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Editorial Board F R Bishop, Chairman MR Chapman, M Muntisov, P Nadebaum P Draayers, JD Parker, A J Priestley G A Holder, B Lade, W J Dulfer

Branch Correspondents ACT - Alan Wade Tel (06) 207 2350 Fax (06) 207 6084 ¡ Queensland - Lyndsay Chapple Tel (07) 835 0222 Fax (07) 832 6335 New South Wales - Mitchell Laginestra Tel(02)4129974 Fax (02)4129876 Northern Territory- Mike Burgess Tel (089) 82 71 11 Fax (089) 82 7430 South Australia - Phi l Thomas Tel (08) 259 0244 Fax (08) 259 0228 Tasmania - Jim Stephens Tel (002) 31 0656 Fax (002) 34 7334 Victori a - Bill Dulfer Tel (03) 890 8757 Western Australia - Bill Chapman Tel (09) 420 2462 Fax (09) 420 3178

WATER (ISSN 0310-0367) is publ ished six times per year February, Apr il, June, Augus,, October, December by

Australian Water & Wastewater Inc. ARBN 054 25 3 066 PO Box .,88, Artarmon NSW 2064

Federal President Barry Sanders

Executive Director Chris Davis Ausrral ia Warer & Wasrewater Associarion assumes no responsibi liry for opinions or statements of facts expressed by conrriburors or advertisers and edirorials do nor necessaril)' represent the official policy of the organisation. Display and class ified advertisements are included as an informat ional serv ice co readers and are reviewed by the ed iror before publication co ensure their relevance to the water environment and to the objccr ives of the Associarion. All material in Water is copyrighr and should not be reproduced wholly or in parr without the wricten permission of the Ediror.

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Volume 20, No 5 October 1993

CONTENTS ASSOCIATION NEWS President's Message From the Executive Director From the Branches

2 4 5

MY POINT OF VIEW The Big Picture


FEATURES To Boot or Not to Boot - That is the Question


G J Dooley Catchment Management Planning Model: Candowie and Lance Creek


B T Harr, P Geraghty, ] M Swan Barron River Catchment Management - A Case Study


T R Anderson, R W Crossley, JS Begg, SJ Perrens Water Cycle Planning in the Nineties


J Browne Effect of Rotting Barley Straw on Cyanobacteria: A Laboratory Investigation


JJelbart Source Control to Prevent Cyanobacteria Entering a Potable Supply System


P Donlon Demand Persistence Curves and Terminal Sto~age Sizing


K G Macoun A Water and Wastewater Audit Protocol for Industry


IR Ramsay, M RJohns

REPORTS Taste and Odours in Water - A Summary of Current Australian Research


K Hayes, M Drikas, D Steffensen

DEPARTMENTS International Affiliates


Industry News


Products Books Names in the News

45 46 47


48 OUR COVER Glennies Creek in the Hunter Valley is in prist ine condition, thanks to the comm itment of local fa rmers. A small, bu t viral , example of catchment management. Many of our river sys tems have changed irrevocably since European sect!emenc. Mose ca n never be rescored co their 'natural' co ndition, but the aim shou ld be remediation , a retu rn to fu nctions similar to those which preyiously ex isted . The CEPA document Towards Healthier Rivers, was released earlier this year, and its stated aim is that: "Australian rivers should one day be fir ro drink most of rhe rime." Protection from stock and ri parian re-vegetation are but two actions which can be taken on the local scale cowards this aim , bur the co-ord ination of many other stakeholders will be necessary co achieve anything like successful "I.C.M." on a larger scale. Photo by Steve Hogg, NSW Departmetil of \\1/ater Reso1trces.




Graham J Dooley* I am frequently asked by colleagues in Water Authorities around Australia whether a BOOT project offers advantages to them. It is a subject of constant inquiry that has been put to the test by Melbourne Water and Sydney Water Board in the proj ec ts which have been executed under the BOOT configuration. It is now possible to draw some conclusions from our experiences in the Yan Yean and Macarthur projects and share those with other Water Authorities who might be contemplating BOOTs. BOOT is not applicable only to water and wastewater projects. Recent BOOT proj ects include freeway~, power stations and a hospital. The common ingredient in all these projec cs was the engagement of th e pri va te sector to design, build, operate and fi nance a facility on behalf of a government department or agency. In each case, I believe, there is clear evidenc e th at the overa ll budge t impact on the public purse is lower under a BOOT configuration than executing che project by traditional governmental means. I am commonly asked why che private sector can execute BOOT proj ects at a lower life cycle cost when the races of interest for borrowings in the private sector are higher th an the interes t payable by government g uarante ed age ncies. Cl earl y, ch e lower BOOT cost derives from che lower capital and operating coses which the private sector can achieve. Th ese more than offset th e greater interest cost which is payable by the private sector.

Motivation for BOOT Water Authorities are motivated around che world co engage leading water companies to offer BOOT solutions because: • There is insufficient capital funding available from government; • True proj ect costs can be identified and contained; • Water Authoriti es wane a fixe d pri ce construction contract where there is no opportunity for variations or extras; • Water Authoriti es wan e ce rca inc y in O&M coses; • Water Authorities want access to water company know-how; • Competition betwee n compani es ca n maximise benefit ; 14

• Political leaders wane co emulate other successful projects; • Res tric ti on on staff numbers precludes further engagement to construct and/or operate a project; • Water Authorities wa nt a benchm ark companson; • Water Auchoricies seek long term relationships with world water companies; • Water Auchoricies wane to privatise some or all components of their operation; • The clarification of the role of an operator versus a regulator pushes operations into che private sector. For any proj ect more than one of these motivating forces can be present and Water Authorities will increasingly be attracted by the advantages chat BOOT projects provide.

Life Cycle Costs

The drive of che private sector to optimise the capital investment se ts up a positive tension between des igner, constructor and operator. The operator clearly wants che best of everything to minimise che O&M costs. The constructor wants che lowest cost option to improve capital cost competitiveness. The designer wanes engineering elegance and sophisci cacion to ensure char perfo rm ance criteria are satisfi ed. The positive tension between these three has , in our experience arou nd the world , created the right environment for a BOOT proposal to be offered co a Water Authority ac the optimum cost. In addition, virtually no opportunity exTscs for subsequent "nice co have" extras which push up both capital and operating coses. This does nor in any way refl ect on the ca lib re of em pl oyees in eith er Water Authoriries-.or their consultants and contractors. It merely refl ec ts the fac t chat th e BOOT process creates an environm ent in which a unified, single goal, competitively driven ream produces an optimal solution. Water Authorities are not in a position co emulate this environment because the loyalties of individuals are di vide d betwee n deparcm enc s and /or proj ec ts and no real penalties for delays exist.

In traditional Water Authori ty proj ec t development processes, the planner, designer, constructor and operator meet to develop the criteria for a proj ect. In most Water Authoriti es the developm ent of a proj ec t from planning through to commissioning occurs over an excremely long period and involves quire a large number of people. If the project has a protracted development phase, Water Authority employees may well be promoted or transferred in and out of che proj ect, thus dilutin g th e input of individual skill ed Risk Allocation The whole structure of a BOOT revolves memb ers of th e deve lopm ent ream and around che management of the risks between increasing project cost. Capital cost estimating is typically under- the parries. The constructor is the best person taken by Water Authority engineers or con- co manage the construction risks. The operasultants based on the standards to which che tor is the best person to manage che O&M Water Authority typically designs and con- risks. The Water Authority manager is che srruccs ics fac ilities. O&M coses have been bes t person to manage th e per form ance based on Water Authority manning levels cargecs or cri ceria risk for both uncreated and created water. Therefore a configuration which and historic costs. In a BOOT project, the designer, co n- allocates as much construction risk as possible structor and opera tor mee t in int ensive co a constructor and as much O&M risk as co ntinuous sess ion during rhe rend ering possible co an operaror is going co lead co che phase to optimise the capital cost and operat- lowest premium for managing each risk. Insurance companies are allocated those ing cost consistent with the proj ect obj ectives. Interestingly the Australian Standards risks which they are best 'able to manage and for the private sector are nor greatly differ- the residual risk (however small) is borne by ent from chose used by Water Auth orities the equity investors in the project. bur the resulting capital cost is generally significantly below chat which would normally be expected by che Water Authority. Why * Graham J Dooley, Managing Direc tor, ·is chis? North West Water Ausrralia Pry Led, Sydney WATER OCTOBER 1993

Our experience is chac che besc configuracion for equicy invescors involves chose parcies who already have a principal role in the project as developer, constructor, operaror, lender etc. .. By working through this process of risk allocacion and positive tension, ic bas been demonsrrated in che Melbourne and Sydney projects quite clea rl y tha t the Water Authority achieves a lower cost per megalirre for water produced than it ocherwise would if it had executed the project along traditional lines. In che case of cbe Syd ney Water Board's Water Treatment Project, exhauscive studies carried ouc by che Board demonscrated che clear benefic of executing these projem as BOOTs rather chan by traditional means.

Buying A BOOT There are quite a number of conferences and seminars now being held in relacion to BOOT projeccs for a variecy of government funccions. Ac firsc glance, ic appears chac che contractual and financing documentation for chese projeccs is chreaceningly complex. This need noc be che case henceforch. A body of legal and commercial documentation has now been built up by the wacer companies successful in Australia and elsewhere as well as by ch e legal and banking organisacions involved. Documentation need noc be creaced from scracch for each subsequent BOOT. I believe that we will see BOOT contracts tendered for and executed in much shorcer cimeframes chan has been experienced to dace because the learning process has largely been concluded. Of course, if a Wacer Authority wants to reinvent the wheel, a relatively long process can be guaranteed. Bue taking advantage of che knowledge now available in Sydney and Melbourne will enab le other Wacer Auchorities, large and small, to implement BOOT projeccs relatively quickly. There are cwo golden rules for entering a BOOT contract: (1) Specify che project precisely. (2) Keep the documencacion clear and simple. Wacer Authoricies are very good at planning solucions i.e. working out whac to do. Some wacer companies also have this capabil ity in relation to che wacer ucilicies chac cbey own or operace. However, the simple precise specificacion of che project boundaries greatly assists che tendering process and cbe subsequent documentacion process. Documentacion for chese projects should be contained co: • Essential cechnical specificacions; • Essential environmental requirements; • Essential performance obligacions; • Commercial principles co be appli cable during cbe life of the projecc; • Essential requirements of the financiers; • Power to ensure all aspects of the deal can be implemented. • Levels of supporc provided to the projects WATER OCTOBER 1993

by Governments, Wacer Auchorities , wacer compames, rnvestors. If che head contract for a single plant is more than about 25mm thick and has more chan a dozen or so schedules then ic is probably too exhaustive unless the risks are considered co be extremely high or very unusual. I do noc believe chat 25 year contracts can be written roday which cover every possible circumstance and concingency that can be expected to arise. The concract provisions need to be enforceable sets of principles which define very clearly whac is required in the short term buc lay a clear sec of ground rules between che parries for the longer term in which circumstances can be expecced to change.

arise. The premium which a wacer company would charge to accepc these cypes of risks over che life of a projecc would make the project uneconomic ac the scare. The privace sector cannot be expecced to accepc all risks no macter how th ey arise over a 2 5 year period. Would you be able co accepc che change in labour laws chac have occurred in che lase 25 years in your business?

The Future of BOOT in Australia

I believe that BOOT has a very viral role co play in the provision of water industry infrascruccure. The firsc group of BOOT for Yan Yean and Sydney projeccs have been successfully tendered, negotiated and signed, albeit at high cost to che Water Authorities Management of External and the companies involved. Future BOOT Risk projects, I believe, will be executed more Some risk external to the project can be simply and at lower cost if Water Authorities managed. Ochers cannot be. The effects of are prepared co adopt cbe lessons from their eart hquake, wind, flood and fire on che co lleag ues who have encered inco BOOT projecc can all be managed by che water contraccs. company through appropriace insurance. Government sourced capital is becoming The Water Authority muse manage chese increasingly scarce and will not generally be types of risks in relation to their own available to fund all capical works contemupstream and downstream facilities. plated by Wacer Authorities. Access to Nuclear war, civil war and invasion by BOOT capital will enable Water Auchorities foreign armies cannot be managed by che to meet clean water and wastewater standards Wacer Authority or che wacer company. The with a high level of certainty and reliability insurance companies have decided they don'c wichin che cime frame imposed by the reguwant co manage chose sore of risks and leave lacors. The capita! cosc of such projects is them co governments to manage. BOOT con- amorcised over the li fe of cbe contract and cram should reflecc the realicy of the insur- enables che wat~r auchority co manage ics ance induscry and noc impose additional capital porcfolio more responsively. requirements on wacer companies, lenders or Treasury and Loan Council regulations Wacer Authoricies which are not consistent will disctpline the BOOT process, I believe, wich commercial praccice. buc will recognise the valuable role that Banks who lend money to water compa- BOOT projem have in infrastruccure. All nies to build these projeccs must also be pro- new forms of procurement require a cercain tecced and termination payouts which reflect boldness on cbe pare of policical leaders and their appetite for risk must be commercially top level managers before they are contemrealistic. placed. The leadership shown by Sydney and Governmental rules which are adminis- Melbourne has paved the way for oche~ Wacer cered by Loan Council officers in each scace Auchorities to implement BOOTs which are muse be understood from an ea rl y dace. less expensive to develop and much shorcer in Water companies will not spend large sums implementacion. of money tendering for BOOT projects only To BOOT or not to BOOT is noc che co find Treasury officers have the power of quescion. le is "how much BOOT can I put veto. This process must be managed by the into my capital programme?" Wacer Auchoricies and clearance obtained in advance so chac projects can proceed without fear of veco. Obviously, Governments have the power to change the form of Water Auchorities. It Computer Database of may be that having entered a BOOT contract AWWA Publications with a substantial water authority, the Government decides co break it up into lictle bits. • N ational Conferences BOOT contracts need to have mechanisms • Water Jo urna l which deal wicb these sores of issues if they • Summer Schools were co arise during che BOOT contracc. Similarly, changes in environmental stanOVER 1500 dards, drinking wacer quality sta nd ards, ARTICLES INDEXED labour laws and ce rtain taxation laws all Available from cannoc be excluded from consideration at the Philip Williams time a BOOT contract is documented. A sec Tel (07) 875 7514 of principles needs to be embodied in che Fax (07) 875 5288 contracc to deal with these sicuacions if they





South Gippsland, Victoria (Hart et al, 1993). from rhe offrake rowers. The Candowie water The study was jointly funded by rhe Depart- rrearment plant has considerably improved ment of Warer Resources, Victoria, and rhe the quality of water supplied from this resertwo reservoir managers, the Westernport and voir, in particular by signi fican tly reducing the levels of turbidity, iron and manganese. the Wonthaggi/Inverloch Water Boards. The Lance Creek and Candow ie Reser- However, problems still remain in both reservoirs are located in adjacent catchments in vo irs, the most serious of wh ich, from a the South Gippsland river bas in. Lance Creek public health point of view, are the blueis a tributary of rhe Powlett River, whi ch green algal blooms. rhen flows directly into Bass Srrair. Tennant This paper contai ns a summary of the Creek, the main stream in rh e Candowie integrated catchm ent and reservoir manageRe se rvoir catchment, flows into the Bass ment model developed for the Candowie and River, rhen inro Wesrernporr Bay (Figure 1). Lance Creek catchments. Whi le rhe model The catchments are similar in char both are was developed specificall y for these rwo steep, with very little of the original vegeta- catchments, we believe it is general enough tion remaining , and are intensively grazed for ro be applicable ro other catchments. dairy and beef production. The natural rare of pasture growth is improved th rough the The Model heavy use of superp hosphare fertil ise rs , The major components of rhe model are mainl y disrributed by aircraft. discussed in rhis section. The Candowie Reservoir is managed by Form an Advisory Panel. The first rhe Westernport Warer Board and supplies acti vity in rhe Candowie/Lance Creek project wate r ro Phillip Island an d the main land was ro establish an Advisory Panel comprisrowns of Bass, Grantville and San Remo. The ing representatives from landholders from area is popu lar with holiday makers, so the both catchments, the (then) Department of demand varies greatly fro m a summ er peak of Water Resources and rhe Westernport and around 12 Ml/day down ro around 3Ml/day Wonthaggi /Inverloch Water Boards. Other in the winter months. Lance Creek Reservoir interested people (from rhe Department of was built by the Ru ral Water Corporation Agriculture, Melbourne Water, Department in 19 11 , bur has been ope rated by th e of Conservation and Environment, local enviWonthaggi/l nverl oc h Water Board si nee ronment groups and researchers) were also 1986. The demand from Lance Creek welcomed ar these meeting , as were ocher Reservoir is much less variable rha r from family members and neighbours of rhe landCandowie, with a summer demand of around hold ers. Three meet ings of the Advi sory 8 Ml/day and around 4 Ml/day in the winter Panel were held over the three month period Introduction months (DWR, 1989). of the study. The Study Team from the Warer Th e Water Studies Centre at Monash Boch these warer supplies have a long Studies Centre at Monash University kept in University, has recently completed a three hi story of taste and odour problems. Add i- cons tant co ntac t wirh the Advisory Panel month pil ot study which ai med ro identify tionally, borh reservo irs have exper ienced members rhroughom the project's duration. rhe basic components of an integrated catch- blue-green algal blooms. Candowie Reservoir The Advisory Panel assisted in the followment and reservoir management strategy rhar was closed fo r four days in Dece mber 1991 ing casks: would lead ro improved water quality in the because of a bloom of rhe blue-green alga (a) identifyi ng the major catchm ent/reserLance Creek and Candowi e Rese rvoirs in Anabaena circinalis (Bartl ett & McNish , voi r issues and problems. These were 1992), and Lance Creek Reservoir has experiseparated into three categories: reservoir Figure 1: Location map showing the Candowie enced blooms of Anabaena. Aphanizomenon, iss ues - water qu ality and rese rvo ir and Lance Creek catchment in S0111h Gij,psland. Oscillatoria and Microcystis over the past 15 management; catchment issues - dairy years (Bowles & Saunders, 1986; van Dok et wastes , nutrients, erosion and condi tion al. 1992). of screams; com muni ty issues - distribFor some rim e, borh water boards have ution of respons ibility, who pays' and independentl y addressed these water quali ty future plans. problems. Measures employed have included (b) providing detailrd information that installation of aeration systems, increas ing ass isted in quanti fy ing these issues. rhe capac ities of rhe reservoirs, mov ing the offrake rower ar Lan ce Creek, dos ing wirh copper sulphate, building a water treatment *Barry T Hart, Water Studies Centre, plant at Candowie, and increasing the number of levels at whic h water ca n be drawn Monash University

Candowi e and Lance Creek Reservoirs, loca ted in adjacent ca tchments in South Gippsland , Victoria, have a long hi story of water quality prob lems, the most rece nt being due ro blue-green algae ca used by excessive loads of nutri ents entering rh e reservoirs from rhe surrounding catchments. Both catchments are heavi ly grazed for dairy and beef cattle production. A srudy involving the landhold ers, rhe (then) Depa rtment of Water Resources and the rwo Water Boards, was cond ucted to identify the be r options for reducing the amounts and effects of nutrient inputs to these rwo reservoirs. Highest priority was placed on th ree catchm ent management actions: collection and treat ment of dairy shed wastewaters (mosr important for Lance Creek); int roduct ion of a series of wetland systems in each catc hment; and treatment of rhe most se rious soil erosion problems in eac h ca tchment , throug h improved farm management, selective revegerarion and planting of buffer scr ips. However, it was stressed rhar these catc hment man agement act ions should nor be undertaken in isolation from the identified reservoir management options (particularly ani ficial aeration). A summary of the reservoir and catchm ent management planning -,.model developed for the Candowie and Lance Creek catchm ents is presented in the belief that it is general enough ro be appli cable ro ocher catchments.




