ave all been major barriers to o rganisatio ns raking the first step. We believe chis is Australia's first if not the World 's first based on o ur research and sire visits.

Future Since implementation of this project, the business has undertaken nu merous ocher initiatives using the same concept. T he system is being integrated with our billing fun ction to provide a process driven front end and will be used as a platform for customer self service via the Internee. Further innovation will be dependent on the maturity and sophistication of speech recognition technology.

The Authors Emergency Calls ServJce Levels

The field context help for each field in FLASH is automatically disp layed as the operator tabs th rough each field. Ir is d esigned co help non-expert operarors navigate their way through the FLASH panels. The system then , (based on in-built rules), assigns a priority to the work order. Typical work orders generated relate to sewer blockages, burst water mains and water quality complaints.

The implementation of chis project commenced in August 200 1, with completion in Septemb er 20 0 I with a budget of $283,000. Since chat time, we have viewed this initiative as a significant success, with service and cost objectives achieved Our latest Employee Opinion Survey shows that staff satisfaction in the C ustomer Contact Centre area rose from 54% co 61 % in the 6 months following the transitio n, while customer satisfaction (MILLWARD BROWN December 2002) shows char customers satisfi ed with the quality of emergency call handling has risen from 85% to

HFDA HVDRAIITlflRE PLUG- DAMAGED

-+- % of calls a nswered in 30

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Simon Soon is the Chief Information O fficer fo r Yarra Valley Water, Private Bag 1, Mitch am Vic 3132, email ssoon @yvw.com.au. Russell Payne is Seni or Software Engineer, LogicaCMG, 474 Flinders Street, Melbourne, Victoria 300 3, email: russell.payne@logicacmg.com

Reference Soon S, Payne R. 2003 Developing a Web Based Application integrating core business systems fo r Call Centre Operarions G ITA G IS lntegrarion Seminar Melbourne March 2002.


ODOUR SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW P Gostelow, R Stuetz Introduction Effective odour management requires measurement. Information on the sources of odours, their composition, their magnitude, and their impact on the community is required in order to assess control and minimisation opt ions. Where odo u r sources are investigated, the rare at which odours are emitted is important. Measurement of emission rates is often difficult and special techniques are required, but it is essential if the impact of the source is to be assessed. Man y odour measurements ca nnot be carried out in the fi eld and the odour sample must be transported to a laboratory. For the measurement to be meaningful, it Sample collection Source sampl ing Odou r measurement needs to be representative of the odour as & storage experienced in the field. H ence the sample muse be preserved so as not to d egrade or Figure 1. A reas to consider in odour sampling a nd measureme nt. change its character in the time between collection and measu rement. There are then three areas co consider (Figure 1). The sample must firs t be co llected from the so urce in a manner that allows the emission race to be derived. Secondly, the sample must be preserved d u ring transit from source to laborato ry. Finally, there is the odour measurement itself.

Odour measurement In considering odour measu remen t, it is important to d istinguish between odoranrs and odours. Odorants are th e compounds responsible for imparting an odour, whereas an odour is the perceived effect o f the odoran ts as detected and interpreted by the olfactory system. The linkage between odorant p roperties and odour percep tion is nor clear and as a result two b road classes of odour measurement are widely used: analytical measuremen ts, referring ro odorants, and sensory measurements, employing human subjects, relating to odours.

Sensory measurements Sensory measurements employ the human nose as the odour detector and hence relate d irectly ro the properties of odours as experie nced by humans. Unfortunately, there are many facrors other t han the properties of the odour itself that in fl uence perception. Principal amongst these is the variability in the sense of smell between different observers. This is minimised by using a panel of several observers, and averaging the panellist's results. Although there are several odour parameters which can be measured, for odour nuisance situations measurement of odour concentration is considered adequate. It is assumed that all odours are equally unpleasant and that annoyance is Nore t he session on Tuesday afternoon at Enviro 04.

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Figure 2. Basis of flux profile methods (after Esplin, 19 88). proportional co odour concentration. T he principal method for measuring odour concentration is threshold o lfaccomecry.

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The basis of threshold olfaccomecry is the dilution of a sample with odo ur-free air until it is reduced co its threshold concentration. The concentration is then expressed as the number of dilu tions required. Odou r concentrations may be referred co as Thresho ld Odour Numbers (TON) or D ilucion co T h resho ld (D/T ) ratios. Although these values are di mensionless, they are commo nly envisaged as physical mass concentrations, in which case they are termed odour units per cubic meter (ou m· 3). This has advantages in terms of consideration of o dour mass loadings or emission races, but ic muse be remembered chat it is an arbitrary designation. There are a number of variables involved in olfaccomecry which will affect measurements., and a lack o f control of these factors has in the past led co poor reproducibility between d ifferent laboratories, giving olfacco mecry having a poor repucacio n and makin g comparisons between d ifferent odour measurements diffi cult. Recognition of these problems has led co the develo pment o f standards for olfaccomecry. The most developed standard

fo r olfaccometry at present is the European standard (prEN13725) and subsequent Australian standard (AS/NZS 4323.3:200 1). Although the standardisation of olfaccometry has greatly improved the repeatability of odour measurement, it will never offer the levels of repeatability and accuracy characteristic of analytical measurements. In ad dition, olfacco mecry suffe rs from poor sensitivity, with the lowest concentrations chat can be measured being in che region of 20 co 50 ou m·3 (Vincent and Hobson, 1998) . T his limits che applicability of olfaccomecry co relatively odorous situations.

Analytical measurements Analytical measurements of odorant concentration potentially have the advantage of objectivity, repeatability and accuracy. T hey can also be related directly co theoretical models describing chem ical transformations or mass transfer. There are several problems with analytical measurements, including the complexity of many odours, low odorant concentrations and difficulty in relating measurements co odours as perceived by humans. Because most environmental odours are m ixtures, separation tech n iques such as gas chromatography are often used for qualitative or quantitative measurements of

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odour composition. In some cases, it is often fo und chat, although many odorants are p resent for a particular odour source, a single odorant is dominant. This can be very useful, as a measure of che single odo rant can be indicative of che o do ur as a whole. Hydrogen sulphide is a dominant odorant for many waste processes, and is often used as an odour marker. A key issue in analytical measurements is che relationsh ip between che concentration of odorants, and their effect on odours as perceived by h umans. For a single odoranc, a simple relationship would be expected. For m ixtures, the relationship is less clear as synerg istic or an rago niscic effects can occur, altho ugh recent work have shown char where one or a few odorants are identifi ed as dominant, reasonable relationships can be fo rmed between odorant and odour concentration.

Figure 4. Wind tunnel system in use on a landfil l site (courtesy of Silsoe Research Institute, UK).

Odour sampling Source sampling When sampling odour sources, ic is insufficient to measure odour concentration in isolatio n. It is also necessary ro measure rhe airflow associated with che source, because in most cases rhe od ou r

concentration and airflow are linked . T he important parameter is rhe odour emission rare, this being the produce of airflow and od our concentration. Emission races are used directly as design inputs for odour co ntrol equipment or as inputs for impact

assessment by dispersion modelling. T he method used for source sampling is as important as the method used for measurement, and rhe ease of source sampling depends o n rhe generic type of che source.

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Point and volume sources Point sources are where rhe odours are emitted from a single point, usually in a controlled man ner through a stack. These are the easiest types of source to measure, as the emission is confined within a duct, and representative concentrations and flow rares can easily be determ ined. Care is needed to ensure¡ that the flow rare is measured accurately. Odour samples are obtained by inserting a sampling probe into rhe stack and withdrawing the sample from the air flow. Volume sources are typically build ings where odorous air escapes either intentionally through ducts or unintentionally through doors, windows or other openings. Emission measurement is more complicated here as rhe emission points are less well defined and controlled. As for stack emissions, both airflow and odour concentration must be known. U nlike stacks, there are likely to be multiple inlet and outlets to the bui lding and these may be relatively uncontrolled. Area sources Area sources consist of surface emissions from a relatively large area. Examples would

110 MARCH 2004

water

be landfill sires, emissions from wastewater rank or lagoon surfaces, or from slurries applied ro farm land. Emission rare estimation is difficult for these sources as ir is nor easy to measure a representative odour concentration and there is usually no well defined airflow. Because of this, special methods have ro be employed for emission rare measurement. There are two classes of measurement which are commonly employed: 1. M icro-meteorological methods, whereby emission rare is inferred from downwind measurements of odour concentration and wind velocity; and 2. "H ood" methods, whereby a hood or wind runnel type apparatus is placed on the emission surface and air blown through ir. The emission rare is rhen given by rhe airflow through rhe hood and the odour concentration of rhe exit air.

Microme teorological methods Micrometeorological methods give an indirect measurement of emission rare by sampling wind velocity and odour concentration downwind of the emission source. Sampling may occur at various heights across rhe entire plume section, or

may employ models of spacial concentration within the plume to minimise the number of measurements required. T hese methods are generally more suited to analytical rather than sensory odour measurements, because concentrations are likely to be low and a large number of samples may be required. Flux profile methods (Figure 2) involve rhe measurement of wind velocity and pollutant concentrations across the section of rhe plume downwind of the emission source. The product of wind velocity and concentration at a particular point gives the fl ux at that point, and by averaging the point fluxes across the entire plume crosssection , the emission rate can be determined. The main disadvantage of this method is rhat a large number of measurements may be required to determine the spatially averaged fl ux, alchough the measurement can be reduced by using models of velocity and concentration profiles or using spatially-averagi ng measurement techniques such as Open-Pach Fo urier Transform Infra Red (OP-FTIR).


G aussian plume dispersion theory can also be applied to the predictio n of emission rares . By measuring downwind concentrations and relevan t m eteorological condi tions, dispersion m odels can be em p loyed to back-fi t emission rares to the measu red data. T his m ethod has the advantage of flexibili ty in terms of m easurement locations and sou rce geo m etries.

