Page 1



AWWA 1990 SUMMER SCHOOL Registered by Australia Post -

Publication No VBP1394



0310- 0367

Volume 17, No. 2, April 1990


CONTENTS My Point of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Association News


President's Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It Seems to Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


IAWPRC News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Research and Development The Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation . . . . . . . . . The Urban Water Research Association of Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Research Funding - The Past Five Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercialisation of New Technology for Urban Water Supply and Sewerage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Research and Development in Urban Water and Wastewater - A Cook's Tour Around Australia. . . . . CSIRO in Urban Water and Wastewater Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 1990 AWWA Summer School _Improving Efficiency in the Water Industry Computer Awareness Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical Notes: Chlorine Dioxide - Australian Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information Access: Computing in the 1990s . .

FEDERAL SECRETARIAT PO. Box 460, Chatswood NSW 2057 Facsimi le (02) 410 9652 Telephone (02) 4131288 Office Manager - Margaret Bates

FEDERAL PRESIDENT Peter Norman Telephone (08) 226 2249

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Peter Hughes Te lephone (02) 410 9654

FEDERAL SECRETARY Greg Cawston, Te lephone (042) 29 0236

FEDERAL TREASURER John Mol loy Telephone (03) 615 5991



15 18


23 33 35 41 43 44

BRANCH SECRETARIES Canberra, ACT P. Cox, P.O. Box 306, Woden 2606 (062) 498 522 New South Wales Mr David Hope, P.O. Box 460, Chatswood 2057 (02) 410 9402

OUR COVER R&D for Sydney Po llution Abatement Our cover shows the famous, or infamous, Bondi Beach. To alleviate beach pollution, the Sydney Water Board has spent ten years and $250M (to date) in driving kilometres of deep ocean outfall tunnels through solid rock. One montage photograph shows diffuser No. 1 at the end of the North Head Tunnel which will be commissioned in 1991. However, public pressure may force the Board to provide more than primary treatment. Conventional secondary treatment would be impracti cable because of space, so the Board is investigating alternative technologies. In March this year, the Board held an Open Day at Malabar. One of our mbntages shows the Prem ier of NSW, Mr Nick Greiner, at the Biocarbone Pilot Plant. The other shows the interior of the CS/RO 'Sirofloc' Pilot Plant. Three other pilot plants were operating: chemicallyassisted sedimentation, dissolved air flotation and cross-flow microflotation (see our survey, page 23).

South Australia R. Townsend, Cl- State Water Laboratories, E&WS Private Mail Bag , Salisbury 5108 (08) 259 0244 Western Australia A. Gale, PO. Box 356, West Perth 6005 (09) 242 4677

Victoria J. Park, Cl - Water Training Centre, PO. Box 409, Werribee 3030 (03) 741 5844

Tasmania A.B. Denne, PO. Box 78A, Hobart 7001 (002) 30 5562

Queens land D. Mackay, PO. Box 412, West End 4101 (07) 840 4844

Northern Territory D. Hardiment , P.O. Box 37283, Winnel l ie 0821 (089) 41 0144

EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE E.A. Swinton, 4 Pleasant View Cres., Glen Waver ley 3150 Office (03) 560 4752 Home (03) 560 9306 Fax Cl· 543 6613 (Advise per phone)

ADVERTISING Ann Sykes, Appita, 191 Royal Parade, Parkvi lle 3052 (03) 347 2377 Fax (03) 348 1206

PRODUCTION EDITOR J. Grainger, Applta, 191 Royal Parade, Parkvi lle 3052 (03) 347 2377 Fax (03) 348 1206

WATER April 1990 I

The Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation SUMMARY


A new Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation will be established under the Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development Act 1989. This Act was passed by Parliament in December 1989 and received Royal Assent on 17 January 1990.

The Corporation will be established under Commonwealth legislation but will have considerab le autonomy from government controls and a high degree of freedom and flexibility. This flexibility will enable the Corporation to operate efficiently in the conduct of its research and development funding program. It will benefit from being able to manage its affairs in a manner similar to commercial organisations, being able to enter into agreements and joint ventures, take out patents and borrow funds. The corporation will be governed by a Board of Directors and will be accountable to specified bodies with a significant interest in soil and water research and deve lopment, known as 'representative organisations', as well as to the Minister and Parliament.

It is anticipated that the Corporation will be formally established on 3 July 1990. At that time the Board of the Corporation will assume responsibility for existing soil and water research programs.

BACKGROUND In May 1989 the Government released a Statement on 'Research, Innovation and Competitiveness' (referred to as the 'RIC Statement'). The Statement set out clear policies to guide Government involvement in research and development. It also detailed the organisational and administrative framework which will enable monies to be allocated to research and development in the most efficient way. T he Statement identified research and development corporations as the form of administration which will lead to the best results. Corporations have more flexibility than is possible under either council or departmental administration. They can meet the need for strategic management and accountability. Because they are legal entities, Corporations can operate relatively autonomously from government and can make the research and development system more responsive and dynamic. The new Corporation was referred to in the RIC Statement as a 'Natural Resource Management Research and Development Corporation' but the name has been changed to Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation to reflect its scope more accurately. The Corporation will assume responsib ility for national leadership in the funding and coordination of research and development activities in relation to Australia's water and soil resources. The scope of the Corporation will also include forestry and vegetation research and development, activities that directly impact upon water and soil reso urces. The Corporation will interact with other bodies such as the Murray-Darling Basin Commission, CSIRO, Landcare Australia Ltd and the Murray-Darling Freshwater Research Centre.

THE BOARD The Chairperson and a Government Director will be appointed directly by the Minister, there will be four to six Directors nominated by a Selection Committee, and an Executive Director who will be selected and appointed by the Board, once constituted.

THE REPRESENTATIVE ORGANISATIONS Proposed representative organisations in relation to the Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation are: • Australi an Conservation Foundation (ACF) • National Farmers Federation (NFF) • National Association of Forest Industries (NAFI) • Standing Committee of the Australian Water Reso urces Council (AWRC), and • Soil Conservation Advisory Committee (SCAC). They will be consulted on the deve lopment of the Corporation's Research and Development Plan and its annua l operational plan. The Corporation will be accountable to those organisations as well as to the Minister. The Corporation wjll be required to present an annua l report to the Minister, for tabling in Parliament, and to the representative organisations. The Chairman of the Corporation must be available to discuss the Corporation's annual report with each of the representative organisations.


The Corporation's deve lopment will be guided by the policies and principles contained in the RIC Statement. Th is corporation will differ from most other primary industry research and deve lopment corporations in that it will be predominantly Commonwealth-funded rat her than by an industry levy wh ich is matched by a Commonwealth contribution.

The Committee which selects the Directors will comprise a Presiding Member appointed by the Minister. -He/ She wm be of national standing and will hold office for a period of up to three years. Up to six additional members of the Selection Committee may be chosen and appointed by the Minister or, at his discret ion, on the joint nomination of the proposed representative-organisations.


The Selection Committee will invite applications for Directorships from suitably quali fied persons through adve rtiseme nts in national newspapers, by circulars to relevant industry groups, from the representative organisations and other ways as it may consider appropriate.

T he major ro le of the Corporation will be to develop and implement a balanced research and deve lopment program for land and water resources and related forestry and vegetation management issues i.e. those industries 'concerned with the conservation and sustainab le use and management of land resources and water resources'. The functions of the Corporation are: • to investigate and evaluate the requirements for research and development • to coordinate or fund research and development activities, and • to faci li tate the dissemination, adopt ion and commercia lisation of th e results of researc h and development. Under the Act, a five year Research and Development Plan and an annual operational plan are required to be submitted to the Minister for approva l. The Research and Development plan will o utline the Corporation's objectives, strategies and policies over that period. The annual operating plan will specify research and development activities for funding in a particular year and will be consistent with the five year Research and Development P lan, which itself must be reviewed each year.

SCOPE OF CORPORATION The scope of the Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation, as laid down in the Act and the regulat ions establishing the Corporation, will allow it considerable flexibili ty to develop a broad-based and dynamic program to meet research needs. The Corporation will provide clear direction and greater coherence in research activities affecting land, water and related areas. It will ensure that research is demand driven and proactive, and wi ll develop a cost-effective infrastructure to bring together the vario us elements of the system. The 'Research, Innovation and Competitiveness' Statement concluded that the research interests of the major urban water authorities should be met from their own funds and that a timetable should be set for the irrigation industry to increase the level of industry funding for commercially oriented research and development. This view was based on the financial strength of the groups and a perceived commercial orientation in the research to be undertaken. WATER April /990 13

On further consideration, the Government has agreed that such an approach wo uld not fully recognise the significant national interest component in some of the research supported by the major urban water a uthorities and the irrigation industry and the desirability of integrating programs as far as possible. It accepts, therefore, that there is a case to be made for an appropriate degree of continued public funding for such projects. In addition , exclusion of these major areas of natural resource management could mitigate against the Corporation developing a total industry research perspective and induce an undesirable degree of fragmentation. Accordingly, the Government has agreed that both land and water will come within the purview of the Corporation which will be free to provide funding for research in these areas where it considers such support is warranted .

It is expected, nonetheless, that water research that primarily benefits urban water utilities will be substantially funded by the industry; similarly, it is expected that the irrigation industry will progressively increase its level of funding for commercially-oriented research a nd development.

· Key Tasks and Strategy In terms of tasks, the Corporation will in general seek to: • provide overall national leadership and coordination in land and water research and development • strengthen land and water research capability • encourage public and private investment in land and water research

research. Overall, research pnont1es will be determined by the Corporation with regard to the relative importance of knowledge gaps impinging on sustainable natural resource management, the availability of relevant research expertise and the availability of funds. It is to be expected that the existing water and soil conservation research programs will be continued, with some development of the latter to make it more broadly based in terms of land use issues. Most importantly, however, the Corporation will break new ground in formulating mutually supporting and complementary research priorities that recognise the interactive nature of both management problems and their solution in relation to land and water.

FUNDING ARRANGEMENTS The Corporation will , initially at least, be funded entirely from annual Commonwealth appropriations. The Government recognises the importance of continuity of fundin g, and intends to provide a predictable and stable financial environment in which the Corporation will operate. In the long term the Corporation will use Government funding as a catalyst to encourage industry support fo r research and development activities. The Corporation will also be free to raise money from other sources, for example, by borrowing or undertaking paid work for other research institutions or corporations . Over recent years the Government has substantially increased funding for water and soil conservation research programs. The Corporation will initia lly share the existing soil and water research and development funds across its broader program. Funding levels for the National Water Research Program and the National Soil Conservation Program Research Sub-Program are shown below:

• improve the diffusion and uptake of results of the total research effort of the land and water industries, and

1985 / 86 $M

1986/ 87 $M

1987/ 88 $M

1988/ 89 $M

1989/ 90 $M

• improve comm unity understanding of the need for and role of research.


0.60 1.32

3.33 1.59

6.18 1. 84

7.30 2.82

6.80 4.16

The strategy to be adopted by the Corporation to achieve these objectives would be likely to include:







• strengthening the links between research and the water and land industries • coordinating with other research fundin g agencies • undertaking regular assessments of national land and water research needs and priorities • initiating regular surveys of current research projects relevant to the Corporation, and • providing regular reports to governments and relevant authorities on the level of investment req uired in land and water research. Implementation of this strategy will be driven by the Corporation's ability to lead and influence the national research effort through its funding activities.

Research Emphasis The 'in-principle' scope of the new Corporation is limited only by the requirement that any research be concerned with the conservation and sustainable use and management of land, water and related resources. The Corporation will be substantially guided on areas of priority concern by the views of its representative organisations. T hese will be a primary source of information and advice to enable the Corporation to identify current and emerging issues warranting further

Under these programs there are also forward commitments, primarily in the water sector. These existing commitments will constitute a major part of the Corporation's funding program in the short term. Add itional funds will be sought for new programs.

CONCLUSION The Corporation will be established formally on 3 July 1990, but obviously it will take some time before its Board has come to grips with the task of consulting the Representative Organisations and formulating its fi ve-year and one-year plans. Only when such plans have been approved by the Minister will its fundin g operations, particularly of new projects, commence. Officers involved in the existing programs are preparing draft plans which will be considered by the Board in its initial phase. T he Corporation is expected to continue the current research and development activities as constituted by AWRAC and the NSCP sub-programs. Once the Corporation has developed its own strategy, it will still meet all obligations and commitments properly entered into under previous programs. In the long term the Corporation is expected to develop a balanced research and development program for natural resources which will integrate research into water and soil, and the related forestry, vegetation, wildlife and habitat matters. This will reflect the close inter-relationships between these sectors, and ensure that the overall program takes all aspects into account .

INTO Information Resources pty ltd Information Search Consultants Searching Aus tralian and International On-Line Databases for the Water and Wastewater Industry 9 Elvina Avenue . Newport . NSW .. 2106 Telephone (02) 9 9 7 7 499 Director : Ruth Ward . for Searches or Inquiries. 14 WATER April 1990

The Urban Water Research Association of Australia by BARRY SHEEDY and JIM GREER SUMMARY

Barry Sheedy is Manage,; Treatment Plants, in the Board of Works, Melbourne following senior positions in the Board's construction and systems planning divisions. He is the Board's representative on UWRAA's Research Advisory Committee and became Chairman of the Committee in 1988.

The organisation, aims and achievements of the Association are reviewed in this paper. In the four years it has been operating a number of significant projects have been assisted by funding, and benefits are already being reaped. The future relationship with the LWRRDC remains to be defined.

INTRODUCTION Since 1986, the Urban Water Research Association of Australia has been working to co-ordinate and promote the national urban water research effort.

Jim Greer is an Executive Engineer in the Systems Planning Division of the Board of Works, Melbourne. He has worked with water authorities in several states and was AWWA Hon Federal Treasurer from 1977 to 1984. He became the Executive Officer of UWRAA in 1988.

The Association developed from the realisation that a centralised research program supported by all Authorities is the most costeffective and efficient way to meet the industry's needs. It was formed through initiatives taken by the Australian Water Research Advisory Council (AWRAC) with the support of the Major Urban Water and Sewerage Authorities of Australia (MUWAA).

AIMS Since its establishment, the Assocation has sought to: • identify and prioritise urban water research needs • create an awareness of the avenues and benefits of research • promote and co-ordinate the funding of urban water research

Table I. Annual Funding ($)

• encourage the formu lation of research proposals • effectively disseminate research findings • encourage application of research findings.

ORGANISATION The day-to-day affairs of the Association have been managed by a Research Advisory Committee comprising representatives of the nine member authorities of MUWAA and by a secretariat appointed by MUWAA (See box) . Close working arrangements have been established between the Committee and AWRAC, with the Secretary of AWRAC attending Committee meetings as an observer. In recent times proposals to extend representation on the Committee to all non-metropolitan urban water authorities in Australia have been developed.