(c) priori rising the issues (see section 3). (d) identifying options for addressing the issues (see sections 4 and 5). Collect Information and Data. This generally involves three steps:

Condow i!l Rese rvo 1r

Establish an inventory of relevant background information In the Candowie/Lance Creek project chis included: a description of the present water supply system, geology and soils, catchment elevation and slope, land use, fertiliser use, scocking rares, number and location of dairy sheds, water quality, ere. Unfortunately, lack of rim e made it imp ossib le co map rhe present distribution of soil erosion and land slips in rhe catchments. Stre am Network (b) Develop a system whereby this information can be made accessible and useful This is an important aspect, since good dec ision making is dependent upon having an adequate information base and having chis information accessible co rhe decision makers. The Candowie/Lance Creek project developed a Geographic Information System (GIS) for Candowie collaring and displaying the catchment information. Figure 2 shows th ree of rh e GIS layers used to decide on the best positions in the rwo catchments for placement of buffer scrips; the layers represent the scream network, rh e land slope and rh e es tim ated annual additions of nutrients co the land . (c) Initiate appropriate studies Often ir is necessary co undertake shore or long rerm studies to provide additional information in order char particular issues can be better defined. Early in the Candowie/Lance 16-24 degrees Creek project a lack of information on rhe amounts of nutrients transport co rhe reserD 10-15 degrees voi rs from the catchments and already in rhe D 0-9 degrees reservoirs was identified. For this reason, rwo short term nutrient studies were undertaken: (i) a field study of two flood events to estimate the current loads of phosphorus and nitrogen en tering each reservoir; and (ii) a field and laboratory study of the phosphorus content in the reservoi r sediments, and the potential for chis to be released under deoxygenated condi rions (eg during stratification). Prioritise the issues. Assessment of rhe priority of each issue is a two seep process, req uiring an assessment fi rst of the 1'/Zagnit11de or size, and then the i1'!Zportance or significance, of rhe problem or issue. On th e basis of th e rwo floo d even rs sampled, it appears chat most of the nutrient transport to the reservoirs occurs during high flow periods. The maximum concentrations of coral phosphorus recorded during a fl ood P.( ho ~phoru.s ( N itroge n) kg;na.yrJ kg/ ho .yr eve nt in June 1992 were 1040 µgP/L in > 87 • > 23 Tennent Creek (mai n inflow co Candowie Reservoir) and 1330 µgP/L in Lance Creek; 55 - 87 ISl 18 - 23 the corresponding coral nitrogen concentraD < 18 < 55 tions were 64 00µg /L and 8000 µg NIL respectively (Harr et al, 1993). These concen- Figure 2: lnfor1'1Zation produced on a Geographic Information Systmz (G IS) and med to select the best trations are very high and indicate char large locations for buffer strips in the Candowie and Lance Creek catch1'1Zents. GIS layers showing (a) stream quantities of nutrients are being transported · system, (b) the slope, and (c) the annual loads ofphosphoms and nitrogen added to the catchments. (a)



from both catchments to rhe respective reservoirs. Both reservoirs were also shown to contained large amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen in their sediments. The mean coral phosphorus concentration (5 samples) was 830 µgP/g (approx. 60 % potentially available) in Candowie and 680µgP/g (app rox. 45 % potentially available) in Lance Creek; the corresponding mean coral nitrogen concentrations were 42 00µgN/g and 3800 µg lg. Other experiments showed that under deoxygenared conditions sufficient phosporus could be released from these sediments ro stimulate very high algal levels (Harr et al, 1993). An additional study was also undertaken ro estimate the annual nutrient losses from the rwo catchments. Two methods were used. The first was based on rhe amounts added to rhe land annually by grazing animals and fertiliser additions (it was assumed that 3% of this was transported annually to the reservoir), and from unrreared dairy shed wastes. The second used published nutrient generation param ete rs for each major land use, adding in rhe contribution from untreated dairy shed wastes. The rwo method s produced similar estimates, wi th Lance Creek ca tchment co ntributing almost rwi ce as much phosphorus and nitrogen as Candowie, primarily because of the large r number of dairy farms in the Lance Creek catchment (Candowie: Toral-P - 1500 kg/yr, Toral-N 3800 kg/yr; Lance Creek: Toral-P - 2770 kg/yr, Toral-N - 8200 kg/yr). Identify options to address the issues. The options were identified by rhe

Ad visory Pane l and then derailed by rhe Study Team. For convenience rhese options were divided into two groups: reservoir management options and catchment management options. Ir was however stressed rhar these options should not be considered separate!y bur that the reservoir options and the catchment options be pursued rogerher. Develop the options and prioritise. Boch secs of options were aimed ar

reducing water quality problems existing in Candowie and Lance Creek Reservoirs, problem s mostl y related to blue-g reen algae caused by excessive loads of nutrients entering the reservo irs from th e surrounding catchments. The reservoir management options concentrated on treatment of the poor quality water (Lance Creek only, Candowie water is already created), and on various ways the reservoirs might be manipulated to reduce the possibility rhar algal blooms will occur. The catchment management options concentrated on ways to reduce the amounts of nutrients, from point sources (eg untreated dairy shed wastes) and non-point sources (eg intensively grazed land), entering the two reservoirs from rhe catchments. Despite the fact that the reservoir sed iments contained a considerable srore of nutrients that could potentially cause excessive 18

algal blooms, rhe srndy placed the highest priority on option s rhar would reduce rhe amounts of nutrients enteri ng rhe rwo reservoirs from their catchments. Ir was arg ued chat rhe sedi ment-bou nd nutrients already present in both reservoirs could be prevented from entering the water column by employing well recog nised rese rvoir management techniques such as artificial destratificarion. Develop an implementation strategy. The focus of rhe Candowie/Lance Creek

project was ro develop an integrated catchment and reservoir manageme nt strategy aimed ar reduci ng the amounts and effects of nutrient inpurs ro the reservoirs. This nurrient reduction strategy contained three catchment manage ment actions - (a) collection and treat ment of dairy shed was cewarers (most important fo r l ance Creek); (b) introduction of a series of wetland systems in each carchmenr ; and (c) treatment of rhe most serious soi l erosion problems in each catchment, through improved fa rm management, selective revegeracion , and planting of buffer strips - coupled with rhe artificial desrrarifi cacion of the reservoirs to prevent the sed iments becoming anaerobic and releasing nutrients to the water column . The es timated cumulative effect of the catchm ent initiatives in reducing nutri ent inputs to each reservoirs is shown in Figure 3. In both catchments, rhe combined effect of creating dairy shed wastes and establ ishing wetland sys tems ro trap non -poi nt source runoff would be ro reduce rhe nutrient loads entering the reservoirs by 80-8 5%. Ir was not possible ro assess in rhe rime allocated for rhe project the extent of soil erosion problems in rhe two catchments, nor rhe possible red uction in soi l-transported nutrients as a result of attention to these problems . However, improved farm manage ment (eg by nor grazing and stab ili zing land prone to landslips), revegerarion of land susceptible to soil erosion, and the planting of buffer scrips (particularly alo ng screams in rhe lower slope regions , would all co ntribute ro reduced nurrient transport from the land ro the reservoir and ro an extension of the lifetime of the wetland systems. Implement the strategy. Thi s is perhaps the most challengi ng step in rhe catchment management process, and requires adoption of rhe '3 Cs '. The srracegy implementation should be well coordinated, it should be done cooperatively with all the major stakeholders involved, and it needs a champion ro 'drive' it along. Obviously, for the Candowie/Lance Creek project, rhe opt ions relating directly ro the reservoirs could be implemented by rhe rwo water boards. However, the catchment-based options will only be successfu lly implemented if there is a high degree of cooperation and collaboration between the landholders and the water boards. A suggested ad ministrative arrangement that could provide the necessary fo rum for closer collaboration between the two water

boards and also b~een the water boards and rhe local landholders would be to establish a working group (perhaps called the Candowie and Lance Creek Catchment Management Grou p), made up of representati ves from rhe rwo water boards and the local land holders , and with technical input from the Water Resou rces and Land Prorecci on Divisions of rhe Department of Conservation and arural Resources and the Depart ment of Agriculture. Monitor and review the strategy.

A deficiency of derailed information on the effecrs of hum an ac tivi ti es is a prob lem common ro the management of many narnral resources. While it is generally tru e char better management decisions will resu lt in situations where there is a derailed knowledge of rhe resource, in chose cases where suc h derai led kn ow ledge is lack in g, it is rarely possible ro delay making decisions until the required dara are obtai ned. Thi s means chat there is almost always an element of judgement in assessing the importance of rhe various options identified. For exampl e, in rhe absence of detai led information, it was assumed in the Candowi e/lan ce Creek project char the annual flux of nurrients was 3% of that added to the land . This fig ure was based on a review of chose few srndies chat have been reported in the lirerarnre, but may under or over estimate rhe actual situation, which will almost certainly be quire different from year co year. • In view of the uncertainties associated wirh the decision making process for catchment ma~gemenr , ir is essential ch at the management be flexible and adaptive. The main principles involved in an adaptive management approach for natural resources have been outlined by Walters (1986 ). Th is Figure 3: Estimated percent removal of nutrients from (a) Candowie Reservoir and (b) Lance Creek Reservoir by the introduction of three options: (A) treatment of dairy shed wastes. (BJ establishment of wetland systems, or (C) both these options. 100 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - (a) 80

60 40 20




100 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - (b) Phosphoru s 80

60 40 20 0 A




approach is being trialled in Victoria in rhe development of a water quality management suategy for rhe Larrobe River (Doolan et al,

1993). An essenti al component in an adapt ive management approach i a sensible monitorin g program ro show ch ar rh e op rio n(s) adopted are produci ng rhe expecred changes. Such a mon iroring program should ai m to measure only rhe most appropriate indicators and with sufficie nt frequency chat the expecced changes can be de tected. Add itionally, it is necessary chat the in formation collected is analysed and reported back to the Catchment Management Group quickly and in a way chat will allow any necessary adjustments robe made to the strategy.

Acknowledgments We are graceful co Dr Ri ck Roy le, Ms Stacey Poulson and Ms Sue Morris for their assistance as pare of the WSC Smdy Team, to rhe (then) Department of Water Resou rces, th e West ernport Water Board an d th e Wonchagg i/In ve rl oc h Water Board for funding chis project, to the many people who provided information, and ro chose who provided thei r time and ideas to the projecr via the Advisory Panel.

References Barden I M and McNish I (1992), Candowie Reservoir bluegreen algal bloom, December 199 1, Wt1fer 19(2): 32-33.

Bowles B and Saunders J (1986), A Review of Lance Creek Rese rvoir Water Quality, Rural Water Commission, Vicroria. Department of Water Resources (DWR), 1989, A Resource Handbook, Vi ctorian Government Printi ng Office, Melbourne. Doolan] M, Grayson RB and Blake T (1993), Application of AEAM (adaptive environmental assessment and management) co wacer resources managemenr: a case example water quality manage ment in the Larrobe Ri ver , \Xi ATERCOMP '93, Melbou rne. Hart BT, Royle R, Poulson and Morris S (I 993), Integrated Catchment and Reservoir lanagemenc Study: Candowie and Lance Creek Reservoirs , Water Resou rces Management Repo rt Seri es, Report No 88, Water Resources Di vision, Depa rtment of Conservation and Natural Resources, Melbourne. '"" Dok WI , Hare BT and Royle R 1' (1992), Algal problems in Victori , \flt1ter 19(4): 38-40. \Y/al,m C J ( 1986), Ad apti ve Management of Rene, able Resources, lacmillan Publisl11ng Company, New York .

Patricia Gerffthty is mrrently working in the Wat er Industry Management Branch of the Department of Conser-vation and attt1'al Resources, managing the oversight of abo11t 50 lllater authorities in the eastern part of Victoria. Prior to this, she lectured at Chisholm lnstitttte of Technology (now Monash University) in Biology, AquaticScience and Environmental Science. john Swan is a fo rmer Dean of the Faculty of Science at Monash University. and is still active as a comu!tant and member of various Adviso1y Boards. As an elected member of the Westernport W'ater Bomd, he chaired the Steering Committee of the Candowie!Lance Creek Catchment Management Group.


Authors Barry Hart is Director of the Water St11dies Centre and Professor of Environmental Che111ist1y at Monash University, and Dep11ty Director of the Coopercttive Research Centre fo r Freshwater Ecolog}, He is well known for his research on a n1t111ber of aspects of Amtralian aquatic SJStems (particularly the dynamics of heavy metals and n1ttrients) , water quality instm111entation and the development of A11stralia11 water quctlity guidelines. He has a11 established track record for working successfNlly to bring tertiary institutions closer to ind11st1y and resource 111anagement agencies.

• A tool 10 help plan the finan cial fu ture of you r water supply • Ava ilable for both IBM and Maci ntosh PCs • 15 year What if scenarios of: - costs of staff, capital works, operation - revenue opt ions and demand management - profit and loss , rates of return , performance indicators • Ideal for fina ncial managers and engineers • User fri endly • Tabular and graphical outputs • For general use but can be customi sed • Demonstration version available for IBM PC • Site licence only $150 Contact: Richard Marks, AWWA NT Branch PO Box 351, Darwin NT 0801 Tel (089) 41 0144 Fax (089) 81 5242 Another AWWA sponsored development scning )'Our v,,.ater industry



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their areas of concern and seek their views on The Barron River Catchment in North priori risarion of issues. From initial surveys and workshops a Queensland contains a wide variety of land uses ranging from coastal sugar cane farms ro rotal of 85 issues were identified and subseirrigation on the Atherron Tablelands and quently categorised according ro the nature large areas of the Wet Tropics World Heri- of rhe issue, its location and rhe rime fram e of tage Area. This diversity of land use com- irs importance. Thus issues may be thought bined with rhe pressures of population of as being primarily economic, environmengrowth, the competing demands for water, tal or social; being of regional or local signifiand community concerns for environmental cance and of short or long d urarion. matters have led ro moves by stare and local Workshop participants considered environgovernment agencies ro develop an inte- mental issues to be the highest priority and social matters rhe lowest. Long term and grated catchment management plan. A study was commissioned by stare and reg ional matters were considered of higher local government agencies to identify key priority than short rerm and local matters. A cora l of 57 sig nifi ca nt issues were issues (concerns) for rhe Barron River and irs catchment area, and ro suggest srraregies ro defined after consultation with stakeholders. address these issues. The study included an These were divided into six groups based on extensive consultative process involving similar 'characrerisrics' and rhe groups were people with a direct interest in the Barron ranked on rhe basis of community opinions. River and its ca tchm en t area , includin g In descending order of priority, rhey were members of the public, government agencies Water Qua lity, Water Supply, Land Use and representatives of local industries. The Conflict, Conservation, Socio-Economic and purpose of this process was to identify che Social. A computer-based system using depeninterested individuals and groups, document dency matrices was used to investigate che relationships between issues , catc hm en t Table 1 Key Aspects of the Consultation properties and ac rivicies occurring in che Methods ca rchmenc. A series of options ro address • Initial consultation with the government agencies which issues were derived following examination of commissioned the study to identify other stakeholding these relationships. Treatment options aimed agencies, industry groups and community groups. at addressing a problem once it had occurred • Elected government representatives were kept informed of i.e. treat the issue directly, and management study progress. • The electronic and print media were used to promote options aimed at preventing or minimising a awareness of rhe study and to encourage widespread par- problem i.e identify rhe cause of the problem ticipation. and airer management practices were further • Face to face interviews were used to consult officers from developed in consulrarion with stakeholders. government agencies t0 identify issues. An implementation framework for achiev• An information brochure/questionnaire was widely dising positive action arising from rhe findings seminated. This included a Freepost return addressed questionnaire to identify issues of concern to the com- of the study was also prepared. • •


munity. Establishment of a toll free telephone line was used to provide access to the community for input. A register was established of individuals and groups based on written and verbal responses. The register was used to allow additional information to be forwarded e.g. invitation to workshops. Community displays were establ ished in strateg ic centres throughout the catchment area. These displays served ro promote the study and afforded an opportunity for the general public to discuss specific issues with members of the project ream. Additionally , the displays provided an another opportunity to distribu te brochures/ques tionnaires and receive responses from the public. The consultation process for this phase of the study culminated with a series of four workshops which involved interested people from the community, government agencies and industry representatives.

Introduction The Barron River ris es in the Crater acional Park, east of Herberron, flows across the Atherton Tableland through Mareeba, across che Kuranda Range and has its mouch at Machans Beach about 15 km north of the City of Cairns (Figure 1) and lies in the tropi cal zone of monsoonal summer rainfall. The catchment encompasses a wide biogeographical area of about 2100 square kilometres. The wide variety of land uses occurring across rhe catchment area, including intensive agricu lture , recreation , tourism, conservation and urban development, are a reflection of physi-

cal, biological, economic and social differences across rhe cacchmenr. The Barron River and ir catchment provides a wide variety of different resources ro the community depending on individual and com munity requirements and rheir location in rhe catchment. The ability of the Barron River ro continue to sat isfy these various community demands, and more specifically to meet rhe requirem ents relating ro the quality and quantity of avai lable water, has become a major community concern . In response ro this concern rhe six Local Auchoririe which have an interest in the Barron River (Atherton, Eacham, Mareeba and Mulgrave Shire Coun cil , Cairns City Council and The Cairns Mulgrave Water Supply Board) and the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, have agreed ro prepare a Catchment Management Plan for rhe Barron River and have formed a Steering Committee with chis objective in mind . As a ~ rsr seep in the development of a catchment management plan this study was commissioned to identify key issues pertinent ro the Barron River and irs catchment and ro suggest srraregies ro address rhese issues .

Identification and Prioritisation of Key Issues Defining the pertinent communir issue and selection of the key issues is an essential pre-requisite to any objective and socially acceptable assessment of catchment management strategies . Un less the community is involved in defining the key issues, setting priorities and derivation of catchment management options, ic is unlikely char any carchmen t mana ge ment strategy would be successful. The f,. ·ure catchment management plan will be more acceptable if it addresses rhe main issues and char the options recognise the possible need for compromise between various special interest groups.

Consultation Process A variety of methods was used ro consult with people who have a direct interest in the Barron River and its catchment area, including members of rhe public, government agencies and industry representatives. A brief

*Tim Anderson, Natural Resources Assessments, Cairns, Qld. WATER OCTOBER 1993

overview of some of these methods was presented by Anderson, 1992 . The purpose of che consultative process was co identify stakeholders, their areas of concern and to seek stakeholders' views on prioricisacion of issues. In addi ti on, chi s process served to inform people of che diversi ty of stakeholders' concerns and co promote understanding of those co nce rns. A umm ary of the methods employed for this consultative process is presented in Table 1.