Hood methods The basis of hood m ethods is to isolate part of the em issio n surface with a cham b er and to induce an airflow through the chamber. T he emissio n rare is then obtained from the product of the airflow and the od our con centratio n . With knowledge of the surface area enclosed by rhe hood , the specific emission rare (the emission rare per unit area) can be determined and then scaled up fo r the entire emission surface. Whilst simple in principle, hood meth od s require care in their im p lementation if they are to yield reliable results char can be related to real-world emissio ns. Because hoods enclose part of

the emission surface, th ey h ave the po tential to airer emission rates. Care muse be taken to either march hood conditions with ambien t conditions, or to a ppreciate how h ood param eters may airer emission rares. T h e wind speed within the hood can be a particularly important fac tor as turbulent conditio ns can enhance emission rares fo r certain source types, particularly liq uids. H ood m ethod s also have the potential to change the p ressure within rhe chamber relative to am bient conditions which can suppress o r enhance emissions fro m soil surfaces. T here are three main types of emission hoods, differentiated mainly by fl ow rare: static flu x chambers, dy namic flux chambers, and wind runnels (Figure 3). T he basis o f the sraric flu x (or equilibrium) chamber is to sea l a po rtion of the emission surface and to allow the gas co ncentratio n to reach eq uilibrium w ithin the chamber. The emissio n rare is then determined by the change in emission co ncentratio n over time. Due to the stagnant co nd itions in these chambers, there is no enhancement of emission rare by turbulence. In additio n, emission rares will red uce over rime,

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approaching zero as equilibrium concentrations are reached. T hese chambers are likely to predict very low em ission rares as a result. D ynamic fl ux chambers are similar to static flux chambers bur use a m easured airflow as part of the em issio n rare m easurem ent. T he airflow used in dynamic flux chambers is small, typ ically in the range 1-40 L min· 1• T he emissio n rare is determined by the product of the air flow through the chamber and the odo ur concentration. The incorporation of an airflow imp roves the emissio n rate measurem ent from these devices, bur they are still susceptible to emission rate reductio n due to high concentrations w ithin the chamber if the airflow is low. T hese hoods can also suffer fro m high pressures . Wind tunnel system s (Figu re 4) utilise an airfl ow in the emissio n rare measurem ent but attempt to replicate the effects of the wine;! blowing over the emission su rface. T his allows the va riation in emission with velocity to be studied and enabling wind-runnel measurements to be related co fi eld conditions. Air fl ows are

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Selection of suirable wind-speeds for wind tunnels can be difficult. It is best if a range of velocities are used, and a relationship of emission rate with wind velocity is derived. This then allows the use of variable emission rates in subsequent modelling, which can have significant results on model output. A wind runnel system also needs to be practical in use. For measurement of emissions from liquid surfaces, wind runnel systems are typically fitted with floats or suspended above the liquid surface using ropes. The area covered by the hood is a trade-off between resolution and practicality - higher resolution would require larger areas and would make the hood system increasingly unwieldy.

very much higher than for dynamic flux chambers, with sweep velocities of0.l-5ms· 1 being common. For wind runnels to be useful it is necessary to have an understanding of the aerodynamics of the tunnel. It is essential chat concentration and air velocity measurements within the hood are representative of conditions at the emission surface and can be related to field conditions. The velocity and concentration profile in wind tunnels are especially important parameters in chis respect. Wind tunnel derived emission rates are often taken as a function of the average velocity over the runnel section, but would be better described with reference to the velocity profile, using a parameter such as the friction velocity. Concentration profiles within wind tunnels are distinctly nonlinear, having implications for the withdrawal of odour samples from the wind tunnel. To obtain representative concentration measurements, multi-point sampling may be used or the wind tunnel may utilise a contraction section at the outlet, creating increased turbulence and m1xmg.

Sample collection and storage Because olfactometry and several analytical measurements cannot practically be performed on site, there is a need to collect, preserve and store odour samples to allow transportation from site to laboratory. Sample collection for olfactometry tends to employ containers which are filled with the odo ur sample, sealed, and then transported to the laboratory. Generally, flexible plastic

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bags are used, although other methods such as stainless steel canisters are available, usually at significant weight and cost penalty. Typically, bags are filled using the 'lung' method, whereby the bags are filled by drawing the sample into them by subjecting the outside of the bag to negative pressure. It is important that the sample is not contaminated, lost or altered during storage. To this end, bags should be odour free, non-reactive and impermeable. Several materials have been used for odour bags, although several studies have concluded that tedlar bags are superior to ocher materials. Adsorption losses still occur in tedlar bags, and it is usually advised that samples are measured as soon as possible after collection, usually within 30 hours If significant moisture is present in odour samples, significant losses can occur if condensation occurs through partitioning of gases from gas to liquid phase. There is a great risk of condensation occurring where warm, moist samples are being collected and storage/measurement occurs at a lower temperature. Moisture losses can be reduced by the use of pre-dilution which is commonly recommended for sources with


greater than 90 % humidity and temperatures above 50°C. Care m use be taken to ensure chat the d ilution is performed accu rately otherwise significant errors will be introduced in the odour concentratio n measuremen t.

Conclusions • Al though standardisation of rest proced ures has greatly reduced the variability in odour measuremen t, it muse be appreciated chat there is srill a great p otential for variatio n in results due to the tech niq ues used for sa mpling.

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• Micromeceorological methods are best su ited to relatively large, hom ogeneous sources, especially where topography is u ncomplicated. • Hood methods are advantageous as they offer a more co ntrolled environment for measuring surface emissio n rates. The air velocity over the emission surface can be a key infl uence on emission rate. Fo r chis reason, hoods with low o r poorly d efin ed ai rfl ows such as static and dynamic flux chambers sh ould not be used for odour emission race measuremen t. T he wi nd -tunnel type hood is the method of cho ice, as it allows the relatio nsh ip of emiss ion rate with wi nd speed co be studi ed.

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• Sam ple collection and storage are required for olfactomecry. Bag sam pl ing is commonly used for reasons of performance, cost and pract icality. T edlar bags ap pear to be the b est op tio n fo r preserving samples, al though some losses over time are inevitable, hence the time d elay berween sampli ng and measurement sho uld be as small as possible. Preventio n of moisture within bags is essential and pre-d ilution sho uld be used for high humidity(> 90%) and h igh temperature (> 50°C) sam ples.

The Authors Dr Peter Gostelow (p.goscelow@cranfield.ac.uk) is a Research Fellow in the School of W ac~r Sciences at Cran field U n iversity (UK); he coordinates the UK Odour Nerwo rk (www.odournerwork.org) . Dr Richard Stuetz (r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au) is a Senior Lecturer in the Centre for Water and Waste Technology (CWWT) at the University of New South Wales and leads the Environmental Emissions and O dour P rogram within CWWT (www.odour. unsw.edu.au); he was p revio usly the princip le investigator for the UK Odour Network. References Bowke r, R.P.G , McGinley, C.M and Webster, N.A (1994) Esti mating odour em ission rates from wastewater treatment plants. Water En vironment Federation Specialty Conference: Odors and Volatile

Organic Compound Emission Control for Municipal and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Jacksonville, FL: 24-27 April 1994. pp. 3. 13 - 3.24 Esplin, G .J (I 988). Boundary layer emission moniroring. journal ofthe Air Pollution Control Association 38, 1158-1161. Gostelow P., Longhurst P.J., Parsons S.A. and Sruetz R.M. (2003) Sampling for Measurement ofOdours. IWA Scientific and Technical Report No. l 7, !WA Publishing, London . Kienbusch, M .R (1986). Measurement of gaseous emission rates from land surfaces using an emission Aux chamber. User's guide. EPA/6008/8-86/008. US Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas. Vincent, A. and Hobson, J. (1998) Odour Control. C IWEM Monographs on Best Practice No. 2, Chartered Inst itution of Water and Environmental Management, London.

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IMPEDIMENTS TO MUNICIPAL WATER RECYCLING IN AUSTRALIA S Khan, A Schafer, P Sherman Summary Local authorities in Australia face two great challenges when managing municipal waters: • Meeting future demands for clean water; and • Preserving and enhancing the health of waterways. Municipal water recycling provides a means co achieve these obj ectives by provid ing an alternative source of water as well as reducing sewage effluent d ischarges. This paper identifies the key factors impeding the race of growth of water

This paper was presented at the AW A Conference on Int egrated Catchme nt M anagem ent, September 2003.

recycling in Australia. Such knowledge will be crucial co our effective allocation of efforts and resources required for a rapid and susrainable change in the way we manage our water. While Australia currently recycles around 11 per cent of effl uents from sewage treatment planes, there is substantial scope for increase. The key impediments are identified as: • Lack of finan cial or economic incentive. • Concerns regarding the effective destruction of pathogenic micro-organisms. • Concerns regard ing the presence of some inorganic and organic chemical contaminants. • Coses, limitations and a lack of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of advanced water recycling tech nologies.

• Complications and coses associated with water transport and d istributions systems. • The need to ensure community acceptance. • Energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions. • Issues with storage systems fo r large volumes of recycled water. • Availability of suitable reuse applications. • Issues regard ing national guidelines and standards. Each of these issues will be addressed in a contemporary Australian context. Many of the identified constraints are of a practical narnre and will requi re engineering-type solutions. Ochers are inscirncional and relate to curren t public policies, authorities and regulations. H aving identified the impediments, the next cask is co investigate ways to ad d ress

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refereed paper


chem. An effective means of achieving chis is promoted through a mulridisciplined, integrated approach co research and management o f the coral water cycle. This approach should faci litate scientists, engineers, planning authorities, policymakers and regulators co find so und, workable solutions, thereby ensuring a sustainable future for water management in Australia.