1986/ 87 1987/ 88 1988/ 89 1989/ 90 1990/ 91




300,000 400,000 500,000 400,000 400,000

144,000 400,000 500,000 550,000 600,000

444 ,000 800,000 1,000,000 950,000 1,000,000

Table 2 -

Projects Approved

Year of Approva l

No. of Projects Approved

Approva l Funding

1987 1988 1989 1990

19 18 19 18

1,469,000 960,000 877, 500 1,003 ,400






A proposal has also been developed for a wider membership structure of the Association, covering metropolitan authorities, nonmetropolitan authorities, drainage authorities, industry members and readership members.

In order to achieve its general objective of fostering and promoting a comprehensive, co-ordinated and cost-effective approach to urban water research within Australia the Association ' has set the aims listed earlier in this paper. Its performance in relation to those objectives is summarised below.

Consideration has been given to the legal structure of the Association and, in particular, as to whether the Association should seek incorporation or continue as an unincorporated joint venture between the water authorities under the general direction of MUWAA. The Committee considers that the latter arrangement is preferable.

Identifying and prioritising urban water research needs The Association's Research Advisory Committee has reviewed and consolidated the various urban water issues in Australia requiring research, using its contacts with water authorities, the AWRC Advisory Committees and other sources such as seminars and conferences.


Creating awareness of avenues and benefits of research The Association is progressively increasing its efforts to create an awareness amongst the water industry and research agencies of worthwhile avenues for research and of the benefits to be obtained from investing in research. Steps taken to date include:

The most crucial factor affecting the future of the Association is the level of funding available to it. To date, available funds have been of the order of $800 000 to $1M per annum. This was considered to be the minimum necessary for the Association to have a significant influence on the direction, co-ordination and conduct of urban water research in Australia. In order to continue to meet the industry's immediate research needs, for both non-metropolitan as well as the metropolitan urban areas, the required future funding levels have been assessed as approximately $2M per annum. During its formative stages the Association has been funded by the Major Urban Water Authorities of Australia (MUWAA) and by the Australian Water Research Advisory Council (AWRAC). Contributions to the Association to date are listed in Table 1. The number of new projects approved by the Association for funding is listed in Table 2.

• The Chairman of the Research Advisory Committee, Mr B. J. Sheedy, presented a paper entitled 'Research and Development - An Investment for a Better Future' to the 13th Federal Convention of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association held in Canberra, March 1989. • The Research Advisory Committee has collaborated with the AWWA Journal Committee on the preparation of this special issue of Water on water research. Promoting and co-ordinating the funding of urban water research The diversity of authorities and research agencies undertaking water research and the changes occurring at the national level in WATER April 1990 15

• In October 1989 the Association made a submission to the Inquiry into Public Sector Research and Development being held by the Joint Parliamentary Committee of Public Accounts, making known the activities of the Association and the needs and benefits associated with urban water research.

the funding of research has created a need for promoting and coordinating the funding of urban water research in Australia. Urban water research in Australia is undertaken by a variety of research agencies including the water authorities, CSIRO, universities, Centres of Concentration and consultants. Considerably more than half of the funds allocated to date by the Association has been allocated to agencies other than the water authorities.

• The Research Advisory Committee has sought and obtained information from the AWRC Advisory Committees on research needs and priorities.

The Association has been active in preparing and presenting submissions to MUWAA and to AWRAC on their future contributions to the Association and it has developed membership proposals for non-metropolitan authorities and industry which are expected to generate some additional funding for research

• The Committee has initiated a survey of research projects being undertaken independently by the individual water authorities. There are indications that the discipline of the Association's procedures for initiating, conducting and reporting research projects is acting as a catalyst for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of research activities in water authorities and research agencies.

Encouraging the formulation of research proposals The Association has been progressively extending its call for research proposals and, for the November 1989 Call, it notified metropolitan, regional and state authorities, Centres of Concentration and CSIRO Divisions involved in urban water research, and various universities. It also advertised for proposals in the AWWA Journal. The number of proposals received has increased from 52 in 1986 and 1987, 51 in the November 1988 Call, to 65 in the November-1989 Call.

Duplication of research effort is being reduced, with a number of joint and complementary projects already being undertaken (eg pricing, chloramination and odour studies). The increasing communication between authorities has also avoided a repetition of research projects already completed or being conducted elsewhere. Dissemination of research findings The Association recognises the importance of disseminating the information resulting from research projects and aims to do this not only by publishing the final reports on projects but also by encouraging the presentation of research findings in professional journals and at conferences. The Association's reports will also be indexed on STREAMLINE, the national water data base.

The spread of proposals received to date has tended to be concerned with technological improvements and refinements to treatment processes, information and control systems, disinfection practices, reservoir quality and, more recently, sludge and effluent disposal. There have been relatively few proposals submitted in the areas of economics/ finance, human resources, customer services and asset management. The Association is drawing this imbalance to the attention of water authorities and research agencies.

To date the Association has approved the publication of eight research reports and the publication in journals and/or presentation at conferences of 15 papers based on research projects funded by the Association.

The number and range of research projects approved for funding by the Association from 1986 to 1990 inclusive in the various research categories is indicated in Figure 1.

Encourage application of research findings To date, efforts aimed at encouraging the application of research findings and the development of products and expertise for use locally and overseas, have been concerned with establishing procedures for the dissemination of research findings and the protection by patents of those findings. ,

Co-ordinating the national research effort The Association has taken a number of steps aimed at co-ordinating the urban water research effort across Australia and increasing its effectiveness and efficiency:






















Note : The m.mb9' of resesteh projecis approved lor fundng by UWRAA from 1986 lo 1990 Inclusive In the research category Is shown thus : 3

16 WATER April 1990














































Further measures will be considered as more research projects are completed.

BENEFITS FROM RESEARCH The findings of the research projects approved by the UWRAA for funding since 1986 up to 30 August 1989 and the significance of those findings for the urban water industry in Australia have been assessed.

considered that the number of new resear~ projects warranting funding over the next few years in the various fields of research is of the following order: t·ield of Research

umber of projects per annum

Water resources


Corporate and financial Management


Technology Information and control Wa.ter Supply Wastewater Other

5 9 11 8

• improvements in the quality of drinking water supplies, receiving waters and/ or the urban environment;

Planning Water Use Other

7 9

• stimulation of new ideas and policy initiatives;


• increased ability of the water industry to respond to changing government policies and community demands; • improved business practices.

In practice it is unlikely that good research proposals will be submitted in one year on all of the priority fields of research and a smaller program equivalent to about two-thirds of that indicated above is proposed. This will correspond to the approval of approximately' 40 new projects each year and required funding of some $2 million (1990 values) per annum.

The benefits derived from these projects include: • reductions in operating, maintenance and/ or asset creation costs; • deferment. of capital works;

Particular aspects to note are: (a) Estimates have been made by sponsoring authorities of the potential financial benefits of seventeen of the Association-funded projects. Over the next 10 years these have been estimated as $2.2 million for the sponsoring authority and $3.4 million for other authorities in Australia. Compared to the total cost of these projects of $1.1 million, this is equivalent to a benefit/ cost ratio of 5 over the next 10 years, with the sponsoring authority recovering its investment in 2-3 years. (b) A number of projects have been or will be influential in the development of policy at various l~vels, including the NSW Government's approach to public authority dividends, the Melbourne Board of Works' replacement policy for old concrete sewers, the application of pricing policies to demand management and the approach taken by water authorities to community education programs. (c) Several projects have been directed towards improving the microbiological quality of water supplies by increasing the effectiveness of disinfection practices without adverse taste, odour or toxic effects. These studies are particularly important as consumers in cities and country areas are becoming more discerning and demanding about water supply quality. (d) The project on water-using appliances, including shower heads, clothes washing machines and dishwashing machines, etc. has lead to the implementation of a water conservation rating and labelling scheme for domestic appliances in Victoria. Extension of this , scheme to the whole of Australia is being considered. (e) The projects on sewage treatment processes have been concerned with the removal of nutrients from effluents discharging to inland streams, with the development of alternative processes for removing solids and organic matter from sewage, and with the control of odours from sewage treatment plants. One project by CSIRO (sewage treatment using magnetite) has provided a new process which is being seriously considered for the treatment of sewage in Sydney. (f) The project to develop techniques for remote reading of water meters will have far-reaching implications for the billing of water used by consumers.

FUTURE OF THE ASSOCIATION A substantial portion of the Association's activities during the past three years has been directed towards establishing the procedures for the selection, monitoring and reporting of research projects and towards establishing the Association's organisational structure. This phase is now largely completed and the Association is able to concentrate on the generation and funding of research projects and the dissemination of research findings. The most crucial factor affecting the future of the Association is the level of funding available to the Association. To date, available funds have been of the order of $800 000 to $1 000 000 per annum and this is considered to be the minimum necessary for the Association to have any significant influence on the direction, coordination and conduct of urban water research in Australia. Having regard to the needs and priorities and to the likely contribution of research to the resolution of those needs, it is


16 66

It is considered that funding of the Association should increase progressively to this new level over the next three years, as follows: Total funding (S million) per annum

1990/ 91 1991 / 92 1992/ 93 1993/ 94

1.0 1.5 1.8 2.1


Such an increase in funding to the Association would represent a significant increase in overall funding for urban water research in Australia, together with a redirection, through the Association, of some of the independent research efforts of water authorities. Many of the research projects funded by the Association will continue to be of direct relevance and /or financial benefit to water authorities. Logically such projects should be funded by the water authorities. However, approximately one-third of the priority projects included in the proposed funding schedule are in fields of research where the issues are of pational concern (eg sewage effluent and sludge disposal, nutrient removal from effluent, social impacts, coastal waters) and/ or where the benefits of the research will be widely dispersed throughout the community and beyond the ability of water authorities to capture financial returns from all those who benefit (eg water supply quality, treatment plant odours, stormwater runoff, technology transfer). It is considered that such projects should qualify for Commonwealth Government funding.

CONCLUSIONS The Association has received considerable support from AWRAC, MUWAA, the urban authorities and research agencies, which indicates that the Association has a real role to perform and an active, fruitful time ahead . The proposed establishment of the Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation will affect funding procedures for water research after July 1990. It is submitted that future Commonwealth Government funding for urban water research should be channelled through the Association, subject to guidelines being established to indentify those projects with a wider application, which should qualify for specific Commonwealth funding.

UWRAA Research Advisory Committee (1990) Bill Razzell, BCC; David McRae, HWB; John Browne, SWB; Cary Reynolds, ACTEWA; Barry Sheedy, MMBW (Chairman); Phillip Gee, HRWB; Malcolm Blaskett, EWSD; Pietro Guj, WAWA; Richard Marks, NTPWA; Sally Cameron-Stephen, AWRAC; John Graham, GDWB (Vic non-metropolitan); Don Gardiner, QWRC (Qld nonmetropolitan); Alan Dodds, SWB (Funding and Finance); Jim Greer, MMBW (Executive Officer). WATER April 1990 17

Water Research Funding . . . The Past Five Years SUMMARY This paper summarises the system of Commonwealth funding for water research which has operated for the past five years. It has achieved some notable results and should provide the springboard for the future operation of the integrated Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation.

WATER RESEARCH PROGRAMS The national water research effort was stepped up in 1985 following a major review which found that water research in Australia was inadequate, fragmented, poorly balanced and there was a need for substantially increased funding. The Australian Water Research Advisory Council (AWRAC) was set up in 1985 and a National Water Research Program established with an increased commitment of Commonwealth funds. Australian Water Research Advisory Council (AWRAC) The Council was responsible for advising the Minister on the distribution of research funds, monitoring the progress of research · projects, maintaining a continuing overview of the national research effort and advising the Minister on national research priorities. It also sought to encourage private investment in water research and the effective transfer of research results to users. The Council comprised a 12 member board. National Water Research Program A total of $6.8 million was available through the National Water Research Program in 1989/ 90, bringing total expenditure from 1985 to June 1990 to more than $24 million. This was disbursed through a number of different programs administered by the Council.

The National Priorities Program has provided funds for research in areas identified as of national priority. These priority areas were reassessed on a regular basis and new funding emphases identified as necessary. Eleven projects totalling $1.28 million were approved for commencement in 1990. This brings total funding under the Program so far to $7 .39 million. The Partnership Research Program has targetted projects aimed at producing results of practical benefit to the industry in the short term. Funds provided had to be matched by industry, State or local authorities. The first grants under this scheme were awarded in 1987 when 17 projects were supported with $760 000. Eleven projects totallying $845 527 were approved for commencement in 1990, bringing total funding under the Program so far to $3.56 million. The Scientific Merit Program has supported the creation of new knowledge in the water sciences. It provided funds for a limited number of high quality fundamental research projects. The research funded has the potential to make a major contribution to theoretical understanding. Three projects, commencing in 1990, are being supported with grants totalling $174,788, which brings the total funding under this Program to $1.39 million. The Water Research Centres of Concentration Program has sought to strengthen Australia's water research capability in key areas by providing funds to establish Centres and build up a group of experienced researchers in fields or areas which are currently underresearched. More than $5.5 million has been provided over three years to support the creation of 12 National Water Research Centres. These were cooperative ventures with the water industry and were supported with $1.1 million from industry, universities and the CSIRO. The 12 Centres, chosen from 96 proposals, comprise the: • Australian Centre for Catchment Hydrology at CSIRO Division of Water Resources in Canberra, headed by Dr E.M. O'Loughlin.

• Centre for Wastewater Treatment Processes at the University of New South Wales, headed by Associate Professor D. Pilgrim. • Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research at James Cook University, headed by Associate Professor R.E . Volker. • Centre for Limnological Modelling at die University of Western Australia, headed by Professor J. Imberger.

18 WATER April 1990

• Urban Water Policy Centre at the University of New South Wales, headed by Dr D. Gallagher. • Centre for Water Policy Research at the University of New England, headed by Professor W.F. Musgrave. • Centre for Groundwater Studes at CSIRO's Division of Water Resources in Adelaide and Flinders University, headed by Dr P. Dillon. • Centre for Environmental Applied Hydrology at the University of Melbourne, headed by Professor T.A. McMahon. • Centre for Groundwater Management and Hydrogeology at the University of New South Wales, headea by Dr M. Knight. • Centre for Stream Ecology at Chisholm Institute of Technology headed by Dr B.T. Hart. • Centre for Catchment and In-Stream Research at Griffith University, headed by Dr A. Arlington, and the • Australia Centre for Water Treatment and Water Quality Research at the State Water Laboratory in Adelaide, headed by Mr D.J. Lane. The Murray Darling Basin Research Initiative has specifically addressed the salinity, waterlogging and land degradation problems of the Basin. It has involved the establishment of the Murray-Darling Freshwater Research Centre as a centre for limnological research in Albury-Wodonga as joint venture with CSIRO, the Murray-Darling Basin Commission and the Albury Wodonga Development Corporation. Three projects aimed at promoting the adoption of effective on-farm water management techniques in the Murray Darling Basin have also been funded with $1.2 million over three years. Funds of $2.3 million have also been provided for research into irrigation and salinity, groundwater recharge and discharge and riparian vegetation management. The Industry Research Associations' Program has sought to encourage the establishment of a number of associations serving specific sectors of the industry. As a result, the Urban Water Research Association was established in 1986/ 87 and received funds of $400 000 in 1989/ 90. The National Irrigation Research Fund was established in 1988 and received $150 000 in 1989/90. ' The Eminent Researcher Fellowship Award was introduced to be awarded to a researcher who demonstrated significant achievements in water research and who AWRAC believed would benefit from a period of full-time, high level research activity. The purpose of the award was to allow the researcher to undertake such research without the problems associated with institutional commitments. The Fellowship allowed the researcher to concentrate fully on either a promising line of research or the transfer of technology to users. T,he first fellowship was taken up in 1990. Research Fellowship Awards, tenable for three years, could be taken up by individuals holding a doctorate or equivalent qualification. One fellowship was awarded during the first call for applications in 1986. A total of seven awards have been awarded, two in 1990. Water Industry Research Awards were established in 1987 to attract talented postgraduate students into water research. They are funded at the level comparable to Commonwealth Postgraduate Awards with matching contributions from industry. During the duration of the Award, the student spends some time working with the sponsoring company. Water Research Achievement Awards recognise excellence in water research undertaken by doctoral or masters thesis students and provided an award of $1000. The first two awards were made in 1987. Two awards were announced in November 1989. The Undergraduate Summer Research Scholarship Scheme promotes research training opportunities in water related studies and encourages students to continue water research studies at a postgraduate level. Thirty-two scholarships were offered through water research centres in 1988/ 89 and 1989/90.