OC EAN Be ach

Responses A total of 581 stakehold ers prov ided approximately 883 comments regarding the broch ure and display mat erial or in the course of interviews. Man y of these comments raised issues of concern and from these 85 primary issues were identified. Interpretative clarification of these issues was kept co a minimum. Issues were categorised according co the nature of the issue, its location and che cime frame of its importance. Issues may be choughc of as being primarily: Economic, environmental or social; Regional or local; and Shore or long term duration. These issues were used as the basis for a series of four workshops ac which stakeholders were requested co prioritise issues and co add any new issues nor already identified. Workshop participants were asked co prioritise rhe above groupings and a summary of these priorities is presented in Table 2. The four workshop groups had similar views of the weighting given co rhe three broad categories of environmental, economic and social, with environmental issues considered the highest priority and social rhe lowest. Long term and regional categories were considered of higher priority than short term and local cacegones. Workshop participants were also asked ro assess the 85 iss ues and to rank them in rerms of importance. Because some of rhe issues were assessed by participants as being either solutions, statements or causes, interpreting the ranki ng of issues was created with a degree of caution. Clarification and redefini rion of issues was undertaken following review of rhe workshop data. This redefinition resulted in 57 issues which were allocated to six groupings of simi lar characteristics. The six groups into wh ich issues were placed were ranked in accordance wi th rhe general response from rhe brochure/questionnaire and the priori ry ranking of broad categories undertaken at the

•Gor donv ale

CATCHMENT BOUNDARY SCALE 1: 500,000 Figure 1. Location inap




0 fill



Tab le 2 Prioritisation of Categories • • • • • • •

Regional Long Term Environmental Regional Long Term Economic local long Term Environmental Local Long Term Economic Regional Long Term Social Regional Shorr Term Environmental local Shorr Term Environmental Regional Short Term Economic Local Long Term Social Local Short Term Economic local Short Term Social Regional Shorr Term Social



I:';'! LOWER











Figure 2.


Table 3 Overview of lss1tes and Sol11tiom ZONE



• \'(la,er Qualiry - as affen~ by c~emicals, effiuent and soil erosion .


I I•

Prevent conraminat:on

Catchment management, targeted and cont inued ed ucation programmes, define existing warer quality, derive specific warer qualiry standards. and prorect/reinstare groundwater recharge and water catchment areas .

• \'(la,er Supply - as related to costs of suppl)' and exisring price discrepancies.

• Treat water Equitable allocation of water


• Warer Qualiry - as affected by effiuent, rubbish disposal and upstream land uses.

• Prevent contamination

For personal domestic consumption employ personal water treatment units. Market and social facrors need ro be considered when defining an equitable pricing and distri bution policy. Decision making arising from rhe policy needs to be consistent. Water users need to be informed of the real cosrs of warer supply. Carchment management, rargered and continued education programmes, define exisring water qualiry, derive specific warer quality standards. and prorecr/reinstare groundwarer recharge and water carchmenr areas. Manage human effluent disposal review of existing systems.

• Land Use Connin - in relation ro resi-

Lower Barron

• Flooding - in relation ro propert)' values and the right to use land for the purpose

minimise potential for water contamination. This may entail a

• Regional plan

Undertake a co-operarive regional planni ng process involving all srakeholders. Promore widespread information dissemination.

• Equitable allocation

Marker and social fanors need ro be considered when defining an equirable pricing and disrriburion policy. Decision making arising from the policy needs ro be consisrenr. Warer users need to be informed of the real cosrs of water supply.

• Live with noods

For ex isring land uses on nood prone areas the concept of 'buyer beware' may apply. Alternatively those land owners may be compensated from, for example, a rate payer financed fund.

• Control by land

ldenrify flood prone land on the basis of agreed criteria which takes into accounr proposed land use and probability offlood events and manage accordingly .

dencial developmenr, recreation, tourism

and conservation. • Water Supply - in relation ro ecological flow, electricir)' and drinking warer supplies.


it was acquired .


I· • Land Use Connict - in relation to recre-

• Regional plan

Undertake a co-operati ve regional plan ning process involving all stakeholders. Promote widespread information dissemination Include a spatial inventory of strategic resources (e.g. quarries, habitat, transport routes/infrastructure).

• Design and target

Undertake a specific effort to involve the aboriginal com mun ity in the carchmenr management process. A simi lar effort is requi red for secrions of the Central Zone community.

ation, quarrying , residential transport and mangrove habitat 1


• Lack Of Community Participation - in relation ro the involvement of all srakeholders ,n rhe inregrared catchment

consulrarion programs

ro groups

management process.

• Land Use ConA,ct - in relation to cultural heritage , ware, srorage. grazing

• Regional plan

and conservation.


• Water Quality - as affected by upsrream uses and surrounding land use

Prevent contamination

Carchment management, targeted and contin ued educarion programmes , define ex isting qualir)', derive specific warer qualicy srnndards, and procecr/reinsrme ground water recharge and water carch· ment areas

• Water Suppl)' - in terms of quanriry and

• Trear warer

For personal domesric consumption employ personal water rrearmenr units

• Equitable allocation of

Market and social factors need robe considered when defining an equirable pricing and distribution policy . Decision making arising from the policy needs to be cons istent. Warer users need ro be informed on the real com or water supply



• Maximise efficient use of water

Upper Barron

Undertake a co-operative regional plan ning process involving all stakeholders. Promote widespread informarion disseminarion. If existing land uses are demonsrrated robe not in the public interest then agreed compen~1tion should follow.

Promote the concept of being 'water wise', Recycle existing resou rces and disrribute recycled water according ro irs intended use

• Land Use Conn,cr - ,n relation to water storage, recrearion, residential and the right ro use land for the purpose it was required

• Regional plan

Undertake a co-operative regional planning process involving all stakeholders. Promote widespread information dissemination. If existing land uses are demonstrated to be not in the public interest then agreed compensation should fo llow.

• L1nd Gse Cannier - in relation ro residential and agriculture

• Regional Plan

Undertake a co-operarive regional planning process involving all stakeholders. Promote widespread information disseminarion. Include spatial inventory of srraregic resources e.g. good agricultural land .

• Co-o rdi nated Land and Water Rehab-

• Co-ordinated rehabil itation

Formulate regional plans in consultat ion with existi ng groups. Promore the maximum use of exiscing com munit}' based rehabilirntion and revegernrion groups.

ilitation - in rerms of weeds, fera l

animals, Stream bank revegetation and erosion control


wirhour jeopardising chose of fut ure generations. As is che case wirh any management process, rhe first step to take is to identify 'whar to manage' . The issues identified by stakeholders are rhe matters ro be managed. Options to Address Issues Catch111ei1t management. however. is not achieved Jargon term s such as ecological sustain- by "managing the catchment" b11t rather by manab le deve lop ment , limi ts of accepcab le aging the activities ocmrring in the catchment or change and catchment management tend to by treating the problems. Where simple cause trivialise rhe underlying principles rhey rep- and effect relationships exist, rhe derivation resent. Essentially rhey all relate ro managing of ways to solve a problem is straight forresources to meer ou r present req uiremems ward. In circumstances invo lving severa l

workshops. The groups are ranked below in descending order of priori ty : Water Quality, Water Supply, l and Use Conflict , Conservation , Socio-Economic and Social.


problems and co mpl ex in teract ions the process of find ing so lmions to problems is more involved. The approach used to rationalise rhe disrriburion of issues , evaluate cause and effect relationships and co derive solutions to issues, infolved five seeps which are discussed below.

Definition of Management Zones Six management zones wirhin rhe carchmenr area were defined following interpreraWATER OCTOBER 1993

cion of ph ysiograp hi c and demographic information and review of che spacial distribution of iss ue and activit ies (Fi gure 2) . Delineation of each zone was ori che basis of sub-catchment boundaries. These boundaries represenr a logical division of the catchment and will assist stakeholders' understanding of che spacial distribution of issues and activities in relation co sub-cacchmenrs. The Lower Barron zone encompasses chat area below the Barron Gorge and extends to the mouth of the Barron Ri ver at Machans Beac h. Th e l ower Barron zone includes a predomin an tl y urban-based populatio n. Flooding of the Barron Delta area and the excraccion of sand and gravel were among the dominanr issues registered by stakeholders in chis pare of the catchment. l yi ng above th e Barron Gorge is ch e K11randa zone. This zone has a less urban population than chat of the lower Barron and has a higher rainfa ll than the adjoining Central and Northern zones. Issues relating co effluent disposal, adequate quantity and quality of domestic water sup ply and town planning issues were recorded for chis zone. Relative co the ocher zones the Northern zo ne is a sparsely populated area. Stakeholders from chis zone appeared to be less wil ling co exp ress thei r views relative co ocher stakeholders. An issue like! y co impacc upon chis zone is chat of water supply as ir relates co the Flaggey Creek dam proposal. Extensive grazing is a principal land use in chis zone. The primary areas of irrigated agriculture within che catchment lie wirhin che Central zone and chis is the main factor used co delinea te ch is zone. Water supp ly and water quality, in relation co irrigated agricultural crops and domestic use, were among the key issues registered for chis zone. The Tinaroo and Vpper Barron zones were differentiated on the basis. of che location of Tinaroo Dam in ch e Tinaroo zone and issues/activities which were directly related co the dam . Additionall y, the relatively large number of dairy farms in che cacchmenr above Tinaroo Dam presents another argument to separate the cwo zones. In these zones water quality and land use conflict were among che key issues recorded.

Assigning Importance of Activities to Each Zone

Derivation of Options to Address ls-sues

In addition co assigning issues co zones, it was necessary to delineate which acti viti es occurred in each zone. Together chis information was used co document and subsequently evaluate che relationships betwee n iss ues (problems) and activities , for each zone. Activities were thought of as encompassing a particular land use. The basis of assigning accivicies co management zones was chat of physical location of the accivity whilst its importance was based on che extent of the activity viz., dairy far ming principally occurs in the Tinaroo, Central and Upper Barron zones.

Examination of the interrelations between activities and issues allowed formulation of creacmeo c and manage men c options co address catchment issues viz., • The treatment options available co treat ca tchm ent properties whi ch influence iss ues eg a pig eradication programme wi ll red uce feral pig population (catchment property) whi ch is related to the issue "adverse impacts of weed infestations and feral animals on native flora". • Th e manage ment options ava ilable to lesse n th e impact of accivicies on the properties of che catchment, e.g. scheduling major road construction during che dry season will reduce che impact of roadbuilding on sediment load in the river. Although it is prudent to recognise the difference between management and treatment options, rogecher these options may be thought of as being 'things co do' co address problems. The main aim of this categorisation approach was ro demonstrate chat in general, issues (concerns or problems) may be solved or addressed through either preventative or treatment measures. These categories may also reflect who is responsible for the implementation of these measures. Treatment options would rend co be the responsibility of regulatory groups, while management options would be directed co chose involved in each activity. , As an important component of deriving and evaluating various ways to address identified issues, a series of workshops was organised co f11t:i litace discussion. Additional ways of addressing identified pro blems in the catchment were described by stakeholders in che course of che workshops. Stakeholders also provided comments regarding various solutions. In some instances consistent comments regarding either the applicability or non-applicability of a solution co a particular problem were noted. Based upon an appraisal of all the information gathered during this study, an overview perception of key issues and solutions was formed (Table 3).

Examination of Interrelationships

Th e for mul ation of manage ment and treatment options was based on an understanding of che relationship between activities and issues. A detailed description of chis process is being prepared by che authors. The approach adopted overcame the difficulties involved with direct documentation of rhe assumed 'cause and effect' due to the complex ways in which issues and activities interact. Th e re lacionshi ps between acti vi ci es and issues were defi ned using cwo intermed iate relationships viz. , • Th e relatio nships betw een iss11es and catchment properties, e.g. fo r an issue such as 'acceptable surface water quality for domestic use from che river', there are a nwnber of catchment properties (attributes) chat contribute co whether chat issue is a problem or nor, including chemicals in water and E.coli. That is, these properties are 'determining factors' for chis issue. The degree of infl uence the catchment property has on an issue was assessed according to whether the influence was considered to be high, medium , low or negligible. • The relationshi ps betwee n chose catchment properties and activities, e.g. an ac tivity such as 'residential sub-division' may hav e an impact on a numb er of catchm ent properties, including sediment load, nutrients in water and visual quality. That is, chi s activity has a 'direct affect' Prioritisation of Issues For on these properties. The degree of influEach Management Zone ence the accivi ty has on a catchment propHaving defined management zones, issues erty was assessed according co whether the influ ence was considered to be hi gh, specific co, or arising from, zones were provisionally prioritised oo che basis of informamedium, low or negligible. tion received during the consultative process. Through the above process, and che use of The importance of issues in each of the man- depend ency mat rices and a relational dataagement zon es was assessed in terms of base, it is possible co link issues and activities wheth er it is impor ta nt in ch at zone or where they have common catchment properwhether ic is influenced by what happens in a ties . In the order of 68 000 interactions were zone e.g. flooding at Caravonica is influenced identifi ed by chis ·system . Of these, about by run-off in all pares of the catchment, but 880 were 'strong' interactions i. e. they had is particularly important in the lower Barron consistent high racings for each component of Area (where it occurs), and at Tinaroo Dam the interaction. Derivation and evaluation of (as water management in the dam can influ- treatment and manage ment options was based on these high level interactions. ence che seve rity of flood s). WATER OCTOBER 1993

Implementation While chis study has identified a number of options for managing the activities in the Barron River catchment, several casks need co be undertaken co implement management strategies. These tasks include identifying: which issues are addressed first , which solutions are selected, how solutions are implemented, who funds the work, and by what method is the success or otherwise of the solution assessed. It would be prudent to establish a framework drawn on experience from other studies involved with natural resources management in setting up che management structure for the Barron River catchment area. The sugges ted fram ework incorporates views expressed by stakeholders in relation co the


Formal ICM Ag reement (Embodied in Govemmcm Policy)

''Responsible and eq ui tab le use or resources to enhance and subseq uently maintain the biological, economic and cu ltural values of the Barron River and Catchment Area."

Catchment Implementation Un it

Catchment Co-ordinating Co mmittee

\ Co mmuni ty Zone Forum

Communi ty Zone Forum

Upper Barron Tinaroo


Figure 3. Implementation framework

implementation of catchment management principles. The key elements of rhe suggested management structure are discussed below and are schematically presented on Figure 3.

Community Zone Forum Kuranda

Lower 8arroo

overview rhe implementation of rhe strategy and facili care resource allocation commensurate with che policies and directions ir approves. A more appropriate name for chis group, reflecting its policy making and direcri ve roles, may be rhe 'Catchment Policy Development Group' or 'Catchment Management Board'. This group would comprise ten voting members, five drawn from che Zone Forums, and one Local Government Member from each of the five local aurhoriries. The three Scare and rwo Federal Parliamentarians (sitting members for each electome within rhe catc hm ent area would be ex officio members of the committee. The Barron River Catchment Co-ordinator, as a non-executive member, would assume rhe role of secretary. The Co-ordinator would be responsible for faci litating information transfer between the Committee and Zone Forums. The Catchment Co-ordinating Commirree would not have the resources to actually achieve action 'on the ground'. This committee would develop policies and initiate programmes or projects; however, to achieve positive action , hum an an d financial resources are required and these would need to be drawn from existing agencies on an agreed basis.

Forum. The Forum would be responsible for prioritising issues, advising on solutions and implementation of solutions which are community based and providing a mechanism for local conflict resolution. This concept draws Principle Management upon chat adopted in rhe Wimmera River, Catchment Implementation Agreement Victoria integrated catchment management Unit Experience wirh rhe Trinity Inlet Man- strategy reported by Swinton, 1990. The concept of co-ordinating acrion ro agement Plan (TIMP, 1992), demonscrares Given chat behavioural change would be achieve common goals is srraightforward. char a clearly defined management principle required as part of rhe catchment manage- The practical difficulty is firstly, goal definiprovides a focus for all stakeholders. Terms ment process, ir is essential chat a holistic tion and secondly, assessing whether or nor like 'ecologically sustainable development' approac h co comm unit y involvement is the goal is bting achieved. Large multi-disciand 'ca tchment management ' may be too adopted. Effective problem solving is more plinary private and public sector corporations broad and non-specific and fa il co presen t likely to occur when all chose affected are a have similar goals in terms of providing sertangible concepts to rhe community. In party to rhe decision making process rather vices. The fundamental difference between essence, the ground rules need to be sec and than being dicrared to by a group which is the private and public secror arguably centres agreed to, and this will enhance the potential perceived to be non-representative. For these upon performance assessment, i.e. monitorfor consistent decision making and appropri- reasons ir is suggested char membership of ing and evaluating goals. ate resource allocation. A management prin- the Zone Forums be drawn from al l stakeIn rhe private sector, rhe 'bocrom line' is ciple on th e basis of all the in formation holders. In rime, it may be possible to reduce defined in terms of profitability and chis deficollected during the data gathering and con- rhe Zone Forums to rwo i.e. above che Barron nition presents the cornerstone of operations, sul cation process may be suggested viz ., Gorge and below the Barron Gorge. Ac chis whereas in rhe public sector rhe definition of "Responsible and eq11itable use of resources to juncture, however, general comm unity per- the 'bottom line' is open to interpretation. In enhance and subsequently maintain the biological, ceptions of rhe interrelated nature of land use terms of integrated catchment management economic and mlt11ral values of the Barron River and catchment issues remains co be devel- iris nor suggested, nor is it necessary, to alter and catchment area. " oped. Advertisements could be used to seek the functioning of either the private or public Apart from obvious benefits, such as max- nominati on to become a member of Zone sectors. Rather, what is required is a mechaimising efficiency, a co-ord inated formally Forums in a manner similar to char adopted nism co achieve efficient co- ordination of agreed-upon approach will enh ance rhe for the Trinity Inl et Management Pl an public seccor effort . The concept of rhe appropriate resource allocation co catchment (TIMP, 1992). Initially rhe selection criteria Catchment Implementation Unir which has management. A well scrucrured co-ordinated could be predetermined as was rhe case in been adopted from che draft management approach will assist in maintaining public New Sourh Wales (Gibson, 1990) and subse- strategy for the Johnstone River (JRICM, support for the management principle, and quently refined in consultati on wirh stake- 1993) presents a suggested mechanism. thus ensure funding allocation. holders. This group would com prise corporate From each Forum, one representative level members of rhe various regulatory agenCommunity Zone Forums would be nominated by the members to be cies already existing in rhe region. Their cask Community Zone Forums, consistent rheir representative on r_he Catchment Co- would be to co-ordinate t'he efficient implewirh che catchment management zones, form ordinating Committee. mentation of policies and directives emanarthe bas is of rhe scheme (Figure 3). i ng from the Catchment Co-ordinating Nominally, 20 people from each zone would Catchment Co-ordinating Commicree utilising existing insricurion al comprise each Forum. Further discussions Committee and regulatory arrangements. The Carchmenc among stakeholders may resolve co increase The Catchment Co-ordinating Commit- Co-ordinator would assume rhe role of facili or decrease rhe number of members on each tee is the dec ision making body which would tator for information transfer. 24


Discussing the role of the Catchment Implementation Unit is relatively simple compared to achieving positive action. Ar the end of the day positive accion depends, to a significant extent, upon the willingness of the participants in the process to make things happen. To this end , it is suggested that membership of the Catchment Implementation Unit varies according to iss ue , whi ch would provide the basis for membership to the group and a focus to the group.

Technical Advisory Groups The use of techni ca l advisory groups to assist in natural resource management decisions has been employed in orth Queensland for both the draft Johnsrone River integrated catchment manage ment and th e Trinity Inlet Manage ment Plan . These groups may comprise officers of various regulatory agencies, industry representatives or community representatives depending on the parti cular issue. Their role would be to provide technical advice ro the Catch ment Implementation Unit. Inform ation transfer between the advisory group and the Catchment Co-ordinating Committee would be facilitated by the Barron River Catchment Co-ordinator.

