Page 1



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Volume 21, No 3 June 1994 Editor


E.A. (Bob) Swinton

Editorial Correspondence

ASSOCIATION NEWS President's Message

2 4 5

From the Executive Director From the Branches



Anita Roper


• The Latrobe Valley Outfall - A Community Mediated Solution

12 15

P Donlon, P R L Mosse Drinking Water Quality-A Quality Management Issue


P J Vendy •

Advertising Sales & Administration Margaret Bates Tel(02)4131288 Fax(02)4 131047 A\Y/W A Federal Office Level 2, 44 Hampden Road, Arrarmon PO Box 388, Arrarmon NSW 2064

Editorial Board

Nutrient Removal at the West Wodonga Purification Plant

R van Oorschot,J A Crockett

4 Pleasant View Crescent Glen Waverley Vic 3150 Tel/Fax (03) 560 4752

Prospect Water Filtration Plant - Quality in Design


M Walshe, B Urwin, A Paton, J French • The Use (Mis-use?) of Acronyms in the Water/Wastewater Industry


P Williams

REPORTS 2nd National Hazardous & Solid Waste Convention


E.A. (Bob) Swinton Drinking Water Quality Guidelines Workshop


E.A. (Bob) Swinton Anaerobic Digestion


Wipa Lapsirikul Unido Workshop on Water and Wastewater Treatment


E.A. (Bob) Swinton Plascon: Plasma Arc Pyrolysis


E.A. (Bob) Swinton

Branch Correspondents ACT - Cynthia Nagy Tel (06) 251 3368 Fax (06) 251 3060 New South Wales - Mitchell Laginestra Tel(02)4 129974 Fax(02)4 129876 Northern Territory- Jan Smith Tel (089) 82 7244 Fax (089) 41 0703 Queensland - Lyndsay Chapple Tel (07) 835 0222 Fax (07) 832 6335 South Australia - Phil Thomas Tek(08) 259 0244 Fax (08) 259 0228 Tasmania - Jim Stephens Tel (002) 31 0656 Fax (002) 34 7334 Vicroria - Mike Munrisov Tel (03) 600 1100 Fax (03) 600 1300 Western Australia - Tony Hendry Tel (09)497 1344 Fax(09)497 1281

WATER (ISSN 0310-0367) is published six rimes per year February, April , June, August, October, December by

Australian Water & Wastewater Inc.

DEPARTMENTS International Affiliates Books Industry News Products Meetings

10 39 40 42 43

OUR COVER Pyrolysis of hazardous waste by plasma arc technology: Nufarm Ltd manufactures herbicides both for Australian agriculture and for export. Each day the effluent from the Nufarm sire is collec ted in one of three 1 ML ranks, then analysed. Only if it meets the strict standards set by Melbourne Water can it be discharged over the following day as trade waste. An intermediate seep in their manufacturing process is production of di-chlorophenol. Small quantities of higher chlorinated phenols are produced as by-products, extrac ted and concentrated inro a waste scream. To destroy these potentially hazardous compounds on-sire, the company, in 1992, installed the first commercial application of PLASCON technology. The waste is pyrolysed in an argon arc, at a temperature of over 5000-c, ro hydrochloric acid , carbon monoxide and water. After caus tic scrubbing the exit gas is flared. A visit co the plant was included in the program of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Convention. PLASCON is a joint development by CSIRO and Siddons Ramser Ltd (see page 38).

Photograph courtesy of Siddons Ramset.

FR Bishop, Chairman B N Anderson, G Cawston, M R Chapman, P Draayers, W J Dulfer, GA Holder, M Muntisov, P Nadebaum, JD Parker, A J Priestley, J Rissman .


ARBN 054 25 3 066 PO Box 388, Arrarmon NSW 2064

Federal President Richard Marks

Executive Director Chris Davis Au stralian Water & Wastewater Association assumes no responsibility for opinions or statements of faces expressed by contributors or advertisers and ed icorials do not necessarily represent the official policy of the organisation. Display and classified advert isements are included as an informational service to readers and are reviewed by the edicor before publication co ensure their relevance to the water environment and tO the objeccives of che,Associarion. All material in \\1/ater is copyright and should nor be reproduced wholly or in part without the written permission of the Editor.

Subscriptions \\1/ater is sent co all members of the AWW A as one of the privileges of membership. Nonmembers can obtain Water on subscription at an annual subscription race


NUTRIENT REMOVAL: WEST WODONGA R van Oorschot*, J A Crockett Summary This paper reviews development of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal ac rhe West Wodonga Purification Plane, which discharges co the Murray River. On weekdays the plant creacs meat processing wastes which can be five rimes the base domestic load. Initia ll y the Phor edox process was installed: chis was converted to the U.C.T. process but with lictle effect on performance. Dara from J anuary 1989 co May 1993 are presented. Currently alum is dosed prior co clarification co consistently achieve less than 2mg/L P.

Introduction The West Wodonga Purification Plant is one of few treatment planes in Australia operating a full biological nutrient, nitrogen and phosphorus, removal (B R) process. Tankage co allow operation in a variety of BN R process configurations was added in 1988 and initially se c up co run che Phoredox process. This was modified in 199 1 co che University of Cape Town (UCT-process) because of high ni crogen loads. The plant was developed in stages from a conventional activated sludge oxidation ditch plant. The plane treats domesti c sewage from West Wodonga and industri al wastewater from Uncle Bens Australia (UBA) and Associated Meat Processors (AMP), a mixture far more concentrated in COD and nitroge n than normal domestic wastewater. The wastewater is high ly variable in coral load and composition, varying from a low 15 000 ep domestic load on weekends and holidays co over 75 000 BOD ep on some weekdays. Construction of the plane is being scaged co progressively reduce overloading of the ex ist ing plane and cope wit h substantial growth whilst avoiding che need for borrowing. Total investment in the plant in "l.992 was $10M or about $13 per maximum BOD ep capacity. This includes the maturation lagoons and addi cional secondary clarifiers currently under construction. This is a low capital cost compared to other new planes and results from careful engineering, avoidance of non-essential items and competitive contract prices. The first stage of che plane (15 000 ep BOD basi s) was completed in 1986 and comprised an extended aeration oxidation ditch with Passavanc Mammoth brush aerators and a 30 m diameter clarifier. Changes in the effl uent licence conditions necessiraced modifications to the creacmenc process in order co meet a 2 mg/1 phosphorus limit. In subsequent works che plane capacity was augmented co about 45 000 BOD ep and 12

th en 75 000 BOD ep and upgraded co include biological nutrient removal by creating anaerobic and anoxic zones in ranks adjacent co the oxidation ditch. Future possible or planned scages include primary sedimentation, a prefermencer, additional aeration, sludge digestion and mechanical dewacering. Various biological nutrient removal processes were evaluated such as the Bardenpho process, the Phoredox process, the University of Cape Town process and others. It was concluded that raw sewage characteristics, in particular easily degradable substrate, appeared co be more important than che process ¡configuration, although some processes wi ll perform better where the easi ly degradable substrate concentration is low or nitrogen concentration is high. Ir was decided co adopt the Phoredox sys tem, because it would maximise plane capacity at minimum cost, bur with provisions co eas ily change co the UCT process config ura tion by install ation of rec ycle pumps and pipe work, should changes in raw sewage characteristics necessitate such accion. The Phoredox process was commissioned in late 1988. A process schematic of the Phoredox process is presented in Figure 1. In subsequent augmentation works di ffused aeration was installed co increase BOD capacity without additional aeration cankage and the recycle pumps and pipe work were provided co convert co the UCT process of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal (Figure 2). Chemical dosing faci lities co assist phosphorus removal were also provided . The literature suggests th at che UCT process can accommodate TKN:COD ratios as high as 0.14 without jeopardising excess phosphorus removal, compared with a TKN:COD ratio of 0.08 for conventional systems. Ir is possible char peak TK loads currencly received from AMP could exceed the reco mmend ed maxi mum TKN:COD ratio of 0.1 4. Chemical addition would then be required co assis t plane operation co achieve effluent phosphorus licence limits. The conversion co che UCT process was completed in September 1990 and diffused aeration commenced in April 1992. Currently two additional clarifiers (30 m diameter) and associated pipe work are under co nstruction because of ongoing periodic solids overloads resulting from scorm inflows combined with che high operating MLSS and generally high SVI. For the majori ty of che rime effluent FR is 10 mg/1 or less. This period ic loss of sludge from the clarifier has carried significant quantities of phosphorusri ch sludge in to th e maturation lagoo ns

where it is released. Thus the best maturation lagoon phosphorous concentration has been around 3 mg/1.

Plant Description Plant Features. The plane currently has a capacity of about 81 000 ep on a BOD basis or 25 500 ep on a flow basis. The major components of che plane are shown in Figure 3. Raw sewage is conveyed co the plane via a 900 mm diameter gravity sewer. By means of an innovative "prerocacion" design, using Hidroscal centrifugal pumps, the plane influent pump station automatically follows the flow and lifts th e sewage into an in let channel. The pump's impeller is similar in shape to a corkscrew and che pump inlet bas in is shaped co automaticall y induce a bath-hole type whirlpool which rotates in che same direction as che pump impeller. The sewage is screened and flows into the first anaerobic zone (1000 kl), where it is mixed with a recycle from the anoxic zone. The anaerobic conditions and prese nce of readily biodegradable organic matter favour phosphorus accumulating bacteria , mainl y Acinetobacter spp, whic h are able co derive energy by uti lising their scored phosphorus reserves. This causes release of scored phosphorus in the anaerobic zone. Following the anaerobic zone, che sewage chen flows through the anoxic zone (1700 kl) wh ere ic is mixed with cecum activated sludge. Each compartment is mixed. In the anoxic zone, ni era re is removed by bacterial denicrification . From the anoxic zone the mi xture flows in to the aerobi c oxidation ditch. In che oxidation ditch (5360 kl), oxygen is transferred co che mixed liquors by fo ur horizontal shaft surface aeracors and an arrangement of fine bubble diaphragm diffusers located at the botcom of che aeration ditch. Air is supplied by blowers , cwo duty and one standby. Mixed liquor is continuous ly displaced from the oxidation ditch co che clarifier. Clarified effluent is discharged co a series of maturation lagoons. The final created effl uent is utilised for golf cou rses and wood lot irrigation in summer and discharged co the Murray River in winter. Waste activated sludge is drawn from the oxidation ditch and is pumped co two sludge lagoons for consolidation, further stabilisation and drying. Supernatant from these lagoons is currencly irriga ted but can be *Robbert Van Oorschoc, GHD , 38 0 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne Vic 3000 WATER JUNE 1994







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In many monlhs phosphorus has been consis-

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dosed with lime to precipitate phosphorus released from the sludge. The lime-dosed supernatant would then be pumped to two lime sludge lagoons for drying. Supernatant from the lime sludge lagoons wou ld be di sc harged to the maturation lagoons. A summary of the BNR process units capacities is presented in Table 1. Plant Loadings. The current average plant loadings are summarised in Table 2. The current average dry weather flow to the plant is about 3.7 ML/d of which about 2.0 ML/d , i. e. 53%, is from two major industries, i.e. Uncle Bens Australia (UBA) and Associated Meat Processors (AMP). In terms of BOD load the two industries contribute about 87% to the total average load. UBA and AMP operate mainly from Monday to Friday with cleanup continuing into Saturday for UBA. Hence, loadings on the weekends will be due primarily to domestic sewage. This significant variation in load is not normally expe rien ced at other biological nutrient removal plants and affect plant operation and process stability. As well as this variation between weekdays and weekends there can be major variations both seasonally and between days.