Commercialisation of ~ew Technology for Urban Water Supply and Sewerage Systems by Dr Peter Nadebaum ABSTRACT A study on commercialisation of new technology for urban water supply and sewerage systems is being carried out by the Australian Water and Wastewater Association for the Australian Water Research Advisory Council. The study has reviewed the market for goods and services in the Australian water industry, and this is estimated at more than $11 billion over the next ten years. The current processes of commercialisation of technology in the Australian water industry have also been reviewed, and a strategy for the research funding and commercialisation of new technology has been suggested. This strategy particularly recognises and builds on the role major Water Boards as being the major purchasers and . users of goods and services in the water industry.

INTRODUCTION A study on Commercialisation of New Technology for Urban Water Supply and Sewerage Systems is being carried out by the Australian Water and Wastewater Association (AWWA) for the Australian Water Research Advisory Council. Camp Scott Furphy is assisting the AWWA in carrying out the study, and the study has drawn on contributions from AWWA executive staff, AWWA members in consulting, equipment supply and contracting companies, water boards and research organisations, the Federal Government Department of Industry, Technology and Commerce the contribution of Dr Alan J. Jones is particularly acknowledged, Ernst & Whinney and Austrade. The overall study objective is to identify whether the current processes of commercialisation of technology in the Australian urban ·water supply and sewerage sector are effective, if there is room for improvement and a potential for increased gain for Australia, and to identify the most appropriate means of achieving this potential.

EXISTING REALITIES IN THE WATER INDUSTRY A review was carried out of the major Rlayers and the existing structure of the water industry, particularly with regard to the development and application of new technology. The major players include Government, water boards, industry, and research organisations. The roles, objectives, strengths and constraints of these various players have been examined with regard to new technology development and application . Current levels of expenditure on goods and services, and research and development (R&D) were identified. The broad findings of this review suggest: • with regard to R&D, the Australian water industry has the characteristic shortcomings of the Australian manufacturing industry as a whole; • with the exception of a limited number of specific technologies, the water industry has not been successful in the development and application of new technology, or in the development of a viable export industry. Causes of this include: • Over-reliance on R&D conducted by Universities, Institutes, Government organisations, with relatively little expenditure by private industry. • Over-emphasis by such bodies on basic or non-applied research such as environmental studies. • Uncertain and variable funding and incentives for R&D, making it difficult for research bodies to plan for long-term projects. • Lack of strong linkages between industry and such bodies. • Reliance on imported technology. Australian equipment and process suppliers are generally small and have found it more profitable to licence new technology from overseas, rather than take the long-term path of developing an Australian innovation. 20 WATER April 1990

• Water Boards, which are accountable to the public, have been reluctant to select an innovative technology, which, though it may offer immediate cost savings, carries a higher degree of risk. This is particularly the case for assets which have a long life-time. However, there are signs that these aspects are changing. Over the past 2-3 years, some Water Boards have _provided considerable funding for innovative R&D, and have funded demonstrations of new technology. Some public sector research bodies, notably CSIRO, have developed close links with private industry.

MARKET FOR GOODS AND SERVICES The major water boards were surveyed to identify the projected expenditure over the next 10 years on goods and services in the urban water supply and sewerage sector. This survey reached water boards representing an urban population of some 13 .4 million compared with the total Australian population of 16.5 million, and indicated that the total projected expenditure outlined in Table 1, was in the order of $11 billion over the next 10 years. Table 1 - Projected expenditure 1990-2000 by Australian Water Authorities Water supply Systems Pipelines Reservoirs/ Headworks Pump Stations Treatment Plants Water Supply Renewals


Million 2,550 995 240 660 740

Sewerage Systems Sewers J>ump Stations Sewerage Treatment Plants '& Outfalls System Monitoring Sewer Replacement


3,460 380 1,180

40 470 10,715

This survey was carried out prior to conclusions being drawn regarding the future capital works required to protect Sydney's beaches and improve drinking water quality, and the projected capital expenditure is expected to be significantly higher than that indicated above. There is also a significant potential market for Australian goods and services in Australia's neighbouring countries and in the major western countries.

THE POTENTIAL FOR THE DEVEWPMENT OF NEW TECHNOWGY, AND THE MARKET NEED A number of industry experts were engaged to provide their views of areas of technology where advances may be made in the f~ture, where there is a market need, and where Australia may have a competitive edge. Views were obtained in the fields of water treatment, laboratory services, water distribution, instrumentation and process control, sewage collection, sewage treatment, and asset rehabilitation. Numerous suggestions were made regarding promising fields of work and areas of market need, and it is clear that there is currently a high level of change and opportunity in the water industry. Some of the areas of market demand for new technology, and areas where improved design and operation is called for, are indicated in Table 2. The full report of the study details many specific opportunities under each of these areas. It is emphasised that this tabulation is not to be regarded as comprehensive, and there are many other areas where advances in technology are possible. The survey also indicated that there is considerable technical expertise within Australian research organisations, the larger water

boards, consultant and contracting organisations, and private industry, and that the core infrastructure and manpower resources necessary for carrying out R&D in the water industry are already ¡ in place.

TOWARDS A RESEARCH FUNDING AND COMMERCIALISATION STRATEGY After considerable discussion within the AWWA and between the various study contributors, a strategy has been proposed to promote R&D in the water industry, and its successful commercialisation. This strategy has not been finalised at the time of preparation of this article, and comment and suggestions on the strategy are currently being sought from the water industry. The AWWA would welcome any comments that readers would care to make on the suggested strategy. The suggested strategy particularly recognises the water boards as being the major purchasers and users of goods and services in the water industry, and private industry as being most effective developer and marketer of new technology. The key elements of the suggested strategy are as follows:

Commercial Company representing the Water Industry A self-sustaining, separate, commercially-operated and oriented Company should be established which will form a focus for Water Industry R&D, and which will identify and promote industry/ water board development of new technology, direct and manage the allocation of funds and incentives, and measure the effectiveness of the selected projects. This recommendation is consistent with recent Federal Government thinking with regard to adopting a Corporate approach to administering R&D in the water industry. It is also consistent with preliminary thinking within the water boards which suggests there is a need for a body which can more effectively represent the needs of the water industry.

Industry-Water Board Joint Ventures, with Water Board Demonstration Projects as Incentives Strong Australian R&D programs should be developed through joint ventures between industry and the water boards. Incentives would include opportunities for industry suppliers of goods and services to take part in development and demonstration projects supplied by water boards, particularly those opportunities which arise during the water boards' normal course of business and related to their future technology requirements. In these programs responsibility for the on-going commercialisation and marketing of the technology would lie with the industry partner, and the water boards would take more of the role of sponsor/equity holder. This approach acknowledges the relative strengths of private industry and the water boards, and increases the potential for achieving commercial success for new technology. It also recognises that there is considerable development work currently taking place within the water boards, and offers a structured mechanism for the water boards to benefit from the commercialisation and commercial application of this technology.

Selection of Projects Projects should be selected on the basis of the likelihood of ultimate commercial success, with particular emphasis on those projects which combine a strong market need with partners having strong technical, managerial and financial support. Projects would be strategically selected with the short term objective of finding significant local application, and with a longer term objective of developing a strong Australian capability and potential for export. Funding of a large number of small projects would be avoided. There would be a strong emphasis on market research and strategic planning to maximise future commercial return to Australia, particularly from export, as an integral part of the overall strategy. This recommendation has the objective of using the local market for goods and services and water board capital works requirements as a base for local R&D programs, with a view to developing an export market. It also seeks to avoid the current situation in which priorities for R&D programs often have not emphasised commercial return to Australia, and have not recognised the importance of the export market.

CONCLUDING REMARKS The Australian water industry, like Australian manufacturing as a whole, has generally not been successful in the development and application of new technology, or in the development of a viable export industry. The recent increase in environmental awareness has lead to increased needs for improved processes, equipment and services in the water industry, and this has lead to an increase in the funding of innovative R&D and the demonstration of new technology by some of the major water boards. The wide range of R&D that is being carried out within Australia indicates there is no lack of ideas or talent; instead the problem is more how to encourage and expedite the research and development process. There are signs that Government is taking a corporate, commercial approach to the development of new technology, and the application of this approach in the water industry offers significant potential for the successful de;velopment of new technology and providing a major economic and environmental benefit to Australia. The time "window" for the development and application of an effective R&D strategy for the water industry is likely to be quite limited, and to capitali,se in the opportunity offered will be a major challenge for the water industry. Table 2 -

Some opportunities for new technology, and improved design and operation in the Water Industry. Water Treatment Laboratory Services Water Distribution Pipelines Process Control, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Systems Sewerage Collection Sewerage and Waste Treatment Asset Rehabilitation

Two-Part Funding: Direct Grant Funding, and Support of Joint Venture Demonstration Projects Funds for the operation of the Company and some funding of research projects and strategic market research should be obtained through direct financial allocations by the water boards perhaps in the form of a levy, by government and by participating industry partners. Funding required for significant demonstration projects and the work leading to these projects would be provided by the water boards within a joint venture framework with private industry, as part of the water boards normal capital works funding. These funding arrangements would have the advantage of broadly recognizing the existing realities and magnitude of R&D funding with regard to direct grant allocations, and would also utilise the relatively large and ongoing capital works requirements of the water boards to provide incentives and support for demonstration of new technology. This approach is already being used by the water boards to develop and provide for the demonstration of new technology, and the recommendation recognises the potential to carry this out in a more structured and planned manner.

"CHEMICAL DIRECTORY & EMERGENCY GUIDE" The 4th edition of the "Chemical Directory & Emergency Guide" is now available. The Directory provides details of commercially available chemicals and their suppliers in Australia. It also lists the emergency contact (24-hour) numbers of the suppliers.

$14.50 per copy (inc. postage) from: The Australian Chemical Industry Council GPO Box 1610M Melbourne Vic 3001 Telephone (03) 699 6299 WATER April 1990 21

Current Research and Development in Urban Water and Wastewater A Cook's Tour Around Australia A Report by Bob Swinton INTRODUCTION In the current climate of significant change in the organisation and funding of water research in Australia, as outlined in the other papers in this issue, it seemed useful to compile a listing of the urban water research projects currently in progress. The next issue of the DPIE publication, STREAMLINE, CURRENT PROJECTS, 1990, is being prepared in the AWRAC office in Canberra. However, returns are not yet complete, and this massive publication will not be in print until late in the year. It will probably list about a thousand projects, in fair detail, but nearly 80% of them will be related to the aquatic environment, assessment of water resources on the national scale, and irrigation matters. In this issue of Water the focus is on R&D in urban water and wastewater, and to give our readers some context as to the activity in this field, we have tried to compile a brief survey of the projects which are in progress in 1990. We have done this by direct approach to the academic institutions and the authorities where the research is being carried out. We freely confess that the list is not 100% complete, and we foresee the publication of a supplementary list in the next issue of Water as more information is supplied. For example, no companies or consultants have been contacted as yet, although some are mentioned if they are implicated in projects operated by the water authorities. The involvement of the various Divisions of CSIRO in this field has merited a separate listing. In any listing there is the problem of where to define the limits. Since our focus in this issue is on urban water and wastewater, the areas defined in Figure 1 of the UWRAA paper (this issue) were adopted, but there is considerable overlap in the area termed 'Water Resources' with the multifarious studies of the water environment, which have, quite correctly, been the main area of academic research with Government funding. Accordingly, our decision to include or exclude any particular project in this area may well be argued. The definition of 'research and development' can also be argued. Certainly, this list is completely applied research, but it encompasses a wide spectrum. In our opinion, 'Applied Research' would be the formulation and testing of a novel idea for solving a problem, usually perceived as being of general impact; 'Development', the application of existing techniques to a specific problem; and 'Investigation' the scientific monitoring, measuring, and finally the analysis of a particular system, whether it be environmental, technical or management. The majority of effort by Water Authorities naturally lies in this area, and the scale and scientific expertise involved is reflected in the costs, which, for the whole of Australia, are of the order of $20-30M per year. However, the majority of such investigations are site-specific, are part of the on-going responsibilities of the authorities, and so have been excluded from this list of R&D. Rather than listing by categories, as in STREAMLINE, we have decided to list on the basis of the organisation where the project is in operation. For a number of projects, there is collaboration between two or more organisations. For example, a project in a Water Board's list may be physically carried out by a University Department, the Board's involvement being funding and provision of facilities or data, or the sponsoring of a staff member in a parttime Master's thesis. In some instances, there is true collaboration, ie., the combination of expertise from separate institutions and disciplines. Details of the projects have deliberately been kept to a few lines each and names of personnel involved have not been included. For further details, contact can be made direct to the organisation concerned, or by use of the STREAMLINE data base.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA The Centre for Water Research at the University hosts the

AWRAC Centre for Limnological Modelling (CLM), as well as the Centre for Environmental Fluid Dynamics (CHED), and the Coastal and Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory (CHEL) . CLM is primarily concerned with mathematical modelling of various aspects of water storage, surface hydrology and groundwater transport. Current projects which are closely related to urban water are: I. Coordination of land and water planning . .. the development of rational criteria to evaluate competing demands for land and water resources, typically as between agriculture and urban use. 2. Study of the resolution of planning conflicts, both to reduce the costs of public opposition and to gain the cost savings which can result from public advice. 3. The process-based model DYRESM, developed within the Centre, has been accepted internationally for simulation of the dynamic behaviour of lakes and reservoirs, and is being further developed into two and three dimensions to enable it to be used for prediction of water quality parameters, particularly the interaction of biological with physical processes.

a. Canning Reservoir, (CEFD with WAWA) To determine the rate of horizontal transport of pollutants introduced into the reservoir either by recreational use or through potential pump-back schemes. The three-year project has quantified the rapid transport within the surface layer by mixing, and the slower transport mechanisms to the benthic layer. • b. Glennies Creek Reservoir. (CHEL for NSW-DWR) . A three-year project studying the hydraulics of air-bubble destratification and incorporating this into the DYRESM twodimensional (2-D) model. A full-seal~ system designed by the 1-D model was installed at Glennies Creek in October 1989. Operational problems limited the installed air-flow to 50% of design, and stratification occurred. The aeration system is being upgraded to design value and the performance of the system will then be monitored to verify the algorithm. c. Aeration-destratification. (CHEL with WAWA, and EWS) Study of a single bubble plume at Wungong, WA , developed a simulation algorithm suitable for the DYRESM model. This was verified against field data recorded at Myponga, SA. An aerator designed by CHEL was installed in Harding Dam, (north-west WA) and commissioned in August 1989. The the DYRESM model was run from July to November and its predictive capability confirmed. WAWA are continuing to assess the impact on water quality. d. Nepean Reservoir destratification . (CHEL for SWB) A three-year R&D program, including training and technology transfer, has just commenced. e. Darwin and Manton Dams. (CHEL, NT PAWA, Kinhill) Both storages, which are in a monsoonal environment, have extensive historical meteorological and hydrological data. Stage 1 formatted these into the DYRESM model. Stage 2 is to verify the model for the period 1985-1987. The final stage proposes conjunctive simulation of both storages by coupling independent DYRESM runs. 4. Extreme Flood Estimation. (CWR with WAWA) Development of better hydrological models relating PMP with PMF, taking into account antecedent soil moisture. A small representative catchment (Salmon Creek) is being modelled. 5. Application of modern statistical computation to quantify uncertainty in flood estimation and sub-surface hydrology. 6. Groundwater Projects A number of important projects are studying water and salt transport in sub-surface flows after storms, with particular emphasis on the effects of land-use. WATER April 1990 23

7. Receiving water quality monitoring The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper has monitored chlorophyll-a and macrophyte distribution in estuaries and coastal environments. Data will be validated against historical data on eutrophication 'in the Peel-Harvey Estuary and Cockburn Sound.