Catchment Co-ordinator The Catchment Co-ord inator would have a pivotal role in terms of organisation and information transfer as outlined above. Ir is essential that the Catchment Co-ordinator remain, and be seen to remain , independent. In the United Scares of America, for example, a similar posit ion termed 'Keeper of the River' ex ists in some Scares. The person in chis role has the auchoriry, and indeed has successful! y exerc ised the auchori ry, to sue government agen cies for pollu ting ri ve rs. Although it is nor suggested char this scenario occur in Australia the principle of independence is applicable.

Regional Catchment Co-ordinators Group This group wou ld comprise the Catchment Co-ordi nators workin g in the North Queensland region. Inclusion of this group in the overall struc ture formerly recognises the importance of information transfer between catchment groups. Apart from an information transfer fu nction, the group may be directed by the Catchment Co-ordinating Committee to undertake specific tasks e.g. prepare submissions for joint funding , reporr on success or fai lure of various schemes from an overview perspective.

condi tions prevailed , with comments relating to flooding being not as frequent as would have been likely had the normal monsoonal conditions occurred. The manner of linking issues to activities via common catchment properties (attributes) repre ems a logical approach ro the objective assessment of interactions from which solutions to probl ems and preventative measures may be derived. The methodology developed is dynamic allowing new information to be added and rhe relacionshi ps exam ined, and rhe methodology can be applied to ocher catchments. The implementati on framework evolved from several different narural resource management strategies. Although ir presents a progression, to be effecti ve considerable effort and resources will need to be devoted to its adoption and ulcimacely to 'on the ground' implementation of solutions to problems.



Tim Anderson is an Agrimlt11ral Scient who has practiced in the management of land a water reso11rces since grad11ating in l 984. C1, rently he is employed as an Associate at atm Reso11rce Assessments in Cairns, Queensland. Robert Crossley is an Agrimltural Scienti specialising in land resource assessment, agriet tural s11itability evaluation and land manat ment, and the development of computer-bas Acknowledgments information systems to these fields. He is mrren, The authors wish to thank members of working as Senior Environmental Scientist j the Steering Com mi tree for their co-opera- Hollingsworth Dames & Moore in Brisbane. tion and assistance with the study, and the J ames Begg is an Engineering Geolog. Water Resources Commission and Mr employed by Hollingsworth Dames & Moo1 Stewart Dun ca n for assistance with the Presently he is engaged in the development of G figures. and relational databases to resource managem1 projects. References Dr Steve Perrens has over 25 years e:x:pe-, Ande rson, (l 992) Barron River and Catchment Overvi ew ence in s11rface water hydrology and in the ma Study - A Summary of the Consu ltative Process . North agement of land resources. At present he is worki Queensland River Trust Assoc. 13th Annual Conference, with cons11ltinfs engineers, Lyall & lvfaco,m. Cairns 1992.

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Conclusions The approach taken co define issues in this study may be applied to ocher land and water resource manageme nt projects. Limitations to the process included financial conscraints and rhe temporal nature of issues. In the majori ry of cases the issues reflected current concerns. For chis study, drought

Gibson , (1990) Catchment Management Initiatives iurray-Djl(Jing Perspective. Australian J ou m a/ of 5 and Wiater Co11sel'vatio11, Vol III 1o. 4. JRJCM , ([993) Johnscone River Catchment Draft Mana, ment Strategy . .Johnstone River Catchment Co-ordinat Committee. Swinton. ( 1990) Integrated Catchment Management: Ta Structure. \Va.fer, 17, (6). TlMP, (1992) Trinity Inlet Management Plan. Prepared the Triniry Inlet Management Plan Steering Committe


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WATER CYCLE PLANNING IN THE NINETIES J Browne* Summary This paper considers recent changes and ongoing reform s in rhe wacer indusrry. Ic concludes char a greacer shifc is needed co a more ecologically and holiscically based warer cycle planni ng philosphy ar all levels of deci sion maki ng and adminisrracion. A holiscic planning approach is suggesred together wich an accion orie nced decision making syscem based on risk assessment. The paper points ro the need for legislaci ve, regulatory and adminiscracive reforms ro support new planning approaches. Challenges posed by the necessary change process are identified.

Introduction Anciqui cy abounds wich examples of aqueducts and ocher structures built ro supply water ro human developmenc. By comparison, licde evidence survives of ancient wascewacer projeccs.In fac e, communi cy sewerage systems did not emerge until the 19ch century in an attempt co curb the apalling epidemics resulcing from urban over-crowding. Water and wastewater systems thus bad separare ori g ins and th eir planning has remained largely separated un til the present nme. However, during the 60's and 70's, many past values and prac tices were subj ec red ro revi ew. This process gained mom entum during che follow ing decade and the early 90's, resulting in an increasingly turbulent decision-making environmenc and significant changes in the water management regime. Some of the resultant refo rms are listed below: • Integrated processes: Ecologically sustainab le developm enc (ESD), in teg rat ed cacchment management, natural resources management , total water cycle management and co nso lidation of mini steri al councils. • National criteria, guidelines and scracegies: Australian water qualit y guid elines , national drinking water guidelines and national water quality management scracegy. • Central co-ordination: Commonwealth EPA, proposed Auscralian Environmental Sta ndar ds Council and Sca ce Water Resources Councils. • Environment movement: better organised, greater public awareness. • Regulation: strengthening and widening of regulatory "nee". • Legislation: wider legal control, eg. Environm ental Offe nces and Penalries Ace 26

SW), Cacchm enc Managemen t Ace as a vi tal organ ism all pares of which are SW) moves ro consolidate legislation. interconnecced and interdependenc . This is a • Adminis tration: flaner, more responsive shift from a decerminiscic/mechaniscic view scruccures. Corporacisacion of some wacer co an ecol ogical/holistic one. The developauchori cies. ment of fi eld theory; evolving, noncyclical The need for urgenc ongoing reform is syscem cheory ecc. is part of chis change. highlighted in che Industry Commission's This is noc a ch eorecical concepc buc a report on Water Resources and Wasce Wacer philosophy essential ro the long cerm survival Di sposal (J ul y 1992.) Thi s process will of life on che planet. The realicy is, however, chat un til th e continue co res hape the Australi an water present tim e wacer and , more parcicularly, indusrry. le will be increasingly imponant for all wasrewacer syscems have been planned submembers of the induscry ro participare in rhe stantially according ro decerminiscic/mechachange programm e and co adapt or modify niscic principles. exisring pracrices as required. · Io past years, operators have ofcen been subjec ced co a plet ho ra of co mm and and Current Status control regulation , somecimes framed in isoMany of the changes oudined above can lation and based on imported criteria. Io che be linked ro rhe prin ciples of ESD whi ch absence of robust local data, planning has ai m, inter alia, co integrate economic and been shaped by arbi crary "standards" rather environm ental co nsiderations in dec ision - than on sound ly based environmental quality making. Experience in implementing ICM objeccives. Other objectives, such as " a level and ocher concemporary iniciarives has shown playing fie ld", separated accouncabili ty ecc. , chat integration of previously separate func- have exacerbaced this sjtuacion resulcing in tions is difficult. significant degrees of planning determinism. Whilst great strides are being achieved in Furthermore, current moves ro corporaci som e areas, admini strati ve scruccures and sacion and privatisation could well entrench present legislation generally still support dif- thi s si cuation 'ftnless appropriate admi nisferenciaced processes, including che separate cracive reform s are imp lemented ensuring planning of water and wastewater systems. chat an ove rall scrateg ic planning nee is There is no doubt, however, chat there is placed across che policy/ regulation/operation a wid er awareness of, and shi ft ro , holistic interface. planning pri nciples wichin the industry. As well as bei ng developed at diffe rent Nee ded now are che po lici cal, legal and times and by different personnel, because of adminiscracive support syscems ro accelerace prioricy syscems based on cost-effecciveness and consolidace rhe change process. considerations, wascewarer and wacer syscems Wacer planning profess ionals muse also bave generally been planned as single-objecbe able ro demonscrace a commitment co tive schemes provided co "service" developintegrated, water cycle managemenc rogecber ment. They have thus been concepcualised as wich supp orc abl e and un de rsta ndab le being subscantiall y separace from cheir operatmechodologies. ing environment, i.e. as servanc mechanisms. For purposes of di scuss ion and furcb er Forcunately, rhe sicuacion is changing in development , a possible holisci c planning many areas , as seated above. approach is ouclined below.

The Nineties - A Shift To Holistic Planning Principles Thi s paper aims ro support che Nacional Wacer Quality Scracegy - whi ch addresses criteria, guidelines and goals - by focussing on underpinning planning principles. Such principles should be applicable irrespeccive of che po licy fra meworks and mechodolog ies adopced by planning auchoricies.

Planning Philosophy In recenc yea rs the uni ve rse has bee n viewed less as an inert mechanism responding ·ro excernally decermined laws and more

Holistic Planning

The "new" approach recognises that water sys cems are chemselves an integ ral part of the environmenc , noc excernal mechani sms. Sysrems so planned will influence the operacing environmenc and be influenced by ic. Io particular, chey will respond ro che needs of the environmenc which are dynamic in cim e and space. Planning muse therefore be open, iterarive in an ongoing way and , most importantly,

*J Brow ne,

2 Pandala Place, Cronull a


be mulci-objeccive. Planning mechodology will be appropri ace co che circ um sca nce, scope and scale of parcicular_syscems. Processes muse be understandable and accepted by the various stakeholders. More chan one form of analys is may be needed co sari fy different stakeholders. A cypical standard planning sequence is as follows: • Define environm ent • Identify environmental needs • Determine objectives • Identify options co meec all objectives • Evaluace holiscic plan • Stage implementation • Monicor performance. This is a normal procedure. However, che following "new" principles will be applied :

Planning Scracegic planning is pare of ch e overa ll management process. It transcends regu latory/operacions interfaces. All wace r cycle planning has pol irical repercussions, irrespeccive of scope and scale.

Environment The environment enco mpasses global , regional and local issues. It includes physical, economi c, soc ial and oc her aspeccs such as human and nonhuman values. Ic embraces the ele mencs of eco logica lly susta in able development. In parcicular, ir covers the complete water cycle.

Environment Needs The water system will address rhe envi ronment's needs for quantity and quality, in all parts of rhe cacchm ent and wacerway, und er all seasonal and climatic conditions and ac present and fu ture times. These needs are dynami c, nor fixed, imposi ng signifi cantly different operating demands ac different rimes and locacions. Evaluation of needs is different from envi ronmental impacc assessment. Needs are not roucinely assessed fo r wascewacer planning alchoug h wacer reso urce pl annin g does usuall y co nside r chem . Ecologica l needs should not be presented as an "allowance ", but identified and quantified along wirh all ocher environ mental needs. Deparcures in allocacions should be publi cly juscified.

Objectives Planning objectives will address all needs. Assignment of priorities should be deferred , if feasible, until furth er analysis and stakeholder inceraccion has raken place. As previously seated , mulci-obj eccive planning is involved.

Options Options will nor be mutually exclusive in rhe "old " sense of determining rh e "bes t" option. The dynamic nature of rhe environment wi ll generally req uire an integrated network of options to achi eve rhe required level of operational flexibi lity and resilience. Io chis regard , narure gives the lead in chat WATER OCTOBER 1993

mooocultures are inherently weak. Th e aim of rh e plann in g effort is ro produce a system char is diverse, integrated, adaptive, dynami c and responsive co the full range of environmental needs.

Ho li st ic Plan The adopted plan will reflect an ecological/holistic philosophy and policy objectives. Scope exists for a range of approaches, such as non-degradation and degradation offsets. A basket of social, environmental, economic and ocher analytical techniques wi ll be applied co evaluate che network of options. Stakeholder interact ion will be most 1mporrant. The adopted plan will embod y a "both and " ethos rather than "either or''. Depending on part icu lar circumstances, holisti c systems, at various times, locations , seasons and climatic cond itions, may have rhe ability ro: • supply warer ro human development, • supply water co the physical environment, • minimise demand and waste production , • reuse effluent, • dis charge effl uent to surface/gro und waters, • transfer water/effluent within and outs ide catchmencs, • mili se sludge and ocher residuals. Once agreed ro by stakeholders, the plan beco mes the "vi sion " for ongoing detai led planning and operat ional phases. Once the vision is agreed, aspects such as affordability should only determine race of implemenranon.

Staging The plan and vision will be derived with a long term view. Priorities and basic sraging of im plementation will be sec also from that perspective, subjecc of course co ongoing review. Financial and ocher shorter term resourcing issues, cogecher with political and shorter term economic facco rs will naturall y determine che race of implementation but should not change che vision.

Monitoring As with all dynamic systems, the ongoing operational performance must be monicored and th e system rev iewed and modified as required. This is a vitall y important element of che overall water cycle management process.

Planning Implementation Levels of Understanding Environmental Data Adequate information is a prerequisite for effective planning.In reality, however, planners rarely have complete dara nor the fonds for research and development co obtain it. There are real dangers in importing solutions based on in app ropri ate criteria and equall y in proceed ing with solutions based on modelling exe rcises ch ar have nor been fi eld calibraced. This often presents decision makers wich a dilemma as early action is gen-

erally req uired . This is co~pounded by the face char planning forecasts will never be "righc" given che complex mi x of economic, environm ental, social and political faccors involved. The appropriace course of accion in such cases is co proceed in a concrolled way, using available informacion, but recognising che current "level of understanding" and associ aced ri sks.

Suggested Process An ac cion-oriencaced process would include seeps such as : • Define and classify levels of understanding and associaced data needs, • Conduce risk analysis co escimace "safe" decisions appropriace co each level, • Inceracc wich stakeholders ac each level, Take appropriace decisions, • Identify daca needs co proceed co higher levels.

Classification System Whilsc levels of underscandi ng will be determined for each planning situacion, ic is envisaged char classificacion systems could cake che fo llowing form: • Conceptual Enough ro conceive correct direction for ongoing stud ies. • Basic Enough co develop opcions. • Planning , Enough co develop correct vision and staging. • Working En&gh co enable design decai ls co be opcimised. • Derailed Ongoing daca acquisicion co permic operacional fine tuning and modificacion.

Public Disclosure Openess and honescy should be meticulously preserved in che holi scic syscem. Public disclosure wich justification should be made of all sal ient planning faccors such as assumpcions, criceria, risks , policy objeccives, mechodologies, basis fo r staging and resourcing, sub-opcimisacion, allocacion vs need ere.

Specialisation And Review Mu lci -objeccive plann ing requires the involvement of many and varied disciplines. Because of chis, it is unlikely char wacer auchoricies will have che necessary planning resources in- house, parcicularly for regional wacer cycle schemes. An increasing involvement of consulcanc specialises is chus seen as necessary in chis complex bur environmentally viral field . Experc review a11d certification of planning and operational decisions is also seen as being increasingly imporcant, for reasons of public accountability and confid ence.

Administrative Support Whilsc nacional scracegies, guidelines and 27


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instituti ons are being actively deve loped cowards greater co-ordination and integration within the yVater indu stry, other reforms have a potential for grea ter differentiation of functions and fragmentat ion of water cycle planning. To avo id this, administrative structures and frameworks are necessary that address the roral water cycle strategic management process. In particular, strategic planning must be continuous and "seamless" across the regulation/operation interface. At the same time ro les and separa te accountabilities musr be clearly identified and preserved. Communicarion pathways must be two-way and effective. Regulators must involve operators in strategic planning and vice versa whilst preserving accountability issues. This is necessary to avoid ivory rower solutions . Administrative arrangements must ensure concurrent and interactive consideration of water quantity and quality issues. Holistic planning/management will onl y be effective ro the ex tent that adeq uate supporting administrative structures are instituted. Ir is considered that the necessary reforms and controls would flow from an acceleration and extension of State and regional planning. Strategic water plans should not on ly identify objectives, actions, performance measures etc. but also recommend the assignment of roles and responsibilities across Government and other agencies.

Legal And Regulatory Reform Similarly, a sh ift ro holistic planning would be assisted by the continuation and general adoption of contemporary trends in legal and regulatory reform. These include new, consolidated resource management legislation, consisten t policy guidelines across environment, finance and other sectors, co-ordinated planning and environmental legislation, and a shift from exclusively command and control regulation ro resource manageme nt and mar ket based approaches.

Challenges Contaminated Water

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is open , adapt ive, flex ible and multiobjective. • To ensu re that the operating environment encompasses the complete water cycle and includes a full range of human and nonhuman values. • To cater for all significant environmental nee ds in terms of water quantity and quality and of space, tim e, season and climate. • To develop procedures for effective interaction between and involvement of all stakeholders. • To identify and acq uire global and local info rmation needed for planning purposes. • To develop action processes based on levels of understanding and risk analysis. • To publicly disclose and justify all planning assu mpt ions and oth er sa li en r factors. • To involve rhe required mix of disciplines and to sub jec r planning decisions to expert review. • To develop administrative srrucrures and frameworks rhar address the coral strategic management process. • To ensure char holistic srraregic planning is continuous and seamless across the regulation/operation interface. • To accelerate scare and regional water planning. • To develop consolidated, consisrenc legislation and regulation across environment, finance, urban planning and ocher sectors. The Australian Wate r and Wastewater Association bas an important role co play in mee rinl' rh ese and ocher water industry challenges.

References Commonwealth of Australia, (1990). 'Ecologicall y Sustainable Developme nt : A Commonwealth Discuss ion Paper'. Australian Government Publishing Service. Industry Commission, (1992). 'Water Resources and Waste Water Disposal'. Report No. 26. Australian Government Publishing Service. ANZECC/AWRC, (1992). 'National Water Quality Management Strategy: Policies and Principles. A Draft Reference Document'. ZECC/A\XIRC, (1992). 'National Water Quality Management Strategy: Australian Water Quality Guidelines For Fresh and Marine Waters'. Commomwealth Environment Protection Agency, (1992). 'Developing A National Approach Through Co-opera-

The ongoing reform process within the tion' The Interdata Environmental Resource ManageAustralian water industry presents all players ment Handbook, Third Edition, 1992/93. with a range of significant challenges. NSW Water Resources Council , (1993). 'Our Water'. SecreThis paper focusses on the need for govtariat Parramatta. ernme nts, administrators, wa ter industry professionals and the wider community to Author support a general shift co ecological/holistic John Browne retired from the Water Board, strategic planning. Sydney in 1992 after more than 35 years' experiParticular challenges posed by such a shift ence in the water industry. He is a civil engineer include the following: and held the position of Manager Planning in the • To implement ESD principles through Boaid. John was a member of the Urban Water integrated water cycle managemenc. Research Association of Amtralia Advisory Com• To ensure that holi sti c prin cip les are mittee, the SW State Co-ordinating Committee widely und erstood and applied . for Total Catchment Management, and the Clean • To develop appropriate planning method- Waters Advisory Committee (SPCC). In 1990, he ologies. led an A\VRC task force to initiate the National • To ensu re that water cycle planning Water Quality Management Strategy.


TECHNOLOGY TASTE AND ODOURS IN WATER A SUMMARY OF CURRENT AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH Report by Keith Hayes, Mciry Drikas, Dennis Steffensen Taste and odours are a major issue for most water authorities in Austra lia. While nor receiving che same level of attention as public health issues such as algal toxins, consumers react, at rimes adamantl y, co che appearance, casce and odour of their drinking water. Furthermore, water whi ch has an unpleasant odour is regarded, with perhaps some justi fi cation, as unhealthy. Consumers' expectations on che aesthetic quality of water are co ntin ually rising, which is likely co result in greater effort in identifying and concroll ing the sources of odours in potabl e water supplies. Consequencly, there is a very real need for additional research in chis somewhat overlooked area. A brief summary of activities of the major water authori ties and research agencies is presented below. Mose of the contributing research g roup s are members of the IAWQ Specialise Group on this topic.