Plant Performance Plant performance data, based on typical monthly data between January 1989 and June 1993, are presented in Figure 4. The dara presented are monthly averages of grab samples taken several days per week, normally between 7am and 9am. There is insufficient data on influent and effluent quality to assess weekly or daily fluctuations in effluent quality resulting from the variable load experienced at the purification plant. The starting date of the UCT process, diffused aeratio n, and chemi cal (alum) dosing are shown in Figure 4. Typical operating paraWATER JUNE 1994

tently below 3 and if daily data were plotted for these months it would appear that the plant ach ieved excellent phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This illustrates the danger in assess ing plant performance based on limited periods. However, on occasions effluent phosphorus concentrations of greater than 5 mg/L have also been recorded. There is not sufficient evidence to show conclusively any benefit of the UCT process, other than to speculate that P removal may have been more stable. There appears to be better process stability following the conversion to the UCT process although this would also be contributed to a reduction and more stable influent TKN load. Data on the effect of alum dosing are limited, but it appears to assist significantly in achieving effluent phosphorus concentrations of less than 1 mg/L at an alum dose of 40 mg/1 * as Ali(SO4) 3.18H 20. The variation in effluent phosphorous conce ntrations shown in Figure 4d is believed to have been due largely to process upsets such as a faulty mixer in the anaerobic tank, or over-aeration in the oxidation ditch due to a fixed aerator being switched off not allowing the flow to travel around the ditch, and/or close down of UBA and AMP for an extended period in April. Further work is required to evaluate the effectiveness and optimum dose of alum. Of particular interest is the low power consumption of the plant, typically about 0.7 kW.h/kg COD or 1.4 kW.h per kg BOD and sometimes down around 1.2 kW.h/kg BOD. This rnmpares favourably with typical power consump tion of nitrifying plants of 2-3 kW.h/kg BOD.

meters are presented in Table 3. ore the high MLSS which allows a high load on a relatively small aeration tank. Figure 4a illustrates the steady increase of plant inflow (ADWF) from about 2.8 ML/d in January 1989 to about 3.7 ML/d in June 1993. Figure 46 shows influent and clarifier effluent COD concentrations. The COD concentration of the raw wastewater is typically between 2000 and 2500 mg/L. Clarifier effluent COD concentration is typi call y about 60 mg/1, thus achieving a COD reduction of about 97% . There is no apparent change in COD reduction as a result of the Conclusions process changes. The West Wodonga Purification Plant is Influent ammonia nitrogen data and clarione of few biological nitrogen and phosphofier effluent ammonia/nitrate nitrogen data are presented in Figure 4c. Prior to May Table 1 BNR Process Capacities 1991 there were frequent fluctuations in Description typical ammonia nitrogen influent concentra- Anaerobic Zone 1000 V~ u~ ~~ tion ranging between 70 and 200 mg/L. Retention time @ ADWF '" (hr) 63 Since May 1991 improved control of AMP Recycle race anoxic - anaerobic zone (% ADWF) 100-200 discharges has reduced this variation but Anoxic Zone daily peaks above 200 mg/1 still occur. Typi(m') 1700 Volume (hr) 10.7 Retention time @ ADWF '" cally the effluent ammonia plus nitrate nitro(% ADWF) 100-200 Recycle rate anoxic - anoxic gen concentration averages about 5 mg/L. Organic nitrogen is not measured but would Aerobic Zone Volume (m') 5360 not normally exceed a few mg/1. (hr) 33.9 Retention time @ ADWF '" Since addition of the new aeration equip(% ADWF) 75-150 RAS race ment complete denitrification has not been Notes: (I) Based on current ADWF of 3.8 MIJd achieved due to over-aeration resulting in a Table 2 Current Average Plant Loadings smaller anoxic fraction in the plant. It is ADWF MIJd BOD kg/d hoped that ongoing tuning of the DO control Domestic 480 l.7 system will improve this. l.O UBA 720 Influent and effluent phosphorus concen- AMP 2.404 0.9 tration data are presented in Figure 4d. The TOTAL 3.7 3.604 average influent phosphorus concentration is about 10mg/L. However, influent phospho- Table 3 Operating Parameters 0 025-0.06 rus concentrations between 13 and 18 mg/L TKN/COD ratio TP/COD ratio 0.003-0.01 have been recorded. The average effluen t F/M ratio (kg/kg.d) 0.06 phosphorus concentration is between 2 and 3 ML5S (mg/L) 6000--6800 (mL/g) mg/L. Minimum values of less than lmg/L SVJ >500 (d) 18-25 have been achieved on numerous occasions. SA (Sludge Age) 13



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rus removal plants in Australia. Despite the variable load ro the plane resulting from cwo major industrial concribucions che plane is able ro achieve significant nurrienc reduccion . An (ammonia plus nitrate) nitrogen concentration of less chan 5 mg/1 and a total phosphorus concentration of less than 2 mg/L can be achieved. Conversion from the Phoredox process ro the UCT process may have resulted in a more stable phosphoru s removal although chis could also be amibuced co a reduced and more stable influent TKN load. Alum dosing grea tl y assists in the removal of phosphorus. Although data is li mited , it appears chat an effluent phosphorus concentration of less than 1 mg/L can be achieved wi th an alum dose of 40 mg/L Ali{SO4) 3.18H 20 in conjunction with biological nutrient removal*. Process aspec ts and highly variab le plane loads have negated a sound evaluation of the effectiveness of alum dosing and further monitoring is required. This review of data collecced over the past 4½ years has provided some useful information on plant performance and suggests a number of possible directions for improving operation. le also highlights areas where the moniroring program should be altered expanded or decreased. The value of proper gathering and recording of data is illustrated. Such periodic revi ews, preferably yea rl y, are esse ntial if we are co mee t targe ts for performance and'energy efficiency. *Postscript: Since chis paper was submitted it has been found chat an effluent phosphorus c;oncentration of less than 1 mg/1 can be achieved most co nsisten tly by an alum dose of l 00mg/L. On num erous occasions concentrations as low as 0. 3 mg/1 have been observed.





The authors express thanks co Mr Phil Glover of the Rural City of Wodo~ga and Mr Vin Woodward, Operaror of the West Wodonga Purifi cation Plane for providing the data and reviewi ng chis paper. Mr Woodward 's effective, ski lled, diligent operation of a plane under such extremely variable loading deserves particular recogni cion ,

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Dr Robbert van Oorschot is a Senior Chemical Engineer in the Melbourne office of Gutteridge Haskins & Davey. He obtained degrees in chemical engineering and chemistry in the ether/ands and holds a PhD from Monash University. He has over 10 years' post graduate experience in the fields of water and wastewater treatment and is interested in nutrient removal, sludge handling and disposal, reuse of treated effluent and odour control. Jonathan Crockett is a Principal of Guttffidge Haskins & Davey. He is head of the firm's specialist Water and Wastewater Technology Division and has over 20 year' experience in all aspects of municipal and indmtrial water and wastewatff treatment and environmental st11dies. WATER JUNE 1994


THE LATROBE VALLEY OUTFALL A COMMUNITY MEDIATED SOLUTION P. Donlon and PR L Mosse* Summary This paper outlines the background ro the construction of the Latrobe Valley Ocean Outfall. The role of the public and industry in arriving at a solution ro the disposal of industrial and domestic waste from the Latrobe Valley is discussed. The substantial moniroring requirements of the works approval and final EPA licence are also presented.

Introduction Ocean outfalls attract a significant amount of public comment during one or more of the planning, construction and operation phases. Construction of the Latrobe Valley Ocean Outfall generated considerable controversy, making its construction one of the most turbulent in the hisrory of this country. In addition the monitoring requirements of the works approval and fina lly the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) licence for discharge make this outfall one of the most tightly controlled outfalls in the world. The treatment and discharge of sewage and induscrial waste waters has been a major issue in the Latrobe Valley region of Vicroria (Figure 1) since che early 1950's (Maglen 1979). Ac char rime one of the major industries in the area, the Australian Paper Manufacturers (APM) pulp and pape r mill at Maryvale discharged all their waste waters into che Latrobe River. The proposed commencement of a Lurgi Plant ro produce gas from brown coal further threatened the river, with wastes from its operation likely to contain phenols. The Government of Vicroria, appreciating the potential effluent problems, requested the Stace Rivers and Water Supply Commission ro investigate the facrors likely ro be associated with the disposal of effluents. In 1950 che Commission engaged the consultants Candy, Scott and Furphy ro invescigace the joint problems of induscrial and domestic waste di sposal in the Latrobe Valley. The Consultants recommended char seeps should be taken co ensure char the Latrobe River, throughout ics length, be maintai ned to a standard of purity which would nor inhibit fish life. To achieve chis they recommended the construction of an outfall sewer extending WATER JUNE 1994

from Morwell ro Bass Strait. The sewer was ro convey primary created domestic and industrial waste.

Land Disposal

1985 with all wastewater then direc ted via treatment lagoons co Lake Coleman. The increasing waste flows generated by growth in the Latrobe Valley region combined with che cessation of irrigation were causing increased flows co Lake Coleman and placing pressure on the trunk conveyance system ro Dutson. In response to these problems, APM , whose waste comprised 50% of the flow in che trunk system proposed an alternative disposal route. This would involve the decolourization of the more highly coloured screams, and the subseq1,1ent treatm ent of all waste screams in aerated lagoons, followed by direct discharge of che resultant effluent ro the Latrobe River. This'*proposal mer with a great deal or community concern, primarily due to the perceived likely effects on the river of an increased salt load. Consequencly, the EPA refused APM 's application to discharge additional wastewater co the Latrobe River. egotiations between APM and the LVWSB commenced wi ch the specific aim of upgrading the trunk main to carer for the increased flows. Esso Australia Ltd at the same rime had indicated co the LVWSB chat by che early 1990's, saline formation water flow from the Bass Strait oil platforms would increase from 2ML/day co 12ML/day. Formation water is che saline ground water which is brought ro the surface of the well mixed in with the crude oil. Most of this water is separated offshore but a small percentage remains and is piped onshore with the oil. This formation water is removed at the Longford oil and gas processing plant and discharged co Dutson Downs. The predicted increase in formation water would have further overloaded the existing evaporation basin at Dutson Downs originally built co handle only 1 Ml per day. In response to these requirements from two industrial sources and ro cater for che increased domestic flows from, at present, 50,000 persons, the LVWSB developed a pro-

The ocean outfall was nor constructed at the rime due to economic cons trai nts and local concern about the effect of the outfall on the beaches in the area. In addition experimental work suggested char land disposai was feasible with the effluent being suitable for irrigation purposes. On the basis of chis work the Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board (LVWSB) proceeded to acquire some 14000 acres of coastal land in the lace l 950's. The property, Dutson Downs, was generally considered to be of liccle agricultural value consis ting of loose sandy soil with a low average rainfall. The conveyance sewer was built using a combination of pipeline and open channel over a coral distance of 88 kilometres. The sewer was designed so char should land treatment prove uneconomical or unsuccessful, conscruccion could continue ro Bass Strait and the effluent discharged ro che ocean. Throughout the 1960's and 1970's irrigation with the effluent was practiced at Dutson Downs with the final runoff draining ro Lake Coleman via a series of channels. Lake Coleman is a small lake on the edge of Lake Wellingron and the Gippsland Lakes system. The runoff was relatively highly coloured due ro the presence of lignin from the pulp and paper making process. Ir was che issue of colour char created intense controversy throughout chis period. The EPA amended the licence in 1976 and indicated char the discharge ro Lake Coleman should cease when alternative disposal means were available (Maglen 1979). In 1976 a further major study on waste treatment and disposal again suggested disposal of secondary treated waste via an ocean outfall. (Anderson, Cornell and Aberley 1976). By che lace l 970's, pasture production and soil condition ac Dutson had deteriorated due ro the salinity and high pH of the effluent. *Peter Mosse, Gippsland Water, PO Box Irrigation finally ceased ac Durson Downs in 348 Traralgon, Vicroria 3844




Online Temp DO EC pH

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occurred. The panel also released a series of information documents which were available co che public for examination. A final report was made co che Minister in July 1991. Encompassed within the Review Panel's 34 recommendations were major commicmencs co wasce minimisation in che region cogecher wich performance requirements for che outfall and industrial dischargers. A significant number of recommendations related co government deparcmencs and in particular che LVWSB. Monitoring requirements for che wascewacers and che receiving environment were again strengthened. An example of che stringency of che recommendations was a suggested organochlorine limit 25 % less chan chat for che proposed bleached kraft pulp mill ac Wesleyvale in Tasmania. Ac che rime chis was the cighcesc organochlorine limit for a wascewacer containing bleached pulp mill effluent anywhere in che world.