MURDOCH UNIVERSITY Institute for Environmental Science and Remote Area Developments Group 1. Removal of nutrients from stormwater run-off feeding into urban wetlands (with WA EPA) 2. Hybrid Anaerobic Reactor (with Campbell Environmental) Treatment of abattoir effluent and effluent from a central septage treatment plant. 3. Evapotranspiration systems for small communities (with WAWA and Aboriginal Affairs Planning Authority) Disposal of septic tank effluent in impermeable soils, comprising a gravel trench overlaid first with coarse sand, then top soil, on which salt tolerant vegetation is grown (E. Camuladensis). Field trials are proceeding in the Kimberleys. 4. Pour-flush toilet With a "white bowl" fabricated from HDPE, suitable for remote communities. 5. Wind-powered RO desalination Unit 1000 Lid (with Memtec and W.D.Moore P/ L). Investigating membrane life, energy storage in pressure vessels and low recovery ratio to provide potable water. The reject stream is therefore only slightly more concentrated and will be used for other purposes, (washing, showers, irrigation). Prototype tested during 1988/ 9 at Murdoch, field tests in a remote community during 1990. 6. Solar powered RO desalination unit Incorporating energy recovery and simplified construction and control. A new low-pressure RO membrane for brackish water, coupled with an energy recovery pump, will be powered by two 55W panels mounted on a novel solar tracking system and should produce up to 1000 Lid . 7. Investigation of the trade-off between desired water quality/ quantity and cost in the Aboriginal lifestyle. 8. Design of Remote Area Hygiene Facility Integration of appropriate technology into a robust, affordable package.

WATER AUTHORITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA The majority of the investigations conducted by the Authority are in the areas of ecology and catchment monitoring. The following projects are those more directly related to R&D in urban water supply and disposal. 1. Destratification of Harding Dam. (With CHEL of Uni WA) (See above) . 2. Extreme Flood Estimation (With CWR of Uni WA) (see above). 3. Ultrasonic flow transducer Development of a high-resolution acoustic velocity transducer .to enable automatic measurement of river discharges.

ducts a wide range of research of relevance to urban water authorities, being funded from AWRAC, VWRAA, MBDC and private industry. 1. Organic Carbon in Water To identify the sources of natural organic material. To study the association with N and P and with clays in the soils, and the influence of catchment conditions on transport of these materials to the reservoirs. 2. Ozone-enhanced biological processes for removal of natural organic material To study the removal of organics prior to coagulation. This has the potential to reduce the coagulant dose, and minimise byproducts. 3. Algal Toxins To separate, identify and quantitate the toxins formed by Microcystis and Anabaena species. To investigate the conditions under which toxins are produced, and their 8istribution in blooms. 4. Control strategies for Naegleria Fowleri This free-living amoeboflagellate is associated with water supplies only in Australia. Its ecology and response to temperature is being studied, along with methods for differentiating pathogenic from benign amoebae. 5. Giardia and Cryptosporidium To develop methods for detection of such enteric protozoa, These are common in some Australian communities, particularly those with small rural water supplies and simple waste disposal systems. 6. Iron problems in borewaters Investigation of the chemical and biological processes contributing to precipitation of iron. The information will be used to develop a bioassay and iron fouling potential index. 7. Chemical regeneration of activated carbon Granular activated carbon is used for removal of tastes, odours and contaminants, but the present technique of regeneration by pyrolysis is expensive and unsuitable for small plants. Regeneration by acid / alkali treatments is being explored. 8. Ultraviolet disinfection A system for use in small supplies is being.assessed to determine whether quality can be maintained in the reticulation system without a residual disinfectant. The effect of irradiation of natural organics will be studied. 9. Chlorination by-products +As a continuation of this study, the occurence of a chlorinated furanone, known as MX, is being investigated. It is reported to be responsible for up to 90% of observed mutagenicity caused by chlorination of water containing organic material. 10. Tracing toxic discharges by biofilm analysis Compared to continuous monitoring or grab samples, analysis of the biofilm in a sewer promises to be a more effective means of detecting and tracing illegal discharges. 11. Stormwater quality/ quantity monitoring A network of gauging and sampling stations in the Adelaide Metropolitan area, to provide the data for construction of a model. The aim is both to manage marine pollution, and to investigate potential beneficial uses such as development of wetlands and recharge of groundwater.

4. Continuous sand filter (With Rein Loo & Assoc.) Evaluation of the Dynasand moving bed system for both water and wastewater treatment. 5. Packaged Advanced Wastewater Treatment Development of a small plant to provide high quality effluent for disposal in environmentally sensitive areas.

12. Alternative chemicals for control of algae To compare effectiveness of chelated copper compounds with copper sulphate, in laboratory and field.

6. Corrosion Rate of Mild Steel Bore Casing To provide a better estimate of service life.

Department of Civil Engineering

7. Soil Dispersion Development of reliable standard tests to identify dispersive soils. 9. Urban wetlands (with CSIRO, UniWA, EPA) Assessing impacts of urbanisation and groundwater use.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA AWRAC Centre for Water Treatment and Water Quality Research. The Centre combines the relevant expertise of the EWS State Water Laboratory, (Bolivar), the Waite Institute, !ind SAIT. It con24 WATER April 1990

UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE I. Optimisation of water distribution (with EWS) A computer study of the operating rules for the Adelaide reservoir system indicated potential for savings of more than $250,000 per year in pumping costs. User-friendly software is now being installed into the EWS computer.

2. Salinity costs (with EWS) The model can also be used to predict salinity. It indicates that savings of $3.0M per year (in corrosion costs and detergents) are possible, provided significant changes are made to operating procedures, such as pumping from the Murray at times of low salinity even when the Hills reservoirs are full. 3. Expert Systems (with EWS)

Formulation of expert systems for operation of water treatment plants was commenced in 1988 by interviewing several plant operators, and computerising their experience. The first system was for alarm diagnosis, the second provided advice on chemical dosing: Work is proceeding on further systems. 4. Waterhammer in reticulation systems The aim is to investigate column separation due to waterhammer events in pipelines. An experimental hydraulic rig is being constructed to measure peak pressures .

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOWGY 1. Work is continuing on development of data and procedures for the design of urban stormwater drainage systems. The project listed in the ACWTWQR list on stormwater is primarily at SAIT.

2. Fluoride, iodide, phosphate analyses Determination by Flow Injection Analysis.

ENGINEERING AND WATER SUPPLY DEPARTMENT, SA The following operational investigations are those conducted separately from the State Water Laboratory, and exclude monitoring c:,f water quality, etc. 1. Innovative water treatment technology

Evaluation of pilot plants for removal of turbidity and colour, including DAF (a Krofta unit), continuous sand filtration (a Dynasand unit) and a lamella separator. The objective is a more economical solution for the Northern Towns Program and rural facilities. 2. Sludge dewatering Evaluation of pilot plants for both water and wastewater sludge dewatering. Automatic polymer dosing will also be trialled. 3. Low cost water supplies A development of 150 houses is to be supplied with the AWRC "Basic Supply Level" of lOL/sec, instead of the standard 28 Lisee. Water use will be monitored and correlated with weather conditions, to establish changes in peak/ average flow ratios. There will be demonstrations of apropriate household fittings and garden watering systems. 4. Sludge Management Study Marine discharge of sludge will be discontinued by the end of 1993. Methods of dewatering and transportation, disposal or use are to be investigated, such as landfilling, and mine rehabilitation. 5. Forest irrigation by effluent A trial 20 ha of salt-tolerant native hardwood species is being irrigated by the Bolivar effluent. The objective is to assess the feasibility of a 400 ha forest at Two Wells, which, in conjunction with established horticultural use, could utilise the majority of the effluent from Bolivar. 6. Computer optimisation of water distribution and salinity (with Uni Adelaide) 7. Installation of expert systems for plant operation (with Uni Adelaide) 8. Destratification using mechanical mixers Operation of the Flygt mixers installed at Myponga is being modelled and optimised.

NORTHERN TERRITORY POWER AND WATER AUTHORITY 1. Manton and Darwin Dams Study (with Uni WA, CWR) (see above).

2. Crossflow ultrafiltration trials (with Memtec) Maturation pond effluent, effluent from high-lime STP, highly turbid river water. (A possible option for seasonal augmentation at Katherine, NT). 3. Domestic usage study, in detail Five houses fitted with meters to all usage areas, both hot and cold. One aim is to assess feasibility of grey water re-use.

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Department of Chemical Engineering 1. Nitrification/denitrification in lagoons (with MBW)

The combined algal/bacterial biofilms formed on surfaces immersed in sewage lagoons have been shown to possess better nitrifying capability than purely bacterial films. The role of the algae is being investigated. 2. Nitrification in lagoons. (with MBW) A series of experimental ponds at Werribee is being used to investigate how nitrification rates depend on a variety of wastewater properties and operating parameters. 3. Anaerobic rotating disc reactor Effect of shock loads on design equations. (NB: effect of transient loads on activated sludge design equations could also be studied)

MONASH UNIVERSITY Department of Civil Engineering 1. Modelling of capacity sharing for multiple use of surface storages, with particular reference to the Victorian Water Act. 2. Design of roadways as floodways. (with MBW) Code of practice for design of subdivisional roadways to drain effectively when underground drains are flooded.

3. Flow measurement structures in open channels (with MBW) For stormwater control. 4. Design guidelines for stable channels. (with MBW, RWC) For waterways. Department of Chemical Engineering 1. Corrosion of sewers

Studies of the dynamics of formation of sulphides by bacterial slimes, to develop procedures for minimising corrosion. 2. Odour control (With Latrobe Valley WSB) Theoretical and field studies of the oxygen injection facilities on the Outfall Sewer, to optimise efficiency. and develop better understanding of the design parameters. Department of Microbiology 1. Biological nutrient removal. (with CSIRO)

Study of the microorganisms involved: isolation, identification, DNA composition, biochemical and genetic aspects and effects of environmental factors.

CHISHOLM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOWGY The AWRAC Centre for Stream Ecoldgy is hosted by this Institute,

and is primarily concerned with improved management of streams and rivers. However, two projects of direct significance to urban systems have "spun off'. 1. Reed Bed systems for wastewater treatment (with Mornington Peninsula WSB) Six gravel beds planted with various reeds are undergoing longterm trials at Frankston STP. 2. Phosphorus analysis in the field Development an instrument for flow-injection analysis.

BENDIGO CAE This institute has a continuing interest in advanced wastewater treatment, particularly in biological nutrient removal. A pilot plant (1 KL/d)is being operated, as a teaching and research tool. 1. Investigation of the organism diversity in the full-scale BNR plant at Bendigo 2. Continuing identification of the geno-species of Acinetobacter 3. Investigation of the chemistry of polyphosphate secretion 4. Mathematical modelling of both conventional and advanced WWT

EPA VICTORIA A large number of investigations are being conducted into water quality of streams and marine waters. Those of particular significance to urban water and wastewater are related to urban stormwater discharges to the Yarra and Plentry rivers.

MELBOURNE BOARD OF WORKS As with the other major Boards, large sums are spent on monitoring and system investigations. The following projects are those with the potential for wider application: 1. Cloud seeding in the Thomson catchment (with CSIRO Atmospheric Research)

WATER April 1990 25

Investigating the micro-physical characteristics of the clouds, and correlation with statistical change in precipitation. 2. Forest hydrology Long term monitoring in a number of catchments. 3. Cost of supply and pricing (with SWB, WAWA) Establishing a practical methodology for costing water services. Stage 1 was performed by IAESR and developed a model. Stage 2 will apply this further to particular situations. 4. Estimation of infrastructure asset life An Expected Net Present Value Savings model has been developed for systematic analysis of repair/ replacement strategies for aging concrete sewers. Future cash flow estimates for the region under study have been reduced by c. 10%. The model is being applied to other regions. 5. Investigation of wastewater treatment in lagoons (with Uni Melbourne, see above). 6. Design of roadways as flood ways (with Monash Uni, see above) 7. Electronic meter reading A household data transmitter serving electricity, gas and water is proposed, to enable remote billing and off-peak pricing to be operated. A cheap radio link between the existing water meter and the common transmitter has been invented. Field tests are being carried out on the link . Liaison with the other authorities on the common system is proceeding. 8. Development of a sensor for chloramine (with Uni Wollongong, see below) 9. Effect of installation damage on lifetimes of UPVC pipes (with CSIRO Building Construction & Engineering) A laboratory rig which subjects test specimens to a regimen of pressure surges, modelled on field data, is being operated by CSIRO. A field survey of installation techniques and the types of damage inflicted is being made. A predictive model is to be developed . 10. Management and display of dam surveillance data Guidelines for a CAD/ CAM system for logging and processing of long-term data are being established. A demonstration system using Intergraph software for Thomson Dam data is in process. 11. Remote sensing of water quality in Port Phillip Bay Use of enhanced satellite photography to monitor algal and macrophyte growth. 12. Industrial Waste Grant Scheme To encourage R&D into waste minimisation and treatment. a. Swinburne Institute: removal and recycling of anionic contaminants from photographic and paper bleaching industries. b. CSF and Mike Lyons Assoc.: solvent extraction of volatile organics from wastewaters. c. Binnie & Partners: potential for reuse of wastewater in industry.