30 25

Introduction Current estimations are char Perch will require new water sources by between 2005-2007; Brisbane by 20 15; Canberra by around 20 17; and Melbourne by 2040 (Senate Environment Communications Information Technology and rhe Arcs References Committee, 2002). This is at a rime of strong opposition co new dams and extractions, along with rapidly growing support for replenished environmental flow regimes co many natural systems. Furthermore, increasingly stringent environmental regulation is rendering the practice of sewage discharge difficult co sustain. D ischarge requires derailed and careful consideration of the fu ll environmental impacts. Contemporary

TOC(mg/l)

UV

Figure 1. TOC, COD and chlorophyll concentratio ns after successive water treatment applications in the AWRDP (Khan et al., 2003). environmental legislation maintains char discharge is nor a favou rable op tion for sewage efflu ent and should only be considered once all ocher possibilities have been rejected. The most plausible approach co longterm sustainability of Australian water resources involves the treatment and subsequent reuse of municipal sewage. In

additio n co conserving or supplementing fresh water supplies, recycling offers an environmentally sound alternative co effluent discharge. During rhe 1990s, Australian towns and cities began experimenti ng with small-scale water reuse programs. A national average of 11 % of the effluent from sewage treatment planes was allocated for reuse during 2000


water recycling (CSIRO, 2002). Of chis, around 32% was used in the mining industry and 28% in agriculture. Much o f the remainder was used to irrigate parks and spores grounds. Recycled water in some areas, such as Rouse Hill (NSW), Newington (NSW) and New Haven Village (SA), is redistributed to households for limited use via dual reticulation supply systems. However, such projects are exceptional and account fo r only a very small portion of total water use in Australia. There are now strong moves to embrace water recycling as a major component o f demand management strategies for all major cities within Australia. For example, the Victorian Govern ment has announced a water reuse target in Melbourne of 20% by 2 010 and the West Australian Government has committed to a 20% reuse target for Perth by 2012. I n Brisbane, water recycling is promoted largely as a means of reducing point source d ischarges and improving water quality in Moreton Bay. However, before large-scale, viable and sustainable water recycling can become a reality, there is evidence that Australia must overcome some technological and institutional co nstraints. These co nstraints are outlined herein and indicate areas where

further research efforcs are urgently required.

Financial and Economic Incentive A major obstacle to widespread water reuse in Australia has been the historic undervaluing and under-prici ng o f fresh water supplies. The small financial costs incurred by the use and disposal of fresh water supplies have p rovided little m arkerforce incen tive for water recycli ng applications. Ac present, municipal water around Australia generally costs less than $ 1 per kilolitre to the consumer. The low cost stems from che lack of requirement to include catchment management and protection of effluent-receiving environments in current pricing regimes. In many cases, the consumer also pays sewerage charges chat include the cost of treatment to a standard that is acceptable for d ischarge to the environmen t. T hese are separately accounted for and not integrated with the costs associated with producing and d elivering potable water. T he cost o f producing and delivering recycled water is, in almost all current circumstances, greater than che costs for fresh water. However, users are u niformly charged less for recycled

water than fo r fresh water d ue it its more limited use. A more transparent "whole of water cycle management" costing and pricing system would provide more app ropriate price signals and incentives to consumers. Addressing th is issue of incentive through changes in water-pricing structures wo uld not be a simple task, and the cost of municipal water usage is potentially highly contentious. Since good-quality water is a basic human requi rement, it is essential that some quantity remains highly affordable to all. Further controversy could arise over pricing for large commercial users including farme rs. This is illustrated by recent comments by the Federal Minister fo r Agriculture, who expressed concern for proposals " ... based on the id ea that farmers should pay more for water and be compensated by Australians paying more for homegrown food. W hy would Australian consumers pay more for homegrown food [he asked] when imported p roducts grown with free water could be so much cheaper?" (Truss, 2003).

Pathogenic Organisms A survey undertaken in Queensland indicated that public health and

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water recycling environmental issues associated with microorganisms were of greatest concern co current and prospective users of recycled waters (H iggins et al., 2002). Pat hogenic organisms, known co be p resent in raw municipal sewages, include helm inths, viruses, bacteria and parasitic protozoa. Infect ious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were recen tly reported in 40% of final disinfected effl uents from six water recycling facilities in the USA (Gen naccaro et al., 2003). However, che concentratio ns reported were extremely low and comparable co many narural water sou rces. O f rhe range of microorganisms known co be p resent, enteric viruses are considered co have rhe greatest potential co spread th rough the reuse of created sewage (Fane et al., 2 002). T he high numbers excreted by infected individ uals and the d ifficu lties associated with physical removal are both primary contribu tors co che dissem ination of these organisms. T herefore, contact with t reated sewage through increased races of water recycli ng will always involve so me increased risk of waterborne disease. A compounding facto r is the lack of knowled ge about the survival of viruses in

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the environment or their susceptibility co disinfectants. I n additio n, analytical tech niques have limitations that prevent rhe accu rate enumeration of viruses in water. Furthermore, when we do detect viruses in water, we do not kn ow what levels will cause infection or d isease. Consequently, risk assessmenc app roaches are limited.

Inorganic and Organic Chemical Contaminants Sewage effluents typically carry significant load s of inorganic and organic ch emicals, many of which are nor removed

d uring co nvention al biological treatment processes. In some cases, it is unknown whether so me su bstances are removed during treatment or if rhe level of reductio n is sufficient co p revent impacts. Inorganic salts such as sodium chloride and a suite of trace elemencs including heavy metals may be incroduced co irrigated pasrures and associated waterways via recycled water. In dry cl imates, much of che irrigation water evaporates and the concentration of salts in the drainage can be much higher than in the water itself, posing


potential threats co groundwater quality (Bouwer, 2000). Saliniry is already a major environmental problem in many pares of Australia and no warer management program can afford to exacerbate ir in chis way. During the last decade, questions have been raised regarding rhe effects of dilute organ ic chemical co ntaminants in recycled wat er. Factors contributing to rhe observed persistence of some compounds in sewage effluents include rypically high water solubility and, in some cases, a resistance to aerobic biodegrad acion.

An increasingly documented class of trace organic contaminants in warer are rhe "endocrine disrupting chemicals". M uch attention has been devoted co natural and synthetic steroidal hormones, which are shown co induce biological effects on some o rganisms ar part per trillion concentrations. Some steroidal hormones are poorly removed in conventional water treatment processes. Ocher chemicals exhibiting sim ilar effects and known co be present in sewages include some plasticisers, pesticides and degradation produces of some detergents. The presence and implications

of endocrine disruprers in sewage and rhe environment has been discussed from an Australian perspective (Ying & Kookana, 2002). Further widespread attentio n has been given to the broad range of p harmaceutically active compounds which have been reported in municipal wastewarers in many parts of rhe world (Andreozzi et al., 2003, Huggett et al., 2003). Studies undertaken in Australia have idenrified a range of analgesic, antii nflammatory, anciconvulsant, antihypertensive, anriopiace, lipidregularing and even illicit drugs in municipal sewage (Khan & Ongerth, 2003). No direct public health implications of these compounds in recycled warer have been proven. However, the cu rrent concerns are considered justified because potential effects of ingestion or agriculrural application of these complex, low concentration mixtures remain largely unknown. There exists a huge array of bio logically active compounds, many more of which have nor been individually idenrified , but are likely to be presenr (Khan & O ngerch, 2004).

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Recent attention in rhe USA has been given to the detection of the potent carcinogen, nirrosodimerhylamine (NDMA). NDMA has been reported in chlorinated sewages intended for reuse and is believed to be formed as a by-p roduce of the d isinfection process (Mitch & Sedlak, 2002). The formation of chis substance may limit the form of d isinfection applied to recycled warer. Importantly, many of the key chemicals o f current concern in sewage effluents were unknown or barely considered a decade ago. Their increased races of detection reflect rapid advances in analytical capabi lities rather than significanrly increased concentrations of most compounds. Ir is therefore likely char new compounds will continue to be idenri fied and rhe authors believe char a complete chemical understanding of water intended for reuse is nor currently realistic.

Advanced Water Recycling Technology Advanced water recycling technologies have varied potenrials and limirarions in rhe rreacmenr and removal of biological and chemical contaminants in water inrended for reuse.

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Physical methods of removing ch emical and microbial components have traditionally relied on adsorption of target contaminants on either fixed solid surfaces (as in sand or granular activated carbon fi ltration) or on suspended particulates such as iron or alumin ium oxyhydroxides or powdered activated carbo n. Some further ad vanced physical treatment p rocesses rely more on size-exclusion than si mply on adsorption processes, and hence present a more reliable barrier. Membrane filtration processes (e.g. microfilcracion, nanofilcration and reverse osmosis) may result in significa ntly improved treatment of some key compounds (for example see Schafer et al, 2002, Schafer et al., 2003).These processes, however, may be prone to foulin g and are highly energy intensive. Chemical d isinfection and treatment of organics is most com monly undertaken with oxidants such as chlorine or ozone. These processes may result in a direct molecular degrad ation of che target molecules, or render by-products more amenable to a seco ndary physical o r biological removal seep. Chemical treatment processes can be highly effective, however

in some cases they can also be expensive to install and operate. Since they degrade, rather than remove, contami nants, further issues arise with degradation- and byproducts which may, in some instances, be of greater concern than the initial contaminants . Photochemical disinfection and degradation of organ ics may be induced by exposure to nacural su nlight or facilitated by an ultraviolet radiation (UV) source. W hen waters are exposed to UV radiation, reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen may be produced. T hese in cum may react to d isin fect as well as to degrade trace o rganic species. The p rimary mechan ism of UV disinfection is to initiate photochemical reactio ns, which effecti vely damage ch e DNA molecule so char cell reproduction can no longer occur. Photochemical treatment relies on low curbidicy in the water, to which recycled waters do not always co nfor m. VY degradation of organics is srill an emerging tech nology, however very high dosages are likely ro be required fo r che removal of some recalcitrant species. The Q ueensland Government, as a component of che Queensland Water

Recycling Strategy, commissioned che construction of an Advanced Water Recycling Demonstration Plant (AWRDP) (Gibson & Apostolidis, 2001 ). The AWRDP includes lime clarificatio n, d issolved air flotation, dual media filt ration, ozonacion, biological activated carbon filtration, microfilcration, nanofiltrarion, reverse-osmosis and UV-disinfection treatment capabilities. A scudy und ertaken at the AWRDP examined the efficacy of a n umber of advanced processes to remove some key bulk organic parameters as well as some specific pharmaceutical and endocrine disrupting compounds from m u nicipal sewage eilluent (Khan et al., 2003). The results of rhe removal of the three bulk o rganic para meters, total organ ic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD ) and chlorophyll (as a bulk indicator for algae) are presented in Figure I. W hile the study indicated that excellent removal could be achieved fo r most of the rested specific compounds, some incomplete removals observed during key processes require further investigation.