Work Resumes

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In September 1991, the Minister approved virtually all recommendations in che Review t 0.1 ) 1.0 Panel's report. This allowed work on che t1 OIVGrease 5 Units: mg/L unless otherwise stated t $$ 200 ocean outfall co proceed some 15 months after 'I" Phenol 1.5 conscruccion work was halted. Quarterly - [ PAHs Archaeological surveys of the pipeline CHCIJ route had revealed a large undisturbed midden in che dune syscem where che pipeline !g70 Yearly Total N was co pass. The upper layer was dared ac TPO4 15 TO MAIN TREATMENT approximately 200 years while a deeper layer LAGOON ~ was dared ac 80Q years. Approval of che local aboriginal community was sought and Figure 3. Diagrammatic representation of the monitoring for the inlet to and exit from the pretreat- granted ro excavate che midden during che ment pond for the Esso effluent stream. The parameters 111eamred, frequency of sampling and trade waste conscruccion phase and co replace the material limits where applicable, are indicated. during rhe dune reinscacemenc phase. The LVWSB was also advised of che possiing the Tribunal, the Minister for Planning Hall Council co the Minister demanding a bility of unexploded ordnance along che offcalled in che public objections and personally hale co conscruccion of che Ocean Outfall. shore pipeline rouce. The area had been pare evaluated chem. In February 1988, che MinisIn early July 1989 che LVWSB was noti- of an old World War 2 bombing and gunnery ter released a scacemenc approving che ocean fied by che Minister for Planning char con- range. A magnetometer search of the entire outfall project. A number of additional safe- scruccion of che outfall muse cease pending area failed co locate any magnetic anomalies guards were provided with che escablishmenc the outcome of an independent enquiry worchy of further investigation. Construction of an expert monitoring commiccee and more announced by che Premier. Consequencly che continued. scringenc monitoring requirements placed on Latrobe Valley Wascewacer Review was estabBy May 1992 che outfall was completed che discharge co che ocean. lished with a panel made up of 3 persons: and after an EPA licence was issued, disThe EPA released a revised Works • The Director of Economic Development charge commenced in June 1992. EngineerApproval for the upgrade of Dutson Downs ac the Latrobe Regional Commission - ing derails on che construction of che outfall creacmenc lagoons and for che ocean outfall che major planning body in che region. have been presented elsewhere (Anscombe ac Delray Beach co proceed. • The Chairman of che Rosedale Water and Howard 1993). Conscruccion of che connecting pipeline Board - A local wacer board in the region. The presenc-day creacmenc facility ac and upgraded creacmenc lagoon commenced • The Director of Scream Ecology ac Chis- Dutson Downs creacs wascewacers derived and by July 1989, che LVWSB had spent holm Inscituce (now Monash University from three sources. Domestic and light $5M of che projected $25M coral project Caulfield). industrial waste is collected from Latrobe COSC. Under community pressure from environ- Valley rowns wich a combined population of mental groups, che terms of reference of che over 50,000 persons. Industrial wascewacer is The Project Halted review panel were expanded co examine waste collected from major industries including che This decision co call in che objections was generation and disposal issues for che whole Australian Paper Manufacturers pulp and greeted by uproar in che regional community region, nor only che immediate parcicipancs paper mill ac Maryvale and che Australian which indicated ic was an accempc co bypass in che outfall proposal. Char plane ac Morwell, boch situated in che che normal objections process and co deprive The review process lasted over 9 months. Latrobe Valley, and a separate industrial objectors of their right co present evidence. The panel called for a number of technical waste scream emanating from che Esso-BHP In May 1989, a media release by combined and lay reporcs from che various parcici panes oi l and gas plane ac Longford. The average regional union leaders indicated severe in che outfall and requested submissions from daily flows are approximately 16 ML domesconcern about che breach of che normal interested groups, regional organisations, tic , 15 ML pulp and paper effluent and 9 ML appeals procedure and che pocencial environ- CSIRO and unions . Public meetings and formation water from Esso-BHP. mental effects of an ocean outfall. This was private discussions were held. All efforts were In a separate system saline wascewacers followed by a leccer from the Victorian Trades made co ensure effective consulcacion from power stations ar Yallourn, Morwell and 1.0 0.001

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Figure 1. General locality plan showing the

Latrobe Valley, Dutson Downs Treatment Farm, the Esso-BHP processing plant and the Latrobe Valley Ocean Outfall. posal to upgrade the hydraulic capacity of the trunk sewer, upgrade treatment facilities at Dutson Downs and discharge the treated effluent to the ocean via an ocean outfall. In developing this strategy the LVWSB was guided by the findings of a government interdepartmental committee. Disposal of the waste to the ocean was co nsidered the preferred option since the saline waste was seen as being more compatible with the marin e waters and had been shown to be unsuitable for irrigation. In add irion construc tion of such an outfall would eliminate the discharge to lak e Coleman and minimise the dis charge of saline waste to the Latrobe River. It would also provide a method for the disposal of the Esso formation water, the volume of which would rapidly exceed the evaporative capacity of the existing basins. The combined system would also allow for effective treatment of other industrial wastes which might arise from new industries in the Latrobe Valley.


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The Initial Outfall Approvals Process An Environment Effects Statement (EES) was prepared and submitted to the Department of Planning in May 1986. Prior to the preparation of the EES the LVWSB had sought public input on the scope of the EES. Shortly after the release of the EES, a works approval application was made to the EPA for the upgrad ing of the treatment capabilities at Dutson Downs and the construc tion of an ocean outfall at Delray Beach. The EES was released for public comment in August 1986. Forty four submissions were received by October 1986. In May 1987, the Minister, after considering the public submissions on the EES, approved the project. At the same time an EPA works approval to construct the outfall was issued. The LVWSB initiated a progra m ro inform the public and to ac tively promote the concept of the outfall via phone-ins and community liaison committees. Following the decision to approve th e project, considerable media and public comment ensued. Normally, objections to a works approval are referred to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal for an independent decision. However on this occasion, rather than involvWATER JUNE 1994

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Figure 2. Diagrammatic representation of the monitoring program for the inlet to and exit from the main treatment lagoon at D11tson Downs. The parameters 111eas11red,freq11enq of sampling, and licence limits where applicable, are indicated. 17



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In May 1987, Gr~enpeace released che document " o Margi n for Safety" which reported chat hi ghly toxic dioxins were present in pulp and paper mill discharges. In October 1988, the Wesleyvale Pulp Mill EES was released and created incense controversy nationally. CSIRO's review of the project indicated chat insufficient was known about che environmental effects of a new pulp mill discharge into Bass Strait. Inc ense co mmunit y co ntroversy was created locally because of the perceived similarity between che proposed outfall and these ocher issues relating to waste disposal and ocean outfalls in ·general. However the fac e chat the review panel consulted so widely and endeavoured sincerely to cake into account concerns by both local participants in the debate and industry, led to che report being accepted as a largely impartial judgement of the waste disposal needs of the region. A key reco mm endation of the review panel was che creation of a "Ninety iN{ile Beach Consulcacive Committee". This committee, comprising 12 members of the public, municipalities, fishing interests, EPA, industry and the LVWSB was assigned the role of assessing the management of the Ninety Mile Beac h by various age ncies, including the LVWSB , the agency responsibl e for th e ocea n outfal l. The committee oversees monitoring results and liaises with members of the community and ocher relevant agencies. They also provide feedback to the LVWSB about their concerns with the operation and monitoring of the oucfall.

The Monitoring Program

Works Approval. The works approval granted by the EPA required consid erable monitoring to be performed to provide baseFigure 4. Diagrammatic representation of the monitoring of the receiving environment. frequency of line data from which any impact of the dissampling and a brief description of req11ire111ents are indicated. charge on the environment could be assessed. These required the establishment of sites at the discharge site and the establishm ent of Loy Yang, all situated in the Latrobe Valley, menc storage provides adequate head for the control sites. The control sites were selected are collected at Loy Yang and conveyed by the ocean outfall to operate by gravity to a capac- at Woodside and Seaspray, 25 km and 50 km Saline Water Outfall Pipeline (SWOP) direct ity of 60 Ml per day. The effluent has a char- to the west of the outfall site at Delray Beach, co che ocean ac McGaurans Beach (Figure 1). acteristic brown colour due to the presence of respectively. The works approval required that four This outfall was commissioned in 1983 and lign in residues from che pulp and paper has a peak capacity of 34.7 Ml per day. process. Colour varies between 600 and 1800 biological surveys, four sediment surveys and four marine waters surveys be completed As pare of che main Latrobe Valley Ocean Platinum Cobalt (PcCo) units. prior to commencement of discharge. Outfall system the domestic waste together The biological surveys involved the samwith the pulp and paper mill effluents are The Public Response to the pling, identification and quancitacion of subjointly cransporced 88km co a system of Outfall Begi nnin g around 1986, at che time tidal and intertidal animal communities and rreacmenc lagoons at Dutson Downs having a total capacity of 3,200 Ml. Saline formation when detailed planning of the outfall com- the ana lysis of selec ted species for coca! water, from the Esso-BHP offshore oil wells, menced, public awareness of environmental mercury and organi c priority po llutants. not separated at the well head , is separated issues was heightened both nationally and These surveys were carried out in 1987, from che oil ac che Longford oil and gas pro- incernacionally. Greenhouse and ozone deple- 1988, 198 9 and 1991, the latter three in cessing plane, and together with ocher plane tion were raised in che media, acid rain prob- April/May of chat year. Sediment monitoring was carried out ac waste waters is piped to a separate lagoon lems were bei ng publicised both overseas and system at Dutson Downs. The partly created locally and algal blooms had been reported in both the future discharge site and che control sites. Replicate sedi ment samples were colwaste from chis lagoon is then mixed with the Gippsland Lakes. Significantly for che ocean outfall project, lecced and analysed for mercury, cadmium , the partly created domestic and pulp and paper wastes in the final lagoons and, follow- media coverage of demonsrracions occuring copper, chromium , lead, loss on ignition, paring completion of creacmenc, the final efflu- in Sydney about the beach pollution gener- ticle size distribution and priority pollutants. ent is discharged to che ocean at a race of ated by Sydney's ocean outfalls created an Four such surveys were carried out in May between 30ML and 50ML per day. The creac- impression chat all ocean outfalls were bad. 1988, April 1989, June 1991 and May 1992. 18


Marine water quality surveys were carried parameters monirored , the frequency of monour in April 1991 , July 1991 , ovember iroring and, where stipulated in the licence, 1991 and February 1992 at both rhe future the relevant licence li mits. In a simil ar discharge sire and control sir es . Water fashion Figure 4 shows the very substantial samples were analysed for mercury, cadmium , moniroring program in the receiving waters copper, chromium , lead, adsorbable organic of Bass Srrair. The results of the determinahalide(AOX), dioxins and furans , ammonia, tion of minimum initial dilution at the difnitrate, nitrite, co lour and roral Kjeldahl fuser site have previously been reported in Nitrogen (TKN). this journal (Mosse 1993) . The only addiThe works approval also required that tional moniroring not shown in these figures srraregies be developed for the reduction is the requirement ro monitor three bores of sulfides, low molecular weight hydrocar- surrounding each lagoon annually for pH, bons, phenols and polyaromaric hydrocar- electrical conductivity (EC), colour, metals bons (PAH). In addi tion research aimed at and AOX. The purpose of monitoring the reducing rhe concentrations and loads of bores is to assess possible infiltration to organochlorines was ro be undertaken . ground waters. The works approval also stipulated that a The previous receiving environment, Lake comprehensive moniroring program be main- Coleman, is also required ro be monirored ro tained ar rhe discharge point of the final Jun e 199 5. This involves assessing the treatment pond ar Durson Downs. ph ysico- chemi cal nature of the water and The EPA Licence. The final EPA sediments at five different sires and ro carry licence issued by the EPA is a comprehensive out an annual survey of the animal communidocument covering areas of collecrion,rrear- ties along rhe shores of the lake. ment and di sposal together with extensive A summary of rhe first year of operation, moniroring requirements for the receiving in particular the results of the moniroring, environment. Figures 2 ro 4 summarise dia- will be rhe subject of a paper robe submitted grammatically the derailed moniroring of rhe ro Warer in the near future. Latrobe Valley Ocean Outfall. Figures 2 and 3 show the monitoring programs for the inlet ro and exit from the main rrearment lagoon Acknowledgments The authors wish co th ank Dav id at Dutson Downs(Fig 2) and the inlet ro and ex it from th e pretrea tm ent pond which MacKenzie (Regional Manager,EPA , Traralaccepts effluent from rhe Esso operation at gon); Mark Dunbar, Marcus Howard, Gordon Longford (Fig 3). The schem atics show the Kerr and Greg Samson (Gippsland Water) for

critical reading of the manuscript and l's Andrusyk for preparation of the figures.