GEEWNGDWSB 1. Investigation of artificial recharge of a borefield (With CSIRO) Determining feasibility of recharge by pit system. 2. Monitoring of virus die-off in the marine environment at the end of the microscreened outfall

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY ACT ELECTRICITY AND WATER The Department sponsors Uni Canberra for a number of projects relating to water pollution. Their own main interest is in stormwater pollution and control by gross pollutant traps.

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY 1. Nitrate removal by immobilised microbial system. (with CSIRO, BMR and Centre for Appropriate Technology, Alice Springs) A simple system using immobilised Hyphomicrobium and methanol has been demonstrated on a laboratory scale and is to be tested as a rugged field unit in Central Australia. 2. Flood damage assessment and evaluation of flood warning A continuing program into all aspects of flood damage. Currently focussed on potential for urban damage and benefits of warning technology. Detailed study of Warragamba Dam. 26 WATER April 1990

UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA Water Research Centre The Centre specialises in investigations of water quality in urban lakes, reservoirs and streams. A particular interest is the use of ponds and wetland systems for controlling pollution from urban run-off. 1. Regional catchment management and receiving water quality Monkey Creek catchment, for Lake Burragorang. (with SWB) 2. Experimental wetland pond system for Blue Mountains Design, installation and monitoring of artificial wetlands for controlling pollution in run-off from Katoomba. Mosquito control guidelines incorporated. 70% reduction in phosphorus export expected. 3. Water Quality Monitoring Review (with SKP, Sydney) To review the monitoring network for NSW. 4. Water Quality in selected NSW storages To develop a compilation of existing data for a range of storages. 5. A number of other projects on water quality in surface waters are also being conducted. The management of pollution in Lake Burley Griffin is obviously a prime interest. Both NSW and Queensland Departments of Water Resources are being advised on procedures for monitoring. Studies of PAH and selenium in estuarine and marine environments are being conducted. 6. OECD Model Validation To validate the eutrophication model for Australian conditions. 7. Planning Models To develop a simple integrated computer support system for water quality planning. 8. Kosciusko Monitoring To design and operate an integrated biological/chemical monitoring program in the National Park, to assess impact of tourism and ski resorts. 9. Thredbo River biological study To assess the change of stress in the river following the commissioning of advanced wastewater treatment at the tourist village. 10. Eutrophication of the Gippsland Lakes To assess remote sensing and other monitoring techniques. 11. Real-time phosphorus analysis A review of Flow Injection Analysis methods, for analysis of phosphorus and other compounds/ that might be suitable for automation or field use.

NEW SOUTH WALES SYDNEY UNIVERSITY Department of Geography. (with Biocycle Pty Ltd) Assessment of performance of aerobic extended aeration package plants.

UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES This university hosts a number of AWRAC Centres of Concentration. Various Departments, such as Civil Engineering and Chemical Engineering, also have projects with an urban water theme.

Centre for Wastewater Treatment 1. Quantitative identification of piggery odours Using odour trapping techniques and analysis of individual compounds. Identification of operational circumstances which lead to generation and release of odours. 2. Characterisation of odours from sewage plants To identify and measure the odorous compounds near specific treatment units, and evaluate likely contributions to total odour profile. Analytical methods refined, field studies to follow. 3. Sewage grease in ocean Study of coagulation of oil and grease in effluents into grease balls. Factors studied are salinity, mixing, dilution, composition. Field study of behaviour in the ocean itself. 4. Removal of algae from tertiary pond effluents Pilot scale study of various filtration methods, in particular coarse media filtration. 5. Optimisation of tertiary pond design Multi-parameter testing in a laboratory tank system. Development

of model to predict bacterial die-off. 6. Biological Phosphorus removal Study of performance in Intermittently Decanted Extended Aeration Plants. Pilot scale (200 e.p) followd by full-scale testing. 7. Characterisation of lagooned sludge Sludges from EA, TF and AS plants studied for physical parameters related to thickening or dewatering. 8. Artificial Wetlands Long-term study of four differently constructed wetlands, each of 500 ep., fed with effluent from Byron Bay. A design rationale to be developed . 9. Use of sewage effluent in cooling towers Assessment of potential for such use, methods of treatment required to overcome problems, and economics. 10. Effluent re-use, effect on soils and groundwater Pilot scale study of physical and chemical changes to soil and quality of the the water leaching to the groundwater. Field study at Wagga Wagga.

11. Recycling of effluent: domestic .garden watering (with PWD) Twelve residential lots in a suburb of Shoalhaven are being provided with tertiary treated wastewater. First stage: literature review of appropriate guidelines, (health, soil, horticultural, operational problems) Second stage: evaluation of the pilot scheme. 12. Treatment of chlorinated wastewaters Investigation of UV-catalysed hydrogen peroxide to degrade chlorinated organics. Successful with chlordane, now directed at hexachlorbenzene and chlorinated phenols. 14. Oil-from-sludge An independent review of the technology being considered for Malabar. 13. Modelling of stormwater sedimentation basins Simulation of flow patterns, transport and sedimentation. The model to be validated against existing data.

6. Expert systems To develop a benefit/cost adviser program luitable for a one-time user, consistent with the NSW Treasury's asset appraisal guidelines. The program will run on an IBM PC, and will incorporate the knowledge of a number of economists, to assist the user to make key value judgements throughout the assessment. 7. Small scale water and sewerage policy options for NSW local government Centre for Groundwater Management and Hydrogeology

This centre specialises in modelling of water and solute transport related to agriculture and mining. Applications to the urban field relate to elucidating the hydrochemical processes involved in pollution of aquifers by urban and industrial wastes. Civil Engineering Department of Water Engineering. This department has a long-term interest in hydrology and runoff investigations.(A field station at Forest Hill in western NSW has a particular interest in flood situations in arid zones). Projects directly related to urban water are:

1. Lidsdale Forest (with Forestry Commmission and SWB) Water balance and yield of mature and cleared pine and eucalypt catchment. 2. Water quality and quantity in urban stormwater systems Monitoring of quantity and quality for a catchment in Sydney, and development of model to predict quality of the run-off. 3. Chlorination of local waters Formation of THMs. Role of copper, eucalypts, polyelectrolytes. Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry The School has a continuing interest in a number of aspects of water and wastewater treatment and collaboration with Australian industries including Memtec Ltd. It houses part of the activities of the Commonwealth Special Research Centre for Membrane and Separation Technology.

Projects related to urban water and wastewater are: Urban Water Policy Centre. (School of Economics)

The major goal of the Centre is to provide decision support for managers of urban water resources through research and modelling. Currently, the main project is !WR-MAIN AUSTRALIA, for which the Centre has developed a micro-computer based urban water use forecasting system. Its flexibility enables the model to reflect various types of water use in different economic environments and with different tariff structures and levels of charges. Research activity includes economic scenario development, analysis of consumption, cost analyses of augmentations and operations, and formulation of tariffs to meet management objectives. Under this broad heading, a number of ¡support projects are currently in operation. I. Asset management Analysis of operations, particularly the linkages between setting charges and augmentations. This combined conceptual and practical work complements the work carried out by AWRAC. 2. Trade waste tariffs To establish a rational basis for combinations of tariffs and restrictions (quality and quantity) to incorporate into a policy. 3. Water resources information To develop and test software for management information systems suitable for decision making and performance monitoring. Phase 1. Real-time day-to-day control of a water industry process will be modelled, and compared with these object-oriented programming techniques. Phase 2. Development of flexible software to suit the significant change towards management by objectives which is taking place in the water industry, in Australia, the UK and USA. The model to encapsulate the attributes of existing models and be able to embody new characteristics. 4. Conjunctive use model To develop models, both technical and economic, for formulation of strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface supplies. 5. Evaluation of stream-gauging systems Balancing network size and cost against usefulness for specific objectives, ranging from design of minor structures, estimation of resources, to flood forecasting. 28 WATER April 1990

1. Feasibility of using crossflow microfiltration for water supplies, wastewaters and industrial effluents. Specific examples include the microfiltration of primary sewage, and the treatment of tannery, starch factory and oil-in-water effluents. 2. Developing ways to reduce foul&1g of membranes by postfabrication surface treatment. 3. Biometric membranes Development of membrane based sensors, incorporating moieties extracted from biological systems. 4. Use of membrane technology in conjunction with activated sludge systems for compact water treatment plant 5. Wastewater treatment with novel adsorbents This includes batch and column investigations of the use of carbon, ferrites and resins for removal of heavy metals and organics. 6. Removal of chlorhydrocarbons by electrochemical and biological means Water Research Laboratory (Manly Vale) This laboratory concentrates on hydraulic and environmental investigations.

1. Sewer outfalls to the ocean Development of design principles for natural mixing and transport. Monitoring of existing and proposed outfalls. 2. Stormwater outfalls Investigations of designs for better means of discharging across the beach and the surf zone. 3. Georges River flood plain Physical modelling, leading to predictions of water levels for specifed flood events. 3. Physical and numerical modelling of the Penrith Lakes development

MACCQUARIE UNIVERSITY 1. Relationship between catchment characteristics and pollutant loads Trapping and analysis of gross pollutant load in selected streams of the Lane Cove Valley. Correlation with land use, drainage, network, etc.

2. Heavy metal and phosphorus pollution of an urban floodplain (with SWB) The Lane Cove valley is being surveyed for correlation of pollution ¡ with exotic weed outbreaks. 3. Design guidelines for minimisation of urban stormwater run-off and associated pollution 4. Urban run-off and water quality (with CSF, SPCC, Uni WS) Sampling, analysis and computer modelling.

UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG Water Engineering and Geomechanics Research Program Department of Civil and Mining Engineering

1. Water quality modelling of urban catchments Measurements of variation in quality and quantity during storm events. Deterministic and regressive models for selected catchments in Wollongong, Sydney and Canberra. 2. Prediction of effects of urbanisation Data collected and banked for 340 storm events in 16 urban catchments, in Australia and five other countries, as basis for predictive analyses. Good reproduction of flood hydrograph achieved, and quality relations being studied. 3. Urban storm drainage design, particularly use of detention basins PC software developed for culvert and basin design . 4. Effects of artificial destratification (with SWB) Studying Fe, Mn, DO, temperature: correlation with weather and reservoir dynamics. 5. Hydraulic and numeric modelling of rectangular clarifiers, and experiments on effects of wind 6. Use of fly-ash as weighting agent in wastewater coagulation (with SWB, Elcom, Amatek) A mixture of flyash and sludge is being trialled for brick manufacture. Department of Mechanical Engineering.

1. Dissolution of Ozone into water Laboratory and pilot plant study of methods to enhance the transfer of ozone into water. Department of Biology

1. Revegetation of disturbed catchments (with SWB) To recommend management strategies to facilitate revegetation Effects on catchment yield of grazing after fire. Effects of soil disturbance on mycorrhizal fungi. 2. Detection and control of Legionella Development of residual diagnostic techniques. Efficiency of physical and chemical agents on microbial pollutants in water and wastewater. Microwave Applications Centre

1. Sewage sludge processing (with SWB, Elcom, BHP) Sludge is smelted with steel works dust to produce pig iron, road metal, and zinc oxide. 2. Microwave sterilisation of sludge (with SWB) ¡ A rotary microwave kiln which has been developed for drying difficult materials is being tried for sterilisation.

WATER BOARD (SWB) The Water Board, Sydney, also takes in responsibility for the Blue Mountains and the Illawarra districts. It sponsors a large number of investigations, research and development projects and also operates projects in-house. For the purposes of this survey, those investigations which the author regards as specific to the Board, or part of its normal responsibilities, have been condensed, but the list of projects which have wider application is still considerable. 1. The monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts on receiving waters in the Blue Mountains, the urban rivers and the Nepean-Hawkesbury system is estimated to cost some $2M over four years. The aquifer abutting the industrial zone of Botany is being monitored, along with the creeks,swamps, estuaries and bays which are affected primarily by stormwater. Both Public health and pollutant aspects are being studied. The Monkey Creek catchment for the Burragong Dam is being closely studied in collaboration with CWR, Canberra (see above)

2. Management of disturbed catchments (With Uni Wollongong) 3. Lidsdale Forest Catchment (with UNSW Civil Engineering) A long-term study of effects on water yield of softwood reafforestation. Computerised data collection and analysis. 4. Katoomba macrophyte bed trials (With CWR Canberra) (See above). 5. Surf health survey Monitoring the health over four years of a cohort of people with maximum exposure to the supposed risks of surf swimming and boardriding and comparing it with that of a control group, matched by age, sex and socio-economic factors, who are primarily exposed to freshwater activities. The effects of commissioning of the Deepwater Outfalls will be included. 6. Employee health Survey of the effects of drug and alcohol problems. Pilot studies in three different regions of social problems, such as family, financial, ageing, etc. 7. Off-host development Transfer of software developed on PCs to the mainframe system. A pilot application will be implemented into the ACCESS DB2/ CICS Region. 8. Nepean Dam destratification With the CWR, Western Australia. see above. 9. Silver Gull project Study of biology and ecology to develop strategies for minimisation of contamination of water storages. (also problems at Sydney Airport) 10. Water Quality The quality of the water supplied to consumers is continuously under review, under a number of related projects. Quality problems of particular interest include: trace organics, heavy metals, THMs, pathogens, aluminium speciation, effect of nitrification and biofilms on chlorine residuals, cu pro-solvency, effects of chlorination. 11. Drinking water treatment Both enhancement of existing plants an'd process investigation for new plants. Includes investigation of membrane filtration, activated carbon and ozone. 12. Disinfection , System optimisation of current processes. Investigation of byproducts. Investigation of alternatives where desirable. 13. New wastewater treatment processes As well as the laboratory support for the pilot and plant-scale projects listed below, investigations will proceed in the laboratory on: Pre-fermentation for biological nutrient removal; Characterisation of phosphate-accumulating organisms; Correlation of phosphate-accumulation with metal ion concentration. Minimisation of bulking by use of selectors and compartmentalisation. 14. Magnetite Process (with CSIRO and AUSTEP) Pilot trials at the CSIRO field station, (Lower Plenty, Vic) and then with a transportable pilot plant at Malabar STP have shown that the "Sirofloc" process can be operated on screened raw sewage to achieve an acceptable "secondary" effluent. A plant-scale trial is planned. 15. Biocarbone Process (with Aquatech-Maxcon and OTV) A pilot plant operated at Quakers Hill from 1986 to 1989, could remove up to 900Jo of grease and solids, but developed problems with the backwash system. A larger pilot plant incorporating improvements is being operated at Malabar. 16. Dissolved-air Flotation Process Pilot-scale trials were completed at Cronulla in 1989, and then transferred to Malabar. The trials demonstrated that up to 90% removal of grease and solids could be achieved. A plant-scale trial is being installed at North Head STP, where the pressurised main enables the process to be operated without recycle. 17. Chemically-assisted sedimentation A pilot plant at Cronulla showed that addition of alum, iron salts and/or polyelectrolytes to the primary sedimentation tanks can remove up to 80% of grease and suspended solids. The plant has been transferred to Malabar and operation is being optimised. 18. Trials of crossflow microfiltration on effluents (with Memtec Ltd) WATER April 1990 29

19. Evaluation of extended aeration WWT Systems such as "Biocycle" and "Envirocycle" are being monitored over three years to assess the impact on the receiving catchment. 20. Performance of current STPs Assessment and audit to maximise efficiency and effluent quality. 21. STP licence compliance This analytical program includes a project to assess new chemicals which may become problems. 22. Specialised pathogen studies Study of disease-causing organisms and viruses in receiving waters, and beaches affected by stormwaters, streams and sewage discharges. Study of microbiology of greaseballs in effluents discharged to the ocean. 23. Ohmic heating of sludge (with CSIRO) A feasibility report on sterilisation by impressed electric current. This may be cheaper than microwave technology. 24. Microwave treatment of sludge (with Uni Wollongong) Sterilisation to provide a product which can be safely used. A continuous plant at Shellharbour STP is being monitored by the Microwave Research Centre and initial results will be used to design a pilot plant for St. Mary's STP. 25. Composting of sludge The Orgo Natural system is being tried at Bellambi STP. Class B, USEPA quality has been achieved, Class A is being attempted. 26. Use of sludge for smelting A proposal that the University of Wollongong Microwave Centre investigate the use of sludge as a carbon feed in ore smelting. 27. Bio fly Brick A proposal by University of Wollongong to investigate the use of sludge, plus fly ash, to manufacture bricks (with Elcom and Amatek) 28. Sewerage Reticulation Projects are in hand to improve effectiveness: Use of pump wells; Grease removal; Compliance for metals, organochlorines, pesticides; Instream chemical/biological interactions; Ingress/egress and surcharge. 29. Trade waste As well as the analytical service, the Service operates projects which assess new technologies for on-site treatment before entry into the sewer.