Transport and Distribution Systems Many of the restrictions placed on recycled water may further impact the

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manner in which ic is co be discribuced. For example, guidelines in NSW rescricc recycled wacer from uses including showers, cloches washing and swimming pools (NSW Recycled Wacer Coordinacion Commiccee, 1993). Consequently, dual reticulation wacer supply syscems, comprising dedicaced pipes, caps and fittings, are necessary. Further infrascruccure costs and barriers co the recrofitting of escablished plumbing may result. Dual reciculacion systems also require additional on-going management co prevenc potential cross-conneccions with potable water systems (de Rooy & Engelbrechc, 2003). Further concerns associated wi ch discribucion syscems for recycled water arise from the increased potential for biofilm growch in pipelines (H iggins et al., 2002). Biolfilms can dissipate disinfection residuals, alter water qualicy and pocentially support che growth of pachogenic bacceria. The first and largest dual-reticulation scheme in Auscralia was escablished ac Rouse Hill in NSW. The cosc of supplying recycled wacer co che homes in Rouse Hill remains heavi ly subsidised in order co favourably compece with che available pocable water supply. This has rendered the cosc-effecciveness of the scheme questionable (Law, 1996). A newer recycling and dual-reticulacion system is operaced by che Sydney Olympic Park Authoricy at Newingcon. The conscruction and operacion of chis scheme was mbsidised by che NSW Governmenc as a demonscration project. However, further comparable projects will rely on cosc reduccions or changes in pricing policy for their economic viabilicy (Senace Environmenc Communications Information Technology and che Arcs References Commiccee, 2002). Alchough che greatest volumes of sewage are generated in the major cicies, che greacesc water demand is cypically in agricultural areas. The need co transporc recycled waters long distances requires additional major infrascruccure, which adds significantly co the cosc. The mosc subscancial piece of infrastruccu re for che cransporc of recycled wacer is currently the Virginia Pipeline in Souch Auscralia (Kracman et al., 2001). Since 1999, recycled wacer from Adelaide's largesc wacer creacment plant has been delivered via the pipeline co agriculcural areas in Northern Adelaide and the Barossa Valley. A similar scheme has been initiaced co deliver wacer from Hobarc co che Coal River Valley in Tasmania (Mclncyre, 2003). However, a proposal fo r a pipeline from Brisbane co supply recycled water to che Lockyer Valley and Darling Downs (QLD)

has been shelved since the release of a reporc questioning the schemes financial viabilicy (South Ease Queensland Recycled Water Task Force, 2003). The cosc of supplying che water over such a discance was escimaced ac up to $1000 per ML, well above che $150 per ML offered by the pocencial end users. Local and stare governmencs may partially overcome the need for lo ng distance water transport by encouraging water thirscy industries to locace around the alcernacive source of water. One proposal suggests char flower nurseries could be clustered around sewage treatment planes. Community Acceptance A recent study has indicated scrong communicy support (99%) among Australians for water reuse for applicacions such as wacering lawns and gardens (McKay & Hurlimann, 2003). However, this support drops off sharply as the incended uses become more personal. Only moderace support was reported for cloches washing (49%) and less than I% support fo r the supplemencation of drinking wacer. A survey of Auscralian households currently connected ro dual reticulation systems ind icated a belief chat recycled water should cost less than potable water and chat very few would be willing co pay more for wacer as a conservation measu re (Marks et al., 2003). Communicy concerns will significantly impact on the way wacer is ultimately recycled in Auscralia, as they have in other councries. In the USA, lack of public acceptance of potable reuse has resul ced in the abandonment of a number of major water recycling schemes in cities such as Denver, San Diego and Tampa (DeSena, 1999, Okun, 2002). Already in Australia, a lack of communicy acceptance has prevented an indirect potable reuse scheme from proceeding in Caboolcure, Queensland during che 1990s. The political fallout amibuced to chis incident has bred reluctance among other govern ing bodies to make policy scatements on wacer recycling wichouc assurances of community support (Gibson & Apostolidis, 2001). Effective water awareness and educacional programs are needed to build and maintain broad communicy support for potential water recycling programs. Energy Demand and Greenhouse Gas Emissions More scringenc creacment requirements for whac is currently deemed wascewater may require significanc increases in energy use and associaced emissions of carbon dioxide. Many of the most promising advanced wacer creacment cechnologies

refereed paper


water recycling includi ng advanced oxidation and membrane filtratio n processes are h ighly energy intensive. Accordi ngly, it has been estimated that Melbourne's 20% recycli ng target co uld result in the p roductio n of 28,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (Fisher, 2003). Secondary treatment of wastewater produces considerable quantities of combustible "biogases". These gases may be more efficiently harnessed and utilised to off-set the increased energy requirements. Som e major co mponents of biogases are also g reenhouse gasses, for example methane. T herefo re combustion of biogases, while still producing carbon dioxid e, may result in less net-green house gas p roduction than would result from nor harnessing the bi ogas and producing energy fro m elsewhere. The need to transport recycled water over large distances will require fu rther energy input and resul t in fu rther greenho use gas em iss ions. These issues were cited as key obstacles leading to the recent abando nment of a major proposed water recycling scheme in South East Queensland (So uth East Q ueensland Recycled Water Task Force, 2003). In so me circumstances

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however, there may be energy offsets due to the reduced requirement to treat and pu mp fres h water supplies. Effective means of energy accounting need ro be developed to consider these factors app ropriately.

Storage Systems In order to effectively recycle large volumes of water, consid erable water storage capacity will commonly be necessary. T his is often particularly the case in agricultural reuse schemes where the demand for water may be highly seasonal. If the recycled water is to be kept isolated fro m fresh water supplies, new segregated storage so lutions will be required. The CS IRO have co nducted extensive research in to the use of aquifers to store recycled water in South Australia (Dillo n et a/., 1999). Advantages of such schemes incl ud e enh anced microbial die-off and the mi nimisatio n of loss by evapo ration. W h ile the process is highly promisi ng, a number of obstacles remain to be overco me. C lo gging of the aquifers and rhe need to ensure protection of native gro undwater and geochemistry are amo ng the con ce rns.

Australian guidelines on rhe quality of treated wastewater intended for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) largely neglect the issue of trace organics, and a lack of relevant knowledge is recognised (Dillon & Pavelic, 1996). H owever, preliminary indications suggest that some key organics, including some pharmaceuticals (Khan & Rorije, 2002) and endocrine disrupters (Ying et al., 2003) may largely survive the aquifer storage p rocesses.

Reuse Applications T he ability to identify suitable appli cations for rhe use of new recycled water in Austral ia will be crucial to its success. Although ho useholds account for only around 8% of water consump tio n, there remains significant poten tial demand for recycled water in urban areas. For example, the 4 millio n residents of Sydney consumed around 1.8 GL per day of potable water during 2002. Of this, it is estimated that only around 6% was used for consumption and food preparation as shown in Figure 2 (Sydney Water, 1999). T his presents an opportunity for reuse applicatio ns as a substitute for much of the remaining potable water consumed.

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water recycling Also shown in Figure 2, agricultural industries are by fa r the largest consumers of water, (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2000). Substitution by recycled water fo r current agricultural applicat ions will result in more water being available for critical potable applications and to maintain the health of rivers and waterways. T here is also significa nt potential to achieve substitution of recycled water for current industrial applications that consume potable water. An example is the Illawarra Wastewater Strategy which is currently u nder co nstruction (Syd ney Water, 2003). W hen completed, chis p roject will deliver 20 ML/day of recycled water from che upgraded Wollongong Sewage T reatment Plant fo r use by the Bl ueScope Steel manufacturing plant. T his will replace industrial use of potable water currencly supplied from the Avon Dam. However, suitable users of large vol umes of recycled water are not always immediately fo rthcoming. An example highlighting potential d ifficulties is the South Boulder (WA) water recycling plant. T his plant began operation in 20 02, however the town council had yet to establish a market for the surplus effluent a year later and highly treated water was going to waste. At that time the city en gineering services d irector was quoted in che local press as stating "if we are lucky enough co fi nd a market fo r all the effluent we could break even bu t at chis stage it is like similar planes and is being funded by sewage rates" (Tasker, 2003). This situation is fo r an isolated town, with considerable mining activity, in a very dry region of Western Australia.

National Guidelines and Standards In 1994 the Council of Australian Governments initiated the National Water Refo rm Framework for the management

and use o f water across Australia. However, ac the time, water recycling measu res were not included. More recencly, fede ral and scare governments have agreed to pu rsue possibilities fo r broadening the Framework co includ e water recycling in u rban areas. An anticipated ou tcome is the "National Guidelines on Water Recycling: Managing Health and Environmental Risks", the firs t stage of wh ich is not expected co be completed until December 2004 (NRMMC, 2003) . T he existing principal sou rce of standards in Australia is the guideline for che use of reclaimed water prepared by che National Water Quality Management Strategy (2000). W h ile chis document provides guidelines for a national approach, Scace governments currently develop their own complimentary rulings. T hese are not enforceable standards, however, and reuse schemes still require approval of local health authorities and local governmen t (Mitchell et al., 1999). National guidelines and standards based o n appropriate system management criteria are urgencly needed co complement guidelines o n quality requirement fo r particular applications. System management criteria would incl ude guidelines o n community consultation, system design, risk management, operation and maintenance, monitoring and communication related to both treatment and d istribution systems. Until such national guidelines and water quality standards exist, long term plann ing and development of reuse schemes will remain hindered. T he lack of defi n ite system management criteria and che cu rrent singular focus on water quality parameters will be a deterrent to many potential users and suppliers of recycled water who are cautious of legal implications.