Anon (1986) Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage B Bulletin Vol 1, No 1 Anderson J 1., Cornell MA and Aberley RC (1976). R on study of waste treatment and disposal in the La Valley. Caldwell Connell Engineers Anscombe R and Howard M (1993). Installation of a pol ylene outfall pipeline. Paper presented at the Ele, Coastal and Ocean Engineering Conference, Townsvi Maglen J (1979) Water in Wealth - 'A ·History of the Twenty Five Years of the Latrobe Valley Water and erage Board' Masse PR LJ:1993) Dilution factors at the Latrobe V Outfall. \Val er Vol 20,3: 10-12


Peter Mosse grad11ated Ph. D in Biochem, and Zoology from Melbourne University in IS and worked as a medical Research Fellow at University for 3 yean He lectured at Mo1 University, Gippsland for 5 years, and then jo Gippsland Wate1; in charge of the Water Sc, Laboratory. Amongst other responsibilitie rnpervises the licence requirements and monito of the Latrobe Valley Ocean Outfall. Peter Donlon mrrently works at Gippst Water in their Strategic Planning Division. has worked in the water industry for 15 y covering treatment processes, science laborat< and environmental monitoring His present inte are performance indicators for Gippsland W and strategies for waste minimisation for Latrobe Reg1on.


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SEMINAR - DRINKING WATER QUALITY GUIDELINES WORKSHOP Melbourne May 1994. Report by E. A. (Bob) Swinton A workshop was held during the Ozwarer exhibi tion, to discuss various aspects of the new Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. Following three years of inves tigation and discussions, NHMRC and ARMCANZ have finally agreed on a draft to be released for public comment. The workshop followed seminars on much rhe sa me sub ject repo rt ed in Water in February and April, so char some degree of overlap was expected. However, rhe significance of rhe imminent release of rhe draft document , and irs impl icat ions ro water managers, drew an audi ence of over 70. Ir was chaired by Doug Lane, who was Chairman of the Coordinating Committee for the establishment of rhe Guidelines. In rhe opening address, Rob Skinner General Manager Water Services for Melbourne Water, discussed how eas il y rhe Guidelines could be translated directly into Standards by Reg ul arors un less ir was made ve ry clear char they are nor designed for chis purpose. More than once th roug hout rhe workshop, Doug emphasised char rhe document publish ed g uid elin es, nor standards. Definition of legal standards was a marrer for rhe Scare and Territory jurisd icrio ns, and would have to be determi ned ar a lacer stage by appropriate community consulrarion and rhe political process, raking into account rhe reali ties of rhe local siruarions, nor least the cost of attaining and maintaining any standards which were unnecessarily stringent. The Guidelines were derived from studies by a number of expert panels, manned from water and health in sti tutions , universit ies and private industry. They were a since re attempt to lay down principles which would be relevant throughout Australia, rather than a slavish copy of numbers released by overseas organisations. The inclusion of justifica ti on for the derivations and caveats in the form of fac e sheers was an innovation, as well as the advice on water quality management included in rhe main document , aimed ar 'standards of service' . A second summary document will be issued as a working manual. Boch documents are to be widely distributed for public and industry com ment for a period of three months after their release. There are differences in ph ilosophy, as well as in rhe numbers, from the 1987 guidelines. No doubt there wi ll be differences in rhe numbers in any revision in years to come, dependent on new knowledge. The most difficult issue has been agreement on bacteriological lim its, because of the difficulties in defi ning adequate monitoring 20

systems , methods of resting and interprerarion of rhe significance of rhe numbers of 'indicator organisms', and assigning relevant srarisri cal standards of performance. Dr. Richard Lugg of rhe W.A. Health Department explained rhe rationale behind the recommendations. Richard Benyon described rhe monitoring and research which has been in progress in Melbourne Water's protected and unprotected catchments for many years. Regarding rhe impact of forest management on water yield and quality, his recommendation is char any fores try in such carchm en rs should be performed on a 200 year cycle, nor rhe usual 40 year cycle. (see Wate1; April). Reg Walters of rh e Centre fo r Water Quality Research spoke on rhe successive barriers involved in rhe production of clean water and gave an erudite summ ary of rhe advantages and disadvantages of various disinfection processes. Mike Muntisov of GHD looked to rhe future of water treatment, with increasing emphasis on prorecrion from algal toxins and cryprosporidiam oocysrs. The viral role of rhe reticul ation sys rem in th e coral compl ex ca nnot be overlooked , si nce rh e new Guidelines emphasise monitoring ar the cusrome r's rap. He co uld even envisage a demand by rhe community for the use of chemicals ro be discontinued, which might lead to increasi ng use of membrane fi ltration, bur rhe potential for regrowth in rhe reticulation system would present a hazard. His key message was, 'Know your source water'. Mike Chapman added to an exce ll ent dissertat ion on the impact rhe gui de lines could have an Melbourne Water (\\1/ater April , p.10). He presented a chart of his estimates of rhe cost to the inhabirants of Melbourne of various 'standards'. Mainly based on various interpretations of 'coliform count' rhe overall cost of warer rrearmenr could rise from the present $22M ro a poss ibl e $120 M pe r annum , i.e. an extra $100 per ratepayer. An esri mare of customer sarisfacrion , as expressed by rhe percentage of customers rega rding rhe warer as 'very good to excellent ' would improve, bur ar a dimi nishing rare. However, ri sk, whi ch is already ar very low levels, would only decrease slightly. He stressed rhar rhe rrade- off between price and 'acceptable water quality' was rhe key to future decisions by rhe community. The workshop then had considerable discussion on 'consulrarion with rhe community' led by a paper from Carole Hamilton, a consul rant who has sar as an expert on customer complaints and related iss ues on th e panel

which sec guidelines for aesrheric characrerisrics. She noted char her involvement had come very lace in rhe rhree-year history of the development of rhe guidelines. She indicted rhe process as: lengthy and bureaucratic, fragmented, lacking in clarity, unclear objectives, closed technical culture, no translation of technical information, decision processes difficult ro trace, low accountability, resourced from rhe Scare Water Authorities, so nor independent. She was particularly concerned char community representation might have been employed merely to add token validity. She fe lt char ir should have been a part of the process from rhe beginning. She made some valuable recommendations on rhe strategies which should be adopted fo r publi c consul rarion , which could well be adopt ed when com muni ties translate Guidelines into appropriate Standards. One imm ed iately vali d sugges tion was char the launch of the Guideli nes should be jointly supported by rhe Health Aurhoriries and Water Aurhor;iries. Doug Lane heartily agreed, particularly as ir may assist in getting closer co-ordination between these bod ies, which currently is norably lacking in some Scares (nor 'l1amed). J ennifer Simpson, from rhe Sunshine Coast Environment Council in Queensland , reiterated rhe basic requirement char community consu lrarion musr start ea rly, before decisions are made. Only a frame of reference should be laid down . She also said rhar, from her experience, rhe public is willing to spend more money in chis area. A report on rhe impact of 'privatisation' of authorities came from Alan Thornton of Hunter Water which, as rhe first cab off rhe rank with regard to corporarisarion, has had licences applied, wirh rhe requirement ro issue a monthly report on warer quality to rh e media. (He nored ch ar only rhe 'bad news' is ever published.) Carole Hamilton said char she had visited UK and researched rhe issues in rhe water industry. As a consequence she has changed her mind on privarisarion, if on ly because it could lead to more open release of information to rhe public on performance against standards . Th e separa ti on of regularor from supply aurhoriry was definitely an advantage so far as the public was concerned, since clear lines of accounrabiliry could be established. In her opinion there was a fa irly clear realisation of rhe relationship between price and quality. This workshop is probably rhe harbinger of more to come as rhe jurisdictions come to grip with the implications of rhis consensus of technical and med ical 'experrise¡. WATER JUNE 1994


DRINKING WATER QUALITY A QUALITY MANAGEMENT ISSUE PJ Vendy* The application of Quality Management principles and practices is now well advanced across a wide spectrum of Australian industry and commerce. The Health Care sector has increasingly adopted the concepts as have many Federal, Scace and Local Government departments and instrum entalities . Major improvements in quality, productivity and custom er se rvice, co world best prac ti ce standard in some instances, have resulted. Through the use of modern Quality Management Technologies, the best manufac turing and serv ice industri es in chis co untry are working within, or are close co ac hieving , produce quality levels of 99.99%. Some are striving for the even higher levels required co compete in rhe Internacional marker place. With chis in mind , it is disturbing co re~d in recent Victorian newspaper articles data quoted from a Rural Drinking Water Quality Reform Working Group whi ch ind ica ted some 600,000 rural Victorians are supplied with wa ter whi ch does nor mee t hea lth guidelines. The articles went on co deduce char only 32% of Victorian rural water users received water of acceptable bacteriological quality. The technology and processes for rhe protection of water catchment areas and the treatment of water from storage through co distribution co the customer is readily available either in Australian or from overseas sources. Clearly the technology or the fac ili ties have nor been installed, or the processes for controlling the quality of water are nor under control. Total Quality Manage ment (TQM ) is the method ology of Continuous Qualit y Imp rove ment dri ve n by a manage ment commitm ent co provid e quality produces whi ch sa ti sfy or even excee d custom er requirements and expectations. The application of TQM co the water supply industry will provide a mechanism co assist each water authority scare the long journey co improve all aspects of water supply and in particular chose processes which effect water quality. An important first seep in the management of Tocal Quality is the development and impl ement ati on of Qu alit y Ass ura nce Systems. Th e Incernacion al Stand ard for Quality Sys tems ISO 9000 , published in


Australia as Australian Standard AS 3900, can readily be applied co the Quality Operati ons of all Wa ter Suppl y Auth oriti es. Whether che Quality Assurance System is internally developed, or is a structured centrally acc redited system fo r all Authorities co implement., res ts largely in the hands of the Scace Aurhoricies setting standards for the Industry. The most relevant Standard in the ISO 9000 seri es for water supply organisations would appear co be ISO 9001 - Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development , Production, Instal lati on and Servicing. There are 20 separate elements ro ISO 9001 ranging from Management Responsibility, through Process Control and Corrective Action Procedures, co Training and the use of Scariscical Tec hn iques. The design and implementation of a Quality Sys tem co nfo rming to th ese elements is influ ence d by th e va rying need s of the organisati on, its particul ar obj ec tives , the prod uces and se rvice suppli ed and th e processes employed. All Quality Systems by definiti on address rh e deve lopm ent and impl ementat ion of practices for control of the outgoi ng produce. Ir is inherent char all processes req uire the establishment of process limits which in chis situation are Water Quality Standards co be set at the discretion of the Supply Authority Management. In chis situation it is mos t likely Water Quality Standards will be based on World Health Organisation Standards or National Health or Medical Research Council Guidelines. In some special situations certain licence conditions may have been spec ified under contract. Impl ement ati on of Qu alit y Sys tem Stand ards will, among ocher things, clearly id enti fy where expenditure is required or management attention is needed ro upgrade the processes co mee t the ag reed Quality Standards. An important pare of the Quality System will be a staci scicall y based water sampling and analysis program which muse clearly measure the quality of water at the customer's cap. The control of water treatment processes and distribution facilities will re quir e water sampl es co be taken and

analysed on a statistical basis ro ensure ch, delivery process is capable of meeting speci fie d requirements at che 99. 7 5% co nfo r mance level or better. Thus the developmen and implementation of a Quality System fo Water Supply Authorities will clearly addres the type of problems reported by the Rura Drinking Water Quality Working Group Under the requirements of Quality Systems th e sampling and res ting progra ms ar, ongoing with the results continuously avail able for Management ro moniror and contro the basic processes and develop invesrmen plans for new technology. The introduction of acc redited Qualit: Systems for Water Authorities will play ar important role in identi fy ing fo r manage ment the capability of existing systems anc facilit~es ro meet Health standards . This nev knowledge does not necessaril y mea n ar imm edia te massive in ves tm ent of fund : to solve water quality problems, bur wil provide a basis for a managed investment tc achieve World Standard Water Quality ove1 the next 1 ro 10 years.