6. Effect of climate on water sources Climatic parameters to be added to models of the headworks systems, in order to explore effects of postulated climate changes. 7. Biological removal of iron and manganese A pilot study has proved that the method is feasible, and a final report will be available in 1990. 8. In-ground removal of iron A study at the Tomago Sandbeds is showing that the system provides better water quality than that obtained from a treatment plant. 9. Effect of sand mining on iron solubility Analysis of the causes for the increase in iron levels to determine future policy for the Tomago Sandbeds. 10. Leakage management Assessing effect of pressure reduction on leakage and demand. A remotely controlled PCV installed at Raymond Terrace showed that a small reduction in pressure significantly reduced watermain breaks but was not noticed by the consumers. This project was completed in 1989, but monitoring will continue. 11. Corrosion rates of brass in Australian potable waters a. Development of a rapid test method using computer-controlled electrochemical equipment. b. Effect of water chemistry on dezincification of duplex brass. 12. Biological nutrient removal (with CSIRO) A continuing project at Lower Plenty, Vic., and at a pilot plant at Marmong. A project is proposed for assessment of a long sludge age activated primary tank. 13. Activated sludge settling Characterisation of settling properties to rationalise design of clarifiers. 14. Effluent disposal by rapid infiltration The Anna Bay/ Fingal Bay Sandbeds aquifer is to be recharged with secondary treated effluent to replace the outflow of usable water to the sea. The project will require field trials over several years. 15. Nutrient removal by artificial wetlands An artificial wetland is being constructed for tertiary treatment of effluent from Minmi STP. '

Proposals for future projects: 16. Effluent disposal on woodlots A 5 ha trial for Branxton STP. ' 17. Development of a water-efficient house 'Irials of water-saving appliances.Investigations for grey water reuse. Both a retro-fitted house and a new house to be monitored. 18. Membrane technology To produce 'off-line' effluent suitable for industrial use, (such as coal stockpile spraying) The concentrate to be returned to the sewer.

The Board is involved in a number of R&D projects, both inhouse, and in collaboration with CSIRO, Uni NSW (Urban Water Policy Centre), and Uni Newcastle (Department of Civil Engineering), as well as investigations into wastewater characteristics, 1/1 survey, and sewer design.


1. Performance indicators in the water industry Uoint with other Authorities) Evaluation of indicators such as RRR, price versus service, operating versus capital costs, etc. to compare Australian authorities with each other and with similar organisations in U.K. and U.S.A. and to identify sucessful management policies.

1. Effect of effluent on soils (with Uni NSW) Identifying possible deleterious effects in agricultural reuse. 2. Byron Bay artificial wetlands (with Uni NSW and Uni WS) Study of effectiveness of various types of wetlands for effluent treatment.

2. Forecasting water demand Stage 1 of the project developed a model which forecasts demand, with a lead time of one day, based on the weather data, thus assisting optimisation of system operation. The report will be available in 1990.

3. Removal of algae from pond effluent (with UniWS) Investigation of various methods. 4. NSW water supply and sewerage performance improvement Comparison of performance of various Councils to identify areas for improvement. (Report April 1990) 5. Water demand patterns Collection and analysis of data of monthly, daily and instantaneous demands in NSW country towns. (Initial results published March 1989)

3. Effect of user-pays tariffs on domestic water consumption The initial effect of the tariffs, after due allowance for weather variations, was a drop in consumption of 20-30%. A preliminary model developed for the region has been published, and is being improved. A sample of residential properties is being monitored for both in-house and outdoors usage, to identify causes for changes in domestic consumption in the long term. 4. Water consumption and socio-economic factors (With Urban Water Policy Centre, Uni NSW) Relating consumption with data from the Australian Census. 5. Uncertainty simulation in water demand model (With Uni Newcastle) Incorporating uncertainty and subjective judgements into a simulation model of the water supply system. 30 WATER April 1990

6. Leakage control NSW Manual for assessment of leakage published Feb 1990. Proposed study into pressure reduction for leakage control. 7. Low cost water supply and sewerage AWRC Guidelines for Small Communities published February 1989: AWRC National Workshop proceedings, to be published June 1990. A Handbook for Investigation and Design of Low Cost Water Supply and Sewerage Schemes is proposed. Low cost treatment schemes are being investigated.

8. AWRC Water Quality Database

Approximately 50% of the data from around Australia now entered. 9. Biological phosphorus removal A continuing interest in applications in NSW. 10. Effluent re-use. Urban study. Reticulation of tertiary

UNIVERSITY OF NEW ENGLAND This institution hosts the AWRAC Centre for Water Policy Research, in the Departmrnts of Geography and Resources Engineering. The main thrust is the application of the social sciences to policy, administration and institutional organisation in large catchments, mainly irrigation situations. Projects in these and other Departments with direct application to urban use are: 1. Multi-objective planning methodology for water resources Suitable for Australian conditions. 2. Measurement of wind-driven circulation in shallow lakes and _validation of a model 3. Toxicity of Mycrocystis Aeruginosa Assessment of carcinogenic and tetragenic activity of cyanobacterial extracts. 4. Monitoring of destratification of Malpas Dam (Armidale) plus monitoring of-all larger dams in the Tableland for factors affecting water quality. 5. Ecology of phytoplankton in freshwater lakes and storage~ 6. Ecology of aquatic plants and mosses in permanent and ephemeral wetlands

QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND Department of Chemical Engineering

1. Re-use of effluent for potable purposes. a. A review of unplanned re-use, i.e. dowstream intakes. b. Survey of six centres in Australia to determine public attitudes. c. Review of the technology available. 2. Control of wastewater treatment plants a. Activated sludge: development of expert systems, based on ASPIRE, to advise operators: e.g. diagnosis of sludge bulking problems. b. High-rate anaerobic systems: development of dynamic model for auto-control with aim to reduce caustic consumption. 3. Review of wastewater treatment systems suitable for resorts (seasonal loads, remote conditions, high cost energy, but may require high quality discharge to environment). Department of Chemistry, Water Research Group 1. Speciation of Mn and Fe in urban storages in order to understand

the efficacy of various removal methods before and during storage. 2. Speciation and analysis of oxychlorine species in water disinfected by chlorine dioxide. Development of a simple colorimetric method for chlorine dioxide estimation. 3. Speciation and analysis of phosphorus compounds in estuarine sediments, with emphasis on sewage effluent sources.

BRISBANE CITY COUNCIL As with the other major urban water authorities, the BCC Water Supply and Sewerage Department conducts many routine scientific investigations. The greater part of this effort is incurred in the scientific assessment and protection of water resources and the monitoring of water quality both in the storages, the reticulation system, and the receiving waters. A particular interest is to ensure sound

32 WATER April 1990

decisions for control of future discharges to Brisbane River and the Bay, including the necessity for nutrient removal. In the field of research and development the Council sponsors projects and conducts the following R&D projects in-house: 1. Land farming of hydrocarbon waste Investigating the practical application of such industrial wastes onto land to protect the sewerage system. 2. Taste and odour control in water supplies Identifying and quantifying the problems of taste and odour in Australian water supplies, defining causes and identifying possible control measures. 3. Odour emission from STPs Study of profiles at Gibson Island, using modelling techniques to provide recommendations for control. 4. Direct Filtration Pilot scale investigation as an alternative for North Pine WTP. The use of ozone as a coagulant aid is a component. 5. Meter assemblies Evaluation of tenders for supply of packages complete with isolating and check valves and underground housing. 6. Disposal and utilisation of sludge Evaluation of options: agricultural and forestry, composting/ marketing, pyrolysis/ incineration. 7. Thickening of primary sludge Trials of centrifuge, rotary screen and DAF. 8. Optimisation of sludge dewatering A rheological instrument will be used to automatically control dosing of PE conditioner before a belt filter press.

JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY, TOWNSVILLE This institution hosts the AWRAC Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, which primarily works on understanding the physical, chemical and biological behaviour of storages in the tropics, the ecology of rivers, and the run-off, erosion and soil leaching of the high rainfall areas. The University also has a continuing interest in marine chemistry and ecology, in view of the proximity of the Barrier Reef. The Department of Civil and Systems Engineering has continuing projects in design of urban stormwater systems, especially those necessary to cope with tropical storms. Projects of specific interest for the urban field are: 1. Stormwater pit investigations Hydraulic studies on flow patterns using perspex models and laser doppler flow meters. 2. Effect of density contrasts on contaminant transport in groundwater Development of numerical models supported by laboratory experiments to predict movement of dense plumes in unconfined aquifers. 3. Insect-borne viruses in water storages To develop testing procedures for diagnosis of arbovirus infections and detection of specific antigens in mosquitos or antibodies in sentinel animals 4. Impact of urban development of fringing reefs Base-line studies of water quality and benthic status prior to and during construction projects. 5. Side-entry inlets in urban drains Laboratory measurements of flow-rate capture efficiency for a variety of configurations and variables. 6. Stormwater infiltration into sewers. The effect of tropical storms is being measured by field instruments and computer models developed to predict discharges into the sewerage systems. 7. Jet outfalls into shallow waters Laboratory studies of the pattern of movement of buoyant plumes in shallow water bodies influenced by currents.

CSIRO in Urban Water and Wastewater Research In CSIRO, the Federal research agency, a number of Divisions have projects of relevance to the urban water industry, although the main thrust of CSIRO water research is on the broader scale of water resources and environmental aspects, which apply to the nation as a whole rather than to any specific industry. In general, CSIRO projects are aimed at longer range targets than those usually recognised as immediately significant by urban water authorities. In days gone by the thesis was that all Governmentfunded research was for the public, and all that was needed was for the results to be published in the appropriate scientific journal. Those days have long passed, at least for those Divisions dealing with industries, (though even in those Divisions there still remains a core of "pure" scientific research which is directed at the extension of knowledge rather than solving problems). Nowadays, once an advance has been made, it is recognised that it is imperative for CSIRO staff to assist with the development stage, even to the extent of commercialisation. Also, most Divisions are now expected to derive up to 30% of their funds from outside sources, thereby becoming more deeply implicated with the people who will apply the results of the research.

Division of Water Resources This Division has its main laboratories in Wembley, WA, and others in Canberra, the Waite Institute, SA, Griffith, NSW, and at the Murray-Darling Freshwater Research Centre, Albury, NSW. It hosts the AWRAC Centre for Research into Groundwater Processes, which takes in the expertise of soils at the Waite Institute, together with Flinders University, the EWS and Mines Departments of SA Its objectives are to assess and improve the management of Australia's water resources, on a broad scale.

water and also in soil-gas. The success of this application suggests that TEM has much to offer for monitoring and prevention programs dealing with urban groundwater pollution. 5.

1DPOG catchment model for design of trench disposal systems At many popular recreation resorts, which are out of range of sewerage systems, safe disposal of sewage is a problem. Originally developed to assist forestry operations, TOPOG is a three-dimensional catchment model which can be used to simulate sub-surface drainage in complex topography. It was used to optimise a large adsorption trench layout at the Cotter Reserve. The first year's operation has shown that with careful placement of trenches a small disposal scheme can safely depend on natural soil processes. 6.

Management of recreation, tourism and water resources Initial work is concentrating on alpine parks of Victoria, developing methods for monitoring water quality, assessing impacts of tourism, and integrating tourism with catchment management programs.


Involving the public in managing water resources A major study conducted by the Division of Water Resources in Perth, Canberra and Sydney in 1989 with the support of UWRAA found that people are prepared to accept personal responsibility as water consumers, as long as the water agency is publicly accountable and is genuine in seeking public opinion. The study recommends that water agencies develop more personal contact with the public, rather than rely on communication through the mass media. 8.

Onkaparinga decision support system The Canberra Laboratory of the Division of Water Resources is collaborating with the EWS to build a decision support system to help with the management of the Onkaparinga catchment. The system has three main elements:

Recent and current projects:

• an information base;


• an expertise base;

Analysis of sediments of Lake Burley Griffin. A study in 1988 analysed sediment cores by magnetic minerals and radionucleides techniques, and identified the sources of the sediments. 2. Warragamba Catchment In collaboration with the SWB and the NSW Soil Conservation Service, the Division has collected data on sediment now trapped in various farm dams and reservoirs within the catchment. This data is being used to predict sediment yield from sub-catchments with no dams. The aim is a model which will enable the prediction of sediment movement and yield for the entire catchment. 3.

Satellite link in monitoring water quality For several years the Division of Water Resources has been developing systems by which data Joggers can be left unattended for long periods, with data transmission to the laboratory via the ARGOS system on the NOAA satellite. Such field units can be installed in any location, no matter how remote, and the data is never more than hours old. Now commercialised, the system has recently been extended to enable use of the INMARSAT satellite. A further development in 1992 will add a third satellite option, the Australian geostationary satellite AUSSAT. One installation in 1990 monitors quality parameters at Houlgrave Weir on the Onkaparinga River. The development is being carried out by the Division jointly with the AWRAC Centre for Water Treatment and Water Quality Research. The instrumentation will join a range of other submersible and landbased environmental monitors capable of satellite telemetry that have been designed and assembled by the Instrumentation Research and Development Group of the Division of Water Resources. 4.