Australian Centre for Water Quality Research/State Water Laboratory - (SA) The most common caste and odours in South Australia are che earthy/musty variety which are produced by geos min and 2mechylisoborneol (MIB ). Priority has been given co identification of the sources of these compounds and their removal during water treatment. Sources of Tastes and Od o urs.

Analyses for geosmin and MIB are included in the operational monitoring. More derailed surveys are conducted when problems arise whi ch also includes analysis for potential taste and odour producing organisms such as cyanobacceria, actinomycetes and protozoa. To date the most common of source has been cyanobacteria. Remova l of Taste and Odours.

Activated Carbon: Considerable work is in progress on the evaluation of activated carbon. This includes studies to determine the relacionship beeween surface characteristics of carbon and physical characteristics of adsorbing species in determining adsorption effi ciency and the effec t of competit ion with natural organic matter on char relationship. This has already been successfu ll y accomplished using seven activated carbons for the algal toxin microcys cin-LR, and is currently being underraken for geosmi n and MIB . Optimum contact rimes and carbon doses using one powdered activated carbon (PAC) have been established for a range of geosmin and MIB concentrations under operating con° WATER OCTOBER 1993

ditions in a water treatment plane. and MIB. Generally thermal reactivation is used to regenerate granular ac tiva ted carbon when ics effi ciency is reduced below certain standards bur currently there are no full-scal e reactivation furnaces in Australia. There are several disadvantages with chis method, particularly the cost and the race of carbon attrition . The use of chemical treatment as an alternative to thermal react ivation is currentl y under investiga tion. The effe ct of chemical regeneration on the lifetime of the carbon for remova l of caste an d odour metabolites is of particular interest. Ad vanced Oxidation Processes.

There is conflicting evidence regarding the effec tiveness of oxidation with ozo ne , or ozone in con junction with other oxidants such as ultraviolet radiation or hydrogen peroxide for removal of geosmin and MIB . It is proposed to evaluate the removal effi ciency of these advanced oxidation processes. Current work is foc uss ing on the use of ozone for removal of algal toxins and evaluation of the formation of ozonation by-products in waters with high levels of natural organic matter. Flavour Profile Analysis. An expert panel ro assess the flavour profile of water has been established based on the techniq ue initially introduced by the Metropolitan Water Discricc of Southern California. This laboratory has been approved by NATA in the use of this technique. The panel also rakes pare in che assessment of castes produced by materials in contact with water, according to Interim Australian Standard AS4020 - 'Produces for Use in Conran With Water Intend ed for Human Consumption with Regard to their Effect on the Quality of Water'. Collaborative Research w ith Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez. The Australian

Centre for Water Quality Research and the CIRSEE laboracories of Lyonnaise des EauxDumez in France are collaborating on research co evaluate the application of polishing treatments for so lving algae related problems during drinking water production. This work is fund ed through the French- Austral ian Induscrial Researc h (FAIR) Prog ram and is implemented through an exchange of research staff between these organisations. The program has focussed on che use of ozone and activated carbon for che removal of algal roxins and the identifica tion of algal mecabolices responsible for caste and odour, particularly compounds ocher than geosmin

CSIRO Division of Water Resources, Griffith While this group has had major programs in the past it does not currently have a program specifically relating to caste and odours. Previous work has included: Development of improved analytical techniques for detecting geosmin and MIB in surface waters; Invescigacion of the physiology of geosmin production by Anabaena circi nalis; Studying the feasibi lity of using odour compounds as sensitive indicacors for predicting the onset of algal blooms A range of biosensors are being developed jointly by che Divisions of Applied Physics, Chemicals and Po lymers , Animal Health , Food Processin g and Plant Induscry. The sensors utilise surface acoustic wave devices coated with monoclonal antibodies which respond co only one chemical.

Division of Food Science and Technology - National Centre for Advanced Microanalysis of Foods The c.encre is involved in the analysis and idencificacion of compounds responsi ble for desirable and undesirable flavours in food and beverages. Of the current three major projeccs und erway, th e most re levant co ch e aquatic en ironmenc concerns che effect of diet and environment on che volatile flavour components of cruscacea. This work is funded by che Fisheries R&D Counci l. The ce ntre is also involved in industrial contract research. Flavour problems encountered by industry are brought co che centre for assistance and advice. The problems involve improvement of flavour quality of a product as well as the identification of off-flavours and taints in food , raw materials and packaging. The centre has considerable experience in the analysi s of chemi cal contaminants such as chlorophenols and chloroanisoles and microbial metabolites such as geosmin, 2-metnylisoborneol, p-creso1 and skacole. Members of the centre also provide a consultative service in food flavours for both che industry and legal profession.

Universit y of Wollongong Assoc iate Professo r John Elli s (a nd an M.Sc. student) will be continuing research at Wol longong University us ing zeoli ces for removal of odour compounds other than MIB and geosmin. 29

Sydney Water Board The Water Board's main activity in the caste .and odour field is quarterly monicoring for compliance with current water quality guidelines. In ch is program, 90 sires from 15 different supplies are assessed by a panel of up co 20 people and ranked for quality on a scale from l co 5. Few algal-related cascn1nd odours are reported in Sydney supplies; chose episodes chat do occur are managed by marupulacion of the draw-off point from the affected reservoir.


1993 21-27 NOVEMBER

Melbourne Water Corporation o caste and odour research projects are curren d y underway, since the incidence of T&O problems is relatively low in Melbourne water supplies . Alga l-related problems are scarce ocher than an occasiona l bloom of Synura in one of the supplies and the only apparent T&O issues relate co chlorinous odours and tastes relating co high pH. Customer surveys are used co assess consumer arcicudes co water quality issues.

Brisbane City Council Current T&O activities are ce ntred on routine algal monicoring for operational purposes. Tests include the identifi cation and enumeration of algal cells, chlorophyll measurements and the use of a Taste Panel for sensory evaluation of samples.

Water Authority of WA WAWA is currently involved in two areas of research. The first concerns a long standing problem with the Wanneroo system, which is affec ted by 'swampy' odours, caused by dimethyl polysulphides. A further project in chis area is about to commence, in association with Curtin University. The second area concerns the use of olfactomecry and dispersion modelling for assessment of odorous emissions from wastewater treatment planes.

Summary The preceding review does not claim to be a comprehensive report on all current taste and odour activity in Australia, however it ammpts to provide a 'birds-eye-view' of the scare of play in chis country. This has been done co sec the scene for the upcoming 4th Internacional SymposiL1m on Off-Flavours in th e Aquati c Environm ent , robe held in Adelaide between 2-7 October 1994. It is hoped chat chis meeting will stimulate greater research activity on caste and odours in Australia. Further information on the Symposium can be obtained from: Kei th Hayes , Research Manager, Australian Centre for Water Quality Resea rch, Private Mail Bag, Salisbury SA 5108

Acknowledgment The authors wish co thank the agencies mentioned above for chei r cooperation 111 supplying information for chis review. 30

THE WATER INDUSTRY PROMOTES PUBLIC AWARENESS In a bold move co highlight che importance of protecting and conserving our water resources throughout Australi a, a coalition of water authorities and com munity groups is ro stage the inaugural National Water Week to be held from 21-27 November 1993. The primary function of the national campaig n is ro ra ise aware ness in the Australian population of wise water use and water resource management issues. The theme of National Water Weeks is "the Future of water is in our hands". The campaign's key messages are: • procecc water quality, • avoid wasting water, and • get involved in water decisions in the community. The campaign is based extensively on the "Blue Th umb" concept. The "Blue Thu mb " encourages people ro nurrnre and procecc water with the same kind of active concern having a ''green thumb " indicates for planes. Nat ional Water Week activities will be conducred in all stares and cerricories. Acciviries feature nor only fam ily events, but also provide a powerful education forum ro discuss issues such as water quality, efficient water use, and catchment management. Major program eve nt s include: • Bl ue Thum b Day on 25 November (ci cizens and ce lebr ities invi red ro wear a Blue Thumb in support), incorporati ng phoco-opportunicies and Blue Thum b Stations. • High im pact promotional eve nts at Darling Harbour, Sydney (27 Nov) and South Bank, Brisbane (26-27 Nov) • Announcement of AW/ \Y/A's wi nner of the Peter Hughes Water Award and nominee for the international Stockholm Water Prize. • Public forums on water issues. • Blue Thumb Discovery Tours of water utilities sires , wetlands and river sites of environmental significance, coordinated by water and local governm ent authorities. • Disp lays in key suburban and rura l centres.

acional songwriting co mpetition for schools based on the theme The F11t11re of \\'later is in 011r Handr. Angry Anderson is serving as national judge. National Water Week wil l be supported by a strategic media ca mpaign chroughour Australia; national distribution of promotional materials including posters, Blue Thumb Basics brochures, Blue Thumbs, T-shirrs and stickers. Local communities have also been invited to join in the celebration with councils and shires asked co issue a mayoral proclamation urging citizens ro fo ll ow the Blue Thumb basics of water protection, conservation and involvemem, and to recognise the value , importance and fragility of our water resources. Accord ing to National manager of Water Week, Gai l Le Bransky, "We are hoping co involve as many groups as possible to ed uca te on the importance of acknowledging water as our most prenous resource. " "AWWA members have a critical role co play in National Water Week. We will only achieve increased public awareness of water resource management issues and information public participation through a long-term commitment co community education by the whole water industry." Na ti onal Wa ter Week posters and brochures are available through AW\Y/A offices. Ocher acional Water Week merchandise may be purchased by contacting the National Water \'I/eek Secretariat on (02) 895 7267. Merchandise incl udes Blue Thumb stickers, c-shircs, bookmarks and banners. AWWA is a major sponsor of National Water Week and has contributed $10,000 co the projec t, as well as lending practical assistance. Regional activ ities are be ing co-ordinated by Branches. Final negotiations to achieve national recognition for this event were concluded quire lace in the year, so the run-up time has been short. As the intention is to make National Water Week a permanent feature on the water calendar, plans are already afoot for next year's event, which will be even bigger and bmer. WATER OCTOBER 1993


EFFECT OF ROTTING BARLEY STRAW ON CYANOBACTERIA: A LABORATORY INVESTIGATION J]elbart* Summary A laboracory invescigation was performed on the effect of extracts derived from rotting barley straw on isolates of Microcystis aeruginosa. The scraw was rocced for 17, 45 and 156 days and nutrient conditions were sim ilar to those found in sewage lagoons. o signifi cant inhibition of growth was observed under the conditions of the tesr. Vari atio ns betw ee n these conditions and those of previously reported successes are discussed.

Introduction Cyanobacterial blooms have been reported in Australian water bodies ranging from large river systems through to small sewage lagoons and farm dams. Many cyanobacteria are able ro produce potent neuro and heparo toxins threatening ro livestock and human health. Prevention and or controlling blooms is therefore of great importance. Since 1990, resea rch conducted at th e Universi ty of Bri sro l has indi ca ted th at rotting barley straw inhibits the growth of many filamenrous green algae (Gibson,1990). This work has raised the possibility of controlling algal blooms using a cheap, freely availabl e natural produ ct. More rece ntl y, barley straw been found ro be an effective gro wth inhib iror of the cy anoba cte rium Microcystis aemginosa (Barren, pers. comm .). Microrystis has caused several summer and autumn blooms in sewage treatment lagoons that discharge to a tributary of the Latrobe River, Victoria. The possibility of controlling these blooms in the lagoons thereby preventing release of cya nobacrer ia ro the river system is desirable. This laboratory trial describes a preliminary assessment of the effecti veness of rotting barley straw to control 1\!licro1ystis growch in a sewage treatment lagoon.

Materials Individu al pieces of barley straw were selected ro ensure that both threshed head and stalk portions were represented. The air dry straw (as removed from th e bal e) was weighed inco 5 g lots. The straw was allowed ro decompose for 17, 45 and 15 6 days at room temperarure in 500 mL of sterili sed WATER OCTOBER 1993

ASM algae growth media (without che add ition of vitamins) (Gorhan et al.. 1964). ASM has a nicrogen to phosphorus ratio of 4.4 to 1. The media provides adequate conditions for algal and cyanobacterial growth. Nutrient levels are similar to those found in the sewage treacment lagoons being considered for barley scraw creatment. Scerile, 1 L glass flasks wich loose corcon wool plugs were used .


are reported here si nce in the University of Brisrol laborarory trial maximum inhibition of cyanobacterial growth was considered ro occur at about five to six months rotting time (Gibson 1990).


~ 0

200 . - - - - - - - - - - - - . ,


:::, 0


u ai u 100

Thr ee ex peri menca l condic ions were C: examined, each in duplicate. The first pair of QJ Cl flasks contained no scraw, che second scraw 50 C: C'O alone and the third , straw wich 0.5 mL .c u seeded sewage as an inocul um of sewage o_,___ _,___.__ m1cro-organ1sms. Figure 1 P~rcent average change in Duplicate 1 mL portions of che liquid surrounding che straw were taken from each of Microcystis counts after 4 days' exposure to 15 6 che flasks afrer 17, 45 and 156 days . These day-old rotted barley straw liquor. Error bars were filtered through sterile 0. 45 mi cron show 1 sta1Jdard deviation of mean with n=4. filters to remove bacteria and added to 10 mL ...J 10 , - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ of an accively growi ng culture of Microcystis Ol ~ (culture reference number MIC- 004). The E s o-fina l volume was made up ro 100 mL with c: Cl) Cl rerile ASM media in sterile 300 mL conical ~ glass fl as ks. The diluti on of one in one 0 "'O 4 hundred made the effeccive final challenge Cl) > concentration of barley straw 0.1 g L '. Afrer ] 2 mixing, the number of Microcystis in each VI c experimental flask was determined immediDAY 0 DAY 17 DAY 45 DAY 156 ately and again after 4 days usi ng a haemocyFigure 2 Dissolved oxygen concentration of rometer und er 400x mag ni ficac ion on a compound microscope. The l\ilicrocystis scrain , rotting badey straw liq1101: an isolac e from a South Au strali an rox ic 10 . - - - - - - - - - - - ----, bloom , adopts a uni ce ll ular rath er chan a co lonial form in cu lture allowing accurate counring with the haemocytometer. For the duration of the 4 days the 300 mL flasks were ::c incubated at 20°( in a growth cabinec with a a. 16 hour lighc (2800 LUX) and 8 hour dark • cycle. The flasks were randoml y redistributed and agiraced in the cabinet daily. Boch pH and dissol ved oxygen concentraDAY 0 DAY 17 DAY 45 DAY 156 cions were recorded ac the cime of addition of Figure 3 pH of rotting barley straw liquor. scraw liquor ro !Vlicrorystis cu ltures . 0






The Microcystis counts obtained from the samples challenged with barley straw liquor *Jenny Jelbart, Gippsland Wacer. PO Box were simil ar fo r the 17, 45 and 156 day 348, Traralgon Vic 3844 . Tel (051 ) 71 1652 extracts. Those relating to the 156 day extract Fax (05 1) 74 0103 31

Figure 1 presencs che percencage increase/ decrease in Microcystis councs for the duplicace/duplicace samples of che chr_ee conditions after the fou r days of incubation . A one way hierarchical analysi of variance of che daca indicates ch ar che percentage change in Microcystis cell counts following exposure co che differenc experimental conditions (no straw, straw, scraw with sewage) were nor sig nificantly different from each ocher. Th e rotting barley straw depleted che dissolved oxygen in the surrounding liquor. Levels greater than 2 mg L·1 were maincained between day 45 and 156 as shown in Figure 2. Changes in che pH of the liquor are shown in Figure 3.

Discussion The results of chis trial have nor shown the presence of any inhibitory factor under che conditions res eed . Gibson et al. (1990) re po reed char che inhibi cory effect on green algae ob erved in laboratory cultures was produced progressively during che decomposition of che scraw ac 20°C and reached a maximum after six months. Addition of either uncreated , or of 0.2 micron filte red liquor from roc cing straw inhibited algal growth . Application races of 100 g and 40 g wee weig ht barley scraw L·1 (approximately 10 g and 4 g dry weight barley straw L·1) were show n co be effec tive against gree n algae in chose laboratory trials. As yet unpub-

lished work ha indicated char ch e effect was evidenr when straw was used against Microcystis iq concencracions as low as 0.0027 g L-1. Ir is now believed that for field use, rhe absoluce concencration is nor as imporcanc as che appl ication rare per surface area of water. This assertion is based on observations char che inhi bitory effect ceases in oxygen depleted wate rs and char ic is the surface layer where the algae actively grow (Barrett, pers. comm.). The condition used in the Gippsland Wacer trial are all consistent with chose described above. Loss of dissolved oxygen did occur over the first 17 days after che straw was added co che media thus offering one possible explanation as to why no effect was observed. The next 139 days did however maintain a DO of greater than 2 mg L·1• Informati on abouc how much DO is necessary to produce the effect is nor currencly available. Variation in effect iveness between scraw varie cies may have influenced the resulc bur chis is considered unlikely because only slight differences were observed between the Australi an grown variecie Clipper, Reseebee, Schooner and Yerong when reseed in British trials. All achieved better than 93 % growth inhibition (Barrett, pers. comm.). These results offer a caution co chose who wish co seize upon the use of barley straw as a panacea for cyanobac cerial blooms. Given rhe right sec of conditions the use of barley straw see ms advantageous bur there is obviously

&MONTHS MAINTENANCE FREE with Orbisphere's dissolved oxygen monitor • Continuous oxygen measurement in any sewage or fresh water basin • Negligible cost of ownership • Simple service and calibration procedures • Easily installed • Rugged construction

much to be learnt about chose conditions. For example, the b10logical oxygen demand of the scraw adds co the load of a pond. In sufficient quanci ty the scraw has the abi li cy co deplece oxygen jusc as occurred in che firsc 17 days of chis laboracory trial. A low dissolved oxygen would be generally undesirable in a sewage lagoon or a natural wacerway buc ic may also precl ude che production of an algal inhibitory faccor. The pH is also influenced by rotting straw. Another concern about the use of barley straw as a controlling faccor of cyanobacceri al growth is chat it may effect a wide speccrum of organisms further endangering che environment. This lase concern has been partly addressed by field experimencs in che Chesterfield Canal, England (Welsh et al., 1990). Roering barley scraw reduced the growth of Cladophora glomerata (green fi lamentous alga) in the flowi ng canal during the second , third and fourth yea r of straw trea tm ent with no obvious de leterious environm ental effec t. More recent work has shown char che decomposing scra masses support large populations of the invertebrates Gammarus spp., Asce//m spp. and chironomid larvae suggesting the fac tor inhibiting algal growth evidenc from these stud ies is nor indiscriminanc in its effects on the biota of che canal (Barrett , pers. comm.). The face char che inhibirory compound is nacuraily produced does nor necessarily mean chat it is suitable for wide use in the environment., The small amounc of work performed in chis area is reassuring bur not extensive enough yet co guarantee environmental safety.


Acknowledgments The culture of Microcystis aeruginosa MIC 00 4 was supp lied by Peter Baker of the Australian Centre for Water Treatment and Water Qu ality Research, Ad elaide, South Australi a. Thanks co Dr Peter Mosse and David Haynes for their valued advice.