*Peter Vendy is Operati ons Direc tor ol Internacional Quality Management Pty Led . Notting Hill , Vi c. The company prov idei consulting services in Quality Management including some current work in che application of AS 3900 Quality Systems ro Sewerage and Water Treatment and Supply facilities.

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PROSPECT WATER FILTRATION PLANT QUALITY IN DESIGN Martin Walshe* 1 Brian Urwin1 Alex Paton1 John French Introduction

track design, construction and commisgracing all stages of the Project including s1on10g. Prospect Water Filtration Plane (WFP) is planning, design, construction, commissionThese documents form the framework for the largest environmental engineering project ing, operai:ions and maintenance. curren tly being undertaken in Australia. Each of the main participants has devel- the delivery of a major and technically comWhen constructed, the plane will be one of oped Quality Policies and Procedures for rhe plex multi-disciplinary project involving the largest water filtration planes in the world Project and a clear hierarchy and precedence civil, structural, chemical, hydraulic, mechdeveloped from a "greenfield " site, with an has been established between AWS, as owner anical, electri cal, insrrumencarion and coninitial capacity to process some 3000 ML/d and operator of Prospect WFP, Civil & Civic trols disciplines. Coordination of desi gn (Megalirres per day) of drinking water and the as Project Manager and Prospect Water effort within a right rimeframe has been ability to be augmented to 4200 ML/d capac- Group as Principal Designer (Figure 1). The facilitated by having briefing documentation which clearly identifies the design requireity in the future. The plane will supply water emphasis of each differs. to approximately 80 % of Sydney's population The AWS Quality Plan is focussed on ments and priorities and provides a structure of some 3.5 million people. ensuring chat the project is delivered and will for the verification of design outputs by the Prospect WFP is being developed as part be operated and maintained in accordance Principal Designer, Project Manager and of the Sydney Water Board's Drinking Water with their Contract with the Water Board. Plane Operator. Program. Prospect WFP has been planned by The AWS Prospect WFP Quality Assurance Quality in Design the Water Board for some time. Initial inves- Pl an and the associated subsidiary Pl ans The Prospect Water Group Joint Venture tigations and designs for the plane were define the Qual ity Management System partners CMPS&F Environmental and Sinclair developed in the 1960's and 1970's but the applying to all stages of the Project. project was then deferred. The Water Board's Civil & Civic's Quality Plan comes under Knight Merz each have Standards Association Drinking Water Program was initiated in the umbrella of the AWS Quality Plan and is accredired,.qualiry systems in accordance with 1989 and, in 1991 , th e Prospect Water focussed on the management of rhe design, AS 3901. Nevertheless it was necessary for the Group, a Joint Venture of leading Australian construction and commissioning phases co Prospect Water Group Joint Venture to consultants CMPS&F Environmental and ensu re delivery of the Project co AWS in develop a separate quali ry plan and specific procedures for the Proj ect so. char personnel Sinclair Knight Merz working in association accordance with their requirements. with Camp Dresser & McKee Inc and MontProspect Water Group 's Quality Plan is from each of the companies participating in gomery Warson, was commissioned by rhe focussed on the management of the design the design would work under a single quality Water Board to undertake investigations and process ro ensure char the verified design system . A separate Quality System was thereto prepare a Concept Design for Prospect intent is realised during the construction and WFP, which was completed early in 1992. commissioning phases, and comes under the Australian Water Services Competitive renders were called from rhe umbrella of Civil & Civic's Quality Plan. Quality Plan private sector by the Water Board in 1992 for Design Control the development and operation of Prospect Three principal documents were develWFP on a "Build Own Operate " basis. Australian Water Services (AWS), a consor- oped during the rendering phase and form tium of Lend Lease Corporation , Lyonnaise the basis for control of the design process. Des Eaux-Dumez and P&O Australia, was They comprise: Civil & Civic awarded the contract in 1993, with Civil & • The Client Design Brief which contains Quality Plan the process design parameters and operaCivic as Project Manager for the delivery of tional requirements for rhe plane was the Project and the Prospect Water Group as developed early in the tendering phase by Principal Designer. AWS. This document and has been proDerailed design of Prospect WFP comgressively updated since and embodies rhe menced in October 1993, consrrucrion combasis for rhe plane design. Prospect Water Group menced in December 1993 and the plane is • The Design Report which was prepared scheduled for commissioning in 1996. Quality Plan cowards rhe end of the Tendering phase co Project Quality Assurance describe the plant layout and outline The Water Board have driven the requireplane design to meet the requirements of ment for Project Quality Assurance as part of the Client Design Brief. Figure 1 Quality Plan Hierarchy their requirements to ensure char the Project • The Project Delivery Programme which is constructed and operated to high stanwas prepared during the rendering phase *Prospect Water Group - A joint venture dards. There are srricr Quality requirements and derailed at the commencement of the of CMPS&F Environmental and Sinclair in the Contract with AWS covering and incedesign phase to sec the rimeframe for fast Knight Merz WATER JUNE 1994


the Operaror a. any stage. Early input has been sought from construction contractors and specialist equipment suppliers as pare of the design development and these inputs are incorporated within the design change process. Procedures are in place for approval by Civil & Civic and by AWS of design changes co ensure these are incorporated as design detailing progresses.

Design Management & Coordination

Design Discipline Technical review

Design Verification Design Discipline Technical Standards Technical Review and Design Package Verification

Design Package Leaders

Design Engineers

Figure 2

Matrix for Design and Verification

fore devised for the Proj ect rim embodied elements of each of the Joint Venture partners qualiry sys rems and included project-specific quali ty policy and procedures. The Prospect Water Group Quality System was developed for the Concept Design phase in 1991 and has been progressively updated during the rendering phase and for the derailed design and delivery phase. A matrix structure has been established for the design and verification (Figure 2) with the objective of ensuring chat design work progresses and meets the project req uirements. Principal elements of the matrix comprise: • Design packaging for implementation of design. The proj ect has been sub-divided into a series of design packages comprising discrete plane areas as well as general sire components. Each package is multidisciplinary, has a clearly defined series of interfaces with ocher packages and is under the control of a sing le design leader. Elements of eac h package have been defi ned co correspond co construction contract packaging. Criteria documents were prepared co define particular design requirements , the breakdown of the package inro discrete design casks, cask interfaces and interfaces wi ch ocher design packages. Design outputs are coor-



• • • •

dinared and verified against the cri reria documents. Design standards and methods. Design criteria documents were prepared for each technical design discipline, against which design outputs are verified. Technical Review at discipline, design package and overall project levels co verify design and chat design outputs have achieved the Project requirements . The matrix structure ensures char: coordination of the overall design effort is achieved through management of design packages and interfaces; work in each design package is managed and coordinated by a single multi-disciplinary designer; each technical design discipline is applied in a consistent manner over the ent ire project; there is a point of reference for resolution of technical difficulties in design; design checking and verification can be undertaken in a struc tured manner at both technical discipline, design package and overall project levels.

Design Change Control Cose-effective design solutions or design changes may be identified by the Designer, Projecc Manager, Construction Conrraccors or

Prospect Water Group design verification is undertaken at all levels of design , commencing at designer self checking and progressing co independent design review procedures. Verification is undertaken against the Client Design Brief and design criteria documentation prepared for each design discipline and for each design package. Regular internal audits of quality system compliance are undertaken . The verification processes of both Civil & Civic and AWS are interlaced within the Prospect Water Group design and design verification procedures. Verification of design elements is undertaken by Civil & Civic and AWS co ensure that plane and equipment quality standards are met, design has been undertaken in accordance with the Client Design Brief and chat project budgets are achieved. Critical design elements are defined in the Client Design Brief and these are independendy verified by AWS co ensure that plane and equipment quality standards are met and chat operation and maintenance budgets are achieved. Auditi ng of quality system implementation is regularly undertaken following the hierarchy of quality plans shown in Figure 1.

Conclusion Briefing and design criteria documentation which spe ll out the pro ject design requirements were developed at the commencement of the Project. The design programme, work breakdown structure, resource structure and verification procedures have been developed co interface with the delivery phase of the Proj ect. The Prospect Water Group review and verification processes are integrated with chose of Civil & Civic and AWS and are demanding and rigorous but the benefits are evident. All parties are involved, are able co moniror and discuss progress as it happens, disputes are minimised and there is little requirement for re-design , providing long term time and cost savings.










95 95 95




ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Cape Town,January 1994. Report by Wipa Lapsirikul The seventh international symposium was organi sed by IAWQ Specialise Group on Anaerobic Di ges tion , IAWQ Southern African National Committee, and Anaerobic Processes Div is ion of Water In st itute of Southern Africa (WISA). The objective of the symposium was co advance the science and practice of anaerobic digestion by promoting communication and exchange of information between chose accive in the field. All aspects of anaerobic digestion and related areas were discussed, including the scare of the arc, laboracory, pilot and fu ll-scale experi ences covering basic research, process development, reaccor design improvement, economic and overall impacts of anaerobic digestion, appli ca tion s for environmental protection and renewable resource recovery. Approximately 275 registered delegates from all over the world cook part in the symposium , including four from Australia. The symposium was opened with welcoming address by Prof Willy Verstrciete , Co-Chair of the Symposium Program Committee, and Her Worship the Mayor of Cape Town, Alderman Patricia Kreiner, then fo llowed by tech nica l program including the presentation of 81 oral papers and 88 poster papers, categorised into 12 sessions as fo ll ows : app li ed fundamenta ls, process control, sulfate removal, chermophilic creacment , reaccor design, industrial efflu ents , anaerobi c ponds, soli d wastes and biogas, landfills and biogas, memb rane assisted processes, full-scale treatment. In che mi crobiological sessions, a wide range of di ffe rent approac hes had bee n applied co investigate the fundamental mechanisms of anaerobic digestion process, parcicularl y the mi crobial distribution in th e reac tor and granular sludge formation in UASB type reacror. Using scanning electron mi croscopy (SE M), it was found char gra nul e's mi cros crucrure was depend ent on the nature of the substrate. However, the aceroclasric Methanothrix was found co be the key structural element in all che granules, suggesting chat it plays an important role in granulation. A number of new reaccor designs such as Internal Circulation (IC), anaerobi c downflow-upflow hybrid reaccor, etc, have been proposed for different types of wastewater (substrate) and operational condi rions. For effect ive operation of the process, on-line control systems usi ng different parameters, such as pH, biogas, H2, bicarbonate alkalinWATER JUNE 1994