Conclusion and Recommendations The urgent need fo r widesp read municipal water recycling in Australia has been established. W hile che uptake has increased over che lase decad e, there remains considerable sco pe for new and expanded sustainable recycl ing applications chat will result in improved sustainable water use efficiency. A broad range of scientific, engineering and institutional imped iments have been identified here as factors limiting furt her progress. To overcome the identified obstacles, a dedicated commitment to excellent science and engineering, backed by strong and sometimes challenging policy will be required. T his identifi cation of impediments to water recycling h ighlights areas of greatest need for research. H owever, relative returns anticipated from specific research areas are not identifi ed here. Rather, ic is envisaged chat a broad-ranging multid isciplinary approach will be necessary to achieve signifi cant progress. For example, advances in science and engi neering are, in isolation, of limited value. T hey may only become practice to che extent chat community acceptance, economic incentives and government regulation allow. Conversely, comm unity acceptance of the need for water recycling can achieve little without the means to effectively creac water to standards suitable for reuse. A multidisciplinary integrated app roach to research may in itself lead co imp roved integration of water management. T he structure of institutions in Australia lends itself to complex administration of waterrecycling proposals by governmen ts . Institutio nal arrangements prevent the integrated management o f water as different authorities are responsible fo r each of che varyi ng aspects of the water cycle. Consequen cly research in water

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management is segregated and thus impeded by the structure of research institutions along the arrangements of government. One approach to overcoming some of these d iffi culties would be to p romote and foster increased collaboration berween d isciplines and institutions. Collaboration should involve an optimal d istribution of casks and responsibilities along with rapid and broad d issemination of research fi ndings. Increased multidisciplinary collaboration may be encouraged as a component to be considered in research fund ing awards. More d irectly, management and regulation should be undertaken in a manner not delineated by the varying interests of local, state and federal governments o r their associated institutions. The curren t multitude of authorities responsible for catchment, water treatment and distribution, sewage treatment and d ischarge, may be better structured as a single large authority responsible for the whole of the water cycle. This would faci litate an understanding that terms such as "drinking water" and "wastewater" refer only to temporary stages of a continuing cycle. Similarly, stare and nat ional research organ isations should be more closely in tegrated. T hese organisatio ns could' be st ructu red in a manner that better reflects the continu um of the water cycle rather than a segregation into largely artificial compartments. Integrated water management would naturally lead to more transparent costing and pricing structures for wacer. T he incl usio n of coses such as catchment management and sewage treatment in the delivery of water co co nsumers would be facili tated. T h is would enable a more realistic comparison of the costs of recycled water and fresh water supplies. Likewise, communi ty education will be most effectively achieved by instill ing an understanding of the coral water cycle. Education programs that enable an appreciation of a broad approach co water management will aid in the quest for community acceptance of the need and ad vantages of water recycling. T hrough a commitment to research, consultation and collaboration, Australia may be confident of overcoming imped iments currently posed to large-scale water recycling. Successfull y implemented, a mulridisciplined, integrated approach to water management and research offers prom is ing returns for the sustainable management of our natural water resources fa r into the future.

refereed paper

Acknowledgments

References

The authors thank Michael M uston, Stewart Russell, Lis Gerrard and Embrey Bronstad for their helpful comments and suggestions o n this manuscript. This work is fu nded by the Commonwealth D epartment of Education Science and Training fo r the p roject Integrated Concepts

Andreozzi R, Raffaele M. & Nicklas P (2003) Pharmaceuticals in STP effluents and their solar photodegradation in aquatic environment. Chemosphere, 50 (10), 13191330.

for Reuse of Upgraded Wastewater in Australia (CG030025) as part of the European Union 5th Framework Project

AQUAREC: Integrated Concepts for Reuse of Upgraded Wastewater (EVK l -CT-20020 0130).

The Authors Stuart Khan is a Research Fellow, Environ mental Engineering, U n iversity of Wollongong, skhan@uow.ed u. au; Andrea Schafer is a Senior Lecturer, Environmental Engineering, U niversity of Wollongo ng, a.schafer@uow.edu.au; Paul Sherman is a Principal Scientist, Water Sciences U nit, Environmental Sciences D ivision, Environmental Protection Agency (Q ueensland), paul.sherman@epa.qld.gov.au

Australian Bureau of Srarisrics (2000) Water Account for Australia 1993-94 to 1996-97. Car No. 4610.0. Canberra. Bouwer H. (2000) Groundwater problems caused by irrigation with sewage effluent. j. Environ. Health, 63(3), 17-20. CS IRO (2002) Submission to the Sranding Committee on t he Environment, Com munications, Informat ion Technology and the Arts: Urban Water Use and Management in Australia. de Rooy E. & Engelbrecht E. (2003) Experience with residential water recycling at Rouse Hill In Proceedings of Water Recycling Australia 2nd National Conference, Brisbane. DeSena M. (1999) Public opposition sidelines indirect potable reuse projects. Water Environ. Technol., 11(5), 16- 18. Di llon P, Pavelic P, T oze S, Ragusa S, Wright M, Peter P, Martin R., Gerges N. & RinckPfeiffer S. ( 1999) Storing recycled water in an aquifer: benefits and risks. Water, 26 (5), 21-29 .

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water recycling Dillon P. & Pavelic P. (1996) Guidelines on the quality of scormwater and treated wastewater fo r injection into aquifers for scorage and reuse. Urban Water Research Assoc. of Aust., Report No. Research Report No 109. Fane S A, Ashbolt NJ & White S B (2002) Decentralised urban water reuse: The implications of system scale for cost and pathogen risk. Water Sci. Technol., 46(6-7), 281-288. Fisher P (2003) Water industry guilty of burning too much energy In Australian Financial Review, 14 August, pp. 16. Gennaccaro A L, McLaughlin M R, QuinteroBerancourr W, Huffman D E & Rose,] B (2003) Infectious crypcosporidium parvum oocysrs in final reclaimed effluent. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(8), 4983-4984. Gibson HE & Aposrolidis,N.(2001) Demonstration, the solution to successful community acceptance of water recycli ng. Water Sci. Technol., 43(10), 259-266. Higgins], Warnken J, Sherman PP & T easdale P R (2002) Survey of users and providers of recycled water: quality concerns and direct ions for applied research. ~\7ater Res., 36 5045-5056. Huggett D B, Khan I.A. Foran C M & Schlenk D (2003) Determination of bera-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in united stares wasrewarer effluent. Environ. Po/tut., 121(2), 199-205. Khan SJ & Ongerrh J E (2003) Pharmaceutically active compounds in Australian sewage In Proceedings of Chemicals of Concern in Water, Australian Water Association, Sydney, NSW, Australia . Kl1an SJ & Ongerrh J E (2004) Modelling of prescription pharmaceutical residues in Australian sewage based on quantities of use and fugacity calculations. Chemosphere, 54(3), 355-367.

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Khan SJ & Rorije E (2002) In Management of Aquifer Recharge for Sustainability (Ed, Dillon, P. J.) A.A. Balkema Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 169 - 17 4. Khan SJ, W intgens T , Sherman P, Zaricky J & Schafer A I. (2003) Removal of hormones and pharmaceuticals in rhe "Advanced Water Recycling D emonsrrarion Plant" in Queensland, Aust ralia In Proceedings of Ecohazard !WA Conference, Aachen, Germany. Kracman B, Marrin R. & Szrajnbok P (2001) The Virginia Pipeline: Australia's largest water recycling project. Water Sci. Technol., 43(10), 35-42. Law l B (1996) Rouse Hill -Australia's fi rst full scale domestic non-potable reuse application. Water Sci. Technol., 33(10- 11), 7 1-78 . M arks J, Cromar N , Fallowfield H. & Oemcke D (2003) Community experience and perceptions of water reuse. Water Supply, 3(3), 9-16. Mdntyre D (2003) Sewage boon for farmers, Derwent In Hobart Mercury, Hobart, August 23, pp. 1,15. McKay J. & Hurlimann A. (2003) Attitudes to reclaimed water for domest ic use: Parr 1. Age. Water, 30(5), 45-49. Mitch WA & Sedlak D L (2002) Factors controlling nirrosam ine formation during wastewater chlorination. Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply, 2(3), 191-198. Mitchell G, Mein R. & McMahon T. (1999) The Reuse Potential of Urban Srormwarer and Wasrewarer. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Melbourne, Report No. 99/14. National Water Quality Management Strategy (2000) Guidelines for Sewerage Systems, Use of Reclaimed Water. NHMRC & ARMCANZ, Report No. 14. NRMMC (2003) Natural Resource Management M inisterial Council Media Release NRMMC5/03. Canberra.