References Gibson, M. T., Welsh J.M ., Barrett P.R.F ., and Ridge I. (1990). Barley Straw as an Inhibitor of Algal Growth ll: laboratory studies, ] 011n1al of Applied Phycology 2: 24 1-248. Gorhan, P. R., Mclachlan J., Hammer U.T. and Kim W.K. (1964). Isolation and culture of toxic strains of Anabaena f los-a qua e (Lyn gb.) de Breb Verh andlun gen de r lntemationalen Ve,·einigung de,· Lim11ologie, l5: 796804. Welsh , J.M. , Barrett P.R.F., Gibson M. T. and Ridge l. (1990). Barley Straw as an Inh ibitor of Algal Growth I: studies in the Chesterfield Canal , J ournal of Applied Phycology 2: 23 l-239.

Call us for more details


M EASU REM ENT Tel (03) 568 6188 Tel (02) 790 4199 32

ACN004 560374

~ orblsphere laboratories

J enny J elbart grad11ated in Microbiology and Biochemistry from Monash University in 1982. She worked in the dairy ind11stry prior to joining Gippsland Water in 1990. Her role i., to oversee monitoring and to advise on water and waste q11ality in the La.trobe Valley. She is also conducting research on biodegradation of organochlorine compounds in the Latrobe Valley Outfall Sewe,: WATER OCTOBER 1993


SOURCE CONTROL TO PREVENT CYANOBACTERIA ENTERING A POTABLE SUPPLY SYSTEM Peter Donlon* Abstract Over the summer of 1992/93, intensive moniroring of Microcystis cell counts was used as che primary means ro determine whether source water was sacisfacrory for delivery ro the Yallourn Potable Water Treatment Plant in Gippsland, Vicroria. Procedures such as seleccive pumping, creation of an air curtain, inscallacion of a plastic boom and upstream releases of water were used co minimise Microcystis cell counts. Microcystis cell counts reached 830,000 cells/ml in che river source supply but cell numbers were limited ro a maximum 14,000 cells/ml ac the inlet ro che treatment plant. Average cell numbers over the January ro May period were 2,7 00 cells/ml. Toxicity analysis indicated che cyanobaccerium was highly roxic, however only barely dececcable concencracions of roxin (mi crocysci n) was found in che source water. Pose treacment, no dececcable roxin was found .

Authorities have become aware of the potential ri sk ro public drinking water supplies due co toxins contained an d released by cyanobacceria, such as Microcystis. The potable water supply co the SECV Yallourn Power Scacion complex and che town of Yallourn Norch draws ics source water from che lacrobe River. This source is ac risk from cyanobaccerial conraminacion, primarily from a recreational lake immediately upstream. During che summer of 1992 /93 che cyanobaccerium , Microcystis aerttginosa was dececced in lake arracan and downstream in che Latrobe River. The fo llowing is an account of che actions ini ciaced in response ro che presence of Microcystis in che raw wacer supply ro che Yallourn Treatment Plant in che ce ntra l Latrobe Valley Regio n of Gippsland, Vicroria.

Basis for Alert Levels

The first consolidated guide on cyanobacceria available ro Vicrorian Water Auchoricies Cyanobacrerial blooms have long been generally was che booklet "Blue Green Algae recognised as a cause of caste and odour prob- in Drinking Water Suppli es " published in lems in potable supply systems. However, December 1990. Thi s docum ent provided over che past three years water sup pl y background information on che development of cyanobaccerial blooms, use of algicides, long cerm control , emergency planning and Table 1 Alert levels for cyanobacteria imporcandy, roxicicy information, monirorAlert Level Algal Count ing methods and the use of cell counts for Level I. (Begin treatment or 500- 2,000 cells/ml alerc levels. The document indicated a cell preparation for remed ial acrion) count of 5,000 cells/ml should be used as a Level 2. (Assessment of toxicity. 2,000-15,000 cells/ml guideline level for potential toxin contaminaIntensive monitoring) tion of a supply. Greater than 15,000 cells/ml Level 3. (Assess toxicity and based on toxicity analysis, This was updated by the document "Bluedecision on continuation Green Algae Alerc/Accion Levels for Drinking of supply) Water Supplies" in lace 1992. The guidelines on emergency response accion used during Table 2 Latrobe River at Ya/lourn - Water chis episode were based on chis document. Quality (1988-1 993 ) These are shown in Table l. Median Range Th e ce ll counts used in chi s document 15.2 8.8-23.4 were based on the most up ro dace risk analyTemperature 6.8 6.2 - 8.3 pH sis then availab le foe an extreme ly toxic l l - 27 E.C. mS/m 16 Microcystis sample and in char sense are con6.5- 72 Turbidi ty NTU 18 servanve. Suspended olids mg/I 20 9-66


Colou r Pt Co 45 Nitrate mg/I 0. 34 Nitrite mg/I 0.005 TKK mg/I 0.52 Ortho Phosphorus mg/I 0.036 0.084 Total Phosphorus mg/I (Gippsland Water - Unpublished Dara)


30-120 <0.005-2.8 <0.005-0.016 0.25 - 1.5 <0.005 -0.12 0.03 - 0. 16

Latrobe River and Lake Narracan Water Quality Characteristics The Lacrobe River ac Yallourn is relatively turbid and contains high nutrient levels.

Characceriscics of che wacer are shown in Table 2. The river itself has nor been observed ro bloom. However, immediately upstream of the creacment plant pump station is a small artificial lake (Lake I arracan) whose primary purpose was initially co maintain cooling wacer supply ro the Yallourn Power Station compl ex. Rec reation activiti es including swimming, picnicking and water ski ing are now the major reason for che lake's existence.¡ Further downstream, che Yallourn Power Scacion Weir crea tes an area of che river where depth can be maintained ro a level of approximately 3 metres. A map of che area is shown in Figure 1. Over many years, anecdotal evidence has indicated cyanob~cceria have been present in the Lake, however, until che present time, no derailed studies on cyanobacceria have been carried out. Close'"observacion and monitoring during che 1992/93 summer indicated the cyanobaccerium , Mi crocystis aerttginosa began co bloom by De ce mb er 1992 alo ng th e downstream shoreline of the Lake and in localised 'cul de sacs'. Counts performed on the Lake indicated peak Microcystis levels of 2.4 x 106 cells/ml at the ski club. As a consequence , warnings were given co avoid areas where green scums were present . Inspeccio ns carri ed out over chis time indicated the general publi c were heeding che warnings. Of major concern however was the windblown buildup of scum on the Lake Narracan weir wall. Counts in excess .of 1.0 x 10 7 cells/ml were causing increased counts in che Latrob e River immediately downstream where che treacmenc plane supply pumps were sicuaced.

Potable Supply at Risk The Yallourn Water Treatment Plant supplies drinking wacer ro approximately 1,000 SECV Scaff on site at che Yallourn Power Scacion Complex as wtll as 1,500 consumers ac the cown of Yallourn orch. In addition, ic *Pecer Donlon, Gippsland Water PO Box 348, Traralgon Vic 3844. Tel (051 ) 71 1652 Fax (051) 74 0103 33

provides preliminary creacmenc for the power station boiler fee d wate r which makes up 60 % of the total summer supply flow. As a conseq uence, unlike a normal town supply plant, demand on the plant is more predictable. However, maintaining supply to the power station boilers is cri cical for power station operation. The creacmenc plane is owned and operated by the SECV. Treated water is sold to Gippsland Water for che supply of Yallourn North. Source water is pumped from the Latrobe River inco a 5. 7 ML raw water holding storage. Turnover of chis storage cakes place every 0.5 to 1 day during summer demand flows. It is a conventional water treatment plane using alum flocculation and seeding, soda ash pH correc tion , and chlorination precedi ng rapid sand fil ters. Final disinfection is by chlorine cfosing. Ac the start of summer no ac tivated carbon treatment fac iliti es were available. Average summer flow is 6ML/day and pH is adjusted to between 6.8 and 7.0. In response to rising Microcystis counts, granular activated carbon was purchased and installed in early February as a 22cm layer on each of the three rapid sand fi lters of area 6m 2• Characteristics of the carbon were: Brand - Norit PK 1-3 Bulk Density Dry 260 gm/I Bulk Density Wee and Drained 230 gm/I Phenol Absorption 5% Iodine No. 800 mg/gm (AWWA Procedure) Total Pore Volume 1.2 cm 3/g Particle Size Distribution 1-3 mm Bedding down of th e carbon req uired approximately 7 days. This was not indicated by the supplier and as a consequence some stare up problems occu rred. Attempts at backwas hing caused blockage of sc reens installed to prevent wash over uncil thorough wetting of the carbon had occurred .

Operational Options It was uncertain what level of toxin would be removed, if any, by the treatm ent processes as the plane was not initially equipped with activated carbon. Consequently, detailed discussions were held wi th SECV operations staff about possible options co minimise potential risk to the supply. The key attributes of chis program were: • Esrablish co mmuni ca tions processes between the SECV and Gippsland Water and with ocher necessary Governm ent departments. • Establish an effective cyanobaccerial monitoring program. • Alter pump intake races at the source water site co minimise cya nobac teria entering che creacmenc system. • Install physical barriers co the cyanobacceria at the source water site. • Release surface water from Lake Narracan to remove build up of cyanobacceria from the Lake wall and to increase river flows 34

La trobe River

a t Voltourn

Figure 1: Lake Narracan Area and Potable Water Supply Intake.

at the raw water inlet pumps. Liaison with the SECV was established at two levels, these being: • Directly with che rreacmenc plane supervisor • With the SECV engineer responsible for emergency response in the event of high levels of toxin entering che system. This communication system was required because the plane was being operated by SECV staff while advice on pump intake races, operation of the Lake arracan weir control gates, monitoring results, risk analysis and ocher parameters were being undertaken by Gippsland Water. Daily monitoring for cyanobacceria of up to four sites was undertaken at the Gippsland Water Laboratories. These sires were: • Latrobe River (outside the boom) • Latrobe River (inside che boom) • Raw Water Holding Storage • Treatment Plane Inlet Results and advice on operational changes were transmitted daily approxim ately two hours after sample arrival in the laboratory. Cell counts were performed according to the method outlined in che Blue-Green Algae in Drinking Water Supplies booklet (1). Four high lift pumps capable of drawing between 7ML/day and l 7ML/day of water were in operation und er normal circumstances to transfer water from the river to the raw water holding storage. The pump intake faced upwards and it was appa rent that surface material could be drawn inco the pipeline at peak pumping rates. Altering pump races to lower the suction was observed to minimise this effect. This procedure was used whenever high levels of Microcystis were detected in the river. SECV scaff also reasoned chat physical barriers may help to prevent che Microcystis collecting near the pump inlets. To chis end an ai r pu mp wit h connecting hose was installed near the pump intake. This created incense bubbling next to the intake pipe. In addition a plastic covered steel framed boom

was ins talled on the 21/1 /93. The plastic curtain penetrated co approx im ately 1. 2 meters under the surface of the water (See inset figure 1). Finally, when build up of Microcystis at the wall of Lake Narracan was observed, controlled releases of water from the surface of the weir were initiated. This had the effect of moving che Microcystis from che Lake inco the Latrobe River upstream of the Yallourn Treatment Plane. These releases were coordinated so chat Yallourn Pumps were stopped until monitoring showed the Microcystis had passed che creacmenc plane.

ResulH Figure 2 shows Microcystis levels in the Latrobe River and compares results outside the boom wi ch chose obtained inside che boom. Counts in che river peaked ac 830,000 cells/ml in early January, with subseq uent peaks of55,000, 62,000 and 85 ,000 cells/ml. The main effecc of th e boom (and air curtain) was to minimise Microcystis counts inside che boom . Cell counts were common ly reduced by over 10,000 ce ll s/ml. Visual observations during peak co unts showed green material collecti ng on che outside of che boom and gradually moving downscream. However, Figure 2 also indicates char cell cou nt ri ses and falls on che inside of the boom were delayed by approximately one to cwo days after rises and falls on che oucside che boom had occurred. This effect was very useful to operations staff as ic allowed additional rime for decisions on pump operation. The success of chis strategy is confirmed in Figure 3 where Latrobe River counts are compared with cell numbers ac che entry co the water creacmenc plane. The highest count entering che plane wa1 14,000 cells/ml in early February which coincided with counts in che river of up to 85,000 cells/ml. Average counts ac che inlet co che plane over che summer period were 2,700 cells/ml. Figure 3 also shows che three occasions where sur face water releases from Lake WATER OCTOBER 1993

Table 3 Concentrations of toxin Date


Microcystin Levels


Microcy11i1 um Raw Water Treated Water (Post Chlori nation) Raw Water Treated Water (Post Chlorination) dry wt. 0. l ug/l itre <O. lug/l itre


The concencracion of coxin in che scum is regarded as being very high. However despite this high toxin concencracion within the cel ls, only very low levels of toxin were detected, on one occasion, in che raw feed wacer co che creacmenc plane. No coxin was dececced after creacmenc. This may indicate che majority of coxin was still intracellular and with che cells being removed by che creacmenc plane processes, no toxin could be detected in che created wacer. Alcernacively, if toxin was being released by cells, chlorine addition may be causing inaccivacion (Burch, 1993). All levels of Microcyscin dececced were below che increasingly recognised alerc level of l.0ug/licre.

<0. lug/l itre <0. lug/l itre

arracan occurred. These releases were coordinated wich creacmenc plane staff so chat raw water pumps were noc in operation when high counts of Microcystis passed che pump intakes. The releases were also successful in reducing counts ac che pump intake as indicated by che decreased cell numbers in che days after che wacer releases, particularly the first cwo releases. Toxicity cescing was carried ouc in early December on samples from upstream of Lake arracan. Microcyscin levels determined indicated a highly coxic species of !Vficrocystis was involved . All downstream si ces where Microcystis was subsequencly detected were therefore assumed co have similar highly coxic characceriscics. Cell counts chen became che basis for decision making. However, the rising councs in che river in early February was cause for concern. Conseque ncly, samples of Microcystis scum from concencraced samples ac the potable water intake area were again checked for microcyscin levels. In addition, unfiltered raw water and created wacer were checked for toxin levels. Results are indicated in Table 3.


~--+--+-- - --

+-- - - - - - - - - - - -

70 ,000 +--++-- -- -Boom

11-- - - - - - - - - - - -

E .;; ii

.,--,--c-e-,d10518 11

-+-U- - - - - - - - - - - - -

50 ,000 40,000




+--t- -+--



+--+--+-- -r,--

--l•tt~IH- il--- - - --



--+.,... •tt-

H.---- - - - - - - - - - -

+H,1-HHI· ·--n-- --

~ -+-- - - - - -

10 4 5 8 13 16 20 23 27 2 5 8 11 16 19 24 1 5 11 17 22 25 30 2 7 19 29 11 28 17 19 /12~ ~ - = - = = - ~ /5 /5 /6 January February March April

Figure 2: Microcystis Counts - Inside and Outside tfje Boom.


Latrobe River

80,000 r - - i --t -- - - - --t--

- - Inlet Treatment Plant



10·000 +---1--1-- - - - --l~- - - - - < La-ke_N_arr-ac-an- 7 - - _

~ ~


60 ,000

+--+--t-- - - --t ,-~- - - - - < Su~=~~~ter


+--+ +-------il-11-1+----__:=====-----


+--t--+-- - ---f l+H

30 ,000 +--1- -1--



20 ,000 +--+--l--


l--l\- - - - - - - - - - --

--1-H+H M- - - - ~ - - - -- -lt-t-HH-1-+- -~



11 -- - - --

10,000 t -- f-;--t--f--;l:-;--:/-'V-- 11-1;\-l ·t--Y-\· -+-Y.-I

10 4

5 8 13 16 20 23 27 2 5 8 11 16 19 24 1 5 11 17 22 25 30 2 7 19 29 11 28 17

/9 12 ~ ~ January



The Author wishes co thank SEC\ Operations and Engi neering Staff (parri cu larly Peter Shears) for cheir excellent coopera cion during che summer. Much thanks shoulc also go co Kerrie Lee for performing th, majority of the cyanobaccerial idencificacio1 and counting and Jenny Jelbart for assiscini in the incerprecation of results. The Scac, Chemistry Laboratories carried out cyanobac cerial coxin idencificacion and quantification.


60 ,000 +--++--

References Bl ue Green Algae in Drinking Water Supplies. (Dec l 990. Working Party on Blue-Green Algae in Water Supplies Health Department Victoria Blue Green Algae Action/Alert Levels fo r Drinking Ware Supplies. ( ovembe r l 992 .) Dept Conservation an< 1 atural Resources, Water Resources Division. Burch M, A\Y/\Y/ A Seminar Melbourne. (20/7/93)

The escablishmenc of effective communication links, laboratory monitoring, assessment of information and concrol of plane was shown co concribuce co minimising che risk of Microcystis toxin con caminaci on of che Yallourn Potable Water Supply. The inscallacion of a boom and air curtain, controlled releases of Lake Wacer, selective Author pumping and addition of accivaced carbon Peter Donlon mmntly works at Gippsland Wate were scracegies used over a period of 3 in their Strategic Planning Division. He ha months co control shore cerm problems. worked in the water indmtry for I 5 yean coverin, These sc racegies may be applicab le in treatment processes, science laboratories and envi oc her areas to minimise cyanobaccerial ronmental monitoring. His present interests are per ingress inco a water supply. formance indicators for Gippsland Water an, Long cerm prevention of cyanobaccerial strategies for waste minimisation for the Latro/; problems in chis area will require reductions Region.

- - Outside Boom Latrobe R. - - Inside Boom Latrobe R. 80 ,000

in nucrienc load entering Lake Narracan. Thi~ is presenclf a major cons ideration in ch, present revision of che Scace Environmeni Proceccion Policy for che Latrobe anc Thomson River Cacchmencs.

--==-==-""'=v==-" /5 March

/5 /6


Figure 3: Microcystis Counts - Treatment Plant Inlet and Latrobe

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River Intake. WATER OCTOB ER 1993



DEMAND PERSISTENCE CURVES AND TERMINAL STORAGE SIZING K GMacoun* Introduction This technical note is intended to supplemen t the useful paper by Anderson and Vickers (1989) on sizing and operation ofterminal storages by : (a) pointing out some limitations on their approach, and how these may be overcome; and (b) introducing some techniques for aiding analyses. In rown water supply practice, as well as needing an estimate of peak day demand it is often necessary to know at what level peak demands are likely to be sustained for several days ro a week or more. Using recorded data, demand persistence curves can be constructed (Gould, 1974) and these can then be used co prepare an estimate of the curve representative of future conditions. Such curves show the average demand over a period of days versus the length of the period. The average demand is often made dim ensionless by dividing it by the average annua l day demand (eg Figure 1) or, as prefe rred by Anderson and Vickers, by dividing it by the peak day demand. Since both divisors are generally known quantities, a dimensionless demand persistence curve prepared in one form may readily be convened co the other. Anderson and Vickers represent the demand persistence curve by a straight line relat ionship, when plotted on log-linear paper, as represented by the equation ADy!PDD = 1 - k log T (1) where ADr = average demand over T consecutive days (ML/d)

are needed co ope rate over longer critical periods, while during the early parts of their design lives they can produce significant operating economies if operated over much longer periods. For these reasons it is necessary co have available demand persistence curves covering durations up co a fu ll year. Some Limitations As an example of a limitation of Eqn (1), As stated by Anderson and Vickers, Eqn consider the case of Tamworth, as presented (1) is an approximation. While the relation- in Figure 2, which is taken from Figure 4 of ship may be applicable in coas tal areas of Anderson and Vickers. They give k=0.18 for ew South Wales, they point out that in defining the demand persistence curve, but it inland areas of the state the demand persis- is ev iden t that thi s wi ll over-predict the tence curve usually has a pronounced shoul- average demand for periods longer than 21 der somewhere between 30 and 120 days . days. Differences are shown in Table 1. Pronounced shoulders or curvature also occur for coastal rowns that are subject co major Table 1 Example of limitation of Eqn (1) influxes of people in the summ er holi day T (days) 120 180 90 365 season. AD,-JPDD-from 0 65 063 0.54 0.59 In addition co these observations, there is design curve 0.5 3 0.49 0.40 0.59 ample evidence that the actual relationship AD,-JPDD- from darn envelope can have all sorts shapes, such as concave or Difference (absolute) 0.10 0.10 0.14 0.06 convex or S-shaped, when plotted on log- Difference(%) 20 10 19 35 linear paper. Some examples are shown on Figure 1 which is taken from Gould (1974). Clearly, the relationship for Tamworth Differen ces between the suggested straight line relationship (Eqn 1) and the would be better represented by a convex actual local relationship can become signifi- (upwards) curve, or perhaps by two straight cant. When this relat ionship is use d for lines. A contrasting example is given in Figure periods of several months co a full year, major differences can occur, leading co the possibil- 3 for the case of Kempsey (PWD , 1990) ity of grossly oversizing (or undersizing) a Figure 2: Demand Persistence Curve - Tamterminal srorage. worth (Anderson & Vickers, 1989) Terminal storages are usually constructed 10 co operate over critical demand periods of a week co a month. Sometimes, however, they PDD = design peak day demand (ML) k = persistence curve shape facror log = logarithm co base 10 They use this relationship co develop design curves for determining terminal srorage size and operation.