icy, ere, had been widely investigated. These developments will allow the operators to moniror the sys tem close ly as well as co dececr the abnormal performance resulting from und erload ing, overloading, and/or introduction of an inhibiror. The application of anaerobic processes co treat municipal soli d waste has increased during the past decade. Bes ides methane gas whi ch is obtained as a by-product, a number of papers in the symposium presented a potential use of digested municipal solid waste as a raw material for compose, the process of 'anaerobic composting'. This process has been installed full scale, at the city of Salzburg, and operated since November 1993. The above are only some highlights which are of personal interest co me. An excellent fea rure of che conference, complementing che formal discussions were the extra opportunities provided for informal discussions duri ng the lunch breaks (called problem-solving lunch breaks). These were organised so chat delegates who had particular interests could meet. Delegates were encouraged co submit copies co the organiser. The copies and allocated cable numbers were then an noun ced during eac h morn ing plenary session. At the end of the symposium , there was a round table discussion on the scare of the science of anaerobic digestion chaired by Prof Willy Verstraete and Dr Rene Moletta. The panel comprised Prof Birgitre Ahring , Prof Da vid Chynoweth , Emeritus Pro f Gert Marais, and Prof Tatsuya Noike. It was suggested chat the science of anaerobic digestion has matured. Full scale anaerobic digestion is being used co treat different wasrewarers all over the world . However, there are still a number of areas requiring further investigation . These include: • The fundamental microbiology of granulation (effect of growth , size, distribution and type of bacteria). • Measurement of biodegradability and coxiciry of anerobic microbes and the sensitivity and acclimatisation of the microbes co such roxici ty. • Biodeg radation of difficult-co degrade waste such as petrochemical waste, etc. • The application of anaerobic treatment co roxic waste. • Pre-treatment and post-treatment. • Alternative by-products from anaerobic di ges tion such as ethanol , methanol,

protein. After the ll)1lin symposium , there were two post-symposium cechni'cal visits available to delegates. The fi rst was a one-day tec hni cal rour whi ch visited landfill and wastewater treatment planes around the Cape Town area. The second was an 8-day technical rour with extensive visits co waste treatment facilities throughout South Africa. The one day cour, which I attended, was interesting. We visited one landfill site and two wastewater treatment planes. One of the wastewater planes , Cape Flats wastewater treatment plane, is employed co treat municiapl waste. It is impressive in size, and also advanced in technology, including digester sludge pasteurisation co treat the sludge before discharge. Coastal Park Landfill is a large landfill site serving over half a million people. It is under investigation for che pumping of landfill gas, which will reduce' the emission of green house gas co the atmosphere as well as providing an energy source. Apart from chis technical visit, the rour 11lso provided an opportunity for the delegates co appreciate the beautiful landscape and coast line of Cape Town. I fe lt ch at th e symposium was very well organised. Credit should be given co the orga ni sing co mmitte e, particularly th e chairman Dr W R Ross and family who really made chis symposium successfu l. - Wipa Lapsirikul, Environmental Science, Murdoch University, WA. Oral and poster paper preprints can be purchased for R25 0 (79 US ) per set from the Symposium Secretariat - IAWQ: AD94, P. Box 3123, Tygerpark, 7536, South Africa.

AWWASEEK Computer Database of AWWA Publications • National Conferences • Water Journa l • Summer Schools 1

OVER 1500 ARTICLES INDEXED Available from Philip Williams Tel (07) 875 7514 Fax (07) 875 5288 31



THE USE {MIS-USE?) OF ACRONYMS IN THE WATER/WASTEWATER INDUSTRY P Williams * be translated in full when they are first used in rhe text. Unfortunately many authors ignore thi s completely or only give rhe full translation after th e acron ym has already appeared several rimes. This can be extremely irri raring ro rhe reader. The transfer of information in an acronym onl y occurs rapidly if rhe reader has som e deg ree of fa mili arit y wirh rh e particular acronym. Otherwi se there is a tendency co keep referring back co rhe explanation (if in fac t an explanation can be found ). There is a danger rhar over-use of acronyms can alienate Introduction rhe reader particularly if rhe reader's technical An acronym is defined as a word formed expertise is outside the immediate area of rhe from the initi als of orh er words. A good article. Given rhe importance of rhe mulriexample of an acronym which has come into disciplina1y narure of much of the technology popular use (and is now an accepted word in within the warer/wasrewarer industry, ir is irs own right) is "LASER", short for "Light important co ensure articles are meaningful Amplifi ca tion by Stimulated Emission of ro as broad a range of readers as poss ible. Radiation". No doubt part of rhe popularity Warer industry professionals, wh ether they of acronyms such as LASER is their ease of be civil or chemi cal engin ee rs, chemi sts, use. However, whether an acronym should be microbiolog ists or ope_rarors, should ar least pronounceable as suggested in some defini have a bas ic understanding of th e ochers' tions, doesn't appear terribly important. The papers. One of the most important aspecrs modern trend is ro accept any group of inifac ing rhe warer/wasrewarer industry is rhe tials as an acronym. need ro communi cate effec tively with rhe Acronyms appear ro be used in technical community and other groups such as politilirerarure at an accelerating rare. This is parcians and rhe media. In many cases non-techticu larly so in rhe warer/wasrewarer industry. nical people outside rhe water/wastewater Acronyms should be used for effi ciency in industry would have great difficulty in trying communication. The use of acronyms can be ro read a tec hni ca l articl e full of trendy advantageous in conveying complex informaacronyms. Communication will not occur if tion and avoiding repetition bur rhere is also a rhe rexr looks like a foreign language. danger rhar readers may be confused and irriWith rhe rapid proliferation of acronyms, Use of Acronyms tated by rhe inappropriate use of acronyms. th ere will be an in creased in cid ence of The could result in our literature will become Advantages. Acronyms are a powerful increasingly unintelligible ro anyone outside rool. Th e prin cipal reason fo r rh e use of "double (o r more) mea nings" eg ATP .. the industry and ro a lesser exrenr ro many ac ron yms is ro avoid repetition of strings adenosine tri phosphate. or ... advan ced within rhe industry. Effective communication of words whi ch are likely robe used through- rrearment plane ... or. .. aerobic rhermophilic is viral, borh within the industry and ex ter- our an article. They can transfer ro rhe reader prerrearmenr ' All of these variations of ATP were used nall y ro rhe community and och er groups. a compl ex phrase wirh ju st a few letters Articles musr always "read well ". eg UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanker). in th e 1993 AWWA Federal Convention Some care with rh e use of ac ron yms Wh en readers are full y conversa nt wirh Proceedings. Some authors use ac ronyms in a trivi al appears warranted . Thi s paper looks ar rhe th e ac ron ym a mental im age is conveyed manner and coin acronyms for every second use of ac ron yms in th e warer/wasrewarer immediarely. indu st ry and sugges ts some guid elines fo r Problems with Acronyms. Acro- phrase. For example, ESD - environmentally rh eir use. A compil ation of techni ca l nyms can also be mis- used . The foll owing are sensi rive design, used repeatedly just seems acronyms which appear ro be widely used and some examples of mi s-use or problems. *Phil Willi ams, Griffith University, accepted is Iisred ar rhe end of rhe paper. As a general principle, acronyms should Nathan Qld 4111


Types of Acronyms

This paper looks ar rhe increasing use of acronyms in the warer/wasrewarer industry lirerarure. Acronyms are a powerful cool if used appropriately bm they are also prone co mi s- use. Because good communication in industry lirerarure is vi ral, rhi s paper suggesrs some timely guidelines for rhe effective use of acronyms. A list of techni cal acronyms is included.

Acronyms used in the warer/wasrewarer industry can be divided into a number of types whi ch can be broadl y group ed as show n. (No re rh ar som e of rhese are nor srricrly acronyms, and include abbrevi ations and symbols.) • The initi als for Governm ent Departments, Aurhori ries, Board s, Industry Groups, eg HMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) • Progra mm es Orga ni zed/Fun de d by Governmenr/Aurhoriries eg CWP (Clean Waterways Programme) • Company ames eg GHD (Gutteridge Haskins & Davey) • Warer/was rewa rer characteri sti cs or derermin anrs eg . BOD (Biochemi ca l Oxygen Demand) . • Warer/wasrewarer unir processes or associated aspects eg DAF (Di ssolved Air Fl orarion • Soft ware Comput er Progra mm es, Models eg ILSAX • Tec hni ca l produ cts, trademark s eg SIROFLOC • Units eg Ml/d (Megalirres per day) • Symbols in mathemati cal or chemical conrexrs Th e balance of chi s paper is mainl y co nce rn ed wirh tec hni ca l ac ron yms for warer/wasrewarer characreri srics, parameters, processes.



lazy Eng lish. The power of the language is lose and the author (and reader) get locked in to a narrow description of something which may nor be fixed and which could be better desc ribed in a variety of different ways throughout the paper. Once Off or Widely Accepted? Should acronyms be used as a "once off' ie. in a particular paper co abbreviate a repeated phrase or should they be restricted to widely accepted examples ? If the former point of view prevails, then every author can coin as many and as diverse acronyms as they please, whether or nor they have been used before or are li kely to be used aga in. In rhe latter case onl y recognized acronyms would be encouraged, but how do acronyms become "recognized". It is probable chat the situation is si milar co new words in our language, particularly slang or techni cal words. A good example would be "software". There is no for mal acceptance method or period , rhe words just come in co popular use. Our language is foreve r evolving. It is inevitable char new technical acronyms wi ll continue co appear and that some wil l become established in water/wastewater industry li terature.

Conclusions and Recommendations Acronyms are extensively used in water industry li terature. They are a powerfu l tool but they are also prone co mis-use. Ir is considered char the use of acronyms has reached the point where some care is now warranted. In rhe interests of better communication in the water industry, the following are suggesred guidelines for the use of acronyms. • Auth ors should avo id coi ning trivial acronyms for descriptive phrases eg SAP superior alternative proposal, BAP best ava il ab le process , ARA a ridi culou s acronym. Acronyms are much more powerful if th ey are limit ed co technical aspecrs such as processes or parameters .. • Authors should be cognisa nt of the paper's target audience and use acronyms appropriately. Some papers will be referenced many times in the future by a wide variety of peop le includin g stud ents, librarians, other professionals outside the imm edi ate technical fie ld and possi bl y non technical groups in the community. • When first used in a paper, the acronyms must be described in fu ll. An even better method would be co include a list of all acronyms and thei r full description in rhe absrracr at the start of the paper. • Acronyms start to lose their usefu lness if they are too long. Ir is suggested rhar three lerrer acro nyms are the optimum length . Any shorter and the need co use acro nyms red uces, any longer and th e amount of information becomes too complex to absorb read ily. • Authors should be very carefu l with the use of acronyms with multiple meanings, eg ATP, as discussed earlier.