Urban groundwater pollution monitoring by TEM Work recently begun by the Division in WA aims to assess the quantities, behaviour and potential sources of chemical pollutants in the aquifers on the Swan Coastal Plain . (TCE, PCE, 1,1,l,trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, benzene). Nitrate and phosphate, which are likely to control bacterial breakdown of organics, are also monitored. The CSIRO Division of Exploration Geoscience applied transient electromagnetic induction (TEM) to tracing the leachate plume from a waste disposal site in Perth . Organic pollutants were investigated both in the polluted ground-

• an operating procedure that predicts consequences of proposed management actions, both in water quality and costs. A pilot system has been completed, and further system developments are likely as adjustments and ttming proceed. 9.

Decision support system for capital works program The CSIRO 'Queensberry' system, developed in the Perth laboratory, is a menu-driven database program for writing, storing and analysing text-based debates about policy. There is quick access to relevant statements and backup material through either the hypertext links or keyword search. The system can run policy simulations, link it into the hypertext, and display the output graphically. The NSW Department of Water Resources is the first to work with CSIRO in applying this to their IO-year works program . Senior management are then able, in an intuitive and visual way, to compare the budgetary effects of putting different weights on different criteria and rescheduling projects. Their decisions can be included in the hypertext.

10. Design of artificial recharge works. With Geelong WSB The Board is investigating recharge of the Barwon Downs aquifer. The Division's role in this project has been: a. to identify the factors controlling the flow of water from the recharge pits to the aquifer; b. to build a model which will predict infiltration, given different soil types and pits of various shapes; c. to select and design appropriate instrumentation. The model successfully predicted the influence of the soil profiles. (The experience gained from this project is applicable to recharge aquifers, to the design of compensating basins for stormwater and road runoff, and has implications for tailings dams and wastewater infiltration). 11.

Management of natural wetlands in Perth. With WAWA,


CSIRO is working to understand the hydrology of the shallow lakes and wetlands and the groundwater. Numerical models are being verified using isotopic analyses. The models are being used to predict the potential effects of pumping from the groundwater WATER April 1990 33

into the lakes, of withdrawals from adjacent aquifers and the potential for nutrient migration. 12. The use of macrophytes in artificial wetlands for sustained removal of nutrients. The mechanisms of such wetlands are a continuing study in a number of places in Australia. Small-scale studies have demonstrated that the failure of some macrophyte installations to remove nutrients is due to short-circuiting of the flow below the root mass.

Division of Chemicals and Polymers Water and Wastewater Treatment Program The main laboratory of this Division is at Clayton, Vic, adjacent to Monash University. The Water Group also have a field station at Lower Plenty, with access to raw sewage from an MBW trunk sewer. The objective of the Division as a whole is to assist the Australian chemicals and polymer industries. The Water Group was incorporated into this Division because most of its technologies are physico-chemical, although it uses a much wider spectrum of expertise.

Recent and Current Projects I. The "Sirofloc" process, (with AUSTEP Pty. Ltd.) ¡ Further development of this physico-chemical process for treatment of raw water has led to its installation in WTP plants overseas. The main focus of attention is now on its application to sewage and to industrial and mining effluents. Sewge treatment pilot plants have been operated at Lower Plenty and also at Malabar, for the SWB. They have demonstrated that they can provide a clear effluent in a plant which is far smaller than a conventional aeration system. Sirofloc systems are also being investigated overseas for treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. 2.

Coagulation Investigations have extended from the magnetite system of the 'Sirofloc' process to other systems. Foam flotation is being investigated for the clean-up of high strength organic wastes, such as wool scour liquors and bleach plant effluents from pulp mills. 3.

Electro-coagulation of turbid water For small communities the dosing of the correct amounts of coagulants to treat waters of widely varying turbidities is fraught with problems. A technique has been developed which relies solely on adjustment of pH, which is a relatively robust system. 4.

Magnetic ion exchange The development of magnetic micro-particles with active groups, such as ion exchangers, has enabled continuous plants to be designed. They can be applied not only to potable water treatment, e.g. for desalination, and for removal of coloured organics (which improves the subsequent coagulation process), but also to industrial wastes. They have been tried for electroplating wash-waters, and to effluents from the mining and chemical industries. Treatment of slurries, sludges and soils The application of the magnetic wet drum separators, widely used in the mineral industries, to treatment of water resulted in the Sirofloc process. A further application which has been explored is the use of these machines to enable magnetic ion exchangers to be recovered efficiently from mineral slimes, soil slurries and even sewage sludges. The possibility now exists to treat such materials by ion exchange or other adsorbents. A simple system can extract heavy metals from sewage sludge, either before or after digestion. 5.


Advanced biological treatment of wastewaters The AAA Process, or alternating aerobic/anaerobic, for nitrogen removal, which was pioneered at the Lower Plenty field station, has been applied successfully by the MBW to a neighborhood STP at Brushy Creek, and is being installed at other plants. In separate investigations, work has been proceeding for some years on proving the feasibility of BNR for the removal of phosphorus for the Australian scene. This work led to the fullscale plant at Ballarat which was the first to conclusively demonstrate that BNR is a realistic option. In collaboration with Monash University (Microbiology) a program of investigation into understanding the mechanisms for enhanced removal of phosphorus has commenced. A pilot plant is operated at Lower Plenty. 7.

Disinfection One investigation is working on cheaper methods for the generation of ozone for disinfection of potable water. Solid disinfectants for point-of-use systems are being developed.

34 WATER April 1990


Biodegradation All processes which purify water or efflue~ts yield a concentrate stream, or sludge. The team is investigating biodegradation techniques for such materials. 9.

Analysis Advanced analytical facilities to support these programs include analysis of trace amounts of chlorinated organics, such as are generated by pulp mills.

Division of Building, Construction and Engineering This Division is at Highett, Vic. and its objective is to promote the introduction of efficient and effective practices, processes and products into the construction industry, including the urban infrastructure.

Current Projects: 1. Commissioning procedures for new UPVC mains. A report was submitted in August 1989: Under poor installation practices lead can be extracted from new pipes. However, a regime of three turbulent water changes before commissioning was proved effective. Current aim is to get these procedures adopted. 2.

Effect of installation damage on UPVC mains. (With MBW) A project which has been in operation for some years. It has investigated and defined typical pressure fluctuations, constructed a machine which imposes these on a test specimen, and written the Australian Standard AS 3707. The program has investigated the effect of sharp notches and defined a theory, and is now investigating the effect of blunt damage.

Division of Fuel Technology Centre for Advanced Analytical Chemistry

I. A comprehensive range of techniques is available within the Division's laboratories at Lucas Heights. The speciation of toxic metals is being correlated with bio-assays. The water environment group have analysed water samples and sediment cores from the NSW lakes which are affected by heavy industry, from Sydney Harbour, and from water bodies affected by•mining operations. It is the only Australian laboratory measuring tributyl tin (from anti-fouling paints) at environmental concentrations. 2. Investigations into the use of photolysis with titanium dioxide catalyst for the destruction of organfc compounds in water.

ANSTO Environmental Science Program This is a large group which specialises in the mechanisms of pollutant transport, and the photo-chemistry of inorganic/ organic complexes in natural waters. They have a continuing interest in iron and manganese problems in waters. There is one specific project funded by AWRAC: 1. Investigations, mainly by static and dynamic light scattering techniques, of the structure of sub-micron particles and particle aggregates, and the implications on water quality aspects, e.g. ability of the particles to scavenge pollutants, reactivity of the particles to coagulants, filtrability of the particles. Division of Food Processing. The expertise of this Division on the identification of flavours in food is being applied in a somewhat different field, in the following projects:

Prediction of odour characteristics in sewage (with SWB) Establishing the relationship between composition of mixtures of odourous compounds and the strength and type of smell as perceived by humans. Providing data for modelling odour intensities. 2. Remote monitoring ofH2S (with SWB and Uni Wollongong) Developing an electronic device for the detection and measurement of low concentrations of H 2S in the atmosphere. Division of Atmospheric Research Cloud-seeding in the Thomson Catchment (With MBW) Investigating the microphysical characteristics of clouds and correlating with rainfall statistics. More than a dozen winter storms have been measured, and the data from four analysed to date. Indications are that local conditions may be more productive for seeding than would be suggested from regional meteorology. 1.


Chlorine dioxide - ¡ Australian applications by B.C COPPER, Technical Manager, ICI Watercare SUMMARY


Disinfection processes for potable water are now expected to achieve more than the primary objective of disinfection. Similarly, in the sewage treatment field, disinfection also has to meet a variety of environmental requirements. Correct choice of disinfection agent can help solve problems such as manganese removal, trihalomethane formation, taste and odour formation , effluent disinfection and foul air de-odourisation. This paper reviews the use of chlorine dioxide in solving specific problems, with reference to Australian installations.

Chlorine dioxide should not be regarded as a substitute for correct pre-treatment of water containing high levels of THM precursors, but can prove very useful in reducing levels that are somewhat higher than desired. The limiting factor is of course, the maximum chlorine dioxide demand that can be satisfied, without exceeding the recommended limit for the inorganic by-products, chlorite and chlorate. If desired, it is still possible to use a mixed residual of chlorine and chlorine dioxide in the reticulation system, since the reaction between chlorine dioxide and THM precursors is completed within the residence time available in most normal treatment processes. The additional chlorine can then be added prior to reticulation.

INTRODUCTION The use of chlorine dioxide is still in its infancy in Australia, by comparison with many overseas countries, but enough installations now exist to demonstrate the ability of the material to solve specific problems in both potable water and sewage treatment. In this article . we will illustrate local applications involving problems with: Manganese removal, potable water

At present, the use of chlorine dioxide with a primary aim of THM control is not widespread in Australia, although it has been used for some considerable time by a Queensland Shire and is soon to be used at another. It is under active investigation by several other authorities.

Trihalomethane reduction, potable water Taste and odour control , potable water. Effluent disinfection Foul air de-odourising

POTABLE WATER APPLICATIONS Before we look at individual applications, it wo uld be beneficial to consider the particular properties of chlorine dioxide that should be considered when assessing its potential for solving a potable water problem. a) It is a more powerful biocide than chlorine, particularly in its virucidal role. b) It does not drop in efficiency in the higher pH ranges of potable waters. c) Only short contact times are required for complete disinfection (2-5 minutes). d) Low residuals will provide efficient disinfection (0.1 -0.3 mg/ !) e) It does not form trihalomethanes, although a reduced amount may be formed by an excess of chlorine. f) It destroys the precursors for THM production.

g) It does not react with ammonia and shows only slight reactivity with primary amines.

TASTE AND ODOUR CONTROL Chlorine dioxide is a powerful, but selective oxidant. As a result, many sources of taste and odour in water may be satisfactorily treated by its use, but some odour forming compounds may show little reaction at acceptable dose rates. It is, therefore, necessary to carefully assess the cause of the problem and/or run a trial on the supply, to ensure that the application is correct. Overseas, much use is made of chlorine dioxide for destruction of phenolic contaminates in water supplies. In this instance, it will both prevent the formation of chlorphenols and destroy any which may already be present. The reaction is very rapid, being completed within seconds provided that the pH is above 7 and an excess of chlorine dioxide is present. ' Although ozone may obviously be used to destroy the same odour forming compounds as chlorine dioxide, the capital costs involved will often prove prohibitive. ., In Australia, applications that are primarily targetted towards odour control are not yet widespread. One major application where it was chosen for this purpose is at a regional plant of a NSW water board. The taste and odour problem there resulted from severe algae blooms in the river upstream of the intake. No operating experience is to date available, due to the absence of lengthy periods of low flow since the plant was completed. The process obviously cannot be really tested until another major algae bloom occurs. Once again, a number of other bodies are actively considered its use.



Following a lengthy history of "dirty water" problems, associated with difficulties in removing manganese at the treatment plant, a Queensland council introduced the use of chlorine dioxide in 1985. The purpose of the treatment was three fold: a) To ensure the oxidation of manganese and its subsequent removal at the filtration stage. b) To provide a longer lasting residual in the reticulation system, without comprising the disinfection potential.

The beneficial properties of chlorine dioxide that are important in the sewage treatment applications are as follows: -

c) To aid in the removal ofbio-film, without creating taste and odour problems. To achieve these objectives, the Council used addition of chlorine dioxide to the settled water, prior to filtration , then established a mixed residual of chlorine dioxide and chlorine in the ratio of approximately 1 to 2. The total addition of chlorine dioxide/chlorine was controlled to remain below the USEPA recommended limit 1 mg/ ! total oxychlorine species. Since this treatment regime was introduced, major problems with "dirty water" have become a "thing of the past". It is of interest to note that earlier attempts to achieve the same results, with increased chlorine residuals, lead to taste and odour complaints. Whilst this was almost certainly an indication that the chlorine was working, the effect on customer relations was undesirable.

a) It does not react with ammonia. b) It does not form THM type compounds. c) Efficient disinfection is possible with short contact times and low residuals. d) Hydrogen sulfide is oxidised extremely rapidly to colloidal sulfur.

EFFLUENT DISINFECTION Environmental pressures are tending to restrict the use of chlorine for disinfection of effluent, if all chlorine residuals or chlorinated organic matter could be regarded as detrimental to the receiving stream. Of the alternatives that are available, most have some disadvantages. Retention ponds require large areas of land, U.V. light can be inefficient in the presence of turbidity or colour and ozone requires a large capital outlay. Chlorine dioxide can be used with a capital cost only a little higher than for chlorination and an operating cost that may be similar to chlorination, due to the lack of reaction with ammonia and its derivatives. The strong virucidal effect of chlorine dioxide is also obviously beneficial. The most recent

Continued on page 46 WATER April 1990 43

Information Access: Computing in the 1990's R. G. Hadgraft Roger Hadgraft is a Lecturer in Civil Engineering at Monash University. His current research interest is the use of computerbased methods for delivering information (eg. codes of practice) to engineers. He is a graduate of James Cook University, and previously worked for the Queensland Water Resources Commission.

SUMMARY In the 1990s, engineers will be looking to computers to help them access and understand the information upon which their livelihood depends. This is a significant trend away from the use of computers solely as calculating devices in the 1960s and 1970s. Key information sources for engineers in the 1990s will include technical training systems, corporate databases, electronic mail, computer conferencing. Technologies which are supporting these activities are faster processors, cheap memory, multi-tasking, windowed operating systems, networking, and large disk devices. Approaches that support understanding include hypertext and expert systems.

INTRODUCTION With the ready availability of personal computer hardware and software, the use of computers by engineers is changing rapidly. Engineers have typically looked to computers to handle complex ¡calculations. However, computers are now also being used to store, access and understand other information in many forms. Types of information needed by engineers include (i) corporate databases, (ii) national and international public databases, (iii) electronic mail, (iv) computer conferencing, (v) technical documentation and training, and (vi) real-time data acquisition. Expert systems and hypertext will be important aids in understanding this deluge of information. Technologies which are providing the tools for these activities are faster processors, cheap memory, multi-tasking, windowed operating systems, networking, and large, cheap disks. Each of these technologies is now well developed. The future will see them integrated together more closely.