Figure 1: Peak Demands - Australian Cities (Gould, 1980) Ratio

( Ave r age Demand in Peak T Consecutive Days) Ave r age Flow for 355 Days





I o-,



;j 3 ,,,

0 0



'< II>




w V,





*Ken Macoun , Lyall & Macoun , Crows Nest, NSW WATER OCTOBER 1993



Note: In all cases PDD, a, b, m and/or k are assumed to have been determined in advance. Equation used to teptesent demand-


. (2)



ADr/PDD = l -k logT

ADy/PDD = T"

ADy!PDD = aT" +b

ADr/PD D = a(T +b)"

V=0 160k 10(t1)

1(1,_m) V= (c.llL)(-1.-)1 l+m l•m m m

V=0.434 kT,

V= -mTtm

persis[ence curve

To determine V, given I




T, =(¼ )(rim)



(Ll) T, = 0.368 X10 k

T, =(-r:;;;) ,\;

{~ }_l Tc =

l =1-k log (6.259 ~ )

l=(T'.',;;)(t',;;)(6 )(-t:1;; )v(~)


I=1-k log (2.7 18 Tc)

I= (1 'm)Tc"

I= (l ' m)a T,m+ b

T, = 2 303

given T,


V= - maT/ (T,+ br- 1

To determine T,, given V

To determine !, given V

{mL}l {-illL b}

V= - mTc(aTm,+b)

given T,

given I



for which the curve is see n co be slightly concave. Marhemarically, ir can be seen rhar if Eqn (1) is to represent a demand persistence curve over a full year then ; (a) ADT/PDD = PDD/PDD when T = l; and (b) ADT/PDD = AAD/PDD when T = 365 where AAD = average annual day demand. Eqn (1) fulfi ls condition (a), bur ir fulfils condition (b) only when k = 0.39 (1 - AAD/ PDD), bur this will nor necessari ly give a good representation of demand persis tence for or her values of T.

Overcoming the Limitations From rhe foregoing ir is concluded rhar Eqn (1) may be suitable in some cases, but it is important to check irs range of applicability (in rerms of duration T) and not to use ir outside this range. Ar this stage ir should be emphasised rhar Eqn (1) is only a conveni ence; a designer could use any suitable equation rhar adequately represents rhe actual demand persistence curve, or could even dispense with an equation and carry our a numerical analysis based on an envelope curve specific to a particular town or water supply area. The advantage of using an equation is rhar ir faci li tates algeb raic analysis , and rhe preparation of design graphs. Some orher equations rhar may be found suitable in particular cases are; ADT/PDD = Tm(2) ADT/PDD = aTm+ b (3) ADT/PDD = a (T + b)m (4) in which a, b and m are parameters that determine rhe shape of rhe curve. The general shapes of curves produced by

(l+ m)a

these eq uations are shown on Figure 4. Nore rhar Eqn (1) produces a straight li ne and requires rhar k = 0.39 (1 - AAD/PDD) if it is to be accurate for T = 365. Eq n (2) was found to be su itabl e fo r Kemps ey. Ir requires rhar m = 0.39 log (AAD/PDD), and ir was something of a fluke that ir was a good approximation for rhe full year. This equation is actually a special case ofEqns (3) and (4) in which a = 1 and b = 0. It is rhe Goodrich type formula referred to by Gould, and by Clewerr and App legre n (1991). Eqns (3) and (4) are fairly general, and can produce concave and convex curves, as well as straight lines. No equation is suggested at this rime to represent an S-curve or a curve that has a sharp break in slope. Such cases are best dealt with by using parts of two (or more) curves and carefully noting rhe range of applicability for each.

Aids for Analysis A convenience of using equations to represent demand pe rsis tence curves co mes about through the ability, in most cases, ro directly determine required terminal storage capacity, duration of critical period, required supply (inflow), and sustainable demand . For some cases, however, resort must be made to a combination of mathematical and graphical analysis. The determination of required terminal storage, to be used in conjunction with headworks externa l suppl y to meet a water demand, follows conventional mass curve Figure 4: General Shapes of Demand Persis-

tence Cttrves


j = a{(T, - br

N.A. +mT,(T, • br- 1)

analysis. With reference to Figure 5, line ADE represents the cumulative demand to be mer from a terminal storage, and line ABC represents the cumulative supply (or potential supply) into the storage from some external source. During the early part of rhe rime period the demand rare exceeds the supply rare, and the difference would have to be mer from the storage. The maximum difference occurs when DB is a maximum, which is where the tangent at D is parallel to the line ABC. After rhis point is reached, the demand is less than the supply, and the difference can be used to refill the storage. The corresponding problem of determining the required external supply, co supplement an existing,supply and storage, uses the same general approach. In this case, however, the line ABC represents rhe total supply, and the required external supply is determined by subrracr1'hg rhe existing supply from it. The cumulative demand , D (ML), over a period T (days) is given by D = TADT (5) and rhe cumulative supply, M (ML), into the terminal storage over rhe same pe riod is given by M = T . Q (6) where Q is rhe supply rare (ML/d). The required terminal storage volume is given by S = Dc - Mc (7) where rhe suffix c indicates values of D and M that apply at time T = Tc (the critical duration) which occurs when Figure 5: Mass Curve Analysis

::; E a


z < ~

Figure 3: Demand Persistence Curve - Kempsey

(PWD, 1990)

' .A.






-' a._




O 0. 60



'--r 0 < 0.40 0 .2 0




Period (doys)





0.00 +---.-~~~.,.,---.---,--r-,-,-,-,.,.,---,--,-~ 2 3 • '• ' ''10 • ) • ' ','oo








10 AO,/PDD




r---- ._ ,-.. _

t-- .




' ', I'--..

I, '- ,,

I'"'-, "---:: :::,

' r,











- r,



i'\ 5



-- -

\ " "" ---~ ',


---------- I'-----------








50 60 70 80 90 100


Figure 7: Relationships of Tc and S versm Q



300 365


Figure 6: Demand Persistence Curves - NSW Country Areas

= 25.2 ML , compared with 31.7 ML dD = Q (8) obtained by the graphical method. The critidT Manipulation of Eqn (5) co (8) with one of cal duration Tc is found to be 47 .l days, and Eqns (1) co (4) enab les expressions co be it would be appropriate co check chat the adopted demand persistence relationship is derived for S, Tc and Q. applicable for this duration. For convenience in what follows, put Example 2. For the Crookhaven area the V = S/PDD and I = Q/PDD demand persist ence curve is mark edly where V = storage ratio and I = supply ratio. Table 2 gives the various express ions concave (see Figure 6) and Eqn (3) was found derived from che mathematical analysis. In to be suitable with parameters as shown by che case of Eqn (3), if it is desired co find ADT/PDD = 0.704 T· 066 + 0. 296 The area is subjec t co a major influx of I, given V, the procedure is to first plot a graph of V versus Tc and from this find Tc for holidaymakers during the summer, and at the the given value of V, then find I from the adopted planning horizon, PDD = 25 ML. Ir expression in terms of Tc. A similar proce- was desired to know what combinations of dure is followed to find Tc, given V, as well as terminal storage size and supply rate would for the case of Eqn (4) where explicit expres- be suitable. From the relevant expression for sions can not be derived except for V and I V in terms of I a graph can be prepared showing the relationship between S and Q as in terms of Tc Of course, any of the expressions can be shown in Figure 7. If the critical duration is used co plot a graph of the related variables if adopted as 8 weeks over the peak holiday period, Tc = 56 days; then V = 12.766 and I that is useful as a design aid. There are cwo further checks that should = 0. 313, hence S = 319 ML and Q = 7.82 be made during the course of an analysis. The ML/d. However, this solution would require first involves checking that the terminal a very large terminal storage and it can be storage can be refilled after a peak period. seen from Figure 7 chat the solution is in the Provided that Q is equal co or greater than area where a small change in Q causes a large AAD, and chat the external supply operates change in S. A more practical solution might cont inuou sly, refilling can genera lly be be ro adopt a critical duration of (say) 14 accomplished. The second check involves days, which would give V = 3.875 and I = making an ad justment co account for evapo- 0.338, hence S = 97 ML and Q = 8.45 ML/d. ration loss (and possibly seepage loss) from Other combinations could be tried in conthe terminal storage. This can be conve- junction with an economic analysis. The existing supply capacity was raced at niently done by increasing Q co offset the loss rate, but other approaches by be used to suit 4.8 ML/d and it was desired co know when augmentation would be required if a termiparticular circumstances. nal storage of 32 0 ML capacity was conApplication structed first. By crying several values of T 0 Example 1. This is the same as the values of V and I, hence PDD, can be comexample for the rown of Young given by puted as shown in Table 3. Anderson and Vickers. The demand persistence curve (in its upper section) is given by Table 3 Results of computations for Eqn (1) with k = 0.1 4; PDD = 8.8 ML and Example 2. l20 90 94 Q = 6.2 ML/d; and it is required to find the Tc (days) 25.8l l9.73 20.54 terminal storage capacity S. From chis infor- V 0 308 0.306 0.308 mation, I = 0.705 and using che expression PDDv = 320N l6.2 l 2.4 l5.6 POD = 4.8/1 15.6 15.7 15.6 for Vin terms of I we gee V = 2.867. Then S · :..=:c:L:...=::-'------'-'--'"-------''-'-'-'------'-'-'-=-38


for Example 2





!'---- ,





0J.,...~.,....,::;:;;:;;~;:,;;;;;;;:,;;::;.;::;::;::;::;::;::;::;::;::;:"°"~o~ 5 10 15 20 25

---- I'-----

7 8 910






Vl 200

~ 150









J50 -:J'.300


[\ ~

Manning District

Crookhaven Area

r-- '




~~ r- - I--


·-·- · - - ---- -

The value of PDD ch ar satisfies both expressions is 15 .6 ML, and this indicates the demand that can be sustained by the existing supply system with a 32 0 ML terminal storage. The year when this value of PDD is expected to occur can be found from the demand projection curve for the sc heme; hence the augmentation would need co be operational by chat year. Example 3. For the Kempsey water supply scheme Eqn (2) was found co be suitable for representing che demand persistence curve, and cook the form AD1 /PDD = T· 0161 The potential supply race into che system, under drought conditions, was estimated ro be 20 ML/d and the peak day demand at the planning horizon was estimated as 43.2 ML/d so the supply ratio, I = 0.463. Using the relevant expressions from Table 2, the required terminal storage capacity is 155 ML and the critical period lases 40 days. South West Rocks is a major sub-area within the Kempsey scheme area. Ir has a coral srorage capacity of 18.4 ML, the capacity of supply from its local source is 3.3 ML/cl, and the peak day demand at the planning horizon is 11 .4 ML. After allowing 11.4 ML for nominal service reservoir capacity in accordance with normal guidelines, there remains 7 .0 ML chat could ace as terminal storage capacity. Thus, the storage ratio is V = 0.61 4 and (adopting the same demand persistence curve) the required supply ratio is computed as I = 0.649 and che critical period as 5 days. Then the required supply race is 0.649 x 11.4 = 7.4 ML/d , which indicates than an augmentation of 4.1 ML/d would be required.

References Anderson, J.M . and Vickers, R.J. ([989). 'Sizing and Operation of Terminal Storages'. Proc. A\Y/\Y/ A 13th Federal Convention. Canberra 6- 10 March 1989: 1-5 . Clewett, M and Applegren, L. (1991). '\Y/ater Supply Peaki ng Factors: Effect of Demand Managemen t.' \Vate1; 18(6): 35-39. Gould , B.\Y/. (1974). 'Persistence of High Daily Demands in Australian \Y/arer Supply Systems.' \Va.ter, l(3): 20-22. P\Y/O (1990). 'Kempsey Shire \Y/arer Supply Augmentation; Investigation Report; Stage 2B \Y/orks.' Report o. 410. Prepa red by NS\Y/ Publi c \Y/ork s Departme nt for Kempsey Shire Council. December 1990. Appendix C.

Author Ken Macoun is a principal of Lyall & Macoun Conrnlting Engineers. He has practised for 35 years with public authorities and consulting engineers covering a broad spectrum of water related projects. This paper was stimulated by recent work on headworks augmentation planning for several NSW country areas. WATER OCTOBER 1993



an approach is ultimately unsatisfactory and expensive. A superior approach is co instigate a water and wastewater audit. This requires the assessment of the operating performance and econom ic efficiency of unit operations in a treatment system and of the coral system. As such, it may be considered a "Techno-econom ic " audit. This contrasts with the "Techno-legal" audit, which is more focussed on whether the overall treatment system, and ics management, complies with legal and regulatory requirements. The latter may be required by the regularory agency under Introduction certain circumstances (NSW 1991 , Vicroria Reliable treatment of industrial waste- 1990). Regular audi ting of process plant water is of cri tical importance for manufac- facilities is increasingly seen as an essential turing facilities co ensure chat discharge part of good environmental practice. requirements are consistently satisfied. HowNumerous authors have provided waste/ ever, many industrial wastewater treatment wastewater aud it procedures (B lakeslee & planes in Ausualia have been operating for Grabowski 198 5, Cahill & Lane 1989 , some years. The performance of these systems Ontario WM Corp 1987, US EPA 1988). is often unsatisfacrory, due co many factors Some of these, however, are Techno-legal including the loss of experienced operators, audits. The Techno-economic audit proceincreased production throughput and the fre- dures available suffer from being coo broad quent failure of ageing equipment. The situa- in scope co be easily used and have been tion is made worse by urban encroachment developed overseas (ie Canada, USA) and do around many processing facilities and the not translate easily to an Ausrralian context. introduction of more stringent environmenThis paper presents a water and wasteral regulations throughout Australia. The water audit protocol which has been specifilatter is characterised by rougher penalties for ca ll y designed for use in the fruit and environm ental offences , more ri goro us vegetable processing industry. This industry enforcement, stricter water quality require- is characterised by large, and generally high ments (eg nitrogen and phosphorus limits) strength, wastewater flows which are seasonand a move co a "cradle-co-grave" viewpoint ally variable. However, the prorocol can be by regularory agencies, in which waste min- generically applied co any industrial processimisation is emphasised. ing plant, although the database information A commonly adopted solution for poorly- would need to be assembled for the specific performing wastewater systems is co augment industry. the existing system with new equipm ent, particularly if performance deteriorates sud- The Audit Protocol denly and seriously. Over time, chis solution Databases can generate a poorly optimised, and overly The st ructure of the audit program is complex, wastewater treatment system. Such presented in Figure 1 in a flowsheet format. The protocol incorporates a number of phases, decisions and databases, each represented by a separate box on the flowsheec. Table 1 Checklist for Phase 2 Phases are the "doing" stages of the prorocol, • Current wasrewarer flow and quality restrictions • \Xlascewacer disposal charges in which the auditor is required co perform • Solids disposal quality restrictions tasks, such as defining objectives or collect• Solid disposal charges ing and analysing information. Decision • Odour restrictions stages require a significant decision, based on • Future changes anticipated to the above available resources and the outcome of earlier • Coses of violations through fi nes and prosecution • Enforcement notices phases. Databases permit the audiror rapid • Public complaints access co information that otherwise may not A versat ile water and wastewater audit protocol has been developed for use in a fruit and vegetable processing plant. The protocol provides a structured approach for evaluating the performance of a water and wastewater system , in terms of the efficiency of both treatment and waste minimisation. It also supplies databases, which give rapid access to quantitative information useful for waste management in the fruit and vegetable processing indusuy. It is also applicable co other types of process plants.


be readily available. Each stage of the aud it prorocol (see Figure 1) is described below using data from an audit of a fruit and vegetable processing plant co highlight key aspects. Phase 1: Objectives and Goals

The prorocol requires that the objectives and goa ls for the water and wastewater system, and more specifically for the audit process, are clearly established at the outset. These play a major role in defining what constitutes a satisfacrory water and wastewater system. Senior manageme nt (ie company directors, plane managers, etc.) should be involved in setting these, since increasingly, environmental legislation hold s them accountable for fai lure to do so. Furthermore, their involvement helps create "ownership" of the results and aids the release of funds and resources to perform the aud it and implement solutions. Typical objectives include: • Coi.sistent attainment of regularory requirements for discharges and emissions; • Minimisation of wastewater treatment system capital and operating costs, waste disposal charges and fines or penalties due to non-compliance; • Setting or assessment of water and wastewater minimisation targets; • Maintenance of a good corporate image by being proactive in environmental practice. In this phase also, the auditor must determine what performance goals must be set to measure the success of efforts to meet stated objectives. Quantitative goals such as "a 10% reduction in freshwater intake in a year" or "95 % compliance with all licence requirements in a year" are essential, since they set a clear target and permit success or failure to be measured. Increasingly such goals are required by Australian waste management authorities. Where they do not exist, they should be established on completion of the audit as a further outcome of the protocol. These goals can then be assessed regular! y through routine monitoring of the plant or by further audits. , Phase 2: Discharge Charges and Restrictions

In this phase, the auditor is required to collect information detailed in the checklist *M RJohns, Dept Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland 39