Appendix A - List of Technical Acronyms The ·following list has bee n compiled from several so urces including rhe Proceedings of the recent 1993 AWWA Federal Convention. Onl y those acrony ms whi ch appea r to be co mm onl y used (o r whic h appear likely co be co mmonly used) have been included. Atomic Absorption Atomic Absorption Sepctromerry Alkyl Benzene Sulfonare Apparent Colour Acoustic Dopler Current Profiler Average Dry Weather Flow Asset Management Anaerobic Rotating Biological Conractor Assimilable Organic Carbon AOC Advanced Oxidation Process AOP Adsorbable Organic Halides AOX Alternative Pollutant Limit APL APT. Activated Primary Tank Average Rainfall Intensity ARI Acrivated Sludge AS Algal Surface Area ASU ASV Anodic Stripping Voltametry Autothermal Thermophilic ATAD Aerobic Digestion ATP (1) Adenosine Tri Phosphate ATP (2) Advanced Treatment Plant ATP (3) Aerobic Thermophilic Pretreatment Advanced Wastewater Treatment AWT Biological Activated Carbon BAC BAF Biological Aerated Filter BAP Bio Available Phosphate Baffled Anaerobic Reactor BAR BAT Best Avai lable Technology BATEA Best Available Technology Economically Available BCYE Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract BDOC Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Carbon B~e Flow BF BNR Biological Nutrient Removal Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD BOO Build Own Operate Build Own Operate Transfer BOOT Biological Phosphorus Removal BPR BSA Bismuth Sulphur Agar BV Bed Volume BWL Bottom Water Level CA Conven tional Aeration CAD Conventional American Digestor Cyclic Activated Sludge System .CASS Cntinuous belt filte r press CBFP CBOD Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand Calcium Carbonate Precipitation CCPP Poten tial CCTV Closed-circuit Television CDR Chlorophenol Degradation Rare Common Effluent Drain CED CF Contacr Fi ltration CFID Continuously Fed In rermirrenrly Decanted Conti nuous Recycle Fluidized CFRB Bioreacror CFSTR Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reacror Colony Forming Unit CFU CLSA Closed-loop Stripping Analysis AA



lffi1pletely Mixed Aerated Ponds Completely Mixed Flow Continuous Microfiltration Chemical O>.-ygen Demand cso Combined Sewer Outflow CST Capillary Suction Time CSTR Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor CT Concentration - Time cu Colour Unit DAF Dissolved Air Flotation DBP Disinfection By-products DCA Deoxycholate Agar DCAN Dichloroacetonitrile DDBP Disinfecrants and Disinfection By-products DDD Dichloro Diphenyl Dichloroethane DDE Dichiaro Diphenyl Dichloroethylene DDT Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane DF Domestic Flow DNA De-oxyribo ucleic Acid DO Dissolved Oxygen DOC Dissolved Organic Carbon DPP Differential Pulse Polarography DS Dry Solids DSSVI Diluted Stirred Sludge Volume Index DW Dry Weight EA Extended Aeration EBCT Empty Bed Contacr Time ECD Electron Capture Detector ED Elecrrodialysis EDTA Ethylene Diamine Terra Acetic Acid EIS Environmental Impact Statement EMC Event Mean Concentrations EP Equivalent Population ES Effective Size ESD (1) Ecologically Sustainable Development ESD (2) Egg-shaped Digestor ESP Exchangeable Sodium Percentage ESR .,. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy FALS Forward-angle Light Scarcer Sensor FAME Farry Acid Methyl Esters FAP Farry Acid profi ling FB Fluidised/Expanded Beds FC Faecal Coliforms FIA Flow In jection Analysis FID Flame Ionisation Detecror FM Food Micro Organism Ratio FS Faecal Streptococci FTOC Filtered Total Organic Carbon FSL Full Supply Level FTIR Fourier Transform Infra-red FTU Formazin Turbidity Unit GAC Granulated Acrivated Carbon Gas Chromatography GC GC-ECD Gas Chro matography-elecrron Capture Detector GC-MS Gas Chromarography Mass Spectrometry GFAA Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption GF-C Glass Fibre GFF Glass Fibre Filrer GIS Geographic Information System GWI Groundw'iter Infiltration HCOD Homogenized Chemical Oxygen Demand HDPE High-density Polyeth ylene HFRF Horizontal Flow Roughing Fi ltration HGL Hydraulic Grade Line HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography












Hydraulic Retention Time Homogenized Total Organic Carbon Hazen Unit Infiltration - Inflow Ion Chromatography Integrated Catchment Management Inductively Coupled Plasma Inductively Coupled Plasma Aromic Emission Spectrometry Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Internal Diameter Intermittently Decanted Extended Aeration Inrermirrenrly Fed Intermirrenrly Decanted Instream Flow Incremental Methodology Inorganic Chemicals Infra-red Limestone Ammonium mare Linear Alkyl Sulfonare Liquid Chromatography Low-density Ammonium Nitrate Land Filtration Area Langelier Index Lethal Concentration Lethal Dose Limits of Detection Litres Per Capita Day Lipo Poly Saccharide Langelier Saturation Index Methylene Bl ue Acti ve Substances Maximum Contaminant Level Maximum Contaminant Level Goal Minimum Detectable Threshold Odour Concentration Male Extract Agar Micro Fil tration Mechylisoborneol Modified Intermirrenrly Fed Incermirrenrly Decanted Mains Interception Sewage Treatment Mixed Liqor Dissolved Oxygen Mi xed Liqor Suspended Solids Mixed Liqor Volatile Suspended Solids Maximum Permiceed Concentrations Mose Probable Number Mass Spectrometry Municipal Solid Waste Modified University Cape Town alidixic acid resistant itrify ing Activated Sludge Nitrogenous Biochemical Oxygen Demand No Recommended Criterion on Carbonate Hardness Noc Dececced Noc Diluted or Done No Data Non-filcerable Residue Nuclear Mag netic Resonance o Observed Adverse Effect Level No Observable Effect Concencracion icrogen Oxides (Air) Oxid ized mogen Non-poinc Source No Trace Nephelomecric Turbidity Unics Oi l and Grease Oxygen Capacity








ss sso


Odour Dilution Unit Odour Emission Race Oil from Sludge Operations and Mai ntenance Oxidation-reduction Pocencial Odour Units Oxygen Ucilizacion Race Oxidi zed Nitrogen Powdered Activated Carbon Poly Aluminium Chloride Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Poly uclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls Polymerization Chain Reaction Platinum Cobalt Unit Potacre Dextrose Agar Peak Day Demand Peak Dry Weather Flow Primary Effluent Filtration Polyethylene - Glycol Plug Flow Reactor Plaque-forming Units Poly Hydroxybucyrace Poly BHydroxybucyric Acid Para H ydrobenzoic Acid Poly Hydroxyvalerace Proportional Integral Derivative (or differential) Programmable Logic Controller Phospholid Facey Acids Point Source Primary Sludge Fermentation Polyvi nyl Alcohol Polyvi nyl Chloride Peak Wee Weather Flow Quality Assurance Readily Assimilable Chemical Oxygen Demand Return Activated Sludge Rotating Biological Contaccor Rotating Biological Disk Readily Biodegradable Chemical Oxyge n Demand Rainfall-depende nt lnfilcracion Inflow Reticulated Metal Cathodes Ribo ucleic Acid Reverse Osmosis Sediment Available Phosphate Sodium Adsorption Ratio Soluble Biodegradable Chemical Oxygen Demand Soluble Biochemical Oxygen Demand Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Screaming Current Dececcor Serried Chemical Oxygen Demand Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand Simulated Concaminaced Water Simultaneous Disci llacion Excraccion Scanning Electron Microscopy Sanitary Flow Saturation Index Synchecic Organic Chemicals Specific Odour Emission Race Standard Place Count Spene Pickle Liquor Specific Resistance co Filcracion Solids Recencion Time Sludge Residence Time Suspended Solids Sanitary Sewer Overflow Slow Sand Filcracion Stirred Sludge Volume Index







voe Ol VOC(2) VFA VGS




Septic T>jnk Effluent Pumping Seeded Tocal Organic Carbon Sewage Treatment Plane Sludge Volume Index Scormwater Drain Total Colifocms Trichloroacetic Acid Thermal Conductivity Dececror "Dioxin" Total Catchment Management Total Chemical Oxygen Demand Tri Chloro Phenol True Colour Unit Total Dissolved Solids Trickling Filter Solids Contact To cal Hara ness Tri Halo Methanes Theoretical Oxygen Demand Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Trace Metal Solution Trimechylsulphonium Hydroxide Total Nitrogen Total Organic Acid Total Organic Carbon Threshold Odour Number Total Orga nic Halogen Total Phosphorus Total Quality Management Total Solids Tocal Suspended Solids Total Tri Halo Methanes Total Volatile Solids Tocal Water Cycle Management Top Water Level Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket University ofBricish Columbia Primary Sludge Fermencacion Unit Filter Backwash Volume Uniformity Coefficient University Cape Town Ultra Filtration Unit Filter Run Volumes Ultra Violet Ultra Violet-visible Light Volatile Organic Compound Volarile Organic Contam inan t Volatile Facey Acid Variable Grade Gravity Sewer Volatile Solids Volati le Suspended Solids Volatile Toxic Organic Compounds Waste Activated Sludge Water Filcracion Plane Water Pollution Concrol Water Pollution Conc rol Ponds Water Pollution Concrol Works Wasce Scabilizacion Pond Water Trearmenc Plane Water Treacmenc Works Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Treatment Plane Xyline Lysine Deoxycholate X-ray Diffraction X-ray Fluorescence Yeast Phosphate Soluble Search

The Author Phil Williams is a Sen ior lecrurer in the Sc hoo l of Enviro nm enta l Engi nee ring at Griffit h University. One of the most important aspects of the undergraduate degree programme is the emphasis on communication ski lls, hence the interest here with water/ wastewater acronyms. 35



CSIRO Clayton April 1994. Report by E. A. (Bob) Swinton The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, based in Vienna, has the charter of assisting developing countries with th eir industrial isation, and encouraging appropriate technology transfer from developed nations. This is achieved in a number of ways: • Direct technical assistance co Governments, industrial associations and factories . • Organising workshops. • Publishing dacabanks of companies and inscicucions with technologies co sell. • Organising 'TECHMARTS' co bring chem in couch with potential customers. • Assisting with negotiations by publishing guide lin es on che legal and financial factors which muse be addressed when writing contracts. • Giving advice, in general terms, on the financial valuation of such technology and on the form of contract. • Establishing a data bank of experts willing co advise.


is indispensable to che economic growth of all countries. He said chat there is an impression chat imported technology is too costly and ineffective, and chis was certai nly che case in years past where ic has been applied in inappropriate circumstances, particularly in Africa and South America. However, chis was not usually che case for developing Asian countries, which are already sophisticated. It is essential co asr the right questions, both as co what che technology can offer co solve the problem, what is a fair price and what skills are required ro operate and maintain it. The prospective supplier muse be thoroughly investigated, since both parries muse be committed for a long period, even after a turnkey project has been handed over. If all the homework is done properly, the resultant contract can 'be put away in a drawer' ... buc none the less it must be so unambiguous chat ic is understandable by the next generation of managers on both sides. As pare of its service UNIDO has analysed che various forms of contract, and can advise prospective clients. He referred also to the UNIDO Manual on valuation and payments. In his summary he said chat, having participated in hundreds of workshops all over che world , he was particularly impressed with the professionalism of CSIRO. He also said chat he had learned much of the way in which R&D was being harnessed in Australia by cooperation between industry, govern-

Following on discussions between Dr A J Priestley and Grant Ramsay, an Industri al Developm en t Officer in the Environment Branch of UNIDO , in 1992, UNIDO and the CSIRO Div ision of Chemicals and Polymers, Wacercec Group, joined forces co run a workshop enti tled 'Modern Techniques in Water and Wastewater Treatment' at the laboracories in Clayton, Vicroria (chis followed a much larger conference on Cleaner Production, run in February). Seventeen delegates were invited by UNIDO from most of che developing countries of Asia, and a further eleven delegates from various Chinese institutes were sponsored by DIST, following on the success of the earlier workshop. They were nearly all practising engineers and planners in the environmental sector. The workshop was open co Australian companies and inscicuces, and about 100 were registered. Dr Jose de Caldas Lima, Chief of th e UNIDO Technology Acquisition and Negotiation Seccion, said chat technology transfer Dr de Caldas Lima 36

ment and academia, and would be happy to pass on chat system to developing countries. Grant Ramsay, UNIDO, said chat the three aims of the workshop: to explain the lacesc technology in simple terms: to introduce the various perspectives of the developing countries, and to institute mechanisms for cooperation had all been achieved. The true value is what happens subsequently, and UNIDO's job is co ensure chat technology transfer does cake place where appropriate.