NSW Recycled Water Coordination Committee (1993) NSW Guidelines for Urban and Residential Use of Reclaimed Water. Okun DA (2002) Water reuse introduces the need to integrate both water supply and wastewater management at local and regulatory levels. Water Sci. Technol., 46(67), 273-280. Schafer A I, Masrrup M & Jensen R L (2002) Particle interactions and removal of trace contami nants from water and wasrewarers. Desalination, 147(1-3), 243-250. Schafer A I , Nghiem L D & Waite T D (2003) Removal of the natural hormone esrrone from aqueous solutions using nanofilrration and reverse osmosis. Environ. Sci. Technol., 37( 1), 182- 188. Senate Environment Commu nicat ions Information T echnology and rhe Arts References Committee (2002) T he Value of Water: Inquiry inro Aust ralia's management of urban water. The Parliament of the Commonwealrh of Aust ralia, Canberra. Sourh East Queensland Recycled Water Task Force (2003) T ask Force Report. Queensland. Sydney Water ( 1999) Demand Management Strategy. Sydney. Sydney Warer (2003) WarerPlan 21 Fact Sheer: Illawarra Wastewater Strategy. Tasker SJ (2003) Effluent marker sought In Kalgoorlie Miner, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, I 0 June. T russ W (2003) Media Release: Scientists' contribution to water debate welcome, bur farmer consultation needed . Department of Ag~iculmre, Fisheries and Forestry, Commonwealth of Australia. Ying G G & Kookana R S (2002) Endocrine disruption: An Austral ian perspective. Water, 29(9), 42-45 . Ying G G, Kookana R S & Dillon P (2003) Sorprion and degradation of selected five endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquifer mare rial. Water Res., 37(15), 3785-379 J.

Spill Kits Waste Minimisation Site Assessments Treatment Plants

refereed paper


ASR FOR WASTEWATER RECYCLING IN SYDNEY? D Wiesner, M Knight, W Milne-Home Abstract Th is paper focuses on three aspects of using ASR for water conservation purposes in rhe Sydney region. The approach is: (i) an overview of geological data on Sydney region comparing two hypothetical sires - the Bald Hill Claystone and the Botany Sa nds aqui fe r (ii) attention to issues of a hydrogeochemical and microbiological nature char co uld impact on groundwater in an aquifer if deep injection of wastewater is undertaken; and (iii) foreshadowi ng methods which cou ld be used to learn more about microbial populations and behaviour in the aquifer after injection of treated wastewater.

Introduction Characterising behaviour of a particular liquid material injected into an aq uifer is fraugh t with uncertainties and unknowns due to a multiplicity of factors. These include the sub-surface environment, the quality of the material to be inj ected, its behaviour duri ng and after injection. Knowledge is required not only of the geological and chemical characteri stics of the aquifer such as rhe profile of any existing native liquid material, but of the natural ecology of the so il into whi ch produce is to be injected and specific details of the composition of the liquid. Neither the soil nor the produce for injection should be assumed to be inert or sterile. Some relationships between geological, chemical and microbiological constituents will occur if only though dine of close contact and rhe namre of these interactions needs understanding if, as in rhe instance of artificial injection, a change in existing natural conditions is involved . Storage and reuse of wastewater for che growi ng metropolis of Sydney has been suggested as a way of capmring and reusing wastewater currently being disposed through ocean outfalls. The present paper examines some of the concerns in che deep injection of created wastewater for reclamation-reuse purposes. T his

technology, termed aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) has already been reseed in a 5-year experiment at the And rews Farm site on the North Adelaide Plains of So uth Australia (Barry et al, 2002). Keywords: ASR (aquifer storage & recovery), wastewater recycling, microbial ecology

Aquifer Sites in the Sydney Basin There has been interest in ASR fo r s ome yea rs in government circles, at the Department of Sustainable Natu ral Resources, for merly the Department of Land and Water Conservation (DLWC) and Sydney Water. There has already been debate among academics about using ASR techniques for water conservation and recycling to service an increasing demand

for water by the rapidly expanding urban metropolis of Sydney and the associated regions. Such initiatives have been successfully adopted in USA and more recently in Singapore for reuse projects. In an attempt to lay the foundat ion to advance such a Project, researchers at the National Center fo r Groundwater Management at Un iversity of Technology, Syd ney, examined the suitability of the Sydney Metropolitan Area in the Sydney Geological Basin for receipt and storage. Pawelczyk (2002) provided an extensive and thorough examinatio n of che geology and hydrology of the southern portion within these boundaries. Using criteria identified by previous researchers (Corkery, 1978), Pawelczyk was able to reject a number of recognised

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This paper was presented at the AWA Catchment Management Conference, 2003.

refereed paper

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MARCH 2004 125


water recycling stratigraph ic sectors w ithin the Sydney Basin (see Figure 1) as being u nsuitable for deep injection and storage of water. A variety of reasons were given ranging from the nature of the sed iment, to closeness to know n coal resources, to tendency cowards grain suturing and/or quartz and clay cem entation which would elim inate virtually all p rimary porosity, a necessary req uirement for ASR (Pawelczyk, 20 02). Nevertheless, Pawelczyk ide ntified two regions, Botany and Cam pbell town which contained hyd ro geologically suitable formations. The form er contains the Botan y Sands Aquifer while the latter includes the Bald Hill Claystone. The properties of the Botan y Sands Aquifer are m uch better k nown than those o f the Bald H ill C laystone. From the available data, Pawelcyzk concluded chat it should be possible to explo it a portio n o f the 18300 hectare Botan y Sands aq u ifer (total capac ity approximately 170 ,000ML) fo r artificial aquifer storage a nd recovery (ASR) . T his suggestion however, was nor w itho ut its problem s.

Botany Basin Sands vs Bald Hill Claystone T h ree host lithologies fo r groundwater resources are evid ent in map notes accompanying the H awkesbury-Nepean Catchment Groundwater Availability M ap (Krumins, Bradd and McKribbin, 1998) . Unconsolidated sediments, porous rocks and fractured rocks predom inate. Of these, u nconsolidated sedimen ts and porous rocks - sedimentary rocks of sandstone, sandy shale and shale wh ich are inherencly porous in nature - yield low salinity grou ndwater at varying levels bu t w ith low yields. T he Botany Sands aqui fer favou red by Pawelczyk co vers a n area in the northern part of the Botan y Basin. This area is constituted of unconsolidated sands, clays and pears. It is an u nconfi ned aqui fer a nd, according to DLWC (2000 ), the aquifer is currencly the on ly sign ificant source of groundwater within 45 kilom etres of Sydney. Existing data indicates chat Bald Hill claysrone and siltstone, predominancly composed of kaolinite (app rox 75% ) are

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Table 1. Total c hem ica l concentratio ns in effluent and receivi ng wate rs at Malabar STP site. Source: ESD Report 2 002, Sydney Water. Number % Reporting of year observes Detectn Analyte 2 100 al uminium 1999/2000 2 100 2000/0l 2 100 2001/02 12 100 ammonia 199/2000 100 12 2000/0l 100 12 200 1/02 100 2 arsenic 1999/2000 2000/01 2 100 2 100 200 1/02 2 50 chlorine as 1999/2000 2 50 free residual 2000/0 I 50 2 2001/02 100 2 cadmium 1999/2000 100 2000/01 2 2001/02 2 LOO 12 100 copper 199/2000 100 12 2000/0 1 12 100 200 1/02 100 2 cyanide 1999/2000 100 2 2000/0 1 100 2001/02 2 100 1999/2000 2 iron 2000/0 1 2 100 2 100 2001 /02 100 2 mercury 1999/2000 so 2 2000/01 2 100 2001 /02 12 75 nitrate 1999/2000 12 41 .67 2000/0 1 8.33 200 1/02 12 12 so 1999/2000 nitrite 12 4 1.57 2000/0 1 12 so 2001/02 so 2 phenol 1999/2000 100 2 2000/0 1 so 2 2001 /02 100 suspended 1999/2000 365 100 365 2000/01 solids 365 100 2001/02 100 2 1999/2000 zinc 2 100 2000/01 100 2 200 1/02

Median Units Concn 570 µg/L µg/L 4 15 µg/L 760 mg/L 26.8 mg/L 28 mg/L 26.6 µg/L 2 µg/L 2.5 µg/ L 3 mg/L <0.0l mg/L <0.0 l mg/L <0.0 1 µg/L 0.85 µg/L 0.4 µg/L 0.75 66 ft g/L 55 µg/L µg/L 59 mg/L 0.0865 mg/L 0.1535 mg/L 0.043 µg/L 8250 µg/ L 5400 µg/ L 5600 0.2 µg/L µg/L <0.100 µg/L 0.25 mg/L 0.02 mg/L <0.010 mg/L <0.0 10 mg/L <0.010 mg/L <0.0 10 mg/L <0.0 10 µg/ L < 1.000 µg/ L 7.5 µg/L <1.000 mg/L 125 mg/L 125 mg/L 130 µg/L 112.5 68 µg/L µg/L 129.S

the main geological featu res w ith q uartz, haem atite, sideri te and goeth ite present in lesser proportions. Unlike the Botany area, the aquifer here is overla id and confi ned potentially makin g it easier to conduce a foc used study on the behaviour of grou ndwater over tim e and the impact of injected material. Further, the Botany area is well settled with houses, units a nd some h igh rise

Observed Max Concn 600 529 I 110 30.5 32.5 3 1. 1 2 3 3 <0.50 <0.50 <0.50 no value no value no value Il l 82 124 0. 148 0. 179 0.072 9100 6500 5700 0.3 0.2 0.3 0. 13 0.35 0.0 1 0.02 0.46 0.02 9 12 6 196 204 2 12 133 68 172

Receiving Total Load Water Median Concn (kg) Concn 1.071429 108882.87 0.780075 8 1083 .87 1.42857 1 152733 0.05037594 5095957.37 0.052632 4609108.41 0.05 4470225.36 0.03759398 38 1.46 0.04699 483.72 584.75 0.005639 <0.000018796 no value <0.000019 no value <0.000019 no value 0.001597744 160. 17 0.000752 74.53 0.00 141 153.51 13710.36 0.1240602 0. 103383 10236.05 0. 11 0902 12464. 11 0.00016259 16828.9 0.000289 27690.59 0.00008 1 8895.47 15.50752 1568797.38 10. 15038 966875.38 10.52632 1056950.1 9 0.00037594 37.59 <0.000188 0.00047 48.44 <0.00001879699 6785.96 <0.000019 no value <0.000019 no value 173 1.82 <0.000 1879699 no value <0.000019 <0.000019 no value <0.001879699 no value 0.0 1409 1236.8 <0.00 1880 no value 0.236842 1 2388 1964 0.236842 22817149 24621716 0.244361 21343 . 17 0.2 114662 0. 12782 12706.54 0.243421 2555 1. 71

resid ential occu pying approximately 74% available above-ground are a. An ad d itional 12% is assigned to industry including ind ustrial and agricultu ral chemical manufactures and petroleum-related busi ness. In the past, the industry and manu facturing businesses were inclined to draw substantial a mounts o f groundwater from the Botan y Sands aquifer beneath resulting in flu ctuatio ns in water cable particu larly with increased surface inflow

refereed paper


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during prolonged wee weather. T hese fl uctuatio ns in the water cable have been monitored via a series of groundwater monitoring wells in the northern, sourhern and wesrern regions of rhe Basin (Fish et al, 2000). As people have displaced industry in rhe Botany area over the past few years, industrial draw down of the underlying groundwater has been reduced considerably and rhe warer balance in rhe aquifer beneath has stabilized.