Table 2 Database 1 - Waste minimisation in fruit & vegetable indmtry •

• •

Canadian EPS. 1979. Eval uarion of Physi cal-Chemical and \Xlasrewarer Trear menr in rhe Food Processi ng Indusrry, Environ menr Canada, Toronro, Chaprer 6. Cara wan, R.E., Chambers, JV ., & Zall , R.R. 1979. Fruir and Vegecable \Xlarer and \Xlasrewarer Managemenr, Norrh Carol ina Agriculrural Exrension Service, Raleigh, Chaprer 3. Esvelr , L.A. 1978. Reuse of Treared Fru ir Processing \Xlasrewarer in a Cannery, 1ational Technical Information Service, Springfield. Green, J., and Kramer, A. 1979. Food Processing Waste Managemenr, AV!, Westport, 1-544. Katsuyama, A. (ed). 1979. A Guide for Waste Managemenr in the Food Processi ng Ind ustry, The Food Processors Insrirure, \Xlashingron, DC, Secrion 2. Laughlin , R.G.\XI., Forrestall , B. , and McKim, M. 1984. Food Processing Ind ustry. In: Technical Manual - Waste Abatemenr, Reuse, Recycle and Reduction Opportunities in Industry, Environmenr Canada, Toronro, Chaprer 9. Richardson, S.S. 1990. \Xlasre Reduction in Food Processing - A people managemenr issue. Proc. 1990 Food Ind. En viron. Conf. , Geo rgia Tec h. Resea rch ln sriru re , Atlanra, 82- 89. Ru ssell , L. , Conarroe, K. , Creson , C., Keller, J., and Esvelr, L. 1983. Warer Recycling in rhe Food Processing Indusr ry, Na rio nal Tec hnical In for marion Se rvice, Springfield. Russell , L.L. and Asano, T. 1990. \Xlarer Conservarion and Recycl ing in the Food lndusrry. Proc. 1990 Food Ind. Env iron . Conf., Geo rg ia Tec h. Resea rch ln sri rute, Atlanra, 55-69. Shober, R.T. 1988. \Xlate r Conse rvarion/Wasre Load Reduction in Food Processing Faciliries . Proc. 1988 Food Processing Waste Conf., Georgie Tech Research Instirure, Atlanta. U.S. EPA 1975a. \Xlarer Poll ur ion Abare menr Technology Costs & Capabiliries: Canned & Preserved Fruits and Vegerables, ational Technical Informarion Service, Springfield. U.S. EPA 1977. Pollur ion Abaremen t in rhe Frui t and Vegerable Indusrry, Nar ional Tec hni cal In fo rmat ion Service, Springfield.

in Table 1. This information establishes the req uired wastewater system perfo rmance from a regulatory viewpoint and rhe current cost of disposal. A knowledge of future trends in environmental regulations is particularly useful, as these will im pact on future plans for the water and was tewater system. For example, whereas most current Australian wastewater licences specify BODS, suspended sol ids (SS) and oil and grease concentration limits, there is also clearly a trend to stipulate nitrogen and phosphorus concentration limits. This will require substantial upgrading for many existing treatment plants. Phase 3: Local Factors

This phase seeks to incorporate important local factors into the decision making process arising from the audit. Three factors which are increasingly important for Australian processi ng plants are urban encroachment , the ease of accessing adequate quantities of high quality water, and surface water and groundwater salinity, especially inland of rhe Divide. Furthermore, planned changes for the plant (ie new produce lines, additi onal operating hours ) are valuable input. The impact of expanded or altered processing on the existing wastewater treatment plant is frequently overlooked. ·· Present and anticipated future water costs should be obtained. Water cosrs are expecced


co increase signifi canrly in real term s in Australia as water supply authorities price potable water-at a level more consistent with its true cos ts of supply (Greenfield er al, 1992). As a result, potable water usage will become an increas in gly grea ter busi ness expense. Many industries discharge wasrewarers with high salt concentrations. If high levels of salini ry are already present in groundwater or surface waters near to a processing plant, a particular emphasis on reducing the salinity of wastewater discharges wi ll be required. Higher sali nity levels in these waters can have a dramaric effect on ecosys tems and cause damage to soils and irrigated crops.

system (Table 3~ This information is typically scattered across several departments in a company and must be collected. Interviews of key staff and factory inspections are mandatory. Constant crossc hec kin g is required rhroughour this phase to identify unreliable or our-dared information. The collected data can then be collared and presented in a form which is more easily interpreted. Figure 2 shows the relationship of daily fr esh water usage to production throughput for an Ausrralian vegetable processing plant. The relationship can be used co predict increases in water consumption if production throughput is increased; to assess the performance of water reduction Database 1: Waste Minimisation programs or to indi ca te rh e base wa ter This database directs the auditor to auth- requirement of the plant, (i.e. water usage at oritative literature concerning waste minimi- zero throughput). sation tec hniques for fruit and vegetable In Figure 3, a plot of dissolved oxygen processi ng plants (Table 2). Th e database concentration with rime in an aeration pond incl udes the most recent information avail- of a vegetable processing plant treatment ab le on so urce reduct ion and recycling/ system revealed that, during peak season proreuse techniques and cleaner production tech- cessing (days 190 co 230), negligible disnology. This knowledge permits the potential solved oxygen concentrations existed. This for water and wastewater reduction in the suggests that the pond had an excessive BOD plant to be evaluated during the audit. loading at this rim e. An obvious so luri on Decision Box 1: Depth mi ght be to purchase add itional aeration A decision must be made concerning rhe capacity. However, the aud icor must comscope or depth of the audi t. This wi ll be plete the protocol before taki ng accion , since determined by the exte nt of ava ilabl e in many instances a broader pe rspec ti ve, resources, the available data and the objec- whi ch includ es waste minimi sa tion and tives of the audit. At the minimum (ie Fast optimisation of the treatment process, will Trac k Audit , FIA), the overall wa ter and yield a superior and often less expensive soluwastewater trea tm ent sys tem and critical tion to "end-of-pipe", quick- fix solutions. treatment units must be evaluated. A more Phase 5: Facility and Storm thorough audit might extend the study to Water Review include actual process units (ie lye peelers, In this phase, the auditor is required to washers, etc.). consider variability in waste flows and charPhase 4: Schematics and acteristics due to per iodi c eve nts. Typ ical Available Information Gathering causes are listed in Table 4. These can have The protocol now requires the auditor to a major im pac t on was tewater treatment obtain informat ion needed co analyse rhe plant performance, particularly if rhe wasteperformance of the wa ter and wastewa ter water system is overloaded. A good underFigure 1 Theaudit protocol PHASE 1.













Figure 2 Relationship of water intake to

macion gathered in Phases 4 and 5.


Phase 7: Material and Heat Balanc;:e

Daily Tonne s Pr ocesse d

Figure 3 Effect of seasonal load on aeration pond perfonnance

The fina l analytical seep is ro perform material and energy balances over the process and wasrewarer rrearment plant using data collected in previous phases. For rhe material balance, rhe key elements typically are water, biodegradable organics (BOD), solids, nitrogen and phosp horus. These ca lculati ons permit an understanding of the waste generation and creacmenr processes co be obtained, operational efficiency of the treatment plant co be assessed , and problems identified. They are also essential for determining the potential for waste or water minimisation and hear recovery. Phase 8: Problem List

Ac this stage in rhe audit protocol, suffi cient information should be available for an experienced person or ream co develop a list of defic iencies in rhe exis ting water and wastewater system. This list constitutes rhe basis for rhe development of a management plan ro address these problems. The bes t Days solution co the list of problems derived in Phase 8 will be obtained by considering a standing of these events permits appropriate broad range of waste management options in design of wastewater systems, changes in the context of rhe decision criteria developed operating practice and the development of in earlier phases of the audit process, namely continge ncy plans ro both minimise and rhe water and wastewater objectives (Phase handle periodic events. 1), present and future discharge restrictions Database 2: Water Usage and (Phase 2) and local criteria (Phase 3). Waste Characteristics

Database 2 contai ns two sets of data prepared from literature relevant ro fruit and vegetable processing plants. Table 5 provides wastewater data by commodity, whereas Table 6 li sts typical wastewater flows and characteristics for individual unit operations common in rhe industry. Decision Box 2: Further Data

At chis stage, the auditor is in a position ro gauge whether sufficient information is available co proceed further with rhe audit. In man y instances, inadequate data make a survey with flow and waste characteristics measureme nt s, necessary. Although cos ts associated with these surveys appear high (ca. $10 ,000-3 0,000 for a large plant), they ensure char cosr-effecrive decisions are made regarding significant investment in new, or retro-fitted , equipment. Phase 6: Waste Characterisation

The purpose of chis phase is ro obtain additional measurements of water and waste flow s and characrerisrics throughout th e manufacturing plant and the wastewater rrearment system. The seeps required are co: • Choose chose waste screams co be characterised; • Determine rhe waste characteristics to be measured; • Determine measurement points and procedures ; • Perform the survey (eg Eckenfelder 199 1) Decision Box 3: Corrections

The additional data received from th e survey can be used co update or correct inforWATER OCTOBER 1993

Discussion The benefits of auditing have been widely disseminated. The audit protocol presented in chis paper particularly targets four outcomes. First, the protocol seeks co include minimisation of water use and wastewater generation in rhe audit process. Given the high volumes used in rhe fruit and vegetable process industry, substantial savings will result by reducing waste flows , especially where existing treatment faciliti es are hydraulically-overloaded , which is often the case. Second , rhe protocol arremprs co direct attention co assess ing rhe performance of indi vid ual units in a treat ment process. Frequently in older systems , some units contribute li ttle ro overall performance , bur greatly co che overall confusion of personnel running rhe plant. Ide ntification of th ese units permits their replace ment wirh more efficient processes. Alternatively, they can be retrofitted, or their operation optimised , co improve performance. The audi r process is further aided by the inclusion into rhe protocol of databases containing information relevant to waste management in rhe fruit and vegetable industry. A knowl edge of typ ica l ind ustr y waste ou tput is valuable ro plant personnel and consultants, since it provides an independent measure of waste management performance in rhe audited plant. Furthermore, such data will highlight commodities and unit operations char are "big" polluters and which , therefore, deserve special focus. Such data are

often difficult co access conveniently. The data us ed in the databases we1 sourced from overseas literature, which is 1 the order of 10-20 years old. More rec er data have nor been published. An inherer danger of this info rmation is char ir is mac obsolete as new technology is adopted an waste management practices improve. Ir probable ch ar modern process plants dii charge less than rhe average values presence in Tables 5 and 6, which therefore should I: considered co comprise a lenient guidelirn Overseas data may be of little value if derive from countries where processing practice . substantially different ro Australia. Howeve chis is unlikely for rhe fr uit and vegetabl process industry. everrheless, an update survey of current performance in Australia plants would be useful. Thirdly, rhe protocol seeks ro include forwa rd-looking elem ent into water an wastewater system design by focussing acre[ Table 3 Checklist of information needed z

Phase4 PRODUCTION Process equipment specifications and lists Process design data Raw materials and product inventory Process flowsheets Prod uction schedules Pi ping and instrumentation diagrams Plant layout Floor drainage diagram Aerial photographs Plant inspections , Staff interviews Standard operating procedures/manuals Departmental cost accounting repom List of..vaste minimisation practices

List of water control and housekeeping practices WATER SYSTEM Schematic diagram Waste inventory

Water charges (anticipated future change) TREATMENT SYSTEM Schemar ic diagram Equipment spec ification and lisrs Design information

Waste Inventory Routine sampling records Operating & mainrenance costs

Waste storage requirements Waste hand li ng & rranspormion com STORMWATER Schematic design SEWERAGE Schematic design DOCUMENTATION Company or facili ty envi ron ment policy statement

Wasre management plans Previous waste audi ts Environmental impact statements or reports Those items in italics are required for a Fast Track Audi, where avai lable.

Table 4 Sources ofperiodic variability • • • • • • • • •

Seasonal/prod uct variation Raw material qualiry Stormwater run-off connected to the waste treatmen I system Cleaning practices Tank water/waste dumping Recycled water dumping Spills from pipes, fau lry equipment and handling or trans porting procedures End of season production shutdown Concracrnrs working on-site

cion on future issues facing a plane (ie Phases 2 and 3). These may include the possibility of urban encroachment , additional restri ctions on wasrewarer or sludge disposal and increasing warer charges . Eac h of these impact on the sui tability of current and planned waste management practices and equipment. Consideration of these issues helps minimise ch e dange r of in ves ting in new equipm ent , which subsequently becomes rapidly obsolete or inadequate. Finally, che audit provides an opportunity fo r rai si ng environm ental awareness in a process plane and motivating personnel ro im proved practi ces. Tra ining programs, incentive schemes and a review of information transfer betwee n manage ment and employees should be utilised co fu lly take

advantage of chis opportunity. In fac e, a primary consideration in conducting a_n audit is who should perform it. A water and wasrewacer audit should be perfo rmed by perso nnel who have sufficie nt understanding of was te management. Inplane personnel are familiar with plane operations and personnel and can rapidly obcain useful information, which may not be readily accessible co external auditors. However, rime pressures on pe rsonnel ofren hinder audit duties, especially if the auditor is rhe chief plane engineer or chemise. In some instances, in-house staff may lack che requisite expertise co perform che audit. External consulcancs have che advantage of caking a more objective and independent approach co rhe audit, in addition co usually

Table 5 Database 2 - Wastewater characteristics by commodity FLOW (kUtonne) Mean Range


BOD (kg/tonne) Mean Range

0.7-48.5 8.0 1.7-1 9.6 9.3-52.2 I7.8 8.0-35.7 4.8-41.8 6.7 0.7- 36.1 12.5- 56.6 3.0-25.0 23.6 4.5-26. 5 7.6-23.6 13.4 0.4- l l.6 1.1-34.7 4.3 12.0 1.5-28.3 5.4- 28.5 5.2-23.5 15.6 7.6-31.2 7.1-52. 2 16.9 7.1-38.8 11.2 5.8- 20. l 9.7-14.2 7.1-24.6 18.7- 74.5 37 .5 4.1 2.8-6.2 Tomatoes 4 8- 13 8 Data sourced: National Canners Association (1974), Spl ittstoesset and raw product. Apples Apricots Beans (snap) Beetroot Carrots Citrus Corn Peaches Peas Pineapple Potatoes

90 20.9 15 .7 IO. I 12.3 11.2 6.7 l 1.2 20.1 10. l 13.4 8.2

References TSS (kg/tonne) Mean Range

pH Mean Range 2.0 0.2-2.0 4.l-8.2 5.6 4.4 2.2-8.5 8.0 ND 2. 7 0.4-20.5 7.3 6.3-8. 3 9.8 33-28 5 7.9 5 6-11.9 7.6 2.0-23.6 7.4-10.6 8.7 0. 3-6 2 6.5 ND 1.7 1.6-12 4.5 4.8- 7.6 5.6 1.5-9.4 3.8 ND 96 1.7-16.9 6.0 4.9 4 9-9.2 4.1 2. 3- 7.6 6.8 ND 57.l 17.4- 188. 7 ND ND 2.4-l l.6 5.4 5.6-10.8 7.9 Downing (1969), US EPA (1977). All data per tonne

Table 6 Database 2 - Process Unit Operation waste flow and characteristics Commodity





ss Apricots



ss Beans, snap Beetcoot



ss water


ss Carrot



ss Corn , canned



20-30 5-20 2-15 20-95 20-20 30 30-40 l0-60 30-80 l0-30 15- 20 15-30 12-30 15-20 15-30

5-20 10-40 15-40




ss Pea



ss Peach



ss Pear

50-60 45- 55 55-65 14-20 5-10 H O



ss Tomaro, pulp





30-40 50-60 50-70 30-40 50-60 40-65 30-40 20-30 10- 15 19-40 10- 18 10-15


ss Corn, frozen


30-85 95 95

25- 50 35-50 30-60 30-60 50-78 45-83 5-30* 5* 5*

Unit Operations Blanch Cut 10- 25 10* 5-40 70* 85* 3- 35 5-40 40- 55 40 l0-45 0-40 0-20 40-60 0-30 20-30 20-26 20-20 10- 20 20- 28 0-5 20-2 1 0-10 0-1 0 15-40 40-41 50- 75 70-80 26-30 25-50 30-68 13- 55 70-80 5-15 10-30 40-45 30-35 15- 35 30- 50 25-55 7- 30 l0-40 l0-45 -




Fill 40-65 10-80 10-80 40-55 25-40 30 20-50 0- 20 0- l0 20-24 5- 10 0-5 15- 20 0-3 0-2 20-29 5- 20 5-20



5- 5 1- 5 0-5 5- 10 5 5

20-40 5-l 0 5- l0 20-30 7- 15 7- 10 40-53 7-l5 7-l 0 l0-60 0 5





Values given in a highest and lowest or a single percentage; "Clean" includes washing, sorting, shaking, blow ing, etc; "Peel " and "Blanch" include related steps such as rinsing; "Cut" includes slicing and dicing; "Fi ll " includes brine, syrup, seal and cook; * represents pulping operation; Data source: National Canners Association (197 l)


having special expertise. The scare of Victoria requires an a~crediced auditor co be used for an official (Techno-legal) audit of a plane. Ocher Australian scares have avoided chis fo rm al accred itati on require ment in their cu rrent , or drafr , legislation. The protocol developed in chis paper seeks co aid plane personnel in either implementing in-house audits or, alcernacively, co manage audits performed by external consultants. The protocol has been designed for use in fruit and vegetable processing planes. The pr in ciples of th e prococo l are ge neric , however, and ic could be used for most industries in Australia. The prorocol lends itself co modificati on fo r use in ocher indu stri es , simply by tailoring che databases co the particular industry.

Blakeslee RA and Grabowski TM (1985). 'A Practical Guide ro Plant Environ mental Audi ts', (Van Nos tra nd Reinhold , NY.) Cahill, LB . and Kane R.W. (1989), 'Environmental Audits', 6th Ed, (Govt. Inst. Inc. , Rockville.) Ecken felder WW ([99 1). 'In dustrial Wate r Poll ution Control', (McGraw-Hill , NY): 1- 32. Greenfield P F, Ramsay IR, Johns M R and Pagan R J (1 992). Economics of Water Use, Minimisation and Recycle on Overall Costs of Industrial Wasrewarer Management; AWW A Conf. on Wastewater Reduction and Recycling, Geelong, July . National Canners Assoc iation. 1971 Liquid Wastes fro m Canni ng and Freez ing Fru its and Vegetables. Cited in: Katsuyama, A. (ed). 1979. 'A Guide fo r Waste Management in the Food Processing Industry ', (The Food Processors lnsti\ute, Washington, DC): 27. ational Canners Association. (1974). Liq uid Wastes fro m Process ing Fruits, Vegetables and Specialties. Ci ted in : Katsuyama, A. (ed). 1979. 'A Guide for Waste Manageme ~ in th e Food Process ing Ind ustry ', (The Food Processors Institute, Washington, DC): 21. NSW Min. for the Environment, Syd ney, (199 1). Establishing the Environment Protection Authority for New ouch Wales: 1-24. Ontario Waste Management Corp. (1987). 'Industrial Waste Aud it and Reduction Manual', (Env ironment Canada, Toronto): l-87. Splittstoesser D F and Downing D L (1969). Analysis of effiuents from fru it and vegetable processing factories. Cited in : Green J and Kramer A. (1979). 'Food Processing Waste Management', (AVI, Westport): 444 . US EPA . ([977). 'Polluti on Abatement in the Fruit and Vegetable Industry', (NTIS, Springfield): 6. US EPA . (1988 ). 'Waste Minim iza ti on Oppo rtu nity Assessment Manual', (Govt. Inst. Inc.,Rockville.) VicEPA . (1990). Industrial Was te Manage ment Policy Waste Minimisation, Victoria Govern ment Gazette, No. 552, 29 October.

Authors Ian Ramsay is presently working as an envi1¡omnental conrnltant with Waste Solutions A11stralia in Brisbane. He completed his chemical engineering degree at the University of Queensland in 1989 and proceeded onto a Master of Engineering Science which generated the work presented in this pape1: He has specialised in waste management with a keen interest in the food processing indmtry. Dr Michael J ohns is a Senior Lecturer in Biochemical Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Q11eensland. He has had ongoing interaction with agro-process ind11stries in the area of wastewater treatment system design and auditing. WATER OCTOBER 1993

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