Techmart This is a business forum organised by UNIDO. The first was in China in 1991, then Zimbabwe and India in 1992. In 1994 two more are scheduled: Hanoi, November 1-4, New Dehli, November 14-18 and in 1995 , Lusaka, and Ease Europe. Rights co manufacture or use existing produces and processes can be bought and sold through direct contacts between technology seekers and suppliers, with special emphasis on the needs of small and medium scale businesses. The process is assisted by UNIDO's preparation of a catalogue, organisation of seminars during the Marc, advice on contract negotiations, tender documents and follow-up. Enquiries: Fax 43-1-232 15 6.

Valuations and Methods of Payments This UNIDO Manual of some 50 pages of typescript analyses methods for assessing the cash value of a technology, and advises on the advantages and disadvantages of different payment schemes, which can be ei ther a flat race, royalty, or a combination. le includes a discussion on the Life Cycle of a technology, which in che fierceness of global competition can be reduced, on the systems employed for protection of incellestual property, and on methods by which che price/cost balance can be negotiated.

Technical Presentations CSI.RO sec about introducing the overseas delegates to the wealth of technical expertise available in Australia. It was stressed chat che WATER JUNE 1994

100 years , and'3rhe problems of rhe Asian countries in supplying clean water to mil lions of people, and coping with the resultant wastes, together with chose from industry and agriculture.

Australian Institutions

Unidodelegates pose with CSIROpersonnel

Chinese delegates with CSIRO personnel subject was restricted co treatment, not the wider subj ec ts of water supply and was tewater collection and ultimate disposal. Monday was devoted co Physico-chemical Processes for both water and wastewater, and Tuesday co Biological Processes. Overviews in each area were delivered by CSIRO scientists, follow ed by pres enta ti ons fr om leadin g consultant s, compani es and authoriti es , a total of eighteen don ating their services to the workshop. In the opinion of this reporter, the result was an excellent encapsulation of the srareof-rhe-art of rhe trearment side of our industry, delivered most profess ionall y, in rwo days flat. However, it must be said at this juncture that the scope of so me of the tec hnology described, though nor beyond the comprehension of th e delega tes, see med to be beyond the immediate horizon of applicabilit y for most of the countri es represe nted. However, the impression of Australian capability and practicality was well conveyed.

Technical Tours On the Wedn esday rh e delegates were raken co three venues within reach of the city: • Werribee Treatm ent Compl ex, with irs huge lagoons, and older land and grass fi ltration systems . Investigations which are in progress for coping with the projected increase in load and poss ible increased WATER JUNE 1994

stringency in effluent discharge parameters were described . • Memr ec h Mi cro filt ra ri on plant at Meredith , • Bio-P removal plant at Ballarat ... an example of a relatively inexpensive retrofit co reduce phosphorus discharge co an inland stream.

Delegate Presentations Representatives from each country were invited, on Thursday, co present an overview of rhe problems they face , and their strategy fo r so lving th em. Their papers are to be included in rhe Proceedings, and vary from bald scaremenrs char the problems are recognised, co detailed studies of the water supply problems and pollution loads co be tackled. The overall impression was chat awareness of environm ental issues at government level is highly developed. However, the huge scale of rhe probl ems and the lack of finance is the lim iting fac ror rather than technology. In some cases ar lease, there is a reluctance to interfe re with viral industrial development , and most certainl y a res istance by industry itself. There was a dram atic difference between our concerns in Australia with 'polishing' an environment which, apart from salinarion , is basically healthy, because of rhe infrastructure which has been laid down over the past

Provision was made for Australian organi sations co outline their function in our close network of water and wastewater activities, followed by presentations from a selection of consultant services in rhe international area. The value of attacking industrial wastes by in-house 'cleaner production' rather rhari end-of-pipe treatment was emphasised by Darrell Reeve, of the Centre fo r Cleaner Production. The advantages of cooperation in the research area between academia, CSIRO and industry, were enthusiastically described by Ray Frost, Director of the CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control , who drew attention co the fact that since Australia had a sm all population rhe advantage was that there was close contact between individuals working in any one field. Ken Herbert desc ribed rhe co urses for operarors being offered ar rhe Water Training Centre, Viccori a (now a self-fund ed GBE). The variou s methods for fi nancing infrastructure, involving the private sector, ranging from Servi ce contracts ro BOOT, was covered by Graeme Laughton, of Australian Water Services. Chris Davis' outlin ed th e function of AWWA in developing an informal but effective networking of th e profess ion als and manage~nt within Australia. Ian Bergman of DIST endeavoured co translate rhe multitude of government acronyms which operate within the regulacory and R&D areas of the Australian water industry, summarised the picture of the continent's water resources, and emphasised rhe rapid adoption of modern technology which has come about in tl;e past 20 years as the community has insisted on a cleaner environment. Peter Nadebaum summarised the overseas co nsulting activities of Camp Scott Furphy as an example of the involvement of oth er co nsulting co mpa ni es. Gordon Thompson spoke on rhe involvement of the consulting arm of Melbourne Water in water supply and sewerage design in most of rhe countries represented, and beyond , into the Pacific region. Fin all y, Damian Ryan, Direc tor 'of AUSTEMEX, the environmental industry's export corporation , outlin ed the ways in whi ch hi s orga nisation aim ed ro provid e appropriate solutions ro environmental problems in overseas countries by combining rhe skills of both government and comm ercial companies into joint ventures. Australia has earned its reputation for being 'clean and green ' by 20 years of hard work, and is competing well in a very co mpetiti ve global mark et. AUST EMEX , support ed by AUSTRADE in its many offices throughout Asia, is easily conracrable.


TECHNOLOGY PLASCON: PLASMA ARC PYROLYSIS Report by E. A. (Bob) Swinton Destruction of Organic Wastes

waste chlorinated compounds are injected into a conti nuous argon arc. Within rhe arc Incineration as a method of destroying the plasma (ionised gas) has a nominal remhazardous organic was res has certain limi ra- perarure of more than 15 ,000°C, bur in the tions, nor rhe least of which is rhe NIMBY reaction zone (or flight rube) rhe temperature syndrome, rhe public's reaction against rhe is around 5,000°C. Ar chis temperature, building of a large incineracor anywhere near pyrolysis occurs within about 20 milliseconds, the extreme thermal vibration splitting anybody. Incorporation of waste incineration inco rhe compounds inco acorns and ions. The the operation of an existing cement kiln is a scream of gas (now at about 2,000°() is then possibility (Moy 1992) but there are certain rapidly quenched ro am bient temperature, limitations co this technology, particularly again in milliseconds, ro prevent re-combinawhen resistant compounds such as poly- tion inro complex molecules. The resulrant ch lorinated biphenyls are involved. Ocher gas scream is scrubbed ro remove HCl , ch lorinated compounds, residues of rhe scrubbed again co remove any carbon partimanufacture of usefu l compounds such cles, and rhe remainder (mainly CO and H2, as insecticides and herbicides, may nor along with the inert argon) flared. Since rhe be quire so resistant co destruction, but rhe chemistry is nor char of combustion, oxygen spectre of dioxins is being levelled against is only used if the particular waste produces their incineration. There is some rationale coo much solid carbon instead of gaseo us co chis fear in char the cooling down rime in carbon monoxide. a kiln is slow enough co allow the possibility The concept is simple, bur development of recombination of partial breakdown prod- of rhe technologies necessary ro construct an ucrs inro such molecules, which have rhe apparatus co withstand these conditions, and ro design a power supply co be fully aucoreputation of being highly coxic. maric and fail-safe, demanded years of expenPyrolysis siv e bur fr ui rfu l collaborat ion between A novel pyrolysis technology, which has CSIRO and Siddons Ramser Ltd. been developed in Ausrralia over the past eight years, attacks these limirari ons. The Development The first impetus for commercial developcombination of extremely high remperarures, (over 5000°C) so that reactions rake place in ment came when Nufarm Ltd, which manumilliseconds, followed by equally rapid factures chlorinated agricultural chemicals quenching, has enabled virtually complete for Australia and for export, embarked on an disintegration of resistant molecules inro intensive waste-minimisation campaign acorns and ions. The process is continuous for their plant, iniriared by more stringent and is operated in such a small plant char it limits for discharge of effluent ro trade waste. can be erected in the backyard of the waste- After an unsuccessful investigation worldproducer itself. This eliminates storage and wide co find a suitable technology for safely rransporrarion of hazardous materials off-sire destroying by-produce chlorin ated compounds, rhe company rook rhe bold initiative co a central incinerator or cement kiln. The technology is called PLASCON, and of becoming involved in the development of is now in daily use at a chemica l plane in chis novel technology from a laboratory srage Vicroria (see our Cover Srory), with other co a commercial plant. A three-parry agreeapplications being built. The idea stemmed ment was signed in 1991 co develop a plane from a collaborative project between Siddons capable of being integrated inro their manuRamse r Led and rhe CSIRO Di vision of fac turing process. After a coral of twenty months of rigorous Manufacturing Technology ro deve lop an improved arc-welding technique (called rhe Controlled Drop Transfer Welding Process). Once this project was estab li shed, and know-how accumulated for control of the high temperature arc, extension into the field of pyrolysis, as a continuous process, was hatched (Deam & Ramakrishnan 1992). There have been ocher arrempts, in France, Switzerland and USA, ro utilise the extremely high temperatures of plasma arcs, bur these have failed ro be fully commercialised, for a variety of technical and economic reasons. In the PLASCON process (Figure 1) the Figure 1 Schematic Flowchart 38

trials , with analyses being conducted by rhe CSIRO Division of Chemicals & Polymers and by ESR Environmental (previously DSIR, New Zealand) rhe Vicrorian EPA granted ufarm a licence for commercial use of PLASCO ar. heir Laverron sire. The results are so successful char a second system is robe installed in mid-1994, when the process wi ll be run 24 hours per day ... a world first. Nufarm has also taken advantage of chis fac ility ro modify their manufacturing process, thereby reducing irs cost, and also ro reduce rhe concentration of chlorophenols in their effluent well below the limits set by Melbourne Water.

Results The ufarm waste used for the trials contained 34% chlorophenols, 47 % phenoxies and 19% roluene. The resultant stack gas was analysed for CO, OX, ch loropheno ls, dioxins and furans. The chloroph eno ls emitted were about l µ/m3, the dioxins/ furans 0.006-0.009 ng/m3 TE. This was less than one-tenth of the stringent limits enacted in Germany in 1990 for incinerator emissions (0.1 ng/m3TE). Ar a power raring of 150 KW the feed rare for NJ°farm 's waste is currently 0.5-0.8 ronne per day (this is equivalent ro 6-9 grams per seco nd , so char there are neg li gible amounts of material in the system at any one rime: rapid shut-down procedures are therefore quire practicable). The capital cost of chis unit is estimated at A$750,000 and the torch is currently rared at 2,000 hours operation wirh no significant wear.

Further Applications Trials have been co ndu cted on fullsrrengrh PCBs, CFCs and similar compounds with the same success. The Australian Government is committed ro safely destroying rhe srockpi les of Ozone-Depleting Substances, estimated at well over 10,000 tonnes, and a collaborative program co construct a PLASCON plane has commenced. Similar applications in ocher countries are co nfidentl y expecred, since the process is both cost-effective and offers a technically superior method of destruction. The plant has a small footprint making it possible to rranship a pre- assembled unit. SRL Plasma has exdusive world-wide development and marketing rights.

References Deam, RT; Ramak rishnan, S (1992), Plasma Technology for the Destruct ion of Liquid Wastes. 1st National Hazardous and Solid Waste Convention, Sydney, April Moy, D (1992), Intl Conf on Role of Cement Kilns in Waste Management, Brisbane, Wlate,· 19, 5 October


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Water Journal June 1994  

Water Journal June 1994