Conditions in the Sub-Surface Cond itions in an aquifer and rhe general environment deep in the sub-surface would affect the wastewater, organisms still present in ir and any ocher suspended material. T hey, in rum will impact existing subsurface conditions and biora. Changes char would be anricipared depend on:

refereed paper

(i) O xygen levels in the aquifer. D ifferent species of microbes survive and reproduce under aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic cond itions in an aqui fer. And the deeper rhe aq uifer, the lower rhe percentage of oxygen available for life. (ii) A carbon or organic carbon sources introduced as suspended or colloidal material with wasrewarer which can act as a food sou rce for anaerobes as well as aerobes. Existing species in the aqui fe r which may or may not have been active prior ro rhe incroducrion of wasrewater may begin ro reproduce and multiply. (i ii) Temperaru re. Whi le latitude of a site and geology are important, remperaru re in rhe so il, like oxygen, falls with depth from the surface. T he presence of water ca n affect temperamre as the water in soil can

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water recycling freeze thereby restricting movement and life. (iv) The existence of pores, cracks and fractures between soil particles can provide tiny pockets for air and water as well as a niche habitat for microbes as earlier discussed. (v) pH. Wastewater tends to have a higher pH than rain water (p H around 4.3) and other infiltrates which may percolate th rough the soil to reach the native groundwater. (vi) Research undertaken by Lovley and Goodwin (1988) and ochers suggest chat there are discrete zones in the soil subsurface where survival of a population is dependent as much on the availability of minerals in the soi l, including pollutant residues and their chemistry

Activity after Injection Conditions in the sub-surface and ac the groundwater cable, after injection of was tewater inco a confined aquifer will show the impact of the injected liquor after a reasonably shore period of time after allowing for mixing and settlement.

Using data from a typical wastewater treatment plane in the Sydney area (Table 1 Malabar STP), ic could reasonably be presumed chat coliform, enterococci and other species present in the discharge will face different and challenging conditions in the cold, low oxygen environment of a deep aqu ifer. Unless break-point chlorination is practised - and chis is nor the case at Malabar STP - it could reasonably be presumed chat many of these and ocher species would be present in the discharge effiuent which would be injected into the aquifer. Competition for nutrients and carbon substrates between species such that one becomes dominant would distort the chemical and microbial balance achieved under normal pre-injection conditions. Changes of chis nature would impact on water quality, potential for re-draw for reuse and possibly also technical issues associated with re-draw processes. Juse co detail some of che ocher issues: (a) Sorption Studies on Aquifer Sediments Sorprion between a dissolved and particulate phase in aquifer systems is important for a wide range of organics, inorganics and metals. In che liceracure,

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organic carbon is recognised as the principal sorbent compartment for hydrophobic organic chem icals in aquatic systems. The partition ing potential of a chemical is characterised by its organ ic carbon partition coefficien c. Mineral surfaces contai n oxide functional groups char give the surface a pH-dependent charge and that can be involved in electrostatic and ligand-exchange reactions. The mineral su rfaces may contain pores of varying sizes. However, in many cases, the organic consticuencs of the sediment phase dominate sorprion behaviour which can include both partitioning (absorption) and adsorption mechanisms. The dominant mechanism appears to depend on the source, composition and age of rhe organic matter, a heterogeneous mixture of nacural material at various stages of degradation. Older, denser and more crystalline forms of organic matter include shale which can exhibit high sorpcion capacity. The sorpcion of non-polar, hydrophob ic, organic compounds including residues of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, phenols and industrial chemicals correlates well with rhe organic carbon content of the sediment. Table 1 provides reporting data from Sydney Water monito ring of water qual ity of discharges from Malabar STP over a continuous three year period. The levels of heavy metal residues - specifically cadmium, arsenic and mercury, are quire high. Suspended solids are much reduced from levels of influent material to the plane, but are the major "load" carried in the effluent. They are the principal source of carbon for microbial activity. Levels of chlorine as free residual are low or insignificant. Hence the continued survival of a large population of viable coliform and enterococci bacteria which, under suitable conditions, could multiply to levels where they pose a risk to health. Whether the inhospitable anoxic, low temperature cond itions arising from deep injection enable that to occur is among the unknowns at this stage. (b) Selective Adsorption Ion exchange and adsorption to mineral su rfaces may contribuce significantly to the sorprion of compounds having ionizable functional groups. In these instances, pHdependent properties including cationexchange capacity and solute speciation are important. Refering again co the data in Table 4, nitrate and nitrite are hardly detectable bur ammonia is present at a range between 26-30mg/L , a level where it can serve as a source for anaerobes. Phenol, a source of hydroxyl ions, is present only at minimal levels. Levels of iron in 2001/02 average 5.6mg/L. Recent studies of sorprion of a range of naturally occurring metals on aquifer

refereed paper


sediments has been conducted by che USGS Molecular Geochemistry and Nanoscience Group. Using sophisticated microscopy, che Group have shown chat che bulk of uptake of metal ions occurs, nor on che silicate grain surfaces bur onto chin coatings of accached Fe-Al oxides and hydroxides. The USGS work suggests char coatings in the nanomicromecer (nm) range appear co coat all surfaces of natural quartz grains as a general phenomena in a number of types of possible surface clusters and sorbed complexes of different size and orientation. These include hematite, zinc and ocher complexes which themselves will be accraccive co ocher species including m icroorganisms. The nature of these coatings whether muco-polysaccharide, humic or conscicuced of some chus far, ocher unidentified materials is scill under investigation. Such bonding co humic substances, biofilm and mineral surfaces may be occurring th rough a combination and inter-balance of molecular, eleccroscacic and chemical processes. These latter issues are particularly important ac che re-draw point and are discussed elsewhere in chis paper.

(c) Niches and Microbial Habitats

growing on a quartz grain would nor.

There are a wide variety of niches available in saturated sub-surface environments. Since soil grains are composed of particles of varying sizes (large pores >2oc, small pores <0.2oc, pores with open chroacs, pores wich closed throats) and of d iffering composition and organic maccer content, there are a wide variety of potential sub-surface niches for bacteria and ocher like material. Metabolic processes of microorganisms in aquifers can often shift geo-chemical equilibria as they garnish available free ions co catalyse biochemical pathways for growth. Studies by Bennecc, Hiebert and Rogers

(2000) found char indigenous microorganisms infl uence mineral weathering at both rhe macro- level - processes rhac disturb general groundwater chemistry and associated mineral-water equilibria - and at the micro- level where attached organisms influence mineral-water equilibria potentially releasing limiting trace nutrients from the dissolving mineral. For example, a micro-organism growing on a microcl ine grain would have a potential source of potassium, whereas a microorganism

Rogers (2002) demonstrated that microorganisms preferentially attach co surfaces chat are nutritionally advantageous when those surfaces have similar electrostatic characteristics. A microorganism growing on an organic maccer particle would have a source of solid carbon whereas one growing on a mineral grain would be limited co sources of dissolved or adsorbed organic carbon. In nutrient limited environments, irreversible attachment of bacteria co silicate surfaces o ccurs predominantly to chose surfaces from which limiting nutrients (such as P and Fe) can be leached. These fi ndings confirm that the transport of bacteria through porous media may be controlled not o nly by surface charge and groundwater conditio ns but also by che mineral composition of the aquifer material as has been suspected. Accordingly small compositional changes in sediment mineralogy can have potentially significant impacts on which cells are transported and the speed of their movement. By way of contrast: In environments rich in dissolved nutrients, colonisation occurs

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water recycling predominantly on silicate surfaces with the greatest coulobic attraction fo r the cells. T he abi lity of bacteria co attach and grow on nutrient-rich rocks and ocher subsurface strata while leaving non-nutrient materi al barren, suggests the potential for preferen rial clogging of the most reactive mineral surfaces and flow paths. This has implications of a technical as well as hydrological nature, for deep injection of wastewater.

The lack of knowledge on bacteria and viruses underlie the uncertainties about ASR and irs associated health risks. Perhaps use of a spectrometer and of 16sr DNA sequencing analysis, which have identified a number of new species active under anaerobic conditions in wasrewarer treatment planrs and in acrivared sludge systems, can prove equally useful in work in aquifers.