HISTORY Engineering computing has developed from programs developed in the 1960s to perform complex engineering calculations. Such programs were developed at a time when computer facilities were batch-oriented. Engineering computer education was built on teaching graduate engineers to write Fortran programs. In the 1970s when time-sharing systems became common, engineers were still obsessed with solving complex calculations, and again education continued to be oriented towards traditional programming. In the 1980s we've seen the introduction of (i) the inexpensive, standard personal computer, (ii) inexpensive memory and mass storage devices (hard disks and optical disks), (iii) networking, and (iv) an explosion in the availability of software packages. Graduates in the late 1980s must now come to terms with computers in a broad context of engineering calculations, report writing, spreadsheets, computer-aided drafting, and so on. Practising engineers must update the computing skills learned in the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s to embrace a much wider range of computing tools.

these printed sources contain summaries of some form, but usually these are token efforts to condense the full information in the paper or article concerned. (For example, pick up any issue of a magazine or newspaper, and see how much of each article must be read before you've grasped what the author is trying to convey - usually most of it). The result of this is that most of these current modes of transferring information are very inefficient. That is, they require large amounts of effort in order to understand the information. The author is currently investigating new, improved methods of delivering information in an environment which assists understanding (Hadgraft & Wigan, 1989). Two methods with considerable appeal are (i) hypertext, and (ii) expert systems. The document being examined is Australian Rainfall and Runoff, which is widely used in Australia for flood estimation. Hypertext allows any author to structure an article (using both text and graphics) in a hierarchical fashion. This provides a number of levels of detail, permitting the user to read as little or as much as necessary, depending on his requirements. If well-structured, the article can be skimmed at a high level, where all the important points are made. Explanations and details are pushed to lower levels. This ma'kes time spent reading much more effective. Some software packages are already using simple hypertext approaches to deliver help information. Hypertext permits more structun1 than just a hierarchy. Cross references can be implemented, connecting this document to other documents. The ready availability of large capacity disk systems is making this approach very attractive. A document such as Australian Rainfall and Runoff is made up of dozens of separate documents. Some supporting papers have already been included as separate documents. Most hypertext systems also permit notes to be attached to documents, and to launch applications from within documents. In summary, hypertext is a method that allows information to be structured to aid understanding. Figure 1 shows a sample screen. Hypertext is one part of the push towards multi-media documents providing access to text, graphics, sound, animation, and video in an interactive context.

NEW FORMS OF INFORMATION Engineers in the next 10 years will be looking to computers to provide information of a number of kinds, and to assist in the understanding of this information: (i)

technical documentation, training and assistance

Table of Contents

(ii) on-line databases (both private and public) (iii) electronic mail, and (iv) computer conferencing.


Dick on ead1 icon for more help:


The F1 key will olway, diiplay thi, windOOJ.

Technical Documentation, Training & Assistance Many businesses rely on specialist information and knowledge in order to go about their activities. Updating this information has traditionally been through printed materials in the form of books, magazines, catalogues, and so on. In fact, this process has remained largely unchanged since Gutenberg developed printing in the mid-15th century. For information in any of these sources to become available, staff must read and digest the material, and distribute it around the organisation (requiring further pigestion by other staff). Most of 44 WATER April 1990

Guid e & Hyper1ex1

AR&R Guides

Fig.I - Sample Screen for Hypertext Australian Rainfall and Runoff

On the other hand, expert systems allow knowledge to be structured. Knowledge can be considered to be the conclusions that are drawn from information anc:I which have been massaged into a form of useful rules. (Similarly, information is made up of conclusions drawn from data. See Figure 2). Expert systems can provide guidance on the selection of parameters for a given task, suggest appropriate repairs when a fault is reported, and so on. A recent example is Marksjo et al (1988) which describes the delivery of the new SAA Wind Loading code in expert system form. Observations Data - spreadsheets, data base systems Information - use hypertext Knowledge (rules) - expert systems Figure 2 -

Data, Information and Knowledge

Both hypertext and expert systems are maturing technologies, and will be very important in the 1990s. Large amounts of technical information and knowledge will be available in one or other form. However, the need for supporting graphics, text, and application programs will make the combination of hypertext and expert systems more effective than straight expert system methods. Many expert system shells now provide access to hypertext capabilities for explanation purposes. An important function of these systems will be training. Not only will they allow the engineer to get the immediate job done, they will permit him or her to browse supporting data, maps, papers, and so on. Such systems will include tutorial aspects as well as application programs. The systems will be a learning environment as well as a working environment.

On-line Databases Databases of several kinds are becoming important to engineers. They include (i) the corporate financial database, (ii) assets register, (iii) hydrological data, (iv) drawing database, (v) geographical information systems, and (vi) public information databases. Most major water authorities have structured their hydrological data into simple databases. These are not yet accessible on-line in most cases. In the USA, all streamflow and rainfall data are now available on CD-ROM (US West Optical Publishing). It is hoped to make similar data available in Australia eventually to complement the Australian Rainfall & Runoff project. There are already a variety of public databases. Many of these are abstraction services which summarise the publications in a particular field (eg. "Selected Water Resources Abstracts"). Many new databases are now appearing on CD-ROM, such as "Australia on Disk" and "DeskTop Marketing System". With the price of CDROM players now at about $1,000, access to large amounts of information such as this is within the reach of most organisations. Each CD-ROM disk can contain up to 600 megabytes of information. As organisations adopt computer-aided drafting (CAD), it becomes possible to access drawings on-line through various forms of search. A sensible solution is to provide engineers with software to view drawings at the PC on their desks. Such drawings would be stored on a central file-server on the network. Such viewing software is available for AutoCAD.

Electronic Mail Electronic mail (e-mail) is a simple and effective means of communication. It can be used within an organisation, and can also be used to keep in touch with people outside of the organisation. E-mail is supported on most local area networks and on most mini-computer systems which are commonly used for financial purposes in small to medium sized organisations. The author uses e-mail to keep in contact with people in the USA and elsewhere. Turn-around time to the USA is usually overnight. The great advantage of e-mail is that it comes right to your desk, and a reply can be drafted and sent in a couple of minutes. It saves an enormous amount of time and money compared to traditional letter typing and posting. Several external services are available. Academics and research organisations use ACSnet in Australia, which connects them with similar organisations all around the world. Private companies can also access this system by obtaining a Usercode at a cooperating

institution (eg. Monash University). 'ft:lecom offers an electronic mail service called KeyLink.

Computer Conferencing Together with electronic mail that moves across ACSnet and out to the rest of the world, is a computer conferencing system. This was originally developed to provide information sharing for users of the Unix operating system, although the system now is made up of many types of users. Most of the conferences are computerrelated, and are designed to disseminate information on many topics. Each topic has its own conference. There are already main conferences on molecular biology, mathematics, and science. There is no reason why we could not have a major conference heading for engineering. This would be further subdivided into major branches, which could in turn be subdivided into smaller topics (such as urban drainage, wastewater treatment and so on). Such a system would permit the rapid dissemination of new developments, as well as promoting free interchange of ideas between those filling like roles in different organisations. This would reduce the need for such get-togethers as conferences, workshops and seminars.

SUPPORTING TRENDS Multi-tasking It is clear that as engineers we will be using our desktop computers for many different roles in the future. Until now, most of us have been comfortable with the notion of running one program at a time. However, as we use the machines for more tasks, we will want to be able to keep several programs or tasks active at any one time. (See Figure 3). This means being able to switch out of one application while we work briefly on another. As one author explained it: "we don't close the files on our desk and put them in a drawer when the phone rings". This is what multi-tasking is all about. It is supported on the IBM PC under Microsoft Windows, OS/2 and DesqView, on the Apple Macintosh, as well as on most workstations. Some of these implementations will even allow several tasks to execute together by sharing the processor between them. Table 1 shows a comparison of various computer system styles. There is a process of evolution from the top of the table to the bottom. OS/2 has been suggested as the heir apparent to the MS-DOS world . However, it has been slow (o catch on, and applications for it are not appearing very quickly. Many users will gain much of the benefits of OS/2 from Windows version 3 which should be available from the end of 1989. It will provide Windows applications with up to 16 megabytes of memory, with disk space being used if not enough main memory is available.

Windowed Environments With multi-tasking comes the need to be able to observe several active tasks at any one time. This is generally achieved in a windowing system, where each application runs in a window, and the windows overlap in some way on the computer's display. (Figure 3) Available as accessories to run in windows are programs such as clocks, diary managers, personal information managers and so on. The systems mentioned above (Windows, Macintosh, OS/2 etc) all provide windowing capabilities. See also Table I.

D:, • • • \AR - R\CHAPTERS.GUl

Table of Contents

t The fl ketj will always display this windOUJ.

l r1on 19 - 03 - 98

Fig. 3 -


Sample Screen showing many active Applications WATER April 1990 45

Table 1 -

Evolution from Mainframes to Graphical User Interfaces


Character/ Graphics

One or Many Applications

User Interface




Some simiVery little larities between applications




Few similarities Very little between applications


Character with some graphics

Two (running DOS Few similarities Very little on top of application) eg. Lotus 1-2-3


PC& Macintosh

Graphical Many, but usually Consistent user Clipboard, hot environment only one executing interface lin ks. (quick learning)

PC, OS/ 2 some Unix

Graphical Many, with several Consistent user Clipboard, hot environment executing interface links.

An important component of most windowing systems is the Clipboard. This is an area of memory which is used for transferring information between one application and another. This is one of the major benefits of systems such as Microsoft Windows and the Apple Macintosh. Information is easily transferred between (for ¡ example) the corporate database and a spreadsheet being used for budgeting. See Table 1. An added advantage of software written for windowing systems is that it presents a consistent user interface. This means that each package works in a similar way, and if you've learned one package, it will help you to use the next one. This reduces the amount of training required. Figures show that an average user on an IBM PC (without Windows) uses 2 to 3 major packages. On an Apple Macintosh, the average user handles 5 to 7 major packages. This difference is attributed to the consistent user interface of the Macintosh. Mass Storage & Processors The developments mentioned above have. been made possible by the decrease in the real cost of computer memory and disk storage and the development of faster processors. Processors have change from the 8088 in 1981 to the 80286 in 1984, the 80386 in 1987, and the 80486 in 1990. There has been a net improvement in throughput of a factor of 20 to 30 times in that nine year period. Without cheap memory, sophisticated software would not be possible. Windows/ 386 needs at least 2.5 megabytes of memory, and OS/2 is said to need 4 megabytes. Fortunately, memory prices have now fallen to less than half what they were 12 months ago. Databases require large amounts of disk space (often hundreds of megabytes). With the cost of high speed disks as low as $10 per megabyte, even small organisations can support large on-line disk resources. CD-ROMs are providing a low cost means of distributing large amounts (hundreds of megabytes) of information at a reproduction cost of about $10 per disk. Read and write optical disks are now becoming available, with 600 megabytes costing about $6,000. Networking One of the points made above is that information needed by engineers is stored in many places. Most organisations are networking their computers using local area networks. This provides rapid transfer of information between different types of computers. Slower speed networks can be used to access information outside the organisation. For example, there will soon be an Academic and Research Network linking the capital cities and provincial cities. This network will connect to similar installations in other countries through the USA . This network will support electronic mail, conferencing, and access to super-computers. This network is likely to be available to any organisations who can arrange a usercode with a cooperating institution.

CONCLUSIONS Important uses of computers by engineers in the next ten years will be: (a) understanding of on-line codes and technical documentation (training) based on hypertext and expert systems, (b) electronic mail and computer conferencing on engineering topics, (c) access to corporate and public databases, and 46 WATER April 1990

(d) real-time data acquistion systems. Some progress has been made on points (c) and (d). There is enormous scope for applications in points (a) and (b). Many engineers will face a major change of philosophy in their use of computers with the trend being towards PCs running multitasking, windowed operating systems interfacing to networks of various kinds. Gone are the days of the DOS prompt. It's now a world of multi-tasking, windows, icons, mice and menus.

REFERENCES Hadgraft R. G. & Wigan, M. R. (1989) - Towards Effective Field Support and Retraining for Engineers using Australian Rainfall and Runoff, IEAust Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, Christchurch. Marksjii, B., Sharpe, R., Holmes, J., Fitchett, P., Ho, F., (1988) - Windloader KBS: From prototype to market, in Hadgraft, R. & Young, W. (ed) Symp on Knowledgebased Systems in Civil Engineering, Monash University, July 1988, pp. 97-114. US West Optical Publishing, Daily StreamOow Data for the USA, 90 Madison St, Suite 200, Denver, Colorado, 80206.

This paper was presented at the commencement of the Computer Awareness Day at the 1990 AWWA Summer School

Chlorine Dioxide -

Australian applications

continued from page 43 application to be adopted in Australia is for a sewage treatment plant at a Queensland council. Chlorine was excluded on environmental grounds, with the final choice being between ozone and chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide was chosen on the basis of a very much lower capital cost.

ODOUR CONTROL Deodourisation of foul air from screening plants, sewer mains, digesters, etc., is an application where chlorine dioxide shows great advantages over alternative systems. A solution of chlorine dioxide, when atomised into an air-stream, iwith correct mixing, will completely destroy sulfide odours with a contact time of less than three seconds. As a result, air streams can be treated with contact chambers that are very much smaller than conventional wet scrubbers. The capital cost is low, chemical consumption is low and the process can be automated to cover varying levels of sulfide in the air stream. Since the beginning of 1990 new units have been commissioned at two STP's in Northern NSW. A number of other applications are currently in progress. One is a typical example of a very small plant using a simple acid/chlorite generator to produce chlorine dioxide, for de-odourising digester vent gases. The other is nearing the completion of commissioning and has two foul air contact chambers, supplied by one generator of the chlorine/chlorite type. The larger of the two contact chambers is treating an air flow of 9 cubic metres per second. Control is by detection of a trace residual of chlorine dioxide at the contact chamber, with that remaining trace being removed by a water spray curtain, prior to discharge to the vent stack. The system is thus designed to avoid emission of either hydrogen sulphide, or chlorine dioxide to atmosphere, whilst minimising the chemical consumption.

BIBLIOGRAPHY E. Marco Aieta, James D. Berg, Paul V. Roberts, Robert C. Copper, 1980 "Comparison of Chlorine Dioxide and Ch lorine in Wastewater disinfection". WPCF Journal April 1980. E. Marco Aieta & James D. Berg, 1986. "A Review of Chlorine Dioxide in drinking Water Treatment". AWWA Journal June 1986. O.R Dixon, L.I. Sly, T.D Waite, B. Chiswell , G.E. Batley, 1989. "Manganese Removal: A Model of Cooperative Research" WATER February 1989 G. Hamilton, 1985 . AWWA Watertalk N 16 August 1985 Benjamin W. Lykins Jnr. and Mark. H . Griese, "Using Ch lorine Dioxide for Trihalomethane control". AWWA Journal June 1986. E.C. Tifft, P.E. Moffa, S.L. Richardson, R.I Field, 1977. "Enhancement of hi gh-rate disinfection by sequential addition of chlorine and chlorine dioxide". WPCF Journal July 1977.

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Water Journal April 1990  

Water Journal April 1990