Discussion

T here are a number of caveats to the adoption of ASR as a cool for increased water reclamation and reuse. The first is cost. An ASR scheme needs ro achieve ar least equity with ocher scheme for using reclaimed water and to be equally safe and reliable to the consumer. Finally, rhe risks - rhe impact of nutrienrs on soil and groundwater microflora and as these pertain to the health of chose exposed co reclaimed water subsequent to ASR are valid concerns. These need to be properly and thorough identified and managed. As experience of the techn iques involved, the engineering sk ills required and the processes for assessment of aquife rs fo r suitability become more fami liar, the poli cies of gaining regulatory approval will become less rorrnous and the costs decl ine. T he growing and more ready acceptance of ASR in the USA and increasing use overseas such as in Singapore, has provided a model fo r Australia on how best co educate the community about these risks. Community attitudes & perceptions to reclaimed and recycled water rake rime to change and public ed ucation over a prolonged period is required. It is possible that with carefully prepared information on ASR, more ready acceptance of such schemes may occur. Risks co health become a reali ty only if or when scored water is subsequently re-drawn for use either for irrigation (non-potable reuse) or for industrial purposes. Ideally reclamation will be undertaken from a

What are the implications which can be drawn for the injection of treated wastewater into a sui table, hypothetical aquife r? The bacterial population present in groundwater in a deep aqu ifer is likely co be limited due to the low oxygen, poor levels of nutrients and cemperarnre. Any species that does survive will nor be numerous. Those most likely survive include C/ostridium spp. which are endemic in soils and probab ly also varying numbers of Legioneila, Pseudomonas, Nitrobacter, Vibrio spp . Ocher less numerous residents could include sulfa te and iron III reducers such as Desulfovibrio and Geobacter respectively. The presence of hydrocarbon and organ ic carbo n reducing agents will depend, in part on the level of organic soil carbon bu t also the level of contaminants. An aquifer with relatively high silt and clay-peat content in the sub-su rface would provide multiple sires and niches where microbes could congregate and scavenge available P, N and Fe which can be leached by any organisms present in the injected media. An environment dom inated by silicates would be unlikely to host a comparable population of microbes except in chose pores and spaces where grains of silt, peat or clay had become trapped. In both instances, final numbers and type of organism would depend on bio-available carbon, pH, suitable remperarure and mo isture cond itions. Bacterial adhesion of a species on particulate matter is influenced also by rhe electrostatic charge on mineral and bacterial surfaces, mineral surface roughness and surface alteration, glyco-calyx formation, predation, and competition. In aquifers, resident bacteria will prefenrially attach co these surfaces and/or to each ocher. Consequently, rheir movement thro ugh and within an aquifer rends to occur ar a rare less than char of rhe flowing groundwater, leading to explanation of retardation mechanisms by a number of fairly soph isricared models.

130 MARCH 2004

water

Caveats

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second well remote from the original injection well. Such an arrangement minimizes rhe risk char material from wastewater injected through a first well, will nor have been retained/sorbed in soil ar or in its immediate vicinity and subsequently, dissolve or re-suspend in water being re-drawn after storage. Additional treatment possibly involving membrane filtration and/or reverse osmosis would provide a further assurance of safety to chose inclined co question ASR. At the point of withdrawal of scored produce, the well-head provides entry po int for oxygen which drives much aerobic bacterial activity on or near the upper soil surface. Stufzand (1998), Pyne (2002), Tsuchibashi, Asana & Sakaji (2002) and ochers have shown chat rhe level of activity around rhe re-draw site can result in excessive proliferation of multiple species. T his is aided by concomitant presence of muco-polysaccharides, by-produces of bacterial cell activity, natural organic matter and ocher breakdown produces which can form a ch ick biomass or biofilm char frequently clogs rhe well. Since pathogens are among rhe bacteria and ocher protozoa and metazoa which are harboured in biofilm materials, there is increased risk of contamination of stored water being withdrawn through such affected junctures, with decli ne in quality of the resultant water and associated increased risk to human health, as evidenced in studies of water quality monitoring and turbidity readings. These final issues further build argument supporting che need for studies of microbial as well as chemical risks to health to determine rhe safety of deep injection of created wasrewacec as a means fo r water reclamation and reuse. They also point the direction for future work.

The Authors Dr Diane Wiesner is the Research Officer ar rhe Australian Water Association, PO Box 388, Artarmon NSW 1570, dwiesner@awa.asn.au; Prof Michael Knight and Dr William Milne-Home are at the National Centre for Groundwater, University of Technology, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2006.

References Adcock P.(2003): Biological Nitrogen & Phosphorus Removal Seminar series, AWA, Brisbane May 21 . Barry K., Pavelic P., Dillon P., Rattray K., Dennis K. and Gerges N . (2002) : Aqu ifer Storage and Recovery of Srormwatcr, Andrews Farm, South Australia. Compilarion of Dara fro m 1993-98 Trial. CSJRO Land and Water Technical Report 17/02, 32pp.

refereed paper


Benner P .C., H ieberr F. K. and Rogers J.Roberrs (2000): "Microbial control of mineralgroundwarer equilibria: Macroscale ro microscale." Hydrogeol.J, vol. 8 , no. 1;4762 . Bish S ., Realica S. and W ischusen J.: Botany Sands Beds (GWMA 018), Botany Basin, NSW - Norchern, Sourhern and Wesrern Zones. Stat us Report no.2. DLWC, 2000. Bitton, Gabriel: Wastewater M icrobiology. W iley-Liss, New York. 1999 Bouwer H .: "Arrificial Recharge of G roundwater: H ydrogeology and Geochemistry. Agricultural research Service, I rrigation and Water Qualiry USDA-ARS, Broadway, Phoe nix, 1994. Brassingron R. (1998): Field H ydrogeology. John Wiley and Sons, Brisbane. C am pbell Rehman, LL., Welty, C., and H arvey, R.W . ( 1999) : "S tochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers ." Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 7, p . 1987-2006. Colford J.M., E isenberg D.M., Scott J. and Soller J.A. (2003): "A Dynamic M odel co assess Microbial H ealtl1 Risks associated with Be neficial Uses of Biosolids - phase l "

WERF Report Project 98-R.EM-1. Corkery R.W. (1 978): "U nderground liquid wast e disposal and its feasibility wirhin the Sydney region." unpublished Project Report, Master of Applied Science in Environmental Poll ution Control, VNSW. Deshpande, P.A., and Shonnard, D. R. ,( 1999) "Modeling the effects of systematic variation in ionic strength on rhe attach ment kinet ics of Pseudomonas fluomcms VPER - 1 in saturated sand columns." Water Resources Research, v. 35, p. 161 9- 1627. Elimelech, M ., Gregory, ). , Jia, X., and Williams, R., 1995, Parricle Deposition and Aggregation: Measurement, Modeling and Simulation. Newton, MA, ButterworthHeineman.

example ~f bacreriophage as tracers in fractured flow. " Environmental Science and Technology, v. 27, p. 1075- 1079. McKibbin D , and Smith P.C. (2000): "Sandstone hydrogeology of the Sydney region" in McNally G. H. and Franklin B.J. (eds) Sandstone City: Sydney dimension scone and ocher sandstone geomarerials. pp83-97. Published by Environmental Engineering and H ydrogeological Specialise G roup, Geological Society of Australia. Mueller, R.F. ( 1996): "Bacrerial transport and colonisation in low nutrient environme nts." Water Research, v. 30, no . 11, p. 268 1-2690. Pawlczyk S. and Knighr M.: The Porential for D eep Injecrion and Storage of Water in Sydney. U npubl Project Reporr, U niversity of T echnology, Sydney, Augusr 2002 . Pyne R.D .G.: "Warer quality changes during aquifer s torage recovery (ASR)." Proceedings

ofthe 4th International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater 1SAR4, Adelaide, South Ausrralia, 22- 26 Seprem ber 2002, published by Balkema, Nerherlands, p65-68 . Rattray K. , Dillon P., Herczeg A, and Pavelic P. (1996): "Geochem ical processes in aquifers receiving injecred surface ware rs." Centre for Groundwater Swdies Report no.65, Adelaide. Rogers J.R. (2002) : "Why do Bacreria C olonize Aqufier Surfaces? Geochemical and nutrient controls of bacterial colonisation of silicate

lntemational Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater TISAR'98, Balkema, Amsrerdam, Netherlands, 1998. Tsuchihashi R., Asano T. and Sakaji R.H. (2002) : "H ealth aspects of grou ndwater recharge with reclaimed water". In

Proceedings 4th International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater ISAR-4, Adelaide, 2002 published by Balkema, Netherlands, pl 1-20. Vanderzalm J.L., LeGal La Salle C., Hurson J.L. and Dillon P.J. (2002): "Water quality changes during aquifer storage and recovery at Bolivar, South Australia." In Proceedings

4th International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater ISAR-4, Adelaide, 2002 published by Balkema, Nerherlands, p83-88. Water Environment Federarion and American Waterworks Association: Us ing Reclaimed Water co Augment Parable Water Resources. Joint WEF & AWWA Publication, Alexandria, 1998.

SAND,GRAVEL,COAL,GARNET MANGANESE GREENSAND Invest in accurately graded, durable media from your complete filter media professionals

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Hermansson, M. ( 1999): "The D LVO theory in mic robial adhesion: Colloids and Surface." Science, v Bl4, p.105-1 19 . H iebert, F.K., and Bennetr, P.C., (1992): "Microbial control of silicare weathering in organic-rich ground warer." Science, v. 258, no. 5080, p. 278-28 1.

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Jankowski J. and Beck P. (2000): "Aquifer hererogeneity: hydrogeological and hydroche mical properties of rhe Botany Sands aquifer and their impacr on contami nant transport." Australian journal ofEarth Sciences, 47: 45-64.

refereed paper

Scufzand P.J ., "Quality changes upon injection into anoxic aquifers in the Nethe rlands: Evaluation of 11 experiments." In Third

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Gerba, C.P., and Bitton, G. ( 1984): "Microbial poll utants: their survival and rransporr pattern co groundwater" in Birton, G., and Gerba, C. P., eds., Groundwarer Pollurion Microbiology. New York, John Wiley and So ns, p. 225-233. G riffin R.J. (I 963): T he Botany Basin. Geological Survey of New Sourh Wales. Bulletin 18.

Krumins H., Bradd J. and McKibbin D. ( 1998) : Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchme nt Groundwater Availability Map: M ap Nares. D ep arrment of Land and Warer Con servation CNR97.039. M cKay, L.D., C herry, J .A., Bales, R. C., Yahya, M.T., and Gerba, C. ( 1993) : "A fi eld

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Water Journal March 2004  

Water Journal March 2004